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Sample records for nuclear microprobe analysis

  1. Biological analysis with a nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cookson, J.A.; Legge, G.J.F.

    1975-01-01

    Most low-energy nuclear accelerators are now partly used on analytical studies in support of sciences other than nuclear physics. This paper gives a short review of such analytical techniques (X-ray analysis, elastic scattering analysis, nuclear reaction analysis, and the nuclear microprobe) with particular reference to biological applications and also emphasizes the role of the positional analysis that can be performed with a focused beam of ions - the nuclear microprobe. (author)

  2. Materials analysis with a nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggiore, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    The ability to produce focused beams of a few MeV light ions from Van de Graaff accelerators has resulted in the development of nuclear microprobes. Rutherford backscattering, nuclear reactions, and particle-induced x-ray emission are used to provide spatially resolved information from the near surface region of materials. Rutherford backscattering provides nondestructive depth and mass resolution. Nuclear reactions are sensitive to light elements (Z < 15). Particle-induced x-ray analysis is similar to electron microprobe analysis, but 2 orders of magnitude more sensitive. The focused beams are usually produced with specially designed multiplets of magnetic quadrupoles. The LASL microprobe uses a superconducting solenoid as a final lens. The data are acquired by a computer interfaced to the experiment with CAMAC. The characteristics of the information acquired with a nuclear microprobe are discussed; the means of producing the beams of nuclear particles are described; and the limitations and applications of such systems are given

  3. Multidimensional elemental analysis with the Sandia nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, B.L.

    1988-01-01

    It is well known that many of the ion beam analysis techniques such as Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, elastic recoil detection, resonant and nonresonant nuclear reaction analysis can be used to nondestructively obtain concentration depth profiles of elements in solids. When these techniques are combined with the small beam spot capabilities of a scanned nuclear microprobe, sample composition can be determined in up to three dimensions. This paper will review the various procedures used to collect and analyze multidimensional data using the Sandia nuclear microprobe. In addition, examples of how these data are being used in the study of materials will be shown. (author)

  4. Analysis of biological materials using a nuclear microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulware, Stephen Juma

    The use of nuclear microprobe techniques including: Particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) for elemental analysis and quantitative elemental imaging of biological samples is especially useful in biological and biomedical research because of its high sensitivity for physiologically important trace elements or toxic heavy metals. The nuclear microprobe of the Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory (IBMAL) has been used to study the enhancement in metal uptake of two different plants. The roots of corn (Zea mays) have been analyzed to study the enhancement of iron uptake by adding Fe (II) or Fe(III) of different concentrations to the germinating medium of the seeds. The Fe uptake enhancement effect produced by lacing the germinating medium with carbon nanotubes has also been investigated. The aim of this investigation is to ensure not only high crop yield but also Fe-rich food products especially from calcareous soil which covers 30% of world's agricultural land. The result will help reduce iron deficiency anemia, which has been identified as the leading nutritional disorder especially in developing countries by the World Health Organization. For the second plant, Mexican marigold (Tagetes erecta ), the effect of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus intraradices ) for the improvement of lead phytoremediation of lead contaminated soil has been investigated. Phytoremediation provides an environmentally safe technique of removing toxic heavy metals (like lead), which can find their way into human food, from lands contaminated by human activities like mining or by natural disasters like earthquakes. The roots of Mexican marigold have been analyzed to study the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in enhancement of lead uptake from the contaminated rhizosphere.

  5. Nuclear microprobe analysis of lead profile in crocodile bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlic, I. E-mail: ivo@ansto.gov.au; Siegele, R.; Hammerton, K.; Jeffree, R.A.; Cohen, D.D

    2003-09-01

    Elevated concentrations of lead were found in Australian free ranging saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) bone and flesh. Lead shots were found as potential source of lead in these animals. ANSTO's heavy ion nuclear microprobe was used to measure the distribution of Pb in a number of bones and osteoderms. The aim was to find out if elevated Pb concentration remains in growth rings and if the concentration is correlated with the blood levels recorded at the time. Results of our study show a very distinct distribution of accumulated Pb in bones and osteoderms as well as good correlation with the level of lead concentration in blood. To investigate influence of ion species on detection limits measurements of the same sample were performed by using 3 MeV protons, 9 MeV He ions and 20 MeV carbon ions. Peak to background ratios, detection limits and the overall 'quality' of obtained spectra are compared and discussed.

  6. Nuclear micro-probe analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ager, F.J.; Ynsa, M.D.; Dominguez-Solis, J.R.; Lopez-Martin, M.C.; Gotor, C.; Romero, L.C.

    2003-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a cost-effective plant-based approach for remediation of soils and waters which takes advantage of the remarkable ability of some plants to concentrate elements and compounds from the environment and to metabolize various molecules in their tissues, such as toxic heavy metals and organic pollutants. Nowadays, phytoremediation technology is becoming of paramount importance when environmental decontamination is concerned, due to the emerging knowledge of its physiological and molecular mechanisms and the new biological and engineering strategies designed to optimize and improve it. In addition, the feasibility of using plants for environmental cleanup has been confirmed by many different trials around the world. Arabidopsis thaliana plants can be used for basic studies to improve the technology on phytoremediation. Making use of nuclear microscopy techniques, in this paper we study leaves of wild type and transgenic A. thaliana plants grown in a cadmium-rich environment under different conditions. Micro-PIXE, RBS and SEM analyses, performed on the scanning proton micro-probe at the CNA in Seville (Spain), prove that cadmium is preferentially sequestered in the central region of epidermal trichome and allow comparing the effects of genetic modifications

  7. Elemental composition of paint cross sections by nuclear microprobe analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nens, B.; Trocellier, P.; Engelmann, C.; Lahanier, C.

    1982-09-01

    Physico-chemical characterization of pigments used in artistic painting give precious indications on age of paintings and sometimes on geographical origin of ores. After recalling the principle of protons microprobe, first results obtained by microanalysis of painting cross sections for non destructive microanalysis of impurities in white lead are given [fr

  8. Ion beam analysis - development and application of nuclear reaction analysis methods, in particular at a nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeland, K.A.

    1996-11-01

    This thesis treats the development of Ion Beam Analysis methods, principally for the analysis of light elements at a nuclear microprobe. The light elements in this context are defined as having an atomic number less than approx. 13. The work reported is to a large extent based on multiparameter methods. Several signals are recorded simultaneously, and the data can be effectively analyzed to reveal structures that can not be observed through one-parameter collection. The different techniques are combined in a new set-up at the Lund Nuclear Microprobe. The various detectors for reaction products are arranged in such a way that they can be used for the simultaneous analysis of hydrogen, lithium, boron and fluorine together with traditional PIXE analysis and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy as well as photon-tagged Nuclear Reaction Analysis. 48 refs

  9. Nuclear microprobe analysis of the standard reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaksic, M.; Fazinic, S.; Bogdanovic, I.; Tadic, T.

    2002-01-01

    Most of the presently existing Standard Reference Materials (SRM) for nuclear analytical methods are certified for the analyzed mass of the order of few hundred mg. Typical mass of sample which is analyzed by PIXE or XRF methods is very often below 1 mg. By the development of focused proton or x-ray beams, masses which can be typically analyzed go down to μg or even ng level. It is difficult to make biological or environmental SRMs which can give desired homogeneity at such low scale. However, use of fundamental parameter quantitative evaluation procedures (absolute method), minimize needs for SRMs. In PIXE and micro PIXE setup at our Institute, fundamental parameter approach is used. For exact calibration of the quantitative analysis procedure just one standard sample is needed. In our case glass standards which showed homogeneity down to micron scale were used. Of course, it is desirable to use SRMs for quality assurance, and therefore need for homogenous materials can be justified even for micro PIXE method. In this presentation, brief overview of PIXE setup calibration is given, along with some recent results of tests of several SRMs

  10. Application of tomographic techniques to two-dimensional surface analysis using the Harwell nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huddleston, J.; Hutchinson, I.G.; Pierce, T.B.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear methods of surface analysis are discussed briefly, and the circumstances are described in which a two-dimensional analysis of the sample surface is desirable to enable the surface composition to be mapped accurately. Tomographic techniques of data manipulation are outlined. Data acquisition in the present case is performed by moving the sample in a defined sequence of positions, at each of which analytical data are gathered by the proton microprobe. The method and equipment are outlined. Data processing leading to the reconstruction of the image is summarised. (U.K.)

  11. Characterisation of candidate reference materials by PIXE analysis and nuclear microprobe PIXE imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaksic, M.; Pastuovic, Z.; Bogdanovic, I.; Tadic, T.

    2002-01-01

    In order to test whether some candidate reference materials show homogeneity that can satisfy quality control of the PIXE technique, six bottles of each of the two Candidate RM's - Lichen (IAEA 338) and Algae (IAEA 413) were tested. Four different tests were performed. First, two pellets from each bottle were prepared and analysed using broad beam (φ = 5 mm) PIXE. Second and third was analysis of homogeneity using scanning focussed beam at the nuclear microprobe. Scans of 50x50 μm 2 and 240x260 μm 2 were performed. Finally, individual grains with composition differing from the rest of the sample, were analysed using PIXE and RBS. (author)

  12. Elemental analysis of single phytoplankton cells using the Lund nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallon, Jan; Elfman, Mikael; Kristiansson, Per; Malmqvist, Klas; Graneli, Edna; Sellborn, Anders; Karlsson, Chatarina

    1999-01-01

    The occurrence of annual marine phytoplankton blooms is becoming a global problem. In Europe, the NUTOX project supported by the EC investigates if unbalanced nutrient compositions in the water promote the dominance of harmful phytoplankton species. One of the tasks is the determination of the elemental composition of single phytoplankton cells. This is carried out using the Lund Nuclear Microprobe with a special focus on C, N, P and K. The overall aim is to understand the mechanism leading to toxin production, model it and eventually propose a counteracting method. The preparative method, used to isolate single living cells while reducing their salt environment, is an important part of the analytical procedure. A comparison of light element detection using backscattering from protons and nuclear reaction analysis using deuterons is made

  13. Ion channelling analysis of pre-amorphised silicon diodes using a nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, J.; Paus, K.C.

    1988-01-01

    Aligned and random ion channelling analysis was performed on p + n diode structures in silicon, with the Surrey nuclear microprobe. Three different types of diode were investigated, each pre-amorphised by a different ion (Si + , Ge + or Sn + ) before the p + region was formed by BF 2 + implantation. The ion channelling measurements are presented and compared with previously published electrical measurements on these diodes. Relatively large residual disorder and junction leakage currents were found for the Si + pre-amorphised diodes; however, all the diodes were leaky. The results are consistent with dislocation loops within the depletion regions of the diodes causing both the residual disorder and the large leakage currents. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy studies support this model. (author)

  14. Experimental investigations into sample preparation of Alzheimer tissue specimens for nuclear microprobe analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, T [CEC-JRC, Central Bureau for Nuclear Measurements, Geel (Belgium); Tapper, U A.S. [Dept. of Nuclear Physics, Lund Inst. of Science and Tech. (Sweden); Sturesson, K; Brun, A [Div. of Neuropathology, Dept. of Pathology, Lund University Hospital (Sweden)

    1991-03-01

    Nuclear microprobe analysis was applied to the study of elemental distribution in brains sections of patients with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Stained and nonstained cryosections were studied. The work carried out shows that serious elemental losses follow the sample staining procedure. Major losses occurred in a simple rinse of the tissue section, probably reducing most of the in-vivo gradients, which show that generally very little information can be gained from stained sections. However, in many cases stained sections are compulsory because of the requirement to recognize the area which is to be studied. All the elemental maps obtained for the neurofibrillary deposits indicate a localized concentration for Si and probably also Al, associated with the senile plaque core. Neither of these elements were found in the staining solutions used. The validity of the results is discussed as well as the possible link of Al and/or Si in the development of Alzheimer's desease. (orig.).

  15. Nuclear microprobe analysis of muscle biopsies: Applications in pathology and clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, Ph.; Coquet, M.; Gherardi, R.K.; Stoedzel, P.

    2000-01-01

    The nuclear microprobe analysis of muscle biopsy sections has been recently applied to investigate different muscle disorders. This technique, employed as a complementary examination in the frame of pathological studies, permitted to confirm the diagnosis for a first pathology and to elucidate the cause of a second. In skeletal muscles of a young patient suffering from a slow progressive myopathy, calcium accumulations have been demonstrated in histologically abnormal fibers. These findings have been compared to histopathological characteristics previously described. On the other hand, we have evaluated muscle sections from two patients who presented symptoms of an inflammatory myopathy, a rare pathology that recently emerged in France. The chemical analyses permitted us to highlight local aluminium infiltration in muscles. The hypothesis of an unusual reaction to intramuscular aluminium accumulation has been advanced. These studies demonstrate the capability for ion beam microanalytical techniques to address acute problems in pathology

  16. Nuclear scanning microprobe: state of the art, applications and progress trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    The physical principles of nuclear scanning microprobe are considered. The analysis of state of the art of the microprobe setup from point of view of its spatial resolution and sensitivity of microanalysis techniques is given. The regions of nuclear microprobe applications are reviewed. The ways of spatial resolution and data acquisition system improvement under consideration of microprobe setup progress trends are considered. (authors)

  17. Nuclear microprobe analysis of serpentine from the mid-Atlantic ridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orberger, Beate; Metrich, Nicole; Mosbah, Michelle; Mevel, Catherine; Fouquet, Yves

    1999-01-01

    At mid-ocean ridges, ultramafic rocks are serpentinized by interaction with seawater-derived fluids. Elements, dissolved in large quantities in seawater, e.g., Na, K, Cl, Br, Ca and Sr, can be, in small amounts, incorporated as traces into the crystal structure of the various serpentine minerals (Mg 3 Si 2 O 5 (OH) 4 ). These trace elements can be used to track the composition of the reacting fluids and to constrain physico-chemical conditions. This paper represents the first application of particle-induced X- and γ-ray emission (PIXE/PIGE) analysis to serpentine using the nuclear microprobe at the Laboratoire Pierre Suee (CEA-CNRS). Three types of serpentine, belonging to two different serpentinization generations, have been analysed in samples collected from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (14 deg. 45'N/45 deg. W) that exposes serpentinized peridotites on which the Logachev black smoker is placed. The trace elements Cl, F, S, Cu, Zn, Ca, K, Ni, Cr and Mn were detected from several tens to several thousands of ppm. Bromine, As and Sr are close to the detection limit of about 5 ppm. The trace element concentrations and interelement relationships in serpentines vary (a) with the serpentine type and (b) with the geographic location to the black smoker. Chlorine and in part S originated from seawater, whereas Cu, Zn, Ca, K, Ni, Cr and Fe and the major amount of S were mobilized from the unaltered host rock and partitioned between the serpentine and the aqueous solution

  18. IMAP: A complete Ion Micro-Analysis Package for the nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antolak, A.J.; Hildner, M.L.; Morse, D.H.; Bench, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    Microprobe techniques using scanned, focused MeV ions are routinely used in Livermore for materials characterization. Comprehensive data analysis with these techniques is accomplished with the computer software package IMAP, for Ion Micro-Analysis Package. IMAP consists of a set of command language procedures for data processing and quantitative spectral analysis. Deconvolution of the data is achieved by spawning sub-processes within IMAP which execute analysis codes for each specific microprobe technique. IMAP is structured to rapidly analyze individual spectra or multi-dimensional data blocks which classify individual events by the two scanning dimensions, the energy of the detected radiation and, when necessary, one sample rotation dimension. Several examples are presented to demonstrate the utility of the package

  19. Nuclear microprobe analysis and source apportionment of individual atmospheric aerosol particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artaxo, P.; Rabello, M.L.C.; Watt, F.; Grime, G.; Swietlicki, E.

    1993-01-01

    In atmospheric aerosol reserach, one key issue is to determine the sources of the airborne particles. Bulk PIXE analysis coupled with receptor modeling provides a useful, but limited view of the aerosol sources influencing one particular site or sample. The scanning nuclear microprobe (SNM) technique is a microanalytical technique that gives unique information on individual aerosol particles. In the SNM analyses a 1.0 μm size 2.4 MeV proton beam from the Oxford SNM was used. The trace elements with Z>11 were measured by the particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method with detection limits in the 1-10 ppm range. Carbon, nitrogen and oxygen are measured simultaneously using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). Atmospheric aerosol particles were collected at the Brazilian Antarctic Station and at biomass burning sites in the Amazon basin tropical rain forest in Brazil. In the Antarctic samples, the sea-salt aerosol particles were clearly predominating, with NaCl and CaSO 4 as major compounds with several trace elements as Al, Si, P, K, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr, and Pb. Factor analysis of the elemental data showed the presence of four components: 1) Soil dust particles; 2) NaCl particles; 3) CaSO 4 with Sr; and 4) Br and Mg. Strontium, observed at 20-100 ppm levels, was always present in the CaSO 4 particles. The hierarchical cluster procedure gave results similar to the ones obtained through factor analysis. For the tropical rain forest biomass burning aerosol emissions, biogenic particles with a high organic content dominate the particle population, while K, P, Ca, Mg, Zn, and Si are the dominant elements. Zinc at 10-200 ppm is present in biogenic particles rich in P and K. The quantitative aspects and excellent detection limits make SNM analysis of individual aerosol particles a very powerful analytical tool. (orig.)

  20. The upgraded Amsterdam nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vis, R.D.; Kramer, J.L.A.M.; Tros, G.H.J.; Langevelde, F. van; Mars, L.

    1993-01-01

    The improvement of the facilities at our University consists of three phases. In phase 1, a 1.7 MV NEC tandem-Pelletron accelerator has been installed. The accelerator serves as injector for two beam lines, subsequently for macro- and micro-analysis. Moreover, an interconnection has been made with a beam line from our 400 kV high voltage Van de Graaff accelerator in order to enable injection of these very intense low energy beams in these two lines. Apart from new vacuum equipment and conventional beam steering and focussing elements, the experimental facilities are replaced from the cyclotron experimental hall to the newly organised experimental hall. In the phases 2 and 3, which are not yet completed, a second ion source for the Pelletron and a new or extended focussing unit for the microprobe will complete the overall operation. (orig.)

  1. Nuclear microprobe analysis of serpentine from the mid-Atlantic ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orberger, Beate E-mail: orberger@geol.u-psud.fr; Metrich, Nicole; Mosbah, Michelle E-mail: mosbah@drecam.cea.fr; Mevel, Catherine; Fouquet, Yves

    1999-09-02

    At mid-ocean ridges, ultramafic rocks are serpentinized by interaction with seawater-derived fluids. Elements, dissolved in large quantities in seawater, e.g., Na, K, Cl, Br, Ca and Sr, can be, in small amounts, incorporated as traces into the crystal structure of the various serpentine minerals (Mg{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}). These trace elements can be used to track the composition of the reacting fluids and to constrain physico-chemical conditions. This paper represents the first application of particle-induced X- and {gamma}-ray emission (PIXE/PIGE) analysis to serpentine using the nuclear microprobe at the Laboratoire Pierre Suee (CEA-CNRS). Three types of serpentine, belonging to two different serpentinization generations, have been analysed in samples collected from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (14 deg. 45'N/45 deg. W) that exposes serpentinized peridotites on which the Logachev black smoker is placed. The trace elements Cl, F, S, Cu, Zn, Ca, K, Ni, Cr and Mn were detected from several tens to several thousands of ppm. Bromine, As and Sr are close to the detection limit of about 5 ppm. The trace element concentrations and interelement relationships in serpentines vary (a) with the serpentine type and (b) with the geographic location to the black smoker. Chlorine and in part S originated from seawater, whereas Cu, Zn, Ca, K, Ni, Cr and Fe and the major amount of S were mobilized from the unaltered host rock and partitioned between the serpentine and the aqueous solution.

  2. New generation nuclear microprobe systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, David N.

    2001-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the minimum probe size for nuclear microscopy has stayed around 1 μm with only a few groups reporting a sub-micron probe size around 0.5 μm. No breakthroughs in nuclear microprobe design have been forthcoming to produce dramatic improvements in spatial resolution. The difficulties of breaking the constraints that are preventing reduction of the probe size have been well recognised in the past. Over the past 5 years it has become clear that some of these constraints may not be as limiting as first thought. For example, chromatic aberration clearly is not as significant as implied from first-order ion optics calculations. This paper reviews the constraints in view of the increased understanding of the past 5 years and looks at several new approaches, presently being evaluated in Melbourne and elsewhere, on how to make progress. These approaches include modified RF ion sources for improved beam brightness and exploitation of relaxed constraints on some lens aberrations allowing the use of high demagnification probe forming lens systems

  3. Microprobe analysis in human pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.; Kupke, K.G.; Ingram, P.; Roggli, V.L.; Shelburne, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    This tutorial paper reviews the literature on the application of microprobe analysis to practical problems in diagnostic human pathology. The goal is to allow the reader ready access to the literature on specific clinical problems. Specimen preparation and commonly encountered artifacts are also considered. It is concluded that energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis and back-scattered electron imaging are at present the most generally useful microprobe techniques for clinical work, and are no longer solely research tools. The findings often have diagnostic, therapeutic, and/or legal implications. 332 references

  4. Microprobe analysis of human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, G.L.; Zhu, J.; Legge, G.J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The Melbourne Proton Microprobe has been used to study the copper content in human skin fibroblast cells derived from patients with the genetic disease Menkes Syndrome. Both normal and diseased cells have been studied to investigate any elemental differences occurring between the two cell types. This paper details the preparatory techniques necessary for individual cell analysis and presents the elemental information with a new three dimensional contour mapping technique. These maps are used to highlight elemental differences between normal and mutant fibroblasts. The work also confirms the expected copper excess found in the Menkes cell and indicates that the microprobe can be used for rapid identification of a Menkes carrier

  5. Quantitative microanalysis with a nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Themner, Klas.

    1989-01-01

    The analytical techniques of paticle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering (RBS), together with the nuclear microprobe, form a very powerful tool for performing quantitative microanalysis of biological material. Calibration of the X-ray detection system in the microprobe set-up has been performed and the accuracy of the quantitative procedure using RBS for determination of the areal mass density was investigated. The accuracy of the analysis can be affected by alteration in the elemental concentrations during irradiation due to the radiation damage induced by the very intense beams of ionixing radiation. Loss of matrix elements from freeze-dried tissue sections and polymer films have been studied during proton and photon irradiation and the effect on the accuracy discussed. Scanning the beam over an area of the target, with e.g. 32x32 pixels, in order to produce en elemental map, yields a lot of information and, to be able to make an accurate quantitatification, a fast algorithm using descriptions of the different spectral contributions is of need. The production of continuum X-rays by 2.55 MeV protons has been studied and absolute cross-sections for the bremsstrahlung production from thin carbon and some polymer films determined. For the determination of the bremsstrahlung background knowledge of the amounts of the matrix elements is important and a fast program for the evaluation of spectra of proton back- and forward scattering from biological samples has been developed. Quantitative microanalysis with the nuclear microprobe has been performed on brain tissue from rats subjected to different pathological conditions. Increase in calcium levels and decrease in potssium levels for animals subjected to crebral ischaemia and for animals suffering from epileptic seizures were observed coincidentally with or, in some cases before, visible signs of cell necrosis. (author)

  6. In situ titanium dioxide nanoparticles quantitative microscopy in cells and in C. elegans using nuclear microprobe analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Trequesser, Quentin [Université de Bordeaux, CENBG, Chemin du solarium, 33175 Gradignan (France); CNRS, UMR 5797, CENBG, Chemin du solarium, 33175 Gradignan (France); CNRS, Université de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 avenue du Dr. A. Schweitzer, Pessac F-33608 (France); Saez, Gladys; Devès, Guillaume; Michelet, Claire; Barberet, Philippe [Université de Bordeaux, CENBG, Chemin du solarium, 33175 Gradignan (France); CNRS, UMR 5797, CENBG, Chemin du solarium, 33175 Gradignan (France); Delville, Marie-Hélène [CNRS, Université de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 avenue du Dr. A. Schweitzer, Pessac F-33608 (France); Seznec, Hervé, E-mail: herve.seznec@cenbg.in2p3.fr [Université de Bordeaux, CENBG, Chemin du solarium, 33175 Gradignan (France); CNRS, UMR 5797, CENBG, Chemin du solarium, 33175 Gradignan (France)

    2014-12-15

    Detecting and tracking nanomaterials in biological systems is challenging and essential to understand the possible interactions with the living. In this context, in situ analyses were conducted on human skin cells and a multicellular organism (Caenorhabditiselegans) exposed to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO{sub 2} NPs) using nuclear microprobe. Coupled to conventional methods, nuclear microprobe was found to be suitable for accurate description of chemical structure of biological systems and also for detection of native TiO{sub 2} NPs. The method presented herein opens the field to NPs exposure effects analyses and more generally to toxicological analyses assisted by nuclear microprobe. This method will show applications in key research areas where in situ imaging of chemical elements is essential.

  7. The CEA nuclear microprobe. Description, possibilities, application examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, C.; Bardy, J.

    1986-05-01

    The nuclear microprobe installed on one of the beam lines of a 4 MV Van de Graaff located in the Research Center of Bruyeres-le-Chatel is described. The various possibilities, particularly the imaging system, and the performances of the instrument are exposed. Two typical application examples concerning, the first, the determination of the deuterium and tritium in glass microballons, the second, the detection and the localization of carbon and oxygen in the superficial layer of lithium hydride pellets, are given. Preliminary results of some other application examples are also presented. The advantages of the nuclear microprobe over the other ponctual analysis techniques are emphasized. 7 refs, 19 figs [fr

  8. Mixed beams for the nuclear microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint, A.; Breese, M.B.H.; Legge, G.L.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Recently the Micro-Analytical Research Centre (MARC) at Melbourne University has developed a technique to provide mixed beams of ions for a magnetically focussed nuclear microprobe. Such a mixed beam is defined as two (or more) beams of different species ions that can quickly and easily be made to have the same magnetic rigidity R{sub m} = (mE/q{sup 2}) and therefore be transported, focused and scanned the same in a magnetic nuclear microprobe. The production of mixed beams in an electrostatically focussed micro- probe have already been demonstrated. This paper will show how mixed beams can be produced on a single-ended accelerator. Indications of how to produce them on a tandem will also be given. Applications of these mixed beams in micro-lithography, scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) imaging and ion beam induced charge (IBIC) imaging will also be presented. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Mixed beams for the nuclear microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint, A; Breese, M B.H.; Legge, G L.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1997-12-31

    Recently the Micro-Analytical Research Centre (MARC) at Melbourne University has developed a technique to provide mixed beams of ions for a magnetically focussed nuclear microprobe. Such a mixed beam is defined as two (or more) beams of different species ions that can quickly and easily be made to have the same magnetic rigidity R{sub m} = (mE/q{sup 2}) and therefore be transported, focused and scanned the same in a magnetic nuclear microprobe. The production of mixed beams in an electrostatically focussed micro- probe have already been demonstrated. This paper will show how mixed beams can be produced on a single-ended accelerator. Indications of how to produce them on a tandem will also be given. Applications of these mixed beams in micro-lithography, scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) imaging and ion beam induced charge (IBIC) imaging will also be presented. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Novel imaging techniques for the nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint, A.

    1998-01-01

    Many of the developments of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) have been paralleled during the development of the scanning nuclear microprobe. Secondary electrons were used in the early development of both devices to provide specimen imaging due to the large numbers of secondaries produced per incident charged particle. Other imaging contrast techniques have also been developed on both machines. These include X-ray analysis, scattering contrast, transmission microscopy, channelling induced charge and others. The 'cross-section dependent' imaging techniques such as PIXE, RBS, NRA, etc., rely on the beam current on target for a given resolution. This has prompted research and development of brighter ion sources to maintain probe resolution at high beam current. Higher beam current bring problems with beam damage to the specimen. Low beam current techniques however rely on high countrate data collection systems, but this is only for spectroscopy. To produce an image we can increase beam currents to produce live-time images for specimen manipulation and observation. The work presented here will focus on some developments in live-time imaging with a nuclear micro probe that have taken place recently at the School of Physics, Microanalytical Research Centre (MARC), University of Melbourne

  11. Biomedical application of the nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindh, U.

    1987-01-01

    The Studsvik Nuclear Microprobe (SMP) has mainly been devoted to applications in the biomedical field. Its ultimate resolution is reached at 2.9x2.9 μm 2 with a proton current of 100 pA. With this performance the SMP has been used in a wide range of disciplines covering environmental hygiene, toxicology, various aspects of internal medicine and trace element physiology. Examples of recent applications in these fields are described. (orig.)

  12. Development of a nuclear microprobe at IGCAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesh, C.; Nair, K.G.M.; Thampi, N.S.; Saha, B.; Mathews, C.K.

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear microprobe is being developed at IGCAR. The system is being built to determine the profiles of light elements, specially carbon in clad and other structural materials of a fast breeder reactor. By scanning a focussed charged particle beam on the sample surface and by detecting the charged particle induced emissions, an elemental map of the surface is obtained. The paper gives the basic design considerations and present status. (author)

  13. Microprobe analysis of PuO2--UO2 nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, W.I.; Rasmussen, D.E.; Carlson, R.L.; Highley, D.M.

    1977-01-01

    For the preirradiation characterization of FFTF UO 2 --PuO 2 fuel, a program was developed to determine the preirradiation porosity, grain structure, and microcomposition of the fuel. Two computer programs, MITRAN and MERIT, were developed to evaluate the homogeneity of the fuel. These programs use elemental composition data generated by the electron microprobe. MITRAN determines information on the size and frequency of individual regions, whereas MERIT provides an index of the thermal performance of the fuel and calculated statistical data for comparison to other fuel batches

  14. Chemical history with a nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggiore, C.J.; Benjamin, T.M.; Burnett, D.S.; Hyde, P.J.; Rogers, P.S.Z.; Srinivasan, S.; Tesmer, T.; Woolum, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear microprobe cannot give direct information on the chemical state of an element, but the spatial distribution of elements in a specimen is often determined by the chemical history of the sample. Fuel cells and minerals are examples of complex systems whose elemental distributions are determined by past chemical history. The distribution of catalyst in used fuel cell electrodes provides direct information on the chemical stability of dispersed catalysts under operating conditions. The authors have used spatially resolved Rutherford backscattering to measure the migration of platinum and vanadium from intermetallic catalysts and to determine their suitability for use under the extreme operating conditions found in phosphoric acid fuel cells. Geologic materials are complex, heterogeneous samples with small mineral grains. The trace element distribution within the individual mineral grains and between different mineral phases is sensitive to the details of the mineral formation and history. The spatial resolution and sub-100-ppm sensitivity available with a nuclear microprobe open up several new classes of experiments to the geochemist. Geochemistry and electrochemistry are two areas proving particularly fruitful for application of the nuclear microprobe

  15. PIXE and light element analysis (C,N) in glass inclusions trapped in meteorites with the nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varela, M.E.; Mosbah, M.; Metrich, N.; Duraud, J.P.; Kurat, G.

    1999-01-01

    Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and light element analysis have been performed with the nuclear microprobe at the Laboratoire Pierre Suee (Saclay-France) in glass inclusions of the carbonaceous chondrites: Allende, Kaba and Renazzo, and in the achondrite meteorite: Chassigny. Carbon contents in olivine of chondrules are below the nuclear reactions analysis (NRA) detection limit, however, glasses from glass inclusions hosted by these grains, contain an appreciable and highly variable quantities of carbon (200-1600 ppm). This could indicate variable amounts of C trapped during glass inclusion formation. On the other hand, nitrogen is present in highly variable amounts in glasses of both, chondrites and achondrites minerals. Its abundance, correlated with depth from the section surface which suggests loss of N during analyses and therefore the possible existence of a very mobile (volatile?) species. A chondritic Rb/Sr and K/Rb ratio obtained by PIXE analyses in the glass-bearing inclusions of the Chassigny meteorite points towards a primitive source for the glass precursor of Chassigny inclusions

  16. Quantitative analysis of chemical elements in single cells using nuclear microprobe and nano-probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deves, Guillaume

    2010-01-01

    The study of the role of trace elements at cellular level requires the use of state-of-the-art analytical tools that could achieve enough sensitivity and spatial resolution. We developed a new methodology for the accurate quantification of chemical element distribution in single cells based on a combination of ion beam analysis techniques STIM, PIXE and RBS. The quantification procedure relies on the development of a STIM data analysis software (Paparamborde). Validity of this methodology and limits are discussed here. The method allows the quantification of trace elements (μg/g) with a 19.8 % uncertainty in cellular compartments with mass below 0.1 ng. The main limit of the method lies in the poor number of samples that can be analyzed, due to long irradiation times required and limited access to ion beam analysis facilities. This is the reason why we developed a database for cellular chemical composition capitalization (BDC4). BDC4 has been designed in order to use cellular chemical composition as a tracer for biological activities and is expected to provide in the future reference chemical compositions for any cellular type or compartment. Application of the STIM-PIXE-RBS methodology to the study of nuclear toxicology of cobalt compounds is presented here showing that STIM analysis is absolutely needed when organic mass loss appears during PIXE-RBS irradiation. (author)

  17. Development of a nuclear microprobe and its application to neurobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapper, Staffan.

    1989-01-01

    A nuclear microprobe has been developed at the Pelletron accelerator in Lund. The design of the achromatic beam focusing system as well as of the beam scanning system is described. The focusing system consists of three magnetic- and three electrostatic quadrupole lenses together forming an chromatic quadrupole triplet with symmetric focusing properties. The beam quality from the accelerator has been improved by use of ultrathin stripper foils. The nuclear microprobe set-up has been applied to investigation of brain tissue specimens. The elemantal disorder following epileptic seizures has been studied by micro-PIXE analysis. A combination of macro- and micro-PIXE analysis have been utilized in an investigaiton of elemental differences between normal human brain and human brain tumours. In the context of the quantification procedure in micro-PIXE analysis, callibration and X-ray detector response function are discussed. (author)

  18. Microprobe channeling analysis of pyrite crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, D.N.; Ryan, C.G.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear microprobe analysis has provided much useful information about the composition of microscopic inclusions in minerals, mainly through the use of Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). However this technique, while powerful, does not provide any direct information about the chemical state, in particular the lattice location, of the elements in the mineral. This information is often of crucial importance in understanding the ore genesis. The technique of ion channeling may be used to identify lattice location, but many minerals occur as microscopic crystals. Therefore it is necessary to utilize a nuclear microprobe with the technique of Channeling Contrast Microscopy (CCM). As many minerals contain interesting trace elements, it is necessary to measure both the yield of backscattered particles and the induced x-rays to get a clear picture of the lattice location of the elements in the crystal. CCM with PIXE was used to analyse natural pyrite crystals containing a variety of substitutional and non-substitutional elements and natural pyrite crystals from a gold bearing ore. In the latter case, evidence was obtained for two habits for Au in the 400 μm crystals: one as inclusions of Au rich minerals, the other substituted on the pyrite lattice sites. 31 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs

  19. Trace element analysis in geochemistry using a nuclear microprobe. Ionoluminescence and particle induced X-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homman, P.

    1994-01-01

    In PIXE analysis of geological specimens based on X-ray detection with Si(Li) detectors, effects of detector tailing, pulse pileup, and gamma-ray production are pronounced. In this work the tailing effect has been addressed through characterization of the response function of a Si(Li) detector using an absorber technique. The pileup interval, in the pulse forming electronics of a PIXE detection system, has been improved to 100 ns X-ray energies above 8 keV by means of pulse shape analysis. Pulses due to tailing effects were also isolated but no major improvement was obtained. A means of reducing the increased background in the PIXE spectrum due to Compton scattering of high energetic gamma-rays in the Si(Li) crystal has been investigated by installation of an anti-Compton shield consisting of an organic scintillator mounted inside the detector cryostat and read out by a photomultiplier. Ionoluminescence, a new analytical technique for the nuclear microprobe, has shown to be a technique that can be employed as a fast diagnostic tool in imaging applications. The technique is based on analysis of the light that often can be observed when an ion beam impinges on a geological specimen. This light, luminescence, can often be associated with impurities in the crystal lattice or other structural defects. It can therefore be employed for revealing some chemical information about the specimens in contradiction to PIXE which is rather insensitive to chemical variations. The potential of the method is demonstrated and discussed both as an imaging tool and for spectroscopic studies. 19 refs, 10 figs

  20. Study of metal bioaccumulation by nuclear microprobe analysis of algae fossils and living algae cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, P.; Wang, J.; Li, X.; Zhu, J.; Reinert, T.; Heitmann, J.; Spemann, D.; Vogt, J.; Flagmeyer, R.-H.; Butz, T.

    2000-01-01

    Microscopic ion-beam analysis of palaeo-algae fossils and living green algae cells have been performed to study the metal bioaccumulation processes. The algae fossils, both single cellular and multicellular, are from the late Neoproterozonic (570 million years ago) ocean and perfectly preserved within a phosphorite formation. The biosorption of the rare earth element ions Nd 3+ by the green algae species euglena gracilis was investigated with a comparison between the normal cells and immobilized ones. The new Leipzig Nanoprobe, LIPSION, was used to produce a proton beam with 2 μm size and 0.5 nA beam current for this study. PIXE and RBS techniques were used for analysis and imaging. The observation of small metal rich spores (<10 μm) surrounding both of the fossils and the living cells proved the existence of some specific receptor sites which bind metal carrier ligands at the microbic surface. The bioaccumulation efficiency of neodymium by the algae cells was 10 times higher for immobilized algae cells. It confirms the fact that the algae immobilization is an useful technique to improve its metal bioaccumulation

  1. The INS nuclear microprobe and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coote, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    The nuclear microprobe directs a well-focused beam of high-energy protons or deuterons at a solid specimen inside a vacuum chamber. Atomic and nuclear reactions are induced in those elements in a layer about 20 micro m thick, leading to the emission of characteristic x-rays, gamma rays, and charged particles as well as Rutherford scattering of the incident beam. These radiations impinge on several detectors near the specimen (NaI, Ge(Li), Si(Li) and Si surface barrier). Using proton-excited x-rays all elements above Na may be detected with sensitivities 10 or 100 times that of the electron probe, while elements which can be estimated from their gamma rays include C, N, O, F, Na and Al. In most of our projects the distribution of a trace or minor element (e.g. F, N) is compared to that of a major element (e.g. Ca or Fe). Recent areas of application include archaeometry (diffusion profiles of F in bones and teeth; depth profiles of sodium in obsidian), geology (F concentrations in mineral grains; studies of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary), metallurgy (C, O, N in steel and in welds; S, O, C in corrosion layers), fisheries management (Zn, Sr in otoliths; F in dogfish fin spines and vertebrae), biology (Fe, Sr, N in egg shells; trace elements in human hair), and dental research

  2. The new nuclear microprobe at Livermore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, M.L.; Bench, G.S.; Heikkinen, D.W.; Morse, D.H.; Bach, P.R.; Pontau, A.E.

    1994-10-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories/California have jointly constructed a new nuclear microprobe beamline. This beamline is located on the LLNL 10 MV tandem accelerator and can be used for multidisciplinary research using PIXE, PIGE, energy loss tomography, or IBS techniques. Distinctive features of the beamline include incorporation of magnet power supplies into the accelerator control system, computer controlled object and image slits, automated target positioning to sub-micron resolution, and video optics for beam positioning and observation. Mitigation of vibrations was accomplished with vibration isolators and a rigid beamline design while integral beamline shielding was used to shield from stray magnetic fields. Available detectors include a wavelength dispersive X-ray spectrometer, a High-Purity Germanium detector (HPGe), a Lithium-Drifted Silicon X-Ray detector (SiLi), and solid state surface barrier detectors. Along with beamline performance, results from recent measurements on determination of trace impurities in an International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) super conducting wire strand, determination of Ca/Sr ratios in seashells, and determination of minor and trace element concentrations in sperm cells are presented

  3. Applications of nuclear microprobes in the semiconductor industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takai, M.

    1996-01-01

    Possible nuclear microprobe applications in semiconductor industries are discussed. A unique technique using soft-error mapping and ion beam induced current measurements for reliability testing of dynamic random access memories such as soft-error immunity and noise carrier suppression has been developed for obtaining design parameters of future memory devices. Nano-probes and small installation areas are required for the use of microprobes in the semiconductor industry. Issues arising from microprobe applications such as damage induced by the probe beam are clarified. (orig.)

  4. Environmental applications of the LANL nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickmott, D.D.; Herrin, J.M.; Abell, R.; George, M.; Gauerke, E.R.; Denniston, R.F.

    1997-01-01

    The LANL nuclear microprobe has been used to study the distributions of trace elements (TE) of environmental interest including: (1) metals in coal and fly ash, (2) Pb in the Bandelier Tuff (BT), (3) Ba in tree rings, (4) Mn, Fe, Sr and Y in Yucca Mountain calcites. Micro-PIXE (MP) analyses with 5-10 micrometer spatial resolution provide constraints on processes that redistribute contaminants in the environment, and hence may help answer environmental problems where fine-scale chemical records are important. MP analyses of particulates in coal and ash show that pyrite contains As, Se, Hg and Pb; macerals contain Cr, halogens and S; cenospheres contain As, Se and Ni; and hematite ash contains Ni and As. Understanding these elemental modes of occurrence allows prediction of metal behavior in boilers and may enhance compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendments. Fine-grained high-Pb minerals were identified using SEM and MP analyses of BT minerals. These minerals were from samples associated with deep-groundwater wells containing Pb at levels greater than regulatory limits. Pb is concentrated in Pb minerals (e.g. cerussite), smectite, and hematite formed during low-T alteration of tuff. Understanding mineralogic speciation of metals may provide insights into sources of groundwater pollution. Tree rings from ponderosa pines that grew in a Ba-contaminated drainage were analyzed using MP. Ba concentrations are typically higher in rings that formed after operations discharging Ba to the environment began. Such tree-ring analyses may ultimately provide information on rates of contaminant migration in the environment. TE in zoned calcites from Yucca Mountain were analyzed by MP. Calcites from the saturated zone (SZ) have distinct chemical signatures (high Fe, Mn and low Y). No calcites in the unsaturated zone with SZ chemical signatures were found using MP

  5. Dedicated accelerator and microprobe line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmqvist, K.G.; Hylten, G.; Hult, M.; Haakansson, K.; Knox, J.M.; Larsson, N.P.O.; Nilsson, C.; Pallon, J.; Schofield, R.; Swietlicki, E.; Tapper, U.A.S.; Yang Changyi

    1993-01-01

    The development of a dedicated facility for nuclear microprobe analysis and the experiences from using it are discussed. The general properties of the present Lund nuclear microprobe will be described and the advantages of using a dedicated accelerator discussed. (orig.)

  6. Stained glasses under the nuclear microprobe: A window into history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilarigues, M. [Dep. de Conservacao e Restauro and R and D Unit Vidro e da Ceramica Para as Artes, FCT-UNL, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)], E-mail: mgv@fct.unl.pt; Fernandes, P. [Dep. de Conservacao e Restauro and R and D Unit Vidro e da Ceramica Para as Artes, FCT-UNL, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Alves, L.C.; Silva, R.C. da [Dep. Fisica, LFI, ITN, E.N.10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2009-06-15

    Stained glass fragments from the 15th, 16th and 20th centuries, belonging to Mosteiro de Santa Maria da Vitoria, Batalha (Portugal), were characterised non-destructively in a nuclear microprobe. The work aimed at finding the composition of the glasses and glass paintings and relating these with the corresponding production periods. The elemental compositions of the glass fragments were obtained by means of scanning micro-beam Particle Induced X-ray Emission ({mu}-PIXE) spectrometry in selected cross-sections. These were complemented by micro X-Ray fluorescence spectrometry. Characterisation of colour was performed by optical absorption spectroscopy in the UV-vis range, while the corrosion products were identified by optical microscopy and {mu}-FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra Red) spectroscopy in combination with the data generated by {mu}-PIXE. Nuclear microprobe analysis allowed unveiling the compositions and structures, in particular of glass paintings and corrosion products. While it is not surprising that Fe, Cu and Pb were the main elements identified in the grisaille paintings of all studied periods, as well as Ag and Cu found in the glasses decorated with yellow silver painting, their distribution gave important clues on the materials and techniques used to manufacture these stained glasses. Furthermore, it allowed establishing a definite relation between the compositions found and the periods of production, with the added bonus of correctly reassigning the manufacturing period of some samples.

  7. The remote control of nuclear microprobes over the Internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churms, C.L.; Prozesky, V.M.; Springhorn, K.A.

    1999-01-01

    Whereas the concept of remote control is not new, the required equipment and data link have typically been costly and specialized. With the growing availability of reliable Internet connection, it has however become possible and increasingly attractive to be able to control complex equipment remotely over the Internet. Some methods of Internet Remote control are discussed, bearing in mind the specific needs of nuclear microprobe control. One such system has been implemented at the NAC nuclear microprobe, and even though improvements are envisaged, it is already functioning satisfactorily

  8. Extraterrestrial materials examined by mean of nuclear microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodja, H.; Smith, T.; Engrand, C.; Herzog, G.; Raepsaet, C.

    2013-07-01

    Comet fragments, micrometeorites, and Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs) are small objects (purpose, we need instruments and methods that provide both microanalysis and detailed imaging. In these respects, the nuclear microprobe offers many potential advantages: (i) the spatial resolution, ∼1 μm is well-matched to the typical object dimensions, (ii) with some reservations, it is non-destructive when carefully conducted, (iii) it is quantitative, and especially sensitive for light elements. At the Saclay nuclear microprobe, we have been performing analyses of extraterrestrial objects for many years. We review some of these studies, emphasizing the specific requirements for successful analyses. We also discuss the potential pitfalls that may be encountered.

  9. Microprobe analysis of carbon gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamothe, M.; Convert, F.

    1987-01-01

    Problems arising in carbon analysis and how they are solved are presented: sample pollution limitation using cold trap and gas jet cleaning sample preparation, carbon content determination and calibration, automation and optimization. Examples given include concentration monitoring. Carbon homogeneity after complete cementation and decarburization by heat treatment. 6 refs, 14 figs [fr

  10. Nuclear microprobe imaging of gallium nitrate in cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Richard; Suda, Asami; Devès, Guillaume

    2003-09-01

    Gallium nitrate is used in clinical oncology as treatment for hypercalcemia and for cancer that has spread to the bone. Its mechanism of antitumor action has not been fully elucidated yet. The knowledge of the intracellular distribution of anticancer drugs is of particular interest in oncology to better understand their cellular pharmacology. In addition, most metal-based anticancer compounds interact with endogenous trace elements in cells, altering their metabolism. The purpose of this experiment was to examine, by use of nuclear microprobe analysis, the cellular distribution of gallium and endogenous trace elements within cancer cells exposed to gallium nitrate. In a majority of cellular analyses, gallium was found homogeneously distributed in cells following the distribution of carbon. In a smaller number of cells, however, gallium appeared concentrated together with P, Ca and Fe within round structures of about 2-5 μm diameter located in the perinuclear region. These intracellular structures are typical of lysosomial material.

  11. Nuclear microprobe imaging of gallium nitrate in cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, Richard; Suda, Asami; Deves, Guillaume

    2003-01-01

    Gallium nitrate is used in clinical oncology as treatment for hypercalcemia and for cancer that has spread to the bone. Its mechanism of antitumor action has not been fully elucidated yet. The knowledge of the intracellular distribution of anticancer drugs is of particular interest in oncology to better understand their cellular pharmacology. In addition, most metal-based anticancer compounds interact with endogenous trace elements in cells, altering their metabolism. The purpose of this experiment was to examine, by use of nuclear microprobe analysis, the cellular distribution of gallium and endogenous trace elements within cancer cells exposed to gallium nitrate. In a majority of cellular analyses, gallium was found homogeneously distributed in cells following the distribution of carbon. In a smaller number of cells, however, gallium appeared concentrated together with P, Ca and Fe within round structures of about 2-5 μm diameter located in the perinuclear region. These intracellular structures are typical of lysosomial material

  12. The new scanning nuclear microprobe in Uppsala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunde, T.; Nystroem, J.; Lindh, U.

    1991-01-01

    During 1989/90 a scanning microprobe, developed for 2-4 MeV protons and submicron resolution, is being installed at the EN-tandem accelerator at the The Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala University, Sweden. The probe-forming units (object diaphragm, aperture diaphragm and triplet of spark-eroded quadrupoles), the scanning unit of current-controlled ferrite cores and a current digitizer are of Oxford design. The other parts are commercial products or are constructed by ourselves. The latter includes the equipment for optical alignment by interference, a feedback-controlled magnetic beam steerer and stabiliser, a fast beam deflector, specially designed mechanical vibration reducers and dedicated AT expansion cards for scanning control and data acquisition. (orig.)

  13. Electron microprobe analysis of tantalum--nitride thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoltz, D.L.; Starkey, J.P.

    1979-06-01

    Quantitative chemical analysis of 500- and 2000-angstrom tantalum--nitride films on glass substrates has been accomplished using an electron microprobe x-ray analyzer. In order to achieve this analysis, modifications to the microprobe were necessary. A description of the calibration procedure, the method of analysis, and the quantitative results are discussed

  14. Characterization of semiconductor and frontier materials by nuclear microprobe technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jieqing; Li Xiaolin; Yang Changyi; Lu Rongrong; Wang Jiqing; Guo Panlin

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear microprobe technology is used to characterize the properties of semiconductor and other frontier materials at the stages of their synthesis, modification, integration and application. On the basis of the beam current being used, the analytical nuclear microprobe techniques being used in this project can be divided into two categories: high beam current (PIXE, RBS, PEB) or low beam current (IBIC, STIM) techniques. The material properties measured are the thickness and composition of a composite surface on a SiC ceramic, the sputtering-induced surface segregation and depth profile change in a Ag-Cu binary alloy, the irradiation effects on the CCE of CVD diamond, the CCE profile at a polycrystalline CVD diamond film and a GaAs diode at different voltage biases and finally, the characterization of individual sample on an integrated material chip. (author)

  15. The nuclear microprobe of the CENBG: the choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llabador, Y.

    1987-04-01

    A microbeam line with a spatial resolution of the micrometer order has been set on the Van de Graaf of the Bordeaux-Gradignan nuclear center. This report presents the different stages of the microprobe design: the experimental device which has been chosen, the reason of the different choices, the traps to keep out of during the construction (for instance, the accuracy of the mechanical standards) [fr

  16. The Fudan nuclear microprobe set-up and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, L.; Zhuang, W.; Shen, H.; Mi, Y.; Wu, Y.; Liu, B.; Yang, M.; Cheng, H.

    2007-01-01

    A new scanning nuclear microprobe has been constructed at the Institute of Modern Physics in Fudan University, to replace the old microbeam system which had been running for more than ten years. The key parts were purchased from Oxford Microbeams Ltd., including triplet quadrupole lens (model OM-150), collimator slits, scanning system, target chamber, and data acquisition system. Ion beams are provided from a NEC 9SDH-2 Tandem accelerator. Three CCD cameras and multiple monitors were installed to assist beam adjust. The design of beam line and beam monitors is described. Beam optics calculations were carried out based on the specific Fudan microprobe system geometry, and the results regarding beam line performance and limitations of the spacial resolution are presented and discussed here. A comparison with experimental results is given as well. About 1.5 μm beam spot size could be achieved with a 3 MeV proton beam at a current of around 10 pA. Recently, the new microprobe is applied to obtain information of fly ash particle, algae cell and otoliths

  17. Ion microprobe analysis of metallic pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelicon, P.; Simcic, J.; Budnar, M.; Klanjsek-Gunde, M.; Kunavaer, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Metallic paints consist of metallic flakes dispersed m a resinous binder, i.e. a light-element polymer matrix. The spatial distribution and orientation of metallic flakes inside the matrix determines the covering efficiency of the paint, glossiness, and its angular-dependent properties such as lightness flop or color flop (two-tone). Such coatings are extensively used for a functional (i.e. security) as well as decorative purpose. The ion microbeam analysis of two types of silver paint with imbedded metallic flake has been performed to test the ability of the ion microbeam spectroscopic methods on this type of samples. The average sizes of the aluminium flakes were 23 (size distribution 10-37) and 49 (size distribution 34-75) micrometers, respectively. The proton beam with the size of 2x2 micrometers at Ljubljana ion microprobe has been used to scan the surface of the pigments. PIXE mapping of Al Kα map shows lateral distribution of the aluminum flakes, whereas the RBS slicing method reveals tomographic image of the flakes in uppermost 5 micrometers of the pigment layer. The flake distribution in the larger layer depths has been accessed by RBS analysis in a point mode. (author)

  18. 7th international conference on Nuclear microprobe technology and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This colloquium gives an up-to-date report on the continuously advancing applications and development of microbeam technology. It presents abstracts and oral contributions in the following domains: microprobes facilities, analysis techniques, imaging techniques, micro-ion beam modification of materials, microelectronics, applications in Material Sciences in Biology in Medicine in earth and planetary Sciences in environment in art in archaeology, alternative techniques. (A.L.B.)

  19. Operation and acquisition automation of a nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simond, Isabelle

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to design the hardware and the software parts of data acquisition and its graphical analyses of a nuclear microprobe. Our realisation was built from a microprocessor 68020 and specialized co-processors on a VME bus. The more important demand was the amount of time required to collect the data and to perform the graphical analyses during the acquisition. To overcome this problem, we adapted a real time operating system and its kernel to our need, and built special graphical processes. (author) [fr

  20. Combination of synchrotron radiation X-ray microprobe and nuclear microprobe for chromium and chromium oxidation states quantitative mapping in single cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, Richard; Deves, Guillaume; Fayard, Barbara; Salome, Murielle; Susini, Jean

    2003-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium compounds are established carcinogens but their mechanism of cell transformation has not been elucidated yet. In this study, chromium oxidation state distribution maps in cells exposed to soluble (Na 2 CrO 4 ), or insoluble (PbCrO 4 ), Cr(VI) compounds have been obtained by use of the ESRF ID-21 X-ray microscope. In addition, the quantitative maps of element distributions in cells have been determined using the nuclear microprobe of Bordeaux-Gradignan. Nuclear microprobe quantitative analysis revealed interesting features on chromium, and lead, cellular uptake. It is suggested that cells can enhance PbCrO 4 solubility, resulting in chromium, but not lead uptake. The differential carcinogenic potential of soluble and insoluble Cr(VI) compounds is discussed with regard to chromium intracellular quantitative distribution

  1. High resolution, high sensitivity imaging and analysis of minerals and inclusions (fluid and melt) using the new CSIRO-GEMOC nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, C.G.; McInnes, B.M.; Van Achterbergh, E.; Williams, P.J.; Dong, G.; Zaw, K.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The new CSIRO-GEMOC Nuclear Microprobe (NMP) The instrument was designed specifically for minerals analysis and imaging and to achieve ppm to sub-ppm sensitivity at a spatial resolution of 1-2 μm using X-rays and y-rays induced by MeV energy ion beams. The key feature of the design is a unique magnetic quadrupole quintuplet ion focussing system that combines high current with high spatial resolution (Ryan et al., 1999). These design goals have been achieved or exceeded. On the first day of operation, a spot-size of 1.3 μm was obtained at a beam current of 0.5 nA, suitable for fluid inclusion analysis and imaging. The spot-size grows to just 1.8 μm at 10 nA (3 MeV protons), ideal for mineralogical samples with detection limits down to 0.2 ppm achieved in quantitative, high resolution, trace element images. Applications of the NMP include: research into ore deposit processes through trace element geochemistry, mineralogy and fluid inclusion analysis of ancient deposits and active sea-floor environments, ore characterization, and fundamental studies of mantle processes and extraterrestrial material. Quantitative True Elemental Imaging Dynamic Analysis is a method for projecting quantitative major and trace element images from proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) data obtained using the NMP (Ryan et al., 1995). The method un-mixes full elemental spectral signatures to produce quantitative images that can be directly interrogated for the concentrations of all elements in selected areas or line projections, etc. Fluid Inclusion Analysis and Imaging The analysis of fluids trapped as fluid inclusions in minerals holds the key to understanding ore metal pathways and ore formation processes. PIXE analysis using the NMP provides a direct non-destructive method to determine the composition of these trapped fluids with detection limits down to 20 ppm. However, some PIXE results have been controversial, such as the strong partitioning of Cu into the vapour phase (e

  2. A photomultiplier-based secondary electron imaging system for a nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, L.C.; Breese, M.B.H.; Silva, M.F. da; Soares, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    The ability to define, or recognise particular regions of interest or surface features is vital to the analysis and interpretation of spatially-resolved images collected with a nuclear microprobe. However, good topographic image contrast is difficult to accomplish using PIXE or RBS images due to their inherent insensitivity to topography, lack of elemental variation or poor statistics. Topographic image contrast is commonly obtained in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) by detecting a large flux of secondary electrons produced by the focused keV electron beam. Similar systems have not been widely used on nuclear microprobes due to ion beam intensity fluctuations, which limit the minimum resolvable contrast and present a major limitation for this technique. This paper describes a secondary electron imaging system which has been developed on the Lisbon microprobe. It is based on a scintillator, a photomultiplier operated in a pulsed mode, a pulse shaping electronic chain and ADC, and requires no changes to the existing data acquisition system. Examples of the images obtained from materials such as patterned SiGe wafers and hydrogen-implanted silicon are given, and compared with SEM or optical images

  3. Quantitative elemental imaging of octopus stylets using PIXE and the nuclear microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doubleday, Zoe [Marine Research Laboratories, Tasmanian Aquaculture and Fisheries Institute, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 49, Tasmania 7001 (Australia)], E-mail: zoeanned@utas.edu.au; Belton, David [CSIRO Exploration and Mining, University of Melbourne (School of Physics), Melbourne 3010 (Australia); Pecl, Gretta; Semmens, Jayson [Marine Research Laboratories, Tasmanian Aquaculture and Fisheries Institute, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 49, Tasmania 7001 (Australia)

    2008-01-15

    By utilising targeted microprobe technology, the analysis of elements incorporated within the hard bio-mineralised structures of marine organisms has provided unique insights into the population biology of many species. As hard structures grow, elements from surrounding waters are incorporated effectively providing a natural 'tag' that is often unique to the animal's particular location or habitat. The spatial distribution of elements within octopus stylets was investigated, using the nuclear microprobe, to assess their potential for determining dispersal and population structure in octopus populations. Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was conducted using the Dynamic Analysis method and GeoPIXE software package, which produced high resolution, quantitative elemental maps of whole stylet cross-sections. Ten elements were detected within the stylets which were heterogeneously distributed throughout the microstructure. Although Ca decreased towards the section edge, this trend was consistent between individuals and remained homogeneous in the inner region of the stylet, and thus appears a suitable internal standard for future microprobe analyses. Additional analyses used to investigate the general composition of the stylet structure suggested that they are amorphous and largely organic, however, there was some evidence of phosphatic mineralisation. In conclusion, this study indicates that stylets are suitable for targeted elemental analysis, although this is currently limited to the inner hatch region of the microstructure.

  4. Quantitative elemental imaging of octopus stylets using PIXE and the nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doubleday, Zoe; Belton, David; Pecl, Gretta; Semmens, Jayson

    2008-01-01

    By utilising targeted microprobe technology, the analysis of elements incorporated within the hard bio-mineralised structures of marine organisms has provided unique insights into the population biology of many species. As hard structures grow, elements from surrounding waters are incorporated effectively providing a natural 'tag' that is often unique to the animal's particular location or habitat. The spatial distribution of elements within octopus stylets was investigated, using the nuclear microprobe, to assess their potential for determining dispersal and population structure in octopus populations. Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was conducted using the Dynamic Analysis method and GeoPIXE software package, which produced high resolution, quantitative elemental maps of whole stylet cross-sections. Ten elements were detected within the stylets which were heterogeneously distributed throughout the microstructure. Although Ca decreased towards the section edge, this trend was consistent between individuals and remained homogeneous in the inner region of the stylet, and thus appears a suitable internal standard for future microprobe analyses. Additional analyses used to investigate the general composition of the stylet structure suggested that they are amorphous and largely organic, however, there was some evidence of phosphatic mineralisation. In conclusion, this study indicates that stylets are suitable for targeted elemental analysis, although this is currently limited to the inner hatch region of the microstructure

  5. Proton microprobe analysis of pancreatic. beta. cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindh, U [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Gustaf Werner Inst.; Juntti-Berggren, L; Berggren, P O; Hellman, B [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)

    1985-01-01

    Freeze-dried pancreas sections from obese hyperglycemic mice were subjected to proton bombardment and the elemental contents in the ..beta.. cells and the exocrine part were obtained from the characteristic X-rays emitted. Quantitative data were provided for 18 different elements. The mole ratio between K and Na exceeded 10, implying that neither the sample preparation nor the irradiation had induced significant diffuse changes. With the demonstration of this high K/Na ratio it seems likely that also the ..beta.. cells are equipped with an efficient Na/sup +//K/sup +/ pump. The ..beta.. cells contained about 70 mmoles Cl per litre cell water. Observed amounts of Ca and Mg were equivalent to those previously recorded by electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy. The significant role of Zn for the storage of insulin was emphasized by the demonstration of 3 times as much of this element in the ..beta.. cells as compared with the exocrine pancreas. In addition, the sensitivity of the proton microprobe enabled measurements of various trace elements such as Rb, Cr, Cu, Al and Pb not previously demonstrated in the pancreatic ..beta.. cells.

  6. A new Krakow scanning nuclear microprobe performance tests and early application experienc

    CERN Document Server

    Lebed, S; Polak, W; Potempa, A W; Stachura, Z; Paszkowski, M

    2001-01-01

    A new scanning nuclear microprobe (MP) with a short-length probe forming system was designed,installed and tested at the 3MV Van de Graaff accelerator in Krakow.The MP resolution of 3.3 mu m was reached for 2.4 MeV proton beam in the high-current mode (>= 100pA).The MP facility provides a local,non-destructive,quantitative elemental microanalysis using a Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique.As example of possible application an analysis of a geological sample containing monazite crystals investigated by PIXE method is presented.

  7. CMB v. 1.1 Data Acquisition and Evaluation System of the Cracow Nuclear Microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lekki, J.; Hajduk, R.; Potempa, A.; Pieprzyca, T.; Stachura, Z.; Zieblinski, M.; Styczen, J.; Lebed, S.

    2000-11-01

    An overview of the Cracow nuclear microprobe together with its data acquisition and control system is presented. Magnetic deflection was applied for beam scanning, while detector signals acquisition is performed by the NIM/CAMAC modules under supervision of a Windows operating system running on a PC equipped with the GPIB controller card. Total spectra from every detector are accessible on-line during the measurement, while full information about detected energy and beam position is stored to a disk file in the list mode to allow off-line data analysis. System hardware and software setups together with software operations and data formats used for information storing are described. (author)

  8. Effect of magnetic quadrupole lens alignment on a nuclear microprobe resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolinko, S.V.; Ponomarev, A.G.

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports the research trends in developing probe-forming systems with high demagnification and analysis factors that limit a nuclear microprobe resolution. Parasitic aberrations caused by tilts and offsets of magnetic quadrupoles are studied in terms of their effect on probe parameters on a target. The most common arrangements of probe-forming systems such as a triplet and “Russian quadruplet” with separated geometry are considered. The accuracy prerequisites for the positioning of the quadrupoles are defined, and practical guidelines for alignment of probe-forming systems with high demagnification factors are suggested.

  9. Nuclear microprobe studies of elemental distribution in the seagrass Thalassodendron ciliatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnabas, A.D. E-mail: alban@pixie.udw.ac.za; Przybylowicz, W.J.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J.; Pineda, C.A

    1999-09-02

    Elemental levels and distributions in various organs (leaves, upright stems, rhizomes and roots) of the seagrass Thalassodendron ciliatum were determined using the NAC nuclear microprobe. Elemental distributions were obtained using the true elemental imaging system Dynamic Analysis (DA). Cl was the most abundant element present in the organs, occurring in all tissues, but present in relatively low concentrations in epidermal cells of leaves and roots. Na, K, S and Mg were also abundant and occurred in all organ tissues. Ca concentration was highest in the leaves, especially in the epidermis. Low concentrations of P were found and its tissue distribution was limited. Although Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Br, Ti and Si were present in relatively small amounts, enrichment of the epidermis with Fe, Ti and Si in all organs, was observed. Fe concentration was the highest in rhizomes while Si concentration was highest in upright stems. The significance of these elemental distribution patterns and the value of the nuclear microprobe in elemental analysis of seagrasses are discussed.

  10. Structural and electrical characterisation of semiconductor materials using a nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, D.N.

    1998-01-01

    The domain of high-resolution imaging techniques (sub-micron) traditionally belongs to low-energy ion beams (ke V ion microprobe), electrons (transmission or scanning electron microscopy), light (near field microscopy), or all variants of scanning probe microscopies. Now, nuclear techniques of analysis, with a nuclear microprobe, have entered this domain, bringing a range of unique techniques for making images. In addition to-conventional techniques like Rutherford (and non-Rutherford) backscattering spectrometry and particle induced x-ray emission for structural characterisation, new ion beam analysis techniques have been developed for electrical characterisation as well. Foremost of these new techniques is ion beam induced charge (IBIC) which has seen an explosion of applications in the last five years to the study of charge transport properties of a variety of materials including polycrystalline diamond and silicon. An additional novel technique is ionoluminescence, which may be used to image various electronic properties of the material. Presented here are some examples of these imaging techniques in a variety of semiconductor materials. In all these examples, the specimens display structural inhomogeneities on the scale of 10 micrometres, making it essential to employ a focused beam. (author)

  11. Structural and electrical characterisation of semiconductor materials using a nuclear microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, D.N. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics, Microanalytical Centre

    1998-06-01

    The domain of high-resolution imaging techniques (sub-micron) traditionally belongs to low-energy ion beams (ke V ion microprobe), electrons (transmission or scanning electron microscopy), light (near field microscopy), or all variants of scanning probe microscopies. Now, nuclear techniques of analysis, with a nuclear microprobe, have entered this domain, bringing a range of unique techniques for making images. In addition to-conventional techniques like Rutherford (and non-Rutherford) backscattering spectrometry and particle induced x-ray emission for structural characterisation, new ion beam analysis techniques have been developed for electrical characterisation as well. Foremost of these new techniques is ion beam induced charge (IBIC) which has seen an explosion of applications in the last five years to the study of charge transport properties of a variety of materials including polycrystalline diamond and silicon. An additional novel technique is ionoluminescence, which may be used to image various electronic properties of the material. Presented here are some examples of these imaging techniques in a variety of semiconductor materials. In all these examples, the specimens display structural inhomogeneities on the scale of 10 micrometres, making it essential to employ a focused beam. (author). Extended abstract. 18 refs. 4 figs.

  12. The French AEC nuclear microprobe: description and first application examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, C.; Bardy, J.

    1983-05-01

    The major components of the microprobe are briefly described. The performances and the varying possibilities authorized by the instrument are given. Some application examples concerning especially the determination of concentration profiles in an aqueous leached glass and the distribution of deuterium in a graphite sample exposed to plasma in a Tokamak device are presented

  13. X-ray Microprobe for Fluorescence and Diffraction Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ice, G.E.

    2005-01-01

    X-ray diffraction (see unit 1.1) and x-ray excited fluorescence analysis are powerful techniques for the nondestructive measurement of crystal structure and chemical composition. X-ray fluorescence analysis is inherently nondestructive with orders of magnitude lower power deposited for the same detectable limit as with fluorescence excited by charged particle probes (Sparks, 1980). X-ray diffraction analysis is sensitive to crystal structure with orders-of-magnitude greater sensitivity to crystallographic strain than electron probes (Rebonato, et al. 1989). When a small-area x-ray microbeam is used as the probe, chemical composition (Z>14), crystal structure, crystalline texture, and crystalline strain distributions can be determined. These distributions can be studied both at the surface of the sample and deep within the sample (Fig. 1). Current state-of-the-art can achieve an ∼1 mm-D x-ray microprobe and an ∼0.1 mm-D x-ray microprobe has been demonstrated (Bilderback, et al., 1994). Despite their great chemical and crystallographic sensitivities, x-ray microprobe techniques have until recently been restricted by inefficient x-ray focusing optics and weak x-ray sources; x-ray microbeam analysis was largely superseded by electron techniques in the 50's. However, interest in x-ray microprobe techniques has now been revived (Howells, et al., 1983; Ice and Sparks, 1984; Chevallier, et al., 1997; Riekel 1992; Thompson, el al., 1992; and Making and Using... 1997) by the development of efficient x-ray focusing optics and ultra-high intensity synchrotron x-ray sources (Buras and Tazzari, 1984; Shenoy, et al., 1988). These advances have increased the achievable microbeam flux by more than 11 orders of magnitude (Fig. 2) (Ice, 1997); the flux in a tunable 1 mm-D beam on a 'so called' 3rd-generation synchrotron source such as the APS can exceed the flux in a fixed-energy mm2 beam on a conventional source. These advances make x-ray microfluorescence and x

  14. Characterization of PE-g-HEMA films prepared by gamma irradiation through nuclear microprobe techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, L.M.; Rodrigues, P.A.; Falcao, A.N.; Leal, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The functional success of a copolymer as biomaterial depends fundamentally on their mechanical properties (stemming from the material matrix) and on the characteristics of its surface. For biomedical applications, among all the other important properties, the biocompatibility of the surface acquires extreme importance and can dictate its rejection. One of the issues regarding biocompatibility is cytotoxicity which strongly depends on the contamination level at surface. Ion beam analysis techniques associated to Nuclear Microprobe (PIXE, RBS and STIM) allows a rigorous and precise analysis of the concentration (ppm) and distribution of elements contamination, and may also provide information on its near-surface structure. In this work PE-g-HEMA films with different grafting yields were prepared by mutual gamma irradiation at a 60 Co source and were analyzed through nuclear microprobe. Data collected allowed the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of contaminants distribution observed in the different samples as well as the clarification of some processes occurred during the copolymerization reaction. Qualitative analysis showed a random and no homogeneous distribution of the contaminant elements, independent of the grafting degree, suggesting the existence of several sources of contamination at different stages of their preparation. Results also suggest that this 'phased' contamination occurs simultaneously with mechanisms of agglomeration/entrapment of impurities during the gamma induced copolymerization reaction. Moreover, quantitative data showed that all contaminants found in the copolymeric films are natural contaminants of their reagents of preparation, although at concentrations without toxicological hazard, which points to a low cytotoxic potential. The combined analysis of these data with data from SEM and AFM allowed a better understanding of the surface structure and other properties already observed in these

  15. Progress of the new CSIRO-GEMOC nuclear microprobe: first results, performance and recent applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, C.G.; Cripps, G.; Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F.; Jamieson, D.N.; Griffin, W.L.; Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation

    1999-01-01

    The new CSIRO-GEMOC Nuclear Microprobe (NMP) features a number of technical advances for high resolution, high sensitivity microanalysis. It was designed at the CSIRO and developed as collaboration between the CSlRO, the GEMOC key-centre at Macquarie University and the MARC group of the University of Melbourne. For imaging applications, it also features a software system using a powerful algorithm called Dynamic Analysis, developed at the CSIRO for unmixing elemental signatures in proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) data, to provide a tool for rapid quantitative imaging of trace and major element spatial distribution in minerals. This paper reports on the performance of the NMP and examples of its application over the past 6 months since completion

  16. Microprobe PIXE analysis and EDX analysis on the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumoto, S.; Horino, Y.; Mokuno, Y.; Fujii, K.; Kakimi, S.; Mizutani, T.; Matsushima, H.; Ishikawa, A.

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the cause of Alzheimer's disease (senile dementia of Alzheimer's disease type), we examined aluminium (Al) in the brain (hippocampus) of patients with Alzheimer's disease using heavy ion (5 MeV Si 3+ ) microprobe particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. Heavy ion microprobes (3 MeV Si 2+ ) have several times higher sensitivity for Al detection than 2 MeV proton microprobes. We also examined Al in the brain of these patients by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). (1) Al was detected in the cell nuclei isolated from the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease using 5 MeV Si 3+ microprobe PIXE analysis, and EDX analysis. (2) EDX analysis demonstrated high levels of Al in the nucleolus of nerve cells in frozen sections prepared from the brain of these patients. Our results support the theory that Alzheimer's disease is caused by accumulation of Al in the nuclei of brain cells. (author)

  17. Developments of new generation nuclear microprobe systems at the University of Melbourne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, B.; Jamieson, D.N.; Hopt, R.; Hearne, S.; Szymaski, R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A review of the recent developments in fabricating a new generation nuclear microprobe systems at University of Melbourne, Melbourne, will be presented. These new generation systems present high spatial resolution (less than 1 micrometer) with increasing current density (in excess of 100 pA/micrometer 2 ) of the probing ion beam. Detectors with large solid angles and high brightness of the ion source of the accelerator increase the capabilities of these microprobes many fold. Some of the key ingredients of these microprobes are (i) novel magnetic quadrupole lens quintuplet probe forming system (ii) integrated fast data acquisition system to handle high count rates (excess of 100 KHz) due to increasing current density as well as large detector solid angles up to 4 detector stations. Full dead time corrected and charge normalised maps are also implemented to counter the problems normally associated with such high count rate systems. First version of these systems is presently under operation at CSIRO, Sydney. Another similar system is currently being installed at Dutch Institute for Nuclear and High Energy Physics, Amsterdam, Netherlands. A further optimised version of the CSIRO/MARC quintuplet probe forming systems is currently being fabricated at University of Melbourne. Some of the applications involve microelectronic materials, superconductors and geological samples. We will be presenting exciting results arising out of investigations into these materials. We will be demonstrating ultimate spatial resolution of the new microprobe being fabricated at Melbourne

  18. Milliprobe and microprobe analysis of gold items of ancient jewellery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demortier, G.; Hackens, T.

    It has long been accepted that the presence of cadmium implies a condemnation of the authenticity of an ancient gold object, or at least, of the part of the object where the cadmium is detected. An analysis in Paris of a recently excavated object from Roman times has shown cadmium. Meanwhile, systematic observations were made at L.A.R.N. on objects dating from Hellenistic to Byzantine times with different given origins (objects from a museum and from private collections). By using PIXE with a 3 MeV proton milliprobe (700 μm beam diameter) in a non vacuum geometry, relative amounts of copper, silver, cadmium and gold at the surface of more than 30 gold objects expected to be ancient have been determined. Traces or significant concentrations of cadmium have been detected at several points on or in the neighbourhood of solders on many objects which seem to be from Roman to early Byzantine times. Cadmium concentrations range between 2 to 100 parts per thousand. This range of variations and the relative concentrations of Au, Ag, Cu and Cd at the surface of the objects studied are often different from the figures obtained during analyses of modern soldering alloys. Experiments with the L.A.R.N. proton microprobe (5 μm x 10 μm area) allow a still better topographical resolution and more significative comparison of the relative amounts of the elements of interest in modern soldering alloys and supposedly old solders. The usefulness of the microprobe is demonstrated. (author)

  19. Contribution to the application of nuclear microprobe in geochemistry. Carbon and nitrogen microanalysis in glasses and minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosbah, M.

    1988-01-01

    The morphological complexity of geological materials implies the use of microanalysis techniques utilization. Nuclear microprobe allows selective and no destructive light elements determination, through nuclear reactions. Nuclear microanalysis has been used to characterize carbon and nitrogen in volatile phase dissolved in magmatic samples. The application of some microanalysis techniques in geochemistry are discussed, nuclear microprobe theory and techniques are developed. Minerals, glasses and glassy inclusions are described, and more particularly, the interest of these investigations. Optimal conditions of carbon and nitrogen analysis ( 12 C(d.p) 13 C and 14 N(d,p) 15 N reaction respectively), as deuteron energy and observation angle are studied. A methodology has been established for this purpose. Several results are exposed: Punctual analysis, carbon concentration profile in depth surface scanning, surficial mapping in glassy inclusions. The carbon content interpretation in glassy inclusions measured conveniently for the first time agrees with data obtained through other techniques. In conclusion, degazing schedule improvements require more analysis. Perspective research axis are evocated [fr

  20. Synchrotron radiation microprobe quantitative analysis method for biomedical specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Qing; Shao Hanru

    1994-01-01

    Relative changes of trace elemental content in biomedical specimens are obtained easily by means of synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence microprobe analysis (SXRFM). However, the accurate assignment of concentration on a g/g basis is difficult. Because it is necessary to know both the trace elemental content and the specimen mass in the irradiated volume simultaneously. the specimen mass is a function of the spatial position and can not be weighed. It is possible to measure the specimen mass indirectly by measuring the intensity of Compton scattered peak for normal XRF analysis using a X-ray tube with Mo anode, if the matrix was consisted of light elements and the specimen was a thin sample. The Compton peak is not presented in fluorescence spectrum for white light SXRFM analysis. The continuous background in the spectrum was resulted from the Compton scattering with a linear polarization X-ray source. Biomedical specimens for SXRFM analysis, for example biological section and human hair, are always a thin sample for high energy X-ray, and they consist of H,C,N and O etc. light elements, which implies a linear relationship between the specimen mass and the Compton scattering background in the high energy region of spectrum. By this way , it is possible to carry out measurement of concentration for SXRFM analysis

  1. Using the ion microprobe mass analyser for trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    Most techniques for the analysis of trace elements are capable of determining the concentrations in a bulk sample or solution, but without reflecting their distribution. In a bulk analysis therefore elements which occur in high concentration in a few precipitates would still be considered trace elements even though their local concentration greatly exceed the normally accepted trace elements concentration limit. Anomalous distribution is also shown by an oxide layer, a few hundred Angstrom thick, on an aluminium sample. A low oxide concentration would be reported if it were included in the bulk analysis, which contradicts the high surface concentration. The importance of a knowledge of the trace element distribution is therefore demonstrated. Distributional trace element analysis can be carried out using the ion microprobe mass analyser (IMMA). Since the analytical technique used in this instrument, namely secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), is not universally appreciated, the instrument and its features will be described briefly followed by a discussion of quantitative analysis and the related subjects of detection limit and sample consumption. Finally, a few examples of the use of the instrument are given

  2. Lateral diffusion study of the Pt-Al system using the NAC nuclear microprobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, H.; Pretorius, R.

    1999-10-01

    In this study a nuclear microprobe (NMP) was used to analyse phase formation during reaction in Pt-Al lateral diffusion couples. Phase identification was done by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. These results were compared with phase formation during conventional thin film Pt-Al interactions. The co-existence of multiple phases in lateral diffusion couples is discussed with reference to the effective heat of formation (EHF) model.

  3. Lateral diffusion study of the Pt-Al system using the NAC nuclear microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waal, H. de E-mail: dewalla@nac.ac.za; Pretorius, R

    1999-09-02

    In this study a nuclear microprobe (NMP) was used to analyse phase formation during reaction in Pt-Al lateral diffusion couples. Phase identification was done by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. These results were compared with phase formation during conventional thin film Pt-Al interactions. The co-existence of multiple phases in lateral diffusion couples is discussed with reference to the effective heat of formation (EHF) model.

  4. The new confocal heavy ion microprobe beamline at ANSTO: The first microprobe resolution tests and applications for elemental imaging and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastuovic, Z.; Siegele, R.; Cohen, D. D.; Mann, M.; Ionescu, M.; Button, D.; Long, S.

    2017-08-01

    The Centre for Accelerator Science facility at ANSTO has been expanded with the new NEC 6 MV ;SIRIUS; accelerator system in 2015. In this paper we present a detailed description of the new nuclear microprobe-Confocal Heavy Ion Micro-Probe (CHIMP) together with results of the microprobe resolution testing and the elemental analysis performed on typical samples of mineral ore deposits and hyper-accumulating plants regularly measured at ANSTO. The CHIMP focusing and scanning systems are based on the OM-150 Oxford quadrupole triplet and the OM-26 separated scan-coil doublet configurations. A maximum ion rigidity of 38.9 amu-MeV was determined for the following nuclear microprobe configuration: the distance from object aperture to collimating slits of 5890 mm, the working distance of 165 mm and the lens bore diameter of 11 mm. The overall distance from the object to the image plane is 7138 mm. The CHIMP beamline has been tested with the 3 MeV H+ and 6 MeV He2+ ion beams. The settings of the object and collimating apertures have been optimized using the WinTRAX simulation code for calculation of the optimum acceptance settings in order to obtain the highest possible ion current for beam spot sizes of 1 μm and 5 μm. For optimized aperture settings of the CHIMP the beam brightness was measured to be ∼0.9 pA μm-2 mrad-2 for 3 MeV H+ ions, while the brightness of ∼0.4 pA μm-2 mrad-2 was measured for 6 MeV He2+ ions. The smallest beam sizes were achieved using a microbeam with reduced particle rate of 1000 Hz passing through the object slit apertures several micrometers wide. Under these conditions a spatial resolution of ∼0.6 μm × 1.5 μm for 3 MeV H+ and ∼1.8 μm × 1.8 μm for 6 MeV He2+ microbeams in horizontal (and vertical) dimension has been achieved. The beam sizes were verified using STIM imaging on 2000 and 1000 mesh Cu electron microscope grids.

  5. Nuclear microprobe studies of elemental distributions in dormant seeds of Burkea africana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, E. T. F.; Weiersbye-Witkowski, I. M.; Przybyłowicz, W. J.; Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz, J.

    1997-07-01

    Seed nutrient stores are vital post-germination for the establishment of seedlings in harsh and unpredictable environments. Plants of nutrient-poor environments allocate a substantial proportion of total acquired nutrients to reproduction (i.e. seeds). We propose that differential allocation of mineral resources to specific seed tissues is an indication of a species germination and establishment strategy. Burkea africana Hook is a leguminous tree typical of broad-leaved nutrient-poor savannas in southern Africa. Elemental distributions in dormant B. africana seed structures were obtained using the true elemental imaging system (Dynamic Analysis) of the NAC Van de Graaff nuclear microprobe. Raster scans of 3.0 MeV protons were complemented by simultaneous BS and PIXE point analyses. Mineral nutrient concentrations varied greatly between seed tissues. Elevated levels of metals known to play an important role as plant enzyme co-factors were found in the seed lens and embryonic axis. Distributions of most of these metals (Ca, Mn, Fe and Zn, but not K or Cu) were positively correlated with embryonic P distribution, and probably represent phytin deposits. The distribution of metals within seed structures is 'patchy' due to their complexation with P as electron-dense globoid phytin crystals, which constrains the interpretation of PIXE point analyses.

  6. Development of an external beam nuclear microprobe on the Aglae facility of the Louvre museum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calligaro, T.; Dran, J.-C. E-mail: dran@culture.fr; Ioannidou, E.; Moignard, B.; Pichon, L.; Salomon, J

    2000-03-01

    The external beam line of our facility has been recently equipped with the focusing system previously mounted on a classical nuclear microprobe. When using a 0.1 {mu}m thick Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} foil for the exit window and flowing helium on the sample under analysis, a beam spot as small as 10 {mu}m is attainable at a distance of 3 mm from the window. Elemental micromapping is performed by mechanical scanning. An electronic device has been designed which allows XY scanning by moving the sample under the beam by steps down to 0.1 {mu}m. Beam monitoring is carried out by means of the weak X-ray signal emitted by the exit foil and detected by a specially designed Si(Li) detector cooled by Peltier effect. The characteristics of external beams of protons and alpha particles are evaluated by means of resonance scanning and elemental mapping of a grid. An example of application is presented, dealing with elemental micro-mapping of inclusions in gemstones.

  7. Proton microprobe analysis of zinc in skeletal tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, S. B.; Jones, K. W.; Kraner, H. W.; Shroy, R. E.; Hanson, A. L.

    1981-03-01

    A proton microprobe with windowless exit port has been used to study zinc distributions in various types of skeletal tissues. The use of an external beam facilitated positioning of the targets for examination of particular points of interest. The proton microprobe is uniquely suited to this work since it combines high sensitivity for zinc determination in thick samples with good spatial resolution. Our measurements on rat and rabbit Achilles tendon showed a significant increase in zinc concentrations as the beam moved from the unmineralized collagen into the mineralized attachment site. Cartilage gave a similar result, with calcified cartilage having a greater zinc level than the articular surface on unmineralized epiphyseal cartilage.

  8. Proton microprobe analysis of zinc in skeletal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doty, S.B.; Jones, K.W.; Kraner, H.W.; Shroy, R.E.; Hanson, A.L.

    1980-06-01

    A proton microprobe with windowless exit port was used to study zinc distributions in various types of skeletal tissues. The use of an external beam facilitated positioning of the targets for examination of particular points of interest. The proton microprobe is uniquely suited to this work since it combines high sensitivity for zinc determinations in thick samples with good spatial resolution. Measurements on rat and rabbit Achilles tendon showed a significant increase in zinc concentrations as the beam moved from the unmineralized collagen into the mineralized attachment site. Cartilage gave a similar result, with calcified cartilage having a greater zinc level than the articular surface on unmineralized epiphyseal cartilage

  9. The study of voids in the AuAl thin-film system using the nuclear microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, H. S.; Pretorius, R.; Prozesky, V. M.; Churms, C. L.

    1997-07-01

    A Nuclear Microprobe (NMP) was used to study void formation in thin film gold-aluminium systems. Microprobe Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (μRBS) was utilised to effectively obtain a three-dimensional picture of the void structure on the scale of a few nanometers in the depth dimension and a few microns in the in-plane dimension. This study illustrates the usefulness of the NMP in the study of materials and specifically thin-film structures.

  10. Quantification of the distribution of hydrogen by nuclear microprobe at the Laboratory Pierre Sue in the width of zirconium alloy fuel clad of PWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raepsaet, C.; Bossis, Ph.; Hamon, D.; Bechade, J.L.; Brachet, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Among the analysis techniques by ions beams, the micro ERDA (Elastic Detection Analysis) is an interesting technique which allows the quantitative distribution of the hydrogen in materials. In particular, this analysis has been used for hydride zirconium alloys, with the nuclear microprobe of the Laboratory Pierre Sue. This probe allows the characterization of radioactive materials. The technique principles are recalled and then two examples are provided to illustrate the fuel clad behavior in PWR reactors. (A.L.B.)

  11. Microprobe PIXE analysis and EDX analysis on the brain of patients with Alzheimer`s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yumoto, S. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Horino, Y.; Mokuno, Y.; Fujii, K.; Kakimi, S.; Mizutani, T.; Matsushima, H.; Ishikawa, A.

    1996-12-31

    To investigate the cause of Alzheimer`s disease (senile dementia of Alzheimer`s disease type), we examined aluminium (Al) in the brain (hippocampus) of patients with Alzheimer`s disease using heavy ion (5 MeV Si{sup 3+}) microprobe particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. Heavy ion microprobes (3 MeV Si{sup 2+}) have several times higher sensitivity for Al detection than 2 MeV proton microprobes. We also examined Al in the brain of these patients by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). (1) Al was detected in the cell nuclei isolated from the brain of patients with Alzheimer`s disease using 5 MeV Si{sup 3+} microprobe PIXE analysis, and EDX analysis. (2) EDX analysis demonstrated high levels of Al in the nucleolus of nerve cells in frozen sections prepared from the brain of these patients. Our results support the theory that Alzheimer`s disease is caused by accumulation of Al in the nuclei of brain cells. (author)

  12. Applications of heavy ion microprobe for single event effects analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, Robert A.; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy; Pellish, Jonathan A.; Sierawski, Brian; Warren, Kevin M.; Porter, Mark; Wilkinson, Jeff; Marshall, Paul W.; Niu, Guofu; Cressler, John D.; Schrimpf, Ronald D.; Tipton, Alan; Weller, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    The motion of ionizing-radiation-induced rogue charge carriers in a semiconductor can create unwanted voltage and current conditions within a microelectronic circuit. If sufficient unwanted charge or current occurs on a sensitive node, a variety of single event effects (SEEs) can occur with consequences ranging from trivial to catastrophic. This paper describes the application of heavy ion microprobes to assist with calibration and validation of SEE modeling approaches

  13. Proton microprobe analysis of zinc in skeletal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doty, S.B.; Jones, K.W.; Kraner, H.W.; Shroy, R.E.; Hanson, A.L.

    1981-01-01

    A proton microprobe with windowless exit port has been used to study zinc distributions in various types of skeletal tissues. The use of an external beam facilitated positioning of the targets for examination of particular points of interest. The proton micorprobe is uniquely suited to this work since it combines high sensitivity for zinc determinations in thick samples with good spatial resolution. Our measurements on rat and rabbit Achilles tendon showed a significant increase in zinc concentrations as the beam moved from the unmineralized collagen into the mineralized attachment site. Cartilage gave a similar result, with calcified cartilage having a greater zinc level than the articular surface on unmineralized epiphyseal cartilage. (orig.)

  14. Cryosystem for cathodoluminescence investigations by means of electron microprobe analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, J.

    1982-01-01

    A cryosystem is presented which has been designed as auxiliary equipment for electron beam microprobes used in cathodoluminescence studies. The sample holder temperature is adjustable down to 66 K with an accuracy of 0.5 K. Finally, experimental results (transmission spectra and cathodoluminescence spectra of N-doped GaP epitaxial layers at 80 K; changes in microscopic cathodoluminescence distribution at small angle grain boundaries at the (0001) plane of CdS during temperature decrease from 300 to 80 K) obtained by means of the described measuring equipment are given for illustration

  15. Evaluation of the odd-even effect in limits of detection for electron microprobe analysis of natural minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Surendra P., E-mail: spv@cie.unam.mx [Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Priv. Xochicalco s/no., Col Centro, A.P. 34, Temixco, Mor. 62580 (Mexico); Pandarinath, Kailasa [Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Priv. Xochicalco s/no., Col Centro, A.P. 34, Temixco, Mor. 62580 (Mexico); Velasco-Tapia, Fernando [Facultad de Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Carretera Linares-Cerro Prieto km. 8, Linares, N.L. 67700 (Mexico); Rodriguez-Rios, Rodolfo [Facultad de Ingenieria e Instituto de Geologia, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Av. Dr. Manuel Nava No. 8, Zona Universitaria, San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. 78240 (Mexico)

    2009-04-13

    Limit of detection (LOD), being a fundamental quality parameter for analytical techniques, has been recently investigated and a systematic behavior has been observed for most odd-even element pairs for many techniques. However, to the best of our knowledge very few LOD data are available in published literature for electron microprobe analysis; these consist of three papers, two being on rare-earth elements and the third covering a large number of elements of atomic number between 21 and 92. These data confirm the systematic behavior of LODs for many odd-even pairs. To initiate to full this gap, we determined LODs for several major rock-forming chemical elements from Na to Fe with atomic numbers between 11 and 26, during the microprobe analysis of common minerals (olivine, plagioclase, pyroxene, amphibole, quartz, and opaques) in volcanic rocks. The odd-even effect of nuclear stability seems to be present in LOD data for most odd-even pairs investigated. Nevertheless, the experimental strategy concerning the reference materials, calibration procedure, and blank measurements, should be substantially modified to better evaluate the systematic behavior of LOD values in microprobe analysis.

  16. Evaluation of the odd-even effect in limits of detection for electron microprobe analysis of natural minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Surendra P.; Pandarinath, Kailasa; Velasco-Tapia, Fernando; Rodriguez-Rios, Rodolfo

    2009-01-01

    Limit of detection (LOD), being a fundamental quality parameter for analytical techniques, has been recently investigated and a systematic behavior has been observed for most odd-even element pairs for many techniques. However, to the best of our knowledge very few LOD data are available in published literature for electron microprobe analysis; these consist of three papers, two being on rare-earth elements and the third covering a large number of elements of atomic number between 21 and 92. These data confirm the systematic behavior of LODs for many odd-even pairs. To initiate to full this gap, we determined LODs for several major rock-forming chemical elements from Na to Fe with atomic numbers between 11 and 26, during the microprobe analysis of common minerals (olivine, plagioclase, pyroxene, amphibole, quartz, and opaques) in volcanic rocks. The odd-even effect of nuclear stability seems to be present in LOD data for most odd-even pairs investigated. Nevertheless, the experimental strategy concerning the reference materials, calibration procedure, and blank measurements, should be substantially modified to better evaluate the systematic behavior of LOD values in microprobe analysis.

  17. Microprobe analysis of teeth by synchrotron radiation: environmental contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, T.; Carvalho, M.L.; Casaca, C.; Barreiros, M.A.; Cunha, A.S.; Chevallier, P.

    1999-01-01

    An X-ray fluorescence set-up with microprobe capabilities, installed at the Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation du Rayonnement Electromagnetique (LURE) synchrotron (France) was used for elemental determination in teeth. To evaluate the influence of living habits in dental elemental composition nine teeth collected post-mortem were analysed, five from a miner and four from a fisherman. All teeth from the fisherman were healthy. From the miner some teeth were carious and one of them was filled with metallic amalgam. Teeth were sliced under the vertical plane and each slice was scanned from the root to the enamel for elemental profile determination. The synchrotron microprobe resolution was of 100 μm and incident photons of 18 keV energy were used. The elemental concentration values found suggest heterogeneity of the teeth material. Moreover, the distinct profiles for Mn, Sr, Br and Pb were found when teeth from the miner and from the fisherman are compared which can be associated with dietary habits and environmental influence. Higher concentrations of Mn and Sr were found for the fisherman teeth. In addition, Br was only observed in this group of teeth. Pb levels are higher for the miner teeth in particular for dentine regions. The influence of amalgam, such as, increase of Zn and Hg contents in the teeth material, is only noticed for the immediate surroundings of the treated cavity

  18. Millimeter length micromachining using a heavy ion nuclear microprobe with standard magnetic scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesprías, F.; Debray, M.E.; Davidson, J.; Kreiner, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    In order to increase the scanning length of our microprobe, we have developed an irradiation procedure suitable for use in any nuclear microprobe, extending at least up to 400% the length of our heavy ion direct writing facility using standard magnetic exploration. Although this method is limited to patterns of a few millimeters in only one direction, it is useful for the manufacture of curved waveguides, optical devices such Mach–Zehnder modulators, directional couplers as well as channels for micro-fluidic applications. As an example, this technique was applied to the fabrication of 3 mm 3D-Mach–Zehnder modulators in lithium niobate with short Y input/output branches and long shaped parallel-capacitor control electrodes. To extend and improve the quality of the machined structures we developed new scanning control software in LabView™ platform. The new code supports an external dose normalization, electrostatic beam blanking and is capable of scanning figures at 16 bit resolution using a National Instruments™ PCI-6731 High-Speed I/O card. A deep and vertical micromachining process using swift 35 Cl ions 70 MeV bombarding energy and direct write patterning was performed on LiNbO 3 , a material which exhibits a strong natural anisotropy to conventional etching. The micromachined structures show the feasibility of this method for manufacturing micro-fluidic channels as well

  19. Millimeter length micromachining using a heavy ion nuclear microprobe with standard magnetic scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesprías, F. [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (1650), San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Debray, M.E., E-mail: debray@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (1650), San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnología. Universidad Nacional de Gral. San Martín, M. De Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Davidson, J. [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (1650), San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); CONICET, Avda. Rivadavia 1917 (C1033AAJ), Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kreiner, A.J. [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (1650), San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnología. Universidad Nacional de Gral. San Martín, M. De Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); CONICET, Avda. Rivadavia 1917 (C1033AAJ), Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2013-04-01

    In order to increase the scanning length of our microprobe, we have developed an irradiation procedure suitable for use in any nuclear microprobe, extending at least up to 400% the length of our heavy ion direct writing facility using standard magnetic exploration. Although this method is limited to patterns of a few millimeters in only one direction, it is useful for the manufacture of curved waveguides, optical devices such Mach–Zehnder modulators, directional couplers as well as channels for micro-fluidic applications. As an example, this technique was applied to the fabrication of 3 mm 3D-Mach–Zehnder modulators in lithium niobate with short Y input/output branches and long shaped parallel-capacitor control electrodes. To extend and improve the quality of the machined structures we developed new scanning control software in LabView™ platform. The new code supports an external dose normalization, electrostatic beam blanking and is capable of scanning figures at 16 bit resolution using a National Instruments™ PCI-6731 High-Speed I/O card. A deep and vertical micromachining process using swift {sup 35}Cl ions 70 MeV bombarding energy and direct write patterning was performed on LiNbO{sub 3}, a material which exhibits a strong natural anisotropy to conventional etching. The micromachined structures show the feasibility of this method for manufacturing micro-fluidic channels as well.

  20. An extended magnetic quadrupole lens for a high-resolution nuclear microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breese, M.B.H. E-mail: m.breese@surrey.ac.uk; Grime, G.W.; Linford, W.; Harold, M

    1999-09-02

    This paper describes the design requirements and initial performance of a new style of magnetic quadrupole lens for use in a high-resolution nuclear microprobe, which is presently being constructed in Oxford. Such a microprobe necessitates the use of a small image distance from the exit face of the final quadrupole lens to the image plane in order to produce a large demagnification. This means that the final lens should be as close to the sample chamber as possible. However, with conventional magnetic quadrupoles the current-carrying coils protrude by a typical distance of 10-20 mm beyond the pole face, thereby significantly limiting the minimum image distance. The approach taken here is to recess the coils into the body of the lens, so that they are almost flush with the pole pieces and lens yoke, enabling an image distance of 55 mm. Three-dimensional magnetic field calculations within this lens structure predict that the field in the extended pole piece 'nose' region is only slightly less than that in the main lens body. Experimental field profiles, measured using a Hall probe, are used to confirm these calculations.

  1. An extended magnetic quadrupole lens for a high-resolution nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breese, M.B.H.; Grime, G.W.; Linford, W.; Harold, M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the design requirements and initial performance of a new style of magnetic quadrupole lens for use in a high-resolution nuclear microprobe, which is presently being constructed in Oxford. Such a microprobe necessitates the use of a small image distance from the exit face of the final quadrupole lens to the image plane in order to produce a large demagnification. This means that the final lens should be as close to the sample chamber as possible. However, with conventional magnetic quadrupoles the current-carrying coils protrude by a typical distance of 10-20 mm beyond the pole face, thereby significantly limiting the minimum image distance. The approach taken here is to recess the coils into the body of the lens, so that they are almost flush with the pole pieces and lens yoke, enabling an image distance of 55 mm. Three-dimensional magnetic field calculations within this lens structure predict that the field in the extended pole piece 'nose' region is only slightly less than that in the main lens body. Experimental field profiles, measured using a Hall probe, are used to confirm these calculations

  2. Data acquisition and analysis system for the ion microprobe mass analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darby, D.M.; Cristy, S.S.

    1979-02-01

    A computer was interfaced to an ion microprobe mass analyzer for more rapid data acquisition and analysis. The interface is designed to allow data acquisition, independent of the computer. A large data analysis package was developed and implemented. Performance of the computerized system was evaluated and compared to manual operation

  3. Elemental characterization of individual glia and glioma cells in the nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindh, U.

    1982-01-01

    To investigate whether variations in levels of microelements are reflected at the cellular level, a study of cultured cells was undertaken. For elemental characterization were chosen human glia and glioma cell lines. The cells were freeze-dried and about 1000 cells of each line were analyzed in the nuclear microprobe with a probe diameter of 10 μm. Scanning of the specimens under the beam made possible heat reduction and the X-ray spectrum induced was continuously recorded and subsequently processed in the computer. Elemental maps of the cells were then generated and the information from each member of the cell populations could be considered as well as the population statistics. Mass determination was accomplished by means of the bremsstrahlung continuum intensity. The main feature resulting from the characterization was that the glioma cells in average held appreciably higher contents of copper and zinc than did the glia cells. (orig.)

  4. Early works on the nuclear microprobe for microelectronics irradiation tests at the CEICI (Sevilla, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomo, F.R.; Morilla, Y.; Mogollon, J.M.; Garcia-Lopez, J.; Labrador, J.A.; Aguirre, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Particle radiation effects are a fundamental problem in the use of numerous electronic devices for space applications, which is aggravated with the technology shrinking towards smaller and smaller scales. The suitability of low-energy accelerators for irradiation testing is being considered nowadays. Moreover, the possibility to use a nuclear microprobe, with a lateral resolution of a few microns, allows us to evaluate the behavior under ion irradiation of specific elements in an electronic device. The CEICI is the new CEnter for Integrated Circuits Irradiation tests, created into the facilities at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA) in Sevilla-Spain. We have verified that our 3 MV Tandem accelerator, typically used for ion beam characterization of materials, is also a valuable tool to perform irradiation experiments in the low LET (Linear Energy Transfer) region.

  5. The mutual diffusion coefficient for (meth)acrylate monomers as determined with a nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leewis, Christian M.; Mutsaers, Peter H.A.; Jong, Arthur M. de; Ijzendoorn, Leo J. van; Voigt, Martien J.A. de; Ren, Min Q.; Watt, Frank; Broer, Dirk J.

    2004-01-01

    The value of the mutual diffusion coefficient D V of two acrylic monomers is determined with nuclear microprobe measurements on a set of polymer films. These films have been prepared by allowing the monomers to diffuse into each other for a certain time and subsequently applying fast ultraviolet photo-polymerization, which freezes the concentration profile. The monomer diffusion profiles are studied with a scanning 2.1 MeV proton microprobe. Each monomer contains a marker element, e.g., Cl and Si, which are easily detected with proton induced x-ray emission. From the diffusion profiles, it is possible to determine the mutual diffusion coefficient. The mutual diffusion coefficient is dependent of concentration, which is concluded from the asymmetry in the Cl- and Si-profiles. A linear dependence of the mutual diffusion coefficient on the composition is used as a first order approximation. The best fits are obtained for a value of b=(0.38±0.15), which is the ratio of the diffusion coefficient of 1,3-bis(3-methacryloxypropyl)-1, 1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane in pure 2-chloroethyl acrylate and the diffusion coefficient of 2-chloroethyl acrylate in pure 1,3-bis(3-methacryloxypropyl)-1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane. Under the assumption of a linear dependence of the mutual diffusion coefficient D V on monomer composition, it follows that D V =(2.9±0.6)·10 -10 m 2 /s at a 1:1 monomer ratio. With Flory-Huggins expressions for the monomer chemical potentials, one can derive approximate values for the individual monomer diffusion coefficients

  6. U and Pb isotope analysis of uraninite and galena by ion microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evins, L.Z.; Sunde, T.; Schoeberg, H. [Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm (Sweden). Laboratory for Isotope Geology; Fayek, M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    2001-10-01

    Accurate isotopic analysis of minerals by ion microprobe, or SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry) usually requires a standard to correct for instrumental mass bias effects that occur during analysis. We have calibrated two uraninite crystals and one galena crystal to be used as ion probe standards. As part of this study we describe the analytical procedures and problems encountered while trying to establish fractionation factors for U and Pb isotopes measured in galena and uraninite. Only the intra-element isotopic mass fractionation is considered and not the interelement fractionation. Galena and uraninite were analysed with TIMS (Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry) prior to SIMS. One uraninite crystal (P88) comes from Sweden and is ca 900 Ma old, the other from Maine, USA (LAMNH-30222) and is ca 350 Ma old. The galena sample comes from the Paleoproterozoic ore district Bergslagen in Sweden. SIMS analyses were performed at two different laboratories: the NORDSM facility in Stockholm, which has a high resolution Cameca IMS 1270 ion microprobe, and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Tennessee, which has a Cameca IMS 4f ion microprobe. The results show that during the analysis of galena, Pb isotopes fractionate in favour of the lighter isotope by as much as 0.5%/amu. A Pb isotope fractionation factor for uraninite was more difficult to calculate, probably due to the formation of hydride interferences encountered during analysis with the Cameca IMS 1270 ion microprobe. However, drying the sample in vacuum prior to analysis, and using high-energy filtering and a cold trap during analysis can minimise these hydride interferences. A large fractionation of U isotopes of ca 1.4%/amu in favour of the lighter isotope was calculated for uraninite.

  7. U and Pb isotope analysis of uraninite and galena by ion microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evins, L.Z.; Sunde, T.; Schoeberg, H.; Fayek, M.

    2001-10-01

    Accurate isotopic analysis of minerals by ion microprobe, or SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry) usually requires a standard to correct for instrumental mass bias effects that occur during analysis. We have calibrated two uraninite crystals and one galena crystal to be used as ion probe standards. As part of this study we describe the analytical procedures and problems encountered while trying to establish fractionation factors for U and Pb isotopes measured in galena and uraninite. Only the intra-element isotopic mass fractionation is considered and not the interelement fractionation. Galena and uraninite were analysed with TIMS (Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry) prior to SIMS. One uraninite crystal (P88) comes from Sweden and is ca 900 Ma old, the other from Maine, USA (LAMNH-30222) and is ca 350 Ma old. The galena sample comes from the Paleoproterozoic ore district Bergslagen in Sweden. SIMS analyses were performed at two different laboratories: the NORDSM facility in Stockholm, which has a high resolution Cameca IMS 1270 ion microprobe, and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Tennessee, which has a Cameca IMS 4f ion microprobe. The results show that during the analysis of galena, Pb isotopes fractionate in favour of the lighter isotope by as much as 0.5%/amu. A Pb isotope fractionation factor for uraninite was more difficult to calculate, probably due to the formation of hydride interferences encountered during analysis with the Cameca IMS 1270 ion microprobe. However, drying the sample in vacuum prior to analysis, and using high-energy filtering and a cold trap during analysis can minimise these hydride interferences. A large fractionation of U isotopes of ca 1.4%/amu in favour of the lighter isotope was calculated for uraninite

  8. A novel ultra-short scanning nuclear microprobe: Design and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebed, S.; Butz, T.; Vogt, J.; Reinert, T.; Spemann, D.; Heitmann, J.; Stachura, Z.; Lekki, J.; Potempa, A.; Styczen, J.; Sulkio-Cleff, B.

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes an optimized scanning nuclear microprobe (MP) with a new ultra-short (total length of 1.85 m) probe forming system based on a divided Russian quadruplet (DRQ) of magnetic quadrupole lenses. Modern electrostatic accelerators have a comparatively high beam brightness of about 10-25 pA/μm 2 /mrad 2 /MeV. This allows the MP proposed to provide a high lateral resolution even with large (1%) parasitic (sextupole and octupole) pole tip field components in all lenses. The features of the design permit the MP operation in the high current and low current modes with a short working distance and inexpensive quadrupole lenses. A new quadrupole doublet design has been developed for the MP. In the present work the calculated features of the new MP are compared with preliminary experimental results obtained with a similar system (total length of 2.3 m) at the INP in Cracow. The new MP is promising for studies of solids or biological samples with high resolutions (0.08-2 μm) in both modes under ambient conditions. A vertical version of the ultra-short MP can be very useful for single ion bombardments of living cells

  9. The use of the RBI nuclear microprobe in conservation process studies of a church portal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastuovic, Z. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka c. 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)]. E-mail: pastu@irb.hr; Fazinic, S. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka c. 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Jaksic, M. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka c. 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Krstic, D. [Croatian Conservation Institute, Nike Grskovica 23, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Mudronja, D. [Croatian Conservation Institute, Nike Grskovica 23, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2005-04-01

    The southern portal of the St. Marko church in Zagreb, Croatia, is currently under the process of conservation. The conservation treatments on calcareous sandstone consist of (i) removal of harmful sulfates (gypsum) from the surface of the material by saturated solution of ammonium carbonate; and (ii) treatment of the material surface with a 10% solution of barium hydroxide in order to convert the remaining dissolvable sulfates into non-dissolvable compounds and to strengthen the material surface. The nuclear microprobe has been used to measure the level of gypsum induced damage, and quality of conservation. More specifically, the surface quantity and depth concentration profiles of sulfur have been determined in several samples taken from the portal before and after the treatment with the solution of ammonium carbonate. To test the quality of treatment by the barium hydroxide solution, the depth concentration of barium in the samples has been determined after the treatment. Both sulfur and barium concentration levels have been determined by scanning the focused proton beam over the samples, detecting PIXE spectra and creating elemental distribution maps. Beside portal samples, the efficiency of the barium hydroxide treatment was tested on sandstone samples from nearby stone pit assumed to be the origin of material used for portal construction.

  10. The use of the RBI nuclear microprobe in conservation process studies of a church portal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastuovic, Z.; Fazinic, S.; Jaksic, M.; Krstic, D.; Mudronja, D.

    2005-01-01

    The southern portal of the St. Marko church in Zagreb, Croatia, is currently under the process of conservation. The conservation treatments on calcareous sandstone consist of (i) removal of harmful sulfates (gypsum) from the surface of the material by saturated solution of ammonium carbonate; and (ii) treatment of the material surface with a 10% solution of barium hydroxide in order to convert the remaining dissolvable sulfates into non-dissolvable compounds and to strengthen the material surface. The nuclear microprobe has been used to measure the level of gypsum induced damage, and quality of conservation. More specifically, the surface quantity and depth concentration profiles of sulfur have been determined in several samples taken from the portal before and after the treatment with the solution of ammonium carbonate. To test the quality of treatment by the barium hydroxide solution, the depth concentration of barium in the samples has been determined after the treatment. Both sulfur and barium concentration levels have been determined by scanning the focused proton beam over the samples, detecting PIXE spectra and creating elemental distribution maps. Beside portal samples, the efficiency of the barium hydroxide treatment was tested on sandstone samples from nearby stone pit assumed to be the origin of material used for portal construction

  11. ;Study of secondary hydriding at high temperature in zirconium based nuclear fuel cladding tubes by coupling information from neutron radiography/tomography, electron probe micro analysis, micro elastic recoil detection analysis and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachet, Jean-Christophe; Hamon, Didier; Le Saux, Matthieu; Vandenberghe, Valérie; Toffolon-Masclet, Caroline; Rouesne, Elodie; Urvoy, Stéphane; Béchade, Jean-Luc; Raepsaet, Caroline; Lacour, Jean-Luc; Bayon, Guy; Ott, Frédéric

    2017-05-01

    This paper gives an overview of a multi-scale experimental study of the secondary hydriding phenomena that can occur in nuclear fuel cladding materials exposed to steam at high temperature (HT) after having burst (loss-of-coolant accident conditions). By coupling information from several facilities, including neutron radiography/tomography, electron probe micro analysis, micro elastic recoil detection analysis and micro laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, it was possible to map quantitatively, at different scales, the distribution of oxygen and hydrogen within M5™ clad segments having experienced ballooning and burst at HT followed by steam oxidation at 1100 and 1200 °C and final direct water quenching down to room temperature. The results were very reproducible and it was confirmed that internal oxidation and secondary hydriding at HT of a cladding after burst can lead to strong axial and azimuthal gradients of hydrogen and oxygen concentrations, reaching 3000-4000 wt ppm and 1.0-1.2 wt% respectively within the β phase layer for the investigated conditions. Consistent with thermodynamic and kinetics considerations, oxygen diffusion into the prior-β layer was enhanced in the regions highly enriched in hydrogen, where the α(O) phase layer is thinner and the prior-β layer thicker. Finally the induced post-quenching hardening of the prior-β layer was mainly related to the local oxygen enrichment. Hardening directly induced by hydrogen was much less significant.

  12. False colour backscatter electron images and their application during electron microprobe analysis of ores and host rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousens, D.R.; French, D.H.; Ramsden, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    The limited contrast range of conventional black and white imaging does not enable full use to be made of the dynamic range of the video signal obtained from a scanning electron microscope or microprobe. The use of false colour substantially increases the information that can be derived from such images enabling relationships to be displayed that cannot be observed in black and white. This capability is now used extensively in combination with quantitative electron microprobe analysis as a research tool for ore characterization and host rocks studies related to minerals exploration in the CSIRO Div.sion of Exploration Geoscience. Thus the CAMEBAX scanning electron microprobe has been modified to allow digital images acquisition and software (IMAGE) developed which allows false colour backscatter electron (BSE) images to be obtained during the course of routine electron microprobe analysis. 1 fig

  13. Application of the nuclear microprobe to the study of organic and inorganic composition of teeth irradiated by a laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, F.; Engelmann, Ch.; Couble, Ml.; Magloire, H.; Bonnin, P.

    1986-01-01

    The nuclear microprobe uses both direct observation of nuclear reactions induced by deuterons and X ray emission induced by protons or deuterons. Thanks to these techniques, concentration profiles of the main elements (C, N, P, Ca...) contained in different parts of healthy teeth (enamel, dentine and cementum) are drawn in control zones and laser irradiated zones. The results obtained show that important perturbations appear during the irradiation by the laser beam; we observe successively, depleted zones in carbon and nitrogen which contain calcium and phosphorus and hypomineralized zones which contain organic material. 10 refs [fr

  14. “Study of secondary hydriding at high temperature in zirconium based nuclear fuel cladding tubes by coupling information from neutron radiography/tomography, electron probe micro analysis, micro elastic recoil detection analysis and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brachet, Jean-Christophe, E-mail: jean-christophe.brachet@cea.fr [DEN-Service de Recherches Métallurgiques Appliquées (SRMA), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Hamon, Didier; Le Saux, Matthieu [DEN-Service de Recherches Métallurgiques Appliquées (SRMA), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Vandenberghe, Valérie [DEN-Service de Recherches Métallurgiques Appliquées (SRMA), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); DEN-Service d’Etudes Mécaniques et Thermiques (SEMT), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Toffolon-Masclet, Caroline; Rouesne, Elodie; Urvoy, Stéphane [DEN-Service de Recherches Métallurgiques Appliquées (SRMA), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Béchade, Jean-Luc [DEN-Service de Recherches Métallurgiques Appliquées (SRMA), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); DEN-Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique (SRMP), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Raepsaet, Caroline [LEEL, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); NIMBE, CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); and others

    2017-05-15

    This paper gives an overview of a multi-scale experimental study of the secondary hydriding phenomena that can occur in nuclear fuel cladding materials exposed to steam at high temperature (HT) after having burst (loss-of-coolant accident conditions). By coupling information from several facilities, including neutron radiography/tomography, electron probe micro analysis, micro elastic recoil detection analysis and micro laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, it was possible to map quantitatively, at different scales, the distribution of oxygen and hydrogen within M5™ clad segments having experienced ballooning and burst at HT followed by steam oxidation at 1100 and 1200 °C and final direct water quenching down to room temperature. The results were very reproducible and it was confirmed that internal oxidation and secondary hydriding at HT of a cladding after burst can lead to strong axial and azimuthal gradients of hydrogen and oxygen concentrations, reaching 3000–4000 wt ppm and 1.0–1.2 wt% respectively within the β phase layer for the investigated conditions. Consistent with thermodynamic and kinetics considerations, oxygen diffusion into the prior-β layer was enhanced in the regions highly enriched in hydrogen, where the α(O) phase layer is thinner and the prior-β layer thicker. Finally the induced post-quenching hardening of the prior-β layer was mainly related to the local oxygen enrichment. Hardening directly induced by hydrogen was much less significant. - Highlights: •More than 50% of the gaseous hydrogen produced by the inner clad oxidation absorbed and trapped into prior-β layer. •High hydrogen and oxygen local concentrations, up to 3000–4000 wt. ppm and 1.0–1.2 wt.% respectively, within the β phase. •Enhanced oxygen diffusion into hydrogen enriched prior-β layer, with locally thinner α(O) and thicker prior-β layers. •Post-quenching hardening of the prior-β structure mainly related to the (local) oxygen concentration.

  15. Nuclear microprobe study of heavy metal uptake and transport in aquatic plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, Zs.; Kocsar, I.; Szikszai, Z.; Lakatos, Gy.

    2005-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. In aquatic ecosystems water contamination by trace metals is one of the main types of pollution that may stress the biotic community. Although some metals are needed as micronutrients for autotrophic organisms, they can have toxic effects at higher concentration. Aquatic plants can take up large quantities of nutrients and metals from the environment, they can live under extreme environmental conditions therefore they are being increasingly used in remediation processes to reduce contamination. Besides the usually applied bulk analytical techniques quantitative micro-PIXE investigation of the macro, micro and trace element distribution within the root can lead to a better understanding of the heavy metal up-take, transport and detoxification mechanisms of the plants and thus helps to select the proper species for the remedial activity, or possibly to increase the efficiency of the remediation. In this work we determined the elemental distributions in root cross sections and along the roots of reed (Phragmaties australis), bulrush (Typha angustifolia) and sea club-rush (Bolboschoemus maritimus) using the Debrecen nuclear microprobe. The plants originate from the dried units of the wastewater sedimentation pond system of the tannery of Kunszentmarton. 1500 m 3 waste water containing lime, sodium-salts, ammonium-salts, chromium-salts, sodium, chlorine and magnesium ions, sulphur and organic material was released to the pond system every day till 1988. The chosen species are the dominant species of the area, composing 85-90% of the green plant covering. This heavily contaminated area has been regularly monitored by the colleagues of the Dept. of Applied Ecology of the Univ. of Debrecen since 1998. They focused their work the potentially toxic heavy metal chromium. In order to conserve the samples in the living state, the roots were frozen in liquid nitrogen. 16-20 μm thick cross sections were made with cryo-microtome, and all the

  16. Electron Microprobe

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The JEOL JXA-8600 is a conventional hairpin filament thermal emission electron microprobe that is more than 20 years old. It is capable of performing qualitative and...

  17. Applications of petrography and electron microprobe analysis to the study of Indian stone sculpture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.

    1992-01-01

    Examples of research on ancient Indian stone artefacts utilizing petrographic examination coupled with qualitative and quantitative electron beam microprobe analysis of specific minerals are described. Types of artefacts discussed include Gandharan schist sculptures, Pala dynasty phyllite and schist objects from eastern India. Hoysala sculptures from Karnataka state (southern India), and sandstone objects from northern India. In spite of the rich history of stone sculpture in the Indian subcontinent, characterization studies to date have been limited in scope, typically involving unprovenanced artefacts. The examples described point to areas in which more extensive research could produce useful information for the provenancing of artefacts. (author)

  18. Elemental distribution and sample integrity comparison of freeze-dried and frozen-hydrated biological tissue samples with nuclear microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vavpetič, P., E-mail: primoz.vavpetic@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vogel-Mikuš, K. [Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jeromel, L. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Ogrinc Potočnik, N. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); FOM-Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pongrac, P. [Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Department of Plant Physiology, University of Bayreuth, Universitätstr. 30, 95447 Bayreuth (Germany); Drobne, D.; Pipan Tkalec, Ž.; Novak, S.; Kos, M.; Koren, Š.; Regvar, M. [Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pelicon, P. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2015-04-01

    The analysis of biological samples in frozen-hydrated state with micro-PIXE technique at Jožef Stefan Institute (JSI) nuclear microprobe has matured to a point that enables us to measure and examine frozen tissue samples routinely as a standard research method. Cryotome-cut slice of frozen-hydrated biological sample is mounted between two thin foils and positioned on the sample holder. The temperature of the cold stage in the measuring chamber is kept below 130 K throughout the insertion of the samples and the proton beam exposure. Matrix composition of frozen-hydrated tissue is consisted mostly of ice. Sample deterioration during proton beam exposure is monitored during the experiment, as both Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) in on–off axis geometry are recorded together with the events in two PIXE detectors and backscattered ions from the chopper in a single list-mode file. The aim of this experiment was to determine differences and similarities between two kinds of biological sample preparation techniques for micro-PIXE analysis, namely freeze-drying and frozen-hydrated sample preparation in order to evaluate the improvements in the elemental localisation of the latter technique if any. In the presented work, a standard micro-PIXE configuration for tissue mapping at JSI was used with five detection systems operating in parallel, with proton beam cross section of 1.0 × 1.0 μm{sup 2} and a beam current of 100 pA. The comparison of the resulting elemental distributions measured at the biological tissue prepared in the frozen-hydrated and in the freeze-dried state revealed differences in elemental distribution of particular elements at the cellular level due to the morphology alteration in particular tissue compartments induced either by water removal in the lyophilisation process or by unsatisfactory preparation of samples for cutting and mounting during the shock-freezing phase of sample preparation.

  19. Nuclear analysis techniques and environmental sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    31 theses are collected in this book. It introduced molecular activation analysis micro-PIXE and micro-probe analysis, x-ray fluorescence analysis and accelerator mass spectrometry. The applications about these nuclear analysis techniques are presented and reviewed for environmental sciences

  20. Physical aspects of quantitative particles analysis by X-ray fluorescence and electron microprobe techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markowicz, A.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present both physical fundamentals and recent advances in quantitative particles analysis by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and electron microprobe (EPXMA) techniques. A method of correction for the particle-size effect in XRF analysis is described and theoretically evaluated. New atomic number- and absorption correction procedures in EPXMA of individual particles are proposed. The applicability of these two correction methods is evaluated for a wide range of elemental composition, X-ray energy and sample thickness. Also, a theoretical model for composition and thickness dependence of Bremsstrahlung background generated in multielement bulk specimens as well as thin films and particles are presented and experimantally evaluated. Finally, the limitations and further possible improvements in quantitative particles analysis by XFR and EPXMA are discussed. 109 refs. (author)

  1. Proton microprobe analysis of zinc in skeletal tissues. [Proton induced x-ray emission analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doty, S B; Jones, K W; Kraner, H W; Shroy, R E; Hanson, A L

    1980-06-01

    A proton microprobe with windowless exit port was used to study zinc distributions in various types of skeletal tissues. The use of an external beam facilitated positioning of the targets for examination of particular points of interest. The proton microprobe is uniquely suited to this work since it combines high sensitivity for zinc determinations in thick samples with good spatial resolution. Measurements on rat and rabbit Achilles tendon showed a significant increase in zinc concentrations as the beam moved from the unmineralized collagen into the mineralized attachment site. Cartilage gave a similar result, with calcified cartilage having a greater zinc level than the articular surface on unmineralized epiphyseal cartilage.

  2. The non-destructive analysis of fluid inclusions in minerals using the proton microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, C.G.; Van Achterbergy, E. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience; Heinrich, C.A. [ETH Zentrum, Zurich, (Switzerland). Department Erdwissenschaften; Mernagh, T.P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemie (Otto-Hahn-Institut), Mainz (Germany); Zaw, K. [Tasmania Univ., Sandy Bay, TAS (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    The study of ore forming fluids trapped as fluid inclusions in minerals is the key to understanding fluid flow paths at the time of ore formation and to predicting the location of ore bodies within large-scale magmatic hydrothermal systems. The large penetration depths and the predictable nature of MeV proton trajectories and X-ray absorption enables reliable modelling of PIXE yields and the development of standardless quantitative analytical methods. This permits quantitative microanalysis of minerals at ppm levels, and more recently has enabled the development of methods for quantitative trace-element imaging and the quantitative, non-destructive analysis of individual fluid inclusions. This paper reports on recent developments in Proton Microprobe techniques with special emphasis on ore systems and fluid inclusion analysis. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  3. The non-destructive analysis of fluid inclusions in minerals using the proton microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, C G; Van Achterbergy, E [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience; Heinrich, C A [ETH Zentrum, Zurich, (Switzerland). Department Erdwissenschaften; Mernagh, T P [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemie (Otto-Hahn-Institut), Mainz (Germany); Zaw, K [Tasmania Univ., Sandy Bay, TAS (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    The study of ore forming fluids trapped as fluid inclusions in minerals is the key to understanding fluid flow paths at the time of ore formation and to predicting the location of ore bodies within large-scale magmatic hydrothermal systems. The large penetration depths and the predictable nature of MeV proton trajectories and X-ray absorption enables reliable modelling of PIXE yields and the development of standardless quantitative analytical methods. This permits quantitative microanalysis of minerals at ppm levels, and more recently has enabled the development of methods for quantitative trace-element imaging and the quantitative, non-destructive analysis of individual fluid inclusions. This paper reports on recent developments in Proton Microprobe techniques with special emphasis on ore systems and fluid inclusion analysis. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Laser microprobe mass spectrometry: Potential and limitations for inorganic and organic micro-analysis. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeck, I. van; Gijbels, R.

    1990-01-01

    Laser microprobe mass spectrometry (LMMS) employs a highly focused UV laser beam to ionise a microvolume in the order of 1 μm 3 . The ions produced are then mass-separated in a time-of-flight (TOF) or a Fourier Transform (FT) mass spectrometer. TOF LMMS allows element localisation, detailed speciation of inorganic substances and structural information of organic molecules. Quantitation is difficult. This paper focuses on instrumental aspects and inorganic analysis. Organic applications are treated in part II of this series. Selected examples illustrate that TOF LMMS is a valuable tool for the qualitative characterisation of micro-samples. Also, the applicability to the analysis with high spatial resolution is shown. The current technology and the prospects from the recent FTMS development are discussed. (orig.)

  5. Laser microprobe mass spectrometry: Potential and limitations for inorganic and organic micro-analysis. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeck, I. van; Gijbels, R.

    1990-01-01

    Laser microprobe mass spectrometry (LMMS) employs a highly focused UV laser beam to ionise a microvolume in the order of 1 μm 3 . The produced ions are then mass-separated in a time-of-flight (TOF) or a Fourier Transform (FT) mass spectrometer. The technique allows element localisation, detailed speciation of inorganic substances and structural information of organic molecules. Inorganic applications are treated in the preceding part. This paper will focus on the organic aspects. Selected examples illustrate that TOF LMMS can achieve structural characterisation of molecules, untractable by conventional mass spectrometric techniques. Applicability to the analysis with high spatial resolution is shown and the need for surface availability of organic target molecules is discussed. The recently developed FT LMMS may fulfil the need for better mass resolution. However, the comparability of FT LMMS results with TOF LMMS data is not yet obvious. (orig.)

  6. Microprobe and SEM Analysis of a Meteorite from the Campo del Cielo Fall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabanillas, E. D.; Palacios, T. A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text: Meteorites are unique pieces in nature having not only the enigmatic connotations of the unknown but also are the easier obtained samples of the exterior universe. Furthermore they are the unique alloys that suffered modifications done during enormous periods of time in space and in land The Campo del Cielo fall, occurred more than 5000 years ago, gave hundredths of pieces some of them well studied. We have studied one of the minor pieces from the fall and with microprobe and scanning electronic microscopy analysis we determined the composition of Schreibersite and Rhabdite phosphides of iron and nickel. This study was performed to establish relationships between the duration of alloys and the design of disposal of high level and long lived radioactive waste

  7. The role of nuclear microprobes in the study of technology, provenance and corrosion of cultural heritage: The case of gold and silver items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, M.F.; Tissot, I.

    2013-01-01

    This work gives an overview of the main questions raised by gold and silver items kept in museum collections and of the role of nuclear microprobes in their study and conservation. The different approached questions are illustrated by examples; analytical data is given and discussed; and the advantages of IBA are considered: spatial resolution, penetration depth, limits of detection, mapping, etc

  8. Application of a nuclear microprobe to the study of calcified tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coote, Graeme E.; Vickridge, Ian C.

    1988-03-01

    The mineral fraction of calcified tissue is largely calcium hydroxyapatite (bones and teeth) or calcium carbonate (shells and fish otoliths). Apatite has such a strong affinity for fluoride ions that the F/Ca ratio can vary markedly with position in a bone or tooth, depending on the amount of fluoride present at the time of calcification or partial recrystallization. New biological information can be obtained by introducing extra fluoride into the diet of an animal and using a microprobe later to scan sections of bones or teeth. In suitable burial sites extra fluoride is introduced after death, and the new distribution may have applications in forensic science and archaeology. Fish otoliths are also of interest since a new carbonate layer is formed each day and the distribution of trace elements may record some aspects of the fish's life history. Results from the following studies are presented: fluorine distributions in the teeth of sheep which ingested extra fluoride for known periods; distributions of calcium and fluorine in femurs of rats which drank water high in fluoride for periods from 2 to 15 weeks; calcium and fluorine distributions in artificially-prepared lesions in tooth enamel; diffusion profiles in archaeological human teeth and animal bones; patterns in the strontium/calcium ratio in sectioned otoliths of several species of fish.

  9. Metallographic study of ferrite → sigma transformation using ferromagnetic colloid, microprobe analysis, and color etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R.J.; Crouse, R.S.; Sikka, V.K.; King, R.T.

    1976-01-01

    The mechanical properties of ferrite-containing austenitic stainless steel base metal and weldments are usually adversely affected by prolonged exposure to temperatures in the 482-900 0 C (900-1652 0 F) range. One cause of the property alteration is related to the transformation of relatively ductile delta-ferrite to less ductile sigma-phase. Attempts to identify sigma and delta ferrite phases by color staining techniques alone are well documented; however, the results are often questionable due to the difficulty in maintaining consistent color identifications. This investigation is concerned with the microstructural responses of the ferromagnetic delta-ferrite phase and the paramagnetic sigma-phase to a ferromagnetic iron colloid in a magnetic field. Such positive or negative responses of the two phases to the colloid offer a more definitive identification. With this technique, the identification of small amounts of these phases in the microstructure is limited only by the highest magnification and resolution of the optical microscope. The procedure is substantiated in this metallographic study with microprobe analysis and color metallography. Several examples of the correlative use of these three techniques in identifying varying amounts of delta-ferrite yields sigma transformation are presented

  10. Application of PIXE analysis to environmental samples stable element distribution in sea algae by scanning microprobe analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, M.; Kitao, K.; Imaseki, H.; Ishii, T.; Uchida, S.

    1984-01-01

    The resolution of a 33+-3 μm microprobe focussed with quadrupole doublet installed at the 3 MV Van de Graaff of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Japan, was used for the present analysis. Brown algae, Hizikia fusiforme was the sample target bombarded with a 2 MeV proton beam collimated mechanically into a rectangular image of 100 μm x 700 μm. Scanning across the sample target prepared into a longitudinal section from the caulis of the algae provided the following observations. More than 12 elements such as Al, Si, P, Cl, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Br and Sr were determined simultaneously, together with their distributional information across the diameter. In the medullary layer, Mn and Zn were specific in their accumulation, while the deposition of Fe, Cu, As and Br were observed to be high in the epithelial layer, especially Fe and Cu which were found on the surface, where they contacted ambient sea water, but no significant change in pattern was indicated for such elements as Al, P and Cl. The PIXE microprobe analysis was, therefore, effective in its detectability for elements below a few ppm level, resultantly providing further possibilities for collecting information from bio-medical and environmental samples on trace characterization of elements. (author)

  11. Ion microprobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, J.N.; Long, J.V.P.

    1977-01-01

    An ion microprobe is described that has an ion extraction arrangement comprising two separate paths for ions and electrons diverging from a common point. A cone shaped or pyramidal guard electrode surrounds each path the apex angles being equal and coinciding with the said point. The guard electrodes are positioned to lie tangentially to each other and to a planar surface including the said point. An aperture is provided for the two paths at the apexes of both guard electrodes, and electrical connections between the guard electrodes enable the same potential to be applied to both guard electrodes. Means are provided for generating oppositely polarised electric fields within the guard electrodes, together with means for causing a focused ion beam to strike the common point without suffering astigmatism. The means for causing a focused ion beam to strike the said point includes an ion gun for directing an ion beam along one of the paths and means to provide an axial accelerating field there along. Optical viewing means are also provided. Existing designs enable only ions or electrons, but not both, to be extracted at any one time. (U.K.)

  12. Rapid rock analysis and microprobe scanning of dermatological material using proton-induced x-ray and γ-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, L.E.

    1983-01-01

    The dissertation report comprises 6 articles that have or will appear in open literature. The use of PIXE and PIGE analysis techniques on geological materials, and also on drill cores, is discussed. The accuracy of the methods have been tested on standards. The effect of sample thickness has been studied. A proton microprobe has been compared with an electron microprobe on human skin sections. Both probes give highly reproducible results, but a small systematic deviation between the probes is found. (author)

  13. Micro-PIXE on thin plant tissue samples in frozen hydrated state: A novel addition to JSI nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavpetič, P.; Pelicon, P.; Vogel-Mikuš, K.; Grlj, N.; Pongrac, P.; Jeromel, L.; Ogrinc, N.; Regvar, M.

    2013-01-01

    Recently we completed a construction of a cryostat at Jožef Stefan Institute (JSI) nuclear microprobe enabling us to analyze various types of biological samples in frozen hydrated state using micro-PIXE/STIM/RBS. Sample load-lock system was added to our existing setup to enable us to quickly insert a sample holder with frozen hydrated tissue samples onto a cold goniometer head cooled with liquid nitrogen inside the measuring chamber. Cryotome-cut slices of frozen hydrated plant samples were mounted between two thin silicon nitride foils and then attached to the sample holder. Sufficient thermal contact between silicon nitride foils and sample holder must be achieved, as well as between the sample holder and the cold goniometer head inside the measuring chamber to prevent melting of the samples. Matrix composition of frozen hydrated tissue is consisted mostly of ice. Thinning of the sample as well as water evaporation during high vacuum and proton beam exposure was inspected by the measurements with RBS and STIM method simultaneously with micro-PIXE. For first measuring attempts a standard micro-PIXE configuration for tissue mapping was used with proton beam cross section of 1.2 × 1.2 μm 2 and a beam current of 100 pA. The temperature of the cold goniometer head was kept below 130 K throughout the entire proton beam exposure. First measurements of thin plant tissue samples in frozen hydrated state show minute sample degradation during the 10 h period of micro-PIXE measurements

  14. Trace elemental analysis of bituminous coals using the Heidelberg proton microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J R; Kneis, H; Martin, B; Nobiling, R; Traxel, K [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany, F.R.); Heidelberg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Physikalisches Inst.); Chao, E C.T.; Minkin, J A [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA)

    1981-03-01

    Trace elements in coal can occur as components of either the organic constituents (macerals) or the inorganic constituents (minerals). Studies of the concentrations and distribution of the trace elements are vital to understanding the geochemical milieu in which the coal was formed and in evaluating the attempts to recover rare but technologically valuable metals. In addition, information on the trace element concentrations is important in predicting the environmental impact of burning particular coals, as many countries move toward greater utilization of coal reserves for energy production. Traditionally, the optical and the electron microscopes and more recently the electron microprobe have been used in studying the components of coal. The proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) microprobe offers a new complementary approach with an order of magnitude or more better minimum detection limit. We present the first measurements with a PIXE microprobe of the trace element concentrations of bituminous coal samples. Elemental analyses of the coal macerals-vitrinite, exinite, and inertinite - are discussed for three coal samples from the Eastern U.S.A., three samples from the Western U.S.A., and one sample from the Peoples Republic of China.

  15. Study of Italian Renaissance sculptures using an external beam nuclear microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchiatti, A.; Bouquillon, A.; Moignard, B.; Salomon, J.; Gaborit, J. R.

    2000-03-01

    The use of an extracted proton micro-beam for the PIXE analysis of glazes is discussed in the context of the growing interest in the creation of an analytical database on Italian Renaissance glazed terracotta sculptures. Some results concerning the frieze of an altarpiece of the Louvre museum, featuring white angels and cherubs heads, are presented.

  16. Study of Italian Renaissance sculptures using an external beam nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchiatti, A.; Bouquillon, A.; Moignard, B.; Salomon, J.; Gaborit, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    The use of an extracted proton micro-beam for the PIXE analysis of glazes is discussed in the context of the growing interest in the creation of an analytical database on Italian Renaissance glazed terracotta sculptures. Some results concerning the frieze of an altarpiece of the Louvre museum, featuring white angels and cherubs heads, are presented

  17. Quantification of the distribution of hydrogen by nuclear microprobe at the Laboratory Pierre Sue in the width of zirconium alloy fuel clad of PWR reactors; Quantification de la repartition de l'hydrogene a la microsonde nucleaire du Laboratoire Pierre Sue dans l'epaisseur de tubes de gainage du combustible des REP en alliage de zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raepsaet, C. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Recherche sur l' Etat Condense, les Atomes et les Molecules (DSM/DRECAM/LPS-CNRS) UMR9956, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Bossis, Ph. [CEA Saclay, Dept. des Materiaux pour le Nucleaire (DEN/DANS/DMN/SEMULM2E), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Hamon, D.; Bechade, J.L.; Brachet, J.C. [CEA Saclay, Dept. des Materiaux pour le Nucleaire (DEN/DANS/DMN/SRMALA2M), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2007-07-01

    Among the analysis techniques by ions beams, the micro ERDA (Elastic Detection Analysis) is an interesting technique which allows the quantitative distribution of the hydrogen in materials. In particular, this analysis has been used for hydride zirconium alloys, with the nuclear microprobe of the Laboratory Pierre Sue. This probe allows the characterization of radioactive materials. The technique principles are recalled and then two examples are provided to illustrate the fuel clad behavior in PWR reactors. (A.L.B.)

  18. Determination of xenon in irradiated nuclear fuel using a shielded electron microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenson, E.D.

    1983-06-01

    The technique described produces a semi-quantitative determination of the distribution of xenon present in a section of fuel pin along a predetermined line. The x-ray counting technique chosen is to drive the spectrometer over the peak in small increments, counting at each step, then to integrate the resulting data over the entire peak. Counting times are usually 10 sec at each step and there are 30 to 40 steps over a peak. Interferences and possible loss of Xe due to local heating are discussed. Comparison with independent analysis is presented

  19. 7th international conference on Nuclear microprobe technology and applications; 7. conference internationale sur la technologie et les applications des microsondes nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This colloquium gives an up-to-date report on the continuously advancing applications and development of microbeam technology. It presents abstracts and oral contributions in the following domains: microprobes facilities, analysis techniques, imaging techniques, micro-ion beam modification of materials, microelectronics, applications in Material Sciences in Biology in Medicine in earth and planetary Sciences in environment in art in archaeology, alternative techniques. (A.L.B.)

  20. Use of a synchrotron radiation x-ray microprobe for elemental analysis at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, B.M.

    1980-01-01

    The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is a facility consisting of a 700 MeV and a 2.5 GeV electron storage ring and dedicated to providing synchrotron radiation in the energy range from the vacuum ultraviolet to high energy x rays. Some of the properties of synchrotron radiation that contribute to its usefulness for x-ray fluorescence are: a continuous, tunable energy spectrum, strong collimation in the horizontal plane, high polarization in the storage ring plane, and relatively low energy deposition. The highest priority is for the development of an x-ray microprobe beam line capable of trace analysis in the parts per million range with spatial resolution as low as one micrometer. An eventual capability for bulk sample analysis is also planned with sensitivities in the more favorable cases beings low as 50 parts per billion in dry biological tissue. The microprobe technique has application to a variety of fields including the geological, medical, materials and environmental sciences. Examples of investigations include multielemental trace analysis across grain boundaries for the study of diffusion and cooling processes in geological and materials sciences samples; in leukocytes and other types of individual cells for studying the relationship between trace element concentrations and disease or nutrition; and in individual particles in air pollution samples

  1. Cometary and interstellar dust grains - Analysis by ion microprobe mass spectrometry and other techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinner, Ernst

    1991-01-01

    A survey of microanalytical measurements on interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and interstellar dust grains from primitive meteorites is presented. Ion-microprobe mass spectrometry with its capability to determine isotopic compositions of many elements on a micron spatial scale has played a special role. Examples are measurements of H, N, and O isotopes and refractory trace elements in IDPs; C, N, Mg, and Si isotopes in interstellar SiC grains; and C and N isotopes and H, N, Al, and Si concentrations in interstellar graphite grains.

  2. Nuclear analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Basic studies in nuclear analytical techniques include the examination of underlying assumptions and the development and extention of techniques involving the use of ion beams for elemental and mass analysis. 1 ref., 1 tab

  3. Ion microprobe mass analysis of plagioclase from 'non-mare' lunar samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C., Jr.; Anderson, D. H.; Bradley, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    The ion microprobe was used to measure the composition and distribution of trace elements in lunar plagioclase, and these analyses are used as criteria in determining the possible origins of some nonmare lunar samples. The Apollo 16 samples with metaclastic texture and high-bulk trace-element contents contain plagioclase clasts with extremely low trace-element contents. These plagioclase inclusions represent unequilibrated relicts of anorthositic, noritic, or troctolitic rocks that have been intermixed as a rock flour into the KREEP-rich matrix of these samples. All of the plagioclase-rich inclusions which were analyzed in the KREEP-rich Apollo 14 breccias were found to be rich in trace elements. This does not seem to be consistent with the interpretation that the Apollo 14 samples represent a pre-Imbrium regolith, because such an ancient regolith should have contained many plagioclase clasts with low trace-element contents more typical of plagioclase from the pre-Imbrium crust. Ion-microprobe analyses for Ba and Sr in large plagioclase phenocrysts in 14310 and 68415 are consistent with the bulk compositions of these rocks and with the known distribution coefficients for these elements. The distribution coefficient for Li (basaltic liquid/plagioclase) was measured to be about 2.

  4. Automated electron microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, K.A.; Walker, L.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Plant Laboratory at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has recently obtained a Cameca MBX electron microprobe with a Tracor Northern TN5500 automation system. This allows full stage and spectrometer automation and digital beam control. The capabilities of the system include qualitative and quantitative elemental microanalysis for all elements above and including boron in atomic number, high- and low-magnification imaging and processing, elemental mapping and enhancement, and particle size, shape, and composition analyses. Very low magnification, quantitative elemental mapping using stage control (which is of particular interest) has been accomplished along with automated size, shape, and composition analysis over a large relative area

  5. Nuclear techniques for bulk and surface analysis of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Agostino, M.D.; Kamykowski, E.A.; Kuehne, F.J.; Padawer, G.M.; Schneid, E.J.; Schulte, R.L.; Stauber, M.C.; Swanson, F.R.

    1978-01-01

    A review is presented summarizing several nondestructive bulk and surface analysis nuclear techniques developed in the Grumman Research Laboratories. Bulk analysis techniques include 14-MeV-neutron activation analysis and accelerator-based neutron radiography. The surface analysis techniques include resonant and non-resonant nuclear microprobes for the depth profile analysis of light elements (H, He, Li, Be, C, N, O and F) in the surface of materials. Emphasis is placed on the description and discussion of the unique nuclear microprobe analytical capacibilities of immediate importance to a number of current problems facing materials specialists. The resolution and contrast of neutron radiography was illustrated with an operating heat pipe system. The figure shows that the neutron radiograph has a resolution of better than 0.04 cm with sufficient contrast to indicate Freon 21 on the inner capillaries of the heat pipe and pooling of the liquid at the bottom. (T.G.)

  6. Planktonic foraminiferal oxygen isotope analysis by ion microprobe technique suggests warm tropical sea surface temperatures during the Early Paleogene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozdon, Reinhard; Kelly, D. Clay; Kita, Noriko T.; Fournelle, John H.; Valley, John W.

    2011-09-01

    Cool tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are reported for warm Paleogene greenhouse climates based on the δ18O of planktonic foraminiferal tests. These results are difficult to reconcile with models of greenhouse gas-forced climate. It has been suggested that this "cool tropics paradox" arises from postdepositional alteration of foraminiferal calcite, yielding erroneously high δ18O values. Recrystallization of foraminiferal tests is cryptic and difficult to quantify, and the compilation of robust δ18O records from moderately altered material remains challenging. Scanning electron microscopy of planktonic foraminiferal chamber-wall cross sections reveals that the basal area of muricae, pustular outgrowths on the chamber walls of species belonging to the genus Morozovella, contain no mural pores and may be less susceptible to postdepositional alteration. We analyzed the δ18O in muricae bases of morozovellids from the central Pacific (Ocean Drilling Program Site 865) by ion microprobe using 10 μm pits with an analytical reproducibility of ±0.34‰ (2 standard deviations). In situ measurements of δ18O in these domains yield consistently lower values than those published for conventional multispecimen analyses. Assuming that the original δ18O is largely preserved in the basal areas of muricae, this new δ18O record indicates Early Paleogene (˜49-56 Ma) tropical SSTs in the central Pacific were 4°-8°C higher than inferred from the previously published δ18O record and that SSTs reached at least ˜33°C during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum. This study demonstrates the utility of ion microprobe analysis for generating more reliable paleoclimate records from moderately altered foraminiferal tests preserved in deep-sea sediments.

  7. Elemental analysis of some West Malaysian limestones using neutron activation, delayed neutron and electron microprobe analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Y.M.; Kamaluddin, B.; Mahat, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    Limestone stratigraphy in Malaysia has been and is dependent almost entirely in palaeontology. However fossil localities are sporadic and as such a new fossil discovery mean the necessity for a complete re-appraisal of the stratigraphy. The almost complete dependence upon palaeontology results from the difficulties of stratigraphy correlation of isolated outcrops, from the cover of tropical vegetation and from the often complex folding and faulting which has been imposed on the geosyn-clinical rocks by the Indonesian-Thai-Malayan orogeny. So by studying the elemental composition of limestones accurately, we would be able to correlate outcrops and other stratigraphic samples independent of fossil finds. The use of delayed neutron analysis would also determine the concentration of uranium and thorium accurately. This study, in conjunction with thermoluminescence and fission track studies, would able us to date the age of the limestones

  8. Positron annihilation microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canter, K F [Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Advances in positron annihilation microprobe development are reviewed. The present resolution achievable is 3 {mu}m. The ultimate resolution is expected to be 0.1 {mu}m which will enable the positron microprobe to be a valuable tool in the development of 0.1 {mu}m scale electronic devices in the future. (author)

  9. Nuclear microprobe characterization of surface hardening by precipitation of chromium carbides after laser beam treatment of a Ni-Cr substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosbah, M.; Gosset, J.; Trocellier, P.; Puig, T.; Cantarel, M.; Condat, M.

    1989-01-01

    Surface treatment by laser provides interesting solutions to the problem of accelerated wear of materials. The aim of the present study is the characterization of chromium carbides rich surface alloys after laser beam melting of a Ni 70 Cr 30 carbon precoated substrate. The carbon profiling of the lasered surface was performed by nuclear microprobe using the 12 C(d,p 0 ) 13 C reaction, Ni and Cr were evaluated by means of PIXE (Particle Induced X Ray Emission). The specificity of the method and the experimental conditions are explained. Wear results are very satisfactory and close to those obtained by injection of chromium carbide powders into the laser beam in the case of a Nimonic alloy: wear rates are divided by two orders of magnitude

  10. Chemical analysis by nuclear methods. v. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfassi, Z.B.

    1998-01-01

    'Chemical analysis by Nuclear Methods' is an effort of some renowned authors in field of nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry which is compiled by Alfassi, Z.B. and translated into Farsi version collected in two volumes. The second volume consists of the following chapters: Detecting ion recoil scattering and elastic scattering are dealt in the eleventh chapter, the twelfth chapter is devoted to nuclear reaction analysis using charged particles, X-ray emission is discussed at thirteenth chapter, the fourteenth chapter is about using ion microprobes, X-ray fluorescence analysis is discussed in the fifteenth chapter, alpha, beta and gamma ray scattering in chemical analysis are dealt in chapter sixteen, Moessbauer spectroscopy and positron annihilation are discussed in chapter seventeen and eighteen; The last two chapters are about isotope dilution analysis and radioimmunoassay

  11. Microscopic and microprobe analysis of fine roots in healthy and declining spruce (Picea abies (L. ) Karst. ) from different sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stienen, H; Bauch, J; Barckhausen, R; Schaub, H

    1984-09-01

    In order to contribute to the identification of primary causes of the spruce decline - evident in many regions of the Federal Republic of Germany - fine roots of 30 trees from altogether 14 healthy and damage forest locations were investigated microscopically, anatomically, histometrically and by cellular microprobe analysis. In addition, fine roots of young plants grown in hydroponic cultures at different pH levels and Al input were studied. Fine roots of declining trees developed cortex cells with a reduced diameter and at the same time thicker cell walls; in addition accessory compounds were accumulated in this presumably protective tissue. Tannins were deposited in the parenchyma of the vascular cylinder of fine roots from declining trees, and many pit membranes of the primary xylem often did not differentiate fully. The X-ray energy-dispersive analysis of individual cells revealed, in particular, an insufficient uptake of Ca and Mg in the fine roots of declining trees. Compared with healthy trees, the concentration of aluminium increased in the cortex of the fine roots; this, in turn, had an antagonistic effect on the uptake of Ca and Mg. Moreover, the concentration of iron and sulphur increased in the fine roots of declining trees. This evidence of alterations and damages in the fine roots of damaged spruce indicates that, besides the direct detrimental impact on the needles through the atmosphere serious damage is inflicted also indirectly through the soil.

  12. Technique Development to Support Clean-up and/or Disposal of Actinide Contaminated Soils and Sediments: Coupling Fission Tract Analysis with Synchroton X-ray Microprobe Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sue Clark

    2003-01-01

    The overall goal of this project was to develop quantitative FTA to provide images of the microscale spatial distributions of high fissile actinides sorbed to environmental particles such as sediments and colloids. We developed methods to provide absolute actinide surface concentrations on the particles, regardless of particle size. We are also working to provide particle size information by our approach. We also coupled our newly devised FTA methods with the quantitative determination of stable element distributions in the same particles using synchrotron x-ray microprobe analysis

  13. Distribution of elements in rat peripheral axons and nerve cell bodies determined by x-ray microprobe analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LoPachin, R.M. Jr.; Lowery, J.; Eichberg, J.; Kirkpatrick, J.B.; Cartwright, J. Jr.; Saubermann, A.J.

    1988-09-01

    X-ray microprobe analysis was used to determine concentrations (millimoles of element per kilogram dry weight) of Na, P, Cl, K, and Ca in cellular compartments of frozen, unfixed sections of rat sciatic and tibial nerves and dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Five compartments were examined in peripheral nerve (axoplasm, mitochondria, myelin, extraaxonal space, and Schwann cell cytoplasm), and four were analyzed in DRG nerve cell bodies (cytoplasm, mitochondria, nucleus, and nucleolus). Each morphological compartment exhibited characteristic concentrations of elements. The extraaxonal space contained high concentrations of Na, Cl, and Ca, whereas intraaxonal compartments exhibited lower concentrations of these elements but relatively high K contents. Nerve axoplasm and axonal mitochondria had similar elemental profiles, and both compartments displayed proximodistal gradients of decreasing levels of K, Cl, and, to some extent, Na. Myelin had a selectively high P concentration with low levels of other elements. The elemental concentrations of Schwann cell cytoplasm and DRG were similar, but both were different from that of axoplasm, in that K and Cl were markedly lower whereas P was higher. DRG cell nuclei contained substantially higher K levels than cytoplasm. The subcellular distribution of elements was clearly shown by color-coded images generated by computer-directed digital x-ray imaging. The results of this study demonstrate characteristic elemental distributions for each anatomical compartment, which doubtless reflect nerve cell structure and function.

  14. Detection of delta-ferrite to sigma transformation using metallographic techniques involving ferromagnetic colloid, color etching, and microprobe analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R.J.; Sikka, V.K.; King, R.T.

    1976-01-01

    The mechanical properties of ferrite-containing austenitic stainless steel base metal and weldments are usually adversely affected by prolonged exposure to temperatures in the 482 to 900 0 C (900 to 1652 0 F) range. One cause of the property alteration is related to the transformation of relatively ductile delta-ferrite to less ductile sigma-phase. Attempts to identify sigma and delta-ferrite phases by color staining techniques alone are well documented; however, the results are often questionable due to the difficulty in maintaining consistent color identifications. This investigation is concerned with the microstructural responses of the ferromagnetic delta-ferrite phase and the paramagnetic sigma-phase to a ferromagnetic iron colloid in a magnetic field. Such positive or negative responses of the two phases to the colloid offer a more definitive identification. With this technique, the identification of small amounts of these phases in the microstructure is limited only by the highest magnification and resolution of the optical microscope. The procedure is substantiated in this metallographic study with microprobe analysis and color metallography. Several examples of the correlative use of these three techniques in identifying varying amounts of delta-ferrite → sigma transformation are presented

  15. PROTON MICROPROBE ANALYSIS OF TRACE-ELEMENT VARIATIONS IN VITRINITES IN THE SAME AND DIFFERENT COAL BEDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkin, J.A.; Chao, E.C.T.; Blank, Herma; Dulong, F.T.

    1987-01-01

    The PIXE (proton-induced X-ray emission) microprobe can be used for nondestructive, in-situ analyses of areas as small as those analyzed by the electron microprobe, and has a sensitivity of detection as much as two orders of magnitude better than the electron microprobe. Preliminary studies demonstrated that PIXE provides a capability for quantitative determination of elemental concentrations in individual coal maceral grains with a detection limit of 1-10 ppm for most elements analyzed. Encouraged by the earlier results, we carried out the analyses reported below to examine trace element variations laterally (over a km range) as well as vertically (cm to m) in the I and J coal beds in the Upper Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone Member of the Mancos Shale in central Utah, and to compare the data with the data from two samples of eastern coals of Pennsylvanian age.

  16. Microprobing of nuclear-dangerous materials in object << Shelter >>.; Mikrozondirovanie yadernoopasnykh delyashchikhsya materialov v ob`ekte << Ukrytie >>.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, S I; Shostak, V B; Shcherbina, V G [Kievskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Kiev (Ukraine); [Myizhgaluzevij Naukovo-Tekhnyichnij Tsentr ` ` Ukrittya ` ` , Natsyional` na Akademyiya Nauk Ukrayini, Chornobil` (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    Peculiarities of neutron echo from the nuclear fuel induced by fission have been devised for solving problems of nuclear and radiation safety of object << Shelter >>. Practical scheme of this method for definition of the structure and situation of nuclear fuel is suggested.

  17. Use of electron microprobe x-ray analysis for determination of low calcium concentrations across leaves deficient in calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, D. J.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1991-01-01

    An electron microprobe with wavelength-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (WDS) was found to be useful for the determination of Ca concentrations in leaf tissue deficient in Ca. WDS effectively detected Ca concentrations as low as 0.2 mg/g dry wt in the presence of high levels of K and Mg (120 and 50 mg/g dry wt, respectively). Leaf specimens were prepared for analysis by quick-freezing in liquid nitrogen and freeze-drying at -20 degrees C to maintain elemental integrity within the tissue. Because dry material was analyzed, sample preparation was simple and samples could be stored for long periods before analysis. A large beam diameter of 50 gm was used to minimize tissue damage under the beam and analyze mineral concentrations within several cells at one time. Beam penetration was between 50 and 55 microns, approximately one-third of the thickness of the leaf. For analysis of concentrations in interveinal areas, analyses directed into the abaxial epidermis were found most useful. However, because of limited beam penetration, analyses of veinal areas would require use of cross sections [correction of crosssections]. Solid mineral standards were used for instrument standardization. To prevent measurement errors resulting from differences between the matrix of the mineral standards and the analyzed tissue, concentrations in leaves were corrected using gelatin standards prepared and analyzed under the same conditions. WDS was found to be useful for documenting that very low Ca levels occur in specific areas of lettuce leaves exhibiting the Ca deficiency injury termed tipburn.

  18. New electron microprobe for radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrot, M.; Geoffroy, G.; Trotabas, M.

    1989-01-01

    The latest model of CAMECA microprobe SX 50R has just been set up in the high activity laboratory of the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de SACLAY. It has been especially designed for the examination of nuclear fuel and irradiated materials. The spectrometers are protected from the radioactivity by an armour plate and the entire equipment has been installed into a special cell in order to protect the operators. The special sample holder allows to examine specimens as large as 80 mm in diameter. One of the interesting uses concerns the quantitative determination of the oxygen content in zircaloy oxidized by steam at high temperature. This analysis was made possible by using the new type of crystals (multilayer)

  19. Quantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis at the ESRF ID18F microprobe

    CERN Document Server

    Vekemans, B; Somogyi, A; Drakopoulos, M; Kempenaers, L; Simionovici, A; Adams, F

    2003-01-01

    The new ID18F end-station at the European synchrotron radiation facility (ESRF) in Grenoble (France) is dedicated to sensitive and accurate quantitative micro-X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis at the ppm level with accuracy better than 10% for elements with atomic numbers above 18. For accurate quantitative analysis, given a high level of instrumental stability, major steps are the extraction and conversion of experimental X-ray line intensities into elemental concentrations. For this purpose a two-step quantification approach was adopted. In the first step, the collected XRF spectra are deconvoluted on the basis of a non-linear least-squares fitting algorithm (AXIL). The extracted characteristic line intensities are then used as input for a detailed Monte Carlo (MC) simulation code dedicated to XRF spectroscopy taking into account specific experimental conditions (excitation/detection) as well as sample characteristics (absorption and enhancement effects, sample topology, heterogeneity etc.). The iterative u...

  20. X-ray microprobe analysis of platelets. Principles, methods and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarom, R

    1983-01-01

    Platelets are well suited to X-ray microanalysis as there is no need for chemical fixation or sectioning, and the concentrations of calcium and phosphorus are above 10(-3). The principles of the technique, the methods of specimen preparation, instrumental conditions during analysis and ways of quantitation are described. This is followed by a review of published reports and a brief summary of the author's own work in the field.

  1. Oxidation kinetics and auger microprobe analysis of some oxidized zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploc, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Oxidation kinetics at 300 o C in dry oxygen of 0.5 wt% binary alloys of iron, nickel, and chromium in zirconium were determined for several surface preparations. Further, chemical profiles of the oxides as they existed on the matrix and on the precipitates were obtained by sputtering and Auger electron analysis. The appearance of 'breakaway' oxidation was controlled by the surface finish of the alloy, a variable that could be used to eliminate the phenomenon for all alloys except the Zr/Ni binary, which required β-quenching to accomplish the same purpose. (author)

  2. Quantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis at the ESRF ID18F microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vekemans, B.; Vincze, L.; Somogyi, A.; Drakopoulos, M.; Kempenaers, L.; Simionovici, A.; Adams, F.

    2003-01-01

    The new ID18F end-station at the European synchrotron radiation facility (ESRF) in Grenoble (France) is dedicated to sensitive and accurate quantitative micro-X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis at the ppm level with accuracy better than 10% for elements with atomic numbers above 18. For accurate quantitative analysis, given a high level of instrumental stability, major steps are the extraction and conversion of experimental X-ray line intensities into elemental concentrations. For this purpose a two-step quantification approach was adopted. In the first step, the collected XRF spectra are deconvoluted on the basis of a non-linear least-squares fitting algorithm (AXIL). The extracted characteristic line intensities are then used as input for a detailed Monte Carlo (MC) simulation code dedicated to XRF spectroscopy taking into account specific experimental conditions (excitation/detection) as well as sample characteristics (absorption and enhancement effects, sample topology, heterogeneity etc.). The iterative use of the MC code gives a 'no-compromise' solution for the quantification problem

  3. Quantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis at the ESRF ID18F microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vekemans, B. E-mail: vekemans@uia.ua.ac.be; Vincze, L.; Somogyi, A.; Drakopoulos, M.; Kempenaers, L.; Simionovici, A.; Adams, F

    2003-01-01

    The new ID18F end-station at the European synchrotron radiation facility (ESRF) in Grenoble (France) is dedicated to sensitive and accurate quantitative micro-X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis at the ppm level with accuracy better than 10% for elements with atomic numbers above 18. For accurate quantitative analysis, given a high level of instrumental stability, major steps are the extraction and conversion of experimental X-ray line intensities into elemental concentrations. For this purpose a two-step quantification approach was adopted. In the first step, the collected XRF spectra are deconvoluted on the basis of a non-linear least-squares fitting algorithm (AXIL). The extracted characteristic line intensities are then used as input for a detailed Monte Carlo (MC) simulation code dedicated to XRF spectroscopy taking into account specific experimental conditions (excitation/detection) as well as sample characteristics (absorption and enhancement effects, sample topology, heterogeneity etc.). The iterative use of the MC code gives a 'no-compromise' solution for the quantification problem.

  4. Freeze-drying and related preparation techniques for biological microprobe analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wroblewski, R.; Wroblewski, J.; Anniko, M.; Edstroem, L.P.

    1985-01-01

    An X-ray microanalytical and morphological investigation has been carried out on rapidly frozen, freeze-dried or freeze-substituted tissues. A comparison was made between different embedding and polymerization procedures following freeze-substitution and freeze-drying. The investigation also included an analysis of specimens infiltrated, embedded and polymerized by ultraviolet irradiation at low temperatures with Lowicryl HM20. The morphological preservation of Lowicryl embedded tissue was adequate for the identification of different cell structures like nuclei, mitochondria, lysosomes and different types of endoplasmic reticulum. X-ray microanalytical investigation of low temperature embedded material displayed an elemental composition of cells and organelles similar to that found in freeze-dried cyosections. Compared with freeze-dried cryosections, low temperature embedded material could be sectioned for light microscopy and area of interest chosen for further thin sectioning. This is of great importance in work with tissues with complicated morphology and heterogenous cell populations

  5. High current pulsed positron microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, R.H.; Stoeffl, W.; Kumar, A.; Sterne, P.A.; Cowan, T.E.; Hartley, J.

    1997-01-01

    We are developing a low energy, microscopically focused, pulsed positron beam for defect analysis by positron lifetime spectroscopy to provide a new defect analysis capability at the 10 10 e + s -l beam at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory electron linac. When completed, the pulsed positron microprobe will enable defect specific, 3-dimensional maps of defect concentrations with sub-micron resolution of defect location. By coupling these data with first principles calculations of defect specific positron lifetimes and positron implantation profiles we will both map the identity and concentration of defect distributions

  6. The Melbourne proton microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legge, G.J.F.; McKenzie, C.D.; Mazzolini, A.P.

    1979-01-01

    A scanning proton microprobe is described which operates in ultra-high vacuum with a resolution of ten microns. The operating principles and main features of the design are discussed and the ability of such an instrument to detect trace elements down to a few ppm by mass is illustrated

  7. Nuclear microprobe and Raman investigation of the chemistry of the shell of the pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markwitz, A.; Gauldie, R.W.; Pithie, J.; Sharma, S.K.; Jamieson, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    High-resolution nuclear microscopy was used to study the layered structure in the shell of the pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. In cross section, the layers appear as opaque white zones and clearer translucent zones. Raman spectroscopy indicates that the zones consist of alternating layers of the aragonite and calcite morphs of calcium carbonate, the mineral constituent of the shell. The chemistry of the shell varies from individual to individual but generally the predominant metal ion is Ca, with varying amounts of Si, Cl, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn, Sb, Ni, Fe, As and Sr. Two dimensional maps of these major, minor and trace elements were measured in many shells with nuclear microscopy to identify the patterns of Zn and Sr deposition reflecting the calcite and aragonite layers. The significant difference in the patterns identified by ion beam analyses are possibly a result of isostructural exclusion of these metal ions between the different aragonite and calcite polymorphic forms of calcium carbonate. (author)

  8. Laser microprobe mass analysis (LAMMA) of aluminum and lead in fine roots and their ectomycorrhizal mantles of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeckhaoudt, S; Vandeputte, D; Van Praag, H; Van Grieken, R; Jacob, W

    1992-03-01

    Fine roots and ectomycorrhizal root tips were sampled in a Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stand in the eastern part of the Belgian Ardennes. The cellular and partly subcellular localizations of aluminum and lead were identified by the micro-analytical laser microprobe mass analysis (LAMMA) technique. In fine roots with secondary structure, localization of aluminum was limited to the peripheral cell layers. Lead was found in the outer layers, and also in the primary phloem. Aluminum penetrated the mycorrhizal mantle, but lead was seldom detected in ectomycorrhizae.

  9. Nuclear microprobe investigation into the trace elemental contents of carotid artery walls of apolipoprotein E deficient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Minqin; Huang En; Beck, Konstanze; Rajendran, Reshmi; Wu, Ben J.; Halliwell, Barry; Watt, Frank; Stocker, Roland

    2007-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease that causes lesions in large and medium-sized arteries. There is increasing evidence that the function of vascular endothelial cells is impaired by oxidation reactions, and that metal ions may participate in these processes. The nuclear microscopy facility in NUS, which has the ability to focus a 2 MeV proton beam down to sub micron spot sizes, was used to investigate the trace elemental changes (e.g. Zn and Fe) in atherosclerotic lesions in the common carotid artery of apolipoprotein E deficient mice fed a high fat diet. In this preliminary study, which is part of a larger study to investigate the effects of probucol on carotid artery atherosclerosis, two sets of mice were used; a test set fed a high fat diet +1% probucol, and a control set which was fed a high fat diet only. The results show that the Zn/Fe ratio was significantly higher in the media of arteries of probucol treated animals without overlying lesion (4.3) compared to the media with overlying lesion (1.3) (p = 0.004) for test mice. For the control mice, the arterial Zn/Fe ratio was 1.8 for media without overlying lesion, compared with 1.0 for media with overlying lesion (p = 0.1). Thus, for media without overlying lesion, the Zn/Fe ratio was significantly higher (p = 0.009) in probucol-treated (4.3) than control mice (1.8), whereas there was little difference in the ratios between the two groups in media with overlying lesion (1.3 compared with 1.0). These preliminary results are consistent with the idea that the levels of iron and zinc concentrations within the artery wall may influence the formation of atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid artery

  10. Nuclear analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In a search for correlations between the elemental composition of trace elements in human stones and the stone types with relation to their growth pattern, a combined PIXE and x-ray diffraction spectrometry approach was implemented. The combination of scanning PIXE and XRD has proved to be an advance in the methodology of stone analysis and may point to the growth pattern in the body. The exact role of trace elements in the formation and growth of urinary stones is not fully understood. Efforts are thus continuing firstly to solve the analytical problems concerned and secondly to design suitable experiments that would provide information about the occurrence and distribution of trace elements in urine. 1 fig., 1 ref

  11. Optically continuous silcrete quartz cements of the St. Peter Sandstone: High precision oxygen isotope analysis by ion microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jacque L.; Fu, Bin; Kita, Noriko T.; Valley, John W.

    2007-08-01

    A detailed oxygen isotope study of detrital quartz and authigenic quartz overgrowths from shallowly buried (ratio by laser fluorination, resulting in an average δ 18O of 10.0 ± 0.2‰ (1SD, n = 109). Twelve thin sections were analyzed by CAMECA-1280 ion microprobe (6-10 μm spot size, analytical precision better than ±0.2‰, 1SD). Detrital quartz grains have an average δ 18O of 10.0 ± 1.4‰ (1SD, n = 91) identical to the data obtained by laser fluorination. The ion microprobe data reveal true variability that is otherwise lost by homogenization of powdered samples necessary for laser fluorination. Laser fluorination uses samples that are one million times larger than the ion microprobe. Whole rock (WR) samples from the 53 rocks were analyzed by laser fluorination, giving δ 18O between 9.8‰ and 16.7‰ ( n = 110). Quartz overgrowths in thin sections from 10 rocks were analyzed by ion microprobe and average δ 18O = 29.3 ± 1.0‰ (1SD, n = 161). Given the similarity, on average, of δ 18O for all detrital quartz grains and for all quartz overgrowths, samples with higher δ 18O(WR) values can be shown to have more cement. The quartz cement in the 53 rocks, calculated by mass balance, varies from outlier at 33 vol.% cement. Eolian samples have an average of 11% cement compared to marine samples, which average 4% cement. Two models for quartz cementation have been investigated: high temperature (50-110 °C) formation from ore-forming brines related to Mississippi Valley Type (MVT) mineralization and formation as silcretes at low temperature (10-30 °C). The homogeneity of δ 18O for quartz overgrowths determined by ion microprobe rules out a systematic regional variation of temperature as predicted for MVT brines and there are no other known heating events in these sediments that were never buried to depths >1 km. The data in this study suggest that quartz overgrowths formed as silcretes in the St. Peter Sandstone from meteoric water with δ 18O values of -10

  12. San Francisco Estuary Striped Bass Migration History Determined by Electron-microprobe Analysis of Otolith Sr/Ca Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrach, D J; Phillis, C C; Weber, P K; Ingram, B L; Zinkl, J G

    2004-09-17

    Habitat use has been shown to be an important factor in the bioaccumulation of contaminants in striped bass. This study examines migration in striped bass as part of a larger study investigating bioaccumulation and maternal transfer of xenobiotics to progeny in the San Francisco Estuary system. Habitat use, residence time and spawning migration over the life of females (n = 23) was studied. Female striped bass were collected between Knights Landing and Colusa on the Sacramento River during the spawning runs of 1999 and 2001. Otoliths were removed, processed and aged via otolith microstructure. Subsequently, otoliths were analyzed for strontium/calcium (Sr/Ca) ratio using an electron-microprobe to measure salinity exposure and to distinguish freshwater, estuary, and marine habitat use. Salinity exposure during the last year before capture was examined more closely for comparison of habitat use by the maternal parent to contaminant burden transferred to progeny. Results were selectively confirmed by ion microprobe analyses for habitat use. The Sr/Ca data demonstrate a wide range of migratory patterns. Age of initial ocean entry differs among individuals before returning to freshwater, presumably to spawn. Some fish reside in freshwater year-round, while others return to more saline habitats and make periodic migrations to freshwater. Frequency of habitat shifts and residence times differs among fish, as well as over the lifetime of individual fish. While at least one fish spent its final year in freshwater, the majority of spawning fish spent their final year in elevated salinity. However, not all fish migrated to freshwater to spawn in the previous year. Results from this investigation concerning migration history in striped bass can be combined with contaminant and histological developmental analyses to better understand the bioaccumulation of contaminants and the subsequent effects they and habitat use have on fish populations in the San Francisco Estuary system.

  13. Application of synchrotron-radiation-based x-ray microprobe techniques for the analysis of recombination activity of metals precipitated at Si/SiGe misfit dislocations

    CERN Document Server

    Vyvenko, O F; Istratov, A A; Weber, E R; Kittler, M; Seifert, W

    2002-01-01

    In this study we report application of synchrotron-radiation-based x-ray microprobe techniques (the x-ray-beam-induced current (XBIC) and x-ray fluorescence (mu-XRF) methods) to the analysis of the recombination activity and space distribution of copper and iron in the vicinity of dislocations in silicon/silicon-germanium structures. A combination of these two techniques enables one to study the chemical nature of the defects and impurities and their recombination activity in situ and to map metal clusters with a micron-scale resolution. XRF analysis revealed that copper formed clearly distinguishable precipitates along the misfit dislocations. A proportional dependence between the XBIC contrast and the number of copper atoms in the precipitates was established. In hydrogen-passivated iron-contaminated samples we observed clusters of iron precipitates which had no recombination activity detectable by the XBIC technique as well as iron clusters which were not completely passivated.

  14. PIXE macro and microprobe techniques in archaeometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brissaud, I.; Lagarde, G.; Houdayer, A.

    1987-01-01

    PIXE analysis method is applied to archaeometry problems. Advantages and disadvantages are emphasized. Some examples are presented which show the difficulties: especially important heterogeneities of ceramics, old coins and metals restrain from the use of this technique. Other analysis systems, less expensive, like electron microbrobe or x-ray fluorescence spectrometry, are compared with conventional PIXE method. The importance of proton microprobe is explained. (author) 40 refs.; 7 figs.; 5 tabs

  15. Study on mineral components of rat calvaria by means of X-ray powder diffraction analysis and Raman microprobe spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Norihiro [Meikai Univ., Sakado, Saitama (Japan). School of Dentistry

    2000-07-01

    The present study was designed to examine the occurrence of the precursor minerals of hydroxyapatite (HA) during the process of HA formation in the rat calvaria. Dried and powdered rat calvaria and synthetic samples, such as HA, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), octacalcium phosphate (OCP), ({beta}-calcium pyrophosphate) and ({beta}-tricalcium phosphate), were used. Determinations were carried out by X-ray powder diffraction and Raman microprobe spectrometry. In general, significant widening of the diffraction peaks was shown to occur after the plasma ashing was performed for the X-ray diffraction. As a result, two adjacent peaks seen normally in the diffraction angles (2 {theta}) 30-35 deg, which is a characteristic feature of HA, were found to fuse with each other, forming a widened single peak. Also, there was a tendency for the intensity of the diffraction peaks to increase with age. With regard to the effect of plasma ashing on the crystallograms of synthetic specimens, all specimens manifested sharp peak patterns except DCPD and OCP. In contrast, a widening of diffraction peaks was observed in the DCPD and OCP samples, indicating that crystallinity had changed during the pretreatment. Results obtained from both vital and synthetic samples after heat treatment at 1000 deg C were as follow: Clearcut diffraction patterns, characteristics of HA, were obtained in all of the calvaria samples. Further, {beta}-TCP was produced by heat treatment of OCP, and its pattern was detected in the samples from rats younger than 6 days of age. Amounts of {beta}-TCP in percentage were disclosed to be 40.2% in embryonal samples, 28.4% in newborn samples, and 18.6% in 6-day-old samples. But no {beta}-TCP could be detected in the 12-week-old samples, indicating that the amount of {beta}-TCP in calvaria decreased with age. We also found that ashing pretreatment did not cause any changes in the samples of HA, {beta}-CPP, and {beta}-TCP. Further, DCPD and {beta}-CPP samples shared

  16. Study on mineral components of rat calvaria by means of X-ray powder diffraction analysis and Raman microprobe spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Norihiro

    2000-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the occurrence of the precursor minerals of hydroxyapatite (HA) during the process of HA formation in the rat calvaria. Dried and powdered rat calvaria and synthetic samples, such as HA, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), octacalcium phosphate (OCP), (β-calcium pyrophosphate) and (β-tricalcium phosphate), were used. Determinations were carried out by X-ray powder diffraction and Raman microprobe spectrometry. In general, significant widening of the diffraction peaks was shown to occur after the plasma ashing was performed for the X-ray diffraction. As a result, two adjacent peaks seen normally in the diffraction angles (2 θ) 30-35 deg, which is a characteristic feature of HA, were found to fuse with each other, forming a widened single peak. Also, there was a tendency for the intensity of the diffraction peaks to increase with age. With regard to the effect of plasma ashing on the crystallograms of synthetic specimens, all specimens manifested sharp peak patterns except DCPD and OCP. In contrast, a widening of diffraction peaks was observed in the DCPD and OCP samples, indicating that crystallinity had changed during the pretreatment. Results obtained from both vital and synthetic samples after heat treatment at 1000 deg C were as follow: Clearcut diffraction patterns, characteristics of HA, were obtained in all of the calvaria samples. Further, β-TCP was produced by heat treatment of OCP, and its pattern was detected in the samples from rats younger than 6 days of age. Amounts of β-TCP in percentage were disclosed to be 40.2% in embryonal samples, 28.4% in newborn samples, and 18.6% in 6-day-old samples. But no β-TCP could be detected in the 12-week-old samples, indicating that the amount of β-TCP in calvaria decreased with age. We also found that ashing pretreatment did not cause any changes in the samples of HA, β-CPP, and β-TCP. Further, DCPD and β-CPP samples shared the same diffraction pattern, and OCP

  17. Subgroup report on hard x-ray microprobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ice, G.E.; Barbee, T.; Bionta, R.; Howells, M.; Thompson, A.C.; Yun, W.

    1994-01-01

    The increasing availability of synchrotron x-ray sources has stimulated the development of advanced hard x-ray (E≥5 keV) microprobes. New x-ray optics have been demonstrated which show promise for achieving intense submicron hard x-ray probes. These probes will be used for extraordinary elemental detection by x-ray fluorescence/absorption and for microdiffraction to identify phase and strain. The inherent elemental and crystallographic sensitivity of an x-ray microprobe and its inherently nondestructive and penetrating nature makes the development of an advanced hard x-ray microprobe an important national goal. In this workshop state-of-the-art hard x-ray microprobe optics were described and future directions were discussed. Gene Ice, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), presented an overview of the current status of hard x-ray microprobe optics and described the use of crystal spectrometers to improve minimum detectable limits in fluorescent microprobe experiments. Al Thompson, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), described work at the Center for X-ray Optics to develop a hard x-ray microprobe based on Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) optics. Al Thompson also showed the results of some experimental measurements with their KB optics. Malcolm Howells presented a method for bending elliptical mirrors and Troy Barbee commented on the use of graded d spacings to achieve highest efficiency in KB multilayer microfocusing. Richard Bionta, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), described the development of the first hard x-ray zone plates and future promise of so called open-quotes jelly rollclose quotes or sputter slice zone plates. Wenbing Yun, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), described characterization of jelly roll and lithographically produced zone plates and described the application of zone plates to focus extremely narrow bandwidths by nuclear resonance. This report summarizes the presentations of the workshop subgroup on hard x-ray microprobes

  18. Results from the nuclear microprobe PIXE analysis of selected rare earth fluor compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollerman, William A.; Gates, Earl; Boudreaux, Philip; Glass, Gary A.

    2002-01-01

    Most previous research measures fluorescence properties over the macroscopic regime. Properties of individual microscopic grains could be significantly different than those measured over the macroscopic scale. Until recently, it was difficult to measure properties of individual fluor grains. Existing characterization techniques like scanning electron microscopy are not practical, since the resulting fluorescence masks the electron surface profile. Starting in September 2000, a research program was initiated at the Acadiana Research Laboratory to determine microscopic fluorescence properties for selected inorganic rare earth compounds. The initial phase of this program utilized microscopic proton induced X-ray emission (μPIXE) to characterize the elemental composition of individual fluor grains. Results show that both individual grains and small clusters of grains could be seen using μPIXE. Maps of this type can be used to estimate grain dimensions for the selected rare earth fluor. This technique is a new and innovative method to characterize a fluor material

  19. Nuclear microprobe analysis of carbon within glass inclusions and volcanic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metrich, N.; Mosbah, M.; Trocellier, P.; Clocchiatti, R.

    1986-01-01

    Microanalysis possibilities have been explored to determine light element concentrations within glasses (melt inclusions and basaltic glass fragments) and volcanic phenocrysts. In the first step, C was examined. The study of different spectral interferences lead to calculated detection limits of 40 μg/g for basaltic glasses and 50 μg/g for olivine crystals. The C contents of all investigated specimens range from 40 μg/g (the detection limit) to 6800 μg/g. Heterogeneities were revealed within glass inclusions. Measurements show obvious concentration profiles in basaltic glass samples. Our results agree with previous published data and are reliable. Accuracy of measurements is about 20%. 12 refs

  20. Nuclear analysis for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, R.T.; Iida, H.; Khripunov, V.; Petrizzi, L.; Sato, S.; Sawan, M.; Shatalov, G.; Schipakin, O.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes the main results of nuclear analysis calculations performed during the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Engineering Design Activity (EDA). Major efforts were devoted to fulfilling the General Design Requirements to minimize the nuclear heating rate in the superconducting magnets and ensuring that radiation conditions at the cryostat are suitable for hands-on-maintenance after reactor shut-down. (author)

  1. Nuclear forensic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomar, B.S.

    2016-01-01

    In the present talk the fundamentals of the nuclear forensic investigations will be discussed followed by the detailed standard operating procedure (SOP) for the nuclear forensic analysis. The characteristics, such as, dimensions, particle size, elemental and isotopic composition help the nuclear forensic analyst in source attribution of the interdicted material, as the specifications of the nuclear materials used by different countries are different. The analysis of elemental composition could be done by SEM-EDS, XRF, CHNS analyser, etc. depending upon the type of the material. Often the trace constituents (analysed by ICP-AES, ICP-MS, AAS, etc) provide valuable information about the processes followed during the production of the material. Likewise the isotopic composition determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry provides useful information about the enrichment of the nuclear fuel and hence its intended use

  2. The Stanford-U.S. Geological Survey SHRIMP ion microprobe--a tool for micro-scale chemical and isotopic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Charles R.; Grove, Marty; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Coble, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Answers to many questions in Earth science require chemical analysis of minute volumes of minerals, volcanic glass, or biological materials. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) is an extremely sensitive analytical method in which a 5–30 micrometer diameter "primary" beam of charged particles (ions) is focused on a region of a solid specimen to sputter secondary ions from 1–5 nanograms of the sample under high vacuum. The elemental abundances and isotopic ratios of these secondary ions are determined with a mass spectrometer. These results can be used for geochronology to determine the age of a region within a crystal thousands to billions of years old or to precisely measure trace abundances of chemical elements at concentrations as low as parts per billion. A partnership of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Stanford University School of Earth Sciences operates a large SIMS instrument, the Sensitive High-Resolution Ion Microprobe with Reverse Geometry (SHRIMP–RG) on the Stanford campus.

  3. Looking into individual coffee beans during the roasting process: direct micro-probe sampling on-line photo-ionisation mass spectrometric analysis of coffee roasting gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz-Schünemann, Romy; Streibel, Thorsten; Ehlert, Sven; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2013-09-01

    A micro-probe (μ-probe) gas sampling device for on-line analysis of gases evolving in confined, small objects by single-photon ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SPI-TOFMS) was developed. The technique is applied for the first time in a feasibility study to record the formation of volatile and flavour compounds during the roasting process within (inside) or in the direct vicinity (outside) of individual coffee beans. A real-time on-line analysis of evolving volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOC and SVOC) as they are formed under the mild pyrolytic conditions of the roasting process was performed. The soft-ionisation mass spectra depict a molecular ion signature, which is well corresponding with the existing knowledge of coffee roasting and evolving compounds. Additionally, thereby it is possible to discriminate between Coffea arabica (Arabica) and Coffea canephora (Robusta). The recognized differences in the roasting gas profiles reflect the differences in the precursor composition of the coffee cultivars very well. Furthermore, a well-known set of marker compounds for Arabica and Robusta, namely the lipids kahweol and cafestol (detected in their dehydrated form at m/z 296 and m/z 298, respectively) were observed. If the variation in time of different compounds is observed, distinctly different evolution behaviours were detected. Here, phenol (m/z 94) and caffeine (m/z 194) are exemplary chosen, whereas phenol shows very sharp emission peaks, caffeine do not have this highly transient behaviour. Finally, the changes of the chemical signature as a function of the roasting time, the influence of sampling position (inside, outside) and cultivar (Arabica, Robusta) is investigated by multivariate statistics (PCA). In summary, this pilot study demonstrates the high potential of the measurement technique to enhance the fundamental knowledge of the formation processes of volatile and semi-volatile flavour compounds inside the individual coffee bean.

  4. Analysis of corrosions-products in tissue samples near surgical implants by means of LAMMA (Laser Microprobe Mass Analyzer) and ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlagenhaufen, C.

    1996-08-01

    In this work corrosion products of surgical implants in tissue samples were identified. For the characterization of the corrosion products the LAMMA 500 (Laser Microprobe Mass Analyzer) was used. Additional analysis were made with the ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer) to determine the concentration of chromium, cobalt, nickel, and molybdenum in the tissues. In the first part several synthetic chromium- and molybdenum compounds were investigated with LAMMA. With the anionic mass spectra of the chromium-compounds it is possible to the oxidation state of chromium. The mass spectra of the synthetic compounds were used to identify, the compounds in the corrosion products. In the second part thin sections prepared from the tissue samples from the surrounding of the implants were analyzed. Several embedding and cutting methods were tested. Histological staining methods and LAMMA spectra were used to characterize the deposits in the tissue. Three different deposits were found in the tissue. In all tissues metal splinters from the implant were found. In most of the tissues iron-rich deposits were found, that were identified as iron-phosphate. As definitive corrosion products of the implant mixtures of chromium(III)phosphate, calcium molybdate, calcium phosphate and chromium(III) molybdate were identified. The ICP-MS results show in comparison to normal values, very high concentrations for chromium, nickel, cobalt and molybdenum. These results support the conclusions based on LAMMA results. The results of these investigations clearly indicate, that stainless steel implants, are not corrosion-resistant in the body. Relatively high amounts of the constituents, of the implant dissolved, and are deposited as solid compounds in the tissue next to the implant. (author)

  5. Nuclear techniques of analysis in diamond synthesis and annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, D. N.; Prawer, S.; Gonon, P.; Walker, R.; Dooley, S.; Bettiol, A.; Pearce, J. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Nuclear techniques of analysis have played an important role in the study of synthetic and laser annealed diamond. These measurements have mainly used ion beam analysis with a focused MeV ion beam in a nuclear microprobe system. A variety of techniques have been employed. One of the most important is nuclear elastic scattering, sometimes called non-Rutherford scattering, which has been used to accurately characterise diamond films for thickness and composition. This is possible by the use of a database of measured scattering cross sections. Recently, this work has been extended and nuclear elastic scattering cross sections for both natural boron isotopes have been measured. For radiation damaged diamond, a focused laser annealing scheme has been developed which produces near complete regrowth of MeV phosphorus implanted diamonds. In the laser annealed regions, proton induced x-ray emission has been used to show that 50 % of the P atoms occupy lattice sites. This opens the way to produce n-type diamond for microelectronic device applications. All these analytical applications utilize a focused MeV microbeam which is ideally suited for diamond analysis. This presentation reviews these applications, as well as the technology of nuclear techniques of analysis for diamond with a focused beam. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Nuclear techniques of analysis in diamond synthesis and annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, D N; Prawer, S; Gonon, P; Walker, R; Dooley, S; Bettiol, A; Pearce, J [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1997-12-31

    Nuclear techniques of analysis have played an important role in the study of synthetic and laser annealed diamond. These measurements have mainly used ion beam analysis with a focused MeV ion beam in a nuclear microprobe system. A variety of techniques have been employed. One of the most important is nuclear elastic scattering, sometimes called non-Rutherford scattering, which has been used to accurately characterise diamond films for thickness and composition. This is possible by the use of a database of measured scattering cross sections. Recently, this work has been extended and nuclear elastic scattering cross sections for both natural boron isotopes have been measured. For radiation damaged diamond, a focused laser annealing scheme has been developed which produces near complete regrowth of MeV phosphorus implanted diamonds. In the laser annealed regions, proton induced x-ray emission has been used to show that 50 % of the P atoms occupy lattice sites. This opens the way to produce n-type diamond for microelectronic device applications. All these analytical applications utilize a focused MeV microbeam which is ideally suited for diamond analysis. This presentation reviews these applications, as well as the technology of nuclear techniques of analysis for diamond with a focused beam. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Nuclear techniques of analysis in diamond synthesis and annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, D. N.; Prawer, S.; Gonon, P.; Walker, R.; Dooley, S.; Bettiol, A.; Pearce, J.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear techniques of analysis have played an important role in the study of synthetic and laser annealed diamond. These measurements have mainly used ion beam analysis with a focused MeV ion beam in a nuclear microprobe system. A variety of techniques have been employed. One of the most important is nuclear elastic scattering, sometimes called non-Rutherford scattering, which has been used to accurately characterise diamond films for thickness and composition. This is possible by the use of a database of measured scattering cross sections. Recently, this work has been extended and nuclear elastic scattering cross sections for both natural boron isotopes have been measured. For radiation damaged diamond, a focused laser annealing scheme has been developed which produces near complete regrowth of MeV phosphorus implanted diamonds. In the laser annealed regions, proton induced x-ray emission has been used to show that 50 % of the P atoms occupy lattice sites. This opens the way to produce n-type diamond for microelectronic device applications. All these analytical applications utilize a focused MeV microbeam which is ideally suited for diamond analysis. This presentation reviews these applications, as well as the technology of nuclear techniques of analysis for diamond with a focused beam. 9 refs., 6 figs

  8. Synchrotron radiation XRF microprobe study of human bone tumor slice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yuying; Zhao Limin; Wang Zhouguang; Shao Hanru; Li Guangcheng; Wu Yingrong; He Wei; Lu Jianxin; He Rongguo

    1999-01-01

    The experimental apparatus of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microprobe analysis at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF) is described. Using the bovine liver as the standard reference, the minimum detection limit (MDL) of trace element was measured to determine the capability of biological sample analysis by synchrotron radiation XRF microprobe. The relative change of the content of the major or trace element in the normal and tumor part of human bone tissue slice was investigated. The experimental result relation to the clinical medicine was also discussed. (author)

  9. Arсhaeomineralogy of Ancient Nonferrous Metallurgy Pieces of the Perm Region: Experience of Usage of Electron Microprobe Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Chaykovsky

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of archaeological features has been studied by means of the scanning electronic microscopy. It was shown that due to the oxidation process, the surface layer is enriched with some elements, which were present at unaltered metal (Ag, Pb and those included later (As, Zn, Pb. It imposes meaningful limitation for use of the X-ray fluorescence and spectral analysis, which allow obtaining only total (patina + metal composition. Sixteen minerals (oxides, carbonates, sulphates, chlorides, phosphates, sulfides and native phases are established in patina composition. Tin bronze structure contains the impurities, which may be an evidence of import to Perm Region of tin and silver possibly from Altai, tin and lead possibly from Karelia during "harinsky" and "rodanovsky" cultures respectively. Various composition of the alloys used for casting and filigree witnesses that ancient metallurgists had known about alloys handling. The presence of barium and fluorine can tell us about composition of the used furnacecharge. The obtained data may be the basis for chemical-metallurgical typification of pieces from nonferrous (and noble metals.

  10. X-ray microprobe analysis of the retina and RPE in sheep with ovine ceroid-lipofuscinosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuelson, D.A.; Armstrong, D.; Jolly, R.

    1990-01-01

    Ovine ceroid-lipofuscinosis (OCL) is one animal model for the human condition, and because autofluorescent lipopigments are prominent in the brain and eye, it may also prove useful as a model for aging. For example, a progressive decline in electrical recording from brain and retina are observed in both aging and OCL. Samples of retinal and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) tissues were obtained from a young control. 2 animals with OCL and a normal aged sheep. Specimens were cryo-fractured and examined by scanning electron microscopy/x-ray microanalysis. Measurements made of 6 individual cells in the ganglion layer of OCL specimens, the remainder of the retina, and RPE showed age-related changes in zinc, iron, and copper which were associated with lipopigment accumulation in the RPE. There was marked decrease in phosphate, sulfur, and manganese levels, as photoreceptor cells and their outer segments are lost in the disease process. This is the first report of metal analysis in the retina and RPE in a disease entity, and as a function of normal aging

  11. Microprobe analysis, iono- and photo-luminescence of Mn2+ activated ZnGa2O4 fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, N.F.; Fernandes, A.J.S.; Alves, L.C.; Sobolev, N.A.; Alves, E.; Lorenz, K.; Costa, F.M.; Monteiro, T.

    2013-01-01

    Cubic ZnGa 2 O 4 fibres have been grown by the laser floating zone technique with different pulling rates. In fibres activated with manganese ions, the room temperature photo- and iono-luminescence is dominated by an intense green emission which is observed by the naked eye. The green band is due to an overlap of the 4 T 1 → 6 A 1 intraionic transitions of the Mn 2+ ions in different sites in the gallate host. The fibres’ photoluminescence spectra have been found to be dependent on the excitation energy. Additionally, the intensity of the green photo- and iono-luminescence is strongly sensitive to the measurement temperature and proton irradiation time. Micro PIXE analysis was used in order to verify the homogeneous distribution of the Mn luminescence activators and determine its concentration as well as for verification of impurity contents that may have been incorporated during the fibres growth. The potential of ionoluminescence measurements for characterization of optical materials is discussed

  12. Ion microprobe Sr isotope analysis of carbonates with about 5 {mu}m spatial resolution: An example from an ayu otolith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, Yuji [Center for Advanced Marine Research, Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Nakano-ku, Tokyo 164-8639 (Japan)], E-mail: ysano@ori.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Shirai, Kotaro [International Coastal Research Center, Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Otsuchi, Iwate 028-1102 (Japan); Takahata, Naoto; Amakawa, Hiroshi [Center for Advanced Marine Research, Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Nakano-ku, Tokyo 164-8639 (Japan); Otake, Tsuguo [International Coastal Research Center, Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Otsuchi, Iwate 028-1102 (Japan)

    2008-08-15

    A high lateral resolution secondary ion mass spectrometer (NanoSIMS NS50 ion microprobe) has been used to measure {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios in natural CaCO{sub 3} samples. A {approx}2 nA O{sup -} primary beam was used to sputter a 5-7-{mu}m diameter crater on the sample surface and secondary positive ions were extracted for mass analysis using an accelerating voltage of 8 kV and a Mattauch-Herzog geometry. The multi-collector system was adjusted to detect {sup 43}Ca{sup +} (by a detector EM2), {sup 80}Ca{sub 2}{sup +} (EM3), {sup 86}Sr{sup +} (EM4), and {sup 87}Sr{sup +} (EM4b) ions at the same time. Then the magnetic field was scanned for the EM4 to detect {sup 85}Rb{sup +}, {sup 86}Sr{sup +} and {sup 87}Sr{sup +}, while the EM4b can measure {sup 86}Sr{sup +}, {sup 87}Sr{sup +} and {sup 88}Sr{sup +}, respectively. A mass resolution of 3600 at 10% peak height was attained with a flat peak top, while the sensitivity of Sr was about 10 cps/nA/ppm. An aragonite sample (coral skeleton standard; JCp-1) was used as a reference for Sr isotope ratio calibration. Repeated analyses of the JCp-1 show that the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio agrees well with the seawater signature within a precision of 0.3 per mille at 2{sigma}, after the series of corrections such as the Ca dimer, {sup 87}Rb, and a mass bias estimated by the {sup 88}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio. The method was applied to an otolith (ear-stone) from ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis) collected from the Yodo river, Japan. Although experimental errors are relatively large, up to 3 per mille at 2{sigma}, the ratios of the core region are higher than the seawater signature while more distal values agree well with seawater. The very outermost part again shows the relatively higher {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios. The spatial variation of {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios was consistent with amphidromous migration of the fish, namely, born in the lake and grown in the coastal sea and finally collected in a river.

  13. Ion microprobe Sr isotope analysis of carbonates with about 5 μm spatial resolution: An example from an ayu otolith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Yuji; Shirai, Kotaro; Takahata, Naoto; Amakawa, Hiroshi; Otake, Tsuguo

    2008-01-01

    A high lateral resolution secondary ion mass spectrometer (NanoSIMS NS50 ion microprobe) has been used to measure 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios in natural CaCO 3 samples. A ∼2 nA O - primary beam was used to sputter a 5-7-μm diameter crater on the sample surface and secondary positive ions were extracted for mass analysis using an accelerating voltage of 8 kV and a Mattauch-Herzog geometry. The multi-collector system was adjusted to detect 43 Ca + (by a detector EM2), 80 Ca 2 + (EM3), 86 Sr + (EM4), and 87 Sr + (EM4b) ions at the same time. Then the magnetic field was scanned for the EM4 to detect 85 Rb + , 86 Sr + and 87 Sr + , while the EM4b can measure 86 Sr + , 87 Sr + and 88 Sr + , respectively. A mass resolution of 3600 at 10% peak height was attained with a flat peak top, while the sensitivity of Sr was about 10 cps/nA/ppm. An aragonite sample (coral skeleton standard; JCp-1) was used as a reference for Sr isotope ratio calibration. Repeated analyses of the JCp-1 show that the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio agrees well with the seawater signature within a precision of 0.3 per mille at 2σ, after the series of corrections such as the Ca dimer, 87 Rb, and a mass bias estimated by the 88 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio. The method was applied to an otolith (ear-stone) from ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis) collected from the Yodo river, Japan. Although experimental errors are relatively large, up to 3 per mille at 2σ, the ratios of the core region are higher than the seawater signature while more distal values agree well with seawater. The very outermost part again shows the relatively higher 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios. The spatial variation of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios was consistent with amphidromous migration of the fish, namely, born in the lake and grown in the coastal sea and finally collected in a river

  14. Economic Analysis of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Man Ki; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Oh, K. B.

    2006-12-01

    It has been well recognized that securing economic viabilities along with technologies are very important elements in the successful implementation of nuclear R and D projects. The objective of the Project is to help nuclear energy to be utilized in an efficient way by analyzing major issues related with nuclear economics. The study covers following subjects: the role of nuclear in the future electric supply system, economic analysis of nuclear R and D project, contribution to the regional economy from nuclear power. In addition, the study introduces the international cooperation in the methodological area of efficient use of nuclear energy by surveying the international activities related with nuclear economics

  15. Economic Analysis of Nuclear Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Man Ki; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Oh, K. B

    2006-12-15

    It has been well recognized that securing economic viabilities along with technologies are very important elements in the successful implementation of nuclear R and D projects. The objective of the Project is to help nuclear energy to be utilized in an efficient way by analyzing major issues related with nuclear economics. The study covers following subjects: the role of nuclear in the future electric supply system, economic analysis of nuclear R and D project, contribution to the regional economy from nuclear power. In addition, the study introduces the international cooperation in the methodological area of efficient use of nuclear energy by surveying the international activities related with nuclear economics.

  16. Use of the ion microprobe in geological dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compston, W.; Williams, I.S.; Black, L.P.

    1983-01-01

    SHRIMP, the Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe with computerised control and data acquisition system, has recently been commissioned. It is used within the Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, for the isotopic analysis of geological samples. Principles of operation and geological applications are outlined. One example described is the application to Pb-U dating of zircon

  17. Nuclear power regional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parera, María Delia

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a regional analysis of the Argentine electricity market was carried out considering the effects of regional cooperation, national and international interconnections; additionally, the possibilities of insertion of new nuclear power plants in different regions were evaluated, indicating the most suitable areas for these facilities to increase the penetration of nuclear energy in national energy matrix. The interconnection of electricity markets and natural gas due to the linkage between both energy forms was also studied. With this purpose, MESSAGE program was used (Model for Energy Supply Strategy Alternatives and their General Environmental Impacts), promoted by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This model performs a country-level economic optimization, resulting in the minimum cost for the modelling system. Regionalization executed by the Wholesale Electricity Market Management Company (CAMMESA, by its Spanish acronym) that divides the country into eight regions. The characteristics and the needs of each region, their respective demands and supplies of electricity and natural gas, as well as existing and planned interconnections, consisting of power lines and pipelines were taken into account. According to the results obtained through the model, nuclear is a competitive option. (author) [es

  18. Installation and performance of the Budapest-Hamburg proton microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, I.; Kocsonya, A.; Kostka, P.; Szokefalvi-Nagy, Z.; Schrang, K.; Krueger, A.; Niecke, M.

    2005-01-01

    A new scanning proton microprobe has been installed at the 5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator of the KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics. It is the energy-upgraded version of the Hamburg proton microprobe dismantled in 2001. The probe forming system includes a pair of focusing quadrupoles and an additional quadrupole pair in front of it, which is applied to increase the proton beam divergence. The average probe size at 2.5 MeV proton energy is 2.2 μm x 1.1 μm. The test results on stability and the preliminary experiments on cement corrosion and fish otoliths are also presented

  19. Nuclear fuel cycle system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, W. I.; Kwon, E. H.; Kim, S. G.; Park, B. H.; Song, K. C.; Song, D. Y.; Lee, H. H.; Chang, H. L.; Jeong, C. J.

    2012-04-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle system analysis method has been designed and established for an integrated nuclear fuel cycle system assessment by analyzing various methodologies. The economics, PR(Proliferation Resistance) and environmental impact evaluation of the fuel cycle system were performed using improved DB, and finally the best fuel cycle option which is applicable in Korea was derived. In addition, this research is helped to increase the national credibility and transparency for PR with developing and fulfilling PR enhancement program. The detailed contents of the work are as follows: 1)Establish and improve the DB for nuclear fuel cycle system analysis 2)Development of the analysis model for nuclear fuel cycle 3)Preliminary study for nuclear fuel cycle analysis 4)Development of overall evaluation model of nuclear fuel cycle system 5)Overall evaluation of nuclear fuel cycle system 6)Evaluate the PR for nuclear fuel cycle system and derive the enhancement method 7)Derive and fulfill of nuclear transparency enhancement method The optimum fuel cycle option which is economical and applicable to domestic situation was derived in this research. It would be a basis for establishment of the long-term strategy for nuclear fuel cycle. This work contributes for guaranteeing the technical, economical validity of the optimal fuel cycle option. Deriving and fulfillment of the method for enhancing nuclear transparency will also contribute to renewing the ROK-U.S Atomic Energy Agreement in 2014

  20. Economic analysis of nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Han Myung; Lee, M.K.; Moon, K.H.; Kim, S.S.; Lim, C.Y.; Song, K.D.; Kim, H

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the contribution of nuclear energy to the energy use in the economical way, based on the factor survey performed on the internal and external environmental changes occurred recent years. Internal and external environmental changes are being occurred recent years involving with using nuclear energy. This study summarizes the recent environmental changes in nuclear energy such as sustainable development issues, climate change talks, Doha round and newly created electricity fund. This study also carried out the case studies on nuclear energy, based on the environmental analysis performed above. The case studies cover following topics: role of nuclear power in energy/environment/economy, estimation of environmental external cost in electric generation sector, economic comparison of hydrogen production, and inter-industrial analysis of nuclear power generation.

  1. Economic analysis of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Han Myung; Lee, M.K.; Moon, K.H.; Kim, S.S.; Lim, C.Y.; Song, K.D.; Kim, H.

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the contribution of nuclear energy to the energy use in the economical way, based on the factor survey performed on the internal and external environmental changes occurred recent years. Internal and external environmental changes are being occurred recent years involving with using nuclear energy. This study summarizes the recent environmental changes in nuclear energy such as sustainable development issues, climate change talks, Doha round and newly created electricity fund. This study also carried out the case studies on nuclear energy, based on the environmental analysis performed above. The case studies cover following topics: role of nuclear power in energy/environment/economy, estimation of environmental external cost in electric generation sector, economic comparison of hydrogen production, and inter-industrial analysis of nuclear power generation

  2. Applications of the ion microprobe to geochemistry and cosmochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, N.; Hart, S.R.

    1982-01-01

    When a solid surface is subjected to a bombardment of energetic ions, material is ejected from the surface in a process known as sputtering. A part of the sputtered material is ionized and these secondary ions can be analyzed with a mass spectrometer according to a technique known as secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). A description is presented of the present status of geochemical and cosmochemical applications of the ion microprobe. Attention is given to the sputtering event, molecular ion interferences, aspects of isotopic fractionation, secondary ion intensities in polycomponent materials, and questions of trace element analysis. Geochemical applications of the ion microprobe are based on certain advantages over other analytical techniques. These advantages are related to high sensitivity, low background, and the capability of in situ analysis of isotopic composition. The distribution of trace elements in minerals is considered, along with isotope anomalies, isotope zoning, diffusion studies, and depth profiling

  3. Nuclear Reactor Engineering Analysis Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos Chavez-Mercado; Jaime B. Morales-Sandoval; Benjamin E. Zayas-Perez

    1998-01-01

    The Nuclear Reactor Engineering Analysis Laboratory (NREAL) is a sophisticated computer system with state-of-the-art analytical tools and technology for analysis of light water reactors. Multiple application software tools can be activated to carry out different analyses and studies such as nuclear fuel reload evaluation, safety operation margin measurement, transient and severe accident analysis, nuclear reactor instability, operator training, normal and emergency procedures optimization, and human factors engineering studies. An advanced graphic interface, driven through touch-sensitive screens, provides the means to interact with specialized software and nuclear codes. The interface allows the visualization and control of all observable variables in a nuclear power plant (NPP), as well as a selected set of nonobservable or not directly controllable variables from conventional control panels

  4. A study of VMS ore deposits by the proton microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huston, D.L.; Large, R.R.; Bottril, R.S.; Sie, S.H.; Ryan, C.G.

    1991-01-01

    As part of studies into the mineralogical distribution of gold in volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) ore deposits PIXE analysis by the proton microprobe has been used to determine the gold content of pyrite and arsenopyrite from the Rosebery, Mt. Chalmers and Mt. Lyell deposits. In addition, the concentrations of Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Y, Zr, Mo, Ag, Sb, Te, Au, Tl, Pb and Bi were also determined. 4 refs., 1 tab

  5. Digital pulse processor for ion beam microprobe imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogovac, M.; Jaksic, M.; Wegrzynek, D.; Markowicz, A.

    2009-01-01

    Capabilities of spectroscopic ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques that are available in ion microprobe facilities can be greatly improved by the use of digital pulse processing. We report here development of a digital multi parameter data acquisition system suitable for IBA imaging applications. Input signals from charge sensitive preamplifier are conditioned by using a simple circuit and digitized with fast ADCs. The digitally converted signals are processed in real time using FPGA. Implementation of several components of the system is presented.

  6. Nuclear power ecology: comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trofimenko, A.P.; Lips'ka, A.Yi.; Pisanko, Zh.Yi.

    2005-01-01

    Ecological effects of different energy sources are compared. Main actions for further nuclear power development - safety increase and waste management, are noted. Reasons of restrained public position to nuclear power and role of social and political factors in it are analyzed. An attempt is undertaken to separate real difficulties of nuclear power from imaginary ones that appear in some mass media. International actions of environment protection are noted. Risk factors at different energy source using are compared. The results of analysis indicate that ecological influence and risk for nuclear power are of minimum

  7. Economic Analysis of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. S.; Lee, M. K.; Moon, K. H.; Nam, J. H.; Noh, B. C.; Kim, H. R.

    2008-12-01

    The concerns on the global warming issues in the international community are bringing about a paradigm shift in the national economy including energy technology development. In this connection, the green growth mainly utilizing green technology, which emits low carbon, is being initiated by many advanced countries including Korea. The objective of the study is to evaluate the contribution to the national economy from nuclear energy attributable to the characteristics of green technology, to which nuclear energy belongs. The study covers the role of nuclear in addressing climate change issues, the proper share of nuclear in the electricity sector, the cost analyses of decommissioning and radioactive waste management, and the analysis on the economic performance of nuclear R and D including cost benefit analysis

  8. Assembling of a low energy ion beam analysis facility and use of Nuclear Microprobe techniques in geological studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utui, R

    1996-11-01

    In this work, both PIXE and ion beam induced luminescence, or just Ionoluminescence (IL) were used for geochemical studies. The possibility of rapid absolute quantification of elements in the ppm level by PIXE combined with the yet higher sensitivity of IL to transition metals and Rare Earth Elements (REE) activators, in the absence of quenching phenomena, allow for a synergic use of the two methods in geological applications with enhanced sensitivity. IL and PIXE were combined for studying REE distribution in apatite minerals and ion beam induced damage in inorganic material in general with emphasis to synthetically grown zircon crystals doped with REE. Due to the sensitivity of IL to changes in chemical bonding in the material, beam damage effects can be studied even at low integrated doses, through wavelength shift or fading of the induced light. Micro PIXE technique was used for studying profile concentrations of trace elements in pyrite grains and of elements used as geothermometers. Geothermometry allowed to assess the cooling rates in iron meteorites and the mineralization conditions in metamorphic rocks, attempting to describe the tectonic history of the terranes, with application in petrologic studies and geological prospecting. 148 refs.

  9. Assembling of a low energy ion beam analysis facility and use of Nuclear Microprobe techniques in geological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utui, R.

    1996-11-01

    In this work, both PIXE and ion beam induced luminescence, or just Ionoluminescence (IL) were used for geochemical studies. The possibility of rapid absolute quantification of elements in the ppm level by PIXE combined with the yet higher sensitivity of IL to transition metals and Rare Earth Elements (REE) activators, in the absence of quenching phenomena, allow for a synergic use of the two methods in geological applications with enhanced sensitivity. IL and PIXE were combined for studying REE distribution in apatite minerals and ion beam induced damage in inorganic material in general with emphasis to synthetically grown zircon crystals doped with REE. Due to the sensitivity of IL to changes in chemical bonding in the material, beam damage effects can be studied even at low integrated doses, through wavelength shift or fading of the induced light. Micro PIXE technique was used for studying profile concentrations of trace elements in pyrite grains and of elements used as geothermometers. Geothermometry allowed to assess the cooling rates in iron meteorites and the mineralization conditions in metamorphic rocks, attempting to describe the tectonic history of the terranes, with application in petrologic studies and geological prospecting. 148 refs

  10. Nuclear forensic analysis of thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, K.J.; Grant, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive radiochemical isolation procedure and data analysis/interpretation method for the nuclear forensic investigation of Th has been developed. The protocol includes sample dissolution, chemical separation, nuclear counting techniques, consideration of isotopic parent-daughter equilibria, and data interpretation tactics. Practical application of the technology was demonstrated by analyses of a questioned specimen confiscated at an illegal drug synthesis laboratory by law enforcement authorities. (author)

  11. Multidimensional Analysis of Nuclear Detonations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    Training Command in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Robert C. Slaughter, B.S., M.S. Captain, USAF 16...15-S-029 Abstract Digitized versions of atmospheric nuclear testing films represent a unique data set that enables the scientific community to create...temperature distribution of a nuclear fireball using digitized film . This temperature analysis underwent verification using the Digital Imaging and Remote

  12. Advanced nuclear energy analysis technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauntt, Randall O.; Murata, Kenneth K.; Romero, Vicente Josce; Young, Michael Francis; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2004-01-01

    A two-year effort focused on applying ASCI technology developed for the analysis of weapons systems to the state-of-the-art accident analysis of a nuclear reactor system was proposed. The Sandia SIERRA parallel computing platform for ASCI codes includes high-fidelity thermal, fluids, and structural codes whose coupling through SIERRA can be specifically tailored to the particular problem at hand to analyze complex multiphysics problems. Presently, however, the suite lacks several physics modules unique to the analysis of nuclear reactors. The NRC MELCOR code, not presently part of SIERRA, was developed to analyze severe accidents in present-technology reactor systems. We attempted to: (1) evaluate the SIERRA code suite for its current applicability to the analysis of next generation nuclear reactors, and the feasibility of implementing MELCOR models into the SIERRA suite, (2) examine the possibility of augmenting ASCI codes or alternatives by coupling to the MELCOR code, or portions thereof, to address physics particular to nuclear reactor issues, especially those facing next generation reactor designs, and (3) apply the coupled code set to a demonstration problem involving a nuclear reactor system. We were successful in completing the first two in sufficient detail to determine that an extensive demonstration problem was not feasible at this time. In the future, completion of this research would demonstrate the feasibility of performing high fidelity and rapid analyses of safety and design issues needed to support the development of next generation power reactor systems

  13. Beam optics on the Melbourne proton microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, D.N.; Colman, R.A.; Allan, G.L.; Legge, G.J.F.

    1985-01-01

    This review paper summarises results of ion optics development work conducted on the Melbourne Proton Microprobe and the associated Pelletron accelerator. The properties of a field ionization ion source have been investigated with the aim of replacing the existing R.F. ion source in the accelerator in order to obtain a brighter beam for the microprobe. The electrostatic emitter lens in the terminal of the accelerator has also been investigated with the aim of improving the focus of the accelerated beam. Finally, the aberrations of the probe forming lens system have been studied and it is shown how some of these may be corrected with an octupole lens

  14. Economic analysis of nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki Dong; Lee, M. K.; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Kim, H. S

    2000-12-01

    This study identified the role of nuclear energy in the following three major aspects. First of all, this study carried out cost effectiveness of nuclear as a CDM technology, which is one of means of GHG emission reduction in UNFCCC. Secondly, environmental externalities caused by air pollutants emitted by power options were estimated. The 'observed market behaviour' method and 'responses to hypothetical market' method were used to estimate objectively the environmental external costs by electric source, respectively. Finally, the role of nuclear power in securing electricity supply in a liberalized electricity market was analyzed. This study made efforts to investigate whether nuclear power generation with high investment cost could be favored in a liberalized market by using 'option value' analysis of investments.

  15. Economic analysis of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ki Dong; Lee, M. K.; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Kim, H. S.

    2000-12-01

    This study identified the role of nuclear energy in the following three major aspects. First of all, this study carried out cost effectiveness of nuclear as a CDM technology, which is one of means of GHG emission reduction in UNFCCC. Secondly, environmental externalities caused by air pollutants emitted by power options were estimated. The 'observed market behaviour' method and 'responses to hypothetical market' method were used to estimate objectively the environmental external costs by electric source, respectively. Finally, the role of nuclear power in securing electricity supply in a liberalized electricity market was analyzed. This study made efforts to investigate whether nuclear power generation with high investment cost could be favored in a liberalized market by using 'option value' analysis of investments

  16. Economic Analysis of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Han Myung; Lee, M. K.; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Song, K. D.; Oh, K. B.

    2002-12-01

    This study deals with current energy issues, environmental aspects of energy, project feasibility evaluation, and activities of international organizations. Current energy issues including activities related with UNFCCC, sustainable development, and global concern on energy issues were surveyed with focusing on nuclear related activities. Environmental aspects of energy includes various topics such as, inter- industrial analysis of nuclear sector, the role of nuclear power in mitigating GHG emission, carbon capture and sequestration technology, hydrogen production by using nuclear energy, Life Cycle Analysis as a method of evaluating environmental impacts of a technology, and spent fuel management in the case of introducing fast reactor and/or accelerator driven system. Project feasibility evaluation includes nuclear desalination using SMART reactor, and introduction of COMFAR computer model, developed by UNIDO to carry out feasibility analysis in terms of business attitude. Activities of international organizations includes energy planning activities of IAEA and OECD/NEA, introduction of the activities of FNCA, one of the cooperation mechanism among Asian countries. In addition, MESSAGE computer model was also introduced. The model is being developed by IAEA to effectively handle liberalization of electricity market combined with environmental constraints

  17. Nuclear instrumentation evaluation and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Suk Jun; Han, Sang Joon; Chung, Chong Eun; Han, Kwang Soo; Kim, Dong Hwa; Park, Byung Hae; Moon, Je Sun; Lee, Chel Kwon; Song, Ki Sang; Choi, Myung Jin; Kim, Seung Bok; Kim, Jung Bok

    1986-12-01

    This project provides the program for improving instrumentation reliability as well as developing a cost-effective preventive maintenance activity through evaluation and analysis of nuclear instrumentation concerning pilot plants, large-scale test facilities and various laboratories on KAERI site. In addition, it discusses the program for enhancing safe operations and improving facility availability through establishment of maintenance technology. (Author)

  18. Data acquisition for X ray microprobe. User's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    A modified data acquisition software for X ray microprobe was developed by the Physics Group, Instrumentation Unit, IAEA Laboratories at Seibersdorf, with assistance from M. Bogovac, Croatia. The software consists of data acquisition (scanning and calibration), automatic positioning and micro-movement of sample, data reduction and evaluation. The acquisition software was designed in order to support different measurement set-ups which are applied in low-energy nuclear physics. The modification was done in 1999-2000 under the projects Nuclear Spectrometry and Utilization of Particle Accelerators. The manual supersedes the first version entitled Microanalysis Data Acquisition and Control Program published under Computer Manual Series, No. 9 in 1996. The software described in this manual is freely available from the IAEA upon request

  19. Business of Nuclear Safety Analysis Office, Nuclear Technology Test Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Masahiko

    1981-01-01

    The Nuclear Technology Test Center established the Nuclear Safety Analysis Office to execute newly the works concerning nuclear safety analysis in addition to the works related to the proving tests of nuclear machinery and equipments. The regulations for the Nuclear Safety Analysis Office concerning its organization, business and others were specially decided, and it started the business formally in August, 1980. It is a most important subject to secure the safety of nuclear facilities in nuclear fuel cycle as the premise of developing atomic energy. In Japan, the strict regulation of safety is executed by the government at each stage of the installation, construction, operation and maintenance of nuclear facilities, based on the responsibility for the security of installers themselves. The Nuclear Safety Analysis Office was established as the special organ to help the safety examination related to the installation of nuclear power stations and others by the government. It improves and puts in order the safety analysis codes required for the cross checking in the safety examination, and carries out safety analysis calculation. It is operated by the cooperation of the Science and Technology Agency and the Agency of Natural Resources and Energy. The purpose of establishment, the operation and the business of the Nuclear Safety Analysis Office, the plan of improving and putting in order of analysis codes, and the state of the similar organs in foreign countries are described. (Kako, I.)

  20. Structural analysis of nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikonen, K.; Hyppoenen, P.; Mikkola, T.; Noro, H.; Raiko, H.; Salminen, P.; Talja, H.

    1983-05-01

    THe report describes the activities accomplished in the project 'Structural Analysis Project of Nuclear Power Plant Components' during the years 1974-1982 in the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory at the Technical Research Centre of Finland. The objective of the project has been to develop Finnish expertise in structural mechanics related to nuclear engineering. The report describes the starting point of the research work, the organization of the project and the research activities on various subareas. Further the work done with computer codes is described and also the problems which the developed expertise has been applied to. Finally, the diploma works, publications and work reports, which are mainly in Finnish, are listed to give a view of the content of the project. (author)

  1. Programs for nuclear data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, R.A.I.

    1975-01-01

    The following report details a number of programs and subroutines which are useful for analysis of data from nuclear physics experiments. Most of them are available from pool pack 005 on the IBM1800 computer. All of these programs are stored there as core loads, and the subroutines and functions in relocatable format. The nature and location of other programs are specified as appropriate. (author)

  2. Prompt nuclear analysis bibliography 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, J.R.; Campbell, B.L.; Cawley, R.J.

    1978-05-01

    A prompt nuclear analysis bibliography published in 1974 has been updated to include literature up to the end of 1976. The number of publications has more than doubled since mid-1973. The bibliography is now operated as a computer file and searches can be made on key words and parameters. Tables of references are given for each of the categories: backscattering, ion-ion, ion-gamma, ion-neutron, neutron-gamma, neutron-neutron and gamma-ray-induced reactions

  3. Radiochemistry and nuclear methods of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehmann, W.D.; Vance, D.

    1991-01-01

    This book provides both the fundamentals of radiochemistry as well as specific applications of nuclear techniques to analytical chemistry. It includes such areas of application as radioimmunoassay and activation techniques using very short-lined indicator radionuclides. It emphasizes the current nuclear methods of analysis such as neutron activation PIXE, nuclear reaction analysis, Rutherford backscattering, isotope dilution analysis and others

  4. Nuclear Futures Analysis and Scenario Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, E.D.; Beller, D.; Canavan, G.H.; Krakowski, R.A.; Peterson, P.; Wagner, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    This LDRD project created and used advanced analysis capabilities to postulate scenarios and identify issues, externalities, and technologies associated with future ''things nuclear''. ''Things nuclear'' include areas pertaining to nuclear weapons, nuclear materials, and nuclear energy, examined in the context of future domestic and international environments. Analysis tools development included adaptation and expansion of energy, environmental, and economics (E3) models to incorporate a robust description of the nuclear fuel cycle (both current and future technology pathways), creation of a beginning proliferation risk model (coupled to the (E3) model), and extension of traditional first strike stability models to conditions expected to exist in the future (smaller force sizes, multipolar engagement environments, inclusion of actual and latent nuclear weapons (capability)). Accomplishments include scenario development for regional and global nuclear energy, the creation of a beginning nuclear architecture designed to improve the proliferation resistance and environmental performance of the nuclear fuel cycle, and numerous results for future nuclear weapons scenarios

  5. Economic analysis of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Man Ki; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Song, K. D.; Oh, K. B.

    2004-12-01

    This study evaluated the role of nuclear energy in various aspects in order to provide a more comprehensive standard of judgement to the justification of the utilization of nuclear energy. Firstly, this study evaluated the economic value addition of nuclear power generation technology and Radio-Isotope(RI) technology quantitatively by using modified Input-Output table. Secondly, a comprehensive cost-benefit analysis of nuclear power generation was conducted with an effort to quantify the foreign exchange expenditure, the environmental damage cost during 1986-2015 for each scenario. Thirdly, the effect of the regulation of CO 2 emission on the Korean electric supply system was investigated. In more detail, an optimal composition of power plant mix by energy source was investigated, under the assumption of the CO 2 emission regulation at a certain level, by using MESSAGE model. Finally, the economic spillover effect from technology self-reliance of NSSS by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute was evaluated. Both production spillover effect and value addition spillover effect were estimated by using Input-Output table

  6. Beam developments for the Harwell microprobe system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, P.M.; Cookson, J.A.; Alton, G.D.

    1986-01-01

    A consequence of the rapid development of micron and submicron size electronic devices is the diminished applicability of high energy ion microprobes with their present resolution limitations to the study of such components. Although submicron beams have been reported the available beam current is barely sufficiently for PIXE and is not adequate for RBS. This lack of lateral resolution is due to low beam brightness at the microprobe object and aberrations in the focusing elements. As part of a program to address these problems the Harwell microprobe lens has been relocated on a new 5 MV Laddertron accelerator. The increased brightness and improved stability of this facility has so far led to a reduction in beam size from 3 x 3 μm 2 to about 2 x 2 μm 2 . The feasibility of using a liquid metal ion source has been examined with a view to achieving more substantial increases in brightness. While such sources have brightness approximately 10 5 times greater than conventional gaseous sources the highly divergent nature of the beam presents problems for the beam transport system. The use of a liquid metal source on the accelerator has been successfully demonstrated but it indicates the need for a special low aberration injection lens if brightness is to be maintained

  7. Subchannel analysis in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninokata, H.; Aritomi, M.

    1992-01-01

    This book contains 10 informative papers, presented at the International Seminar on Subchannel Analysis 1992 (ISSCA '92), organized by the Institute of Applied Energy, in collaboration with Atomic Energy Society of Japan, Tokyo Electric Power Company, Kansai Electric Power Company, Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation and the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, and held at the TIS-Green Forum, Tokyo, Japan, 30 October 1992. The seminar ISSCA '92 was intended to review the current state-of-the-arts of the method being applied to advanced nuclear reactors including Advanced BWRs, Advanced PWRs and LMRs, and to identify the problems to be solved, improvements to be made, and the needs of R and Ds that were required from the new fuel bundles design. The critical review was to focus on the performances of currently available subchannel analysis codes with regard to heat transfer and fluid flows in various types of nuclear reactor bundles under both steady-state and transient operating conditions, CHF, boiling transition (BT) or dryout behaviors and post BT. The behaviors of physical modeling and numerical methods in these extreme conditions were discussed and the methods critically evaluated in comparison with experiments. (author) (J.P.N.)

  8. On the distribution of uranium in hair: Non-destructive analysis using synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence microprobe techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelsson, A.; Eriksson, M.; Pettersson, H. B. L.

    2015-06-01

    In the present study the distribution of uranium in single human hair shafts has been evaluated using two synchrotron radiation (SR) based micro X-ray fluorescence techniques; SR μ-XRF and confocal SR μ-XRF. The hair shafts originated from persons that have been exposed to elevated uranium concentrations. Two different groups have been studied, i) workers at a nuclear fuel fabrication factory, exposed mainly by inhalation and ii) owners of drilled bedrock wells exposed by ingestion of water. The measurements were carried out on the FLUO beamline at the synchrotron radiation facility ANKA, Karlsruhe. The experiment was optimized to detect U with a beam size of 6.8 μm × 3 μm beam focus allowing detection down to ppb levels of U in 10 s (SR μ-XRF setup) and 70 s (SR confocal μ-XRF setup) measurements. It was found that the uranium was present in a 10-15 μm peripheral layer of the hair shafts for both groups studied. Furthermore, potential external hair contamination was studied by scanning of unwashed hair shafts from the workers. Sites of very high uranium signal were identified as particles containing uranium. Such particles, were also seen in complementary analyses using variable pressure electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (ESEM-EDX). However, the particles were not visible in washed hair shafts. These findings can further increase the understanding of uranium excretion in hair and its potential use as a biomonitor.

  9. Iron distribution in cancer cells following doxorubicin exposure using proton and X-ray synchrotron radiation microprobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, R.; Deves, G.; Bohic, S.; Simionovici, A.; Menez, B.; Bonnin-Mosbah, M.

    2001-01-01

    Chemical studies have shown that doxorubicin, a well-established anticancer agent, is a powerful iron chelator and the resultant iron-drug complex is an efficient catalyst of the conversion of hydrogen peroxide to the highly reactive hydroxyl radical. However, the intracellular complexation of doxorubicin with iron is still debated. Using nuclear microprobe analysis (NMPA), we previously observed in human ovarian cancer cells exposed to 20 μM iodo-doxorubicin (IDX) that iodine and iron cellular distributions were spatially correlated, suggesting a mechanism of intracellular iron chelation by the anthracycline compound. Because maximal plasma drug concentrations in patients are expected to be around 5 μM, NMPA and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) experiments for iron speciation analysis were performed on cultured cells exposed to pharmacological doses of 2 μM IDX or doxorubicin

  10. On the distribution of uranium in hair: Non-destructive analysis using synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence microprobe techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Israelsson, A., E-mail: axel.israelsson@liu.se [Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, 58183 Linköping (Sweden); Eriksson, M. [Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, 17116 Stockholm (Sweden); Pettersson, H.B.L. [Department of Radiation Physics, Linköping University, 58183 Linköping (Sweden); Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, 58183 Linköping (Sweden)

    2015-06-01

    In the present study the distribution of uranium in single human hair shafts has been evaluated using two synchrotron radiation (SR) based micro X-ray fluorescence techniques; SR μ-XRF and confocal SR μ-XRF. The hair shafts originated from persons that have been exposed to elevated uranium concentrations. Two different groups have been studied, i) workers at a nuclear fuel fabrication factory, exposed mainly by inhalation and ii) owners of drilled bedrock wells exposed by ingestion of water. The measurements were carried out on the FLUO beamline at the synchrotron radiation facility ANKA, Karlsruhe. The experiment was optimized to detect U with a beam size of 6.8 μm × 3 μm beam focus allowing detection down to ppb levels of U in 10 s (SR μ-XRF setup) and 70 s (SR confocal μ-XRF setup) measurements. It was found that the uranium was present in a 10–15 μm peripheral layer of the hair shafts for both groups studied. Furthermore, potential external hair contamination was studied by scanning of unwashed hair shafts from the workers. Sites of very high uranium signal were identified as particles containing uranium. Such particles, were also seen in complementary analyses using variable pressure electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (ESEM–EDX). However, the particles were not visible in washed hair shafts. These findings can further increase the understanding of uranium excretion in hair and its potential use as a biomonitor. - Highlights: • Uranium at the fg level was detectable and the uranium distribution in single hair shafts was derived. • The uranium is located peripherally on the shafts in what seems to be a layer of approximately 10-15 μm thickness. • Uranium bearing particles were found on hairs that had not been washed.

  11. The new Schonland PIXE microprobe and applications to geological and archaeological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Przybylowicz, W J; Watterson, J I.W.; Annegarn, H J; Connell, S H; Fearick, R W; Andeweg, A H; Sellschop, J P.F. [Schonland Research Centre for Nuclear Sciences, Univ. of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    1993-04-01

    The new positive ion microprobe at the Schonland Centre is described and details are given of its configuration, its imaging system and software. In a unique configuration, the microprobe has access to two accelerators, a 6 MV EN tandem and a 2.5 MV single-ended machine. The imaging system uses a CAMAC based system and runs on a personal computer under OS/2. The implementation of PIXE and treatment of thick-target data are presented. Applications discussed are analysis of tin artifacts from the prehistory of metallurgy in South Africa; a diamond-containing rock; carbonado, gold contained in pyrite and cogenetic minerals included in diamond. (orig.).

  12. The new Schonland PIXE microprobe and applications to geological and archaeological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybylowicz, W.J.; Watterson, J.I.W.; Annegarn, H.J.; Connell, S.H.; Fearick, R.W.; Andeweg, A.H.; Sellschop, J.P.F.

    1993-01-01

    The new positive ion microprobe at the Schonland Centre is described and details are given of its configuration, its imaging system and software. In a unique configuration, the microprobe has access to two accelerators, a 6 MV EN tandem and a 2.5 MV single-ended machine. The imaging system uses a CAMAC based system and runs on a personal computer under OS/2. The implementation of PIXE and treatment of thick-target data are presented. Applications discussed are analysis of tin artifacts from the prehistory of metallurgy in South Africa; a diamond-containing rock; carbonado, gold contained in pyrite and cogenetic minerals included in diamond. (orig.)

  13. Nuclear Proliferation Technology Trends Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zentner, Michael D.; Coles, Garill A.; Talbert, Robert J.

    2005-10-04

    A process is underway to develop mature, integrated methodologies to address nonproliferation issues. A variety of methodologies (both qualitative and quantitative) are being considered. All have one thing in common, a need for a consistent set of proliferation related data that can be used as a basis for application. One approach to providing a basis for predicting and evaluating future proliferation events is to understand past proliferation events, that is, the different paths that have actually been taken to acquire or attempt to acquire special nuclear material. In order to provide this information, this report describing previous material acquisition activities (obtained from open source material) has been prepared. This report describes how, based on an evaluation of historical trends in nuclear technology development, conclusions can be reached concerning: (1) The length of time it takes to acquire a technology; (2) The length of time it takes for production of special nuclear material to begin; and (3) The type of approaches taken for acquiring the technology. In addition to examining time constants, the report is intended to provide information that could be used to support the use of the different non-proliferation analysis methodologies. Accordingly, each section includes: (1) Technology description; (2) Technology origin; (3) Basic theory; (4) Important components/materials; (5) Technology development; (6) Technological difficulties involved in use; (7) Changes/improvements in technology; (8) Countries that have used/attempted to use the technology; (9) Technology Information; (10) Acquisition approaches; (11) Time constants for technology development; and (12) Required Concurrent Technologies.

  14. Risk and safety analysis of nuclear systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, John C; McCormick, Norman J

    2011-01-01

    ...), and failure modes of systems. All of this material is general enough that it could be used in non-nuclear applications, although there is an emphasis placed on the analysis of nuclear systems...

  15. Numerical studies of triplet and Russian quadruplet quadrupole lens systems with the given spot size on the target, for use in a microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brazhnik, V A; Lebed, S A; Ponomarev, A G; Storizhko, V E [Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Sumy (Ukraine). Applied Physics Institute; Dymnikov, A D [University of St Petersburg, Stary (Russian Federation). Institute of Computational Mathematics and Control Processes; Jamieson, D N; Legge, S A [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1994-12-31

    In a nuclear microprobe the focusing system is an essential component which determines the beam spot size, i.e. the microprobe resolution. A small beam cross section at the target is the most important of the many conflicting requirements imposed on the beam The second most important factor is the current of the beam which at the given brightness is proportional to the phase volume (or emittance) of the beam. Existing microprobes frequently use a triplet or a Russian quadruplet as the focusing systems. This paper describes the numerical studies of some optimal quadrupole lens systems consisting of three or four lenses suitable for use in a nuclear microprobe taking into account geometrical aberrations of third order. The maximum emittance of changed particle beams for these systems has been found. It is shown how the maximum emittance depends on the spot size. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Numerical studies of triplet and Russian quadruplet quadrupole lens systems with the given spot size on the target, for use in a microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brazhnik, V.A.; Lebed, S.A.; Ponomarev, A.G.; Storizhko, V.E. [Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Sumy (Ukraine). Applied Physics Institute; Dymnikov, A.D. [University of St Petersburg, Stary (Russian Federation). Institute of Computational Mathematics and Control Processes; Jamieson, D.N.; Legge, S.A. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1993-12-31

    In a nuclear microprobe the focusing system is an essential component which determines the beam spot size, i.e. the microprobe resolution. A small beam cross section at the target is the most important of the many conflicting requirements imposed on the beam The second most important factor is the current of the beam which at the given brightness is proportional to the phase volume (or emittance) of the beam. Existing microprobes frequently use a triplet or a Russian quadruplet as the focusing systems. This paper describes the numerical studies of some optimal quadrupole lens systems consisting of three or four lenses suitable for use in a nuclear microprobe taking into account geometrical aberrations of third order. The maximum emittance of changed particle beams for these systems has been found. It is shown how the maximum emittance depends on the spot size. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Numerical studies of triplet and Russian quadruplet quadrupole lens systems with the given spot size on the target, for use in a microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazhnik, V.A.; Lebed, S.A.; Ponomarev, A.G.; Storizhko, V.E.; Dymnikov, A.D.; Jamieson, D.N.; Legge, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    In a nuclear microprobe the focusing system is an essential component which determines the beam spot size, i.e. the microprobe resolution. A small beam cross section at the target is the most important of the many conflicting requirements imposed on the beam The second most important factor is the current of the beam which at the given brightness is proportional to the phase volume (or emittance) of the beam. Existing microprobes frequently use a triplet or a Russian quadruplet as the focusing systems. This paper describes the numerical studies of some optimal quadrupole lens systems consisting of three or four lenses suitable for use in a nuclear microprobe taking into account geometrical aberrations of third order. The maximum emittance of changed particle beams for these systems has been found. It is shown how the maximum emittance depends on the spot size. 2 refs., 2 figs

  18. Tin accumulation in spermatozoa of the rats exposed to tributyltin chloride by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) analysis with microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma-Takeda, S.; Nishimura, Y.; Terada, Y.; Ueno, S.; Watanabe, Y.; Yukawa, M.

    2005-01-01

    Organotin compounds are widely used in industry and its environmental contamination by these compounds has recently become a concern. It is known that they act as endocrine disruptors but details of the dynamics of Sn in reproductive organs are still unknown. In the present study, we attempted to determine Sn distribution in the testis of rats exposed to tributyltin chloride (TBTC) by inductively coupled argon plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for microdissectioned seminiferous tubules and cell-selective metal determination of synchrotron radiation X-ray florescence (SR-XRF) analysis. TBTC was orally administered to rats at a dose of 45 μmol/kg per day for 3 days. One day later, Sn was detected in the microdissectioned seminiferous tubules at a level approximately equivalent to that in the testis. Significant stage-specificity of Sn accumulation was not observed in the experimental model. Sn was also detected in spermatozoa at the stage VIII seminiferous tubule, which are the final step of spermatogenesis in the testis. These data indicate that Sn accumulates in germ cells as well as in spermatozoa in a short period of TBTC exposure

  19. Tin accumulation in spermatozoa of the rats exposed to tributyltin chloride by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) analysis with microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homma-Takeda, S. [Environmental Radiation Protection Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)]. E-mail: shino_ht@nirs.go.jp; Nishimura, Y. [Environmental Radiation Protection Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Terada, Y. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Mikazuki, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Ueno, S. [School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Kitasato University, Towada, Aomori 034-8628 (Japan); Watanabe, Y. [Environmental Radiation Protection Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Yukawa, M. [Environmental Radiation Protection Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2005-04-01

    Organotin compounds are widely used in industry and its environmental contamination by these compounds has recently become a concern. It is known that they act as endocrine disruptors but details of the dynamics of Sn in reproductive organs are still unknown. In the present study, we attempted to determine Sn distribution in the testis of rats exposed to tributyltin chloride (TBTC) by inductively coupled argon plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for microdissectioned seminiferous tubules and cell-selective metal determination of synchrotron radiation X-ray florescence (SR-XRF) analysis. TBTC was orally administered to rats at a dose of 45 {mu}mol/kg per day for 3 days. One day later, Sn was detected in the microdissectioned seminiferous tubules at a level approximately equivalent to that in the testis. Significant stage-specificity of Sn accumulation was not observed in the experimental model. Sn was also detected in spermatozoa at the stage VIII seminiferous tubule, which are the final step of spermatogenesis in the testis. These data indicate that Sn accumulates in germ cells as well as in spermatozoa in a short period of TBTC exposure.

  20. In vivo analysis of tissue by Raman microprobe: examination of human skin lesions and esophagus Barrett's mucosa on an animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfayli, Ali; Piot, Olivier; Derancourt, Sylvie; Cadiot, Guillaume; Diebold, Marie D.; Bernard, Philippe; Manfait, Michel

    2006-02-01

    In the last few years, Raman spectroscopy has been increasingly used for the characterization of normal and pathological tissues. A new Raman system, constituted of optic fibers bundle coupled to an axial Raman spectrometer (Horiba Jobin Yvon SAS), was developed for in vivo investigations. Here, we present in vivo analysis on two tissues: human skin and esophagus mucosa on a rat model. The skin is a directly accessible organ, representing a high diversity of lesions and cancers. Including malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma and the squamous cell carcinoma, skin cancer is the cancer with the highest incidence worldwide. Several Raman investigations were performed to discriminate and classify different types of skin lesions, on thin sections of biopsies. Here, we try to characterize in vivo the different types of skin cancers in order to be able to detect them in their early stages of development and to define precisely the exeresis limits. Barrett's mucosa was also studied by in vivo examination of rat's esophagus. Barrett's mucosa, induced by gastro-esophageal reflux, is a pretumoral state that has to be carefully monitored due to its high risk of evolution in adenocarcinoma. A better knowledge of the histological transformation of esophagus epithelium in a Barrett's type will lead to a more efficient detection of the pathology for its early diagnosis. To study these changes, an animal model (rats developing Barrett's mucosa after duodenum - esophagus anastomosis) was used. Potential of vibrational spectroscopy for Barrett's mucosa identification is assessed on this model.

  1. Microprobe to closely examine minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The University of South Australia will develop synchrotron-based technology that can determine the structure and chemical composition of mineral samples at microscopic levels. The planned multi-analysis synchrotron X-ray facility Beam-line 11 is for implementing on the Australian Synchrotron. UniSA's Applied Centre for Structural and Synchrotron Studies (ACeSSS) will use Beamline 11 to shed new light on factors that constrain recoveries of copper and gold from typical copper ores. ACeSSS director Professor Andrea Gerson is working with an international team and the Australian Synchrotron on the design of Beamline 11. According to Gerson, there is scope to improve processing and/or increase recoveries in copper, gold and valueless pyrite either through separation, smelting, leaching or electro-processing. Using synchrotron technology, researchers will determine the structure and chemical composition of mineral samples to understand the fundamental behaviour of these materials in order to identify process and : environmental benefits. Three different strategies will be employed: tracing the movement of gold through the mineral processing chain to optimise and increase gold recovery; examining the surface layers formed when copper is leached from the mineral, chalcopyrite, to enhance the understanding of this surface layer formation and ultimately maximise cop-per recovery; and improving environmental remediation by understanding the mineralisation process during acid-rock drainage. ACeSSS will work with the minerals and environmental remediation sectors, building on the I establishment of the Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, and cementing close collaboration with UniSA's Ian Wark Research Institute. Contributions from the SA Premier's Science and Research Fund, BHP Billiton and Rio Tinto, synchrotron partners Advanced Light Source (USA) and the Canadian Light Source Funding totalling $1.38m are available for

  2. Nuclear Power Plant Module, NPP-1: Nuclear Power Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, Robert L.

    The purpose of the Nuclear Power Plant Modules, NPP-1, is to determine the total cost of electricity from a nuclear power plant in terms of all the components contributing to cost. The plan of analysis is in five parts: (1) general formulation of the cost equation; (2) capital cost and fixed charges thereon; (3) operational cost for labor,…

  3. Microprobe investigation of brittle segregates in aluminum MIG and TIG welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larssen, P. A.; Miller, E. L.

    1968-01-01

    Quantitative microprobe analysis of segregated particles in aluminum MIG /Metal Inert Gas/ and TIG /Tungsten Inert Gas/ welds indicated that there were about ten different kinds of particles, corresponding to ten different intermetallic compounds. Differences between MIG and TIG welds related to the individual cooling rates of these welds.

  4. Evaluation of an x-ray microprobe technique as a possible aid to detect salmonellae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, E.R.; Banwart, G.J.

    1982-01-01

    Specific bacterial antigen (Salmonella) increased in phosphorus and sqlfur after reaction with the flukrescain isothiocyanate-tagged anti-Salmonella antibody, while nonspecific antigen (Escherichia coli) did not. X-ray microprobe analysis may be useful in detecting salmonellae or other bacteria by determining increases in the elemental constituents of bacterial cells when reacted with elemental-tagged antibodies

  5. Elemental microanalysis of biological and medical specimens with a scanning proton microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legge, G.J.F.; Mazzolini, A.P.

    1979-01-01

    The scanning proton microprobe is shown to be a sensitive instrument for elemental microanalysis of cells and tissues in biological and medical specimens. The preparation of specimens and their behaviour under irradiation are crucial and the application of quantitative scanning analysis to the monitoring of such problems is illustrated

  6. Materials of the Second Sumy-Cracow-Muenster Symposium on Nuclear Analytical Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The applications of nuclear analytical methods in physico-chemical, biological and medical studies have been presented in large number of applications. Environmental, geological and biological materials have been analysed by means of neutron activation analysis, proton microprobe, x-ray diffraction, synchrotron radiation X-ray spectrum analysis, ESR and others

  7. Nondestructive assay methodologies in nuclear forensics analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomar, B.S.

    2016-01-01

    In the present chapter, the nondestructive assay (NDA) methodologies used for analysis of nuclear materials as a part of nuclear forensic investigation have been described. These NDA methodologies are based on (i) measurement of passive gamma and neutrons emitted by the radioisotopes present in the nuclear materials, (ii) measurement of gamma rays and neutrons emitted after the active interrogation of the nuclear materials with a source of X-rays, gamma rays or neutrons

  8. Applications of noise analysis to nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar Martinez, Omar

    2000-01-01

    Noise Analysis techniques (analysis of the fluctuation of physical parameters) have been successfully applied to the operational vigilance of the technical equipment that plays a decisive role in the production cycle of a very complex industry. Although fluctuation measurements in nuclear installations started almost at the start of the nuclear era (see works by Feynman and Rossi on the development of neutron methodology), only recently have neutron noise diagnostic applications begun to be a part of the standard procedures for the performance of some modern nuclear installations. Following the relevant technical advances made in information sciences and analogical electronics, measuring the fluctuation of physical parameters has become a very effective tool for detecting, guarding and following up possible defects in a nuclear system. As the processing techniques for the fluctuation of a nuclear reactor's physical-neutron parameters have evolved (temporal and frequency analysis, multi-parameter self -regression analysis, etc.), the applications of the theory of non-lineal dynamics and chaos theory have progressed by focusing on the problem from another perspective. This work reports on those nuclear applications of noise analysis that increase nuclear safety in all types of nuclear facilities and that have been carried out by the author over the last decade, such as: -Void Force Critical Set Applications (Zero Power Reactor Applications, Central Institute of Physical Research, Budapest, Hungary); -Research Reactor Applications (Triga Mark III Reactor, National Institute of Nuclear Research, ININ, Mexico); -Power Reactor Applications in a Nuclear Power Plant (First Circuit of Block II, Paks Nuclear Center, Hungary); -Second Loop applications in a Nuclear Power Plant (Block I Paks Nuclear Center, Hungary; Block II Kalinin Nuclear Center, Russia); -Shield System Applications for the Transport of Radioisotopes (Nuclear Technology Center, Havana, Cuba) New trends in

  9. Application of nuclear activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamonov, E.I.; Khlystova, A.F.

    1979-01-01

    Consideration is given to the applications of nuclear-activation analysis (NAA) as discussed at the International Conference of 1977. One of the new results in the present-day NAA practices is the growing number of elements detected in samples without using a destructive radiochemical separation. An essential feature in this context is the development of the system automation of control and information NAA operations through the use computers. In biological medicine a multicomponent NAA is employed to determine the concentration of elements in various human organs and objects, in metabolic studies and for diagnostic purposes. In agriculture NAA finds applications in the evaluation of grain protein, analysis of element feed composition, soil and fertilizers. The application of this method to the environmental monitoring is considered with particular reference to the element analysis of water (especially drinking water), air, plant residues. Data are presented for the use of NAA in metallurgy, geology, archaeology and criminal law. Tables are provided to illustrate the uses of NAA in various fields

  10. Palo Verde nuclear dynamic analysis (PANDA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girjashankar, P.V.; Secker, P.A. Jr.; LeClair, S.J.; Mendoza, J.; Webb, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Arizona Nuclear Power Project (ANPP) has initiated the development of a large scale dynamic analysis computer program for the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station (PVNGS). This paper presents the decision processes and preliminary development activities that have been pursued related to the code development. The PANDA (Palo Verde Nuclear Dynamic Analysis) code will be used for a variety of applications as described in this paper

  11. A new scanning proton microprobe with long focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jieqing; Li Minqian; Mao Yu; Chen Hanmin; Gu Yingmei; Yang Changyi; Sheng Kanglong

    1991-01-01

    A new scanning proton microprobe equipped with a long focus Russian magnetic quadruplet is set up. With excellent performances of ion optics, it can be used to do experiments of PIXE, RBS, RFS, NRA and channelling simultaneously within a micron-region. The power supplies for quadruplet and scanning coils are controlled by an IBM-PC computer and a scanning graphical monitor based on an Apple IIe microcomputer provides convenience of searching for an interesting area to scan. The advanced modes of the fast random scan and the event-by-event data collection make it possible to treat the multi-parameter and multi-detector data by means of the strategy of TQSA (Total quantitative scanning analysis). There are three types of graphical display including the innovation of three dimensional contour mapping

  12. Metallography and thermal analysis of ceramic nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tebaldi, V.

    1988-01-01

    The book contains two parts: the ceramography laboratory and the thermal treatment laboratory. After general remarks on sintering the first part includes sample preparation for ceramography (grinding, polishing, etching), microscopic examination and quantitative image analysis. The second part deals with temperature measurement, oxide/metal ratio determination, thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis (DTA), melting point determination and constitution of phase diagrams. Installation of a Pu laboratory, sample decontamination, and research with a microprobe are described. 188 photomicrographs present the microstructure of ceramics based on U, Pu and higher actinides

  13. ITER technical meeting on nuclear analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khripunov, V.

    2000-01-01

    The ITER technical meeting on nuclear analysis was organized on 24-25 February 2000 at the ITER Joint Work Site in Garching. It was clear from the meeting that continuous nuclear analysis is a fundamental part of the design process

  14. Nuclear microscopy in biomedical analysis with special emphasis on clinical metal biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, Ulf; Frisk, Peter; Nyström, Joakim; Danersund, Antero; Hudecek, Romuald; Lindvall, Anders; Thunell, Stig

    1997-07-01

    Nuclear microscopy based upon developments in high energy ion beam techniques is by now an accepted technique in many fields of research. The advancements into the biomedical field have, however, been slower than expected. A major factor explaining this tendency is the availability of nuclear microscopy. This paper reviews briefly the biomedical work using nuclear microscopy that has been carried out since the 4 th International Conference on Nuclear Microprobe Technology and Applications held in Shanghai. Nuclear microscopy of isolated individual blood cells from patients adversely affected by metal exposure from dental amalgam has been performed both before and after removal of the metallic fillings. The elemental profile of blood cells was more or less normalised after treatment. Some of these results will be presented to illustrate a medical application. Results from bulk analysis by ICP-MS of erythrocytes and plasma before and after treatment will also be presented to illustrate the difference in information content between these two approaches as well as the need for complementary information in solving biomedical problems. As part of a larger study of acute porphyria, nuclear microscopy of blood cells was included among the 78 laboratory tests. The approach in this study was unbiased in the sense that no hypothesis was formulated as to which laboratory parameters would be the most explanatory for health or disease. Multivariate discriminant analysis was applied to the large amounts of data acquired. This approach led to the hypothesis that oxidative stress increased the synthesis of manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase in the mitochondria of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, explaining the increase of manganese in these cells. Antioxidant therapy was therefore applied to a couple of patients with porphyria, however, without clinical success.

  15. Proton microprobe study of tin-polymetallic deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murao, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1996-12-31

    Tin-polymetallic vein type deposits are a complex mixture of cassiterite and sulfides and they are the main source of technologically important rare metals such as indium and bismuth. Constituent minerals are usually fine grained having wide range of chemical composition and often the elements of interest occur as trace elements not amenable to electron microprobe analysis. PIXE with a proton microprobe can be an effective tool to study such deposits by delineating the distribution of trace elements among carrier minerals. Two representative indium-bearing deposits of tin- polymetallic type, Tosham of India (Cu-ln-Bi-Sn-W-Ag), and Mount Pleasant of Canada (Zn-Cu-In-Bi-Sn-W), were studied to delineate the distribution of medical/high-tech rare metals and to examine the effectiveness of the proton probe analysis of such ore. One of the results of the study indicated that indium and bismuth are present in chalcopyrite in the deposits. In addition to these important rare metals, zinc, copper, arsenic, antimony, selenium, and tin are common in chalcopyrite and pyrite. Arsenopyrite contains nickel, copper, zinc, silver, tin, antimony and bismuth. In chalcopyrite and pyrite, zinc, arsenic, indium, bismuth and lead are richer in Mount Pleasant ore, but silver is higher at Tosham. Also thallium and gold were found only in Tosham pyrite. The Tosham deposit is related to S-type granite, while Mount Pleasant to A-type. It appears that petrographic character of the source magma is one of the factors to determine the trace element distribution in tin-polymetallic deposit. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Proton microprobe study of tin-polymetallic deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murao, S [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sie, S H; Suter, G F [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1997-12-31

    Tin-polymetallic vein type deposits are a complex mixture of cassiterite and sulfides and they are the main source of technologically important rare metals such as indium and bismuth. Constituent minerals are usually fine grained having wide range of chemical composition and often the elements of interest occur as trace elements not amenable to electron microprobe analysis. PIXE with a proton microprobe can be an effective tool to study such deposits by delineating the distribution of trace elements among carrier minerals. Two representative indium-bearing deposits of tin- polymetallic type, Tosham of India (Cu-ln-Bi-Sn-W-Ag), and Mount Pleasant of Canada (Zn-Cu-In-Bi-Sn-W), were studied to delineate the distribution of medical/high-tech rare metals and to examine the effectiveness of the proton probe analysis of such ore. One of the results of the study indicated that indium and bismuth are present in chalcopyrite in the deposits. In addition to these important rare metals, zinc, copper, arsenic, antimony, selenium, and tin are common in chalcopyrite and pyrite. Arsenopyrite contains nickel, copper, zinc, silver, tin, antimony and bismuth. In chalcopyrite and pyrite, zinc, arsenic, indium, bismuth and lead are richer in Mount Pleasant ore, but silver is higher at Tosham. Also thallium and gold were found only in Tosham pyrite. The Tosham deposit is related to S-type granite, while Mount Pleasant to A-type. It appears that petrographic character of the source magma is one of the factors to determine the trace element distribution in tin-polymetallic deposit. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Proton microprobe study of tin-polymetallic deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murao, S.; Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    Tin-polymetallic vein type deposits are a complex mixture of cassiterite and sulfides and they are the main source of technologically important rare metals such as indium and bismuth. Constituent minerals are usually fine grained having wide range of chemical composition and often the elements of interest occur as trace elements not amenable to electron microprobe analysis. PIXE with a proton microprobe can be an effective tool to study such deposits by delineating the distribution of trace elements among carrier minerals. Two representative indium-bearing deposits of tin- polymetallic type, Tosham of India (Cu-ln-Bi-Sn-W-Ag), and Mount Pleasant of Canada (Zn-Cu-In-Bi-Sn-W), were studied to delineate the distribution of medical/high-tech rare metals and to examine the effectiveness of the proton probe analysis of such ore. One of the results of the study indicated that indium and bismuth are present in chalcopyrite in the deposits. In addition to these important rare metals, zinc, copper, arsenic, antimony, selenium, and tin are common in chalcopyrite and pyrite. Arsenopyrite contains nickel, copper, zinc, silver, tin, antimony and bismuth. In chalcopyrite and pyrite, zinc, arsenic, indium, bismuth and lead are richer in Mount Pleasant ore, but silver is higher at Tosham. Also thallium and gold were found only in Tosham pyrite. The Tosham deposit is related to S-type granite, while Mount Pleasant to A-type. It appears that petrographic character of the source magma is one of the factors to determine the trace element distribution in tin-polymetallic deposit. 6 refs., 2 figs

  18. Combining Raman Microprobe and XPS to Study High Temperature Oxidation of Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windisch, Charles F.; Henager, Charles H.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Bennett, Wendy D.

    2011-01-01

    Raman microprobe spectroscopy was applied in studies of high-temperature air oxidation of a ferritic alloy (HT-9) in the absence and presence of zirconia coatings with the objective of evaluating the technique as a way to quickly screen candidate cladding materials and actinide-based mixed oxide fuel mixtures for advanced nuclear reactors. When oxidation was relatively uniform, Raman spectra collected using microscope optics with low spatial resolution were found to be similar to those collected with conventional Raman spectroscopy. These spectra could be used to identify major oxide corrosion products and follow changes in the composition of the oxides due to heating. However, when the oxidation films were comprised of multiple layers of varying composition, or with layers containing metallic phases, techniques with higher depth resolution and sensitivity to zero-valence metals were necessary. The requirements were met by combining Raman microprobe using different optical configurations and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  19. Nuclear Physics Group progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coote, G.E.

    1985-07-01

    This report summarises the work of the Nuclear Physics Group of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences during the period January-December 1984. Commissioning of the EN-tandem accelerator was completed. The first applications included the production of 13 N from a water target and the measurement of hydrogen depth profiles with a 19 F beam. Further equipment was built for tandem accelerator mass spectrometry but the full facility will not be ready until 1985. The nuclear microprobe on the 3 MV accelerator was used for many studies in archaeometry, metallurgy, biology and materials analysis

  20. Nuclear analysis methods. Rudiments of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, E.

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear analysis methods are generally used to analyse radioactive elements but they can be used also for chemical analysis, with fields such analysis and characterization of traces. The principles of radiation protection are explained (ALARA), the biological effects of ionizing radiations are given, elements and units used in radiation protection are reminded in tables. A part of this article is devoted to how to use radiation protection in a nuclear analysis laboratory. (N.C.)

  1. Economic analysis of nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki Dong; Lee, M. K.; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Kim, H. S

    1999-12-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze how the economics of nuclear power generation are affected by the change in nuclear environmental factors and then, to suggest desirable policy directions to improve the efficiency of the use of nuclear energy resources in korea. This study focused to analyze the impact of the change in 3 major nuclear environmental factors in Korea on the economics of nuclear power generation. To do this, environmental external cost, nuclear R and fund, and carbon emission control according to UNFCCC were selected as the major factors. First of all, this study evaluated the impacts on the health and the environment of air pollutants emitted from coal power plant and nuclear power plant, two major electric power generating options in Korea. Then, the environmental external costs of those two options were estimated by transforming the health and environmental impact in to monetary values. To do this, AIRPACTS and 'Impacts of atmospheric release' model developed by IAEA were used. Secondly, the impact of nuclear R and D fund raised by the utility on the increment of nuclear power generating cost was evaluated. Then, the desirable size of the fund in Korea was suggested by taking into consideration the case of Japan. This study also analyzed the influences of the fund on the economics of nuclear power generation. Finally, the role of nuclear power under the carbon emission regulation was analyzed. To do this, the econometric model was developed and the impact of the regulation on the national economy was estimated. Further efforts were made to estimate the role by developing CGE model in order to improve the reliability of the results from the econometric model.

  2. Economic analysis of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ki Dong; Lee, M. K.; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Kim, H. S.

    1999-12-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze how the economics of nuclear power generation are affected by the change in nuclear environmental factors and then, to suggest desirable policy directions to improve the efficiency of the use of nuclear energy resources in korea. This study focused to analyze the impact of the change in 3 major nuclear environmental factors in Korea on the economics of nuclear power generation. To do this, environmental external cost, nuclear R and fund, and carbon emission control according to UNFCCC were selected as the major factors. First of all, this study evaluated the impacts on the health and the environment of air pollutants emitted from coal power plant and nuclear power plant, two major electric power generating options in Korea. Then, the environmental external costs of those two options were estimated by transforming the health and environmental impact in to monetary values. To do this, AIRPACTS and 'Impacts of atmospheric release' model developed by IAEA were used. Secondly, the impact of nuclear R and D fund raised by the utility on the increment of nuclear power generating cost was evaluated. Then, the desirable size of the fund in Korea was suggested by taking into consideration the case of Japan. This study also analyzed the influences of the fund on the economics of nuclear power generation. Finally, the role of nuclear power under the carbon emission regulation was analyzed. To do this, the econometric model was developed and the impact of the regulation on the national economy was estimated. Further efforts were made to estimate the role by developing CGE model in order to improve the reliability of the results from the econometric model

  3. Raman and luminescence spectroscopy of zirconium oxide with the use of the MOLE microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, T.E.; Alvarez, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Raman and luminescence spectroscopy with the use of the MOLE microprobe has been used to characterize ZrO 2 originating from oxidized fuel-rod cladding in nuclear accidents. Micro-Raman analysis of samples from Three Mile Island Unit 2 and the Power Burst Facility identified tetragonal and cubic ZrO 2 . The tetragonal and cubic phases are high-temperature polymorphs of ZrO 2 and provide information about temperatures and hydrogen formation in the TMI-2 core. The data suggest that the tetragonal ZrO 2 in TMI-2 samples was stabilized by a crystallite size effect, whereas cubic ZrO 2 in PBF debris samples was stabilized by impurities. Luminescence was used to differentiate yttria-stabilized ZrO 2 ceramics and oxidized fuel-rod cladding in PBF debris samples. The ZrO 2 ceramics produced strong, sharp luminescence peaks which indicated the presence of titanium and yttria in the ZrO 2 . Oxidized fuel-rod cladding displayed no luminescence

  4. Microprobe PIXE study of Ni–Ge interactions in lateral diffusion couples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chilukusha, D. [Department of Physics, University of Zambia, P.O. Box 32379, Lusaka 10101 (Zambia); Pineda-Vargas, C.A. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Faculty of Health & Wellness Sciences, CPUT, Bellville (South Africa); Nemutudi, R. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Habanyama, A. [Department of Physics, Copperbelt University, P.O. Box 21692, Jambo Drive, Riverside, Kitwe 10101 (Zambia); Comrie, C.M. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa)

    2015-11-15

    Rutherford backscattering spectrometry on the nuclear microprobe (μRBS) is often used in studies of lateral diffusion couples. RBS requires that the positions of the interacting species on the periodic table are not too close in terms of atomic number and therefore do not produce excessive RBS peak overlap. In order to satisfactorily characterize systems that have atomic numbers which are close, it is necessary to find techniques which can complement μRBS. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) could be applied in the lateral diffusion couple study of a system with relatively close atomic numbers. This was with a view that it may eventually be adopted to study systems where the atomic numbers are too close for RBS analysis. The system studied here was the Ni–Ge binary system. Since RBS is an established technique for studying lateral diffusion couples, we used it as a standard for comparison. The PIXE results showed a maximum error of 12% with reference to the RBS standard. In order to achieve the most effective use of PIXE in lateral diffusion couple studies we recommend the use of the technique in such a way as to obtain depth information and the use of relatively thick sample layers.

  5. Economic analysis of nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ki Dong; Choi, Young Myung; Kim, Hwa Sup; Lee, Man Ki; Moon, Kee Hwan; Kim, Seung Su

    1997-12-01

    The major contents in this study are as follows : - long-term forecast to the year of 2040 is provided for nuclear electricity generating capacity by means of logistic curve fitting method. - the role of nuclear power in a national economy is analyzed in terms of environmental regulation. To do so, energy-economy linked model is developed. By using this model, the benefits from the introduction of nuclear power in Korea are estimated. Study on inter-industry economic activity for nuclear industry is carried out by means of an input-output analysis. Nuclear industry is examined in terms of inducement effect of production, of value-added, and of import. - economic analysis of nuclear power generation is performed especially taking into consideration wide variations of foreign currency exchange rate. The result is expressed in levelized generating costs. (author). 27 refs., 24 tabs., 44 figs

  6. Prospective analysis. Nuclear deterrence in 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertrais, B.

    2006-12-01

    This study is a prospective analysis of the long-term future of nuclear weapons, and particularly the future of French nuclear deterrence after 2015. The selected time period is 2025-2030. The principal objective is to reflect on what the nuclear world might look like during the first part of the 21 st century, beyond the modernization decisions already planned or envisaged, and to draw conclusions for the future of the French deterrent. (author)

  7. Total quantitative recording of elemental maps and spectra with a scanning microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legge, G.J.F.; Hammond, I.

    1979-01-01

    A system of data recording and analysis has been developed by means of which simultaneously all data from a scanning instrument such as a microprobe can be quantitatively recorded and permanently stored, including spectral outputs from several detectors. Only one scanning operation is required on the specimen. Analysis is then performed on the stored data, which contain quantitative information on distributions of all elements and spectra of all regions

  8. Safety analysis of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvatici, E.

    1981-01-01

    A study about the safety analysis of nuclear power plant, giving emphasis to how and why to do is presented. The utilization of the safety analysis aiming to perform the licensing requirements is discussed, and an example of the Angra 2 and 3 safety analysis is shown. Some presented tendency of the safety analysis are presented and examples are shown.(E.G.) [pt

  9. Analysis of archaeological pieces with nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenorio, D.

    2002-01-01

    In this work nuclear techniques such as Neutron Activation Analysis, PIXE, X-ray fluorescence analysis, Metallography, Uranium series, Rutherford Backscattering for using in analysis of archaeological specimens and materials are described. Also some published works and thesis about analysis of different Mexican and Meso american archaeological sites are referred. (Author)

  10. Determination of trace element mineral/liquid partition coefficients in melilite and diopside by ion and electron microprobe techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehner, S. M.; Laughlin, J. R.; Grossman, L.; Johnson, M. L.; Burnett, D. S.

    1989-01-01

    The applicability of ion microprobe (IMP) for quantitative analysis of minor elements (Sr, Y, Zr, La, Sm, and Yb) in the major phases present in natural Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) was investigated by comparing IMP results with those of an electron microprobe (EMP). Results on three trace-element-doped glasses indicated that it is not possible to obtain precise quantitative analysis by using IMP if there are large differences in SiO2 content between the standards used to derive the ion yields and the unknowns.

  11. Risk analysis for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1983-01-01

    The German risk analysis program for nuclear power plants aiming at the man and the environment is presented. An accident consequence model to calculate the radiological impact and the potential health effects is described. (E.G.) [pt

  12. Analysis Of Natural Zeolites For Technical Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarria, P.; Desdin, L.; Dominguez, O.

    1999-01-01

    In this article a methodology of elementary analysis of natural zeolites is reported using different technical nuclear (AANR, FRX, MRN and EG). Determines the elementary composition of ours of two Cuban locations. (Author) [es

  13. Elemental microanalysis of botanical specimens using the Melbourne Proton Microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzolini, A.P.J.; Legge, G.J.F.

    1978-01-01

    A proton microprobe has been used to obtain the distribution of elements of various botanical specimens. This paper presents preliminary results obtained by the irradiation of certain organs of the wheat plant

  14. Economic Analysis of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Man Ki; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Song, K. D.; Lee, H. M.; Oh, K. B.

    2003-12-01

    This study consists of various issues as follows; electricity price regulation in the liberalized electricity market, establishment of carbon emission limit in national electricity sector, the role of nuclear power as an future energy supply option, the future prospect of CO2 capture and sequestration and current research status of that area in Korea, and Preliminary economic feasibility study of MIP(Medical Isotopes Producer). In the price regulation in the liberalized electricity market, the characteristic of liberalized electricity market in terms of regulation was discussed. The current status and future projection of GHG emission in Korean electricity sector was also investigated. After that, how to set the GHG emission limit in the national electricity sector was discussed. The characteristic of nuclear technology and the research in progress were summarized with the suggestion of the possible new application of nuclear power. The current status and future prospect of the CO2 capture and sequestration research was introduced and current research status of that area in Korea was investigated. Preliminary economic feasibility study of MIP(Medical Isotopes Producer), using liquid nuclear fuel to produce medical isotopes of Mo-99 and Sr-89, was performed

  15. Optimization of the electrostatic structure of the ion microprobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Ignat'ev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents optimization data obtained for an immersion probe-forming system of the ion microprobe to be used in 3 MeV H+ ion accelerator generating 0,4 μm beam spot for normalized acceptance of 7 μm2 · mrad2 · MeV. To achieve higher microprobe resolution it is intended to place an electrostatic lens between the collimators and the accelerating tube.

  16. Deep Space 2: The Mars Microprobe Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrekar, Suzanne; Catling, David; Lorenz, Ralph; Magalhães, Julio; Moersch, Jeffrey; Morgan, Paul; Murray, Bruce; Presley-Holloway, Marsha; Yen, Albert; Zent, Aaron; Blaney, Diana

    The Mars Microprobe Mission will be the second of the New Millennium Program's technology development missions to planetary bodies. The mission consists of two penetrators that weigh 2.4 kg each and are being carried as a piggyback payload on the Mars Polar Lander cruise ring. The spacecraft arrive at Mars on December 3, 1999. The two identical penetrators will impact the surface at ~190 m/s and penetrate up to 0.6 m. They will land within 1 to 10 km of each other and ~50 km from the Polar Lander on the south polar layered terrain. The primary objective of the mission is to demonstrate technologies that will enable future science missions and, in particular, network science missions. A secondary goal is to acquire science data. A subsurface evolved water experiment and a thermal conductivity experiment will estimate the water content and thermal properties of the regolith. The atmospheric density, pressure, and temperature will be derived using descent deceleration data. Impact accelerometer data will be used to determine the depth of penetration, the hardness of the regolith, and the presence or absence of 10 cm scale layers.

  17. Study of ion tracks by micro-probe ion energy loss spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vacík, Jiří; Havránek, Vladimír; Hnatowicz, Vladimír; Horák, Pavel; Fink, Dietmar; Apel, P. Yu.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 332, AUG (2014), s. 308-311 ISSN 0168-583X. [21st International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis (IBA). Seattle, 23.06.2013-28.06.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : ion energy loss spectrometry * single ion track * microprobe * tomography Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.124, year: 2014

  18. Autoclave nuclear criticality safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Aquila, D.M. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States); Tayloe, R.W. Jr. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Steam-heated autoclaves are used in gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment plants to heat large cylinders of UF{sub 6}. Nuclear criticality safety for these autoclaves is evaluated. To enhance criticality safety, systems are incorporated into the design of autoclaves to limit the amount of water present. These safety systems also increase the likelihood that any UF{sub 6} inadvertently released from a cylinder into an autoclave is not released to the environment. Up to 140 pounds of water can be held up in large autoclaves. This mass of water is sufficient to support a nuclear criticality when optimally combined with 125 pounds of UF{sub 6} enriched to 5 percent U{sup 235}. However, water in autoclaves is widely dispersed as condensed droplets and vapor, and is extremely unlikely to form a critical configuration with released UF{sub 6}.

  19. Defense against nuclear weapons: a decision analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orient, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Response to the public health threat posed by nuclear weapons is a medical imperative. The United States, in contrast to other nations, has chosen a course that assures maximal casualties in the event of a nuclear attack, on the theory that prevention of the attack is incompatible with preventive measures against its consequences, such as blast injuries and radiation sickness. A decision analysis approach clarifies the risks and benefits of a change to a strategy of preparedness

  20. The nuclear analysis program at MURR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glascock, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    The University of Missouri-Columbia (MU) has continually upgraded research facilities and programs at the MU research reactor (MURR) throughout its 26-yr history. The Nuclear Analysis Program (NAP) area has participated in these upgrades over the years. As one of the largest activation analysis laboratories on a university campus, the activities of the NAP are broadly representative of the diversity of applications for activation analysis and related nuclear science. This paper describes the MURR's NAP and several of the research, education, and service projects in which the laboratory is currently engaged

  1. Seismic analysis of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbritter, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plants require exceptional safety guarantees which are reflected in a rigorous control of the employed materials, advanced construction technology, sophisticated methods of analysis and consideration of non conventional load cases such as the earthquake loading. In this paper, the current procedures used in the seismic analysis of Nuclear Power Plants are presented. The seismic analysis of the structures has two objectives: the determination of forces in the structure in order to design it against earthquakes and the generation of floor response spectra to be used in the design of mechanical and electrical components and piping systems. (Author) [pt

  2. Nuclear class 1 piping stress analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, J.C.R.; Maneschy, J.E.; Mariano, L.A.; Tamura, M.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear class 1 piping stress analysis, according to the ASME code, is presented. The TRHEAT computer code has been used to determine the piping wall thermal gradient. The Nupipe computer code was employed for the piping stress analysis. Computer results were compared with the allowable criteria from the ASME code. (Author) [pt

  3. Economic analysis of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, P.S.; Parker, M.B.; Omberg, R.P.

    1979-05-01

    The report presents several methods for estimating the power costs of nuclear reactors. When based on a consistent set of economic assumptions, total power costs may be useful in comparing reactor alternatives. The principal items contributing to the total power costs of a nuclear power plant are: (1) capital costs, (2) fuel cycle costs, (3) operation and maintenance costs, and (4) income taxes and fixed charges. There is a large variation in capital costs and fuel expenses among different reactor types. For example, the standard once-through LWR has relatively low capital costs; however, the fuel costs may be very high if U 3 O 8 is expensive. In contrast, the FBR has relatively high capital costs but low fuel expenses. Thus, the distribution of expenses varies significantly between these two reactors. In order to compare power costs, expenses and revenues associated with each reactor may be spread over the lifetime of the plant. A single annual cost, often called a levelized cost, may be obtained by the methods described. Levelized power costs may then be used as a basis for economic comparisons. The paper discusses each of the power cost components. An exact expression for total levelized power costs is derived. Approximate techniques of estimating power costs will be presented

  4. Exome Array Analysis of Nuclear Lens Opacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Stephanie J; Klein, Alison P; Lee, Kristine E; Chen, Fei; Bomotti, Samantha; Truitt, Barbara; Iyengar, Sudha K; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E K; Duggal, Priya

    2018-06-01

    Nuclear cataract is the most common subtype of age-related cataract, the leading cause of blindness worldwide. It results from advanced nuclear sclerosis, or opacity in the center of the optic lens, and is affected by both genetic and environmental risk factors, including smoking. We sought to understand the genetic factors associated with nuclear sclerosis through interrogation of rare and low frequency coding variants using exome array data. We analyzed Illumina Human Exome Array data for 1,488 participants of European ancestry in the Beaver Dam Eye Study who were without cataract surgery for association with nuclear sclerosis grade, controlling for age and sex. We performed single-variant regression analysis for 32,138 variants with minor allele frequency (MAF) ≥0.003. In addition, gene-based analysis of 11,844 genes containing at least two variants with MAF nuclear sclerosis, the possible association with the RNF149 gene highlights a potential candidate gene for future studies that aim to understand the genetic architecture of nuclear sclerosis.

  5. Deep PIXE: finding diamonds with the proton microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, W.L.; Ryan, C.G.

    1991-01-01

    Since 1987 the CSIRO Div. of Exploration Geoscience has carried out a program of proton-microprobe (PIXE) analysis aimed at using trace-element data on indicator minerals to discriminate between those from diamondiferous and barren source rocks. The results have provided both important new tools for the exploration industry, and significant new information on the conditions and processes of diamond growth. Cr-pyrope garnet has been used as Ni thermometer while chromites, in partcular their Zn content, has allowed correlation of chromite composition with temperature. The two techniques described provide a significant increase in exploration efficiency, through early recognition and rejection of barren targets and concentration of resources on more promising targets. They also provide direct cost savings in evaluation of ore bodies once they are found. It is estimated that evaluation of a prospect by conventional bulk testing is expensive ($100-500K) and time-consuming; an evaluation by PIXE methods is done quickly for a tiny fraction of that cost. 1 refs., 4 figs

  6. U/Th dating by SHRIMP RG ion-microprobe mass spectrometry using single ion-exchange beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, J.L.; Wooden, J.; Murphy, F.; Williams, Ross W.

    2005-01-01

    We present a new analytical method for U-series isotopes using the SHRIMP RG (Sensitive High mass Resolution Ion MicroProbe) mass spectrometer that utilizes the preconcentration of the U-series isotopes from a sample onto a single ion-exchange bead. Ion-microprobe mass spectrometry is capable of producing Th ionization efficiencies in excess of 2%. Analytical precision is typically better than alpha spectroscopy, but not as good as thermal ionization mass spectroscopy (TIMS) and inductively coupled plasma multicollector mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Like TIMS and ICP-MS the method allows analysis of small samples sizes, but also adds the advantage of rapidity of analysis. A major advantage of ion-microprobe analysis is that U and Th isotopes are analyzed in the same bead, simplifying the process of chemical separation. Analytical time on the instrument is ???60 min per sample, and a single instrument-loading can accommodate 15-20 samples to be analyzed in a 24-h day. An additional advantage is that the method allows multiple reanalyses of the same bead and that samples can be archived for reanalysis at a later time. Because the ion beam excavates a pit only a few ??m deep, the mount can later be repolished and reanalyzed numerous times. The method described of preconcentrating a low concentration sample onto a small conductive substrate to allow ion-microprobe mass spectrometry is potentially applicable to many other systems. Copyright ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Bulk analysis using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsaru, M.; Holmes, R.J.; Mathew, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    Bulk analysis techniques developed for the mining industry are reviewed. Using penetrating neutron and #betta#-radiations, measurements are obtained directly from a large volume of sample (3-30 kg) #betta#-techniques were used to determine the grade of iron ore and to detect shale on conveyor belts. Thermal neutron irradiation was developed for the simultaneous determination of iron and aluminium in iron ore on a conveyor belt. Thermal-neutron activation analysis includes the determination of alumina in bauxite, and manganese and alumina in manganese ore. Fast neutron activation analysis is used to determine silicon in iron ores, and alumina and silica in bauxite. Fast and thermal neutron activation has been used to determine the soil in shredded sugar cane. (U.K.)

  8. Nuclear plant analyzer development and analysis applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laats, E.T.

    1984-10-01

    The Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA) is being developed as the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) state of the art safety analysis and engineering tool to address key nuclear plant safety issues. This paper describes four applications of the NPA in assisting reactor safety analyses. Two analyses evaluated reactor operating procedures, during off-normal operation, for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) and a boiling water reactor (BWR), respectively. The third analysis was performed in support of a reactor safety experiment conducted in the Semiscale facility. The final application demonstrated the usefulness of atmospheric dispersion computer codes for site emergency planning purposes. An overview of the NPA and how it supported these analyses are the topics of this paper

  9. Projection and analysis of nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeschen, U.

    1980-01-01

    The classification and the types of analysis carried out in pipings for quality control and safety of nuclear power plants, are presented. The operation and emergency conditions with emphasis of possible simplifications of calculations are described. (author/M.C.K.) [pt

  10. Informatics for analysis of nuclear experiments: TOUTATIX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabasse, J.F.; Du, S.; Penillault, G.; Tassan-Got, L.; Givort, M.

    1999-01-01

    For several years in connection with the migration towards UNIX system, software tools have been developed in the laboratory. They allow the nuclear physicist community to achieve the complete analysis of experimental data. They comply with the requirements imposed by the development of multi-detectors. A special attention has been devoted to ergonomic aspects and configuration possibilities. (authors)

  11. Dynamic energy analysis and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J.

    1974-01-01

    An initial inquiry (intended for the layman) into how the net energy balance of exponential programmes of energy conversion facilities varies in time; what are the energy inputs and outputs of commercial nuclear reactors, both singly and in such programmes; what are the possible errors and omissions in this analysis; and what are the policy and research implications of the results. (author)

  12. Chemical analysis by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, S. C.; Kim, W. H.; Park, Y. J.; Park, Y. J.; Song, B. C.; Jeon, Y. S.; Jee, K. Y.; Pyo, H. Y.

    2002-01-01

    This state art report consists of four parts, production of micro-particles, analysis of boron, alpha tracking method and development of neutron induced prompt gamma ray spectroscopy (NIPS) system. The various methods for the production of micro-paticles such as mechanical method, electrolysis method, chemical method, spray method were described in the first part. The second part contains sample treatment, separation and concentration, analytical method, and application of boron analysis. The third part contains characteristics of alpha track, track dectectors, pretreatment of sample, neutron irradiation, etching conditions for various detectors, observation of track on the detector, etc. The last part contains basic theory, neutron source, collimator, neutron shields, calibration of NIPS, and application of NIPS system

  13. Chemical analysis by nuclear techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, S. C.; Kim, W. H.; Park, Y. J.; Song, B. C.; Jeon, Y. S.; Jee, K. Y.; Pyo, H. Y

    2002-01-01

    This state art report consists of four parts, production of micro-particles, analysis of boron, alpha tracking method and development of neutron induced prompt gamma ray spectroscopy (NIPS) system. The various methods for the production of micro-paticles such as mechanical method, electrolysis method, chemical method, spray method were described in the first part. The second part contains sample treatment, separation and concentration, analytical method, and application of boron analysis. The third part contains characteristics of alpha track, track dectectors, pretreatment of sample, neutron irradiation, etching conditions for various detectors, observation of track on the detector, etc. The last part contains basic theory, neutron source, collimator, neutron shields, calibration of NIPS, and application of NIPS system.

  14. Nuclear analysis of Jordanian tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, K. A.; Saleh, N. S.

    The concentration of trace and minor elements in six different Jordanian and two foreign brands of cigarette tobacco and wrapping paper were determined using combined X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Rutherford backscatteing (RBS) analysis techniques. The cigarette filter and the ash were also analyzed to determine the trapped elements on the filter and their transference with smoke. The toxic effects of some elements have been briefly discussed.

  15. Analysis of irradiated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellamy, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    Papers presented at the UKAEA Conference on Materials Analysis by Physical Techniques (1987) covered a wide range of techniques as applied to the analysis of irradiated materials. These varied from reactor component materials, materials associated with the Authority's radwaste disposal programme, fission products and products associated with the decommissioning of nuclear reactors. An invited paper giving a very comprehensive review of Laser Ablation Microprobe Mass Spectroscopy (LAMMS) was included in the programme. (author)

  16. Nuclear spectrum analysis by using microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyal, M.K.; Mukhopadhyay, P.K.; Rao, A.D.; Pethe, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    A method is presented for analysis of nuclear spectra by using microcomputer. A nonlinear least square fit of a mathematical model with observed spectrum is performed with variable metric method. The linear search procedure of the variable metric method has been modified so that the algorithm needs less program space and computational time both of which are important for microcomputer implementation. This widely used peak analysis method can now be made available in microcomputer based multichannel analysers. (author)

  17. Nuclear data needs for material analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, Gabor L.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear data for material analysis using neutron-based methods are examined. Besides a critical review of the available data, emphasis is given to emerging application areas and new experimental techniques. Neutron scattering and reaction data, as well as decay data for delayed and prompt gamma activation analysis are all discussed in detail. Conclusions are formed concerning the need of new measurement, calculation, evaluation and dissemination activities. (author)

  18. Analysis of nuclear reactor pressure vessel flanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.A.N. de; Augusto, O.B.

    1985-01-01

    This work proposes a methodology for the structural analysis of high diameter nuclear reactor pressure vessel flanges. In the analysis the vessel is divided into shell-of-revolution elements, the flanges are represented by rigid rings, and the bolts are treated as beams. The flexibility method is used for solving the problem, and the results are compared with results obtained by the finite element method. (Author) [pt

  19. Seismic analysis of nuclear piping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, S.K.; Pillai, K.R.V.; Nandakumar, S.

    1975-01-01

    To illustrate seismic analysis of nuclear power plant piping, a simple piping system running between two floors of the reactor building is assumed. Reactor building floor response is derived from time-history method. El Centre earthquake (1940) accelerogram is used for time-history analysis. The piping system is analysed as multimass lumped system. Behaviour of the pipe during the said earthquake is discussed. (author)

  20. Application of analysis technology in nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaoka, Keiko; Miura, Hiromi; Umeda, Kenji

    1996-01-01

    Recently, thanks to the rapid improvement of EWS performance, the authors have been able to carry out design evaluation comparatively, easily, utilizing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technology. The Nuclear Plant Engineering Department has carried out some analyses in the past several years with the main purpose of evaluating the design of nuclear reactor internals. These studies included ''Thermal Hydraulic Analysis for Top Plenum'' and ''Flow Analysis for Lower Plenum''. It is considered to be a special matter in thermal hydraulic analysis of the top plenum that temperature distribution has been estimated with a relatively small number of meshes by means of an imaginary spray nozzle, and in the flow analysis for the lower plenum that flow distribution has been found to change largely, depending on the reactor internals. One of the ways to confirm the safety of nuclear plants, detailed structural analysis, is required for all possible combinations of transient and load conditions during operation. In particular, it is very important to clarify the thermal stress behavior under operating conditions and to evaluate fatigue analysis in accordance with the Code Requirements. However, it is very complicated and it takes a lot of time. A new system was developed which can operate continuously all of the definitions of the analytical model, the analyzation of pressurized thermal and external stress, and editing reports. In this paper, the authors introduce this system and apply it to a pressurized water reactor

  1. Economic Analysis of Several Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Won Il; Gao, Fanxing; Kim, Sung Ki

    2012-01-01

    Economics is one of the essential criteria to be considered for the future deployment of the nuclear power. With regard to the competitive power market, the cost of electricity from nuclear power plants is somewhat highly competitive with those from the other electricity generations, averaging lower in cost than fossil fuels, wind, or solar. However, a closer look at the nuclear power production brings an insight that the cost varies within a wide range, highly depending on a nuclear fuel cycle option. The option of nuclear fuel cycle is a key determinant in the economics, and therefrom, a comprehensive comparison among the proposed fuel cycle options necessitates an economic analysis for thirteen promising options based on the material flow analysis obtained by an equilibrium model as specified in the first article (Modeling and System Analysis of Different Fuel Cycle Options for Nuclear Power Sustainability (I): Uranium Consumption and Waste Generation). The objective of the article is to provide a systematic cost comparison among these nuclear fuel cycles. The generation cost (GC) generally consists of a capital cost, an operation and maintenance cost (O and M cost), a fuel cycle cost (FCC), and a decontaminating and decommissioning (D and D) cost. FCC includes a frontend cost and a back-end cost, as well as costs associated with fuel recycling in the cases of semi-closed and closed cycle options. As a part of GC, the economic analysis on FCC mainly focuses on the cost differences among fuel cycle options considered and therefore efficiently avoids the large uncertainties of the Generation-IV reactor capital costs and the advanced reprocessing costs. However, the GC provides a more comprehensive result covering all the associated costs, and therefrom, both GC and FCC have been analyzed, respectively. As a widely applied tool, the levelized cost (mills/KWh) proves to be a fundamental calculation principle in the energy and power industry, which is particularly

  2. Economic analysis of nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki Dong; Choi, Young Myung; Kim, Hwa Sup; Lee, Man Ki; Moon, Kee Hwan; Kim, Seung Su; Chae, Kyu Nam

    1996-12-01

    The major contents in this study are as follows : (1) Efforts are made to examine the role of nuclear energy considering environmental regulation. An econometric model for energy demand and supply including carbon tax imposition is established. (2) Analysis for the learning effect of nuclear power plant operation is performed. The study is focused to measure the effect of technology homogeneity on the operation performance. (3) A preliminary capital cost of the KALIMER is estimated by using cost computer program, which is developed in this study. (author). 36 refs.,46 tabs., 15 figs.

  3. Activation Analysis and Nuclear Research in Burma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiele, R. W.

    1971-07-01

    Research endeavours in the field of Nuclear Sciences in Burma appear to be concentrated in three main Institutions. These are the Chemistry and Physics Departments of the Rangoon Arts & Science University and the Union of Burma Applied Research Institute (UBARI). In view of possible forthcoming developments an expanded research programme, which is to be implemented on the basis of a five year plan, has been drawn up. Research topics included in this programme are predominantly of practical interest and aimed at a contribution by nuclear methods, in particular activation analysis, to the technological and industrial needs of the country.

  4. Nuclear microprobe local characterization of YBaCuO superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, P.; Berthier, B.; Revel, G.; Trocellier, P.

    1995-09-01

    Stoichiometric local characterizations of YBaCuO oxides have been performed using a 1.4 MeV deuteron microbeam. A beam with a size of 10 × 15 μm 2 allows the observation of variations of x = 0.2 in sintered YBa 2Cu 3O 7-x. Local variations of oxygen stoichiometry in a melt-textured sample, correlated with the microstructure, have been observed. In spite of the degradation of the sample under the beam, oxygen measurements seem to remain significant for doses above 10 18 ions/cm 2.

  5. Mass Spectrometric Analysis for Nuclear Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulyga, S.

    2013-01-01

    The release of man-made radionuclides into the environment results in contamination that carries specific isotopic signatures according to the release scenarios and the previous usage of materials and facilities. In order to trace the origin of such contamination and/or to assess the potential impact on the public and environmental health, it is necessary to determine the isotopic composition and activity concentrations of radionuclides in environmental samples in an accurate and timely fashion. Mass spectrometric techniques, such as thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) belong to the most powerful methods for analysis of nuclear and related samples in nuclear safeguards, forensics, and environmental monitoring. This presentation will address the potential of mass spectrometric analysis of actinides at ultra-trace concentration levels, isotopic analysis of micro-samples, age determination of nuclear materials as well as identification and quantification of elemental and isotopic signatures of nuclear samples in general. (author)

  6. Consequence analysis for nuclear reactors, Yongbyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Taewook; Jae, Moosung

    2017-01-01

    Since the Fukushima nuclear power plant accidents in 2011, there have been an increased public anxiety about the safety of nuclear power plants in Korea. The lack of safeguards and facility aging issues at the Yongbyon nuclear facilities have increased doubts. In this study, the consequence analysis for the 5-MWe graphite-moderated reactor in North Korea was performed. Various accident scenarios including accidents at the interim spent fuel pool in the 5-MWe reactor have been developed and evaluated quantitatively. Since data on the design and safety system of nuclear facilities are currently insufficient, the release fractions were set by applying the alternative source terms made for utilization in the analysis of a severe accident by integrating the results of studies of severe accidents occurred before. The calculation results show the early fatality zero deaths and latent cancer fatality about only 13 deaths in Seoul. Thus, actual impacts of a radiological release will be psychological in terms of downwind perceptions and anxiety on the part of potentially exposed populations. Even considering the simultaneous accident occurrence in both 5-MWe graphite-moderated reactor and 100-MWt light water reactor, the consequence analysis using the MACCS2 code shows no significant damage to people in South Korea. (author)

  7. Quantitative Analysis in Nuclear Medicine Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    This book provides a review of image analysis techniques as they are applied in the field of diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine. Driven in part by the remarkable increase in computing power and its ready and inexpensive availability, this is a relatively new yet rapidly expanding field. Likewise, although the use of radionuclides for diagnosis and therapy has origins dating back almost to the discovery of natural radioactivity itself, radionuclide therapy and, in particular, targeted radionuclide therapy has only recently emerged as a promising approach for therapy of cancer and, to a lesser extent, other diseases. As effort has, therefore, been made to place the reviews provided in this book in a broader context. The effort to do this is reflected by the inclusion of introductory chapters that address basic principles of nuclear medicine imaging, followed by overview of issues that are closely related to quantitative nuclear imaging and its potential role in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. ...

  8. Proceedings of the third meeting on nuclear analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-04-01

    This international meeting presents a series of methodical and device developments in the field of nuclear analysis techniques such as nuclear reaction analysis, activation analysis, pixe analysis, tracer techniques or atom and nuclear spectroscopy. The applications cover an extensive field in energetics, geology, medicine, biology, environment protection, materials science etc. and are presented in 141 papers

  9. Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rocket Analysis Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belair, Michael; Lavelle, Thomas; Saimento, Charles; Juhasz, Albert; Stewart, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion has long been considered an enabling technology for human missions to Mars and beyond. One concept of operations for these missions utilizes the nuclear reactor to generate electrical power during coast phases, known as bimodal operation. This presentation focuses on the systems modeling and analysis efforts for a NERVA derived concept. The NERVA bimodal operation derives the thermal energy from the core tie tube elements. Recent analysis has shown potential temperature distributions in the tie tube elements that may limit the thermodynamic efficiency of the closed Brayton cycle used to generate electricity with the current design. The results of this analysis are discussed as well as the potential implications to a bimodal NERVA type reactor.

  10. Trend analysis in the nuclear maintenance industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruemeli, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    The maintenance of nuclear facilities is a demanding, ongoing activity which requires the same level of quality as new construction. Heretofore, many owners and contractors have relied on ''gut feel'' to determine whether maintenance quality was improving or not. However, trend analysis now is becoming a key factor in monitoring plant activities to ensure quality. Literature abounds with descriptions of computerized systems for collecting and sorting data. Even the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has concurred, with its endorsement of trend analysis of construction indicators in NUREG 1055 (Ford Amendment Study). Stearns Catalytic has developed a unique system of tend analyses for nuclear plant activities. Aside from its intended purpose of determining the quality trends in maintenance activities, the program also supplies substantial quantitative data for control and management of the quality activities. Trend analysis is a time series analysis of a set of observations arranged in chronological order. The important aspect is the time basis, specifically the analysis of quality indicators over successive periods of time. Many program elements, including surveillances, nonconformances, inspections, and audits, are designed to look at quality indications

  11. Complete analysis of a nuclear building to nuclear safety standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, T A

    1975-01-01

    The nuclear standards impose on the designer the necessity of examining the loads, stresses, and strains in a nuclear building even under extreme loading conditions, both due to plant malfunctions and environmental accidents. It is necessary then to generate, combine, and examine a tremendous amount of data; really the lack of symmetry and general complication of the structures and the large number of loading combinations make an automatic analysis quite necessary. A largely automated procedure is presented in view of solving the problem by a series of computer programs linked together. After the seismic analysis has been performed by (SADE CODE) these data together with the data coming from thermal specifications, weight, accident descriptions etc. are fed into a finite element computer code (SAP4) for analysis. They are processed and combined by a computer code (COMBIN) according to the loading conditions (the usual list in Italy is given and briefly discussed), so that for each point (or each selected zone) under each loading condition the applied loads are listed. These data are fed to another computer code (DTP), which determines the amount of reinforcing bars necessary to accommodate the most severe of the loading conditions. The Aci 318/71 and Italian regulation procedures are followed; the characteristics of the program are briefly described and discussed. Some particular problems are discussed, e.g. the thermal stresses due to normal and accident conditions, the inelastic behavior of some frame elements (due to concrete cracking) is considered by means of an 'ad hoc' code. Typical examples are presented and the results are discussed showing a relatively large benefit in considering this inelastic effect.

  12. Nuclear data for proton activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhammedov, S; Vasidov, A [Institute of Nuclear Physics of Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan, 702132 Ulugbek, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Comsan, M N.H. [Nuclear Research Centre, Inshas Cyclotron Facility, AEA 13759 Cairo (Egypt)

    2000-11-15

    The activation analysis with charged particles (ChPAA), as well as proton activation analysis (PAA), mainly requires separately irradiation of thick (thicker than the range of particles) samples and standard. Therefore for simplicity of determination of traces of chemical elements by instrumental PAA the absolute activity of the radionuclides must be known. Consequently we compilated data for nuclear decays (half life, radiation energy and intensity, type of decay, saturation factor), for nuclear reactions (excitation function, threshold energy, Q-value, yields of radionuclides), for the element under study (natural isotopic abundance of the nuclide, which yields the nuclear reaction considered, molar mass), stopping power of the irradiated material and the range of the particle that are used in the calculation of the absolute activity of the radionuclides and for the resolution of a nuclear interference problems of PAA. These data are tabulated. The tables of the radionuclides are presented in dependence on increasing atomic number and radiation energy as well as on methods of the radionuclide formation. The thick target yields of analytical radionuclides are presented versus particle energy.

  13. Nuclear data for proton activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhammedov, S.; Vasidov, A.; Comsan, M.N.H.

    2000-01-01

    The activation analysis with charged particles (ChPAA), as well as proton activation analysis (PAA), mainly requires separately irradiation of thick (thicker than the range of particles) samples and standard. Therefore for simplicity of determination of traces of chemical elements by instrumental PAA the absolute activity of the radionuclides must be known. Consequently we compilated data for nuclear decays (half life, radiation energy and intensity, type of decay, saturation factor), for nuclear reactions (excitation function, threshold energy, Q-value, yields of radionuclides), for the element under study (natural isotopic abundance of the nuclide, which yields the nuclear reaction considered, molar mass), stopping power of the irradiated material and the range of the particle that are used in the calculation of the absolute activity of the radionuclides and for the resolution of a nuclear interference problems of PAA. These data are tabulated. The tables of the radionuclides are presented in dependence on increasing atomic number and radiation energy as well as on methods of the radionuclide formation. The thick target yields of analytical radionuclides are presented versus particle energy

  14. An SU-8-based microprobe with a nanostructured surface enhances neuronal cell attachment and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunhee; Kim, Jin-Young; Choi, Hongsoo

    2017-12-01

    Microprobes are used to repair neuronal injury by recording electrical signals from neuronal cells around the surface of the device. Following implantation into the brain, the immune response results in formation of scar tissue around the microprobe. However, neurons must be in close proximity to the microprobe to enable signal recording. A common reason for failure of microprobes is impaired signal recording due to scar tissue, which is not related to the microprobe itself. Therefore, the device-cell interface must be improved to increase the number of neurons in contact with the surface. In this study, we developed nanostructured SU-8 microprobes to support neuronal growth. Nanostructures of 200 nm diameter and depth were applied to the surface of microprobes, and the attachment and neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells on the microprobes were evaluated. Neuronal attachment and neurite outgrowth on the nanostructured microprobes were significantly greater than those on non-nanostructured microprobes. The enhanced neuronal attachment and neurite outgrowth on the nanostructured microprobes occurred in the absence of an adhesive coating, such as poly- l-lysine, and so may be useful for implantable devices for long-term use. Therefore, nanostructured microprobes can be implanted without adhesive coating, which can cause problems in vivo over the long term.

  15. Nuclear analysis methods in monitoring occupational health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, E.

    1985-01-01

    With the increasing industrialisation of the world has come an increase in exposure to hazardous chemicals. Their effect on the body depends upon the concentration of the element in the work environment; its chemical form; the possible different routes of intake; and the individual's biological response to the chemical. Nuclear techniques of analysis such as neutron activation analysis (NAA) and proton induced X-ray emission analysis (PIXE), have played an important role in understanding the effects hazardous chemicals can have on occupationally exposed workers. In this review, examples of their application, mainly in monitoring exposure to heavy metals is discussed

  16. High resolution techniques using scanning proton microprobe (SPM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholewa, M.; Saint, A.; Prawer, S.; Laird, J.S.; Legge, G.J.F.; Bardos, R.A.; Moorhead, G.F.; Taylor, G.N.; Stuart, S.A.; Howard, J.

    1994-01-01

    The very high resolution (down to 50 nm) achieved with low beam currents (fA) in a scanning ion microprobe have lead to many nondestructive techniques of microanalysis. This paper discusses recent developments and applications in the use of 3-D STIM (scanning transmission ion microscopy) Tomography, channeling STIM and IBIC (ion beam induced charge). (orig.)

  17. Probability analysis of nuclear power plant hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Z.

    1985-01-01

    The probability analysis of risk is described used for quantifying the risk of complex technological systems, especially of nuclear power plants. Risk is defined as the product of the probability of the occurrence of a dangerous event and the significance of its consequences. The process of the analysis may be divided into the stage of power plant analysis to the point of release of harmful material into the environment (reliability analysis) and the stage of the analysis of the consequences of this release and the assessment of the risk. The sequence of operations is characterized in the individual stages. The tasks are listed which Czechoslovakia faces in the development of the probability analysis of risk, and the composition is recommended of the work team for coping with the task. (J.C.)

  18. Building Foundations for Nuclear Security Enterprise Analysis Utilizing Nuclear Weapon Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josserand, Terry Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nuclear Security Enterprise and Cost Analysis; Young, Leone [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nuclear Security Enterprise and Cost Analysis; Chamberlin, Edwin Phillip [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nuclear Security Enterprise and Cost Analysis

    2017-09-01

    The Nuclear Security Enterprise, managed by the National Nuclear Security Administration - a semiautonomous agency within the Department of Energy - has been associated with numerous assessments with respect to the estimating, management capabilities, and practices pertaining to nuclear weapon modernization efforts. This report identifies challenges in estimating and analyzing the Nuclear Security Enterprise through an analysis of analogous timeframe conditions utilizing two types of nuclear weapon data - (1) a measure of effort and (2) a function of time. The analysis of analogous timeframe conditions that utilizes only two types of nuclear weapon data yields four summary observations that estimators and analysts of the Nuclear Security Enterprise will find useful.

  19. Development of analysis methods for seismically isolated nuclear structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Bong; Lee, Jae-Han; Koo, Gyeng-Hoi

    2002-01-01

    KAERI's contributions to the project entitled Development of Analysis Methods for Seismically Isolated Nuclear Structures under IAEA CRP of the intercomparison of analysis methods for predicting the behaviour of seismically isolated nuclear structures during 1996-1999 in effort to develop the numerical analysis methods and to compare the analysis results with the benchmark test results of seismic isolation bearings and isolated nuclear structures provided by participating countries are briefly described. Certain progress in the analysis procedures for isolation bearings and isolated nuclear structures has been made throughout the IAEA CRPs and the analysis methods developed can be improved for future nuclear facility applications. (author)

  20. Nuclear Analysis of an ITER Blanket Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiovaro, P.; Di Maio, P. A.; Parrinello, V.

    2013-08-01

    ITER blanket system is the reactor's plasma-facing component, it is mainly devoted to provide the thermal and nuclear shielding of the Vacuum Vessel and external ITER components, being intended also to act as plasma limiter. It consists of 440 individual modules which are located in the inboard, upper and outboard regions of the reactor. In this paper attention has been focused on to a single outboard blanket module located in the equatorial zone, whose nuclear response under irradiation has been investigated following a numerical approach based on the Monte Carlo method and adopting the MCNP5 code. The main features of this blanket module nuclear behaviour have been determined, paying particular attention to energy and spatial distribution of the neutron flux and deposited nuclear power together with the spatial distribution of its volumetric density. Moreover, the neutronic damage of the structural material has also been investigated through the evaluation of displacement per atom and helium and hydrogen production rates. Finally, an activation analysis has been performed with FISPACT inventory code using, as input, the evaluated neutron spectrum to assess the module specific activity and contact dose rate after irradiation under a specific operating scenario.

  1. Nuclear Fuel Cycle System Analysis (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Won Il; Kwon, Eun Ha; Yoon, Ji Sup; Park, Seong Won

    2007-04-15

    As a nation develops strategies that provide nuclear energy while meeting its various objectives, it must begin with identification of a fuel cycle option that can be best suitable for the country. For such a purpose, this paper takes four different fuel cycle options that are likely adopted by the Korean government, considering the current status of nuclear power generation and the 2nd Comprehensive Nuclear Energy Promotion Plan (CNEPP) - Once-through Cycle, DUPIC Recycle, Thermal Reactor Recycle and GEN-IV Recycle. The paper then evaluates each option in terms of sustainability, environment-friendliness, proliferation-resistance, economics and technologies. Like all the policy decision, however, a nuclear fuel cycle option can not be superior in all aspects of sustainability, environment-friendliness, proliferation-resistance, economics, technologies and so on, which makes the comparison of the options extremely complicated. Taking this into consideration, the paper analyzes all the four fuel cycle options using the Multi-Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT) and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), methods of Multi-Attribute Decision Making (MADM), that support systematical evaluation of the cases with multi- goals or criteria and that such goals are incompatible with each other. The analysis shows that the GEN-IV Recycle appears to be most competitive.

  2. Analysis on Japanese nuclear industrial technologies and their military implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H S; Yang, M H; Kim, H J. and others

    2000-10-01

    This study covered the following scopes : analysis of Japan's policy trend on the development and utilization of nuclear energy, international and domestic viewpoint of Japan's nuclear weapon capability, Japan's foreign affairs and international cooperation, status of Japan's nuclear technology development and its level, status and level of nuclear core technologies such as nuclear reactor and related fuel cycle technologies. Japan secures the whole spectrum of nuclear technologies including core technologies through the active implementation of nuclear policy for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy during the past five decades. Futhermore, as the result of the active cultivation of nuclear industry, Japan has most nuclear-related facilities and highly advanced nuclear industrial technologies. Therefore, it is reasonable that Japan might be recognized as one of countries having capability to get nuclear capability in several months.

  3. Analysis on Japanese nuclear industrial technologies and their military implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. S.; Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. J. and others

    2000-10-01

    This study covered the following scopes : analysis of Japan's policy trend on the development and utilization of nuclear energy, international and domestic viewpoint of Japan's nuclear weapon capability, Japan's foreign affairs and international cooperation, status of Japan's nuclear technology development and its level, status and level of nuclear core technologies such as nuclear reactor and related fuel cycle technologies. Japan secures the whole spectrum of nuclear technologies including core technologies through the active implementation of nuclear policy for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy during the past five decades. Futhermore, as the result of the active cultivation of nuclear industry, Japan has most nuclear-related facilities and highly advanced nuclear industrial technologies. Therefore, it is reasonable that Japan might be recognized as one of countries having capability to get nuclear capability in several months

  4. Analysis on Japanese nuclear industrial technologies and their military implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. S.; Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. J. and others

    2000-10-01

    This study covered the following scopes : analysis of Japan's policy trend on the development and utilization of nuclear energy, international and domestic viewpoint of Japan's nuclear weapon capability, Japan's foreign affairs and international cooperation, status of Japan's nuclear technology development and its level, status and level of nuclear core technologies such as nuclear reactor and related fuel cycle technologies. Japan secures the whole spectrum of nuclear technologies including core technologies through the active implementation of nuclear policy for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy during the past five decades. Futhermore, as the result of the active cultivation of nuclear industry, Japan has most nuclear-related facilities and highly advanced nuclear industrial technologies. Therefore, it is reasonable that Japan might be recognized as one of countries having capability to get nuclear capability in several months.

  5. Distributed computing and nuclear reactor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, F.B.; Derstine, K.L.; Blomquist, R.N.

    1994-01-01

    Large-scale scientific and engineering calculations for nuclear reactor analysis can now be carried out effectively in a distributed computing environment, at costs far lower than for traditional mainframes. The distributed computing environment must include support for traditional system services, such as a queuing system for batch work, reliable filesystem backups, and parallel processing capabilities for large jobs. All ANL computer codes for reactor analysis have been adapted successfully to a distributed system based on workstations and X-terminals. Distributed parallel processing has been demonstrated to be effective for long-running Monte Carlo calculations

  6. Nuclear material production cycle vulnerability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, T.F.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses a method for rapidly and systematically identifying vulnerable equipment in a nuclear material or similar production process and ranking that equipment according to its attractiveness to a malevolent attacker. A multistep approach was used in the analysis. First, the entire production cycle was modeled as a flow diagram. This flow diagram was analyzed using graph theoretical methods to identify processes in the production cycle and their locations. Models of processes that were judged to be particularly vulnerable based on the cycle analysis then were developed in greater detail to identify equipment in that process that is vulnerable to intentional damage

  7. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayer, J.E.; Clark, A.T.; Loysen, P.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Mishima, J.; Owczarski, P.C.; Gregory, W.S.; Nichols, B.D.

    1988-05-01

    The Accident Analysis Handbook (AAH) covers four generic facilities: fuel manufacturing, fuel reprocessing, waste storage/solidification, and spent fuel storage; and six accident types: fire, explosion, tornado, criticality, spill, and equipment failure. These are the accident types considered to make major contributions to the radiological risk from accidents in nuclear fuel cycle facility operations. The AAH will enable the user to calculate source term releases from accident scenarios manually or by computer. A major feature of the AAH is development of accident sample problems to provide input to source term analysis methods and transport computer codes. Sample problems and illustrative examples for different accident types are included in the AAH

  8. New 2-stage ion microprobes and a move to higher energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legge, G.J.F.; Dymnikov, A.; Moloney, G.; Saint, A. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Cohen, D. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Recent moves in Ion Beam Microanalysis towards the use of a rapidly growing number of very high resolution, low current and single ion techniques has led to the need for high demagnification and greatly improved beam quality. There is also a move to apply Microbeams at higher energies and with heavier ions. This also puts demands on the focusing system and beam control. This paper describes the recent development of 2-stage lens systems to be applied here and overseas, both at very high resolution and at high energies with heavy ions. It looks at new ion beam analysis applications of such ion microprobes. 8 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  9. New 2-stage ion microprobes and a move to higher energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legge, G J.F.; Dymnikov, A; Moloney, G; Saint, A [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Cohen, D [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    Recent moves in Ion Beam Microanalysis towards the use of a rapidly growing number of very high resolution, low current and single ion techniques has led to the need for high demagnification and greatly improved beam quality. There is also a move to apply Microbeams at higher energies and with heavier ions. This also puts demands on the focusing system and beam control. This paper describes the recent development of 2-stage lens systems to be applied here and overseas, both at very high resolution and at high energies with heavy ions. It looks at new ion beam analysis applications of such ion microprobes. 8 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  10. X-ray microprobe measurements of the chemical compositions of ALH84001 carbonate globules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, G.J.; Sutton, S.R.; Keller, L.P.

    2004-01-01

    We measured minor element contents of carbonate from ALH84001 and report trends in tbe Ca, V, Mn and Sr in carbonate and the associated magnetite bands. McKay et al. suggested that carbonate globules in the ALH84001 meteorite from Mars contained evidence consistent with the development of bacterial life early in the history of Mars. This result provoked an extensive study of the ALH84001 meteorite. More recently Thomas-Keprta et al. have published a study showing that the magnetite associated with carbonate rims are of the size and shape produced by terrestrial bacteria. This paper has revived interest in ALH84001. The typical ALH84001 carbonate globule consists of four regions: a core of Fe-rich carbonate, a thin magnetite-rich band, a rim of Mn-rich carbonate, and another thin magnetite-rich band. Trace element analysis of each of these phases may allow us to address several important questions about these carbonates: (1) The origin of the magnetite-rich bands in the ALH84001 carbonate globules. If the magnetites are derived from the underlying carbonate through thermal decomposition (as proposed by Golden et al.), then we expect to see 'inherited' trace elements in these magnetite bands. (2) The origin of the rim carbonate, by determining whether the carbonate in the core has the same trace elements as the rim carbonates. (3) The age of the rim carbonate. Borg et al. dated the formation of the rim carbonate using the Rb/Sr chronometer. Borg et al. performed their measurements on an aliquot of what they called a high-Rb, low-Sr carbonate separate from the rim. We previously measured the trace element contents of chips from core and rim carbonates from an ALH84001 carbonate globule using an X-Ray Microprobe on Beamline X26A at the National Synchrotron Light Source. These measurements showed the rim carbonate had a very low Rb content, with Sr>>Rb, inconsistent with the ∼5 ppm Rb reported by Borg et al. in the sample they dated by the Rb/Sr chronometer. The large

  11. Individual precipitates in Al alloys probed by the Bonn positron microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balarisi, Osman; Eich, Patrick; Haaks, Matz; Klobes, Benedikt; Korff, Bjoern; Maier, Karl; Sottong, Reinhard [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Nussallee 14-16, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Huehne, Sven-Martin; Mader, Werner [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Roemerstrasse 164, 53117 Bonn (Germany); Staab, Torsten [Fraunhofer ISC, Neunerplatz 2, 97082 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is a unique tool for the characterization of open-volume defects such as vacancies. Therefore, age hardenable Al alloys, whose decomposition is mainly driven by the vacancy mechanism of diffusion, are often characterized by PAS techniques. Nevertheless, probing the defect state of individual precipitates grown in Al alloys requires a focused positron beam and has not been carried out up to now. In this respect we present the first investigations of the defect state of individual precipitates utilizing the Bonn Positron Microprobe (BPM). Furthermore, the analysis of the experimental data has to be facilitated by theoretical calculations of the observables of positron annihilation spectroscopy.

  12. Nuclear spectrometry for environmental analysis and mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Aliz

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) helps countries to mobilize peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology. The three main pillars of the activities are: safety and security; science and technology; and safeguards and verification. As part of the science and technology pillar, the Physics Section supports Member States regarding utilization of particle accelerators and research reactors, applications of nuclear instrumentation, and controlled nuclear fusion research. Support is provided to the Member States in the form of capacity building, knowledge transfer and networking. The IAEA's coordinated research activities are designed to contribute to this mandate, by stimulating and coordinating research in IAEA Member States in selected nuclear fields. These coordinated research activities are normally implemented through Coordinated Research Projects that bring together research institutes from both developing and developed Member States to collaborate on the research topic of interest. The establishment of sustainable education and training programmes is fundamental for the safe, secure and efficient development of the nuclear field. The lAEA offers a wide spectrum of activities in support of education, training, human resource development and capacity building including interregional, regional and national training courses and workshops; assists visits and reviews services; initiates, formulates and runs programmes; networks managers and specialists for sharing good practices; assists in publications that compile the best international practices; supplies training materials and training tools; and supports internship programmes for the young generations of scientists and fellows. For the developing countries, the Technical Cooperation Programme provides the necessary skills and equipment to establish sustainable technology in the counterpart country or region through training courses, expert missions, fellowships, scientific

  13. Nuclear spectrometry for environmental analysis and mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Aliz, E-mail: Aliz.Simon@iaea.org [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) helps countries to mobilize peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology. The three main pillars of the activities are: safety and security; science and technology; and safeguards and verification. As part of the science and technology pillar, the Physics Section supports Member States regarding utilization of particle accelerators and research reactors, applications of nuclear instrumentation, and controlled nuclear fusion research. Support is provided to the Member States in the form of capacity building, knowledge transfer and networking. The IAEA's coordinated research activities are designed to contribute to this mandate, by stimulating and coordinating research in IAEA Member States in selected nuclear fields. These coordinated research activities are normally implemented through Coordinated Research Projects that bring together research institutes from both developing and developed Member States to collaborate on the research topic of interest. The establishment of sustainable education and training programmes is fundamental for the safe, secure and efficient development of the nuclear field. The lAEA offers a wide spectrum of activities in support of education, training, human resource development and capacity building including interregional, regional and national training courses and workshops; assists visits and reviews services; initiates, formulates and runs programmes; networks managers and specialists for sharing good practices; assists in publications that compile the best international practices; supplies training materials and training tools; and supports internship programmes for the young generations of scientists and fellows. For the developing countries, the Technical Cooperation Programme provides the necessary skills and equipment to establish sustainable technology in the counterpart country or region through training courses, expert missions, fellowships, scientific

  14. Nuclear plant analyzer development and analysis applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laats, E.T.

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA) is being developed as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) state of the art safety analysis and engineering tool to address key nuclear plant safety issues. The NPA integrates the NRC's computerized reactor behavior simulation codes such as RELAP5 and TRAC-BWR, both of which are well-developed computer graphics programs, and large repositories of reactor design and experimental data. Utilizing the complex reactor behavior codes as well as the experiment data repositories enables simulation applications of the NPA that are generally not possible with more simplistic, less mechanistic reactor behavior codes. These latter codes are used in training simulators or with other NPA-type software packages and are limited to displaying calculated data only. This paper describes four applications of the NPA in assisting reactor safety analyses. Two analyses evaluated reactor operating procedures, during off-normal operation, for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) and a boiling water reactor (BWR), respectively. The third analysis was performed in support of a reactor safety experiment conducted in the Semiscale facility. The final application demonstrated the usefulness of atmospheric dispersion computer codes for site emergency planning purposes. An overview of the NPA and how it supported these analyses are the topics of this paper

  15. Disturbance analysis in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sillamaa, M.A.

    Disturbance analysis is any systematic procedure that helps an operator determine what has failed. This paper describes the typical information currently provided in CANDU power plants to help the operator respond to a disturbance. It presents a simplified model of how an operator could get into trouble, and briefly reviews development work on computerized disturbance analysis systems for nuclear power plants being done in various countries including Canada. Disturbance analysis systems promise to be useful tools in helping operators improve their response to complex situations. However, the originality and complexity of the work for a disturbance analysis system and the need to develop operator confidence and management support require a 'walk before you run' approach

  16. Analysis of nuclear-power construction costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansma, G.L.; Borcherding, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of regression analysis for estimating construction costs. The estimate is based on an historical data base and quantification of key factors considered external to project management. This technique is not intended as a replacement for detailed cost estimates but can provide information useful to the cost-estimating process and to top management interested in evaluating project management. The focus of this paper is the nuclear-power construction industry but the technique is applicable beyond this example. The approach and critical assumptions are also useful in a public-policy situation where utility commissions are evaluating construction in prudence reviews and making comparisons to other nuclear projects. 13 references, 2 figures

  17. Mobile Monitoring System for Nuclear Contamination Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broide, A.; Sheinfeld, M.; Marcus, E.; Wengrowicz, U.; Tirosh, D.

    2002-01-01

    In case of a nuclear accident, it is essential to have extensive knowledge concerning the nature of the radioactive plume expansion, for further analysis. For this purpose a mobile monitoring system may provide important data about the plume characteristics. An advanced Mobile Monitoring System is under development at the Nuclear Research Center-Negev. The system is composed of a network of mobile stations, typically installed onboard vehicles, which transmit radiation measurements along with position information to a central station. The mobile network's communications infrastructure is based on Motorola Mobile Logic Unit devices, which are state-of-the-art reliable modems with an integrated Global Positioning System module. The radiation measurements received by the central station are transferred to a risk assessment program, which evaluates the expected hazards to the populated areas located in the estimated plume's expansion direction

  18. Sealing analysis for nuclear vessel of PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, J.; Dou, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Although design by analysis of pressure vessel has become a requirement in all codes for more than 20 years, sealing design for nuclear components is still too complicated and there are yet no criteria about this aspect, even though in the well-known ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Thus it is of significance to undertake researches of transient sealing tests and analysis for nuclear vessel. Since 1960s great progress has been made in analytic computer program, which takes flange as a rigid ring. Actually, however, there are elastic or elastoplastic contacts on flange mating surface. Chen (1979) gave a mixed finite element method, using a condensing flexible matrix skill, to solve two-body contact problem. On the basis of axisymmetric stress and thermal analysis of finite element method and on accepting Chen's (1979) idea of mixed finite element method, we have developed a computer program for sealing analysis, named SMEC, which considers bolt loading changes and temperature effects. (orig./GL)

  19. Development of a scanning proton microprobe - computer-control, elemental mapping and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loevestam, Goeran.

    1989-08-01

    A scanning proton microprobe set-up has been developed at the Pelletron accelerator in Lund. A magnetic beam scanning system and a computer-control system for beam scanning and data aquisition is described. The computer system consists of a VMEbus front-end computer and a μVax-II host-computer, interfaced by means of a high-speed data link. The VMEbus computer controls data acquisition, beam charge monitoring and beam scanning while the more sophisticated work of elemental mapping and spectrum evaluations is left to the μVax-II. The calibration of the set-up is described as well as several applications. Elemental micro patterns in tree rings and bark has been investigated by means of elemental mapping and quantitative analysis. Large variations of elemental concentrations have been found for several elements within a single tree ring. An external beam set-up has been developed in addition to the proton microprobe set-up. The external beam has been used for the analysis of antique papyrus documents. Using a scanning sample procedure and particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis, damaged and missing characters of the text could be made visible by means of multivariate statistical data evaluation and elemental mapping. Also aspects of elemental mapping by means of scanning μPIXE analysis are discussed. Spectrum background, target thickness variations and pile-up are shown to influence the structure of elemental maps considerably. In addition, a semi-quantification procedure has been developed. (author)

  20. Probabilistic risk analysis for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauptmanns, U.

    1988-01-01

    Risk analysis is applied if the calculation of risk from observed failures is not possible, because events contributing substantially to risk are too seldom, as in the case of nuclear reactors. The process of analysis provides a number of benefits. Some of them are listed. After this by no means complete enumeration of possible benefits to be derived from a risk analysis. An outline of risk studiesd for PWR's with some comments on the models used are given. The presentation is indebted to the detailed treatment of the subject given in the PRA Procedures Guide. Thereafter some results of the German Risk Study, Phase B, which is under way are communicated. The paper concludes with some remarks on probabilistic considerations in licensing procedures. (orig./DG)

  1. Accident analysis for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Deterministic safety analysis (frequently referred to as accident analysis) is an important tool for confirming the adequacy and efficiency of provisions within the defence in depth concept for the safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs). Owing to the close interrelation between accident analysis and safety, an analysis that lacks consistency, is incomplete or is of poor quality is considered a safety issue for a given NPP. Developing IAEA guidance documents for accident analysis is thus an important step towards resolving this issue. Requirements and guidelines pertaining to the scope and content of accident analysis have, in the past, been partially described in various IAEA documents. Several guidelines relevant to WWER and RBMK type reactors have been developed within the IAEA Extrabudgetary Programme on the Safety of WWER and RBMK NPPs. To a certain extent, accident analysis is also covered in several documents of the revised NUSS series, for example, in the Safety Requirements on Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design (NS-R-1) and in the Safety Guide on Safety Assessment and Verification for Nuclear Power Plants (NS-G-1.2). Consistent with these documents, the IAEA has developed the present Safety Report on Accident Analysis for Nuclear Power Plants. Many experts have contributed to the development of this Safety Report. Besides several consultants meetings, comments were collected from more than fifty selected organizations. The report was also reviewed at the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Accident Analysis held in Vienna from 30 August to 3 September 1999. The present IAEA Safety Report is aimed at providing practical guidance for performing accident analyses. The guidance is based on present good practice worldwide. The report covers all the steps required to perform accident analyses, i.e. selection of initiating events and acceptance criteria, selection of computer codes and modelling assumptions, preparation of input data and presentation of the

  2. Risk analysis of nuclear safeguards regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ayat, R.A.; Altman, W.D.; Judd, B.R.

    1982-06-01

    The Aggregated Systems Model (ASM), a probabilisitic risk analysis tool for nuclear safeguards, was applied to determine benefits and costs of proposed amendments to NRC regulations governing nuclear material control and accounting systems. The objective of the amendments was to improve the ability to detect insiders attempting to steal large quantities of special nuclear material (SNM). Insider threats range from likely events with minor consequences to unlikely events with catastrophic consequences. Moreover, establishing safeguards regulations is complicated by uncertainties in threats, safeguards performance, and consequences, and by the subjective judgments and difficult trade-offs between risks and safeguards costs. The ASM systematically incorporates these factors in a comprehensive, analytical framework. The ASM was used to evaluate the effectiveness of current safeguards and to quantify the risk of SNM theft. Various modifications designed to meet the objectives of the proposed amendments to reduce that risk were analyzed. Safeguards effectiveness was judged in terms of the probability of detecting and preventing theft, the expected time to detection, and the expected quantity of SNM diverted in a year. Data were gathered in tours and interviews at NRC-licensed facilities. The assessment at each facility was begun by carefully selecting scenarios representing the range of potential insider threats. A team of analysts and facility managers assigned probabilities for detection and prevention events in each scenario. Using the ASM we computed the measures of system effectiveness and identified cost-effective safeguards modifications that met the objectives of the proposed amendments

  3. Regional analysis of the nuclear-electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parera, M. D.

    2011-11-01

    In this study was realized a regional analysis of the Argentinean electric market contemplating the effects of regional cooperation, the internal and international interconnections; and the possibilities of insert of new nuclear power stations were evaluated in different regions of the country, indicating the most appropriate areas to carry out these facilities to increase the penetration of the nuclear energy in the national energy matrix. Also was studied the interconnection of the electricity and natural gas markets, due to the existent linking among both energy forms. With this purpose the program Message (Model for energy supply strategy alternatives and their general environmental impacts) was used, promoted by the International Atomic Energy Agency. This model carries out an economic optimization level country, obtaining the minimum cost as a result for the modeling system. The division for regions realized by the Compania Administradora del Mercado Mayorista Electrico (CAMMESA) was used, which divides to the country in eight regions. They were considered the characteristics and necessities of each one of them, their respective demands and offers of electric power and natural gas, as well as their existent and projected interconnections, composed by the electric lines and gas pipes. According to the results obtained through the model, the nuclear-electricity is a competitive option. (Author)

  4. Wavelength dispersive μPIXE setup for the ion microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazinić, S., E-mail: stjepko.fazinic@irb.hr [Laboratory for Ion Beam Interactions, Division of Experimental Physics, Rudjer Bošković Institute, Bijenicka cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Božičević Mihalić, I.; Tadić, T.; Cosic, D.; Jakšić, M. [Laboratory for Ion Beam Interactions, Division of Experimental Physics, Rudjer Bošković Institute, Bijenicka cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Mudronja, D. [Croatian Conservation Institute, Grškovićeva 23, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2015-11-15

    We have developed a small wavelength dispersive X-ray spectrometer to explore the possibility of performing chemical speciation on microscopic samples utilizing focused ion beams available at the Rudjer Boskovic Institute ion microprobe. Although PIXE spectra are in principle chemically invariant, small influence of chemical effects could be observed even with Si(Li) or SDD detectors. Such chemical effects can be clearly seen with high resolution crystal X-ray spectrometers having energy resolution of several eV. A dedicated vacuum chamber, housing the diffraction crystal, sample holder and CCD X-ray detector, was constructed and positioned behind the main ion microprobe vacuum chamber. Here we will briefly describe the spectrometer, and illustrate its capabilities on measured K X-ray spectra of selected sulfur compounds. We will also demonstrate its abilities to resolve K and M X-ray lines irresolvable by solid state ED detectors usually used in PIXE.

  5. Single cell elemental analysis using nuclear microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, M.Q.; Thong, P.S.P.; Kara, U.; Watt, F.

    1999-01-01

    The use of Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) to provide quantitative elemental analysis of single cells is an area which has high potential, particularly when the trace elements such as Ca, Fe, Zn and Cu can be monitored. We describe the methodology of sample preparation for two cell types, the procedures of cell imaging using STIM, and the quantitative elemental analysis of single cells using RBS and PIXE. Recent work on single cells at the Nuclear Microscopy Research Centre,National University of Singapore has centred around two research areas: (a) Apoptosis (programmed cell death), which has been recently implicated in a wide range of pathological conditions such as cancer, Parkinson's disease etc, and (b) Malaria (infection of red blood cells by the malaria parasite). Firstly we present results on the elemental analysis of human Chang liver cells (ATTCC CCL 13) where vanadium ions were used to trigger apoptosis, and demonstrate that nuclear microscopy has the capability of monitoring vanadium loading within individual cells. Secondly we present the results of elemental changes taking place in individual mouse red blood cells which have been infected with the malaria parasite and treated with the anti-malaria drug Qinghaosu (QHS)

  6. Computation system for nuclear reactor core analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondy, D.R.; Fowler, T.B.; Cunningham, G.W.; Petrie, L.M.

    1977-04-01

    This report documents a system which contains computer codes as modules developed to evaluate nuclear reactor core performance. The diffusion theory approximation to neutron transport may be applied with the VENTURE code treating up to three dimensions. The effect of exposure may be determined with the BURNER code, allowing depletion calculations to be made. The features and requirements of the system are discussed and aspects common to the computational modules, but the latter are documented elsewhere. User input data requirements, data file management, control, and the modules which perform general functions are described. Continuing development and implementation effort is enhancing the analysis capability available locally and to other installations from remote terminals

  7. Risk and safety analysis of nuclear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, John C

    2011-01-01

    The book has been developed in conjunction with NERS 462, a course offered every year to seniors and graduate students in the University of Michigan NERS program. The first half of the book covers the principles of risk analysis, the techniques used to develop and update a reliability data base, the reliability of multi-component systems, Markov methods used to analyze the unavailability of systems with repairs, fault trees and event trees used in probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs), and failure modes of systems. All of this material is general enough that it could be used in non-nuclear a

  8. Probabilistic analysis of fires in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unione, A.; Teichmann, T.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a multilevel (i.e., staged) probabilistic analysis of fire risks in nuclear plants (as part of a general PRA) which maximizes the benefits of the FRA (fire risk assessment) in a cost effective way. The approach uses several stages of screening, physical modeling of clearly dominant risk contributors, searches for direct (e.g., equipment dependences) and secondary (e.g., fire induced internal flooding) interactions, and relies on lessons learned and available data from and surrogate FRAs. The general methodology is outlined. 6 figs., 10 tabs

  9. Nuclear analysis of the ITER Cryopump Ports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moro, Fabio; Villari, Rosaria; Flammini, Davide; Antipenkov, Alexander; Dremel, Matthias; Levesy, Bruno; Loughlin, Michael; Juarez, Rafael; Perez, Lucia; Petrizzi, Luigino

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Evaluation the shielding effectiveness of the TCPHs by means of 3-D neutrons and gamma maps. • Assessment of the nuclear heating induced by neutron and photons on the TCP and TCPHs. • Calculation of the dose rate at 12 days after shutdown in the maintenance area of the Lower Ports with the Advanced D1S method, in order to verify the design target (100 μSv/h). • Potential improvements of the shielding configuration aimed at the reduction of the dose level in the Port Cell have been proposed and discussed. - Abstract: The ITER machine will be equipped with 6 torus Cryopumps (TCP) that are positioned in their housings (TCPH) and integrated into the cryostat walls at B1 level in the port cells. A comprehensive nuclear analysis of the Cryopump Ports #4 and #12 has been carried out by means of the MCNP-5 Monte Carlo code in a full 3-D geometry, providing guidelines for the design of the embedded components. Radiation transport calculations have been performed in order to determine the radiation field inside the Lower Ports, up the Port Cell: 3-D neutrons and gamma maps have been provided in order to evaluate the shielding effectiveness of the TCPHs. Nuclear heating induced by neutron and photons have been estimated on the TCP and TCPH to assess the nuclear loads during plasma operations. The shutdown dose rate in the maintenance area of the Lower Ports has been assessed with the Advanced D1S method to verify the design limits.

  10. Nuclear analysis of the ITER Cryopump Ports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moro, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.moro@enea.it [ENEA, Fusion Technical Unit, Nuclear Technologies Laboratory, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Villari, Rosaria; Flammini, Davide [ENEA, Fusion Technical Unit, Nuclear Technologies Laboratory, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Antipenkov, Alexander; Dremel, Matthias; Levesy, Bruno; Loughlin, Michael [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Juarez, Rafael; Perez, Lucia [UNED, Energetic Engineering Department, C/Juan del Rosal 12, Madrid (Spain); Petrizzi, Luigino [European Commission, DG Research & Innovation G5, CDMA 00/030, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Evaluation the shielding effectiveness of the TCPHs by means of 3-D neutrons and gamma maps. • Assessment of the nuclear heating induced by neutron and photons on the TCP and TCPHs. • Calculation of the dose rate at 12 days after shutdown in the maintenance area of the Lower Ports with the Advanced D1S method, in order to verify the design target (100 μSv/h). • Potential improvements of the shielding configuration aimed at the reduction of the dose level in the Port Cell have been proposed and discussed. - Abstract: The ITER machine will be equipped with 6 torus Cryopumps (TCP) that are positioned in their housings (TCPH) and integrated into the cryostat walls at B1 level in the port cells. A comprehensive nuclear analysis of the Cryopump Ports #4 and #12 has been carried out by means of the MCNP-5 Monte Carlo code in a full 3-D geometry, providing guidelines for the design of the embedded components. Radiation transport calculations have been performed in order to determine the radiation field inside the Lower Ports, up the Port Cell: 3-D neutrons and gamma maps have been provided in order to evaluate the shielding effectiveness of the TCPHs. Nuclear heating induced by neutron and photons have been estimated on the TCP and TCPH to assess the nuclear loads during plasma operations. The shutdown dose rate in the maintenance area of the Lower Ports has been assessed with the Advanced D1S method to verify the design limits.

  11. Raman microprobe study of heat-treated pitches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottinet, D.; Couderc, P.; Saint Romain, J.L.; Dhamelincourt, P.

    1988-01-01

    A series of heat-treated pitches from the same coal-tar precursor is investigated by means of a Raman microprobe. Separated Raman spectra are obtained for the isotropic phase and the mesophase. The evolutions observed are characteristic of the structural rearrangement change in the two phases. They correlate well with the observations reported in literature and obtained by using different methods of structural investigations.

  12. Design considerations for an x-ray microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.R.; Hastings, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    The optical design of a fluorescent microprobe covering the x-ray region from 2 to 16 keV is considered for the NSLS x-ray ring. The limit on detectability is from total flux (photons/μm 2 ) and several design choices are considered to match the optical system to the storage ring to maximize throughput. The tradeoffs in image quality and energy resolution of these designs have been considered and within these constraints two firm proposals are presented

  13. Use of X-ray microprobe to diagnose bone tissue demineralization after caffeine administration Use of X-ray microprobe to diagnose bone tissue demineralization after caffeine administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Tomaszewski

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is a methylxanthine which permeates the placenta. In studies on animals, it has been
    shown to produce teratogenic and embryotoxic effects in large doses. The objective of this study was to
    assess the influence of caffeine on the development of bone tissue, with particular reference to elemental
    bone composition using an X-ray microprobe. The research was conducted on rats. The fertilized females
    were randomly divided into an experimental and a control group. The experimental group was
    given caffeine orally in 30 mg/day doses from the 8th to the 21st day of pregnancy, while the control group
    was given water. The fetuses were used to assess the growth and mineralization of the skeleton. On the
    basis of double dyeing, a qualitative analysis of the bone morphology and mineralization was conducted.
    For calcium and potassium analysis, an X-ray microprobe was used. In 67 fetuses from the experimental
    group, changes in skeleton staining with the alcian-alizarin method were noticed. The frequency of the
    development of variants in the experimental group was statistically higher. In the experimental group,
    a significant decrease in the calcium level, as well as an increase in the potassium level, was observed.
    The X-ray microprobe’s undoubted advantage is that is offers a quick qualitative and quantitative analysis
    of the elemental composition of the examined samples. Employing this new technique may furnish us
    with new capabilities when investigating the essence of the pathology process.Caffeine is a methylxanthine which permeates the placenta. In studies on animals, it has been
    shown to produce teratogenic and embryotoxic effects in large doses. The objective of this study was to
    assess the influence of caffeine on the development of bone tissue, with particular reference to elemental
    bone composition using an X-ray microprobe. The research was conducted on

  14. Quantification of hydrogen distribution with the nuclear microprobe of the Pierre Sue Laboratory in the thickness of the PWR fuel cladding in zirconium alloy; Quantification de la repartition de l'hydrogene a la microsonde nucleaire du Laboratoire Pierre Sue dans l'epaisseur du tube de gainage du combustible des REP en alliage de zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raepsaet, C. [Laboratoire Pierre Sue (DSM/DRECAM/LPS) - CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bossis, Ph. [CEA Saclay, Dept. des Materiaux pour le Nucleaire (DEN/DANS/DMN/SEMI/LM2E), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Hamon, D.; Bechade, J.L.; Brachet, J.C. [CEA Saclay, Dept. des Materiaux pour le Nucleaire (DEN/DANS/DMN/SRMA/LA2M), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2007-07-01

    In a first part of this study, are detailed the general principles of the specific technique ERDA (Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis) used in the Pierre Sue Laboratory. Then, the contribution of this technique is illustrated with two studies examples on the behaviour of PWR nuclear fuel cladding. (O.M.)

  15. Seismic analysis of the Aguirre Nuclear Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepulveda Soza, Cristian

    1999-01-01

    This thesis aims to verify the seismic design of the Aguirre Nuclear Reactor using the finite elements method and comparing the results with the original analysis. The study focused on the dynamic interaction of soil and structures, using the ANSYS program for the analysis, which was implemented for a work station under a UNIX platform belonging to the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission. The modeling of the structures was carried out following International Atomic Energy recommendations, those of the makers of the Swanson Analysis Systems program and the prior study by S y S Ingenieros Consultores. Two-dimensional models were developed with axial and symmetry and three-dimensional models with symmetric and asymmetric plans, where the retaining building, the pond block and the soil down to the basal rock were included. The seismic stresses were defined according to the Chilean Standard NCh433.of96, using the spectrum of design accelerations for type II soils for the structural models and type IV for the soil-structure interaction models.The results of interest for this study are: the compression and cutting tensions, the unitary cut distortions and the displacements, which are shown graphically and are compared between the different models and with the original analysis. A sensitivity analysis was prepared for the models with axial symmetry considering soil reaction coefficient values of 20, 10, 5, 2, 1 and 0.5 kp/cm 3 ; and four screens with maximum sizes of 100, 50, 25 and 12.5 cm. The behavior of the stressed materials was studied as well as the result of the seismic stress (CS)

  16. Analysis of public attitude to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trofimenko, A.P.; Pisanko, Zh.I.

    2001-01-01

    Psychological features of nuclear power public perception, reasons of anti-nuclear movement and social components of its participants are considered. The results of some public opinion polls on nuclear power are analyzed, and factors, which influence on opinion, are discussed. Arguments are presented which indicate that part population imagination about nuclear power hazard is strongly exaggerated

  17. Computational methods for nuclear criticality safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maragni, M.G.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear criticality safety analyses require the utilization of methods which have been tested and verified against benchmarks results. In this work, criticality calculations based on the KENO-IV and MCNP codes are studied aiming the qualification of these methods at the IPEN-CNEN/SP and COPESP. The utilization of variance reduction techniques is important to reduce the computer execution time, and several of them are analysed. As practical example of the above methods, a criticality safety analysis for the storage tubes for irradiated fuel elements from the IEA-R1 research has been carried out. This analysis showed that the MCNP code is more adequate for problems with complex geometries, and the KENO-IV code shows conservative results when it is not used the generalized geometry option. (author)

  18. Radiochemical analysis of military nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayramov, A.A.; Bayramova, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text : Radiochemical Analysis is a branch of analytical chemistry comprising an aggregate of methods for qualitatively determining the composition and content of radioisotopes in the products of transformations. Safety and minimization of radiation impact on human and environment are important demand of operation of Military Nuclear Facilities (MNF). In accordance of recommendations of International Commission on Radiological Protection there are next objects of radiochemical analysis: 1) potential sources of radiochemical pollution; 2) environment (objects of environment, human environment including buildings, agricultural production, water, air et al.); 3) human himself (determination of dose from external and internal radiation, chemical poisoning). The chemical analysis can be carried out using, for example, the Gas Chromatography instrument whish separates chemical mixtures and identifies the components at a molecular level. It is one of the most accurate tools for analyzing environmental samples. The Gas Chromatography works on the principle that a mixture will separate into individual substances when heated. The heated gases are carried through a column with an inert gas (such as helium). As the separated substances emerge from the column opening, they flow into the Mass Spectrometry. Mass spectrometry identifies compounds by the mass of the analyte molecule. Newly developed portable Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry are techniques that can be used to separate volatile organic compounds and pesticides. Other uses of Gas Chromatography, combined with other separation and analytical techniques, have been developed for radionuclides, explosive compounds such as royal demolition explosive and trinitrotoluene, and metals. So, based on the many years experience of operation of dangerous MNF, in concordance with norms of radiation and chemical safety it was considered that the tasks of the radiochemical analysis of Military Nuclear Facilities include

  19. Ion microprobe imaging of 44Ca-labeled mammalian chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi-Setti, R.; Gavrilov, K.L.; Strissel, P.L.; Strick, R.

    2004-01-01

    In our previous investigation, we showed for the first time high-resolution analytical images of the cation composition of mammalian interphase and mitotic cells as well as of isolated metaphase chromosomes using the University of Chicago scanning ion microprobe (UC-SIM). In order to preserve the ionic integrity of the analyzed cells and prevent the well known occurrence of analytical artifacts due to the high diffusivity of cations in biological samples we used fast cryo-preservation methods (freeze-drying and freeze fracture), without any pre-fixations or washes. We identified the role of the cations in chromosome structure and maintenance using SIMS imaging and immunfluorescence methodologies. Importantly, we determined that the above cations are essential participants in chromosome condensation and maintenance of chromatin higher order structure, through their presumed function in DNA electrostatic neutralization and the direct interaction of Ca 2+ , in particular, with structural proteins. In addition, both Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ showed the same cell cycle regulation where during interphase both cations were enriched in the cytosol, particularly in organelles then at mitosis became specifically bound to chromatin. Our present research interest focuses on a more detailed analysis of the distribution of Ca 2+ throughout the different cell cycle stages, e.g. G1, G2 and mitosis. We have chosen the stable isotope 44 Ca as a tracer to follow Ca 2+ throughout the cell cycle. This nuclide occurs naturally in the ratio 44 Ca/ 40 Ca+ 44 Ca of 2.06%, so that incorporation at higher concentrations into chromatin or other cellular components should be easily detected by SIMS. Such incorporation can be obtained either by growing cells in a medium where ordinary Ca is replaced entirely by 44 Ca, or by replacing the cell culture medium with the 44 Ca medium for a gated time span (pulsing), after appropriate cell cycle stage synchronization. In this paper, we describe our

  20. A study on the nuclear foreign policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Keun Bae; Choi, Y. M.; Lee, D. J.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, B. W.; Cho, I. H.; Ko, H. S.

    1996-12-01

    This study aims to analyses recent trends of international situation relating to nuclear non-proliferation and the adverse conditions in Korea's pursuing self-support of such technology, so that it may map out effective strategies for the promotion of nuclear energy. This study analyses developments of international nuclear non-proliferation regime, which plays a main role in preventing the international proliferation of nuclear weapons. This study includes NPT, IAEA safeguards system, international export control regimes, CTBT, and NWFZs as the subjects of analysis. Second theme is international organizations concerning nuclear activities. This study mainly analyses IAEA activities which pursues the promotion of peaceful use of nuclear energy and nuclear non-proliferation simultaneously as a pivotal body of international nuclear cooperation. Third focus of this study is Northeast Asian circumstances pertaining to nuclear non-proliferation. The study looks into the DPRK nuclear issues, and reviews the developments of the proposed regional body for nuclear cooperation and the discussion on the Northeast Asian NWFZ. Fourth, but the most influential to Korean nuclear activities, is the U. S. nuclear policy, since U. S. takes the overwhelming initiative in the field of international nuclear non-proliferation. Therefore, this study gives much weight in analyzing the structure, procedures, recent trend, and pending issues of U. S. nuclear policy. (author). 78 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs

  1. Quantitative analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wainai, T; Mashimo, K [Nihon Univ., Tokyo. Coll. of Science and Engineering

    1976-04-01

    Recent papers on the practical quantitative analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) are reviewed. Specifically, the determination of moisture in liquid N/sub 2/O/sub 4/ as an oxidizing agent for rocket propulsion, the analysis of hydroperoxides, the quantitative analysis using a shift reagent, the analysis of aromatic sulfonates, and the determination of acids and bases are reviewed. Attention is paid to the accuracy. The sweeping velocity and RF level in addition to the other factors must be on the optimal condition to eliminate the errors, particularly when computation is made with a machine. Higher sweeping velocity is preferable in view of S/N ratio, but it may be limited to 30 Hz/s. The relative error in the measurement of area is generally 1%, but when those of dilute concentration and integrated, the error will become smaller by one digit. If impurities are treated carefully, the water content on N/sub 2/O/sub 4/ can be determined with accuracy of about 0.002%. The comparison method between peak heights is as accurate as that between areas, when the uniformity of magnetic field and T/sub 2/ are not questionable. In the case of chemical shift movable due to content, the substance can be determined by the position of the chemical shift. Oil and water contents in rape-seed, peanuts, and sunflower-seed are determined by measuring T/sub 1/ with 90 deg pulses.

  2. Analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this report is to present the results of a statistical analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs and lead-times (where lead-time is defined as the duration of the construction period), using a sample of units that entered construction during the 1966-1977 period. For more than a decade, analysts have been attempting to understand the reasons for the divergence between predicted and actual construction costs and lead-times. More importantly, it is rapidly being recognized that the future of the nuclear power industry rests precariously on an improvement in the cost and lead-time situation. Thus, it is important to study the historical information on completed plants, not only to understand what has occurred to also to improve the ability to evaluate the economics of future plants. This requires an examination of the factors that have affected both the realized costs and lead-times and the expectations about these factors that have been formed during the construction process. 5 figs., 22 tabs

  3. Analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this report is to present the results of a statistical analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs and lead-times (where lead-time is defined as the duration of the construction period), using a sample of units that entered construction during the 1966-1977 period. For more than a decade, analysts have been attempting to understand the reasons for the divergence between predicted and actual construction costs and lead-times. More importantly, it is rapidly being recognized that the future of the nuclear power industry rests precariously on an improvement in the cost and lead-time situation. Thus, it is important to study the historical information on completed plants, not only to understand what has occurred to also to improve the ability to evaluate the economics of future plants. This requires an examination of the factors that have affected both the realized costs and lead-times and the expectations about these factors that have been formed during the construction process. 5 figs., 22 tabs.

  4. Color electron microprobe cathodoluminescence of Bishunpur meteorite compared with the traditional optical microscopy method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Araujo Tosi

    Full Text Available Abstract Cathodoluminescence (CL imaging is an outstanding method for sub classification of Unequilibrated Ordinary Chondrites (UOC - petrological type 3. CL can be obtained by several electron beam apparatuses. The traditional method uses an electron gun coupled to an optical microscope (OM. Although many scanning electron microscopes (SEM and electron microprobes (EPMA have been equipped with a cathodoluminescence, this technique was not fully explored. Images obtained by the two methods differ due to a different kind of signal acquisition. While in the CL-OM optical photography true colors are obtained, in the CL-EPMA the results are grayscale monochromatic electronic signals. L-RGB filters were used in the CL-EPMA analysis in order to obtain color data. The aim of this work is to compare cathodoluminescence data obtained from both techniques, optical microscope and electron microprobe, on the Bishunpur meteorite classified as LL 3.1 chondrite. The present study allows concluding that 20 KeV and 7 nA is the best analytical condition at EPMA in order to test the equivalence between CL-EPMA and CL-OM colour results. Moreover, the color index revealed to be a method for aiding the study of the thermal metamorphism, but it is not definitive for the meteorite classification.

  5. Optical system optimization of the microprobe beamline of the Ion Implantation Laboratory (IF-UFRGS), Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Deiverti de Vila

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to optimize the microprobe beamline of the Ion Implantation Laboratory (IF-UFRGS). In short, an ion microprobe consists of charged particles focused to the dimensions of a few micrometers. The focusing system is made of two slits for demagnification, a set of magnetic lenses with scanning capability and a reaction chamber. By changing the parameters related to this system, one can optimize the features of the beam. To that end, samples of poly(tereftalate etylene) were irradiated with 2.2 MeV H+ ions and etched, yielding 2D microstructures with high aspect ratio. The analysis of the structures with Scanning Electron Microscopy proved to be an important tool in order to establish a correlation between the size of the microstructures and the parameters of the focusing system. In this work, the causes leading to a beam enlargement are discussed, as well as the aberrations which affect the system. Finally, the advantages of using ions for lithography purposes is pointed out. (author)

  6. Parity simulation for nuclear plant analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, K.F.; Depiente, E.

    1986-01-01

    The analysis of the transient performance of nuclear plants is sufficiently complex that simulation tools are needed for design and safety studies. The simulation tools are needed for design and safety studies. The simulation tools are normally digital because of the speed, flexibility, generality, and repeatability of digital computers. However, communication with digital computers is an awkward matter, requiring special skill or training. The designer wishing to gain insight into system behavior must expend considerable effort in learning to use computer codes, or else have an intermediary communicate with the machine. There has been a recent development in analog simulation that simplifies the user interface with the simulator, while at the same time improving the performance of analog computers. This development is termed parity simulation and is now in routine use in analyzing power electronic network transients. The authors describe the concept of parity simulation and present some results of using the approach to simulate neutron kinetics problems

  7. Nuclear Fuel Cycle System Analysis (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Won Il; Kwon, Eun Ha; Kim, Ho Dong; Yoon, Ji Sup; Park, Seong Won

    2006-12-15

    As a nation develops strategies that provide nuclear energy while meeting its various objectives, it must begin with identification of a fuel cycle option that can be best suitable for the country. For such a purpose, this paper takes four different fuel cycle options - Once-through Cycle, DUPIC Recycle, Thermal Reactor Recycle and GEN-IV Recycle, and evaluates each option in terms of sustainability, environment-friendliness, proliferation-resistance and economics. The analysis shows that the GEN-IV Recycle appears to have an advantage in terms of sustainability, environment-friendliness and long-term proliferation-resistance, while it is expected to be more economically competitive, if uranium ore prices increase or costs of pyroprocessing and fuel fabrication decrease.

  8. Procurement strategic analysis of nuclear safety equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Caixia; Yang Haifeng; Li Xiaoyang; Li Shixin

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear power development plan in China puts forward a challenge on procurement of nuclear safety equipment. Based on the characteristics of the procurement of nuclear safety equipment, requirements are raised for procurement process, including further clarification of equipment technical specification, establishment and improvement of the expert database of the nuclear power industry, adoption of more reasonable evaluation method and establishment of a unified platform for nuclear power plants to procure nuclear safety equipment. This paper makes recommendation of procurement strategy for nuclear power production enterprises from following aspects, making a plan of procurement progress, dividing procurement packages rationally, establishing supplier database through qualification review and implementing classified management, promoting localization process of key equipment continually and further improving the system and mechanism of procurement of nuclear safety equipment. (authors)

  9. Safety analysis of Oi nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The transient phenomena in Oi nuclear power plant were analyzed, especially on the water level fluctuation and the capability of natural circulation in the primary loop, under the assumptions that the feed water for steam generators is totally lost, and the relief valve on the pressurizer, which is actuated due to the pressure rise in the primary system, is stuck and kept open. These assumptions are related to the TMI accident. The analysing conditions are 1) the main feed water flow is totally lost suddenly during the rated power operation of the reactor, 2) two motor-driven auxiliary feed water pumps are started manually fifteen minutes after the accident initiation, 3) one relief valve on the pressurizer is opened fifteen seconds after the accident initiation and kept open, 4) the reactor is scrammed thirty three seconds after the accident initiation, 5) the turbine is tripped 33.5 seconds after the accident initiation, etc. Two cases were analysed, namely 3,800 seconds and 1,200 seconds after the accident initiation. The analytical code RELEP4/Mod5/U2/J1 was utilized for this analysis. The level fluctuation in the pressurizer after the accident initiation, the flow rate fluctuation through the pressurizer relief valve, especially that of steam, liquid single phase and two phase flows, the water level in the upper plenum in the pressure vessel, the change of flow rate at core inlet, the average pressure in the core, and the temperature fluctuation of coolant in the core, the variation of void fraction in the core, and the change of surface temperature of fuel rods are presented as the analysis results, and they are evaluated. It is recognized that the plant safety is kept under the assumed accident conditions in the Oi nuclear power plant. (Nakai, Y.)

  10. Atucha I nuclear power plant transients analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castano, J.; Schivo, M.

    1987-01-01

    A program for the transients simulation thermohydraulic calculation without loss of coolant (KWU-ENACE development) to evaluate Atucha I nuclear power plant behaviour is used. The program includes systems simulation and nuclear power plants control bonds with real parameters. The calculation results show a good agreement with the output 'protocol' of various transients of the nuclear power plant, keeping the error, in general, lesser than ± 10% from the variation of the nuclear power plant's state variables. (Author)

  11. The status of nuclear fuel cycle system analysis for the development of advanced nuclear fuel cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Won Il; Kim, Seong Ki; Lee, Hyo Jik; Chang, Hong Rae; Kwon, Eun Ha; Lee, Yoon Hee; Gao, Fanxing [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    The system analysis has been used with different system and objectives in various fields. In the nuclear field, the system can be applied from uranium mining to spent fuel reprocessing or disposal which is called the nuclear fuel cycle. The analysis of nuclear fuel cycle can be guideline for development of advanced fuel cycle through integrating and evaluating the technologies. For this purpose, objective approach is essential and modeling and simulation can be useful. In this report, several methods which can be applicable for development of advanced nuclear fuel cycle, such as TRL, simulation and trade analysis were explained with case study

  12. Analysis of india and Pakistan's nuclear capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhimin

    1999-07-01

    The development and capacity of both India and Pakistan's nuclear weapons are described in production of weapon-grade materials, nuclear testing, weaponization engineering and delivery systems. India is capable of designing and manufacturing both small yield tactic nuclear weapons and big yield strategic ones and also possesses the technique to design and manufacture H-bombs. Weapon-grade plutonium constitutes the primary fission material for India's nuclear weapon and it has plutonium enough to make 70 to 100 nuclear weapons. India can also produce some tritium. India has already possessed delivery systems but it has not yet mounted nuclear warheads on its ballistic missiles even though its missiles, which India has already owned or is under development, have the ability to carry nuclear warheads. Pakistan also has the ability to make both tactic nuclear weapons and strategic ones. With its weapon-grade uranium, 20 to 30 nuclear weapons can be made. Besides the uranium production facility. Pakistan also has the facility to produce tritium. It is supposed that Pakistan has the ability to carry nuclear weapons with airplane, but it has a long way to go if it wants to mount nuclear weapon, especially bit yield ones, on its own missile. As a whole, India's nuclear force is stronger than Pakistan's, and its development far more advanced than Pakistan's

  13. Legal Analysis of EPC Contract of the Nuclear Reactor in the aspect of Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. S.; Chung, W. S.; Yun, S. W.; Yang, M. H.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, Korea Nuclear Industry and R and D Institute obtained order of Nuclear Reactor construction from the UAE and the Jordan. Though the UAE's nuclear power plant and the Jordan's Research Reactor were different each other legal issues raised in EPC contract between employer and contractor had very close characters and similar suggestions. New nuclear country have not established all necessary entities regarding regulation and control and enacted laws yet. However, nuclear technology shall be transferred to the country that is ready to or have equipped all mandatory safeguard and safety. From the reality, nuclear specific issues such as the Nuclear Indemnity, Ownership of Intellectual property, Training program for operating technicians, and nuclear licensing are emerging in the EPC contract and finding consensus to the issues between both parties were time consuming work. Our studies will analysis the issues and try to find impartial guideline

  14. Wavelet analysis of the nuclear phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouault, B.; Sebille, F.; De La Mota, V.

    1997-01-01

    The description of complex systems requires to select and to compact the relevant information. The wavelet theory constitutes an appropriate framework for defining adapted representation bases obtained from a controlled hierarchy of approximations. The optimization of the wavelet analysis depend mainly on the chosen analysis method and wavelet family. Here the analysis of the harmonic oscillator wave function was carried out by considering a Spline bi-orthogonal wavelet base which satisfy the symmetry requirements and can be approximated by simple analytical functions. The goal of this study was to determine a selection criterion allowing to minimize the number of elements considered for an optimal description of the analysed functions. An essential point consists in utilization of the wavelet complementarity and of the scale functions in order to reproduce the oscillating and peripheral parts of the wave functions. The wavelet base representation allows defining a sequence of approximations of the density matrix. Thus, this wavelet representation of the density matrix offers an optimal base for describing both the static nuclear configurations and their time evolution. This information compacting procedure is performed in a controlled manner and preserves the structure of the system wave functions and consequently some of its quantum properties

  15. Nuclear analytical techniques in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesareo, R.

    1988-01-01

    This book acquaints one with the fundamental principles and the instrumentation relevant to analytical technique based on atomic and nuclear physics, as well as present and future biomedical applications. Besides providing a theoretical description of the physical phenomena, a large part of the book is devoted to applications in the medical and biological field, particularly in hematology, forensic medicine and environmental science. This volume reviews methods such as the possibility of carrying out rapid multi-element analysis of trace elements on biomedical samples, in vitro and in vivo, by XRF-analysis; the ability of the PIXE-microprobe to analyze in detail and to map trace elements in fragments of biomedical samples or inside the cells; the potentiality of in vivo nuclear activation analysis for diagnostic purposes. Finally, techniques are described such as radiation scattering (elastic and inelastic scattering) and attenuation measurements which will undoubtedly see great development in the immediate future

  16. Nuclear analytical techniques in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesareo, R.

    1988-01-01

    This book acquaints one with the fundamental principles and the instrumentation relevant to analytical technique based on atomic and nuclear physics, as well as present and future biomedical applications. Besides providing a theoretical description of the physical phenomena, a large part of the book is devoted to applications in the medical and biological field, particularly in hematology, forensic medicine and environmental science. This volume reviews methods such as the possibility of carrying out rapid multi-element analysis of trace elements on biomedical samples, in vitro and in vivo, by XRF-analysis; the ability of the PIXE-microprobe to analyze in detail and to map trace elements in fragments of biomedical samples or inside the cells; the potentiality of in vivo nuclear activation analysis for diagnostic purposes. Finally, techniques are described such as radiation scattering (elastic and inelastic scattering) and attenuation measurements which will undoubtedly see great development in the immediate future.

  17. Applicability of trends in nuclear safety analysis to space nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    A survey is presented of some current trends in nuclear safety analysis that may be relevant to space nuclear power systems. This includes: lessons learned from operating power reactor safety and licensing; approaches to the safety design of advanced and novel reactors and facilities; the roles of risk assessment, extremely unlikely accidents, safety goals/targets; and risk-benefit analysis and communication

  18. A tunable x-ray microprobe using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.; Thompson, A.C.; Underwood, J.H.; Giauque, R.D.; Chapman, K.; Rivers, M.L.; Jones, K.W.

    1989-08-01

    We describe an x-ray microprobe using multilayer mirrors. Previously, we had demonstrated a Kirkpatrick-Baez type focusing system working at both 8 and 10 keV and successfully applied it to a variety of applications, including the determination of elemental contents in fluid inclusions. In this paper, we show that the usable excitation energy for this microprobe is not restricted to between 8 and 10 keV, and furthermore, it can be simply tuned in operation. A 10-keV x-ray fluorescence microprobe can be used to measure the concentration of the elements form potassium (Z = 19) to zinc (Z = 30) using K x-ray lines, and from cadmium (Z = 48) to erbium (Z = 68) using L x-ray lines. There are a number of geologically important elements in the gap between gallium (Z = 31) and silver(Z = 47) and also with Z > 68. In order to cover this range, a higher excitation energy is required. On the other hand, for samples that contain major elements with absorption edges lower than the excitation energy, it would be hard to detect other mirror elements because of the strong signal from the major elements and the background they produce. In this case, a tunable x-ray source can be used to avoid the excitation of the major elements. We demonstrate that, with the existing setup, it is possible to tune the excitation energy from 6 keV to 14 keV, in this range, the intensity does not decrease by more than one order of magnitude. As an illustration, a geological sample was examined by using two different excitation energy range as well as the possibility of improving the intensity. 11 refs., 5 figs

  19. X-ray microprobe for the microcharacterization of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparks, C.J.; Ice, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    The unique properties of x rays offer many advantages over those of electrons and other charged particles for the microcharacterization of materials. X rays are more efficient in exciting characteristic x-ray fluorescence and produce higher fluorescent signal-to-background ratios than obtained with electrons. Such x-ray microprobes will also produce unprecedentedly low levels of detection in diffraction, EXAFS, Auger, and photoelectron spectroscopies for structural and chemical characterization and elemental identification. These major improvements in microcharacterization capabilities will have wide-ranging ramifications not only in materials science but also in physics, chemistry, geochemistry, biology, and medicine. 24 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Enhancements to the analytical facilities at the GNS proton microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, B.J.; Markwitz, A.; Kennedy, V.J.; Trompetter, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years a number of detection systems have been added to the proton microprobe facility at GNS Science. Particular additions have been a large area HPGe detector and a system for scanning transmission imaging microscopy. The HPGe detector has improved detection sensitivity, particularly for higher energy K x-rays where energy resolution is of lesser importance. The scanning microscopy system has enabled mapping of areal densities in biological samples to give accurate elemental maps. Examples are given of these applications. (author). 22 refs., 7 figs

  1. Trans-Regional technologies and the Lapita problem: characterisation of volcanic glass inclusions by electron microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grave, P.; Nockolds, C.; White, P.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Analysis of pre-modern pottery of the Pacific has long attempted to formulate measures independent of style for constructing archaeologically meaningful groups. However, the variable character of fabrics and the longevity of production (Lapita and post-Lapita wares from 3000 years ago to the present) have tended to obscure differences due to changes in production practices and resources through time and differences relating to the exchange of ceramics between islands or regions. In this poster we outline a preliminary study that employs an economical and robust technique to distinguish both within- and between-region groups. This is achieved with electron microprobe analysis of small volcanic glass fragments present in wares tempered with volcanic sands, and interpretation based on Principal Components Analysis. The method builds on the chemical groupings for glass from different volcanic complexes in the Pacific established through high energy ion beam (PIXE-PIGME) analysis. The purpose of this study is to characterise a selection of samples of pottery from the Duke of York's peninsula using electron microprobe analysis of very small glass fragments in the sections that ranged in size from around 0.05 mm to 1 mm.. The study involved the identification and elemental characterisation of individual fragments of glass in a section. Principal Component Analysis was used to identify structure latent in the dataset. The results of the study show that clear characterisation is possible to enable the wider application of the technique to Lapita and post Lapita ceramics produced originating in volcanic areas of the Pacific

  2. Analysis of renal nuclear medicine images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jose, R.M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging of the renal system involves producing time-sequential images showing the distribution of a radiopharmaceutical in the renal system. Producing numerical and graphical data from nuclear medicine studies requires defining regions of interest (ROIs) around various organs within the field of view, such as the left kidney, right kidney and bladder. Automating this process has several advantages: a saving of a clinician's time; enhanced objectivity and reproducibility. This thesis describes the design, implementation and assessment of an automatic ROI generation system. The performance of the system described in this work is assessed by comparing the results to those obtained using manual techniques. Since nuclear medicine images are inherently noisy, the sequence of images is reconstructed using the first few components of a principal components analysis in order to reduce the noise in the images. An image of the summed reconstructed sequence is then formed. This summed image is segmented by using an edge co-occurrence matrix as a feature space for simultaneously classifying regions and locating boundaries. Two methods for assigning the regions of a segmented image to organ class labels are assessed. The first method is based on using Dempster-Shafer theory to combine uncertain evidence from several sources into a single evidence; the second method makes use of a neural network classifier. The use of each technique in classifying the regions of a segmented image are assessed in separate experiments using 40 real patient-studies. A comparative assessment of the two techniques shows that the neural network produces more accurate region labels for the kidneys. The optimum neural system is determined experimentally. Results indicate that combining temporal and spatial information with a priori clinical knowledge produces reasonable ROIs. Consistency in the neural network assignment of regions is enhanced by taking account of the contextual

  3. Uncertainty analysis of nuclear waste package corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurth, R.E.; Nicolosi, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the results of an evaluation of three uncertainty analysis methods for assessing the possible variability in calculating the corrosion process in a nuclear waste package. The purpose of the study is the determination of how each of three uncertainty analysis methods, Monte Carlo, Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) and a modified discrete probability distribution method, perform in such calculations. The purpose is not to examine the absolute magnitude of the numbers but rather to rank the performance of each of the uncertainty methods in assessing the model variability. In this context it was found that the Monte Carlo method provided the most accurate assessment but at a prohibitively high cost. The modified discrete probability method provided accuracy close to that of the Monte Carlo for a fraction of the cost. The LHS method was found to be too inaccurate for this calculation although it would be appropriate for use in a model which requires substantially more computer time than the one studied in this paper

  4. Transient analysis for Laguna Verde nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Pablos, J.C. et.al.

    1991-01-01

    Relationship between transients analysis and safety of Laguna Verde nuclear power plant is described a general panorama of safety thermal limits of a nuclear station, as well as transients classification and events simulation codes are exposed. Activities of a group of transients analysis of electrical research institute are also mentioned (Author)

  5. HRA qualitative analysis in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Licao; Zhang Li; Huang Shudong

    2004-01-01

    Human reliability analysis (HRA) is a very important part of probability safety assessment (PSA) in a nuclear power plant. Qualitative analysis is the basis and starting point of HRA. The purpose, the principle, the method and the procedure of qualitative HRA are introduced. SGTR, a pressurized nuclear power plant as an example, is used to illustrate it. (authors)

  6. Holistic safety analysis for advanced nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarenga, M.A.B.; Guimaraes, A.C.F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the basic methodology of safety analysis used in the ANGRA-I and ANGRA-II nuclear power plants, its weaknesses, the problems with public acceptance of the risks, the future of the nuclear energy in Brazil, as well as recommends a new methodology, HOLISTIC SAFETY ANALYSIS, to be used both in the design and licensing phases, for advanced reactors. (author)

  7. Ion beam induced luminescence from diamond using an MeV ion microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettiol, A A; Jamieson, D N; Prawer, S; Allen, M G [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1994-12-31

    Analysis of the luminescence induced by a MeV ion beam offers the potential to provide useful information about the chemical properties of atoms in crystals to complement the information provided by more traditional Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) such as Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), ion channeling and Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Furthermore, the large penetration depth of the MeV ion beam offers several advantages over the relatively shallow penetration of keV electrons typically employed in cathodoluminescence. An Ion Beam Induced Luminescence (IBIL) detection system was developed for the Melbourne microprobe that allows the spatial mapping of the luminescence signal along with the signals from RBS and PIXE. Homoepitaxial diamond growth has been studied and remarkable shifts in the characteristic blue luminescence of diamond towards the green were observed in the overgrowth. This has been tentatively identified as being due to transition metal inclusions in the epitaxial layers. 8 refs., 2 refs.

  8. Ion beam induced luminescence from diamond using an MeV ion microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettiol, A.A.; Jamieson, D. N.; Prawer, S.; Allen, M.G. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1993-12-31

    Analysis of the luminescence induced by a MeV ion beam offers the potential to provide useful information about the chemical properties of atoms in crystals to complement the information provided by more traditional Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) such as Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), ion channeling and Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Furthermore, the large penetration depth of the MeV ion beam offers several advantages over the relatively shallow penetration of keV electrons typically employed in cathodoluminescence. An Ion Beam Induced Luminescence (IBIL) detection system was developed for the Melbourne microprobe that allows the spatial mapping of the luminescence signal along with the signals from RBS and PIXE. Homoepitaxial diamond growth has been studied and remarkable shifts in the characteristic blue luminescence of diamond towards the green were observed in the overgrowth. This has been tentatively identified as being due to transition metal inclusions in the epitaxial layers. 8 refs., 2 refs.

  9. Present status of research and development on X-ray microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Masaki; Suzuki, I.H.

    1991-01-01

    X-ray beam micro-analysis has advanced rapidly in these years in conjunction with the development of powerful X-ray sources. Among a variety of methods being attempted, the method using a collimated narrow beam has been important because of high brightness, and of usability in both regions of soft and hard X-rays. In the soft X-ray region, the focused beam is formed by a fresnel zone plate or a Schwaltzschild mirror assembly, and can be used for scanning transmission microscope or scanning photoelectron microscope. In the hard X-ray region, the beam is formed by grazing incidence mirrors, and can be used for X-ray fluorescence micro-analysis for obtaining elemental mapping. In this report, the recent progress on the soft X-ray scanning microscopy and the X-ray microprobe has been surveyed, together with the improvement on the related optical elements. (author) 84 refs

  10. Radiochemistry and nuclear methods of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehmann, W.D.; Vance, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    In comparison with other aspects of physical science, nuclear and radiochemistry are small contributors to the overall scheme of things. Nuclear science is, however, an important player in various aspects of medicine, life sciences, industrial technology, physical sciences, archeometry and art, and theoretical/computational sciences. This new book fills the need for a contemporary text with a good mix of simple introductory theory, experimental methodology, and instrumentation for beginning students of nuclear science

  11. Realtime control system for microprobe beamline at PLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, J.C.; Lee, J.W.; Kim, K.H.; Ko, I.S. [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, POSTECH, Pohang (Korea)

    1998-11-01

    The microprobe beamline of the Pohang Light Source (PLS) consists of main and second slits, a microprobe system, two ion chambers, a video-microscope, and a Si(Li) detector. These machine components must be controlled remodely through the computer system to make user's experiments precise and speedy. A real-time computer control system was developed to control and monitor these components. A VMEbus computer with an OS-9 real-time operating system was used for the low-level data acquisition and control. VME I/O modules were used for the step motor control and the scalar control. The software has a modular structure for the maximum performance and the easy maintenance. We developed the database, the I/O driver, and the control software. We used PC/Windows 95 for the data logging and the operator interface. Visual C{sup ++} was used for the graphical user interface programming. RS232C was used for the communication between the VME and the PC. (author)

  12. Nuclear power company activity based costing management analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Dan

    2012-01-01

    With Nuclear Energy Industry development, Nuclear Power Company has the continual promoting stress of inner management to the sustainable marketing operation development. In view of this, it is very imminence that Nuclear Power Company should promote the cost management levels and built the nuclear safety based lower cost competitive advantage. Activity based costing management (ABCM) transfer the cost management emphases from the 'product' to the 'activity' using the value chain analysis methods, cost driver analysis methods and so on. According to the analysis of the detail activities and the value chains, cancel the unnecessary activity, low down the resource consuming of the necessary activity, and manage the cost from the source, achieve the purpose of reducing cost, boosting efficiency and realizing the management value. It gets the conclusion from the detail analysis with the nuclear power company procedure and activity, and also with the selection to 'pieces analysis' of the important cost related project in the nuclear power company. The conclusion is that the activities of the nuclear power company has the obviously performance. It can use the management of ABC method. And with the management of the procedure and activity, it is helpful to realize the nuclear safety based low cost competitive advantage in the nuclear power company. (author)

  13. Comparison of laser microprobe mass spectrometry (LMMS) and micro particle induced x-ray emission (micro-PIXE) for the analysis of senile plaques in Alzheimer`s disease. A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovell, M A; Robertson, J D; Ehmann, W D [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Markesbery, W R [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States); Teesdale, W J; Campbell, J L [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics

    1995-08-01

    Results of micro-PIXE analysis of senile plaques (SP) in Alzheimer`s disease (AD) brain have been utilized to independently confirm levels of iron (Fe) as measured by LMMS in adjacent brain sections. LMMS concentrations were calculated based on the preparation and analysis of an iron calibration curve prepared in our laboratory. The LMMS standards consist of iron cis-dicylclohexano-18-crown-6 ether coordination complexes dissolved in Spurr`s low viscosity embedding medium. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of micro-PIXE, with its spatial resolution and detection limits comparable to that of LMMS, in the validation of LMMS results. The agreement observed between results obtained for Fe by micro-PIXE and LMMS indicates that the use of our LMMS standards, at least in the case of Fe, yields accurate results. (author). 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. Reliability of sprinkler systems. Exploration and analysis of data from nuclear and non-nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roenty, V.; Keski-Rahkonen, O.; Hassinen, J.P.

    2004-12-01

    Sprinkler systems are an important part of fire safety of nuclear installations. As a part of effort to make fire-PSA of our utilities more quantitative a literature survey from open sources worldwide of available reliability data on sprinkler systems was carried out. Since the result of the survey was rather poor quantitatively, it was decided to mine available original Finnish nuclear and non-nuclear data, since nuclear power plants present a rather small device population. Sprinklers are becoming a key element for the fire safety in modern, open non-nuclear buildings. Therefore, the study included both nuclear power plants and non-nuclear buildings protected by sprinkler installations. Data needed for estimating of reliability of sprinkler systems were collected from available sources in Finnish nuclear and non-nuclear installations. Population sizes on sprinkler system installations and components therein as well as covered floor areas were counted individually from Finnish nuclear power plants. From non-nuclear installations corresponding data were estimated by counting relevant things from drawings of 102 buildings, and plotting from that sample needed probability distributions. The total populations of sprinkler systems and components were compiled based on available direct data and these distributions. From nuclear power plants electronic maintenance reports were obtained, observed failures and other reliability relevant data were selected, classified according to failure severity, and stored on spreadsheets for further analysis. A short summary of failures was made, which was hampered by a small sample size. From non-nuclear buildings inspection statistics from years 1985.1997 were surveyed, and observed failures were classified and stored on spreadsheets. Finally, a reliability model is proposed based on earlier formal work, and failure frequencies obtained by preliminary data analysis of this work. For a model utilising available information in the non-nuclear

  15. Cyberattack analysis through Malaysian Nuclear Agency experience as nuclear research center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Dzul Aiman Aslan; Mohd Fauzi Haris; Saaidi Ismail; Nurbahyah Hamdan

    2011-01-01

    As a nuclear research center, Nuclear Malaysia is one of the Critical National Information Infrastructure (CNII) in the country. One of the easiest way to launch a malicious attack is through the online system, whether main web site or online services. Recently, we also under port scanning and hack attempts from various sources. This paper will discuss on analysis based on Nuclear Malaysia experience regarding these attempts which keep arising nowadays. (author)

  16. Establishment of computer code system for nuclear reactor design - analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subki, I.R.; Santoso, B.; Syaukat, A.; Lee, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    Establishment of computer code system for nuclear reactor design analysis is given in this paper. This establishment is an effort to provide the capability in running various codes from nuclear data to reactor design and promote the capability for nuclear reactor design analysis particularly from neutronics and safety points. This establishment is also an effort to enhance the coordination of nuclear codes application and development existing in various research centre in Indonesia. Very prospective results have been obtained with the help of IAEA technical assistance. (author). 6 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  17. Evaluation and analysis of nuclear resonance data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frohner, F.H.

    2000-01-01

    A probabilistic foundations of data evaluation are reviewed, with special emphasis on parameter estimation based on Bayes' theorem and a quadratic loss function, and on modern methods for the assignment of prior probabilities. The data reduction process leading from raw experimental data to evaluated computer files of nuclear reaction cross sections is outlined, with a discussion of systematic and statistical errors and their propagation and of the generalized least squares formalism including prior information and nonlinear theoretical models. It is explained how common errors induce correlations between data, what consequences they have for uncertainty propagation and sensitivity studies, and how evaluators can construct covariance matrices from the usual error information provided by experimentalists. New techniques for evaluation of inconsistent data are also presented. The general principles are then applied specifically to the analysis and evaluation of neutron resonance data in terms of theoretical models - R-matrix theory (and especially its practically used multi-level Breit-Wigner and Reich-Moore variants) in the resolved region, and resonance-averaged R-matrix theory (Hauser-Feshbach theory with width-fluctuation corrections) in the unresolved region. Complications arise because the measured transmission data, capture and fission yields, self-indication ratios and other observables are not yet the wanted cross sections. These are obtained only by means of parametrisation. The intervening effects - Doppler and resolution broadening, self-shielding, multiple scattering, backgrounds, sample impurities, energy-dependent detector efficiencies, inaccurate reference data etc - are therefore also discussed. (author)

  18. Integrated analysis of oxide nuclear fuel sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, V.; Kuzmin, R.; Tenishev, A.; Timoshin, I.; Khlunov, A.; Ivanov, A.; Petrov, I.

    2011-01-01

    Dilatometric and thermal-gravimetric investigations have been carried out for the sintering process of oxide nuclear fuel in gaseous Ar - 8% H 2 atmosphere at temperatures up to 1600 0 C. The pressed compacts were fabricated under real production conditions of the OAO MSZ with application of two different technologies, so called 'dry' and 'wet' technologies. Effects of the grain size growth after the heating to different temperatures were observed. In order to investigate the effects produced by rate of heating on properties of sintered fuel pellets, the heating rates were varied from 1 to 8 0 C per minute. Time of isothermal overexposure at maximal temperature (1600 0 C) was about 8 hours. Real production conditions were imitated. The results showed that the sintering process of the fuel pellets produced by two technologies differs. The samples sintered under different heating rates were studied with application of scanning electronic microscopy analysis for determination of mean grain size. A simulation of heating profile for industrial furnaces was performed to reduce the beam cycles and estimate the effects of variation of the isothermal overexposure temperatures. Based on this data, an optimization of the sintering conditions was performed in operations terms of OAO MSZ. (authors)

  19. NRSAS: Nuclear Receptor Structure Analysis Servers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bettler, E.J.M.; Krause, R.; Horn, F.; Vriend, G.

    2003-01-01

    We present a coherent series of servers that can perform a large number of structure analyses on nuclear hormone receptors. These servers are part of the NucleaRDB project, which provides a powerful information system for nuclear hormone receptors. The computations performed by the servers include

  20. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of nuclear reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Zohuri, Bahman

    2015-01-01

    This text covers the fundamentals of thermodynamics required to understand electrical power generation systems and the application of these principles to nuclear reactor power plant systems. It is not a traditional general thermodynamics text, per se, but a practical thermodynamics volume intended to explain the fundamentals and apply them to the challenges facing actual nuclear power plants systems, where thermal hydraulics comes to play.  Written in a lucid, straight-forward style while retaining scientific rigor, the content is accessible to upper division undergraduate students and aimed at practicing engineers in nuclear power facilities and engineering scientists and technicians in industry, academic research groups, and national laboratories. The book is also a valuable resource for students and faculty in various engineering programs concerned with nuclear reactors. This book also: Provides extensive coverage of thermal hydraulics with thermodynamics in nuclear reactors, beginning with fundamental ...

  1. General theory of three-dimensional radiance measurements with optical microprobes RID A-1977-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    FukshanskyKazarinova, N.; Fukshansky, L.; Kuhl, M.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of the radiance distribution and fluence rate within turbid samples with fiber-optic radiance microprobes contain a large variable instrumental error caused by the nonuniform directional sensitivity of the microprobes. A general theory of three-dimensional radiance measurements...

  2. 10th Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    These proceedings contains abstracts and extended abstracts of 80 lectures and posters presented at the 10th Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis hosted by the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia from 24-26 of November 1997. The conference was divided into sessions on the following topics : ion beam analysis and its applications; surface science; novel nuclear techniques of analysis, characterization of thin films, electronic and optoelectronic material formed by ion implantation, nanometre science and technology, plasma science and technology. A special session was dedicated to new nuclear techniques of analysis, future trends and developments. Separate abstracts were prepared for the individual presentation included in this volume

  3. 10th Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    These proceedings contains abstracts and extended abstracts of 80 lectures and posters presented at the 10th Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis hosted by the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia from 24-26 of November 1997. The conference was divided into sessions on the following topics : ion beam analysis and its applications; surface science; novel nuclear techniques of analysis, characterization of thin films, electronic and optoelectronic material formed by ion implantation, nanometre science and technology, plasma science and technology. A special session was dedicated to new nuclear techniques of analysis, future trends and developments. Separate abstracts were prepared for the individual presentation included in this volume.

  4. Cost benefit analysis of recycling nuclear fuel cycle in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jewhan; Chang, Soonheung

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear power has become an essential part of electricity generation to meet the continuous growth of electricity demand. The importance if nuclear waste management has been the main issue since the beginning of nuclear history. The recycling nuclear fuel cycle includes the fast reactor, which can burn the nuclear wastes, and the pyro-processing technology, which can reprocess the spent nuclear fuel. In this study, a methodology using Linear Programming (LP) is employed to evaluate the cost and benefits of introducing the recycling strategy and thus, to see the competitiveness of recycling fuel cycle. The LP optimization involves tradeoffs between the fast reactor capital cost with pyro-processing cost premiums and the total system uranium price with spent nuclear fuel management cost premiums. With the help of LP and sensitivity analysis, the effect of important parameters is presented as well as the target values for each cost and price of key factors

  5. A Nuclear Waste Management Cost Model for Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, R. W.; Hill, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Although integrated assessments of climate change policy have frequently identified nuclear energy as a promising alternative to fossil fuels, these studies have often treated nuclear waste disposal very simply. Simple assumptions about nuclear waste are problematic because they may not be adequate to capture relevant costs and uncertainties, which could result in suboptimal policy choices. Modeling nuclear waste management costs is a cross-disciplinary, multi-scale problem that involves economic, geologic and environmental processes that operate at vastly different temporal scales. Similarly, the climate-related costs and benefits of nuclear energy are dependent on environmental sensitivity to CO2 emissions and radiation, nuclear energy's ability to offset carbon emissions, and the risk of nuclear accidents, factors which are all deeply uncertain. Alternative value systems further complicate the problem by suggesting different approaches to valuing intergenerational impacts. Effective policy assessment of nuclear energy requires an integrated approach to modeling nuclear waste management that (1) bridges disciplinary and temporal gaps, (2) supports an iterative, adaptive process that responds to evolving understandings of uncertainties, and (3) supports a broad range of value systems. This work develops the Nuclear Waste Management Cost Model (NWMCM). NWMCM provides a flexible framework for evaluating the cost of nuclear waste management across a range of technology pathways and value systems. We illustrate how NWMCM can support policy analysis by estimating how different nuclear waste disposal scenarios developed using the NWMCM framework affect the results of a recent integrated assessment study of alternative energy futures and their effects on the cost of achieving carbon abatement targets. Results suggest that the optimism reflected in previous works is fragile: Plausible nuclear waste management costs and discount rates appropriate for intergenerational cost

  6. Analysis of archaeological pieces with nuclear techniques; Analisis de piezas arqueologicas con tecnicas nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenorio, D [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    In this work nuclear techniques such as Neutron Activation Analysis, PIXE, X-ray fluorescence analysis, Metallography, Uranium series, Rutherford Backscattering for using in analysis of archaeological specimens and materials are described. Also some published works and thesis about analysis of different Mexican and Meso american archaeological sites are referred. (Author)

  7. Trace element composition and distribution in micron area of dinosaur eggshell fossils determined by proton microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Youhong; Zhu Jieqing; Wang Xiaohong; Wang Yimin

    1997-01-01

    The scanning proton microprobe and micro-PIXE quantitative analysis technique have been used to determine composition and distribution of the trace elements in micron areas of dinosaur eggshell fossils from the stratum of Upper Cretaceous system at Nanxiong Basin in Guangdong Province, China. The study shows that the trace elements mainly include Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Sb, Ba and Pb in the micron area, but they present different distributions. While the element Sr is mainly enriched in the near surface layer, others mainly reside in the near inner layer. A preliminary discussion on the reason of the dinosaur extinction is given based on the above study

  8. Trace element composition and distribution in micron area of dinosaur eggshell fossils determined by proton microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Youhong; Zhu Jieqing; Wang Xiaohong; Wang Yimin

    1997-01-01

    The scanning proton microprobe and micro-PIXE quantitative analysis technique have been used to determine composition and distribution of the trace elements in micron areas of dinosaur eggshell fossils from the stratum of Upper Cretaceous system at Nanxiong Basin in Guangdong Province, China. The study shows that the trace elements mainly include Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Sb, Ba and Pb in the micron area, but they present different distributions. While the elements Sr is mainly enriched in the near surface layer, others mainly reside in the near inner layer. A preliminary discussion on the reason of the dinosaur extinction is given based on the above study

  9. Microprobe study of fission product behavior in high-burnup HTR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleykamp, H.

    Electron microprobe analysis of irradiated coated particles with high burnup (greater than 50 percent fima) gives detailed information on the chemical state and the transport behavior of the fission products in UO 2 and UC 2 kernels and in the coatings. In oxide fuel kernels, metallic inclusions and ceramic precipitations are observed. The solubility behavior of the fission products in the fuel matrix has been investigated. Fission product inclusions could not be detected in carbide fuel kernels; post irradiation annealed UC 2 kernels, however, give information on the element combinations of some fission product phases. Corresponding to the chemical state in the kernel, Cs, Sr, Ba, Pd, Te and the rare earths are released easily and diffuse through the entire pyrocarbon coating. These fission products can be retained by a silicon carbide layer. The initial stage of a corrosive attack of the SiC coating by the fission products is evidenced

  10. New nuclear power generation in the UK: Cost benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, David

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an economic analysis of possible nuclear new build in the UK. It compares costs and benefits of nuclear new build against conventional gas-fired generation and low carbon technologies (CCS, wind, etc.). A range of scenarios are considered to allow for uncertainty as regards nuclear and other technology costs, gas prices and carbon prices. In the base case, the analysis suggests that there is a small cost penalty for new nuclear generation relative to conventional gas-fired generation, but that this is offset by environmental and security of supply benefits. More generally nuclear new build has a positive net benefit for a range of plausible nuclear costs, gas prices and carbon prices. This supports the UK policy of developing an enabling framework for nuclear new build in a market-based context. To the extent that assumptions in the analysis are not borne out in reality (e.g. as regards nuclear cost), this is a no regrets policy, given that the market would not invest in nuclear if it is prohibitively costly. (author)

  11. Economic consideration of nuclear safety and cost benefit analysis in nuclear safety regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Y. S.; Choi, K. S.; Choi, K. W.; Song, I. J.; Park, D. K.

    2001-01-01

    For the optimization of nuclear safety regulation, understanding of economic aspects of it becomes increasingly important together with the technical approach used so far to secure nuclear safety. Relevant economic theories on private and public goods were reviewed to re-illuminate nuclear safety from the economic perspective. The characteristics of nuclear safety as a public good was reviewed and discussed in comparison with the car safety as a private safety good. It was shown that the change of social welfare resulted from the policy change induced can be calculated by the summation of compensating variation(CV) of individuals. It was shown that the value of nuclear safety could be determined in monetary term by this approach. The theoretical background and history of cost benefit analysis of nuclear safety regulation were presented and topics for future study were suggested

  12. Social cost-benefit analysis and nuclear futures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    The usefulness of cost-benefit analysis in making nuclear power investment decisions is considered. The essence of social cost-benefit analysis is outlined and shown to be unavoidably value-laden. As a case study six issues relevant to the decision to build on oxide fuel reprocessing plant (THORP) are examined. The potential practical value of using cost-benefit analysis as an aid to decision-making is considered for each of these issues. It is concluded that cost-benefit approach is of limited value in the nuclear power case because of its inapplicability to such issues as the liberty of the individual and nuclear weapons proliferation. (author)

  13. Stochastic processes analysis in nuclear reactor using ARMA models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavaljevski, N.

    1990-01-01

    The analysis of ARMA model derived from general stochastic state equations of nuclear reactor is given. The dependence of ARMA model parameters on the main physical characteristics of RB nuclear reactor in Vinca is presented. Preliminary identification results are presented, observed discrepancies between theory and experiment are explained and the possibilities of identification improvement are anticipated. (author)

  14. Human reliability analysis of Lingao Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Huang Shudong; Yang Hong; He Aiwu; Huang Xiangrui; Zheng Tao; Su Shengbing; Xi Haiying

    2001-01-01

    The necessity of human reliability analysis (HRA) of Lingao Nuclear Power Station are analyzed, and the method and operation procedures of HRA is briefed. One of the human factors events (HFE) is analyzed in detail and some questions of HRA are discussed. The authors present the analytical results of 61 HFEs, and make a brief introduction of HRA contribution to Lingao Nuclear Power Station

  15. HJD-I record and analysis meter for nuclear information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Shaoliang; Huang Yong; Xiao Yanbin

    1992-01-01

    A low-cost, small-volume, multi-function and new model intelligent nuclear electronic meter HJD-I Record and Analysis Meter are stated for Nuclear Information. It's hardware and software were detailed and the 137 Cs spectrum with this meter was presented

  16. Subsidence analysis Forsmark nuclear power plant - unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bono, Nancy; Fredriksson, Anders; Maersk Hansen, Lars

    2010-12-01

    On behalf of SKB, Golder Associates Ltd carried out a risk analysis of subsidence during Forsmark nuclear power plant in the construction of the final repository for spent nuclear fuel near and below existing reactors. Specifically, the effect of horizontal cracks have been studied

  17. Implementation of ionoluminescence in the AGLAE scanning external microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichon, L.; Calligaro, T.; Gonzalez, V.; Lemasson, Q.; Moignard, B.; Pacheco, C.

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this work is to present the implementation of an IBIL imaging system in the scanning external microprobe of the AGLAE facility so as to correlate luminescence and composition maps provided by PIXE, RBS and PIGE. The challenging integration of the optical spectrometer, due to incompatibility of acquisition timings and data formats with the other IBA channels has motivated the development of a specific acquisition system. This article details the IBIL setup and explains the technical solutions retained for the coupling of IBIL with IBA techniques in order to produce fast and large IBIL-IBA maps. The IBIL maps stored in the same format as the PIXE, RBS and PIGE ones can be visualised and compared using the dedicated AGLAEmap program or the PyMCA processing package. An example of such a coupled mapping on Mesoamerican jade is presented to emphasise the interest of performing simultaneously IBA and IBIL large mappings

  18. Wireless cardiac action potential transmission with ultrasonically inserted silicon microprobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, C J; Ramkumar, A; Lal, A; Gilmour, R F Jr

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the integration of ultrasonically inserted horn-shaped cardiac probes with wireless transmission of 3D cardiac action potential measurement for applications in ex vivo preparations such as monitoring the onset of ventricular fibrillation. Ultrasonically inserted silicon horn probes permit reduced penetration force during insertion, allowing silicon, a brittle material, to penetrate cardiac tissue. The probes also allow recording from multiple sites that are lithographically defined. An application-specific integrated circuit has been designed with a 40 dB amplifying stage and a frequency modulating oscillator at 95 MHz to wirelessly transmit the recorded action potentials. This ultrasonically inserted microprobe wireless system demonstrates the initial results in wireless monitoring of 3D action potential propagation, and the extraction of parameters of interest including the action potential duration and diastolic interval

  19. Thermal coupling system analysis of a nuclear desalination plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adak, A.K.; Srivastava, V.K.; Tewari, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    When a nuclear reactor is used to supply steam for desalination plant, the method of coupling has a significant technical and economic impact. The exact method of coupling depends upon the type of reactor and type of desalination plant. As a part of Nuclear Desalination Demonstration Project (NDDP), BARC has successfully commissioned a 4500 m 3 /day MSF desalination plant coupled to Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) at Kalpakkam. Desalination plant coupled to nuclear power plant of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) type is a good example of dual-purpose nuclear desalination plant. This paper presents the thermal coupling system analysis of this plant along with technical and safety aspects. (author)

  20. Computer System Analysis for Decommissioning Management of Nuclear Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurokhim; Sumarbagiono

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear reactor decommissioning is a complex activity that should be planed and implemented carefully. A system based on computer need to be developed to support nuclear reactor decommissioning. Some computer systems have been studied for management of nuclear power reactor. Software system COSMARD and DEXUS that have been developed in Japan and IDMT in Italy used as models for analysis and discussion. Its can be concluded that a computer system for nuclear reactor decommissioning management is quite complex that involved some computer code for radioactive inventory database calculation, calculation module on the stages of decommissioning phase, and spatial data system development for virtual reality. (author)

  1. Ion microprobe U-Pb dating of a dinosaur tooth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Yuji; Terada, Kentaro; Ly, Chi V.; Park, Eun Ju

    2006-01-01

    Ion microprobe U-Pb dating of apatite is applied to a fossil tooth of a Allosaurid derived from the Hasandong Formation in the Gyeongsang basin, southeastern Korea. Twelve spots on a single fragment of the fossil dentine yield a Tera-Wasserburg concordia intercept age of 115±10 Ma (2σ, MSWD=0.59) on a 238 U/ 206 Pb- 207 Pb/ 206 Pb- 204 Pb/ 206 Pb diagram. The age provides a constraint on the depositional age of the fossil in its host Hassandong Formation as Early Aptian. The success of the ion microprobe dating depends on the heterogeneities of diagenetically incorporated U and Pb at the few hundred μm scale, the consequent variations in Pb isotopic compositions due to radioactive decay and the closed-system behavior of U and Pb. There are at least three end-members to explain the variations of minor chemical components such as FeO, SiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 , and trace elements as Th, U and rare earth elements (REE) in the sample by a simple mixing model. They are (1) very low minor and REE, very high common Pb with variable U abundances, (2) low common Pb, high minor, REE, and U abundances, and (3) low minor, common Pb, and U with intermediate REE abundances, even though groups (2) and (3) may consist of a larger group. Various contributions of the three (and/or two) end-members during diagenetic processes may cause the elemental fractionation of U and Pb in a fossil tooth. (author)

  2. Analysis of color environment in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natori, Kazuyuki; Akagi, Ichiro; Souma, Ichiro; Hiraki, Tadao; Sakurai, Yukihiro.

    1996-01-01

    This article reports the results of color and psychological analysis of the outlook of nuclear power plants and the visual environments inside of the plants. Study one was the color measurements of the outlook of nuclear plants and the visual environment inside of the plants. Study two was a survey of the impressions on the visual environments of nuclear plants obtained from observers and interviews of the workers. Through these analysis, we have identified the present state of, and the problems of the color environments of the nuclear plants. In the next step, we have designed the color environments of inside and outside of the nuclear plants which we would recommend (inside designs were about fuel handling room, operation floor of turbine building, observers' pathways, central control room, rest room for the operators). Study three was the survey about impressions on our design inside and outside of the nuclear plants. Nuclear plant observers, residents in Osaka city, residents near the nuclear plants, the operators, employees of subsidiary company and the PR center guides rated their impressions on the designs. Study four was the survey about the design of the rest room for the operators controlling the plants. From the results of four studies, we have proposed some guidelines and problems about the future planning about the visual environments of nuclear power plants. (author)

  3. Nuclear data evaluation and group constant generation for reactor analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Do; Gil, Choong Sup [Korea Atomic Energy Res. Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-01

    In nuclear or shielding design analysis for reactors including nuclear facilities, nuclear data are one of the primary importances. Research project for nuclear data evaluation and their effective applications has been continuously performed. The objectives of this project are (1) to compile the latest evaluated nuclear data files, (2) to establish their processing code systems, and (3) to evaluate the multigroup constant library using the newly compiled data files and the code systems. As the results of this project, JEF-2.2 which is latest version of Joint Evaluated File developed at OECD/NEA was compiled and COMPLOT and EVALPLOT utility codes were installed in personal computer, which are able to draw ENDF/B-formatted nuclear data for comparison and check. Computer system (NJOY/ACER) for generating continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP library was established and the system was validated by analyzing a number of experimental data. (Author).

  4. Economic analysis of nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ki Dong; Choi, Young Myung; Kim, Hwa Sup; Lee, Man Ki; Moon, Kee Hwan; Kim, Seung Su; Lim, Chae Young

    1998-12-01

    An energy security index was developed to measure how the introduction of nuclear power generation improved the national security of energy supply in Korea. Using the developed index, a quantitative effort was made to analyze the relationship between the nuclear power generation and the national energy security. Environmental impacts were evaluated and a simplified external cost of a specific coal-fired power plant in Korea was estimated using the QUERI program, which was developed by IAEA. In doing so, efforts were made to quantify the health impacts such as mortality, morbidity, and respiratory hospital admissions due to particulates, SOx, and Nox. The effects of CO 2 emission regulation on the national economy were evaluated. In doing so, the introduction of carbon tax was assumed. Several scenarios were established about the share of nuclear power generation and an effort was made to see how much contribution nuclear energy could make to lessen the burden of the regulation on the national economy. This study re-evaluated the methods for estimating and distributing decommissioning cost of nuclear power plant over lifetime. It was resulted out that the annual decommissioning deposit and consequently, the annual decommissioning cost could vary significantly depending on estimating and distributing methods. (author). 24 refs., 44 tabs., 9 figs

  5. Guidelines for nuclear reactor equipments safety-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The safety analysis in approving the applications for nuclear reactor constructions (or alterations) is performed by the Committee on Examination of Reactor Safety in accordance with various guidelines prescribed by the Atomic Energy Commission. In addition, the above Committee set forth its own regulations for the safety analysis on common problems among various types of nuclear reactors. This book has collected and edited those guidelines and regulations. It has two parts: Part I includes the guidelines issued to date by the Atomic Energy Commission: and Part II - regulations of the Committee. Part I has collected 8 categories of guidelines which relate to following matters: nuclear reactor sites analysis guidelines and standards for their applications; standard exposure dose of plutonium; nuclear ship operation guidelines; safety design analysis guidelines for light-water type, electricity generating nuclear reactor equipments; safety evaluation guidelines for emergency reactor core cooling system of light-water type power reactors; guidelines for exposure dose target values around light-water type electricity generating nuclear reactor equipments, and guidelines for evaluation of above target values; and meteorological guidelines for the safety analysis of electricity generating nuclear reactor equipments. Part II includes regulations of the Committee concerning - the fuel assembly used in boiling-water type and in pressurized-water type reactors; techniques of reactor core heat designs, etc. in boiling-water reactors; and others

  6. Element analysis with a proton microprobe of early atherosclerotic lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roijers, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a progressive inflammatory vascular disease accompanied by a gradual build-up of cholesterol in the artery walls. The associated chronic inflammatory process leads to tissue damage in the vascular wall as a consequence of an excessive inflammatory response. Large calcified

  7. Nuclear ship accidents, description and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1993-03-01

    In this report available information on 44 reported nuclear ship events is considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships and 38 with USSR ships. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/ explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. Comments are made on each of the events, and at the end of the report an attempt is made to point out the weaknesses of the submarine designs which have resulted in the accidents. It is emphasized that some of the information of which this report is based, may be of dubious nature. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  8. Analysis by nuclear reactions and activations. A current bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujdoso, E.

    2001-01-01

    A current bibliography based on INIS Atomindex with 78 references on Analysis by nuclear reactions and activations has been prepared for year 1998. References are arranged by first authors' name. (N.T.)

  9. Genome inventory and analysis of nuclear hormone receptors in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    2006-12-20

    Dec 20, 2006 ... progestins, as well as lipids, cholesterol metabolites, and. Genome ... Gene structure analysis shows strong conservation of exon structures among orthologoues. ..... earlier subfamily classification of NRs (Nuclear Receptors.

  10. Methodology for risk analysis of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Senne Junior, Murillo; Jordao, Elizabete

    2002-01-01

    Both the licensing standards for general uses in nuclear facilities and the specific ones require a risk assessment during their licensing processes. The risk assessment is carried out through the estimation of both probability of the occurrence of the accident, and their magnitudes. This is a complex task because the great deal of potential hazardous events that can occur in nuclear facilities difficult the statement of the accident scenarios. There are also many available techniques to identify the potential accidents, estimate their probabilities, and evaluate their magnitudes. In this paper is presented a new methodology that systematizes the risk assessment process, and orders the accomplishment of their several steps. (author)

  11. Performance analysis of nuclear materials accounting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, D.D.; Shipley, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    Techniques for analyzing the level of performance of nuclear materials accounting systems in terms of the four performance measures, total amount of loss, loss-detection time, loss-detection probability, and false-alarm probability, are presented. These techniques are especially useful for analyzing the expected performance of near-real-time (dynamic) accounting systems. A conservative estimate of system performance is provided by the CUSUM (cumulative summation of materials balances) test. Graphical displays, called performance surfaces, are developed as convenient tools for representing systems performance, and examples from a recent safeguards study of a nuclear fuels reprocessing plant are given. 6 refs

  12. Method and procedure of fatigue analysis for nuclear equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Jing; Fang Yonggang; Lu Yan; Zhang Yue; Sun Zaozhan; Zou Mingzhong

    2014-01-01

    As an example, the fatigue analysis for the upper head of the pressurizer in one NPP was carried out by using ANSYS, a finite element method analysis software. According to RCC-M code, only two kinds of typical transients of temperature and pressure were considered in the fatigue analysis. Meanwhile, the influence of earthquake was taken into account. The method and procedure of fatigue analysis for nuclear safety equipment were described in detail. This paper provides a reference for fatigue analysis and assessment of nuclear safety grade equipment and pipe. (authors)

  13. Nuclear fuel management and transients analysis in Laguna Verde nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Loera De Haro, M.A.; Alvarez Gasca, J.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear fuel management transient analysis are the set of activities which determine the load and reload of nuclear fuel inside the reactor, with the aim of getting the maximum performance in fuel burn up and heat remotion, without have an effect in the station safety. Nuclear fuel management and transient analysis has its basis on high precision quantitative analysis methodologies by means of simulation of nuclear and physical phenomena occurring both in normal and abnormal operation of nuclear power plants. On account of complexity of simulations and the required precision, those are carry out using codes type 'best estimate'. For the use of this tools it is necessary a deep knowledge of simulated nuclear and physical phenomena, as well as the used mathematical models and the numerical methods used. If different, the simulation results will be notably different actual processes owing to the use of models out of validity range, or incorrect calculations in the input parameters. On account of complexity of simulations and the required precision, those are carry out using codes type 'best estimate'. For the use of this tools it is necessary a deep knowledge of simulated nuclear and physical phenomena, as well as the used mathematical models and the numerical methods used. If different, the simulation results will be notably different actual processes owing to the use of models out of validity range, or incorrect calculations in the input parameters

  14. Analysis and prediction of leucine-rich nuclear export signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Cour, T.; Kiemer, Lars; Mølgaard, Anne

    2004-01-01

    We present a thorough analysis of nuclear export signals and a prediction server, which we have made publicly available. The machine learning prediction method is a significant improvement over the generally used consensus patterns. Nuclear export signals (NESs) are extremely important regulators...... this analysis is that the most important properties of NESs are accessibility and flexibility allowing relevant proteins to interact with the signal. Furthermore, we show that not only the known hydrophobic residues are important in defining a nuclear export signals. We employ both neural networks and hidden...

  15. Transient analysis models for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agapito, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    The modelling used for the simulation of the Angra-1 start-up reactor tests, using the RETRAN computer code is presented. Three tests are simulated: a)nuclear power plant trip from 100% of power; b)great power excursions tests and c)'load swing' tests.(E.G.) [pt

  16. Issues and scenarios for nuclear waste management systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, J.E.

    1980-11-01

    The Planning and Analysis Branch of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Waste Management Programs is developing a new systems integration program. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory was requested to perform a brief scoping analysis of what scenarios, questions, and issues should be addressed by the systems integration program. This document reports on that scoping analysis

  17. Use of some nuclear methods for materials analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habbani, Farouk

    1994-01-01

    A review is given about the use of two nuclear-related analytical methods, namely: X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and neutron activation analysis (NAA), for the determination of elemental composition of various materials. Special emphasis is given to the use of XRF for the analysis of geological samples, and NAA for the analysis of food - stuffs for their protein content. (Author)

  18. Cost analysis of spent nuclear fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, D.L.M.; Ford, L.M.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) is chartered to develop a waste management system for the safe disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from the 131 nuclear power reactors in the United States and a certain amount of high level waste (HLW) from reprocessing operations. The current schedule is to begin accepting SNF in 1998 for storage at a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. Subsequently, beginning in 2010, the system is scheduled to begin accepting SNF at a permanent geologic repository in 2010 and HLW in 2015. At this time, a MRS site has not been selected. Yucca Mountain, Nevada is currently being evaluated as the candidate site for the repository for permanent geologic disposal of SNF. All SNF, with the possible exception of the SNF from the western reactors, is currently planned to be shipped to or through the MRS site en route to the repository. The repository will operate in an acceptance and performance confirmation phase for a 50 year period beginning in 2010 with an additional nine year closure and five year decontamination and decommissioning period. The MRS has a statutory maximum capacity of 15,000 Metric Tons Uranium (MTU), with a further restriction that it may not store more than 10,000 MTU until the repository begins accepting waste. The repository is currently scheduled to store 63,000 MTU of SNF and an additional 7,000 MTU equivalent of HLW for a total capacity of 70,000 MTU. The amended act specified the MRS storage limits and identified Yucca Mountain as the only site to be characterized. Also, an Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator was established to secure a voluntary host site for the MRS. The MRS, the repository, and all waste containers/casks will go through a Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing process much like the licensing process for a nuclear power plant. Environmental assessments and impact statements will be prepared for both the MRS and repository

  19. Review of the study and application on nuclear forensic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Cheng'an; Song Jiashu; Wu Jun

    2009-01-01

    For the interests of national security, many scientists who work in the field of nuclear forensic analysis have carried out extensive work in the past on the detection of radioactive material and attributions study, developed a series of scientific and technical means to trace and detect illicit circulation of nuclear materials used to weapons and other radioactive materials which impair public security. All these questions relate to physical, chemical, biological attribution of materials. The nuclear forensic analysis has already become a special, up-to-date sphere of learning. The goal of the study of nuclear forensics is to prevent terrorists from acquiring not only nuclear weapons but also mate- rials that can be used to make such weapons, including radioactive materials for nuclear power plants, and medical radioisotope to and provide us as many clues of environmental links as possible that could help us trace the smuggling path, to answer the following questions: What is the material? Where did it come from? How did it pass from legitimate to illicit use? How did it get to where it was interdicted? Who did it? This paper outlines the contents, analysis means and application of nuclear forensics. (authors)

  20. Rethinking Sensitivity Analysis of Nuclear Simulations with Topology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Maljovec; Bei Wang; Paul Rosen; Andrea Alfonsi; Giovanni Pastore; Cristian Rabiti; Valerio Pascucci

    2016-01-01

    In nuclear engineering, understanding the safety margins of the nuclear reactor via simulations is arguably of paramount importance in predicting and preventing nuclear accidents. It is therefore crucial to perform sensitivity analysis to understand how changes in the model inputs affect the outputs. Modern nuclear simulation tools rely on numerical representations of the sensitivity information -- inherently lacking in visual encodings -- offering limited effectiveness in communicating and exploring the generated data. In this paper, we design a framework for sensitivity analysis and visualization of multidimensional nuclear simulation data using partition-based, topology-inspired regression models and report on its efficacy. We rely on the established Morse-Smale regression technique, which allows us to partition the domain into monotonic regions where easily interpretable linear models can be used to assess the influence of inputs on the output variability. The underlying computation is augmented with an intuitive and interactive visual design to effectively communicate sensitivity information to the nuclear scientists. Our framework is being deployed into the multi-purpose probabilistic risk assessment and uncertainty quantification framework RAVEN (Reactor Analysis and Virtual Control Environment). We evaluate our framework using an simulation dataset studying nuclear fuel performance.

  1. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-01-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology

  2. Analysis of failed nuclear plant components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diercks, D. R.

    1993-12-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has conducted analyses of failed components from nuclear power- gener-ating stations since 1974. The considerations involved in working with and analyzing radioactive compo-nents are reviewed here, and the decontamination of these components is discussed. Analyses of four failed components from nuclear plants are then described to illustrate the kinds of failures seen in serv-ice. The failures discussed are (1) intergranular stress- corrosion cracking of core spray injection piping in a boiling water reactor, (2) failure of canopy seal welds in adapter tube assemblies in the control rod drive head of a pressurized water reactor, (3) thermal fatigue of a recirculation pump shaft in a boiling water reactor, and (4) failure of pump seal wear rings by nickel leaching in a boiling water reactor.

  3. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-11-29

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology.

  4. Multilayer Network Analysis of Nuclear Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liang; Ma, Yu-Gang; Chen, Qu; Han, Ding-Ding

    2016-08-01

    The nuclear reaction network is usually studied via precise calculation of differential equation sets, and much research interest has been focused on the characteristics of nuclides, such as half-life and size limit. In this paper, however, we adopt the methods from both multilayer and reaction networks, and obtain a distinctive view by mapping all the nuclear reactions in JINA REACLIB database into a directed network with 4 layers: neutron, proton, 4He and the remainder. The layer names correspond to reaction types decided by the currency particles consumed. This combined approach reveals that, in the remainder layer, the β-stability has high correlation with node degree difference and overlapping coefficient. Moreover, when reaction rates are considered as node strength, we find that, at lower temperatures, nuclide half-life scales reciprocally with its out-strength. The connection between physical properties and topological characteristics may help to explore the boundary of the nuclide chart.

  5. Analysis of failed nuclear plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diercks, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has conducted analyses of failed components from nuclear power-generating stations since 1974. The considerations involved in working with an analyzing radioactive components are reviewed here, and the decontamination of these components is discussed. Analyses of four failed components from nuclear plants are then described to illustrate the kinds of failures seen in service. The failures discussed are (1) intergranular stress-corrosion cracking of core spray injection piping in a boiling water reactor, (2) failure of canopy seal welds in adapter tube assemblies in the control rod drive head of a pressurized water reactor, (3) thermal fatigue of a recirculation pump shaft in a boiling water reactor, and (4) failure of pump seal wear rings by nickel leaching in a boiling water reactor

  6. Analysis of failed nuclear plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diercks, D.R.

    1992-07-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has conducted analyses of failed components from nuclear power generating stations since 1974. The considerations involved in working with and analyzing radioactive components are reviewed here, and the decontamination of these components is discussed. Analyses of four failed components from nuclear plants are then described to illustrate the kinds of failures seen in service. The failures discussed are (a) intergranular stress corrosion cracking of core spray injection piping in a boiling water reactor, (b) failure of canopy seal welds in adapter tube assemblies in the control rod drive head of a pressure water reactor, (c) thermal fatigue of a recirculation pump shaft in a boiling water reactor, and (d) failure of pump seal wear rings by nickel leaching in a boiling water reactor

  7. Mass spectrometric analysis for nuclear safeguards

    OpenAIRE

    BOULYGA S.; KONEGGER-KAPPEL S.; RICHTER Stephan; SANGELY L.

    2014-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is currently being implemented in a wide spectrum of research and industrial areas, such as material sciences, cosmo- and geochemistry, biology and medicine, to name just a few. Research and development in nuclear safeguards is closely related to the general field of “Peace Research”; representing a specific application area for analytical sciences in general and for mass spectrometry in particular. According to Albert Einstein “peace cannot be kept by force. It only can be ...

  8. Nuclear Fuel Depletion Analysis Using Matlab Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, F.; Nematollahi, M. R.

    Coupled first order IVPs are frequently used in many parts of engineering and sciences. In this article, we presented a code including three computer programs which are joint with the Matlab software to solve and plot the solutions of the first order coupled stiff or non-stiff IVPs. Some engineering and scientific problems related to IVPs are given and fuel depletion (production of the 239Pu isotope) in a Pressurized Water Nuclear Reactor (PWR) are computed by the present code.

  9. Energy analysis of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindhout, A.H.

    1975-01-01

    A study based on a 1000MWe light water reactor power station was carried out to determine the total energy input and output of the power station. The calculations took into account the mining and processing of the ore, enrichment of the uranium, treatment of used nuclear fuel, investment in land, buildings, machinery, and transport. 144 tons of natural uranium produce 6100 million kWh (electric) and 340 million kWh (thermal) per annum. (J.S.)

  10. Economic analysis of nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Gun; Lee, Han Myung; Song, Ki Dong; Lee, Man Ki; Kim, Seung Su; Moon, Kee Hwan; Chung, Whan Sam; Kim, Kyung Pyo; Cho, Sang Goo

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the role of nuclear power generation under the circumstances of growing concerns about environmental impact and to help decision making in electricity sector. In this study, efforts are made to estimate electricity power generation cost of major power options by incorporating additional cost to reduce environmental impact and to suggest an optimal plant mix in this case. (Author)

  11. Extended analysis on impact of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainul Hayati Daud; Hazmimi Kasim

    2010-01-01

    This chapter discusses a number of economic, social and knowledge impacts of the applications of nuclear technology in Malaysia as well as benchmarking with Japan and the Republic of Korea. Under economic impacts, index of gross value of products and services, index of gross value of exports, index of gross value of training expenditures, and index of total number of human resource trained are developed. In addition, the contribution of the application of nuclear technology to both Gross Domestic Products (GDP) and GDP per capita are also highlighted. The impact of the application of nuclear technology to Total Factor Productivity (TFP) is also covered in this chapter. Much of the discussions on economic impacts are based on findings in private companies. That is because many of their operations can be expressed in monetary terms by virtue of them operating in commercial environment. Public agencies, however, play crucial role in enabling the private companies attain the level of development reported in this study. Towards that end, public agencies invested in Research and development activities, human capital development, as well as in the setting-up, operation and maintenance of both technical and administrative infrastructures. The impact of such activities is discussed in the later part of this chapter. (author)

  12. Nuclear energy: public controversies and the analysis of risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sills, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Energy is a social concept, the product of social, economic, and political processes that define certain raw materials as resources and thus convert them into usable energy. Like all social concepts, energy is controversial. Out of a wide range of controversies, three are selected for analysis here: (1) the relationship of nuclear power systems to nuclear weapons proliferation; (2) the risks of terrorism and sabotage associated with the operation of nuclear power facilities, including threats to civil liberties; and (3) the problems associated with the long-term management of radioactive wastes. The final section of the paper describes various modes of analyzing risks and the perception of risks. It is concluded that it may take many decades to learn whether nuclear energy is as natural a source of electrical power as wells are of drinking water, or whether nuclear energy is a horror that mankind in the 1980s or 1990s took a hard look at and then backed away. (author)

  13. Status of CONRAD, a nuclear reaction analysis tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint Jean, C. de; Habert, B.; Litaize, O.; Noguere, G.; Suteau, C.

    2008-01-01

    The development of a software tool (CONRAD) was initiated at CEA/Cadarache to give answers to various problems arising in the data analysis of nuclear reactions. This tool is then characterized by the handling of uncertainties from experimental values to covariance matrices for multi-group cross sections. An object oriented design was chosen allowing an easy interface with graphical tool for input/output data and being a natural framework for innovative nuclear models (Fission). The major achieved developments are a data model for describing channels, nuclear reactions, nuclear models and processes with interface to classical data formats, theoretical calculations for the resolved resonance range (Reich-Moore) and unresolved resonance range (Hauser-Feshbach, Gilbert-Cameron,...) with nuclear model parameters adjustment on experimental data sets and a Monte Carlo method based on conditional probabilities developed to calculate properly covariance matrices. The on-going developments deal with the experimental data description (covariance matrices) and the graphical user interface. (authors)

  14. Nuclear Cyber Security Case Study and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sunae [ChungNam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung doo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Due to the new trend in cyber attacks, there is an increased security threat towards every country's infrastructure. So, security measures are required now than ever before. Previous cyber attacks normal process consists of paralyzing a server function, data extraction, or data control into the IT system for trespassing. However, nowadays control systems and infrastructures are also targeted and attacking methods have changed a lot. These days, the virus is becoming increasingly serious and hacker attacks are also becoming more frequent. This virus is a computer virus produced for the purpose of destroying the infrastructure, such as power plants, airports, railways June 2010, and it was first discovered in Belarus. Israel, the US, and other countries are believed culprits behind Stuxnet attacks on other nations such as Iran. Recent malware distribution, such as website hacking threat is growing. In surveys today one of the most long-term posing security threats is from North Korea. In particular, North Korea has been caught launching ongoing cyber-attacks after their latest nuclear test. South Korea has identified national trends regarding North Korean nuclear tests and analyzed them in order to catch disclosed confidential information. Especially, many nuclear power plants in the world are found to be vulnerable to cyber-attacks. Industrial facilities should be more wary of the risk of a serious cyber attack in the middle is going to increase the reliance on universal and commercial digital systems (off the shelf) software, civilian nuclear infrastructure. Senior executives’ current risk rate levels are increasing. Digitalization of the perception of risk is lacking in nuclear power plants and workers are creating prevention methods to make them fully aware of the risks of cyber-attacks. It is suggested that it may be inappropriate to assume we are prepared for potential attacks. Due to advances in technology, a warning that the growing sense of crisis

  15. Nuclear Cyber Security Case Study and Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sunae; Kim, Kyung doo

    2016-01-01

    Due to the new trend in cyber attacks, there is an increased security threat towards every country's infrastructure. So, security measures are required now than ever before. Previous cyber attacks normal process consists of paralyzing a server function, data extraction, or data control into the IT system for trespassing. However, nowadays control systems and infrastructures are also targeted and attacking methods have changed a lot. These days, the virus is becoming increasingly serious and hacker attacks are also becoming more frequent. This virus is a computer virus produced for the purpose of destroying the infrastructure, such as power plants, airports, railways June 2010, and it was first discovered in Belarus. Israel, the US, and other countries are believed culprits behind Stuxnet attacks on other nations such as Iran. Recent malware distribution, such as website hacking threat is growing. In surveys today one of the most long-term posing security threats is from North Korea. In particular, North Korea has been caught launching ongoing cyber-attacks after their latest nuclear test. South Korea has identified national trends regarding North Korean nuclear tests and analyzed them in order to catch disclosed confidential information. Especially, many nuclear power plants in the world are found to be vulnerable to cyber-attacks. Industrial facilities should be more wary of the risk of a serious cyber attack in the middle is going to increase the reliance on universal and commercial digital systems (off the shelf) software, civilian nuclear infrastructure. Senior executives’ current risk rate levels are increasing. Digitalization of the perception of risk is lacking in nuclear power plants and workers are creating prevention methods to make them fully aware of the risks of cyber-attacks. It is suggested that it may be inappropriate to assume we are prepared for potential attacks. Due to advances in technology, a warning that the growing sense of crisis about

  16. Examination of Laser Microprobe Vacuum Ultraviolet Ionization Mass Spectrometry with Application to Mapping Mars Returned Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, A. S.; Berger, E. L.; Locke, D. R.; Lewis, E. K.; Moore, J. F.

    2018-04-01

    Laser microprobe of surfaces utilizing a two laser setup whereby the desorption laser threshold is lowered below ionization, and the resulting neutral plume is examined using 157nm Vacuum Ultraviolet laser light for mass spec surface mapping.

  17. Laser microprobe for the study of noble gases and nitrogen in single ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Planetary and Geosciences Division, Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380 009, India. ∗e-mail: murty@prl.ernet.in. A laser microprobe capable of analysing nitrogen and noble gases in .... tion properties for light radiation, with some.

  18. A nuclear source term analysis for spacecraft power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulloch, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    All US space missions involving on board nuclear material must be approved by the Office of the President. To be approved the mission and the hardware systems must undergo evaluations of the associated nuclear health and safety risk. One part of these evaluations is the characterization of the source terms, i.e., the estimate of the amount, physical form, and location of nuclear material, which might be released into the environment in the event of credible accidents. This paper presents a brief overview of the source term analysis by the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel for the NASA Cassini Space Mission launched in October 1997. Included is a description of the Energy Interaction Model, an innovative approach to the analysis of potential releases from high velocity impacts resulting from launch aborts and reentries

  19. Nuclear analysis techniques as a component of thermoluminescence dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, J.R.; Hutton, J.T.; Habermehl, M.A. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia); Van Moort, J. [Tasmania Univ., Sandy Bay, TAS (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    In luminescence dating, an age is found by first measuring dose accumulated since the event being dated, then dividing by the annual dose rate. Analyses of minor and trace elements performed by nuclear techniques have long formed an essential component of dating. Results from some Australian sites are reported to illustrate the application of nuclear techniques of analysis in this context. In particular, a variety of methods for finding dose rates are compared, an example of a site where radioactive disequilibrium is significant and a brief summary is given of a problem which was not resolved by nuclear techniques. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. A safety decision analysis for Saudi Arabian nuclear research facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abulfaraj, W.H.; Abdul-Fattah, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    Establishment of a nuclear research facility should be the first step in planning for introducing the nuclear energy to Saudi Arabia. The fuzzy set decision theory is selected among different decision theories to be applied for this analysis. Four research reactors from USA are selected for the present study. The IFDA computer code, based on the fuzzy set theory is applied. Results reveal that the FNR reactor is the best alternative for the case of Saudi Arabian nuclear research facility, and MITR is the second best. 17 refs

  1. Nuclear analysis techniques as a component of thermoluminescence dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, J R; Hutton, J T; Habermehl, M A [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia); Van Moort, J [Tasmania Univ., Sandy Bay, TAS (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    In luminescence dating, an age is found by first measuring dose accumulated since the event being dated, then dividing by the annual dose rate. Analyses of minor and trace elements performed by nuclear techniques have long formed an essential component of dating. Results from some Australian sites are reported to illustrate the application of nuclear techniques of analysis in this context. In particular, a variety of methods for finding dose rates are compared, an example of a site where radioactive disequilibrium is significant and a brief summary is given of a problem which was not resolved by nuclear techniques. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. Risk analysis with regard to nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhofer, A.

    1980-01-01

    The author discusses the following questions: why are risk analyses elaborated. How are they carried out and which problems may arise. Completeness problem, data, human factors, common-mode-failures, accident simulation. To give an idea of the applicability of the results of risk analyses the author deals with systems comparison and system optimization, maintenance and testing strategies, incidents and the course of accidents that have to be considered in designing technical safety measures for nuclear power plants. Finally, the author tries to enter into questions that might arise due to the effects risk analyses may create in the general public. (HSCH) [de

  3. Wavelet analysis of the nuclear phase space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouault, B.; Sebille, F.; Mota, V. de la

    1997-12-31

    The description of transport phenomena in nuclear matter is addressed in a new approach based on the mathematical theory of wavelets and the projection methods of statistical physics. The advantage of this framework is to offer the opportunity to use information concepts common to both the formulation of physical properties and the mathematical description. This paper focuses on two features, the extraction of relevant informations using the geometrical properties of the underlying phase space and the optimization of the theoretical and numerical treatments based on convenient choices of the representation spaces. (author). 34 refs.

  4. Wavelet analysis of the nuclear phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouault, B.; Sebille, F.; Mota, V. de la.

    1997-01-01

    The description of transport phenomena in nuclear matter is addressed in a new approach based on the mathematical theory of wavelets and the projection methods of statistical physics. The advantage of this framework is to offer the opportunity to use information concepts common to both the formulation of physical properties and the mathematical description. This paper focuses on two features, the extraction of relevant informations using the geometrical properties of the underlying phase space and the optimization of the theoretical and numerical treatments based on convenient choices of the representation spaces. (author)

  5. Direct reading spectrochemical analysis of nuclear graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca Adell, M.; Becerro Ruiz, E.; Alvarez Gonzalez, F.

    1964-01-01

    A description is given about the application of a direct-reading spectrometer the Quantometer, to the determination of boron. calcium, iron, titanium and vanadium in nuclear grade graphite. for boron the powdered sample is mixed with 1% cupric fluoride and excited in a 10-amperes direct current arc and graphite electrodes with a crater 7 mm wide and 10 mm deep. For the other elements a smaller crater has been used and dilution with a number of matrices has been investigated; the best results are achieved by employing 25% cupric fluoride. The sensitivity limit for boron is 0,15 ppm. (Author) 21 refs

  6. MANIA (276-3/4/5). Nuclear analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciolla, C.M.

    1993-11-01

    This report contains the results of the nuclear calculations performed for the MANIA-276 experiment, sample holders 3, 4 and 5. The codes MICROFLUX-2, GAM, HFR-TEDDI and ORIGEN-S have been used for this analysis. Nuclear constants, dpa, reactivity effect and activity of the samples and of the structural materials have been calculated. The results are given in the tables and appendices of the present report. (orig.)

  7. Nuclear power and the public: analysis of collected survey research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melber, B.D.; Nealey, S.M.; Hammersla, J.; Rankin, W.L.

    1977-11-01

    This executive summary highlights the major findings of a comprehensive synthesis and analysis of over 100 existing surveys dealing with public attitudes toward nuclear power issues. Questions of immediate policy relevance to the nuclear debate are posed and answered on the basis of these major findings. For each issue area, those sections of the report in which more-detailed discussion and presentation of relevant data may be found are indicated.

  8. Interactive visual analysis of nuclear data with ZVView

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerkin, Viktor

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the cross section graphics software package ZVVIEW that was developed for the evaluators to perform efficient interactive visual analysis of experimental and theoretical nuclear data. ZVVIEW is a very powerful and complete package that simplifies the presentation of nuclear cross section data. A CD-ROM version of this computer package is available from the IAEA-NDS on request. (a.n.)

  9. Nuclear power and the public: analysis of collected survey research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melber, B.D.; Nealey, S.M.; Hammersla, J.; Rankin, W.L.

    1977-11-01

    This executive summary highlights the major findings of a comprehensive synthesis and analysis of over 100 existing surveys dealing with public attitudes toward nuclear power issues. Questions of immediate policy relevance to the nuclear debate are posed and answered on the basis of these major findings. For each issue area, those sections of the report in which more-detailed discussion and presentation of relevant data may be found are indicated

  10. Nuclear reactor descriptions for space power systems analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccauley, E. W.; Brown, N. J.

    1972-01-01

    For the small, high performance reactors required for space electric applications, adequate neutronic analysis is of crucial importance, but in terms of computational time consumed, nuclear calculations probably yield the least amount of detail for mission analysis study. It has been found possible, after generation of only a few designs of a reactor family in elaborate thermomechanical and nuclear detail to use simple curve fitting techniques to assure desired neutronic performance while still performing the thermomechanical analysis in explicit detail. The resulting speed-up in computation time permits a broad detailed examination of constraints by the mission analyst.

  11. Nuclear power plant fire protection: philosophy and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, D.L.

    1980-05-01

    This report combines a fire severity analysis technique with a fault tree methodology for assessing the importance to nuclear power plant safety of certain combinations of components and systems. Characteristics unique to fire, such as propagation induced by the failure of barriers, have been incorporated into the methodology. By applying the resulting fire analysis technique to actual conditions found in a representative nuclear power plant, it is found that some safety and nonsafety areas are both highly vulnerable to fire spread and impotant to overall safety, while other areas prove to be of marginal importance. Suggestions are made for further experimental and analytical work to supplement the fire analysis method

  12. A comparative analysis of managing radioactive waste in the Canadian nuclear and non-nuclear industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batters, S.; Benovich, I.; Gerchikov, M. [AMEC NSS Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Management of radioactive waste in nuclear industries in Canada is tightly regulated. The regulated nuclear industries include nuclear power generation, uranium mining and milling, nuclear medicine, radiation research and education and industrial users of nuclear material (e.g. radiography, thickness gauges, etc). In contrast, management of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) waste is not regulated by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), with the exception of transport above specified concentrations. Although these are radioactive materials that have always been present in various concentrations in the environment and in the tissues of every living animal, including humans, the hazards of similar quantities of NORM radionuclides are identical to those of the same or other radionuclides from regulated industries. The concentration of NORM in most natural substances is so low that the associated risk is generally regarded as negligible, however higher concentrations may arise as the result of industrial operations such as: oil and gas production, mineral extraction and processing (e.g. phosphate fertilizer production), metal recycling, thermal electric power generation, water treatment facilities. Health Canada has published the Canadian Guidelines for the Management of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM). This paper presents a comparative analysis of the requirements for management of radioactive waste in the regulated nuclear industries and of the guidelines for management of NORM waste. (author)

  13. A comparative analysis of managing radioactive waste in the Canadian nuclear and non-nuclear industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batters, S.; Benovich, I.; Gerchikov, M.

    2011-01-01

    Management of radioactive waste in nuclear industries in Canada is tightly regulated. The regulated nuclear industries include nuclear power generation, uranium mining and milling, nuclear medicine, radiation research and education and industrial users of nuclear material (e.g. radiography, thickness gauges, etc). In contrast, management of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) waste is not regulated by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), with the exception of transport above specified concentrations. Although these are radioactive materials that have always been present in various concentrations in the environment and in the tissues of every living animal, including humans, the hazards of similar quantities of NORM radionuclides are identical to those of the same or other radionuclides from regulated industries. The concentration of NORM in most natural substances is so low that the associated risk is generally regarded as negligible, however higher concentrations may arise as the result of industrial operations such as: oil and gas production, mineral extraction and processing (e.g. phosphate fertilizer production), metal recycling, thermal electric power generation, water treatment facilities. Health Canada has published the Canadian Guidelines for the Management of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM). This paper presents a comparative analysis of the requirements for management of radioactive waste in the regulated nuclear industries and of the guidelines for management of NORM waste. (author)

  14. Application of nuclear analysis techniques in ancient chinese porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Songlin; Xu Qing; Feng Xiangqian; Lei Yong; Cheng Lin; Wang Yanqing

    2005-01-01

    Ancient ceramic was fired with porcelain clay. It contains various provenance information and age characteristic. It is the scientific foundation of studying Chinese porcelain to analyze and research the ancient ceramic with modern analysis methods. According to the property of nuclear analysis technique, its function and application are discussed. (authors)

  15. Analysis of the criticality safety of a nuclear fuel deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeyro, P.A.; Mincarini, M.

    1987-01-01

    In the present work a safety analysis from criticality accidents of nuclear fuel deposits is performed. The analysis is performed utilizing two methods derived from different physical principes: 1) superficial density method, obtained from experimental research; 2) solid angle method, derived from transport theory

  16. Availability analysis of the nuclear instrumentation of a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vianna Filho, Alfredo Marques

    2016-01-01

    The maintenance of systems and equipment is a central question related to Production Engineering. Although systems are not fully reliable, it is often necessary to minimize the failure occurrence likelihood. The failures occurrences can have disastrous consequences during a plane flight or operation of a nuclear power plant. The elaboration of a maintenance plan has as objective the prevention and recovery from system failures, increasing reliability and reducing the cost of unplanned shutdowns. It is also important to consider the issues related to organizations safety, especially those dealing with dangerous technologies. The objective of this thesis is to propose a method for maintenance analysis of a nuclear research reactor, using a socio-technical approach, and focused on existing conditions in Brazil. The research reactor studied belongs to the federal government and it is located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The specific objective of this thesis is to develop the availability analysis of one of the principal systems of the research reactor, the nuclear instrumentation system. In this analysis, were taken into account not only the technical aspects of the modules related to nuclear instrumentation system, but also the human and organizational factors that could affect the availability of the nuclear instrumentation system. The results showed the influence of these factors on the availability of the nuclear instrumentation system. (author)

  17. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this Handbook is to provide guidance on how to calculate the characteristics of releases of radioactive materials and/or hazardous chemicals from nonreactor nuclear facilities. In addition, the Handbook provides guidance on how to calculate the consequences of those releases. There are four major chapters: Hazard Evaluation and Scenario Development; Source Term Determination; Transport Within Containment/Confinement; and Atmospheric Dispersion and Consequences Modeling. These chapters are supported by Appendices, including: a summary of chemical and nuclear information that contains descriptions of various fuel cycle facilities; details on how to calculate the characteristics of source terms for releases of hazardous chemicals; a comparison of NRC, EPA, and OSHA programs that address chemical safety; a summary of the performance of HEPA and other filters; and a discussion of uncertainties. Several sample problems are presented: a free-fall spill of powder, an explosion with radioactive release; a fire with radioactive release; filter failure; hydrogen fluoride release from a tankcar; a uranium hexafluoride cylinder rupture; a liquid spill in a vitrification plant; and a criticality incident. Finally, this Handbook includes a computer model, LPF No.1B, that is intended for use in calculating Leak Path Factors. A list of contributors to the Handbook is presented in Chapter 6. 39 figs., 35 tabs.

  18. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this Handbook is to provide guidance on how to calculate the characteristics of releases of radioactive materials and/or hazardous chemicals from nonreactor nuclear facilities. In addition, the Handbook provides guidance on how to calculate the consequences of those releases. There are four major chapters: Hazard Evaluation and Scenario Development; Source Term Determination; Transport Within Containment/Confinement; and Atmospheric Dispersion and Consequences Modeling. These chapters are supported by Appendices, including: a summary of chemical and nuclear information that contains descriptions of various fuel cycle facilities; details on how to calculate the characteristics of source terms for releases of hazardous chemicals; a comparison of NRC, EPA, and OSHA programs that address chemical safety; a summary of the performance of HEPA and other filters; and a discussion of uncertainties. Several sample problems are presented: a free-fall spill of powder, an explosion with radioactive release; a fire with radioactive release; filter failure; hydrogen fluoride release from a tankcar; a uranium hexafluoride cylinder rupture; a liquid spill in a vitrification plant; and a criticality incident. Finally, this Handbook includes a computer model, LPF No.1B, that is intended for use in calculating Leak Path Factors. A list of contributors to the Handbook is presented in Chapter 6. 39 figs., 35 tabs

  19. Raman microprobe measurements of stress in ion implanted materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, K W; Prawer, S; Weiser, P S; Dooley, S P [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1994-12-31

    Raman microprobe measurements of ion implanted diamond and silicon have shown significant shifts in the Raman line due to stresses in the materials. The Raman line shifts to higher energy if the stress is compressive and to lower energy for tensile stress{sup 1}. The silicon sample was implanted in a 60 {mu}m square with 2.56 x 10{sup 17} ions per square centimeter of 2 MeV Helium. This led to the formation of raised squares with the top 370mm above the original surface. In Raman studies of silicon using visible light, the depth of penetration of the laser beam into the sample is much less than one micron. It was found that the Raman line is due to the silicon overlying the damage region. The diamond sample was implanted with 2 x 10{sup 15} ions per square centimeter of 2.8 MeV carbon. It was concluded that the Raman spectrum could provide information concerning both the magnitude and the direction of stress in an ion implanted sample. It was possible in some cases to determine whether the stress direction is parallel or perpendicular to the sample surface. 1 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Raman microprobe measurements of stress in ion implanted materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, K.W.; Prawer, S.; Weiser, P.S.; Dooley, S.P. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1993-12-31

    Raman microprobe measurements of ion implanted diamond and silicon have shown significant shifts in the Raman line due to stresses in the materials. The Raman line shifts to higher energy if the stress is compressive and to lower energy for tensile stress{sup 1}. The silicon sample was implanted in a 60 {mu}m square with 2.56 x 10{sup 17} ions per square centimeter of 2 MeV Helium. This led to the formation of raised squares with the top 370mm above the original surface. In Raman studies of silicon using visible light, the depth of penetration of the laser beam into the sample is much less than one micron. It was found that the Raman line is due to the silicon overlying the damage region. The diamond sample was implanted with 2 x 10{sup 15} ions per square centimeter of 2.8 MeV carbon. It was concluded that the Raman spectrum could provide information concerning both the magnitude and the direction of stress in an ion implanted sample. It was possible in some cases to determine whether the stress direction is parallel or perpendicular to the sample surface. 1 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Characterisation of Inorganic Pigments Used by Selected Painters by Using Ion Microprobe and Other Complementary Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazinic, S.; Pastuovic, Z.; Jaksic, M.; Kusijanovic, K.; Mudronja, D.; Braun, M.; Desnica, V.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the presentation is to show results of the collaboration between the Croatian Conservation Institute (CCI) and the Laboratory for Ion Beam Interactions of the Rudjer Boskovic Institute (RBI) established within the present CRP. CCI is the central Croatian institution for conservation and restoration of cultural heritage objects. Prior to restoration/conservation CCI performs scientific analysis of an object, primarily to enable selection of the best strategy for its restoration/conservation. In many occasions such analysis is also helpful to resolve issues such as clarification of authenticity and/or authorship of an object. CCI has its analytical laboratory which is fully dedicated to the analysis of cultural heritage and art objects. CCI analytical laboratory is equipped with various microscopy techniques, photography methods, portable X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRF) and X-ray radiography instrumentation. Access to complementary microanalytical techniques like Raman Spectroscopy or Ion Beam Analytical (IBA) techniques is provided through already long and successful collaboration with RBI. The RBI Laboratory for Ion Beam Interactions provides complementary analysis of layered microsamples by using IBA techniques, such as Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Rutherford Back-scattering (RBS), and for the miniature samples by using ion microprobe. (author)

  2. Regression analysis of nuclear plant capacity factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocks, K.J.; Faulkner, J.I.

    1980-07-01

    Operating data on all commercial nuclear power plants of the PWR, HWR, BWR and GCR types in the Western World are analysed statistically to determine whether the explanatory variables size, year of operation, vintage and reactor supplier are significant in accounting for the variation in capacity factor. The results are compared with a number of previous studies which analysed only United States reactors. The possibility of specification errors affecting the results is also examined. Although, in general, the variables considered are statistically significant, they explain only a small portion of the variation in the capacity factor. The equations thus obtained should certainly not be used to predict the lifetime performance of future large reactors

  3. Skyshine analysis using various nuclear data files

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zharkov, V.P.; Dikareva, O.F.; Kartashev, I.A.; Kiselev, A.N. [Research and Development Inst. of Power Engineering, Moscow (Russian Federation); Nomura, Y.; Tsubosaka, A. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    The calculations of the spacial distributions of dose rate for neutron and secondary photons, thermal neutron fluxes and space-energy distributions of neutron and photons near the air-ground interface were performed by MCNP and DORT codes. Different nuclear data files were used (ENDF/B-IV, ENDF/B-VI, FENDL-2, JENDL-3.2). Either the standard pointwise libraries (MCNP) or special libraries prepared by NJOY code from ENDF/B and others' files were used. Prepared multigroup coupled neutron and photon cross sections libraries for DORT code had CASK-40 group energy structures. The libraries contain pointwise or multigroup cross sections data for all elements included in the atmosphere and ground composition. The validation of the calculated results was performed with using the experimental data obtained for the series of measurements at RA reactor. (author)

  4. Nuclear design and analysis for PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.K.; Kim, J.S.; Lee, S.K.; Moon, K.S.; Chun, B.J.; Chang, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    The list of the developed code family in this Institute has been increased after having developed two linkage codes, namely, SHUFFLE/KIDD and LEOTOKID. The former can be harnessed to supply input burnup history data to KIDD being based on the reloading patterns at the beginning of each cycle using the concentration file of KIDD, whereas the latter is able to supply the group constants to KIDD directly from the calculated results of LEOKARD by means of tapes or disks. DOT and KENO are selected specifically for benchmarking the design methods and procedures of the nuclear design codes. On the other hand, AMPX Modular code systems have been adopted for the generation of fine-or broad-group cross-sections for these benchmark codes. Language conversion and modifications of AMPX Module are taking place at the present time

  5. Skyshine analysis using various nuclear data files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zharkov, V.P.; Dikareva, O.F.; Kartashev, I.A.; Kiselev, A.N.; Nomura, Y.; Tsubosaka, A.

    2000-01-01

    The calculations of the spacial distributions of dose rate for neutron and secondary photons, thermal neutron fluxes and space-energy distributions of neutron and photons near the air-ground interface were performed by MCNP and DORT codes. Different nuclear data files were used (ENDF/B-IV, ENDF/B-VI, FENDL-2, JENDL-3.2). Either the standard pointwise libraries (MCNP) or special libraries prepared by NJOY code from ENDF/B and others' files were used. Prepared multigroup coupled neutron and photon cross sections libraries for DORT code had CASK-40 group energy structures. The libraries contain pointwise or multigroup cross sections data for all elements included in the atmosphere and ground composition. The validation of the calculated results was performed with using the experimental data obtained for the series of measurements at RA reactor. (author)

  6. Neutron resonance analysis for nuclear safeguards and security applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradela, Carlos; Heyse, Jan; Kopecky, Stefan; Schillebeeckx, Peter; Harada, Hideo; Kitatani, Fumito; Koizumi, Mitsuo; Tsuchiya, Harufumi

    2017-09-01

    Neutron-induced reactions can be used to study the properties of nuclear materials of interest in the fields of nuclear safeguards and security. The elemental and isotopic composition of these materials can be determined by using the presence of resonance structures. This idea is the basis of two non-destructive analysis techniques which have been developed at the GELINA neutron time-of-flight facility at JRC-Geel: Neutron Resonance Capture Analysis (NRCA) and Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA). A combination of NRTA and NRCA has been proposed for the characterisation of particle-like debris of melted fuel formed in severe nuclear accidents. In this work, we present a quantitative validation of the NRTA technique which was used to determine the areal densities of Pu enriched reference samples used for safeguards applications. Less than 2% bias has been obtained for the fissile isotopes, with well-known total cross sections.

  7. Dynamic analysis of nuclear safeguards systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.R.; Rasmuson, D.M.; Tingey, F.H.

    1978-01-01

    The assessment of the safeguards/adversary system poses a unique challenge as evolving technology affects the capabilities of both. The method discussed meets this challenge using a flexible analysis which can be updated by system personnel. The automatically constructed event tree provides a rapid overview analysis for initial assessment, evaluation of changes, cost/benefit study and inspection and audit

  8. SOVT analysis of the nuclear industry in Mexico; Analisis FODA de la industria nuclear en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez R, E.; Hernandez B, M. C., E-mail: edelmiraf@yahoo.com [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Division de Estudios de Posgrado, Av. Instituto Tecnologico s/n, Ex-rancho La Virgen, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    In this work the analysis of strengths, opportunities, vulnerabilities and threats (SOVT) of the nuclear industry in Mexico is presented. This industry presents among its strengths that Mexico is a highly electrified country and has a good established normative mark of nuclear security. Although the Secretaria de Energia in Mexico, with base to the exposed in the Programa Sectorial de Energia 2007-2012, is analyzing the convenience of the generation starting from this source, considering the strong technological dependence of the exterior and the limited federal budget dedicated to this field. As a result of the analysis of the SOVT matrix, were found a great number of strengths that threats, although the vulnerabilities list is major to the strengths, the opportunities list is the bigger. Therefore, the nuclear industry can be a sustainable industry, taking the necessary decisions and taking advantage of the detected opportunities. (Author)

  9. Ion beams: from plasma physics to applications in analysis and irradiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodja, Hicham

    2012-01-01

    In this HDR (Accreditation to supervise research) report, the author proposes an overview of his research activities. A first part comments a research which aimed at determining the distribution of ion populations in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma. Then, after a brief recall of the principles and techniques of analysis based on ion beams, he presents some characteristics of the CEA/Saclay nuclear microprobe. He reports various works related to material science and to biology, and discusses the associated perspectives [fr

  10. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Analysis and Simulation Tool (FAST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Won Il; Kwon, Eun Ha; Kim, Ho Dong

    2005-06-15

    This paper describes the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Analysis and Simulation Tool (FAST) which has been developed by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Categorizing various mix of nuclear reactors and fuel cycles into 11 scenario groups, the FAST calculates all the required quantities for each nuclear fuel cycle component, such as mining, conversion, enrichment and fuel fabrication for each scenario. A major advantage of the FAST is that the code employs a MS Excel spread sheet with the Visual Basic Application, allowing users to manipulate it with ease. The speed of the calculation is also quick enough to make comparisons among different options in a considerably short time. This user-friendly simulation code is expected to be beneficial to further studies on the nuclear fuel cycle to find best options for the future all proliferation risk, environmental impact and economic costs considered.

  11. Overview of national attitudes toward nuclear energy: a longitudinal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a longitudinal overview of public attitudes toward nuclear power development in the United States. Over ten years of attitudinal data are now available for analysis of the stability of such attitudes over time. These data are useful to many people, including policy makers in government, nuclear industry decision makers, and public action groups that support and oppose nuclear power. This information is also useful in checking the claims of those who purport to be speaking for the public. The level of public acceptance for nuclear power in the near term and into the next century can only be estimated at this time. But this estimate can be based on nearly a decade of survey research

  12. Thermal analysis of transportation packaging for nuclear spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akamatsu, Hiroshi; Taniuchi, Hiroaki

    1989-01-01

    Safety analysis of transportation packaging for nuclear spent fuel comprises structural, thermal, containment, shielding and criticality factors, and the safety of a packaging is verified by these analyses. In thermal analysis, the temperature of each part of the packaging is calculated under normal and accident test conditions. As an example of thermal analysis, the temperature distribution of a packaging being subjected to a normal test was calculated by the TRUMP code and compared with measured data. (author)

  13. Error analysis of nuclear power plant operator cognitive behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xuhong; Zhao Bingquan; Chen Yulong

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear power plant is a complex human-machine system integrated with many advanced machines, electron devices and automatic controls. It demands operators to have high cognitive ability and correct analysis skill. The author divides operator's cognitive process into five stages to analysis. With this cognitive model, operator's cognitive error is analysed to get the root causes and stages that error happens. The results of the analysis serve as a basis in design of control rooms and training and evaluation of operators

  14. The application of availability analysis to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    The use of probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) to assess the risks from nuclear power plants is now well established. Considerably less attention has been given so far to the use of availability analysis techniques. The economics of power generation are now such that with nuclear power currently supplying a substantial fraction of power in many countries, increasing attention is being paid to improving plant availability. This paper presents a technique for systematically identifying the areas in which measures to improve plant availability will be most effective. (author)

  15. Development of design and analysis software for advanced nuclear system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yican; Hu Liqin; Long Pengcheng; Luo Yuetong; Li Yazhou; Zeng Qin; Lu Lei; Zhang Junjun; Zou Jun; Xu Dezheng; Bai Yunqing; Zhou Tao; Chen Hongli; Peng Lei; Song Yong; Huang Qunying

    2010-01-01

    A series of professional codes, which are necessary software tools and data libraries for advanced nuclear system design and analysis, were developed by the FDS Team, including the codes of automatic modeling, physics and engineering calculation, virtual simulation and visualization, system engineering and safety analysis and the related database management etc. The development of these software series was proposed as an exercise of development of nuclear informatics. This paper introduced the main functions and key techniques of the software series, as well as some tests and practical applications. (authors)

  16. Nuclear methodology development for clinical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Laura Cristina de

    2003-01-01

    In the present work the viability of using the neutron activation analysis to perform urine and blood clinical analysis was checked. The aim of this study is to investigate the biological behavior of animals that has been fed with chow doped by natural uranium for a long period. Aiming at time and cost reduction, the absolute method was applied to determine element concentration on biological samples. The quantitative results of urine sediment using NAA were compared with the conventional clinical analysis and the results were compatible. This methodology was also used on bone and body organs such as liver and muscles to help the interpretation of possible anomalies. (author)

  17. Linear regression and sensitivity analysis in nuclear reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Akansha; Tsvetkov, Pavel V.; McClarren, Ryan G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Presented a benchmark for the applicability of linear regression to complex systems. • Applied linear regression to a nuclear reactor power system. • Performed neutronics, thermal–hydraulics, and energy conversion using Brayton’s cycle for the design of a GCFBR. • Performed detailed sensitivity analysis to a set of parameters in a nuclear reactor power system. • Modeled and developed reactor design using MCNP, regression using R, and thermal–hydraulics in Java. - Abstract: The paper presents a general strategy applicable for sensitivity analysis (SA), and uncertainity quantification analysis (UA) of parameters related to a nuclear reactor design. This work also validates the use of linear regression (LR) for predictive analysis in a nuclear reactor design. The analysis helps to determine the parameters on which a LR model can be fit for predictive analysis. For those parameters, a regression surface is created based on trial data and predictions are made using this surface. A general strategy of SA to determine and identify the influential parameters those affect the operation of the reactor is mentioned. Identification of design parameters and validation of linearity assumption for the application of LR of reactor design based on a set of tests is performed. The testing methods used to determine the behavior of the parameters can be used as a general strategy for UA, and SA of nuclear reactor models, and thermal hydraulics calculations. A design of a gas cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFBR), with thermal–hydraulics, and energy transfer has been used for the demonstration of this method. MCNP6 is used to simulate the GCFBR design, and perform the necessary criticality calculations. Java is used to build and run input samples, and to extract data from the output files of MCNP6, and R is used to perform regression analysis and other multivariate variance, and analysis of the collinearity of data

  18. Risk and safety analysis of nuclear systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, John C; McCormick, Norman J

    2011-01-01

    .... The first half of the book covers the principles of risk analysis, the techniques used to develop and update a reliability data base, the reliability of multi-component systems, Markov methods used...

  19. Applications of probabilistic risk analysis in nuclear criticality safety design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    Many documents have been prepared that try to define the scope of the criticality analysis and that suggest adding probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) to the deterministic safety analysis. The report of the US Department of Energy (DOE) AL 5481.1B suggested that an accident is credible if the occurrence probability is >1 x 10 -6 /yr. The draft DOE 5480 safety analysis report suggested that safety analyses should include the application of methods such as deterministic safety analysis, risk assessment, reliability engineering, common-cause failure analysis, human reliability analysis, and human factor safety analysis techniques. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) report NRC SG830.110 suggested that major safety analysis methods should include but not be limited to risk assessment, reliability engineering, and human factor safety analysis. All of these suggestions have recommended including PRA in the traditional criticality analysis

  20. Next Generation Nuclear Plant GAP Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, Sydney J [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; Corwin, William R [ORNL; Fisher, Stephen Eugene [ORNL; Forsberg, Charles W. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Morris, Robert Noel [ORNL; Moses, David Lewis [ORNL

    2008-12-01

    As a follow-up to the phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) studies conducted recently by NRC on next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) safety, a study was conducted to identify the significant 'gaps' between what is needed and what is already available to adequately assess NGNP safety characteristics. The PIRT studies focused on identifying important phenomena affecting NGNP plant behavior, while the gap study gives more attention to off-normal behavior, uncertainties, and event probabilities under both normal operation and postulated accident conditions. Hence, this process also involved incorporating more detailed evaluations of accident sequences and risk assessments. This study considers thermal-fluid and neutronic behavior under both normal and postulated accident conditions, fission product transport (FPT), high-temperature metals, and graphite behavior and their effects on safety. In addition, safety issues related to coupling process heat (hydrogen production) systems to the reactor are addressed, given the limited design information currently available. Recommendations for further study, including analytical methods development and experimental needs, are presented as appropriate in each of these areas.