WorldWideScience

Sample records for nuclear microprobe analysis

  1. Analysis of biological materials using a nuclear microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulware, Stephen Juma

    The use of nuclear microprobe techniques including: Particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) for elemental analysis and quantitative elemental imaging of biological samples is especially useful in biological and biomedical research because of its high sensitivity for physiologically important trace elements or toxic heavy metals. The nuclear microprobe of the Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory (IBMAL) has been used to study the enhancement in metal uptake of two different plants. The roots of corn (Zea mays) have been analyzed to study the enhancement of iron uptake by adding Fe (II) or Fe(III) of different concentrations to the germinating medium of the seeds. The Fe uptake enhancement effect produced by lacing the germinating medium with carbon nanotubes has also been investigated. The aim of this investigation is to ensure not only high crop yield but also Fe-rich food products especially from calcareous soil which covers 30% of world's agricultural land. The result will help reduce iron deficiency anemia, which has been identified as the leading nutritional disorder especially in developing countries by the World Health Organization. For the second plant, Mexican marigold (Tagetes erecta ), the effect of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus intraradices ) for the improvement of lead phytoremediation of lead contaminated soil has been investigated. Phytoremediation provides an environmentally safe technique of removing toxic heavy metals (like lead), which can find their way into human food, from lands contaminated by human activities like mining or by natural disasters like earthquakes. The roots of Mexican marigold have been analyzed to study the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in enhancement of lead uptake from the contaminated rhizosphere.

  2. Applications of nuclear microprobe analysis to dermatological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallon, Jan; Forslind, Bo; Werner-Linde, Ylva; Yang, C.; Utui, R. J.; Elfman, M.; Malmqvist, K. G.; Kristiansson, P.; Sjöland, K. A.

    1997-07-01

    The elemental distributions over epidermal skin cross sections as revealed by nuclear microprobe analysis on cryo-sections from human skin provides new insight into the physiology of skin. Recently interest has been focused on the end stage of epidermal differentiation, the programmed cell death, occurring in the uppermost layer of the viable epidermis, the stratum granulosum. Calcium is one of the important messengers that controls the events of this programmed cell death, which shares a number of characteristics with apoptosis. We have previously shown that the Ca-gradient over normal skin cross sections is compatible with the finding from cell culture of epidermal cells which need a minimum level of 0.1 mM (Ca 2+) to develop a normal stratum corneum. To gain more information from the large number of data assessed during the actual analysis we have applied multivariate statistical analysis to the complete dataset obtained at NMP analyses. This statistical method reveals covariation of several elements and in addition provides a means to interpret the quantitative data in a meaningful biological context.

  3. The proton (nuclear) microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legge, G. J. F.

    1989-04-01

    The scanning proton microprobe (SPMP) is closely related to the scanning electron microprobe (SEMP) or scanning electron microscope (SEM) with X-ray detector. Though the much greater elemental sensitivity of the SPMP is inherent in the physics, the generally inferior spatial resolution of the SPMP is not inherent and big improvements are possible, As its alternative name would imply, the SPMP is often used with heavier particle beams and with nuclear rather than atomic reactions. Its versatility and quantitative accuracy have justified greater instrumentation and computer power than that associated with other microprobes. It is fast becoming an industrially and commercially important instrument and there are few fields of scientific research in which it has not played a part. Notable contributions have been made in biology, medicine, agriculture, semiconductors, geology, mineralogy, extractive metallurgy, new materials, archaeology, forensic science, catalysis, industrial problems and reactor technology.

  4. Nuclear microprobe analysis of lead profile in crocodile bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlic, I.; Siegele, R.; Hammerton, K.; Jeffree, R. A.; Cohen, D. D.

    2003-09-01

    Elevated concentrations of lead were found in Australian free ranging saltwater crocodile ( Crocodylus porosus) bone and flesh. Lead shots were found as potential source of lead in these animals. ANSTO's heavy ion nuclear microprobe was used to measure the distribution of Pb in a number of bones and osteoderms. The aim was to find out if elevated Pb concentration remains in growth rings and if the concentration is correlated with the blood levels recorded at the time. Results of our study show a very distinct distribution of accumulated Pb in bones and osteoderms as well as good correlation with the level of lead concentration in blood. To investigate influence of ion species on detection limits measurements of the same sample were performed by using 3 MeV protons, 9 MeV He ions and 20 MeV carbon ions. Peak to background ratios, detection limits and the overall 'quality' of obtained spectra are compared and discussed.

  5. Applications of nuclear microprobe analysis in cancer cell biology and pharmacology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, R. [Bordeaux 1 Univ., 33 Gradignan (France)

    1999-07-01

    Nuclear microprobe analysis studies in cancer cell pharmacology and biology carried out at Bordeaux-Gradignan are reported. The cellular pharmacology of two anticancer agents, cis-diammine-dichloroplatinum(II), and 4'-iodo-4'-deoxy-doxorubicin, were investigated, as well as the role of iron in neuroblastoma carcinogenesis, and chromium(III) in trans-generation carcinogenesis. Nuclear microprobe analysis, using PIXE and particle backscattering microanalysis, was able to reveal intracellular and tissue distributions of the elements under investigation. Moreover, the fully quantitative and multi-elemental character of nuclear microprobe analysis offered information on possible mechanisms of drug action, metal carcinogenesis, and interactions with endogenous trace elements in cancer cells. (author)

  6. Technical aspects of nuclear microprobe analysis of senile plaques from alzheimer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, N. P.-O.; Tapper, U. A. S.; Sturesson, K.; Odselius, R.; Brun, A.

    1990-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease, a common form of senile dementia, has been proposed to be caused by aluminium. One of the interesting structures to be studied, senile plaque cores in the brain, have centres of only about 10 μm. We have investigated the possibility of applying nuclear microprobes to sections containing senile plaques. An alternative staining procedure, TMToluidin blue staining using a spray technique, is also presented. An outline is given of a procedure for preparing senile plaque specimens for nuclear microprobe analysis. This includes a technique for accurate ion beam positioning, utilizing electron microscopy-grids. The subject may be of general interest since sample preparation is one of the most important aspects in microprobe analysis of biological matter.

  7. Ion beam analysis - development and application of nuclear reaction analysis methods, in particular at a nuclear microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeland, K.A.

    1996-11-01

    This thesis treats the development of Ion Beam Analysis methods, principally for the analysis of light elements at a nuclear microprobe. The light elements in this context are defined as having an atomic number less than approx. 13. The work reported is to a large extent based on multiparameter methods. Several signals are recorded simultaneously, and the data can be effectively analyzed to reveal structures that can not be observed through one-parameter collection. The different techniques are combined in a new set-up at the Lund Nuclear Microprobe. The various detectors for reaction products are arranged in such a way that they can be used for the simultaneous analysis of hydrogen, lithium, boron and fluorine together with traditional PIXE analysis and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy as well as photon-tagged Nuclear Reaction Analysis. 48 refs.

  8. Three-dimensional surface analysis system using a compact nuclear microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, T.; Mimura, R.; Sawaragi, H.; Aihara, R.; Takai, M.

    1995-09-01

    A nondestructive three-dimensional Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) and medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) analysis system with a compact 200 kV focused ion beam column has been developed. A liquid metal ion source (LMIS) such as lithium and/or beryllium (from Au/Si/Be eutectic alloy) was mounted on the short column. A high-vacuum sample chamber with a six-axis goniometer stage and an electrostatic toroidal analyzer for channeling and RBS analysis was connected to the acceleration column. The beam spot size was evaluated by microprobe-induced secondary electron image and a knife edge method using a thin gold pattern on a Si wafer. The beam current of 47 pA was obtained with a beam-spot diameter of 80 × 100 nm 2 for 400 keV Be ++ microprobes.

  9. Nuclear microprobe analysis of iodine and iron distributions in tumor cells exposed to the anthracycline 4'-iodo-4'-deoxydoxorubicin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, R.; Moretto, Ph.; Llabador, Y.; Simonoff, M.

    1997-07-01

    In this study, we performed nuclear microprobe analysis on cultured human ovarian cancer cells exposed to pharmacological concentrations of 4'-iodo-4'-deoxydoxorubicin (IDX), an anthracycline anticancer drug. We observed that iodine and iron cellular distributions were strongly correlated, suggesting intracellular iron chelation by the anthracycline. The average cellular iron concentration did not change during drug exposure, but the cellular distribution of iron was modified following the preferential nuclear localization of iodine, as determined by single cell microanalysis. These results are important for understanding the cellular pharmacology of anthracyclines. They suggest that iron cellular delocalization and its subsequent nuclear accumulation may participate to the overall cytotoxicity of IDX, and more generally to anthracycline antitumor activity.

  10. In situ titanium dioxide nanoparticles quantitative microscopy in cells and in C. elegans using nuclear microprobe analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Trequesser, Quentin [Université de Bordeaux, CENBG, Chemin du solarium, 33175 Gradignan (France); CNRS, UMR 5797, CENBG, Chemin du solarium, 33175 Gradignan (France); CNRS, Université de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 avenue du Dr. A. Schweitzer, Pessac F-33608 (France); Saez, Gladys; Devès, Guillaume; Michelet, Claire; Barberet, Philippe [Université de Bordeaux, CENBG, Chemin du solarium, 33175 Gradignan (France); CNRS, UMR 5797, CENBG, Chemin du solarium, 33175 Gradignan (France); Delville, Marie-Hélène [CNRS, Université de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 avenue du Dr. A. Schweitzer, Pessac F-33608 (France); Seznec, Hervé, E-mail: herve.seznec@cenbg.in2p3.fr [Université de Bordeaux, CENBG, Chemin du solarium, 33175 Gradignan (France); CNRS, UMR 5797, CENBG, Chemin du solarium, 33175 Gradignan (France)

    2014-12-15

    Detecting and tracking nanomaterials in biological systems is challenging and essential to understand the possible interactions with the living. In this context, in situ analyses were conducted on human skin cells and a multicellular organism (Caenorhabditiselegans) exposed to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO{sub 2} NPs) using nuclear microprobe. Coupled to conventional methods, nuclear microprobe was found to be suitable for accurate description of chemical structure of biological systems and also for detection of native TiO{sub 2} NPs. The method presented herein opens the field to NPs exposure effects analyses and more generally to toxicological analyses assisted by nuclear microprobe. This method will show applications in key research areas where in situ imaging of chemical elements is essential.

  11. Mixed beams for the nuclear microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint, A.; Breese, M.B.H.; Legge, G.L.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Recently the Micro-Analytical Research Centre (MARC) at Melbourne University has developed a technique to provide mixed beams of ions for a magnetically focussed nuclear microprobe. Such a mixed beam is defined as two (or more) beams of different species ions that can quickly and easily be made to have the same magnetic rigidity R{sub m} = (mE/q{sup 2}) and therefore be transported, focused and scanned the same in a magnetic nuclear microprobe. The production of mixed beams in an electrostatically focussed micro- probe have already been demonstrated. This paper will show how mixed beams can be produced on a single-ended accelerator. Indications of how to produce them on a tandem will also be given. Applications of these mixed beams in micro-lithography, scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) imaging and ion beam induced charge (IBIC) imaging will also be presented. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  12. PIXE and light element analysis (C,N) in glass inclusions trapped in meteorites with the nuclear microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varela, M.E.; Mosbah, M. E-mail: mosbah@drecam.cea.fr; Metrich, N.; Duraud, J.P.; Kurat, G

    1999-09-02

    Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and light element analysis have been performed with the nuclear microprobe at the Laboratoire Pierre Suee (Saclay-France) in glass inclusions of the carbonaceous chondrites: Allende, Kaba and Renazzo, and in the achondrite meteorite: Chassigny. Carbon contents in olivine of chondrules are below the nuclear reactions analysis (NRA) detection limit, however, glasses from glass inclusions hosted by these grains, contain an appreciable and highly variable quantities of carbon (200-1600 ppm). This could indicate variable amounts of C trapped during glass inclusion formation. On the other hand, nitrogen is present in highly variable amounts in glasses of both, chondrites and achondrites minerals. Its abundance, correlated with depth from the section surface which suggests loss of N during analyses and therefore the possible existence of a very mobile (volatile?) species. A chondritic Rb/Sr and K/Rb ratio obtained by PIXE analyses in the glass-bearing inclusions of the Chassigny meteorite points towards a primitive source for the glass precursor of Chassigny inclusions.

  13. Investigation of cadmium toxicity on renal epithelial cells using nuclear microprobe analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodja, Hicham E-mail: khodja@drecam.cea.fr; Avoscan, Laure; Carriere, Marie; Carrot, Francine; Gouget, Barbara

    2003-09-01

    Cadmium is a highly toxic metal that causes well-known severe renal damages. Its toxicity is frequently investigated in vitro using numerous epithelial models. The accumulation and transport of cadmium in cultured renal epithelial cells has been studied by means of nuclear microscopy (micro-PIXE coupled with micro-RBS) for cell monolayer analyses, and by ICP-MS for culture medium analyses. Cell viability, measured by biochemical tests, was used as toxicity indicator. Dependence on cadmium concentration (1-100 {mu}M) and exposure time (1-24 h) was found. Micro-PIXE reveals a strong anti-correlation of intra-cellular cadmium concentration with zinc concentration, a biological metal, suggesting substitution mechanism of both metals.

  14. Study of metal bioaccumulation by nuclear microprobe analysis of algae fossils and living algae cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, P.; Wang, J.; Li, X.; Zhu, J. E-mail: iamzhu@hotmail.com; Reinert, T.; Heitmann, J.; Spemann, D.; Vogt, J.; Flagmeyer, R.-H.; Butz, T

    2000-03-01

    Microscopic ion-beam analysis of palaeo-algae fossils and living green algae cells have been performed to study the metal bioaccumulation processes. The algae fossils, both single cellular and multicellular, are from the late Neoproterozonic (570 million years ago) ocean and perfectly preserved within a phosphorite formation. The biosorption of the rare earth element ions Nd{sup 3+} by the green algae species euglena gracilis was investigated with a comparison between the normal cells and immobilized ones. The new Leipzig Nanoprobe, LIPSION, was used to produce a proton beam with 2 {mu}m size and 0.5 nA beam current for this study. PIXE and RBS techniques were used for analysis and imaging. The observation of small metal rich spores (<10 {mu}m) surrounding both of the fossils and the living cells proved the existence of some specific receptor sites which bind metal carrier ligands at the microbic surface. The bioaccumulation efficiency of neodymium by the algae cells was 10 times higher for immobilized algae cells. It confirms the fact that the algae immobilization is an useful technique to improve its metal bioaccumulation.

  15. Nuclear microprobe imaging of gallium nitrate in cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Richard; Suda, Asami; Devès, Guillaume

    2003-09-01

    Gallium nitrate is used in clinical oncology as treatment for hypercalcemia and for cancer that has spread to the bone. Its mechanism of antitumor action has not been fully elucidated yet. The knowledge of the intracellular distribution of anticancer drugs is of particular interest in oncology to better understand their cellular pharmacology. In addition, most metal-based anticancer compounds interact with endogenous trace elements in cells, altering their metabolism. The purpose of this experiment was to examine, by use of nuclear microprobe analysis, the cellular distribution of gallium and endogenous trace elements within cancer cells exposed to gallium nitrate. In a majority of cellular analyses, gallium was found homogeneously distributed in cells following the distribution of carbon. In a smaller number of cells, however, gallium appeared concentrated together with P, Ca and Fe within round structures of about 2-5 μm diameter located in the perinuclear region. These intracellular structures are typical of lysosomial material.

  16. Elastic recoil detection analysis on the ANSTO heavy ion microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegele, R.; Orlic, I.; Cohen, David D.

    2002-05-01

    The heavy ion microprobe at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation is capable of focussing heavy ions with an ME/ q2 of up to 100 amu MeV. This makes the microprobe ideally suited for heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). However, beam currents on a microprobe are usually very small, which requires a detection system with a large solid angle. We apply microbeam heavy ion ERDA using a large solid angle ΔE- E telescope with a gas ΔE detector to layered structures. We demonstrate the capability to measure oxygen and carbon with a lateral resolution of 20 μm, together with determination of the depth of the contamination in thin deposited layers.

  17. Extraterrestrial materials examined by mean of nuclear microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodja, H., E-mail: hicham.khodja@cea.fr [CEA/IRAMIS/SIS2M/LEEL, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); CNRS/UMR 3299/SIS2M/LEEL, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Smith, T. [CEA/IRAMIS/SIS2M/LEEL, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); CNRS/UMR 3299/SIS2M/LEEL, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Engrand, C. [CSNSM, Bat 104, F-91405, Orsay Campus (France); Herzog, G. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers University, 610 Taylor Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8087 (United States); Raepsaet, C. [CEA/IRAMIS/SIS2M/LEEL, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); CNRS/UMR 3299/SIS2M/LEEL, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-07-01

    Comet fragments, micrometeorites, and Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs) are small objects (<1 mm) of high scientific interest in cosmochemistry. More particularly, the determination of light element concentrations, such as C and N, in cometary samples is of interest since it gives information on the regions where such materials formed. Analyses of such objects should be performed so as to extract as much information as possible while preserving sample integrity. For this purpose, we need instruments and methods that provide both microanalysis and detailed imaging. In these respects, the nuclear microprobe offers many potential advantages: (i) the spatial resolution, ∼1 μm is well-matched to the typical object dimensions, (ii) with some reservations, it is non-destructive when carefully conducted, (iii) it is quantitative, and especially sensitive for light elements. At the Saclay nuclear microprobe, we have been performing analyses of extraterrestrial objects for many years. We review some of these studies, emphasizing the specific requirements for successful analyses. We also discuss the potential pitfalls that may be encountered.

  18. Application of Nuclear Microprobes towards Understanding Complex Ore Geo-electrochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymanski R.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We report on recent development on the CSIRO Nuclear Microprobe (NMP towards catering for long exposure mapping required for large area scanning. A new data collection system based on Labview FPGA highly co-ordinated with beam transport sits at the heart of the upgrade. These upgrades are discussed and an example of the systems use for μ-Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE analysis in the area of complex ore geo-electrochemistry is briefly described.

  19. Quantitative elemental imaging of octopus stylets using PIXE and the nuclear microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doubleday, Zoe [Marine Research Laboratories, Tasmanian Aquaculture and Fisheries Institute, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 49, Tasmania 7001 (Australia)], E-mail: zoeanned@utas.edu.au; Belton, David [CSIRO Exploration and Mining, University of Melbourne (School of Physics), Melbourne 3010 (Australia); Pecl, Gretta; Semmens, Jayson [Marine Research Laboratories, Tasmanian Aquaculture and Fisheries Institute, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 49, Tasmania 7001 (Australia)

    2008-01-15

    By utilising targeted microprobe technology, the analysis of elements incorporated within the hard bio-mineralised structures of marine organisms has provided unique insights into the population biology of many species. As hard structures grow, elements from surrounding waters are incorporated effectively providing a natural 'tag' that is often unique to the animal's particular location or habitat. The spatial distribution of elements within octopus stylets was investigated, using the nuclear microprobe, to assess their potential for determining dispersal and population structure in octopus populations. Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was conducted using the Dynamic Analysis method and GeoPIXE software package, which produced high resolution, quantitative elemental maps of whole stylet cross-sections. Ten elements were detected within the stylets which were heterogeneously distributed throughout the microstructure. Although Ca decreased towards the section edge, this trend was consistent between individuals and remained homogeneous in the inner region of the stylet, and thus appears a suitable internal standard for future microprobe analyses. Additional analyses used to investigate the general composition of the stylet structure suggested that they are amorphous and largely organic, however, there was some evidence of phosphatic mineralisation. In conclusion, this study indicates that stylets are suitable for targeted elemental analysis, although this is currently limited to the inner hatch region of the microstructure.

  20. Quantitative elemental imaging of octopus stylets using PIXE and the nuclear microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubleday, Zoë; Belton, David; Pecl, Gretta; Semmens, Jayson

    2008-01-01

    By utilising targeted microprobe technology, the analysis of elements incorporated within the hard bio-mineralised structures of marine organisms has provided unique insights into the population biology of many species. As hard structures grow, elements from surrounding waters are incorporated effectively providing a natural 'tag' that is often unique to the animal's particular location or habitat. The spatial distribution of elements within octopus stylets was investigated, using the nuclear microprobe, to assess their potential for determining dispersal and population structure in octopus populations. Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was conducted using the Dynamic Analysis method and GeoPIXE software package, which produced high resolution, quantitative elemental maps of whole stylet cross-sections. Ten elements were detected within the stylets which were heterogeneously distributed throughout the microstructure. Although Ca decreased towards the section edge, this trend was consistent between individuals and remained homogeneous in the inner region of the stylet, and thus appears a suitable internal standard for future microprobe analyses. Additional analyses used to investigate the general composition of the stylet structure suggested that they are amorphous and largely organic, however, there was some evidence of phosphatic mineralisation. In conclusion, this study indicates that stylets are suitable for targeted elemental analysis, although this is currently limited to the inner hatch region of the microstructure.

  1. Nuclear microprobe study of a woman's skeleton from the sixth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscher-Barre, Nicole; Trocellier, Patrick

    1993-03-01

    Transverse sections of femoral diaphyses originated from a VIth century woman's skeleton, discovered near Lyon, have been characterized by nuclear microprobe analysis using microPIXE, NRA and PIGE. This skeleton, which did not exhibit any lesions, was buried in a lead sarcophagus. Its carbon, nitrogen and sodium average contents are found to be nearly similar to those of a XXth century bone sample. Lead and tin were shown to be extracted from the sarcophagus and incorporated in the bone tissue leading to decreasing profiles from the periosteum to the medullary canal. Calcium, carbon, phosphorus and lead distributions suggest the formation of both lead phosphate and lead carbonate within the hydroxyapatite matrix.

  2. Microprobe analysis of brine shrimp grown on meteorite extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, J. [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)]. E-mail: j.kennedy@gns.cri.nz; Mautner, M.N. [Soil, Plant and Ecological Sciences Division, Lincoln University (New Zealand) and Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Christchurch 8001 (New Zealand)]. E-mail: m.mautner@solis1.com; Barry, B. [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Markwitz, A. [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    2007-07-15

    Nuclear microprobe methods have been used to investigate the uptake and distribution of various elements by brine shrimps and their unhatched eggs when grown in extracts of the Murchison and Allende carbonaceous meteorites, which were selected as model space resources. Measurements were carried out using a focussed 2 MeV proton beam raster scanned over the samples in order to obtain the average elemental concentrations. Line scans across the egg and shrimp samples show uptake of elements such as Mg, Ni, S and P which are present in the meteorites. The results confirmed that carbonaceous chondrite materials can provide nutrients, including high levels of the essential nutrient phosphate. The concentrations of these elements varied significantly between shrimp and eggs grown in extracts of the two meteorite types, which can help in identifying optimal growth media. Our results illustrate that nuclear microprobe techniques can determine elemental concentrations in organisms exposed to meteorite derived media and thus help in identifying useful future resources.

  3. Characterization of PE-g-HEMA films prepared by gamma irradiation through nuclear microprobe techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, L. M.; Leal, J. P.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Alves, L. C.; Falcão, A. N.; Gil, M. H.

    2012-09-01

    PE-g-HEMA films with different grafting yields prepared by mutual gamma irradiation method at a 60Co source were characterized with ion beam analytical techniques using a nuclear microprobe. Qualitative analysis showed a random and heterogeneous distribution of contaminant elements, independent of the grafting degree, suggesting the existence of several sources of contamination at different stages of their preparation. Results also suggest that this "phased" contamination occurs simultaneously with mechanisms of agglomeration/entrapment of impurities during the gamma induced copolymerization reaction. Moreover, quantitative data showed that all contaminants found in the copolymeric films are natural contaminants of their reagents of preparation, although at concentrations without toxicological hazard, which points to a low cytotoxic potential.

  4. IMAP refid="FN1">©©Copyright Sandia Corporation and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, April 1993.: a complete Ion Micro-Analysis Package for the nuclear microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolak, A. J.; Bench, G. S.; Morse, D. H.

    1994-03-01

    Microprobe techniques using scanned, focused MeV ions are routinely used in Livermore for materials characterization. Comprehensive data analysis with these techniques is accomplished with the computer software package IMAP, for Ion Micro-Analysis Package. IMAP consists of a set of command language procedures for data processing and quantitative spectral analysis. Deconvolution of the data is achieved by spawning sub-processes within IMAP which execute analysis codes for each specific microprobe technique. IMAP is structured to rapidly analyze individual spectra or multi-dimensional data blocks which classify individual events by the two scanning dimensions, the energy of the detected radiation and, when necessary, one sample rotation dimension. Several examples are presented to demonstrate the utility of the package.

  5. Nuclear microprobe and nuclear reaction spectrometry at a few square micrometer level: myth or reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trocellier, P. E-mail: ptrocel@nimitz.saclay.cea.fr; Berger, P.; Berthier, B.; Berthoumieux, E.; Gallien, J.P.; Metrich, N.; Moreau, C.; Mosbah, M.; Varela, M.E

    1999-09-02

    Proton induced X-ray emission and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry are the most often used IBA methods in conjunction with a nuclear microprobe. Their main advantages derive both from the corresponding cross sections having relatively high values and their multielemental response. {mu}PIXE allows one to reach the spatial distribution of elements with Z>12 and {mu}RBS permits the study of multilayered solids with a good selectivity for thin heavy element layers deposited on light substrates. Nuclear reactions on the other hand generally exhibit low cross section values but are well adapted for light element isotope measurements in any substrate. This paper intends to provide an overview of nuclear reaction spectrometry analytical capabilities using {sup 1}H, {sup 2}H, {sup 3}He or {sup 4}He microbeams. Practical performances such as selectivity, sensitivity, total analysable depth and depth resolution are discussed. Finally, application examples are presented in the following areas: metallurgy and material sciences, earth sciences and cosmochemistry, biochemistry and archaeometry.

  6. Field Emission Electron Microprobe Analysis of Halogens in Apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacker, R. C.

    2011-12-01

    Field emission electron microprobe is capable of higher resolution and lower voltage than other microprobes, making it an ideal instrument for analysis of small accessory minerals in thin section such as apatite. In this study, the field emission electron microprobe was evaluated for analysis of fluorine and chlorine in apatite. Analysis was conducted on (001), (100) and an intermediate section of natural apatite crystals, using the JEOL JXA-8530F Hyperprobe, located at Fayetteville State University in Fayetteville, North Carolina. Conditions were beam current of 10 nanoamps, accelerating voltages from 5-20 kV, and spot sizes from 1-10 micrometers. Very short counting times were used, some as little as 2 seconds. Analytical strategies exploited the fact that excitation energies for fluorine Kα are much lower than for chlorine. Earlier studies (e.g. Stormer et al. 1993; Fialin and Chopin, 2006) documented the complex behavior of beam-driven migration, subsurface accumulation and desorption during fluorine analysis. The cumulative effect is increase and then fall of count rates with time and repeated analysis. The details of earlier studies were reproduced: (1) Apatite analysis by electron microprobe has two additional unknown variables, which are the crystallographic orientation of the unknown and of the standard. (2) The most reliable measure of fluorine cps is derived from a regression to zero time, accounting for crystal orientation; (3) Changing the analytical conditions (accelerating voltage, spot size, duration of analysis) changes only the time scale over which migration and desorption take place. New results from the JEOL Hyperprobe show that, for all crystal orientations, initial fluorine cps increase from 5 and 7 kV to 10 kV, but decrease systematically with further increases in kV, interpreted as loss of fluorine without concomitant excitation of X-rays. To date, fluorine analysis is routinely conducted at 15 and 20 kV. In contrast, chlorine initial

  7. Next generation data acquisition systems for the CSIRO Nuclear Microprobe: Highly scaled versus customizable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Jamie S.; Ryan, Chris G.; Kirkham, Robin; Satoh, Takahiro; Pages, Anais

    2017-08-01

    Here we detail the new data acquisition system (DAS) developed for the CSIRO Nuclear Microprobe primarily to handle large detector arrays and to work in tandem with the Maia detector system. Both systems use HYMOD FPGA-based processors. The current DAQ system and its microscopy suite and beam handling have been integrated with the HYMOD system(s) to facilitate easy access to the either system. Examples of the new scanning modes available with the combined system are highlighted on a complex Cambrian black shale sample from the Yangtze basin in Southern China.

  8. The new confocal heavy ion microprobe beamline at ANSTO: The first microprobe resolution tests and applications for elemental imaging and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastuovic, Z.; Siegele, R.; Cohen, D. D.; Mann, M.; Ionescu, M.; Button, D.; Long, S.

    2017-08-01

    The Centre for Accelerator Science facility at ANSTO has been expanded with the new NEC 6 MV ;SIRIUS; accelerator system in 2015. In this paper we present a detailed description of the new nuclear microprobe-Confocal Heavy Ion Micro-Probe (CHIMP) together with results of the microprobe resolution testing and the elemental analysis performed on typical samples of mineral ore deposits and hyper-accumulating plants regularly measured at ANSTO. The CHIMP focusing and scanning systems are based on the OM-150 Oxford quadrupole triplet and the OM-26 separated scan-coil doublet configurations. A maximum ion rigidity of 38.9 amu-MeV was determined for the following nuclear microprobe configuration: the distance from object aperture to collimating slits of 5890 mm, the working distance of 165 mm and the lens bore diameter of 11 mm. The overall distance from the object to the image plane is 7138 mm. The CHIMP beamline has been tested with the 3 MeV H+ and 6 MeV He2+ ion beams. The settings of the object and collimating apertures have been optimized using the WinTRAX simulation code for calculation of the optimum acceptance settings in order to obtain the highest possible ion current for beam spot sizes of 1 μm and 5 μm. For optimized aperture settings of the CHIMP the beam brightness was measured to be ∼0.9 pA μm-2 mrad-2 for 3 MeV H+ ions, while the brightness of ∼0.4 pA μm-2 mrad-2 was measured for 6 MeV He2+ ions. The smallest beam sizes were achieved using a microbeam with reduced particle rate of 1000 Hz passing through the object slit apertures several micrometers wide. Under these conditions a spatial resolution of ∼0.6 μm × 1.5 μm for 3 MeV H+ and ∼1.8 μm × 1.8 μm for 6 MeV He2+ microbeams in horizontal (and vertical) dimension has been achieved. The beam sizes were verified using STIM imaging on 2000 and 1000 mesh Cu electron microscope grids.

  9. Millimeter length micromachining using a heavy ion nuclear microprobe with standard magnetic scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesprías, F. [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (1650), San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Debray, M.E., E-mail: debray@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (1650), San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnología. Universidad Nacional de Gral. San Martín, M. De Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Davidson, J. [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (1650), San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); CONICET, Avda. Rivadavia 1917 (C1033AAJ), Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kreiner, A.J. [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (1650), San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnología. Universidad Nacional de Gral. San Martín, M. De Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); CONICET, Avda. Rivadavia 1917 (C1033AAJ), Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2013-04-01

    In order to increase the scanning length of our microprobe, we have developed an irradiation procedure suitable for use in any nuclear microprobe, extending at least up to 400% the length of our heavy ion direct writing facility using standard magnetic exploration. Although this method is limited to patterns of a few millimeters in only one direction, it is useful for the manufacture of curved waveguides, optical devices such Mach–Zehnder modulators, directional couplers as well as channels for micro-fluidic applications. As an example, this technique was applied to the fabrication of 3 mm 3D-Mach–Zehnder modulators in lithium niobate with short Y input/output branches and long shaped parallel-capacitor control electrodes. To extend and improve the quality of the machined structures we developed new scanning control software in LabView™ platform. The new code supports an external dose normalization, electrostatic beam blanking and is capable of scanning figures at 16 bit resolution using a National Instruments™ PCI-6731 High-Speed I/O card. A deep and vertical micromachining process using swift {sup 35}Cl ions 70 MeV bombarding energy and direct write patterning was performed on LiNbO{sub 3}, a material which exhibits a strong natural anisotropy to conventional etching. The micromachined structures show the feasibility of this method for manufacturing micro-fluidic channels as well.

  10. Early works on the nuclear microprobe for microelectronics irradiation tests at the CEICI (Sevilla, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, F.R., E-mail: rogelio@gte.esi.us.es [Electronic Engineering Dept., School of Engineering, Sevilla University, Avda. de los Descubrimientos s/n, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Morilla, Y. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, CNA, Sevilla University, C/Thomas Alva Edison n0 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Mogollon, J.M. [Electronic Engineering Dept., School of Engineering, Sevilla University, Avda. de los Descubrimientos s/n, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Garcia-Lopez, J.; Labrador, J.A. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, CNA, Sevilla University, C/Thomas Alva Edison n0 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Aguirre, M.A. [Electronic Engineering Dept., School of Engineering, Sevilla University, Avda. de los Descubrimientos s/n, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    Particle radiation effects are a fundamental problem in the use of numerous electronic devices for space applications, which is aggravated with the technology shrinking towards smaller and smaller scales. The suitability of low-energy accelerators for irradiation testing is being considered nowadays. Moreover, the possibility to use a nuclear microprobe, with a lateral resolution of a few microns, allows us to evaluate the behavior under ion irradiation of specific elements in an electronic device. The CEICI is the new CEnter for Integrated Circuits Irradiation tests, created into the facilities at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA) in Sevilla-Spain. We have verified that our 3 MV Tandem accelerator, typically used for ion beam characterization of materials, is also a valuable tool to perform irradiation experiments in the low LET (Linear Energy Transfer) region.

  11. Design of a compact nuclear microprobe system with a liquid metal ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, M.; Mimura, R.; Sawaragi, H.; Aihara, R.

    1993-05-01

    A compact nuclear microprobe system with a short acceleration column of 200 kV and a liquid metal ion source of lithium and beryllium, having a size of a conventional SEM system, has been designed and is being constructed. An ultrahigh-vacuum sample chamber with a three-axis goniometer, a toroidal analyzer and a solid state detector for channeling, MEIS, and RBS analyses is connected to the acceleration column. A minimum beam spot size of less than 50 nm with a current of 50 pA is estimated by optical property calculation for 200 keV Li + LMIS. The beam spot size estimated is feasible with a minimum feature size of future gigabit memory ICs.

  12. Determination of nitrogen partitioning coefficients in superduplex stainless steels by NRA using a nuclear microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, C. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Av. Thomas A. Edison 7, Isla de La Cartuja, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: camulu@us.es; Morilla, Y.; Garcia Lopez, J. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Av. Thomas A. Edison 7, Isla de La Cartuja, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Paul, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica y de los Materiales ESI, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41092 Sevilla, Av. de los Descubrimientos s/n (Spain); Odriozola, J.A. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica e Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, Universidad de Sevilla - CSIC, E-41092 Sevilla, Av. Americo Vespucio 49 (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    Superduplex stainless steels (SDSSs) combine the good mechanical behavior and the high corrosion resistance of the ferrite ({alpha}-Fe) and austenite ({gamma}-Fe) phases. The SDSSs properties depend strongly on the partitioning of the elements that form the alloy. The ferrite is generally enriched in P, Si, Cr and Mo while the content of Ni, Mn, Cu and N in the austenite phase is higher. Nitrogen is known to be a strong austenite stabilizer and its presence increases the strength and the pitting corrosion resistance of the stainless steels. While the global nitrogen content in SDSSs can be readily determined using elemental analyzers, it cannot be measured at a microscopic scale. In this work, the nuclear microprobe of the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (Sevilla) was used to obtain the quantitative distribution of nitrogen in SDSSs. A deuteron beam of 1.8 MeV was employed to determine the overall elemental concentration of the matrix by deuteron-induced X-ray emission, whereas the nitrogen partitioning coefficients were obtained by using the {sup 14}N(d, {alpha}{sub 0}){sup 12}C nuclear reaction. Mappings of this element show that the nitrogen ratio between the ferrite and austenite phases ranges from 0.3 to 0.6 in the analyzed samples.

  13. Microprobe PIXE analysis and EDX analysis on the brain of patients with Alzheimer`s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yumoto, S. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Horino, Y.; Mokuno, Y.; Fujii, K.; Kakimi, S.; Mizutani, T.; Matsushima, H.; Ishikawa, A.

    1996-12-31

    To investigate the cause of Alzheimer`s disease (senile dementia of Alzheimer`s disease type), we examined aluminium (Al) in the brain (hippocampus) of patients with Alzheimer`s disease using heavy ion (5 MeV Si{sup 3+}) microprobe particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. Heavy ion microprobes (3 MeV Si{sup 2+}) have several times higher sensitivity for Al detection than 2 MeV proton microprobes. We also examined Al in the brain of these patients by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). (1) Al was detected in the cell nuclei isolated from the brain of patients with Alzheimer`s disease using 5 MeV Si{sup 3+} microprobe PIXE analysis, and EDX analysis. (2) EDX analysis demonstrated high levels of Al in the nucleolus of nerve cells in frozen sections prepared from the brain of these patients. Our results support the theory that Alzheimer`s disease is caused by accumulation of Al in the nuclei of brain cells. (author)

  14. Applications of heavy ion microprobe for single event effects analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Robert A. [Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Vanderbilt University, 5635 Stevenson Center, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)]. E-mail: robert.reed@vanderbilt.edu; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Pellish, Jonathan A. [Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Vanderbilt University, 5635 Stevenson Center, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Sierawski, Brian [Institute for Space and Defense Electronics, Vanderbilt University, Box 351821 Station B, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Warren, Kevin M. [Institute for Space and Defense Electronics, Vanderbilt University, Box 351821 Station B, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Porter, Mark [Medtronic Microelectronics Center, 2343 W. Medtronic Way, Tempe, AZ 85281 (United States); Wilkinson, Jeff [Medtronic, CRDM Device Technology, 7000 Central Avenue NE, Minneapolis, MN 55432 (United States); Marshall, Paul W. [NASA consultant, Brookneal, VA 24528 (United States); Niu, Guofu [Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36894 (United States); Cressler, John D. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Schrimpf, Ronald D. [Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Vanderbilt University, 5635 Stevenson Center, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Tipton, Alan [Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Vanderbilt University, 5635 Stevenson Center, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Weller, Robert A. [Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Vanderbilt University, 5635 Stevenson Center, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    The motion of ionizing-radiation-induced rogue charge carriers in a semiconductor can create unwanted voltage and current conditions within a microelectronic circuit. If sufficient unwanted charge or current occurs on a sensitive node, a variety of single event effects (SEEs) can occur with consequences ranging from trivial to catastrophic. This paper describes the application of heavy ion microprobes to assist with calibration and validation of SEE modeling approaches.

  15. Microprobe PIXE analysis of aluminium in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumoto, S.; Horino, Y.; Mokuno, Y.; Kakimi, S.; Fujii, K.

    1996-04-01

    To investigate the cause of Alzheimer's disease (senile dementia), we examined aluminium (Al) in the rat liver, and in the brains (hippocampus) of Alzheimer's disease patients using heavy ion (5 MeV Si 3+) microprobe and proton (2 MeV) microprobe PIXE analysis. Heavy ion microprobes (3 MeV Si 2+) have several time's higher sensitivity for Al detection than 2 MeV proton microprobes. (1) In the rat liver, Al was detected in the cell nuclei, where phosphorus (P) was most densely distributed. (2) We also demonstrated Al in the cell nuclei isolated from Alzheimer's disease brains using heavy ion (5 MeV Si 3+) microprobes. Al spectra were detected using 2 MeV proton microprobes in the isolated brain cell nuclei. Al could not be observed in areas where P was present in relatively small amounts, or was absent. Our results indicate that Alzheimer's disease is caused by irreversible accumulation of Al in the nuclei of brain cells.

  16. Evaluation of the odd-even effect in limits of detection for electron microprobe analysis of natural minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Surendra P., E-mail: spv@cie.unam.mx [Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Priv. Xochicalco s/no., Col Centro, A.P. 34, Temixco, Mor. 62580 (Mexico); Pandarinath, Kailasa [Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Priv. Xochicalco s/no., Col Centro, A.P. 34, Temixco, Mor. 62580 (Mexico); Velasco-Tapia, Fernando [Facultad de Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Carretera Linares-Cerro Prieto km. 8, Linares, N.L. 67700 (Mexico); Rodriguez-Rios, Rodolfo [Facultad de Ingenieria e Instituto de Geologia, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Av. Dr. Manuel Nava No. 8, Zona Universitaria, San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. 78240 (Mexico)

    2009-04-13

    Limit of detection (LOD), being a fundamental quality parameter for analytical techniques, has been recently investigated and a systematic behavior has been observed for most odd-even element pairs for many techniques. However, to the best of our knowledge very few LOD data are available in published literature for electron microprobe analysis; these consist of three papers, two being on rare-earth elements and the third covering a large number of elements of atomic number between 21 and 92. These data confirm the systematic behavior of LODs for many odd-even pairs. To initiate to full this gap, we determined LODs for several major rock-forming chemical elements from Na to Fe with atomic numbers between 11 and 26, during the microprobe analysis of common minerals (olivine, plagioclase, pyroxene, amphibole, quartz, and opaques) in volcanic rocks. The odd-even effect of nuclear stability seems to be present in LOD data for most odd-even pairs investigated. Nevertheless, the experimental strategy concerning the reference materials, calibration procedure, and blank measurements, should be substantially modified to better evaluate the systematic behavior of LOD values in microprobe analysis.

  17. The elemental move characteristic of nickel-based alloy in molten salt corrosion by using nuclear microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Qiantao; Liu, Ke; Gao, Jie; Li, Xiaolin; Shen, Hao; Li, Yan

    2017-08-01

    Nickel-based alloys as candidate materials for Thorium Molten Salt Reactor (TMSR), need to be used under high temperature in molten salt environment. In order to ensure the safety of the reactor running, it is necessary to study the elemental move characteristic of nickel-based alloys in the high temperature molten salts. In this work, the scanning nuclear microprobe at Fudan University was applied to study the elemental move. The Nickel-based alloy samples were corroded by molten salt at different temperatures. The element concentrations in the Nickel-based alloys samples were determined by the scanning nuclear microprobe. Micro-PIXE results showed that the element concentrations changed from the interior to the exterior of the alloy samples after the corrosion.

  18. Nuclear microprobe investigation of the effects of ionization and displacement damage in vertical, high voltage GaN diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizkelethy, G.; King, M. P.; Aktas, O.; Kizilyalli, I. C.; Kaplar, R. J.

    2017-08-01

    Radiation responses of high-voltage, vertical gallium-nitride (GaN) diodes were investigated using Sandia National Laboratories' nuclear microprobe. Effects of the ionization and the displacement damage were studied using various ion beams. We found that the devices show avalanche effect for heavy ions operated under bias well below the breakdown voltage. The displacement damage experiments showed a surprising effect for moderate damage: the charge collection efficiency demonstrated an increase instead of a decrease for higher bias voltages.

  19. Microprobe analysis of teeth by synchrotron radiation: environmental contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, T. E-mail: murmur@itn1.itn.pt; Carvalho, M.L.; Casaca, C.; Barreiros, M.A.; Cunha, A.S.; Chevallier, P

    1999-09-02

    An X-ray fluorescence set-up with microprobe capabilities, installed at the Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation du Rayonnement Electromagnetique (LURE) synchrotron (France) was used for elemental determination in teeth. To evaluate the influence of living habits in dental elemental composition nine teeth collected post-mortem were analysed, five from a miner and four from a fisherman. All teeth from the fisherman were healthy. From the miner some teeth were carious and one of them was filled with metallic amalgam. Teeth were sliced under the vertical plane and each slice was scanned from the root to the enamel for elemental profile determination. The synchrotron microprobe resolution was of 100 {mu}m and incident photons of 18 keV energy were used. The elemental concentration values found suggest heterogeneity of the teeth material. Moreover, the distinct profiles for Mn, Sr, Br and Pb were found when teeth from the miner and from the fisherman are compared which can be associated with dietary habits and environmental influence. Higher concentrations of Mn and Sr were found for the fisherman teeth. In addition, Br was only observed in this group of teeth. Pb levels are higher for the miner teeth in particular for dentine regions. The influence of amalgam, such as, increase of Zn and Hg contents in the teeth material, is only noticed for the immediate surroundings of the treated cavity.

  20. ;Study of secondary hydriding at high temperature in zirconium based nuclear fuel cladding tubes by coupling information from neutron radiography/tomography, electron probe micro analysis, micro elastic recoil detection analysis and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachet, Jean-Christophe; Hamon, Didier; Le Saux, Matthieu; Vandenberghe, Valérie; Toffolon-Masclet, Caroline; Rouesne, Elodie; Urvoy, Stéphane; Béchade, Jean-Luc; Raepsaet, Caroline; Lacour, Jean-Luc; Bayon, Guy; Ott, Frédéric

    2017-05-01

    This paper gives an overview of a multi-scale experimental study of the secondary hydriding phenomena that can occur in nuclear fuel cladding materials exposed to steam at high temperature (HT) after having burst (loss-of-coolant accident conditions). By coupling information from several facilities, including neutron radiography/tomography, electron probe micro analysis, micro elastic recoil detection analysis and micro laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, it was possible to map quantitatively, at different scales, the distribution of oxygen and hydrogen within M5™ clad segments having experienced ballooning and burst at HT followed by steam oxidation at 1100 and 1200 °C and final direct water quenching down to room temperature. The results were very reproducible and it was confirmed that internal oxidation and secondary hydriding at HT of a cladding after burst can lead to strong axial and azimuthal gradients of hydrogen and oxygen concentrations, reaching 3000-4000 wt ppm and 1.0-1.2 wt% respectively within the β phase layer for the investigated conditions. Consistent with thermodynamic and kinetics considerations, oxygen diffusion into the prior-β layer was enhanced in the regions highly enriched in hydrogen, where the α(O) phase layer is thinner and the prior-β layer thicker. Finally the induced post-quenching hardening of the prior-β layer was mainly related to the local oxygen enrichment. Hardening directly induced by hydrogen was much less significant.

  1. Elemental distribution and sample integrity comparison of freeze-dried and frozen-hydrated biological tissue samples with nuclear microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vavpetič, P., E-mail: primoz.vavpetic@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vogel-Mikuš, K. [Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jeromel, L. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Ogrinc Potočnik, N. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); FOM-Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pongrac, P. [Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Department of Plant Physiology, University of Bayreuth, Universitätstr. 30, 95447 Bayreuth (Germany); Drobne, D.; Pipan Tkalec, Ž.; Novak, S.; Kos, M.; Koren, Š.; Regvar, M. [Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pelicon, P. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2015-04-01

    The analysis of biological samples in frozen-hydrated state with micro-PIXE technique at Jožef Stefan Institute (JSI) nuclear microprobe has matured to a point that enables us to measure and examine frozen tissue samples routinely as a standard research method. Cryotome-cut slice of frozen-hydrated biological sample is mounted between two thin foils and positioned on the sample holder. The temperature of the cold stage in the measuring chamber is kept below 130 K throughout the insertion of the samples and the proton beam exposure. Matrix composition of frozen-hydrated tissue is consisted mostly of ice. Sample deterioration during proton beam exposure is monitored during the experiment, as both Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) in on–off axis geometry are recorded together with the events in two PIXE detectors and backscattered ions from the chopper in a single list-mode file. The aim of this experiment was to determine differences and similarities between two kinds of biological sample preparation techniques for micro-PIXE analysis, namely freeze-drying and frozen-hydrated sample preparation in order to evaluate the improvements in the elemental localisation of the latter technique if any. In the presented work, a standard micro-PIXE configuration for tissue mapping at JSI was used with five detection systems operating in parallel, with proton beam cross section of 1.0 × 1.0 μm{sup 2} and a beam current of 100 pA. The comparison of the resulting elemental distributions measured at the biological tissue prepared in the frozen-hydrated and in the freeze-dried state revealed differences in elemental distribution of particular elements at the cellular level due to the morphology alteration in particular tissue compartments induced either by water removal in the lyophilisation process or by unsatisfactory preparation of samples for cutting and mounting during the shock-freezing phase of sample preparation.

  2. Elemental distribution and sample integrity comparison of freeze-dried and frozen-hydrated biological tissue samples with nuclear microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavpetič, P.; Vogel-Mikuš, K.; Jeromel, L.; Ogrinc Potočnik, N.; Pongrac, P.; Drobne, D.; Pipan Tkalec, Ž.; Novak, S.; Kos, M.; Koren, Š.; Regvar, M.; Pelicon, P.

    2015-04-01

    The analysis of biological samples in frozen-hydrated state with micro-PIXE technique at Jožef Stefan Institute (JSI) nuclear microprobe has matured to a point that enables us to measure and examine frozen tissue samples routinely as a standard research method. Cryotome-cut slice of frozen-hydrated biological sample is mounted between two thin foils and positioned on the sample holder. The temperature of the cold stage in the measuring chamber is kept below 130 K throughout the insertion of the samples and the proton beam exposure. Matrix composition of frozen-hydrated tissue is consisted mostly of ice. Sample deterioration during proton beam exposure is monitored during the experiment, as both Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) in on-off axis geometry are recorded together with the events in two PIXE detectors and backscattered ions from the chopper in a single list-mode file. The aim of this experiment was to determine differences and similarities between two kinds of biological sample preparation techniques for micro-PIXE analysis, namely freeze-drying and frozen-hydrated sample preparation in order to evaluate the improvements in the elemental localisation of the latter technique if any. In the presented work, a standard micro-PIXE configuration for tissue mapping at JSI was used with five detection systems operating in parallel, with proton beam cross section of 1.0 × 1.0 μm2 and a beam current of 100 pA. The comparison of the resulting elemental distributions measured at the biological tissue prepared in the frozen-hydrated and in the freeze-dried state revealed differences in elemental distribution of particular elements at the cellular level due to the morphology alteration in particular tissue compartments induced either by water removal in the lyophilisation process or by unsatisfactory preparation of samples for cutting and mounting during the shock-freezing phase of sample preparation.

  3. U and Pb isotope analysis of uraninite and galena by ion microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evins, L.Z.; Sunde, T.; Schoeberg, H. [Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm (Sweden). Laboratory for Isotope Geology; Fayek, M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    2001-10-01

    Accurate isotopic analysis of minerals by ion microprobe, or SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry) usually requires a standard to correct for instrumental mass bias effects that occur during analysis. We have calibrated two uraninite crystals and one galena crystal to be used as ion probe standards. As part of this study we describe the analytical procedures and problems encountered while trying to establish fractionation factors for U and Pb isotopes measured in galena and uraninite. Only the intra-element isotopic mass fractionation is considered and not the interelement fractionation. Galena and uraninite were analysed with TIMS (Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry) prior to SIMS. One uraninite crystal (P88) comes from Sweden and is ca 900 Ma old, the other from Maine, USA (LAMNH-30222) and is ca 350 Ma old. The galena sample comes from the Paleoproterozoic ore district Bergslagen in Sweden. SIMS analyses were performed at two different laboratories: the NORDSM facility in Stockholm, which has a high resolution Cameca IMS 1270 ion microprobe, and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Tennessee, which has a Cameca IMS 4f ion microprobe. The results show that during the analysis of galena, Pb isotopes fractionate in favour of the lighter isotope by as much as 0.5%/amu. A Pb isotope fractionation factor for uraninite was more difficult to calculate, probably due to the formation of hydride interferences encountered during analysis with the Cameca IMS 1270 ion microprobe. However, drying the sample in vacuum prior to analysis, and using high-energy filtering and a cold trap during analysis can minimise these hydride interferences. A large fractionation of U isotopes of ca 1.4%/amu in favour of the lighter isotope was calculated for uraninite.

  4. Fingerprint spectra in Laser Microprobe Mass Analysis of titanium oxides of different stoichiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michiels, Eric; Gijbels, Renaat

    Micrometric particles of powdered titanium oxides of different stoichiometry (TiO 2, Ti 2O 3 and TiO) are examined by Laser Microprobe Mass Analysis (LAMMA). The stoichiometry of the compound can be correlated with the relative intensity distributions of the (positive or negative) cluster and atomic ions. Application of the "valence model" yields similar conclusions. Variations in laser energy density and in ion lens potential also effect the ion intensity distributions.

  5. Characterization of ancient Indian iron and entrapped slag inclusions using electron, photon and nuclear microprobes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Dillmann; R Balasubramaniam

    2001-06-01

    Compositional and structural information were obtained from an ancient 1600-year old Indian iron using microprobe techniques (EDS, XRD and PIXE). Several different local locations in the iron matrix and in the entrapped slag inclusions were analyzed. The P content of the metallic iron matrix was very heterogeneous. Lower P contents were observed in the regions near slag inclusions. This was correlated to the dephosphorization capacity of the slag. The crystallized phases identified in the slag inclusions were wüstite and fayalite. The compositions of the slag inclusions were relatively homogeneous.

  6. Nuclear microprobe investigation of the penetration of ultrafine zinc oxide into intact and tape-stripped human skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szikszai, Z., E-mail: szikszai@atomki.h [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary); Kertesz, Zs. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary); Bodnar, E. [Department of Dermatology, University of Debrecen, Medical and Health Science Center, Debrecen (Hungary); Major, I. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary); Borbiro, I. [Abiol Ltd., Debrecen (Hungary); Kiss, A.Z. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary); Hunyadi, J. [Department of Dermatology, University of Debrecen, Medical and Health Science Center, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2010-06-15

    Ultrafine metal oxides, such as titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are widely used in cosmetic and health products like sunscreens. These oxides are potent UV filters and the small particle size makes the product more transparent compared to formulations containing coarser particles. In the present work the penetration of ultrafine zinc oxide into intact and tape-stripped human skin was investigated using nuclear microprobe techniques, such as proton induced X-ray spectroscopy and scanning transmission ion microscopy. Our results indicate that the penetration of ultrafine zinc oxide, in a hydrophobic basis gel with 48 h application time, is limited to the stratum corneum layer of the intact skin. Removing the stratum corneum partially or entirely by tape-stripping did not cause the penetration of the particles into the deeper dermal layers; the zinc particles remained on the surface of the skin.

  7. Electron Microprobe

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The JEOL JXA-8600 is a conventional hairpin filament thermal emission electron microprobe that is more than 20 years old. It is capable of performing qualitative and...

  8. The role of nuclear microprobes in the study of technology, provenance and corrosion of cultural heritage: The case of gold and silver items

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, M.F., E-mail: maria.guerra@culture.gouv.fr [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France and UMR 8220 CNRS, Palais du Louvre – 14, Quai François Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Tissot, I., E-mail: isabel.tissot@archeofactu.pt [Archeofactu, Rua do Cerrado das Oliveiras n°14, 2°Dto., 2610-035 Alfragide (Portugal)

    2013-07-01

    This work gives an overview of the main questions raised by gold and silver items kept in museum collections and of the role of nuclear microprobes in their study and conservation. The different approached questions are illustrated by examples; analytical data is given and discussed; and the advantages of IBA are considered: spatial resolution, penetration depth, limits of detection, mapping, etc.

  9. STUDY ON THE MORPHOLOGY OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE/POLYSTYRENE BLENDS BY ELECTRON MICROPROBE ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-ping Fang; Gen-lin Wang; Guo-ping Cai; Cheng-wei Xu; Jie Qian

    2000-01-01

    The morphology of polyvinyl chloride/polystyrene (PVC/PS) blend samples with different mass ratios, prepared by means of solution casting and melt mixing, have been successfully examined by electron microprobe analysis (EMP). This experiment was performed in a scanning electron microscope attached to an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer. Differential scanning calorimetry was also used to investigate the phase separation of the blends. The results show that PVC and PS are incompatible and the blends have sea-islands phase structures. Blends prepared via melt mixing have finer phase-dispersion than those prepared via solution casting.

  10. The non-destructive analysis of fluid inclusions in minerals using the proton microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, C.G.; Van Achterbergy, E. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience; Heinrich, C.A. [ETH Zentrum, Zurich, (Switzerland). Department Erdwissenschaften; Mernagh, T.P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemie (Otto-Hahn-Institut), Mainz (Germany); Zaw, K. [Tasmania Univ., Sandy Bay, TAS (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    The study of ore forming fluids trapped as fluid inclusions in minerals is the key to understanding fluid flow paths at the time of ore formation and to predicting the location of ore bodies within large-scale magmatic hydrothermal systems. The large penetration depths and the predictable nature of MeV proton trajectories and X-ray absorption enables reliable modelling of PIXE yields and the development of standardless quantitative analytical methods. This permits quantitative microanalysis of minerals at ppm levels, and more recently has enabled the development of methods for quantitative trace-element imaging and the quantitative, non-destructive analysis of individual fluid inclusions. This paper reports on recent developments in Proton Microprobe techniques with special emphasis on ore systems and fluid inclusion analysis. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Evolution of selenium hyperaccumulation in Stanleya (Brassicaceae) as inferred from phylogeny, physiology and X-ray microprobe analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappa, Jennifer J; Yetter, Crystal; Fakra, Sirine; Cappa, Patrick J; DeTar, Rachael; Landes, Corbett; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H; Simmons, Mark P

    2015-01-01

    Past studies have identified herbivory as a likely selection pressure for the evolution of hyperaccumulation, but few have tested the origin(s) of hyperaccumulation in a phylogenetic context. We focused on the evolutionary history of selenium (Se) hyperaccumulation in Stanleya (Brassicaceae). Multiple accessions were collected for all Stanleya taxa and two outgroup species. We sequenced four nuclear gene regions and performed a phylogenetic analysis. Ancestral reconstruction was used to predict the states for Se-related traits in a parsimony framework. Furthermore, we tested the taxa for Se localization and speciation using X-ray microprobe analyses. True hyperaccumulation was found in three taxa within the S. pinnata/bipinnata clade. Tolerance to hyperaccumulator Se concentrations was found in several taxa across the phylogeny, including the hyperaccumulators. X-ray analysis revealed two distinct patterns of leaf Se localization across the genus: marginal and vascular. All taxa accumulated predominantly (65-96%) organic Se with the C-Se-C configuration. These results give insight into the evolution of Se hyperaccumulation in Stanleya and suggest that Se tolerance and the capacity to produce organic Se are likely prerequisites for Se hyperaccumulation in Stanleya. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Challenge to Electron Microprobe Analysis by Nano-features in Geo-materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, C.; Rossman, G. R.

    2007-12-01

    With current high-resolution analytical scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope technology, nano-features (i.e., inclusions, exsolutions, pores) are being discovered in many common geo- materials routinely analyzed by EPMA. Most EPMA instruments have a thermionic electron gun with a tungsten "hairpin" type filament and operate at such high probe currents that they do not produce the high resolution imaging that field emission SEMs do. Such nano-features present difficulties to electron microprobe analysis of the host materials. It is an accuracy issue. Presented here are a few examples. Nano-inclusions like magnetite or pyroxene are common in volcanic glass. Massive rose quartz contains nano-fibers of a dumortierite-related phase that is pink, which is the cause of rose color and optical star effects. Blue quartz has nano-inclusions of ilmenite. Nano-exsolutions and nano-inclusions occur in some feldspars (moonstone and sunstone). Nano- pores in corundum and opals are observed. Thin coatings of nanocrystals on grains of hematite bring Al and P (or As) into the analytical picture. In each of these cases, electron microprobe analyses of host materials were contaminated or affected by the nano-features. For a complete analytical description of a geo-material it is necessary to first examine probe samples under an optical microscope (400× minimum) and a FE-SEM. If the sample contains nano-features, it would then be necessary to combine FIB and TEM-EDS-EELS to comprehensively analyze the host composition.

  13. Study of Italian Renaissance sculptures using an external beam nuclear microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchiatti, A.; Bouquillon, A.; Moignard, B.; Salomon, J.; Gaborit, J. R.

    2000-03-01

    The use of an extracted proton micro-beam for the PIXE analysis of glazes is discussed in the context of the growing interest in the creation of an analytical database on Italian Renaissance glazed terracotta sculptures. Some results concerning the frieze of an altarpiece of the Louvre museum, featuring white angels and cherubs heads, are presented.

  14. Micro-IL and micro-PIXE studies of rich diamond meteorites at Legnaro nuclear microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo Giudice, A. E-mail: logiudice@ph.unito.it; Pratesi, G.; Olivero, P.; Paolini, C.; Vittone, E.; Manfredotti, C.; Sammiceli, F.; Rigato, V

    2003-09-01

    A combination of micro-ionoluminescence (micro-IL) and micro-PIXE was used to characterize diamond grains inside a type of meteorites known as ureilites. Ureilites are a group of achondrites unique in containing relatively large amounts of carbon occurring as diamond, graphite or lonsdaleite. A shock origin for ureilitic diamonds has been widely accepted though an exact knowledge of the conditions during high-pressure graphite conversion is not yet achieved. Micro-IL is a very powerful technique for material investigation and particularly for diamond analysis. Using this technique we were able to identify the occurrence of the diamond phase inside carbon meteoritic inclusions and to perform micro-PIXE analysis on single diamond grains. In fact, IL in low nitrogen content diamonds is dominated by A-band emission (centered at about 2.9 eV) and so, considering only IL monochromatic map at such a spectral band, it was possible to identify them. By making measurements directly on the meteorites, contamination during chemical extraction processes was avoided and it was possible to study not only the diamond phase, but also its distribution inside carbon inclusions.

  15. Granulation in amine-storage organelles of mouse megakaryocytes: X-ray microprobe analysis and radioautography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daimon, T; Kawai, K; Uchida, K

    1995-02-01

    The mechanisms and the processes of the storage of bivalent cations, ATP and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) in the precursors of the amine-storage organelles of megakaryocytes were studied at the electron microscopic level. Although the precursors of the amine-storage organelles in the megakaryocytes fixed with glutaraldehyde and osmium tetroxide were empty, the electron opaque granules were observed in these organelles of the freeze-substituted megakaryocytes cut onto ethylene glycol. X-ray microprobe analysis demonstrated that they contained P, Mg and Ca. Quantitative differences in bivalent cations in the granules were not observed between megakaryocytes and blood platelets. Electron opaque uranaffin-reaction products were observed in the precursors of the amine-storage organelles of the megakaryocytes after treatment with the uranaffin reaction for ATP. However, few chromaffin positive granules were observed in the precursors of the amine-storage organelles after the chromaffin reaction for monoamines. Radioautographic analysis demonstrated that blood platelets avidly took up 3H-5HT but megakaryocytes were not able to accumulate 3H-5HT in vivo. These results indicate that megakaryocytes do not yet acquire the well developed uptake system of 5HT in vivo, while they readily accumulate cations and ATP in the precursors of the amine-storage organelles.

  16. 7th international conference on Nuclear microprobe technology and applications; 7. conference internationale sur la technologie et les applications des microsondes nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This colloquium gives an up-to-date report on the continuously advancing applications and development of microbeam technology. It presents abstracts and oral contributions in the following domains: microprobes facilities, analysis techniques, imaging techniques, micro-ion beam modification of materials, microelectronics, applications in Material Sciences in Biology in Medicine in earth and planetary Sciences in environment in art in archaeology, alternative techniques. (A.L.B.)

  17. State and history of heart tissue preparation for proton microprobe elemental analysis at the Eindhoven Cyclotron Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaedackers, J.A.; Mutsaers, P.H.A.; Goeij, J.J.M. de; Voigt, M.J.A. de; Vusse, G.J. van der

    1999-09-02

    Proton microprobe techniques are useful in investigating ischemia-reperfusion induced ion shifts between cardiac muscle cells and interstitial fluid. Preliminary results have shown that proper analysis of ion concentrations in various cardiac compartments is hampered by dislocation of elements during sample preparation. In this study the different stages of the preparation were evaluated as possible sources of artifacts. After improvements of the sample preparation procedure, sharp ion concentration gradients within heart tissue preparations were obtained, indicating no noticeable ion dislocation at the scale of the measurements.

  18. Use of a Synchrotron Radiation X-Ray Microprobe for Elemental Analysis at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, B. M.

    1980-04-01

    The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is a facility consisting of a 700 MeV and a 2.5 GeV electron storage ring and dedicated to providing synchrotron radiation in the energy range from the vacuum ultraviolet to high energy x rays. Some of the properties of synchrotron radiation that contribute to its usefulness for x-ray fluorescence are: a continuous, tunable energy spectrum, strong collimation in the horizontal plane, high polarization in the storage ring plane, and relatively low energy deposition. The highest priority is for the development of an x-ray microprobe beam line capable of trace analysis in the parts per million range with spatial resolution as low as one micrometer. An eventual capability for bulk sample analysis is also planned with sensitivities in the more favorable cases being as low as 50 parts per billion in dry biological tissue. The microprobe technique has application to a variety of fields including the geological, medical, materials and environmental sciences. Examples of investigations include multielemental trace analysis across grain boundaries for the study of diffusion and cooling processes in geological and materials sciences samples; in leukocytes and other types of individual cells for studying the relationship between trace element concentrations and disease or nutrition; and in individual particles in air pollution samples.

  19. High resolution imaging and elemental analysis of PAGE electrophoretograms by scanning proton microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szokefalvi-Nagy, Z. [KFKI Reserch Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Konkoly Thege u. 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary)], E-mail: sznagy@rmki.kfki.hu; Kocsonya, A.; Kovacs, I. [KFKI Reserch Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Konkoly Thege u. 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Hopff, D.; Luethje, S. [Universitaet Hamburg, Biozentrum Klein Flottbek und Botanischer Garten, Hamburg (Germany); Niecke, M. [Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Metal content of metalloproteins can be detected and even quantified by the PIXE-PAGE method. In this technique the proteins are separated by thin layer electrophoresis (by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) in most cases) and the properly dried gel sections are analyzed by PIXE using 'band-shaped' proton milli-beam. This PIXE-PAGE method was adapted for our scanning proton microprobe. The microPIXE-PAGE version provides two-dimensional elemental mapping of the protein bands. In addition, the fast continuous scanning reduces the risk of the thermal deterioration of the sample and the X-ray contribution from dust-impurities can be filtered out in the data evaluation process.

  20. High resolution imaging and elemental analysis of PAGE electrophoretograms by scanning proton microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szőkefalvi-Nagy, Z.; Kocsonya, A.; Kovács, I.; Hopff, D.; Lüthje, S.; Niecke, M.

    2009-06-01

    Metal content of metalloproteins can be detected and even quantified by the PIXE-PAGE method. In this technique the proteins are separated by thin layer electrophoresis (by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) in most cases) and the properly dried gel sections are analyzed by PIXE using "band-shaped" proton milli-beam. This PIXE-PAGE method was adapted for our scanning proton microprobe. The microPIXE-PAGE version provides two-dimensional elemental mapping of the protein bands. In addition, the fast continuous scanning reduces the risk of the thermal deterioration of the sample and the X-ray contribution from dust-impurities can be filtered out in the data evaluation process.

  1. Analysis of bulk and inorganic degradation products of stones, mortars and wall paintings by portable Raman microprobe spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Alonso, M; Castro, K; Martinez-Arkarazo, I; Angulo, M; Olazabal, M A; Madariaga, J M

    2004-05-01

    This work reports the use of a portable Raman microprobe spectrometer for the analysis of bulk and decaying compounds in carbonaceous materials such as stones, mortars and wall paintings. The analysed stones include limestone, dolomite and carbonaceous sandstone, gypsum and calcium oxalate, both mono- and dihydrated, being the main inorganic degradation products detected. Mortars include bulk phases with pure gypsum, calcite and mixtures of both or with sand, soluble salts being the most important degradation products. The pigments detected in several wall paintings include Prussian blue, iron oxide red, iron oxide yellow, vermilion, carbon black and lead white. Three different decaying processes have been characterised in the mortars of the wall paintings: (a) a massive absorption of nitrates that reacted with calcium carbonate and promoted the unbinding of pigment grains, (b) the formation of black crusts in the vault of the presbytery and (c) the thermodecomposition of pigments due to a fire.

  2. Experimental and numerical analysis of the temperature distribution of injection molded products using protruding microprobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shih-Jung; Ho, Chia-Wei

    2011-05-01

    Injection molding has been one of the most important polymer processing methods for manufacturing plastic parts. In the process, the temperature is an important parameter that influences process features such as cycle times, crystallization rates, degree of crystallinity, melt flow properties, and molded product qualities. This study aims to, experimentally and numerically, examine the three-dimensional temperature distribution along the melt flow path of injection molded parts. A special experimental set-up, which includes an injection mold equipped with protruding microprobes for guiding embedded thermocouples, was designed and built to measure the temperature field along the flow path, i.e., inside the runner and the cavity, of injection molded products. The experimental results suggested that the disturbance induced by the probes remained negligible and precise temperature profiles could be measured at various positions inside the cavity. A significant increase of melt temperature was found to result from the viscous dissipation of the polymeric materials in the runner. Additionally, a commercially available code was employed to simulate and predict the temperature variation in injection molded parts. It was shown that the numerical simulation predicted better the temperature distributions inside the cavity than those along the runner.

  3. Planktonic foraminiferal oxygen isotope analysis by ion microprobe technique suggests warm tropical sea surface temperatures during the Early Paleogene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozdon, Reinhard; Kelly, D. Clay; Kita, Noriko T.; Fournelle, John H.; Valley, John W.

    2011-09-01

    Cool tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are reported for warm Paleogene greenhouse climates based on the δ18O of planktonic foraminiferal tests. These results are difficult to reconcile with models of greenhouse gas-forced climate. It has been suggested that this "cool tropics paradox" arises from postdepositional alteration of foraminiferal calcite, yielding erroneously high δ18O values. Recrystallization of foraminiferal tests is cryptic and difficult to quantify, and the compilation of robust δ18O records from moderately altered material remains challenging. Scanning electron microscopy of planktonic foraminiferal chamber-wall cross sections reveals that the basal area of muricae, pustular outgrowths on the chamber walls of species belonging to the genus Morozovella, contain no mural pores and may be less susceptible to postdepositional alteration. We analyzed the δ18O in muricae bases of morozovellids from the central Pacific (Ocean Drilling Program Site 865) by ion microprobe using 10 μm pits with an analytical reproducibility of ±0.34‰ (2 standard deviations). In situ measurements of δ18O in these domains yield consistently lower values than those published for conventional multispecimen analyses. Assuming that the original δ18O is largely preserved in the basal areas of muricae, this new δ18O record indicates Early Paleogene (˜49-56 Ma) tropical SSTs in the central Pacific were 4°-8°C higher than inferred from the previously published δ18O record and that SSTs reached at least ˜33°C during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum. This study demonstrates the utility of ion microprobe analysis for generating more reliable paleoclimate records from moderately altered foraminiferal tests preserved in deep-sea sediments.

  4. Positron annihilation microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canter, K.F. [Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Advances in positron annihilation microprobe development are reviewed. The present resolution achievable is 3 {mu}m. The ultimate resolution is expected to be 0.1 {mu}m which will enable the positron microprobe to be a valuable tool in the development of 0.1 {mu}m scale electronic devices in the future. (author)

  5. Ion microprobe analysis of bone surface elements: Effects of 1,25(OH)2D3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bushinsky, D.A.; Chabala, J.M.; Levi-Setti, R. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (USA))

    1989-12-01

    When neonatal mouse calvariae are incubated with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) there is net calcium efflux from the bone into the medium. The effect of this enhanced cell-mediated Ca efflux on the relative concentrations of mineral 23Na, 39K, and 40Ca has not previously been studied. We used an imaging scanning ion microprobe, utilizing secondary ion mass spectrometry, to compare the relative ion concentrations of Na, K, and Ca on the surface, subsurface, and cross-section of cultured bone incubated in the presence of 1,25(OH)2D3 with the ion concentrations in similar regions of bone incubated in unaltered control medium. Changes in mineral ion concentration were correlated with net fluxes of Na, K, and Ca relative to bone. Calvariae incubated in control medium (24 h at pH approximately 7.40) have abundant surface Na and K relative to Ca (Na/Ca, 85 and K/Ca, 68), whereas the subsurface has less Na/Ca (21) and K/Ca (23), and on cross section the ratios of both Na/Ca (2.0) and K/Ca (1.9) decrease further. After incubation with 10(-8) M 1,25(OH)2D3, there is a significant increase in bone surface Na/Ca (154) and K/Ca (141) without a change in these ratios on the subsurface and a small fall in both ratios on cross section. The linear relationship between Na/Ca and K/Ca across the three regions of bone observed in control calvariae did not change with 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment. As determined by flux measurements there is a net efflux of Ca but not Na or K from bone.

  6. In-situ study of ferric iron distribution in synthetic spinels by electron microprobe analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, Alexey; Olga, Sinelshikova; Rustam, Lukmanov

    2017-04-01

    The iron oxidation state in mantle minerals is a key value in oxygen fugacity calculation and the most widely used analytical approach for Fe3+/ΣFe determination is Mössbauer spectroscopy, which is a bulk method and there is a lack of information on Fe3+/ΣFe zonation in individual mineral grains and Fe3+/ΣFe in inclusions. Here we present application of the flank method using the electron microprobe by analysing the FeLα and FeLβ X-ray emission spectra to a suite of 20 synthetic MgAl2O2-Cr2O3-Fe2O3(FeO) spinels. Materials were done with 5 - 25 FeO wt.%, and 2-70 Cr2O3 wt.% and Fe3+/ΣFe = 0.10 to 0.80, where Fe3+/ΣFe was determined independently using Mössbauer spectroscopy on the same grains used for the flank method measurements. Synthesis of the samples produced using a pyrolysis method of organic salt compositions in MgAl2O2-Cr2O3-Fe2O3(FeO) system with following heating in corundum crucibles at 1300 ° C for 5 -10 hours under controlled oxygen fugacity. All synthetic materials were investigated by X-ray and Mössbauer spectroscopy to examine a phase and iron oxidation state features. In terms of chemical composition and Fe3+/ΣFe resulting synthetic material covers a whole range of spinels derived in mantle peridotites and pyroxenites. These synthetic products were used as a standard sample to investigate co-variations of ratios of intensities measured on the flanks of FeLα and Lβ peaks and Fe3+/ΣFe, FeO content and Cr#. The obtained correlations can be used to perform in-situ studies of ferric iron distribution in natural mantle spinels. The presented approach will allow investigating the difference in mantle spinel Fe3+/ΣFe at a microscale from core to rim in individual grain, inclusion, melting pocket and in intergrows with other mantle mineral assemblage. The reported study was funded by RFBR according to the research project № 16-35-60076 mol_a_dk.

  7. Economic Analysis of Nuclear Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Man Ki; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Oh, K. B

    2006-12-15

    It has been well recognized that securing economic viabilities along with technologies are very important elements in the successful implementation of nuclear R and D projects. The objective of the Project is to help nuclear energy to be utilized in an efficient way by analyzing major issues related with nuclear economics. The study covers following subjects: the role of nuclear in the future electric supply system, economic analysis of nuclear R and D project, contribution to the regional economy from nuclear power. In addition, the study introduces the international cooperation in the methodological area of efficient use of nuclear energy by surveying the international activities related with nuclear economics.

  8. Nuclear techniques of analysis in diamond synthesis and annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, D. N.; Prawer, S.; Gonon, P.; Walker, R.; Dooley, S.; Bettiol, A.; Pearce, J. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Nuclear techniques of analysis have played an important role in the study of synthetic and laser annealed diamond. These measurements have mainly used ion beam analysis with a focused MeV ion beam in a nuclear microprobe system. A variety of techniques have been employed. One of the most important is nuclear elastic scattering, sometimes called non-Rutherford scattering, which has been used to accurately characterise diamond films for thickness and composition. This is possible by the use of a database of measured scattering cross sections. Recently, this work has been extended and nuclear elastic scattering cross sections for both natural boron isotopes have been measured. For radiation damaged diamond, a focused laser annealing scheme has been developed which produces near complete regrowth of MeV phosphorus implanted diamonds. In the laser annealed regions, proton induced x-ray emission has been used to show that 50 % of the P atoms occupy lattice sites. This opens the way to produce n-type diamond for microelectronic device applications. All these analytical applications utilize a focused MeV microbeam which is ideally suited for diamond analysis. This presentation reviews these applications, as well as the technology of nuclear techniques of analysis for diamond with a focused beam. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Application of synchrotron-radiation-based x-ray microprobe techniques for the analysis of recombination activity of metals precipitated at Si/SiGe misfit dislocations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyvenko, O F [University of California, LBNL, 1 Cyclotron Rd, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Buonassisi, T [University of California, LBNL, 1 Cyclotron Rd, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Istratov, A A [University of California, LBNL, 1 Cyclotron Rd, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Weber, E R [University of California, LBNL, 1 Cyclotron Rd, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kittler, M [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, D-15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany); Seifert, W [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, D-15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany)

    2002-12-09

    In this study we report application of synchrotron-radiation-based x-ray microprobe techniques (the x-ray-beam-induced current (XBIC) and x-ray fluorescence ({mu}-XRF) methods) to the analysis of the recombination activity and space distribution of copper and iron in the vicinity of dislocations in silicon/silicon-germanium structures. A combination of these two techniques enables one to study the chemical nature of the defects and impurities and their recombination activity in situ and to map metal clusters with a micron-scale resolution. XRF analysis revealed that copper formed clearly distinguishable precipitates along the misfit dislocations. A proportional dependence between the XBIC contrast and the number of copper atoms in the precipitates was established. In hydrogen-passivated iron-contaminated samples we observed clusters of iron precipitates which had no recombination activity detectable by the XBIC technique as well as iron clusters which were not completely passivated.

  10. Nuclear Reactor Engineering Analysis Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos Chavez-Mercado; Jaime B. Morales-Sandoval; Benjamin E. Zayas-Perez

    1998-12-31

    The Nuclear Reactor Engineering Analysis Laboratory (NREAL) is a sophisticated computer system with state-of-the-art analytical tools and technology for analysis of light water reactors. Multiple application software tools can be activated to carry out different analyses and studies such as nuclear fuel reload evaluation, safety operation margin measurement, transient and severe accident analysis, nuclear reactor instability, operator training, normal and emergency procedures optimization, and human factors engineering studies. An advanced graphic interface, driven through touch-sensitive screens, provides the means to interact with specialized software and nuclear codes. The interface allows the visualization and control of all observable variables in a nuclear power plant (NPP), as well as a selected set of nonobservable or not directly controllable variables from conventional control panels.

  11. Single fluid inclusion study by SRXRF microprobe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.He; G.C.Li; K.X.Lin; Y.Y.Huang; K.F.Li

    2001-01-01

    The nondestructive analysis technique of single fluid inclusions by SRXRF microprobe at BSRF was developed.To test the method,A canning analysis reult of a single fluid inclusion in quartz crystal was presented.With this technique,the semi-quantitative inorganic ompositions of two typical individual organic fluid inclusions were also determined by using a thin glass film of known compositions as a standard.2001 Elsevier Science B.V.All rights reserved.

  12. Economic analysis of nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki Dong; Lee, M. K.; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Kim, H. S

    2000-12-01

    This study identified the role of nuclear energy in the following three major aspects. First of all, this study carried out cost effectiveness of nuclear as a CDM technology, which is one of means of GHG emission reduction in UNFCCC. Secondly, environmental externalities caused by air pollutants emitted by power options were estimated. The 'observed market behaviour' method and 'responses to hypothetical market' method were used to estimate objectively the environmental external costs by electric source, respectively. Finally, the role of nuclear power in securing electricity supply in a liberalized electricity market was analyzed. This study made efforts to investigate whether nuclear power generation with high investment cost could be favored in a liberalized market by using 'option value' analysis of investments.

  13. Economic analysis of nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki Dong; Lee, M. K.; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Kim, H. S

    2000-12-01

    This study identified the role of nuclear energy in the following three major aspects. First of all, this study carried out cost effectiveness of nuclear as a CDM technology, which is one of means of GHG emission reduction in UNFCCC. Secondly, environmental externalities caused by air pollutants emitted by power options were estimated. The 'observed market behaviour' method and 'responses to hypothetical market' method were used to estimate objectively the environmental external costs by electric source, respectively. Finally, the role of nuclear power in securing electricity supply in a liberalized electricity market was analyzed. This study made efforts to investigate whether nuclear power generation with high investment cost could be favored in a liberalized market by using 'option value' analysis of investments.

  14. The Stanford-U.S. Geological Survey SHRIMP ion microprobe--a tool for micro-scale chemical and isotopic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Charles R.; Grove, Marty; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Coble, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Answers to many questions in Earth science require chemical analysis of minute volumes of minerals, volcanic glass, or biological materials. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) is an extremely sensitive analytical method in which a 5–30 micrometer diameter "primary" beam of charged particles (ions) is focused on a region of a solid specimen to sputter secondary ions from 1–5 nanograms of the sample under high vacuum. The elemental abundances and isotopic ratios of these secondary ions are determined with a mass spectrometer. These results can be used for geochronology to determine the age of a region within a crystal thousands to billions of years old or to precisely measure trace abundances of chemical elements at concentrations as low as parts per billion. A partnership of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Stanford University School of Earth Sciences operates a large SIMS instrument, the Sensitive High-Resolution Ion Microprobe with Reverse Geometry (SHRIMP–RG) on the Stanford campus.

  15. Looking into individual coffee beans during the roasting process: direct micro-probe sampling on-line photo-ionisation mass spectrometric analysis of coffee roasting gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz-Schünemann, Romy; Streibel, Thorsten; Ehlert, Sven; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2013-09-01

    A micro-probe (μ-probe) gas sampling device for on-line analysis of gases evolving in confined, small objects by single-photon ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SPI-TOFMS) was developed. The technique is applied for the first time in a feasibility study to record the formation of volatile and flavour compounds during the roasting process within (inside) or in the direct vicinity (outside) of individual coffee beans. A real-time on-line analysis of evolving volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOC and SVOC) as they are formed under the mild pyrolytic conditions of the roasting process was performed. The soft-ionisation mass spectra depict a molecular ion signature, which is well corresponding with the existing knowledge of coffee roasting and evolving compounds. Additionally, thereby it is possible to discriminate between Coffea arabica (Arabica) and Coffea canephora (Robusta). The recognized differences in the roasting gas profiles reflect the differences in the precursor composition of the coffee cultivars very well. Furthermore, a well-known set of marker compounds for Arabica and Robusta, namely the lipids kahweol and cafestol (detected in their dehydrated form at m/z 296 and m/z 298, respectively) were observed. If the variation in time of different compounds is observed, distinctly different evolution behaviours were detected. Here, phenol (m/z 94) and caffeine (m/z 194) are exemplary chosen, whereas phenol shows very sharp emission peaks, caffeine do not have this highly transient behaviour. Finally, the changes of the chemical signature as a function of the roasting time, the influence of sampling position (inside, outside) and cultivar (Arabica, Robusta) is investigated by multivariate statistics (PCA). In summary, this pilot study demonstrates the high potential of the measurement technique to enhance the fundamental knowledge of the formation processes of volatile and semi-volatile flavour compounds inside the individual coffee bean.

  16. Microprobe techniques for speciation analysis and geochemical characterization of mine environments: the mercury district of Almadén in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaus, Anna; Gaona, Xavier; Esbrí, José Maria; Higueras, Pablo; Falkenberg, Gerald; Valiente, Manuel

    2006-07-01

    Metallurgic calcines with very high mercury and methylmercury content from the Almadén mining district were analyzed by synchrotron-based microprobe techniques. Information about mercury speciation was obtained by micro-EXAFS (microscopic extended X-ray absorption fine structure) spectroscopy, whereas elemental associations were evaluated by micro-XRF (microscopic X-ray fluorescence analysis) mapping. Complementary characterization methodologies, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma-optical spectroscopy (ICP-OES), as well as a sequential extraction scheme (SES), were used to predict the potential availability of mercury. Analysis of total metal content revealed extremely high concentrations of mercury and iron (between 7 and 35 and 65-70 g kg(-1), respectively) and high zinc concentrations (2.2-2.5 g kg(-1)), whereas other metals such as copper, nickel, and lead were found at low concentration levels (30-300 mg kg(-1)). Micro-EXAFS results indicate that cinnabar (HgS(red)) is one of the main species within the studied mercury-rich particles (5-89% of total mercury content), together with more soluble mercury compounds such as Hg3(SO4)02 (schuetteite) and HgO (5-55% of total mercury content). Additionally, element-specific micro-XRF maps of selected mercury-rich particles in the studied samples revealed an evident correlation among Hg-Pb-Ni (and S), indicating a possible geochemical linkage of these elements. Correlations were also found among Fe-Mn and Hg, which have been attributed to sorption of mercury onto oxyhydroxides of Fe and Mn. This finding was supported by results from a sequential extraction scheme, where a significant

  17. Analysis of individual fluid inclusions using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microprobe: progress toward calibration for trace elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménez, Bénédicte; Philippot, Pascal; Bonnin-Mosbah, Michelle; Simionovici, Alexandre; Gibert, François

    2002-02-01

    A critical problem for conducting quantitative analysis of individual fluid inclusions using Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence (SXRF) technique relates to the standardization and the calibration of the X-ray spectra. In this study, different approaches have been tested for calibration purposes: (a) the use of chlorine when Cl content can be estimated either from melting point depressions of undersaturated fluid inclusions or from saturation limits for halite-bearing fluid inclusions, (b) the use of calcium from synthetic fluid inclusions of known CaCl 2 content as an external standard. SXRF analysis was performed on individual fluid inclusions from the Chivor and Guali emerald deposits, Columbia. These well-known samples contain a single fluid inclusion population for which detailed crush-leach analyses are available, thus providing a relevant compositional reference frame. Concentration estimates were also compared to Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analysis carried out independently on the same fluid inclusions. Results of the calibration tests indicate that major (Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Mn) and trace element (Cu, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba, Pb) concentration estimates can be performed without precise knowledge of the analytical volume and the inclusion's 3D geometry. Although the standard deviation of the SXRF results can be relatively high depending on the calibration mode used, mean concentration estimates for most elements are in good agreement with PIXE and crush-leach analysis. Elemental distributions within single fluid inclusions were also established. Associated correlation diagrams argue for the homogeneous distribution of most elements in the fluid inclusion. In contrast, Br shows a bimodal distribution interpreted to reflect a significant enrichment of the vapor portion of the inclusion fluid.

  18. Quantification of BaSO{sub 4} and polyacetal wear particles in the periprosthetic tissue around loosened isoelastic hip stems by nuclear microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strazar, K. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University Medical Center Ljubljana, Zaloska 9, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kavcic, M. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O.B. 3000, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Simcic, J. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O.B. 3000, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pelicon, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O.B. 3000, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: primoz.pelicon@ijs.si; Smit, Z. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O.B. 3000, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Jadranska 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kump, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O.B. 3000, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jacimovic, R. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O.B. 3000, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Antolic, V. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University Medical Center Ljubljana, Zaloska 9, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Coer, A. [Institute for Histology and Embryology, Medical Faculty Ljubljana, Korytkova 2, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2006-08-15

    The aim of this study was to quantify the amount of the biologically active wear particles in the periprosthetic tissue around loosened polyacetal isoelastic stems to find the pattern of their distribution in the periprosthetic tissue and determine their origin. Proton microbeam measurements of thin tissue sections enabled us identification and quantified elemental analysis of individual wear particles in the tissue. The Ba concentration measured on the wear particles matches the Ba concentration measured with in-air PIXE on the polyacetal stem directly proving the origin of the wear particles which suppose to play a decisive biological role in the process of premature aseptic loosening of polyacetal stems.

  19. Arсhaeomineralogy of Ancient Nonferrous Metallurgy Pieces of the Perm Region: Experience of Usage of Electron Microprobe Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Chaykovsky

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of archaeological features has been studied by means of the scanning electronic microscopy. It was shown that due to the oxidation process, the surface layer is enriched with some elements, which were present at unaltered metal (Ag, Pb and those included later (As, Zn, Pb. It imposes meaningful limitation for use of the X-ray fluorescence and spectral analysis, which allow obtaining only total (patina + metal composition. Sixteen minerals (oxides, carbonates, sulphates, chlorides, phosphates, sulfides and native phases are established in patina composition. Tin bronze structure contains the impurities, which may be an evidence of import to Perm Region of tin and silver possibly from Altai, tin and lead possibly from Karelia during "harinsky" and "rodanovsky" cultures respectively. Various composition of the alloys used for casting and filigree witnesses that ancient metallurgists had known about alloys handling. The presence of barium and fluorine can tell us about composition of the used furnacecharge. The obtained data may be the basis for chemical-metallurgical typification of pieces from nonferrous (and noble metals.

  20. Chemical Speciation of Sulfur in Marine Cloud Droplets and Particles: 1. Analysis of Individual Particles Using Complementary Microprobe Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desyaterik, Y.; Hopkins, R. J.; Tivanski, A. V.; Berkowitz, C. M.; Gilles, M. K.; Laskin, A.

    2006-12-01

    Chemical speciation of dry residues of individual cloud droplets and interstitial aerosol collected from sea-fog during the Marine Stratus Experiment (MASE) in July 2005 was facilitated using a complementary combination of computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersed analysis of x-rays (CCSEM/EDX), time-of-flight secondary ionization mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Particle samples were collected at the ground site located in Pt. Reyes National Seashore, about 0.5 miles from the ocean coast over the period of time when the air plume, that originated over the open ocean, passed the area of the cold stream along the northern California coast. Based on composition, morphology, and microstructure, two externally mixed, distinct types of sea-fog particles were identified in the samples: chemically modified (aged) sea salt particles and secondary formed sulfate particles. The results indicate excessive formation of methanesulfonate (CH3SO3-) rather then non-sea-salt sulfate (nss-SO42-) in the sea salt particles. This observation is consistent with the recent modeling studies of dimethylsulfide (DMS) oxidation chemistry in the marine boundary layer (MDL). Modeling studies predict enhanced formation of CH3SO3- in activated sea salt particles under cloudy MBL conditions over the areas with low ocean surface temperatures. We discuss the climate related effects of this chemistry which likely results in: a) increasing size and hygroscopicity of the pre-existing CCN (sea salt particles), and b) reducing the production of gaseous H2SO4 and subsequent new sulfate particle formation.

  1. SYNCHROTRON RADIATION XRF MICROPROBE STUDY OF HUMAN BONE TUMOR SLICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The experimental apparatus of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microprobe analysis at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF) is described Using the bovine liver as the standard reference.the minimum detection limit(MDL) of trace element was measured to determine the capability of biological sample analysis by synchrotron radiation XRF microprobe.The relative change of the content of the major or trace element in the normal and tumor part of human bone tissue slice was investigated The experimental result relation to the clinical medicine was also discussed.

  2. Nuclear Power Plant Module, NPP-1: Nuclear Power Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, Robert L.

    The purpose of the Nuclear Power Plant Modules, NPP-1, is to determine the total cost of electricity from a nuclear power plant in terms of all the components contributing to cost. The plan of analysis is in five parts: (1) general formulation of the cost equation; (2) capital cost and fixed charges thereon; (3) operational cost for labor,…

  3. Nuclear Proliferation Technology Trends Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zentner, Michael D.; Coles, Garill A.; Talbert, Robert J.

    2005-10-04

    A process is underway to develop mature, integrated methodologies to address nonproliferation issues. A variety of methodologies (both qualitative and quantitative) are being considered. All have one thing in common, a need for a consistent set of proliferation related data that can be used as a basis for application. One approach to providing a basis for predicting and evaluating future proliferation events is to understand past proliferation events, that is, the different paths that have actually been taken to acquire or attempt to acquire special nuclear material. In order to provide this information, this report describing previous material acquisition activities (obtained from open source material) has been prepared. This report describes how, based on an evaluation of historical trends in nuclear technology development, conclusions can be reached concerning: (1) The length of time it takes to acquire a technology; (2) The length of time it takes for production of special nuclear material to begin; and (3) The type of approaches taken for acquiring the technology. In addition to examining time constants, the report is intended to provide information that could be used to support the use of the different non-proliferation analysis methodologies. Accordingly, each section includes: (1) Technology description; (2) Technology origin; (3) Basic theory; (4) Important components/materials; (5) Technology development; (6) Technological difficulties involved in use; (7) Changes/improvements in technology; (8) Countries that have used/attempted to use the technology; (9) Technology Information; (10) Acquisition approaches; (11) Time constants for technology development; and (12) Required Concurrent Technologies.

  4. Assembling of a low energy ion beam analysis facility and use of Nuclear Microprobe techniques in geological studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utui, R.

    1996-11-01

    In this work, both PIXE and ion beam induced luminescence, or just Ionoluminescence (IL) were used for geochemical studies. The possibility of rapid absolute quantification of elements in the ppm level by PIXE combined with the yet higher sensitivity of IL to transition metals and Rare Earth Elements (REE) activators, in the absence of quenching phenomena, allow for a synergic use of the two methods in geological applications with enhanced sensitivity. IL and PIXE were combined for studying REE distribution in apatite minerals and ion beam induced damage in inorganic material in general with emphasis to synthetically grown zircon crystals doped with REE. Due to the sensitivity of IL to changes in chemical bonding in the material, beam damage effects can be studied even at low integrated doses, through wavelength shift or fading of the induced light. Micro PIXE technique was used for studying profile concentrations of trace elements in pyrite grains and of elements used as geothermometers. Geothermometry allowed to assess the cooling rates in iron meteorites and the mineralization conditions in metamorphic rocks, attempting to describe the tectonic history of the terranes, with application in petrologic studies and geological prospecting. 148 refs.

  5. Nuclear weapon detection categorization analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This statement of work is for the Proof of Concept for nuclear weapon categories utility in Arms control. The focus of the project will be to collect, analyze and correlate Intrinsic Radiation (INRAD) calculation results for the purpose of defining measurable signatures that differentiate categories of nuclear weapons. The project will support START III negotiations by identifying categories of nuclear weapons. The categories could be used to clarify sub-limits on the total number of nuclear weapons.

  6. {sup 14}N nuclear microanalysis and application to the study of ammonium bearing minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosbah, M.; Bastoul, A. [Laboratoire d`Analyse par Activation Pierre Sue, Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Cuney, M.; Pironon, J. [Centre de Recherches sur la Geologie de l`Uranium (CREGU), 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    1994-12-31

    An experimental procedure for in situ quantitative analysis of nitrogen in silicates with a nuclear microprobe using nuclear reactions is presented. The procedure uses the simultaneous detection of protons and alphas emitted from N nuclear reactions. A lower detection limit of 10 ppm, with an analyzed depth inferior to 20 micrometers, has been obtained. The nitrogen content measured in feldspar and muscovite crystals by the nuclear microprobe is perfectly consistent with quantitative nitrogen determinations by catharometry and semi-quantitative determinations by FT-IR microspectrometry. 4 figs., 3 tabs., 21 refs.

  7. TEAM - Titan Exploration Atmospheric Microprobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Conor; Esper, Jaime; Aslam, Shahid; Quilligan, Gerald

    2016-10-01

    The astrobiological potential of Titan's surface hydrocarbon liquids and probable interior water ocean has led to its inclusion as a destination in NASA's "Ocean Worlds" initiative, and near-term investigation of these regions is a high-level scientific goal. TEAM is a novel initiative to investigate the lake and sea environs using multiple dropsondes -scientific probes derived from an existing cubesat bus architecture (CAPE - the Cubesat Application for Planetary Exploration) developed at NASA GSFC. Each 3U probe will parachute to the surface, making atmospheric structure and composition measurements during the descent, and photographing the surface - land, shoreline and seas - in detail. TEAM probes offer a low-cost, high-return means to explore multiple areas on Titan, yielding crucial data about the condensing chemicals, haze and cloud layers, winds, and surface features of the lakes and seas. These microprobes may be included on a near-term New Frontiers class mission to the Saturn system as additional payload, bringing increased scientific return and conducting reconnaissance for future landing zones. In this presentation we describe the probe architecture, baseline payload, flight profile and the unique engineering and science data that can be returned.

  8. The ANSTO high energy heavy ion microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegele, Rainer; Cohen, David D.; Dytlewski, Nick

    1999-10-01

    Recently the construction of the ANSTO High Energy Heavy Ion Microprobe (HIMP) at the 10 MV ANTARES tandem accelerator has been completed. The high energy heavy ion microprobe focuses not only light ions at energies of 2-3 MeV, but is also capable of focusing heavy ions at high energies with ME/ q2 values up to 150 MeV amu and greater. First performance tests and results are reported here.

  9. Autoclave nuclear criticality safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Aquila, D.M. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States); Tayloe, R.W. Jr. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Steam-heated autoclaves are used in gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment plants to heat large cylinders of UF{sub 6}. Nuclear criticality safety for these autoclaves is evaluated. To enhance criticality safety, systems are incorporated into the design of autoclaves to limit the amount of water present. These safety systems also increase the likelihood that any UF{sub 6} inadvertently released from a cylinder into an autoclave is not released to the environment. Up to 140 pounds of water can be held up in large autoclaves. This mass of water is sufficient to support a nuclear criticality when optimally combined with 125 pounds of UF{sub 6} enriched to 5 percent U{sup 235}. However, water in autoclaves is widely dispersed as condensed droplets and vapor, and is extremely unlikely to form a critical configuration with released UF{sub 6}.

  10. DS-2 Mars Microprobe Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H.; Kindler, A.; Deligiannis, F.; Davies, E.; Blankevoort, J.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Surampudi, S.

    1999-01-01

    In January of 1999 the NM DS-2 Mars microprobe will be launched to impact on Mars in December. The technical objectives of the missions are to demonstrate: key technologies, a passive atmospheric entry, highly integrated microelectronics which can withstand both low temperatures and high decelerations, and the capability to conduct in-situ, surface and subsurface science data acquisition. The scientific objectives are to determine if ice is present below the Martian surface, measure the local atmospheric pressure, characterize the thermal properties of the martian subsurface soil, and to estimate the vertical temperature gradient of the Martian soil. The battery requirements are 2-4 cell batteries, with voltage of 6-14 volts, capacity of 550 mAh at 80C, and 2Ah at 25C, shelf life of 2.5 years, an operating temperature of 60C and below, and the ability to withstand shock impact of 80,000 g's. The technical challenges and the approach is reviewed. The Li-SOCL2 system is reviewed, and graphs showing the current and voltage is displayed, along with the voltage over discharge time. The problems encountered during the testing were: (1) impact sensitivity, (2) cracking of the seals, and (3) delay in voltage. A new design resulted in no problems in the impact testing phase. The corrective actions for the seal problems involved: (1) pre weld fill tube, (2) an improved heat sink during case to cover weld and (3) change the seal dimensions to reduce stress. To correct the voltage delay problem the solutions involved: (1) drying the electrodes to reduce contamination by water, (2) assemblage of the cells within a week of electrode manufacture, (3) ensure electrolyte purity, and (4) provide second depassivation pulse after landing. The conclusions on further testing were that the battery can: (1) withstand anticipated shock of up to 80,000 g, (2) meet the discharge profile post shock at Mars temperatures, (3) meet the required self discharge rate and (4) meet environmental

  11. Nuclear charge and neutron radii and nuclear matter: trend analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhard, P -G

    2016-01-01

    Radii of charge and neutron distributions are fundamental nuclear properties. They depend on both nuclear interaction parameters related to the equation of state of infinite nuclear matter and on quantal shell effects, which are strongly impacted by the presence of nuclear surface. In this work, by studying the dependence of charge and neutron radii, and neutron skin, on nuclear matter parameters, we assess different mechanisms that drive nuclear sizes. We apply nuclear density functional theory using a family of Skyrme functionals obtained by means of different optimization protocols targeting specific nuclear properties. By performing the Monte-Carlo sampling of reasonable functionals around the optimal parametrization, we study correlations between nuclear matter paramaters and observables characterizing charge and neutron distributions. We demonstrate the existence of the strong converse relation between the nuclear charge radii and the saturation density of symmetric nuclear matter and also between the n...

  12. A global DGLAP analysis of nuclear PDFs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskola, K. J.; Kolhinen, V. J.; Paukkunen, H.; Salgado, C. A.

    2008-05-01

    In this talk, we shortly report results from our recent global DGLAP analysis of nuclear parton distributions. This is an extension of our former EKS98-analysis improved with an automated χ2 minimization procedure and uncertainty estimates. Although our new analysis show no significant deviation from EKS98, a sign of a significantly stronger gluon shadowing could be seen in the RHIC BRAHMS data.

  13. Molecular forensic science analysis of nuclear materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Dallas David

    Concerns over the proliferation and instances of nuclear material in the environment have increased interest in the expansion of nuclear forensics analysis and attribution programs. A new related field, molecular forensic science (MFS) has helped meet this expansion by applying common scientific analyses to nuclear forensics scenarios. In this work, MFS was applied to three scenarios related to nuclear forensics analysis. In the first, uranium dioxide was synthesized and aged at four sets of static environmental conditions and studied for changes in chemical speciation. The second highlighted the importance of bulk versus particle characterizations by analyzing a heterogeneous industrially prepared sample with similar techniques. In the third, mixed uranium/plutonium hot particles were collected from the McGuire Air Force Base BOMARC Site and analyzed for chemical speciation and elemental surface composition. This work has identified new signatures and has indicated unexpected chemical behavior under various conditions. These findings have lead to an expansion of basic actinide understanding, proof of MFS as a tool for nuclear forensic science, and new areas for expansion in these fields.

  14. Economic analysis of nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki Dong; Choi, Young Myung; Kim, Hwa Sup; Lee, Man Ki; Moon, Kee Hwan; Kim, Seung Su; Chae, Kyu Nam

    1996-12-01

    The major contents in this study are as follows : (1) Efforts are made to examine the role of nuclear energy considering environmental regulation. An econometric model for energy demand and supply including carbon tax imposition is established. (2) Analysis for the learning effect of nuclear power plant operation is performed. The study is focused to measure the effect of technology homogeneity on the operation performance. (3) A preliminary capital cost of the KALIMER is estimated by using cost computer program, which is developed in this study. (author). 36 refs.,46 tabs., 15 figs.

  15. Nuclear radiation analysis for TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, L.P.

    1980-09-01

    A multi-dimensional analysis of the radiation problems was performed for TFTR using the system established at PPPL. Simple, clean geometries were first used to establish the expected reference level. Different calculational models were compared. The characteristics of streaming and activation were then studied. It is shown that the objectives set forth for the TFTR shielding design are not entirely satisfied, based on our calculation. Using the results of this study as a baseline, a review of the shielding for TFTR and its upgrade, TFM, has been initiated with the objective of a shielding design modified to satisfy both modes of operation.

  16. Quantitative Analysis in Nuclear Medicine Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    This book provides a review of image analysis techniques as they are applied in the field of diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine. Driven in part by the remarkable increase in computing power and its ready and inexpensive availability, this is a relatively new yet rapidly expanding field. Likewise, although the use of radionuclides for diagnosis and therapy has origins dating back almost to the discovery of natural radioactivity itself, radionuclide therapy and, in particular, targeted radionuclide therapy has only recently emerged as a promising approach for therapy of cancer and, to a lesser extent, other diseases. As effort has, therefore, been made to place the reviews provided in this book in a broader context. The effort to do this is reflected by the inclusion of introductory chapters that address basic principles of nuclear medicine imaging, followed by overview of issues that are closely related to quantitative nuclear imaging and its potential role in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. ...

  17. Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rocket Analysis Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belair, Michael; Lavelle, Thomas; Saimento, Charles; Juhasz, Albert; Stewart, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion has long been considered an enabling technology for human missions to Mars and beyond. One concept of operations for these missions utilizes the nuclear reactor to generate electrical power during coast phases, known as bimodal operation. This presentation focuses on the systems modeling and analysis efforts for a NERVA derived concept. The NERVA bimodal operation derives the thermal energy from the core tie tube elements. Recent analysis has shown potential temperature distributions in the tie tube elements that may limit the thermodynamic efficiency of the closed Brayton cycle used to generate electricity with the current design. The results of this analysis are discussed as well as the potential implications to a bimodal NERVA type reactor.

  18. Microprobe sampling--photo ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for in situ chemical analysis of pyrolysis and combustion gases: examination of the thermo-chemical processes within a burning cigarette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Romy; Streibel, Thorsten; Liu, Chuan; McAdam, Kevin; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2012-02-10

    A microprobe sampling device (μ-probe) has been developed for in situ on-line photo ionization mass spectrometric analysis of volatile chemical species formed within objects consisting of organic matter during thermal processing. With this approach the chemical signature occurring during heating, pyrolysis, combustion, roasting and charring of organic material within burning objects such as burning fuel particles (e.g., biomass or coal pieces), lit cigarettes or thermally processed food products (e.g., roasting of coffee beans) can be investigated. Due to its dynamic changes between combustion and pyrolysis phases the cigarette smoking process is particularly interesting and has been chosen as first application. For this investigation the tip of the μ-probe is inserted directly into the tobacco rod and volatile organic compounds from inside the burning cigarette are extracted and real-time analyzed as the glowing front (or coal) approaches and passes the μ-probe sampling position. The combination of micro-sampling with photo ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PI-TOFMS) allows on-line intrapuff-resolved analysis of species formation inside a burning cigarette. Monitoring volatile smoke compounds during cigarette puffing and smoldering cycles in this way provides unparalleled insights into formation mechanisms and their time-dependent change. Using this technique the changes from pyrolysis conditions to combustion conditions inside the coal of a cigarette could be observed directly. A comparative analysis of species formation within a burning Kentucky 2R4F reference cigarette with μ-probe analysis reveals different patterns and behaviors for nicotine, and a range of semi-volatile aromatic and aliphatic species.

  19. Multiphysics Nuclear Thermal Rocket Thrust Chamber Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ten-See

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this effort is t o develop an efficient and accurate thermo-fluid computational methodology to predict environments for hypothetical thrust chamber design and analysis. The current task scope is to perform multidimensional, multiphysics analysis of thrust performance and heat transfer analysis for a hypothetical solid-core, nuclear thermal engine including thrust chamber and nozzle. The multiphysics aspects of the model include: real fluid dynamics, chemical reactivity, turbulent flow, and conjugate heat transfer. The model will be designed to identify thermal, fluid, and hydrogen environments in all flow paths and materials. This model would then be used to perform non- nuclear reproduction of the flow element failures demonstrated in the Rover/NERVA testing, investigate performance of specific configurations and assess potential issues and enhancements. A two-pronged approach will be employed in this effort: a detailed analysis of a multi-channel, flow-element, and global modeling of the entire thrust chamber assembly with a porosity modeling technique. It is expected that the detailed analysis of a single flow element would provide detailed fluid, thermal, and hydrogen environments for stress analysis, while the global thrust chamber assembly analysis would promote understanding of the effects of hydrogen dissociation and heat transfer on thrust performance. These modeling activities will be validated as much as possible by testing performed by other related efforts.

  20. On the distribution of uranium in hair: Non-destructive analysis using synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence microprobe techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Israelsson, A., E-mail: axel.israelsson@liu.se [Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, 58183 Linköping (Sweden); Eriksson, M. [Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, 17116 Stockholm (Sweden); Pettersson, H.B.L. [Department of Radiation Physics, Linköping University, 58183 Linköping (Sweden); Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, 58183 Linköping (Sweden)

    2015-06-01

    In the present study the distribution of uranium in single human hair shafts has been evaluated using two synchrotron radiation (SR) based micro X-ray fluorescence techniques; SR μ-XRF and confocal SR μ-XRF. The hair shafts originated from persons that have been exposed to elevated uranium concentrations. Two different groups have been studied, i) workers at a nuclear fuel fabrication factory, exposed mainly by inhalation and ii) owners of drilled bedrock wells exposed by ingestion of water. The measurements were carried out on the FLUO beamline at the synchrotron radiation facility ANKA, Karlsruhe. The experiment was optimized to detect U with a beam size of 6.8 μm × 3 μm beam focus allowing detection down to ppb levels of U in 10 s (SR μ-XRF setup) and 70 s (SR confocal μ-XRF setup) measurements. It was found that the uranium was present in a 10–15 μm peripheral layer of the hair shafts for both groups studied. Furthermore, potential external hair contamination was studied by scanning of unwashed hair shafts from the workers. Sites of very high uranium signal were identified as particles containing uranium. Such particles, were also seen in complementary analyses using variable pressure electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (ESEM–EDX). However, the particles were not visible in washed hair shafts. These findings can further increase the understanding of uranium excretion in hair and its potential use as a biomonitor. - Highlights: • Uranium at the fg level was detectable and the uranium distribution in single hair shafts was derived. • The uranium is located peripherally on the shafts in what seems to be a layer of approximately 10-15 μm thickness. • Uranium bearing particles were found on hairs that had not been washed.

  1. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayer, J E; Clark, A T; Loysen, P; Ballinger, M Y; Mishima, J; Owczarski, P C; Gregory, W S; Nichols, B D

    1988-05-01

    The Accident Analysis Handbook (AAH) covers four generic facilities: fuel manufacturing, fuel reprocessing, waste storage/solidification, and spent fuel storage; and six accident types: fire, explosion, tornado, criticality, spill, and equipment failure. These are the accident types considered to make major contributions to the radiological risk from accidents in nuclear fuel cycle facility operations. The AAH will enable the user to calculate source term releases from accident scenarios manually or by computer. A major feature of the AAH is development of accident sample problems to provide input to source term analysis methods and transport computer codes. Sample problems and illustrative examples for different accident types are included in the AAH.

  2. Exergoeconomic analysis of a nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Roman Miguel

    Exergoeconomic analysis of a nuclear power plant is a focus of this dissertation. Specifically, the performance of the Palo Verde Nuclear Power Plant in Arizona is examined. The analysis combines thermodynamic second law exergy analysis with economics in order to assign costs to the loss and destruction of exergy. This work was done entirely with an interacting spreadsheets notebook. The procedures are to first determine conventional energy flow, where the thermodynamic stream state points are calculated automatically. Exergy flow is then evaluated along with destruction and losses. The capital cost and fixed investment rate used for the economics do not apply specifically to the Palo Verde Plant. Exergy costing is done next involving the solution of about 90 equations by matrix inversion. Finally, the analysis assigns cost to the exergy destruction and losses in each component. In this work, the cost of electricity (exergy), including capital cost, leaving the generator came to 38,400 /hr. The major exergy destruction occurs in the reactor where fission energy transfer is limited by the maxiμm permissible clad temperature. Exergy destruction costs were: reactor--18,207 hr, the low pressure turbine-2,000 /hr, the condenser--1,700 hr, the steam generator-1,200 $/hr. The inclusion of capital cost and O&M are important in new system design assessments. When investigating operational performance, however, these are sunk costs; only fuel cost needs to be considered. The application of a case study is included based on a real modification instituted at Palo Verde to reduce corrosion steam generator problems; the pressure in the steam generator was reduced from 1072 to 980 psi. Exergy destruction costs increased in the low pressure turbine and in the steam generator, but decreased in the reactor vessel and the condenser. The dissertation demonstrates the procedures and tools required for exergoeconomic analysis whether in the evaluation of a new nuclear reactor system

  3. Trends in nuclear systems design and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casini, G. (Commission of the European Communities, Joint Research Centre/Ispra Establishment, Inst. for Systems Engineering and Design (Italy))

    1991-12-01

    The papers presented at the poster session 'Nuclear Systems Design and Analyses' are reviewed and trends discussed. The attention is focussed on the following areas: (i) Reactor Studies and (ii) Neutronic Tests and Analysis. Present studies on D-T power reactor conceptual designs should be encouraged. Recent conceptual studies on D-{sup 3}He systems seem adequate to identify the critical issues. The economic feasibility of {sup 3}He supply from the moon should be assessed. Contributions on Neutronics are found to be of particular relevance and represent an important step towards the implementation of data base for nuclear design of plasma facing and breeding blanket components. (orig.).

  4. Mathematical Modeling for Simulation of Nuclear Reactor Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Salah Ud-Din Khan; Shahab Ud-Din Khan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we have developed a mathematical model for the nuclear reactor analysis to be implemented in the nuclear reactor code. THEATRe is nuclear reactor analysis code which can only work for the cylindrical type fuel reactor and cannot applicable for the plate type fuel nuclear reactor. Therefore, the current studies encompasses on the modification of THEATRe code for the plate type fuel element. This mathematical model is applicable to the thermal analysis of the reactor which is ver...

  5. Matrix effects on the relative sensitivity factors for manganese and chromium during ion microprobe analysis of carbonate: Implications for early Solar System chronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Robert C. J.; Heber, Veronika S.; McKeegan, Kevin D.

    2017-03-01

    The short-lived radionuclide 53 Mn decays to 53 Cr providing a relative chronometer for dating the formation of Mn-rich minerals in meteorites. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) has been extensively used for in situ dating of meteoritic olivine and carbonate by the 53 Mn-53 Cr system, however a significant analytical challenge has been realising accurate measurements of the Mn/Cr ratio in individual minerals of differing chemical compositions. During SIMS analysis, elements are ionised with differing efficiencies and standard materials are required to calibrate measured ion intensities in terms of relative elemental concentrations. The carbonate system presents a particular analytical difficulty since such standards are not naturally available due to low and variable Cr contents. Here, we utilise ion implantation of Cr into carbonate and other phases to accurately determine the relative sensitivity factors of Mn/Cr during SIMS analysis. We find significant variations in Mn/Cr RSF values among different carbonate minerals that depend systematically on chemical composition and we propose an empirical correction scheme that quantitatively yields an accurate RSF for carbonates of diverse chemical compositions. Correction of SIMS carbonate data for this strong matrix effect may help to reconcile some outstanding problems regarding the timescales of aqueous alteration processes in carbonaceous chondrites. Mn-Cr ages, revised based our new understanding of the matrix effect, are, in general, earlier than previously thought and the duration of carbonate formation is shorter.

  6. Numerical studies of triplet and Russian quadruplet quadrupole lens systems with the given spot size on the target, for use in a microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brazhnik, V.A.; Lebed, S.A.; Ponomarev, A.G.; Storizhko, V.E. [Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Sumy (Ukraine). Applied Physics Institute; Dymnikov, A.D. [University of St Petersburg, Stary (Russian Federation). Institute of Computational Mathematics and Control Processes; Jamieson, D.N.; Legge, S.A. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1993-12-31

    In a nuclear microprobe the focusing system is an essential component which determines the beam spot size, i.e. the microprobe resolution. A small beam cross section at the target is the most important of the many conflicting requirements imposed on the beam The second most important factor is the current of the beam which at the given brightness is proportional to the phase volume (or emittance) of the beam. Existing microprobes frequently use a triplet or a Russian quadruplet as the focusing systems. This paper describes the numerical studies of some optimal quadrupole lens systems consisting of three or four lenses suitable for use in a nuclear microprobe taking into account geometrical aberrations of third order. The maximum emittance of changed particle beams for these systems has been found. It is shown how the maximum emittance depends on the spot size. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  7. NUCLEAR FORENSICS ANALYSIS CENTER FORENSIC ANALYSIS TO DATA INTERPRETATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, T.

    2011-02-07

    The Nuclear Forensics Analysis Center (NFAC) is part of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and is one of only two USG National Laboratories accredited to perform nuclear forensic analyses to the requirements of ISO 17025. SRNL NFAC is capable of analyzing nuclear and radiological samples from bulk material to ultra-trace samples. NFAC provides analytical support to the FBI's Radiological Evidence Examination Facility (REEF), which is located within SRNL. REEF gives the FBI the capability to perform traditional forensics on material that is radiological and/or is contaminated. SRNL is engaged in research and development efforts to improve the USG technical nuclear forensics capabilities. Research includes improving predictive signatures and developing a database containing comparative samples.

  8. Geochemistry of the Spor Mountain rhyolite, western Utah, as revealed by laser ablation ICP-MS, cathodoluminescence, and electron microprobe analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, S. R.; Christiansen, E. H.; Dorais, M.; Fernandez, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    The Miocene topaz rhyolite at Spor Mountain in western Utah hosts one of the largest beryllium deposits in the world and was responsible for producing 85% of the beryllium mined worldwide in 2010 (Boland, 2012). The Spor Mountain rhyolite is composed primarily of Ca-poor plagioclase (An8), sodic sanidine (Or40), Fe-rich biotite (Fe/(Fe+Mg)>0.95; Al 1.2-1.4 apfu), and Ti-poor quartz, along with several trace-element rich accessory phases including zircon, monazite, thorite, columbite, and allanite. Cathodoluminescence (CL) studies of quartz show oscillatory zoning, with 80% of the examined crystals displaying euhedral edges and slightly darker rims. CL images were used to guide laser ablation (LA) ICP-MS analysis of quartz, along with analyses of plagioclase, sanidine, biotite, and glass. Ti concentrations in quartz are 20±6 ppm; there is no quantifiable variation of Ti from core to rim within the diameter of the laser spot (53 microns). Temperatures, calculated using Ti in quartz (at 2 kb, aTiO2=0.34), vary between 529±10 C (Thomas et al., 2011), 669±13 C (Huang and Audetat, 2012), and 691±13 C (Wark and Watson, 2006). Two feldspar thermometry yield temperatures of 686±33 C (Elkins and Grove, 1990) and 670±41 C (Benisek et al., 2010). Zr saturation temperatures (Watson and Harrison, 1983) average 711±28 C. Analysis of the glass reveal the Spor Mountain rhyolite is greatly enriched in rare elements (i.e. Li, Be, F, Ga, Rb, Nb, Mo, Sn, and Ta) compared to average continental crust (Rudnick and Gao, 2003). Be in the glass can have as much as 100 ppm, nearly 50 times the concentration in continental crust. REE partition coefficients for sanidine are 2 to 3 times higher in the Spor Mountain rhyolite when compared to other silicic magmas (Nash and Crecraft, 1985; Mahood and Hildreth, 1983), although plagioclase tends to have lower partition coefficients; biotite has lower partition coefficients for LREE and higher partition coefficients for HREE. The patterns of

  9. Nuclear analysis of the ITER Cryopump Ports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moro, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.moro@enea.it [ENEA, Fusion Technical Unit, Nuclear Technologies Laboratory, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Villari, Rosaria; Flammini, Davide [ENEA, Fusion Technical Unit, Nuclear Technologies Laboratory, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Antipenkov, Alexander; Dremel, Matthias; Levesy, Bruno; Loughlin, Michael [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Juarez, Rafael; Perez, Lucia [UNED, Energetic Engineering Department, C/Juan del Rosal 12, Madrid (Spain); Petrizzi, Luigino [European Commission, DG Research & Innovation G5, CDMA 00/030, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Evaluation the shielding effectiveness of the TCPHs by means of 3-D neutrons and gamma maps. • Assessment of the nuclear heating induced by neutron and photons on the TCP and TCPHs. • Calculation of the dose rate at 12 days after shutdown in the maintenance area of the Lower Ports with the Advanced D1S method, in order to verify the design target (100 μSv/h). • Potential improvements of the shielding configuration aimed at the reduction of the dose level in the Port Cell have been proposed and discussed. - Abstract: The ITER machine will be equipped with 6 torus Cryopumps (TCP) that are positioned in their housings (TCPH) and integrated into the cryostat walls at B1 level in the port cells. A comprehensive nuclear analysis of the Cryopump Ports #4 and #12 has been carried out by means of the MCNP-5 Monte Carlo code in a full 3-D geometry, providing guidelines for the design of the embedded components. Radiation transport calculations have been performed in order to determine the radiation field inside the Lower Ports, up the Port Cell: 3-D neutrons and gamma maps have been provided in order to evaluate the shielding effectiveness of the TCPHs. Nuclear heating induced by neutron and photons have been estimated on the TCP and TCPH to assess the nuclear loads during plasma operations. The shutdown dose rate in the maintenance area of the Lower Ports has been assessed with the Advanced D1S method to verify the design limits.

  10. Tin accumulation in spermatozoa of the rats exposed to tributyltin chloride by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) analysis with microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homma-Takeda, S. [Environmental Radiation Protection Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)]. E-mail: shino_ht@nirs.go.jp; Nishimura, Y. [Environmental Radiation Protection Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Terada, Y. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Mikazuki, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Ueno, S. [School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Kitasato University, Towada, Aomori 034-8628 (Japan); Watanabe, Y. [Environmental Radiation Protection Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Yukawa, M. [Environmental Radiation Protection Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2005-04-01

    Organotin compounds are widely used in industry and its environmental contamination by these compounds has recently become a concern. It is known that they act as endocrine disruptors but details of the dynamics of Sn in reproductive organs are still unknown. In the present study, we attempted to determine Sn distribution in the testis of rats exposed to tributyltin chloride (TBTC) by inductively coupled argon plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for microdissectioned seminiferous tubules and cell-selective metal determination of synchrotron radiation X-ray florescence (SR-XRF) analysis. TBTC was orally administered to rats at a dose of 45 {mu}mol/kg per day for 3 days. One day later, Sn was detected in the microdissectioned seminiferous tubules at a level approximately equivalent to that in the testis. Significant stage-specificity of Sn accumulation was not observed in the experimental model. Sn was also detected in spermatozoa at the stage VIII seminiferous tubule, which are the final step of spermatogenesis in the testis. These data indicate that Sn accumulates in germ cells as well as in spermatozoa in a short period of TBTC exposure.

  11. In vivo analysis of tissue by Raman microprobe: examination of human skin lesions and esophagus Barrett's mucosa on an animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfayli, Ali; Piot, Olivier; Derancourt, Sylvie; Cadiot, Guillaume; Diebold, Marie D.; Bernard, Philippe; Manfait, Michel

    2006-02-01

    In the last few years, Raman spectroscopy has been increasingly used for the characterization of normal and pathological tissues. A new Raman system, constituted of optic fibers bundle coupled to an axial Raman spectrometer (Horiba Jobin Yvon SAS), was developed for in vivo investigations. Here, we present in vivo analysis on two tissues: human skin and esophagus mucosa on a rat model. The skin is a directly accessible organ, representing a high diversity of lesions and cancers. Including malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma and the squamous cell carcinoma, skin cancer is the cancer with the highest incidence worldwide. Several Raman investigations were performed to discriminate and classify different types of skin lesions, on thin sections of biopsies. Here, we try to characterize in vivo the different types of skin cancers in order to be able to detect them in their early stages of development and to define precisely the exeresis limits. Barrett's mucosa was also studied by in vivo examination of rat's esophagus. Barrett's mucosa, induced by gastro-esophageal reflux, is a pretumoral state that has to be carefully monitored due to its high risk of evolution in adenocarcinoma. A better knowledge of the histological transformation of esophagus epithelium in a Barrett's type will lead to a more efficient detection of the pathology for its early diagnosis. To study these changes, an animal model (rats developing Barrett's mucosa after duodenum - esophagus anastomosis) was used. Potential of vibrational spectroscopy for Barrett's mucosa identification is assessed on this model.

  12. Adiabatic hyperspherical analysis of realistic nuclear potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Daily, K M; Greene, Chris H

    2015-01-01

    Using the hyperspherical adiabatic method with the realistic nuclear potentials Argonne V14, Argonne V18, and Argonne V18 with the Urbana IX three-body potential, we calculate the adiabatic potentials and the triton bound state energies. We find that a discrete variable representation with the slow variable discretization method along the hyperradial degree of freedom results in energies consistent with the literature. However, using a Laguerre basis results in missing energy, even when extrapolated to an infinite number of basis functions and channels. We do not include the isospin $T=3/2$ contribution in our analysis.

  13. Risk and safety analysis of nuclear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, John C

    2011-01-01

    The book has been developed in conjunction with NERS 462, a course offered every year to seniors and graduate students in the University of Michigan NERS program. The first half of the book covers the principles of risk analysis, the techniques used to develop and update a reliability data base, the reliability of multi-component systems, Markov methods used to analyze the unavailability of systems with repairs, fault trees and event trees used in probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs), and failure modes of systems. All of this material is general enough that it could be used in non-nuclear a

  14. The Bioscience Nuclear Microscopy Program at LLNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bench, G.; Freeman, S.; Roberts, M.; Sideras-Haddad, E.

    1996-12-31

    Since initiation in mid 1994, a bioscience nuclear microscopy program at Livermore has enabled collaboration with bio-scientists on a variety of projects requiring quantitative elemental microanalysis. For microprobe analysis a combination of PIXE and STIM are typically used; respectively generating element distribution maps with micron scale spatial resolution, and projected densities and histological information with sub-micron spatial resolution. Current studies demonstrate the applicability of nuclear microscopy (particularly when combined with other analysis techniques) in environmental tracing, toxicology, carcinogenesis, and structural biology. The program currently uses {approximately}10 percent of the available time on a 10 MV tandem accelerator that is also applied to a variety of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry and other microprobe programs. The completion of a dedicated nuclear microprobe system, using a 5 SDH NEC 1.7 MV tandem accelerator and employing several energy dispersive x-ray detectors to improve x-ray counting rates, promises increased accelerator access, greater sample throughput and continued expansion of the program.

  15. A study on the nuclear foreign policy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Keun Bae; Choi, Y. M.; Lee, D. J.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, B. W.; Cho, I. H.; Ko, H. S.

    1996-12-01

    This study aims to analyses recent trends of international situation relating to nuclear non-proliferation and the adverse conditions in Korea`s pursuing self-support of such technology, so that it may map out effective strategies for the promotion of nuclear energy. This study analyses developments of international nuclear non-proliferation regime, which plays a main role in preventing the international proliferation of nuclear weapons. This study includes NPT, IAEA safeguards system, international export control regimes, CTBT, and NWFZs as the subjects of analysis. Second theme is international organizations concerning nuclear activities. This study mainly analyses IAEA activities which pursues the promotion of peaceful use of nuclear energy and nuclear non-proliferation simultaneously as a pivotal body of international nuclear cooperation. Third focus of this study is Northeast Asian circumstances pertaining to nuclear non-proliferation. The study looks into the DPRK nuclear issues, and reviews the developments of the proposed regional body for nuclear cooperation and the discussion on the Northeast Asian NWFZ. Fourth, but the most influential to Korean nuclear activities, is the U. S. nuclear policy, since U. S. takes the overwhelming initiative in the field of international nuclear non-proliferation. Therefore, this study gives much weight in analyzing the structure, procedures, recent trend, and pending issues of U. S. nuclear policy. (author). 78 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  16. A study on the nuclear foreign policy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Keun Bae; Choi, Y. M.; Lee, D. J.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, B. W.; Cho, I. H.; Ko, H. S.

    1996-12-01

    This study aims to analyses recent trends of international situation relating to nuclear non-proliferation and the adverse conditions in Korea`s pursuing self-support of such technology, so that it may map out effective strategies for the promotion of nuclear energy. This study analyses developments of international nuclear non-proliferation regime, which plays a main role in preventing the international proliferation of nuclear weapons. This study includes NPT, IAEA safeguards system, international export control regimes, CTBT, and NWFZs as the subjects of analysis. Second theme is international organizations concerning nuclear activities. This study mainly analyses IAEA activities which pursues the promotion of peaceful use of nuclear energy and nuclear non-proliferation simultaneously as a pivotal body of international nuclear cooperation. Third focus of this study is Northeast Asian circumstances pertaining to nuclear non-proliferation. The study looks into the DPRK nuclear issues, and reviews the developments of the proposed regional body for nuclear cooperation and the discussion on the Northeast Asian NWFZ. Fourth, but the most influential to Korean nuclear activities, is the U. S. nuclear policy, since U. S. takes the overwhelming initiative in the field of international nuclear non-proliferation. Therefore, this study gives much weight in analyzing the structure, procedures, recent trend, and pending issues of U. S. nuclear policy. (author). 78 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  17. Seismic analysis of nuclear power plant structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Primary structures for nuclear power plants are designed to resist expected earthquakes of the site. Two intensities are referred to as Operating Basis Earthquake and Design Basis Earthquake. These structures are required to accommodate these seismic loadings without loss of their functional integrity. Thus, no plastic yield is allowed. The application of NASTRAN in analyzing some of these seismic induced structural dynamic problems is described. NASTRAN, with some modifications, can be used to analyze most structures that are subjected to seismic loads. A brief review of the formulation of seismic-induced structural dynamics is also presented. Two typical structural problems were selected to illustrate the application of the various methods of seismic structural analysis by the NASTRAN system.

  18. Reliability of sprinkler systems. Exploration and analysis of data from nuclear and non-nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roenty, V.; Keski-Rahkonen, O.; Hassinen, J.P. [VTT Building and Transport, Espoo (Finland)

    2004-12-01

    Sprinkler systems are an important part of fire safety of nuclear installations. As a part of effort to make fire-PSA of our utilities more quantitative a literature survey from open sources worldwide of available reliability data on sprinkler systems was carried out. Since the result of the survey was rather poor quantitatively, it was decided to mine available original Finnish nuclear and non-nuclear data, since nuclear power plants present a rather small device population. Sprinklers are becoming a key element for the fire safety in modern, open non-nuclear buildings. Therefore, the study included both nuclear power plants and non-nuclear buildings protected by sprinkler installations. Data needed for estimating of reliability of sprinkler systems were collected from available sources in Finnish nuclear and non-nuclear installations. Population sizes on sprinkler system installations and components therein as well as covered floor areas were counted individually from Finnish nuclear power plants. From non-nuclear installations corresponding data were estimated by counting relevant things from drawings of 102 buildings, and plotting from that sample needed probability distributions. The total populations of sprinkler systems and components were compiled based on available direct data and these distributions. From nuclear power plants electronic maintenance reports were obtained, observed failures and other reliability relevant data were selected, classified according to failure severity, and stored on spreadsheets for further analysis. A short summary of failures was made, which was hampered by a small sample size. From non-nuclear buildings inspection statistics from years 1985.1997 were surveyed, and observed failures were classified and stored on spreadsheets. Finally, a reliability model is proposed based on earlier formal work, and failure frequencies obtained by preliminary data analysis of this work. For a model utilising available information in the non-nuclear

  19. Microprobe PIXE study of Ni–Ge interactions in lateral diffusion couples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chilukusha, D. [Department of Physics, University of Zambia, P.O. Box 32379, Lusaka 10101 (Zambia); Pineda-Vargas, C.A. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Faculty of Health & Wellness Sciences, CPUT, Bellville (South Africa); Nemutudi, R. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Habanyama, A. [Department of Physics, Copperbelt University, P.O. Box 21692, Jambo Drive, Riverside, Kitwe 10101 (Zambia); Comrie, C.M. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa)

    2015-11-15

    Rutherford backscattering spectrometry on the nuclear microprobe (μRBS) is often used in studies of lateral diffusion couples. RBS requires that the positions of the interacting species on the periodic table are not too close in terms of atomic number and therefore do not produce excessive RBS peak overlap. In order to satisfactorily characterize systems that have atomic numbers which are close, it is necessary to find techniques which can complement μRBS. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) could be applied in the lateral diffusion couple study of a system with relatively close atomic numbers. This was with a view that it may eventually be adopted to study systems where the atomic numbers are too close for RBS analysis. The system studied here was the Ni–Ge binary system. Since RBS is an established technique for studying lateral diffusion couples, we used it as a standard for comparison. The PIXE results showed a maximum error of 12% with reference to the RBS standard. In order to achieve the most effective use of PIXE in lateral diffusion couple studies we recommend the use of the technique in such a way as to obtain depth information and the use of relatively thick sample layers.

  20. Proton microprobe study of tin-polymetallic deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murao, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1996-12-31

    Tin-polymetallic vein type deposits are a complex mixture of cassiterite and sulfides and they are the main source of technologically important rare metals such as indium and bismuth. Constituent minerals are usually fine grained having wide range of chemical composition and often the elements of interest occur as trace elements not amenable to electron microprobe analysis. PIXE with a proton microprobe can be an effective tool to study such deposits by delineating the distribution of trace elements among carrier minerals. Two representative indium-bearing deposits of tin- polymetallic type, Tosham of India (Cu-ln-Bi-Sn-W-Ag), and Mount Pleasant of Canada (Zn-Cu-In-Bi-Sn-W), were studied to delineate the distribution of medical/high-tech rare metals and to examine the effectiveness of the proton probe analysis of such ore. One of the results of the study indicated that indium and bismuth are present in chalcopyrite in the deposits. In addition to these important rare metals, zinc, copper, arsenic, antimony, selenium, and tin are common in chalcopyrite and pyrite. Arsenopyrite contains nickel, copper, zinc, silver, tin, antimony and bismuth. In chalcopyrite and pyrite, zinc, arsenic, indium, bismuth and lead are richer in Mount Pleasant ore, but silver is higher at Tosham. Also thallium and gold were found only in Tosham pyrite. The Tosham deposit is related to S-type granite, while Mount Pleasant to A-type. It appears that petrographic character of the source magma is one of the factors to determine the trace element distribution in tin-polymetallic deposit. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of nuclear reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Zohuri, Bahman

    2015-01-01

    This text covers the fundamentals of thermodynamics required to understand electrical power generation systems and the application of these principles to nuclear reactor power plant systems. It is not a traditional general thermodynamics text, per se, but a practical thermodynamics volume intended to explain the fundamentals and apply them to the challenges facing actual nuclear power plants systems, where thermal hydraulics comes to play.  Written in a lucid, straight-forward style while retaining scientific rigor, the content is accessible to upper division undergraduate students and aimed at practicing engineers in nuclear power facilities and engineering scientists and technicians in industry, academic research groups, and national laboratories. The book is also a valuable resource for students and faculty in various engineering programs concerned with nuclear reactors. This book also: Provides extensive coverage of thermal hydraulics with thermodynamics in nuclear reactors, beginning with fundamental ...

  2. Building Foundations for Nuclear Security Enterprise Analysis Utilizing Nuclear Weapon Data.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josserand, Terry Michael; Young, Leone; Chamberlin, Edwin Phillip,

    2017-10-01

    T he Nuclear Security Enterprise , managed by the National Nuclear Security Administration - a semiautonomous agency within the Department of Energy - has been associated with numerous assessments with respect to the estimating, management capabilities, and practices pertaining to nuclear weapon modernization efforts. This report identifies challenges in estimating and analyzing the N uclear S ecurity E nterprise through an analysis of analogous timeframe conditions utilizing two types of nuclear weapon data - (1) a measure of effort and (2) a function of time. The analysis of analogous timeframe conditions that utilizes only two types of nuclear weapon d ata yields four summary observations that estimators and analysts of the N uclear S ecurity E nterprise will find useful. This Page Intentionally Left Blank

  3. 10th Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    These proceedings contains abstracts and extended abstracts of 80 lectures and posters presented at the 10th Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis hosted by the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia from 24-26 of November 1997. The conference was divided into sessions on the following topics : ion beam analysis and its applications; surface science; novel nuclear techniques of analysis, characterization of thin films, electronic and optoelectronic material formed by ion implantation, nanometre science and technology, plasma science and technology. A special session was dedicated to new nuclear techniques of analysis, future trends and developments. Separate abstracts were prepared for the individual presentation included in this volume.

  4. The fluorescence microprobe at the LNLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, Martin; Perez, Carlos A.; Tolentino, Helio; Vicentin, Flavio C.; Neuenschwander, Regis T.; Barg, Bill [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Sanchez, Hector J.; Rubio, Marcelo [Cordoba Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica; Bueno, Maria Izabel Silveira; Raimundo, Ivo M.; Rohwedder, Jarbas J.R. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    1999-11-01

    At the Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS) the microfocus fluorescence beamline will be operational in the spring of 1998. X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation is an analytical method for determining the concentration of elements at the ppm level. The use of synchrotron radiation instead of conventional X-ray tubes increases the sensitivity of the method substantially. This is due to the higher intensity, the spectral composition, beam focusing and the decrease of background as a result of the polarization of the exciting spectrum. The sample can be excited by the `white` spectrum or monoenergetic beam. The choice of the excitation conditions has a considerable influence on the detection limits. The quantification of the measurements is possible by different mathematical techniques, like Monte Carlo simulation, fundamental parameter programs or, most easily with the calibration by standards if suitable standards are available. The use of focusing capillaries or mirror optics offers the possibility to examine a sample with a spatial resolution of a few {mu}m. One important function is the use of the setup as a scanning microprobe. A two dimensional scan over an unopened fluid inclusion is shown a s example. (author) 10 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Dynamic Analysis of Nuclear Waste Generation Based on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Transition Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, S. R. [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ko, W. I. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    According to the recommendations submitted by the Public Engagement Commission on Spent Nuclear Fuel Management (PECOS), the government was advised to pick the site for an underground laboratory and interim storage facilities before the end of 2020 followed by the related research for permanent and underground disposal of spent fuel after 10 years. In the middle of the main issues, the factors of environmentally friendly and safe way to handle nuclear waste are inextricable from nuclear power generating nation to ensure the sustainability of nuclear power. For this purposes, the closed nuclear fuel cycle has been developed regarding deep geological disposal, pyroprocessing, and burner type sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs) in Korea. Among two methods of an equilibrium model and a dynamic model generally used for screening nuclear fuel cycle system, the dynamic model is more appropriate to envisage country-specific environment with the transition phase in the long term and significant to estimate meaningful impacts based on the timedependent behavior of harmful wastes. This study aims at analyzing the spent nuclear fuel generation based on the long-term nuclear fuel cycle transition scenarios considered at up-to-date country specific conditions and comparing long term advantages of the developed nuclear fuel cycle option between once-through cycle and Pyro-SFR cycle. In this study, a dynamic analysis was carried out to estimate the long-term projection of nuclear electricity generation, installed capacity, spent nuclear fuel arising in different fuel cycle scenarios based on the up-to-date national energy plans.

  6. Determination of trace element mineral/liquid partition coefficients in melilite and diopside by ion and electron microprobe techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehner, S. M.; Laughlin, J. R.; Grossman, L.; Johnson, M. L.; Burnett, D. S.

    1989-01-01

    The applicability of ion microprobe (IMP) for quantitative analysis of minor elements (Sr, Y, Zr, La, Sm, and Yb) in the major phases present in natural Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) was investigated by comparing IMP results with those of an electron microprobe (EMP). Results on three trace-element-doped glasses indicated that it is not possible to obtain precise quantitative analysis by using IMP if there are large differences in SiO2 content between the standards used to derive the ion yields and the unknowns.

  7. Ultrasonic spectral analysis for nuclear fuel characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroni, Douglas B.; Bittencourt, Marcelo S.Q.; Leal, Antonio M.M., E-mail: douglasbaroni@ien.gov.b, E-mail: bittenc@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Ceramic materials have been widely used for various purposes in many different industries due to certain characteristics, such as high melting point and high resistance to corrosion. Concerning the areas of applications, automobile, aeronautics, naval and even nuclear, the characteristics of these materials should be strictly controlled. In the nuclear area, ceramics are of great importance once they are the nuclear fuel pellets and must have, among other features, a well controlled porosity due to mechanical strength and thermal conductivity required by the application. Generally, the techniques used to characterize nuclear fuel are destructive and require costly equipment and facilities. This paper aims to present a nondestructive technique for ceramic characterization using ultrasound. This technique differs from other ultrasonic techniques because it uses ultrasonic pulse in frequency domain instead of time domain, associating the characteristics of the analyzed material with its frequency spectrum. In the present work, 40 Alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) ceramic pellets with porosities ranging from 5% to 37%, in absolute terms measured by Archimedes technique, were tested. It can be observed that the frequency spectrum of each pellet varies according to its respective porosity and microstructure, allowing a fast and non-destructive association of the same characteristics with the same spectra pellets. (author)

  8. Analysis and prediction of leucine-rich nuclear export signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Cour, T.; Kiemer, Lars; Mølgaard, Anne;

    2004-01-01

    We present a thorough analysis of nuclear export signals and a prediction server, which we have made publicly available. The machine learning prediction method is a significant improvement over the generally used consensus patterns. Nuclear export signals (NESs) are extremely important regulators...... this analysis is that the most important properties of NESs are accessibility and flexibility allowing relevant proteins to interact with the signal. Furthermore, we show that not only the known hydrophobic residues are important in defining a nuclear export signals. We employ both neural networks and hidden...

  9. Rethinking Sensitivity Analysis of Nuclear Simulations with Topology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Maljovec; Bei Wang; Paul Rosen; Andrea Alfonsi; Giovanni Pastore; Cristian Rabiti; Valerio Pascucci

    2016-01-01

    In nuclear engineering, understanding the safety margins of the nuclear reactor via simulations is arguably of paramount importance in predicting and preventing nuclear accidents. It is therefore crucial to perform sensitivity analysis to understand how changes in the model inputs affect the outputs. Modern nuclear simulation tools rely on numerical representations of the sensitivity information -- inherently lacking in visual encodings -- offering limited effectiveness in communicating and exploring the generated data. In this paper, we design a framework for sensitivity analysis and visualization of multidimensional nuclear simulation data using partition-based, topology-inspired regression models and report on its efficacy. We rely on the established Morse-Smale regression technique, which allows us to partition the domain into monotonic regions where easily interpretable linear models can be used to assess the influence of inputs on the output variability. The underlying computation is augmented with an intuitive and interactive visual design to effectively communicate sensitivity information to the nuclear scientists. Our framework is being deployed into the multi-purpose probabilistic risk assessment and uncertainty quantification framework RAVEN (Reactor Analysis and Virtual Control Environment). We evaluate our framework using an simulation dataset studying nuclear fuel performance.

  10. Multilayer Network Analysis of Nuclear Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liang; Ma, Yu-Gang; Chen, Qu; Han, Ding-Ding

    2016-08-01

    The nuclear reaction network is usually studied via precise calculation of differential equation sets, and much research interest has been focused on the characteristics of nuclides, such as half-life and size limit. In this paper, however, we adopt the methods from both multilayer and reaction networks, and obtain a distinctive view by mapping all the nuclear reactions in JINA REACLIB database into a directed network with 4 layers: neutron, proton, 4He and the remainder. The layer names correspond to reaction types decided by the currency particles consumed. This combined approach reveals that, in the remainder layer, the β-stability has high correlation with node degree difference and overlapping coefficient. Moreover, when reaction rates are considered as node strength, we find that, at lower temperatures, nuclide half-life scales reciprocally with its out-strength. The connection between physical properties and topological characteristics may help to explore the boundary of the nuclide chart.

  11. Multilayer network analysis of nuclear reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Liang; Chen, Qu; Han, Ding-Ding

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear reaction network is usually studied via precise calculation of differential equation sets, and much research interest has been focused on the characteristics of nuclides, such as half-life and size limit. In this paper, however, we adopt the methods from both multilayer and reaction networks, and obtain a distinctive view by mapping all the nuclear reactions in JINA REACLIB database into a directed network with 4 layers: neutron, proton, $^4$He and the remainder. The layer names correspond to reaction types decided by the currency particles consumed. This combined approach reveals that, in the remainder layer, the $\\beta$-stability has high correlation with node degree difference and overlapping coefficient. Moreover, when reaction rates are considered as node strength, we find that, at lower temperatures, nuclide half-life scales reciprocally with its out-strength. The connection between physical properties and topological characteristics may help to explore the boundary of the nuclide chart.

  12. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-11-29

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology.

  13. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium metal

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium metal to determine compliance with specifications.

  14. Nuclear Cyber Security Case Study and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sunae [ChungNam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung doo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Due to the new trend in cyber attacks, there is an increased security threat towards every country's infrastructure. So, security measures are required now than ever before. Previous cyber attacks normal process consists of paralyzing a server function, data extraction, or data control into the IT system for trespassing. However, nowadays control systems and infrastructures are also targeted and attacking methods have changed a lot. These days, the virus is becoming increasingly serious and hacker attacks are also becoming more frequent. This virus is a computer virus produced for the purpose of destroying the infrastructure, such as power plants, airports, railways June 2010, and it was first discovered in Belarus. Israel, the US, and other countries are believed culprits behind Stuxnet attacks on other nations such as Iran. Recent malware distribution, such as website hacking threat is growing. In surveys today one of the most long-term posing security threats is from North Korea. In particular, North Korea has been caught launching ongoing cyber-attacks after their latest nuclear test. South Korea has identified national trends regarding North Korean nuclear tests and analyzed them in order to catch disclosed confidential information. Especially, many nuclear power plants in the world are found to be vulnerable to cyber-attacks. Industrial facilities should be more wary of the risk of a serious cyber attack in the middle is going to increase the reliance on universal and commercial digital systems (off the shelf) software, civilian nuclear infrastructure. Senior executives’ current risk rate levels are increasing. Digitalization of the perception of risk is lacking in nuclear power plants and workers are creating prevention methods to make them fully aware of the risks of cyber-attacks. It is suggested that it may be inappropriate to assume we are prepared for potential attacks. Due to advances in technology, a warning that the growing sense of crisis

  15. Nuclear analysis techniques as a component of thermoluminescence dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, J.R.; Hutton, J.T.; Habermehl, M.A. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia); Van Moort, J. [Tasmania Univ., Sandy Bay, TAS (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    In luminescence dating, an age is found by first measuring dose accumulated since the event being dated, then dividing by the annual dose rate. Analyses of minor and trace elements performed by nuclear techniques have long formed an essential component of dating. Results from some Australian sites are reported to illustrate the application of nuclear techniques of analysis in this context. In particular, a variety of methods for finding dose rates are compared, an example of a site where radioactive disequilibrium is significant and a brief summary is given of a problem which was not resolved by nuclear techniques. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. SOVT analysis of the nuclear industry in Mexico; Analisis FODA de la industria nuclear en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez R, E.; Hernandez B, M. C., E-mail: edelmiraf@yahoo.com [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Division de Estudios de Posgrado, Av. Instituto Tecnologico s/n, Ex-rancho La Virgen, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    In this work the analysis of strengths, opportunities, vulnerabilities and threats (SOVT) of the nuclear industry in Mexico is presented. This industry presents among its strengths that Mexico is a highly electrified country and has a good established normative mark of nuclear security. Although the Secretaria de Energia in Mexico, with base to the exposed in the Programa Sectorial de Energia 2007-2012, is analyzing the convenience of the generation starting from this source, considering the strong technological dependence of the exterior and the limited federal budget dedicated to this field. As a result of the analysis of the SOVT matrix, were found a great number of strengths that threats, although the vulnerabilities list is major to the strengths, the opportunities list is the bigger. Therefore, the nuclear industry can be a sustainable industry, taking the necessary decisions and taking advantage of the detected opportunities. (Author)

  17. Analysis and prediction of leucine-rich nuclear export signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Tanja; Kiemer, Lars; Mølgaard, Anne

    2004-01-01

    We present a thorough analysis of nuclear export signals and a prediction server, which we have made publicly available. The machine learning prediction method is a significant improvement over the generally used consensus patterns. Nuclear export signals (NESs) are extremely important regulators...... of the subcellular location of proteins. This regulation has an impact on transcription and other nuclear processes, which are fundamental to the viability of the cell. NESs are studied in relation to cancer, the cell cycle, cell differentiation and other important aspects of molecular biology. Our conclusion from...... this analysis is that the most important properties of NESs are accessibility and flexibility allowing relevant proteins to interact with the signal. Furthermore, we show that not only the known hydrophobic residues are important in defining a nuclear export signals. We employ both neural networks and hidden...

  18. The external scanning proton microprobe of Firenze: A comprehensive description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuntini, L.; Massi, M.; Calusi, S.

    2007-06-01

    An external proton scanning microbeam setup is installed on the -30° line of the new 3 MV tandem accelerator in Firenze; the most relevant features of the line, such as detection setup for IBA measurements, target viewing system, beam diagnostic and transport are described here. With our facility we can work with a beam spot on sample better than 10 μm full-width half-maximum (FWHM) and an intensity of some nanoamperes. Standard beam exit windows are silicon nitride (Si 3N 4) TEM membranes, 100 nm thick and 0.5×0.5 mm 2 wide; we also successfully performed measurements using membranes 1×1 mm 2 wide, 100 nm thick, and 2×2 mm 2 wide, 200 and 500 nm thick. Exploiting the yield of Si X-rays produced by the beam in the exit window as an indirect measurement of the charge, a beam charge monitor system was implemented. The analytical capabilities of the microbeam have been extended by integrating a two-detector PIXE setup with BS and PIGE detectors; the external scanning proton microprobe in Firenze is thus a powerful instrument to fully characterize samples by ion beam analysis, through the simultaneous collection of PIXE, PIGE and BS elemental maps. Its characteristics can make it often competitive with traditional in vacuum microbeam for measurements of thick targets.

  19. Wavelet analysis of the nuclear phase space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouault, B.; Sebille, F.; Mota, V. de la

    1997-12-31

    The description of transport phenomena in nuclear matter is addressed in a new approach based on the mathematical theory of wavelets and the projection methods of statistical physics. The advantage of this framework is to offer the opportunity to use information concepts common to both the formulation of physical properties and the mathematical description. This paper focuses on two features, the extraction of relevant informations using the geometrical properties of the underlying phase space and the optimization of the theoretical and numerical treatments based on convenient choices of the representation spaces. (author). 34 refs.

  20. Nuclear power and the public: analysis of collected survey research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melber, B.D.; Nealey, S.M.; Hammersla, J.; Rankin, W.L.

    1977-11-01

    This executive summary highlights the major findings of a comprehensive synthesis and analysis of over 100 existing surveys dealing with public attitudes toward nuclear power issues. Questions of immediate policy relevance to the nuclear debate are posed and answered on the basis of these major findings. For each issue area, those sections of the report in which more-detailed discussion and presentation of relevant data may be found are indicated.

  1. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this Handbook is to provide guidance on how to calculate the characteristics of releases of radioactive materials and/or hazardous chemicals from nonreactor nuclear facilities. In addition, the Handbook provides guidance on how to calculate the consequences of those releases. There are four major chapters: Hazard Evaluation and Scenario Development; Source Term Determination; Transport Within Containment/Confinement; and Atmospheric Dispersion and Consequences Modeling. These chapters are supported by Appendices, including: a summary of chemical and nuclear information that contains descriptions of various fuel cycle facilities; details on how to calculate the characteristics of source terms for releases of hazardous chemicals; a comparison of NRC, EPA, and OSHA programs that address chemical safety; a summary of the performance of HEPA and other filters; and a discussion of uncertainties. Several sample problems are presented: a free-fall spill of powder, an explosion with radioactive release; a fire with radioactive release; filter failure; hydrogen fluoride release from a tankcar; a uranium hexafluoride cylinder rupture; a liquid spill in a vitrification plant; and a criticality incident. Finally, this Handbook includes a computer model, LPF No.1B, that is intended for use in calculating Leak Path Factors. A list of contributors to the Handbook is presented in Chapter 6. 39 figs., 35 tabs.

  2. Cellular distribution of uranium after acute exposure of renal epithelial cells: SEM, TEM and nuclear microscopy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrière, Marie; Gouget, Barbara; Gallien, Jean-Paul; Avoscan, Laure; Gobin, Renée; Verbavatz, Jean-Marc; Khodja, Hicham

    2005-04-01

    The major health effect of uranium exposure has been reported to be chemical kidney toxicity, functional and histological damages being mainly observed in proximal tubule cells. Uranium enters the proximal tubule as uranyl-bicarbonate or uranyl-citrate complexes. The aim of our research is to investigate the mechanisms of uranium toxicity, intracellular accumulation and repartition after acute intoxication of rat renal proximal tubule epithelial cells, as a function of its chemical form. Microscopic observations of renal epithelial cells after acute exposure to uranyl-bicarbonate showing the presence of intracellular precipitates as thin needles of uranyl-phosphate localized in cell lysosomes have been published. However the initial site of precipitates formation has not been identified yet: they could either be formed outside the cells before internalization, or directly inside the cells. Uranium solubility as a function and initial concentration was specified by ICP-MS analysis of culture media. In parallel, uranium uptake and distribution in cell monolayers exposed to U-bicarbonate was investigated by nuclear microprobe analyses. Finally, the presence of uranium precipitates was tested out by scanning electron microscopic observations (SEM), while extracellular and/or intracellular precipitates were observed on thin sections of cells by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  3. Cellular distribution of uranium after acute exposure of renal epithelial cells: SEM, TEM and nuclear microscopy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carriere, Marie [Laboratoire Pierre Suee, CEA-CNRS UMR 9956, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)]. E-mail: carriere@drecam.cea.fr; Gouget, Barbara [Laboratoire Pierre Suee, CEA-CNRS UMR 9956, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gallien, Jean-Paul [Laboratoire Pierre Suee, CEA-CNRS UMR 9956, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Avoscan, Laure [Laboratoire Pierre Suee, CEA-CNRS UMR 9956, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gobin, Renee [Laboratoire d' imagerie cellulaire et moleculaire, DBJC/SBFM/LTMD, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Verbavatz, Jean-Marc [Laboratoire d' imagerie cellulaire et moleculaire, DBJC/SBFM/LTMD, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Khodja, Hicham [Laboratoire Pierre Suee, CEA-CNRS UMR 9956, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2005-04-01

    The major health effect of uranium exposure has been reported to be chemical kidney toxicity, functional and histological damages being mainly observed in proximal tubule cells. Uranium enters the proximal tubule as uranyl-bicarbonate or uranyl-citrate complexes. The aim of our research is to investigate the mechanisms of uranium toxicity, intracellular accumulation and repartition after acute intoxication of rat renal proximal tubule epithelial cells, as a function of its chemical form. Microscopic observations of renal epithelial cells after acute exposure to uranyl-bicarbonate showing the presence of intracellular precipitates as thin needles of uranyl-phosphate localized in cell lysosomes have been published. However the initial site of precipitates formation has not been identified yet: they could either be formed outside the cells before internalization, or directly inside the cells. Uranium solubility as a function and initial concentration was specified by ICP-MS analysis of culture media. In parallel, uranium uptake and distribution in cell monolayers exposed to U-bicarbonate was investigated by nuclear microprobe analyses. Finally, the presence of uranium precipitates was tested out by scanning electron microscopic observations (SEM), while extracellular and/or intracellular precipitates were observed on thin sections of cells by transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

  4. CIVIL LIABILITY FOR NUCLEAR DAMAGE: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INTERNATIONAL TREATIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rimšaitė

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It was widely accepted that nuclear damage might be extensive and spread to other countries. International civil liability for nuclear damage is embodied by two major instruments: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA 1963 Vienna Convention on Civil liability for Nuclear Damage and Paris Convention of 1960 on third party liability (OECD with its amending protocols. Major problem arises because of lack of coherence and for this reason supplementary conventions and protocols has been adopted but sufficient results has not been achieved. International treaties on civil liability for nuclear damage are mostly based upon principles of operator’s exclusive, channeling, strict liability for nuclear damage, mandatory financial coverage, compensation without discrimination. These principles set ground for the appropriate compensation standard thus minimizing the difficulty level of complicated legal cross-actions and identifies certain subjects in individual cases who are liable also allows a concentration of the insurance capacity. Although Conventions sets similar principles, Europe remains in two different liability regimes which cover differences of liability amounts, scope of application, rules of jurisdiction conflicts. Problem of legal coherence at European Union level also arises because Member States are either parties to the Paris Convention or Vienna Convention at different speeds. This research paper provides an in-depth analysis of international legal framework development and impetus to create trans-boundary compensation mechanisms thus to foster development of European Union nuclear energy market and to provide higher protection for victims inside and outside the country where the incident has occurred. Purpose – provide comparative analysis of international treaties which regulate civil liability for nuclear damage in the context of European Union nuclear energy market development. Design/methodology - paper is based on document

  5. Analysis of the transient response of nuclear spins in GaAs with/without nuclear magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasly, Mahmoud; Lin, Zhichao; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Uemura, Tetsuya

    2016-05-01

    As an alternative to studying the steady-state responses of nuclear spins in solid state systems, working within a transient-state framework can reveal interesting phenomena. The response of nuclear spins in GaAs to a changing magnetic field was analyzed based on the time evolution of nuclear spin temperature. Simulation results well reproduced our experimental results for the transient oblique Hanle signals observed in an all-electrical spin injection device. The analysis showed that the so called dynamic nuclear polarization can be treated as a cooling tool for the nuclear spins: It works as a provider to exchange spin angular momentum between polarized electron spins and nuclear spins through the hyperfine interaction, leading to an increase in the nuclear polarization. In addition, a time-delay of the nuclear spin temperature with a fast sweep of the external magnetic field produces a possible transient state for the nuclear spin polarization. On the other hand, the nuclear magnetic resonance acts as a heating tool for a nuclear spin system. This causes the nuclear spin temperature to jump to infinity: i.e., the average nuclear spins along with the nuclear field vanish at resonant fields of 75As, 69Ga and 71Ga, showing an interesting step-dip structure in the oblique Hanle signals. These analyses provide a quantitative understanding of nuclear spin dynamics in semiconductors for application in future computation processing.

  6. Analysis of the transient response of nuclear spins in GaAs with/without nuclear magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Rasly

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As an alternative to studying the steady-state responses of nuclear spins in solid state systems, working within a transient-state framework can reveal interesting phenomena. The response of nuclear spins in GaAs to a changing magnetic field was analyzed based on the time evolution of nuclear spin temperature. Simulation results well reproduced our experimental results for the transient oblique Hanle signals observed in an all-electrical spin injection device. The analysis showed that the so called dynamic nuclear polarization can be treated as a cooling tool for the nuclear spins: It works as a provider to exchange spin angular momentum between polarized electron spins and nuclear spins through the hyperfine interaction, leading to an increase in the nuclear polarization. In addition, a time-delay of the nuclear spin temperature with a fast sweep of the external magnetic field produces a possible transient state for the nuclear spin polarization. On the other hand, the nuclear magnetic resonance acts as a heating tool for a nuclear spin system. This causes the nuclear spin temperature to jump to infinity: i.e., the average nuclear spins along with the nuclear field vanish at resonant fields of 75As, 69Ga and 71Ga, showing an interesting step-dip structure in the oblique Hanle signals. These analyses provide a quantitative understanding of nuclear spin dynamics in semiconductors for application in future computation processing.

  7. Constraining the symmetry energy content of nuclear matter from nuclear masses: a covariance analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mondal, C; De, J N

    2015-01-01

    Elements of nuclear symmetry energy evaluated from different energy density functionals parametrized by fitting selective bulk properties of few representative nuclei are seen to vary widely. Those obtained from experimental data on nuclear masses across the periodic table, however, show that they are better constrained. A possible direction in reconciling this paradox may be gleaned from comparison of results obtained from use of the binding energies in the fitting protocol within a microscopic model with two sets of nuclei, one a representative standard set and another where very highly asymmetric nuclei are additionally included. A covariance analysis reveals that the additional fitting protocol reduces the uncertainties in the nuclear symmetry energy coefficient, its slope parameter as well as the neutron-skin thickness in $^{208}$Pb nucleus by $\\sim 50\\%$. The central values of these entities are also seen to be slightly reduced.

  8. CAC - NUCLEAR THERMAL ROCKET CORE ANALYSIS CODE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    One of the most important factors in the development of nuclear rocket engine designs is to be able to accurately predict temperatures and pressures throughout a fission nuclear reactor core with axial hydrogen flow through circular coolant passages. CAC is an analytical prediction program to study the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of a circular coolant passage. CAC predicts as a function of time axial and radial fluid conditions, passage wall temperatures, flow rates in each coolant passage, and approximate maximum material temperatures. CAC incorporates the hydrogen properties model STATE to provide fluid-state relations, thermodynamic properties, and transport properties of molecular hydrogen in any fixed ortho-para combination. The program requires the general core geometry, the core material properties as a function of temperature, the core power profile, and the core inlet conditions as function of time. Although CAC was originally developed in FORTRAN IV for use on an IBM 7094, this version is written in ANSI standard FORTRAN 77 and is designed to be machine independent. It has been successfully compiled on IBM PC series and compatible computers running MS-DOS with Lahey F77L, a Sun4 series computer running SunOS 4.1.1, and a VAX series computer running VMS 5.4-3. CAC requires 300K of RAM under MS-DOS, 422K of RAM under SunOS, and 220K of RAM under VMS. No sample executable is provided on the distribution medium. Sample input and output data are included. The standard distribution medium for this program is a 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. CAC was developed in 1966, and this machine independent version was released in 1992. IBM-PC and IBM are registered trademarks of International Business Machines. Lahey F77L is a registered trademark of Lahey Computer Systems, Inc. SunOS is a trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc. VMS is a trademark of Digital Equipment Corporation. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.

  9. Mass Defect from Nuclear Physics to Mass Spectral Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourshahian, Soheil

    2017-09-01

    Mass defect is associated with the binding energy of the nucleus. It is a fundamental property of the nucleus and the principle behind nuclear energy. Mass defect has also entered into the mass spectrometry terminology with the availability of high resolution mass spectrometry and has found application in mass spectral analysis. In this application, isobaric masses are differentiated and identified by their mass defect. What is the relationship between nuclear mass defect and mass defect used in mass spectral analysis, and are they the same? [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Next Generation Nuclear Plant GAP Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, Sydney J [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; Corwin, William R [ORNL; Fisher, Stephen Eugene [ORNL; Forsberg, Charles W. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Morris, Robert Noel [ORNL; Moses, David Lewis [ORNL

    2008-12-01

    As a follow-up to the phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) studies conducted recently by NRC on next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) safety, a study was conducted to identify the significant 'gaps' between what is needed and what is already available to adequately assess NGNP safety characteristics. The PIRT studies focused on identifying important phenomena affecting NGNP plant behavior, while the gap study gives more attention to off-normal behavior, uncertainties, and event probabilities under both normal operation and postulated accident conditions. Hence, this process also involved incorporating more detailed evaluations of accident sequences and risk assessments. This study considers thermal-fluid and neutronic behavior under both normal and postulated accident conditions, fission product transport (FPT), high-temperature metals, and graphite behavior and their effects on safety. In addition, safety issues related to coupling process heat (hydrogen production) systems to the reactor are addressed, given the limited design information currently available. Recommendations for further study, including analytical methods development and experimental needs, are presented as appropriate in each of these areas.

  11. Detailed 3-D nuclear analysis of ITER blanket modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohm, T.D., E-mail: tdbohm@wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Sawan, M.E.; Marriott, E.P.; Wilson, P.P.H. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Ulrickson, M.; Bullock, J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-15

    In ITER, the blanket modules (BM) are arranged around the plasma to provide thermal and nuclear shielding for the vacuum vessel (VV), magnets, and other components. As a part of the BM design process, nuclear analysis is required to determine the level of nuclear heating, helium production, and radiation damage in the BM. Additionally, nuclear heating in the VV is also important for assessing the BM design. We used the CAD based DAG-MCNP5 transport code to analyze detailed models inserted into a 40-degree partially homogenized ITER global model. The regions analyzed include BM01, the neutral beam injection (NB) region, and the upper port region. For BM01, the results show that He production meets the limit necessary for re-welding, and the VV heating behind BM01 is acceptable. For the NBI region, the VV nuclear heating behind the NB region exceeds the design limit by a factor of two. For the upper port region, the nuclear heating of the VV exceeds the design limit by up to 20%. The results presented in this work are being used to modify the BM design in the cases where limits are exceeded.

  12. Nuclear Forensics: Scientific Analysis Supporting Law Enforcement and Nuclear Security Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Elizabeth; Kristo, Michael J; Toole, Kaitlyn; Kips, Ruth; Young, Emma

    2016-02-02

    Nuclear forensic science, or "nuclear forensic", aims to answer questions about nuclear material found outside of regulatory control. In this Feature, we provide a general overview of nuclear forensics, selecting examples of key "nuclear forensic signatures" which have allowed investigators to determine the identity of unknown nuclear material in real investigations.

  13. Multiscale Methods for Nuclear Reactor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Benjamin S.

    The ability to accurately predict local pin powers in nuclear reactors is necessary to understand the mechanisms that cause fuel pin failure during steady state and transient operation. In the research presented here, methods are developed to improve the local solution using high order methods with boundary conditions from a low order global solution. Several different core configurations were tested to determine the improvement in the local pin powers compared to the standard techniques, that use diffusion theory and pin power reconstruction (PPR). Two different multiscale methods were developed and analyzed; the post-refinement multiscale method and the embedded multiscale method. The post-refinement multiscale methods use the global solution to determine boundary conditions for the local solution. The local solution is solved using either a fixed boundary source or an albedo boundary condition; this solution is "post-refinement" and thus has no impact on the global solution. The embedded multiscale method allows the local solver to change the global solution to provide an improved global and local solution. The post-refinement multiscale method is assessed using three core designs. When the local solution has more energy groups, the fixed source method has some difficulties near the interface: however the albedo method works well for all cases. In order to remedy the issue with boundary condition errors for the fixed source method, a buffer region is used to act as a filter, which decreases the sensitivity of the solution to the boundary condition. Both the albedo and fixed source methods benefit from the use of a buffer region. Unlike the post-refinement method, the embedded multiscale method alters the global solution. The ability to change the global solution allows for refinement in areas where the errors in the few group nodal diffusion are typically large. The embedded method is shown to improve the global solution when it is applied to a MOX/LEU assembly

  14. Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy System Market Analysis Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark

    2016-06-09

    This presentation describes nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HESs), states their potential benefits, provides figures for the four tightly coupled N-R HESs that NREL is currently analyzing, and outlines the analysis process that is underway.

  15. Nuclear risk analysis of the Ulysses mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartram, B.W.; Vaughan, F.R. (NUS Corporation, 910 Clopper Road, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20877-0962 (USA)); Englehart, D.R.W. (Office of New Production Reactors, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. 20585 (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The use of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator fueled with plutonium-238 dioxide on the Space Shuttle-launched Ulysses mission implies some level of risk due to potential accidents. This paper describes the method used to quantify risks in the Ulysses mission Final Safety Analysis Report prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy. The starting point for the analysis described herein is following input of source term probability distributions from the General Electric Company. A Monte Carlo technique is used to develop probability distributions of radiological consequences for a range of accident scenarios thoughout the mission. Factors affecting radiological consequences are identified, the probability distribution of the effect of each factor determined, and the functional relationship among all the factors established. The probability distributions of all the factor effects are then combined using a Monte Carlo technique. The results of the analysis are presented in terms of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDF) by mission sub-phase, phase, and the overall mission. The CCDFs show the total probability that consequences (calculated health effects) would be equal to or greater than a given value.

  16. Data analysis techniques for nuclear and particle physicists

    CERN Document Server

    Pruneau, Claude

    2017-01-01

    This is an advanced data analysis textbook for scientists specializing in the areas of particle physics, nuclear physics, and related subfields. As a practical guide for robust, comprehensive data analysis, it focuses on realistic techniques to explain instrumental effects. The topics are relevant for engineers, scientists, and astroscientists working in the fields of geophysics, chemistry, and the physical sciences. The book serves as a reference for more senior scientists while being eminently accessible to advanced undergraduate and graduate students.

  17. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Strategies for Metabolic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heude, Clement; Nath, Jay; Carrigan, John Bosco; Ludwig, Christian

    2017-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for metabolomic studies, offering highly reproducible and quantitative analyses. This burgeoning field of NMR metabolomics has been greatly aided by the development of modern spectrometers and software, allowing high-throughput analysis with near real-time feedback. Whilst one-dimensional proton (1D-(1)H) NMR analysis is best described and remains most widely used, a plethora of alternative NMR techniques are now available that offer additional chemical and structural information and resolve many of the limitations of conventional 1D-(1)H NMR such as spectral overlay. In this book chapter, we review the principal concepts of practical NMR spectroscopy, from common sample preparation protocols to the benefits and theoretical concepts underpinning the commonly used pulse sequences. Finally, as a case study to highlight the utility of NMR as a method for metabolomic investigation, we have detailed how NMR has been used to gain valuable insight into the metabolism occurring in kidneys prior to transplantation and the potential implications of this.

  18. Progress on Radiochemical Analysis for Nuclear Waste Management in Decommissioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Qiao, Jixin; Shi, Keliang

    With the increaed numbers of nuclear facilities have been closed and are being or are going to be decommissioned, it is required to characterise the produced nuclear waste for its treatment by identification of the radionuclides and qualitatively determine them. Of the radionuclides related...... separation of radionuclides. In order to improve and maintain the Nodic competence in analysis of radionculides in waste samples, a NKS B project on this topic was launched in 2009. During the first phase of the NKS-B RadWaste project (2009-2010), a good achivement has been reached on establishment...... of collaboration, identifing the requirements from the Nordic nuclear industries and optimizing and development of some analytical methods (Hou et al. NKS-222, 2010). In the year 2011, this project (NKS-B RadWaste2011) continued. The major achievements of this project in 2011 include: (1) development of a method...

  19. In-field analysis and assessment of nuclear material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgado, R.E.; Myers, W.S.; Olivares, J.A.; Phillips, J.R.; York, R.L.

    1996-05-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has actively developed and implemented a number of instruments to monitor, detect, and analyze nuclear materials in the field. Many of these technologies, developed under existing US Department of Energy programs, can also be used to effectively interdict nuclear materials smuggled across or within national borders. In particular, two instruments are suitable for immediate implementation: the NAVI-2, a hand-held gamma-ray and neutron system for the detection and rapid identification of radioactive materials, and the portable mass spectrometer for the rapid analysis of minute quantities of radioactive materials. Both instruments provide not only critical information about the characteristics of the nuclear material for law-enforcement agencies and national authorities but also supply health and safety information for personnel handling the suspect materials.

  20. Analysis of nuclear activity of ten polar ring galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Freitas-Lemes, P; Dors, O L; Faúndez-Abans, M

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of mass from the interaction process that forms the polar ring galaxies is a factor that favors the conditions necessary to trigger nonthermal nuclear activities.. This fact encouraged the chemical analysis of ten polar ring galaxies. In order to verify the presence of an active nucleus in these galaxias, we built diagnostic diagrams using lines H{\\beta}, [OIII], [HI], H{\\alpha}, [NII], and [SII] and classified the type of nuclear activity. For galaxies that do not show shock, the parameters N2 and O3N2 were also determined. From this sample, we identified seven galaxies with an active nucleus and three that behave as HII regions. One galaxy with an active nucleus was classified as Seyfert. Although our data do not provide a statistically significant sample, we can speculate that polar ring galaxies are a setting conducive to trigger non-thermal nuclear activities.

  1. Sensitivity Analysis of Criticality for Different Nuclear Fuel Shapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyun Sik; Jang, Misuk; Kim, Seoung Rae [NESS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Rod-type nuclear fuel was mainly developed in the past, but recent study has been extended to plate-type nuclear fuel. Therefore, this paper reviews the sensitivity of criticality according to different shapes of nuclear fuel types. Criticality analysis was performed using MCNP5. MCNP5 is well-known Monte Carlo codes for criticality analysis and a general-purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle code that can be used for neutron, photon, electron or coupled neutron / photon / electron transport, including the capability to calculate eigenvalues for critical systems. We performed the sensitivity analysis of criticality for different fuel shapes. In sensitivity analysis for simple fuel shapes, the criticality is proportional to the surface area. But for fuel Assembly types, it is not proportional to the surface area. In sensitivity analysis for intervals between plates, the criticality is greater as the interval increases, but if the interval is greater than 8mm, it showed an opposite trend that the criticality decrease by a larger interval. As a result, it has failed to obtain the logical content to be described in common for all cases. The sensitivity analysis of Criticality would be always required whenever subject to be analyzed is changed.

  2. An analysis of international nuclear fuel supply options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J'tia Patrice

    As the global demand for energy grows, many nations are considering developing or increasing nuclear capacity as a viable, long-term power source. To assess the possible expansion of nuclear power and the intricate relationships---which cover the range of economics, security, and material supply and demand---between established and aspirant nuclear generating entities requires models and system analysis tools that integrate all aspects of the nuclear enterprise. Computational tools and methods now exist across diverse research areas, such as operations research and nuclear engineering, to develop such a tool. This dissertation aims to develop methodologies and employ and expand on existing sources to develop a multipurpose tool to analyze international nuclear fuel supply options. The dissertation is comprised of two distinct components: the development of the Material, Economics, and Proliferation Assessment Tool (MEPAT), and analysis of fuel cycle scenarios using the tool. Development of MEPAT is aimed for unrestricted distribution and therefore uses publicly available and open-source codes in its development when possible. MEPAT is built using the Powersim Studio platform that is widely used in systems analysis. MEPAT development is divided into three modules focusing on: material movement; nonproliferation; and economics. The material movement module tracks material quantity in each process of the fuel cycle and in each nuclear program with respect to ownership, location and composition. The material movement module builds on techniques employed by fuel cycle models such as the Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) code developed at the Idaho National Laboratory under the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) for the analysis of domestic fuel cycle. Material movement parameters such as lending and reactor preference, as well as fuel cycle parameters such as process times and material factors are user-specified through a Microsoft Excel(c) data spreadsheet

  3. New 2-stage ion microprobes and a move to higher energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legge, G.J.F.; Dymnikov, A.; Moloney, G.; Saint, A. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Cohen, D. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Recent moves in Ion Beam Microanalysis towards the use of a rapidly growing number of very high resolution, low current and single ion techniques has led to the need for high demagnification and greatly improved beam quality. There is also a move to apply Microbeams at higher energies and with heavier ions. This also puts demands on the focusing system and beam control. This paper describes the recent development of 2-stage lens systems to be applied here and overseas, both at very high resolution and at high energies with heavy ions. It looks at new ion beam analysis applications of such ion microprobes. 8 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  4. The threat of nuclear terrorism: from analysis to precautionary measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M

    2003-07-01

    Facing the nuclear terrorism risk, this document analyzes the nature of the threat of nuclear terrorism, the risk of attack on nuclear installations, the limited protection of nuclear installations against aircraft crashes, the case of nuclear reprocessing plants, the case of nuclear transport and proposes measures which should be taken without endangering the foundations of democracy. (A.L.B.)

  5. Wavelength dispersive μPIXE setup for the ion microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazinić, S., E-mail: stjepko.fazinic@irb.hr [Laboratory for Ion Beam Interactions, Division of Experimental Physics, Rudjer Bošković Institute, Bijenicka cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Božičević Mihalić, I.; Tadić, T.; Cosic, D.; Jakšić, M. [Laboratory for Ion Beam Interactions, Division of Experimental Physics, Rudjer Bošković Institute, Bijenicka cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Mudronja, D. [Croatian Conservation Institute, Grškovićeva 23, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2015-11-15

    We have developed a small wavelength dispersive X-ray spectrometer to explore the possibility of performing chemical speciation on microscopic samples utilizing focused ion beams available at the Rudjer Boskovic Institute ion microprobe. Although PIXE spectra are in principle chemically invariant, small influence of chemical effects could be observed even with Si(Li) or SDD detectors. Such chemical effects can be clearly seen with high resolution crystal X-ray spectrometers having energy resolution of several eV. A dedicated vacuum chamber, housing the diffraction crystal, sample holder and CCD X-ray detector, was constructed and positioned behind the main ion microprobe vacuum chamber. Here we will briefly describe the spectrometer, and illustrate its capabilities on measured K X-ray spectra of selected sulfur compounds. We will also demonstrate its abilities to resolve K and M X-ray lines irresolvable by solid state ED detectors usually used in PIXE.

  6. A Two-Dimensional Multielectrode Microprobe for the Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    the external electronic monitoring equipment will be hand soldered to these. This is the reason for their large size. The exposed metal area extending...C)d 022 * 0 78- The lead wires, which will attach the microprobe to the electronic monitoring equipment, are hand soldered to the bonding pads...diffusion), back side protection unnecessary. 8. Enhancement diffusion a. Standard clean C&1. b. Diffusions 1000 C; POCI sources; schedule-- 5 min soak

  7. Complex signal amplitude analysis for complete fusion nuclear reaction products

    CERN Document Server

    Tsyganov, Yu S

    2015-01-01

    A complex analysis has been performed on the energy amplitude signals corresponding to events of Z=117 element measured in the 249Bk+48Ca complete fusion nuclear reaction. These signals were detected with PIPS position sensitive detector. The significant values of pulse height defect both for recoils (ER) and fission fragments (FF) were measured. Comparison with the computer simulations and empirical formulae has been performed both for ER and FF signals.

  8. Nuclear analysis of ITER Test Blanket Module Port Plug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villari, Rosaria, E-mail: rosaria.villari@enea.it [ENEA, Fusion Technical Unit, Nuclear Technologies Laboratory, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Kim, Byoung Yoon; Barabash, Vladimir; Giancarli, Luciano; Levesy, Bruno; Loughlin, Michael; Merola, Mario [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 Saint Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Moro, Fabio [ENEA, Fusion Technical Unit, Nuclear Technologies Laboratory, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Pascal, Romain [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 Saint Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Petrizzi, Luigino [European Commission, DG Research & Innovation G5, CDMA 00/030, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); Polunovsky, Eduard; Van Der Laan, Jaap G. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 Saint Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • 3D nuclear analysis of the ITER TBM Port Plug (PP). • Calculations of neutron fluxes, nuclear heating, damage and He-production in TBM PP components. • Shutdown dose rate assessment with Advanced D1S method considering different configurations. • Potential design improvements to reduce the shutdown dose rate in the port interspace. - Abstract: Nuclear analyses have been performed for the ITER Test Blanket Module Port Plug (TBM PP) using the MCNP-5 Monte Carlo Code. A detailed 3D model of the TBM Port Plug with dummy TBM has been integrated into the ITER MCNP model (B-lite v.3). Neutron fluxes, nuclear heating, helium production and neutron damage have been calculated in all the TBM PP components. Global shutdown dose rate calculations have also been performed with Advanced D1S method for different configurations of the TBM PP system. This paper presents the results of these analyses and discusses potential design improvements aiming to further reduce the shutdown dose rate in the port interspace.

  9. Electron Microprobe Analyses of Lithic Fragments and Their Minerals from Luna 20 Fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, G. H.; Hlava, P. F.; Green, J. A.; Moore, R. B.; Moreland, G.; Dowty, E.; Prinz, M.; Keil, K.; Nehru, C. E.; Bunch, T. E.

    1973-01-01

    The bulk analyses (determined with the broad beam electron microprobe technique) of lithic fragments are given in weight percentages and are arranged according to the rock classification. Within each rock group the analyses are arranged in order of increasing FeO content. Thin section and lithic fragment numbers are given at the top of each column of analysis and correspond to the numbers recorded on photo mosaics on file in the Institute of Meteoritics. CIPW molecular norms are given for each analysis. Electron microprobe mineral analyses (given in oxide weight percentages), structural formulae and molecular end member values are presented for plagioclase, olivine, pyroxene and K-feldspar. The minerals are selected mostly from lithic fragments that were also analyzed for bulk composition. Within each mineral group the analyses are presented according to the section number and lithic fragment number. Within each lithic fragment the mineral analyses are arranged as follows: Plagioclase in order of increasing CaO; olivine and pyroexene in order of increasing FeO; and K-feldspar in order of increasing K2O. The mineral grains are identified at the top of each column of analysis by grain number and lithic fragment number.

  10. Use of X-ray microprobe to diagnose bone tissue demineralization after caffeine administration Use of X-ray microprobe to diagnose bone tissue demineralization after caffeine administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Tomaszewski

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is a methylxanthine which permeates the placenta. In studies on animals, it has been
    shown to produce teratogenic and embryotoxic effects in large doses. The objective of this study was to
    assess the influence of caffeine on the development of bone tissue, with particular reference to elemental
    bone composition using an X-ray microprobe. The research was conducted on rats. The fertilized females
    were randomly divided into an experimental and a control group. The experimental group was
    given caffeine orally in 30 mg/day doses from the 8th to the 21st day of pregnancy, while the control group
    was given water. The fetuses were used to assess the growth and mineralization of the skeleton. On the
    basis of double dyeing, a qualitative analysis of the bone morphology and mineralization was conducted.
    For calcium and potassium analysis, an X-ray microprobe was used. In 67 fetuses from the experimental
    group, changes in skeleton staining with the alcian-alizarin method were noticed. The frequency of the
    development of variants in the experimental group was statistically higher. In the experimental group,
    a significant decrease in the calcium level, as well as an increase in the potassium level, was observed.
    The X-ray microprobe’s undoubted advantage is that is offers a quick qualitative and quantitative analysis
    of the elemental composition of the examined samples. Employing this new technique may furnish us
    with new capabilities when investigating the essence of the pathology process.Caffeine is a methylxanthine which permeates the placenta. In studies on animals, it has been
    shown to produce teratogenic and embryotoxic effects in large doses. The objective of this study was to
    assess the influence of caffeine on the development of bone tissue, with particular reference to elemental
    bone composition using an X-ray microprobe. The research was conducted on

  11. Detailed 3-D nuclear analysis of ITER outboard blanket modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohm, Tim, E-mail: tdbohm@wisc.edu [Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Davis, Andrew; Sawan, Mohamed; Marriott, Edward; Wilson, Paul [Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Ulrickson, Michael; Bullock, James [Formerly, Fusion Technology, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Nuclear analysis was performed on detailed CAD models placed in a 40 degree model of ITER. • The regions examined include BM09, the upper ELM coil region (BM11–13), the neutral beam (NB) region (BM13–16), and BM18. • The results show that VV nuclear heating exceeds limits in the NB and upper ELM coil regions. • The results also show that the level of He production in parts of BM18 exceeds limits. • These calculations are being used to modify the design of the ITER blanket modules. - Abstract: In the ITER design, the blanket modules (BM) provide thermal and nuclear shielding for the vacuum vessel (VV), magnets, and other components. We used the CAD based DAG-MCNP5 transport code to analyze detailed models inserted into a 40 degree partially homogenized ITER global model. The regions analyzed include BM09, BM16 near the heating neutral beam injection (HNB) region, BM11–13 near the upper ELM coil region, and BM18. For the BM16 HNB region, the VV nuclear heating behind the NB region exceeds the design limit by up to 80%. For the BM11–13 region, the nuclear heating of the VV exceeds the design limit by up to 45%. For BM18, the results show that He production does not meet the limit necessary for re-welding. The results presented in this work are being used by the ITER Organization Blanket and Tokamak Integration groups to modify the BM design in the cases where limits are exceeded.

  12. Vulnerability Analysis Considerations for the Transportation of Special Nuclear Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholson, Lary G.; Purvis, James W.

    1999-07-21

    The vulnerability analysis methodology developed for fixed nuclear material sites has proven to be extremely effective in assessing associated transportation issues. The basic methods and techniques used are directly applicable to conducting a transportation vulnerability analysis. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that the same physical protection elements (detection, delay, and response) are present, although the response force plays a dominant role in preventing the theft or sabotage of material. Transportation systems are continuously exposed to the general public whereas the fixed site location by its very nature restricts general public access.

  13. Radiochemical analysis for nuclear waste management in decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, X. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy. Radiation Research Div., Roskilde (Denmark))

    2010-07-15

    The NKS-B RadWaste project was launched from June 2009. The on-going decommissioning activities in Nordic countries and current requirements and problems on the radiochemical analysis of decommissioning waste were discussed and overviewed. The radiochemical analytical methods used for determination of various radionuclides in nuclear waste are reviewed, a book was written by the project partners Jukka Lehto and Xiaolin Hou on the chemistry and analysis of radionuclide to be published in 2010. A summary of the methods developed in Nordic laboratories is described in this report. The progresses on the development and optimization of analytical method in the Nordic labs under this project are presented. (author)

  14. INTEGRATION OF FACILITY MODELING CAPABILITIES FOR NUCLEAR NONPROLIFERATION ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorensek, M.; Hamm, L.; Garcia, H.; Burr, T.; Coles, G.; Edmunds, T.; Garrett, A.; Krebs, J.; Kress, R.; Lamberti, V.; Schoenwald, D.; Tzanos, C.; Ward, R.

    2011-07-18

    Developing automated methods for data collection and analysis that can facilitate nuclear nonproliferation assessment is an important research area with significant consequences for the effective global deployment of nuclear energy. Facility modeling that can integrate and interpret observations collected from monitored facilities in order to ascertain their functional details will be a critical element of these methods. Although improvements are continually sought, existing facility modeling tools can characterize all aspects of reactor operations and the majority of nuclear fuel cycle processing steps, and include algorithms for data processing and interpretation. Assessing nonproliferation status is challenging because observations can come from many sources, including local and remote sensors that monitor facility operations, as well as open sources that provide specific business information about the monitored facilities, and can be of many different types. Although many current facility models are capable of analyzing large amounts of information, they have not been integrated in an analyst-friendly manner. This paper addresses some of these facility modeling capabilities and illustrates how they could be integrated and utilized for nonproliferation analysis. The inverse problem of inferring facility conditions based on collected observations is described, along with a proposed architecture and computer framework for utilizing facility modeling tools. After considering a representative sampling of key facility modeling capabilities, the proposed integration framework is illustrated with several examples.

  15. Seismological analysis of the fourth North Korean nuclear test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Gernot; Gestermann, Nicolai; Ceranna, Lars

    2016-04-01

    The Democratic People's Republic of Korea has conducted its fourth underground nuclear explosions on 06.01.2016 at 01:30 (UTC). The explosion was clearly detected and located by the seismic network of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Additional seismic stations of international earthquake monitoring networks at regional distances, which are not part of the IMS, are used to precisely estimate the epicenter of the event in the North Hamgyong province (41.38°N / 129.05°E). It is located in the area of the North Korean Punggye-ri nuclear test site, where the verified nuclear tests from 2006, 2009, and 2013 were conducted as well. The analysis of the recorded seismic signals provides the evidence, that the event was originated by an explosive source. The amplitudes as well as the spectral characteristics of the signals were examined. Furthermore, the similarity of the signals with those from the three former nuclear tests suggests very similar source type. The seismograms at the 8,200 km distant IMS station GERES in Germany, for example, show the same P phase signal for all four explosions, differing in the amplitude only. The comparison of the measured amplitudes results in the increasing magnitude with the chronology of the explosions from 2006 (mb 4.2), 2009 (mb 4.8) until 2013 (mb 5.1), whereas the explosion in 2016 had approximately the same magnitude as that one three years before. Derived from the magnitude, a yield of 14 kt TNT equivalents was estimated for both explosions in 2013 and 2016; in 2006 and 2009 yields were 0.7 kt and 5.4 kt, respectively. However, a large inherent uncertainty for these values has to be taken into account. The estimation of the absolute yield of the explosions depends very much on the local geological situation and the degree of decoupling of the explosive from the surrounding rock. Due to the missing corresponding information, reliable magnitude-yield estimation for the

  16. Radionuclide analysis on bamboos following the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Higaki

    Full Text Available In response to contamination from the recent Fukushima nuclear accident, we conducted radionuclide analysis on bamboos sampled from six sites within a 25 to 980 km radius of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Maximum activity concentrations of radiocesium (134Cs and (137Cs in samples from Fukushima city, 65 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi plant, were in excess of 71 and 79 kBq/kg, dry weight (DW, respectively. In Kashiwa city, 195 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi, the sample concentrations were in excess of 3.4 and 4.3 kBq/kg DW, respectively. In Toyohashi city, 440 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi, the concentrations were below the measurable limits of up to 4.5 Bq/kg DW. In the radiocesium contaminated samples, the radiocesium activity was higher in mature and fallen leaves than in young leaves, branches and culms.

  17. Radiation exposure analysis of female nuclear medicine radiation workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Young [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering Graduate School, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hoon Hee [Dept. of Radiological Technologist, Shingu College, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    In this study, radiation workers who work in nuclear medicine department were analyzed to find the cause of differences of radiation exposure from General Characteristic, Knowledge, Recognition and Conduct, especially females working on nuclear medicine radiation, in order to pave the way for positive defense against radiation exposure. The subjects were 106 radiation workers who were divided into two groups of sixty-four males and forty-two females answered questions about their General Characteristic, Knowledge, Recognition, Conduct, and radiation exposure dose which was measured by TLD (Thermo Luminescence Dosimeter). The results of the analysis revealed that as the higher score of knowledge and conduct was shown, the radiation exposure decreased in female groups, and as the higher score of conduct was shown, the radiation exposure decreased in male groups. In the correlation analysis of female groups, the non-experienced in pregnancy showed decreasing amount of radiation exposure as the score of knowledge and conduct was higher and the experienced in pregnancy showed decreasing amount of radiation exposure as the score of recognition and conduct was higher. In the regression analysis on related factors of radiation exposure dose of nuclear medicine radiation workers, the gender caused the meaningful result and the amount of radiation exposure of female groups compared to male groups. In the regression analysis on related factors of radiation exposure dose of female groups, the factor of conduct showed a meaningful result and the amount of radiation exposure of the experienced in pregnancy was lower compared to the non-experienced. The conclusion of this study revealed that radiation exposure of female groups was lower than that of male groups. Therefore, male groups need to more actively defend themselves against radiation exposure. Among the female groups, the experienced in pregnancy who have an active defense tendency showed a lower radiation exposure. Thus

  18. Analysis algorithm for digital data used in nuclear spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2085950; Sin, Mihaela

    Data obtained from digital acquisition systems used in nuclear spectroscopy experiments must be converted by a dedicated algorithm in or- der to extract the physical quantities of interest. I will report here the de- velopment of an algorithm capable to read digital data, discriminate between random and true signals and convert the results into a format readable by a special data analysis program package used to interpret nuclear spectra and to create coincident matrices. The algorithm can be used in any nuclear spectroscopy experimental setup provided that digital acquisition modules are involved. In particular it was used to treat data obtained from the IS441 experiment at ISOLDE where the beta decay of 80Zn was investigated as part of ultra-fast timing studies of neutron rich Zn nuclei. The results obtained for the half-lives of 80Zn and 80Ga were in very good agreement with previous measurements. This fact proved unquestionably that the conversion algorithm works. Another remarkable result was the improve...

  19. Analysis of Proliferation Resistance of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hong Lae; Ko, Won Il; Kim, Ho Dong

    2009-11-15

    Proliferation resistance (PR) has been evaluated for the five nuclear fuel cycle systems, potentially deployable in Korea in the future, using the fourteen proliferation resistance attributes suggested in the TOPS report. Unidimensional Utility Theory (UUT) was used in the calculation of utility value for each of the fourteen proliferation resistance attributes, and Multi-Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT), a decision tool with multiple objectives, was used in the evaluation of the proliferation resistance of each nuclear fuel cycle system. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Expert Elicitation (EE) were utilized in the derivation of weighting factors for the fourteen proliferation resistance attributes. Among the five nuclear fuel cycle systems evaluated, the once-through fuel cycle system showed the highest level of proliferation resistance, and Pyroprocessing-SFR fuel cycle system showed the similar level of proliferation resistance with the DUPIC fuel cycle system, which has two time higher level of proliferation resistance compared to that of the thermal MOX fuel cycle system. Sensitivity analysis was also carried out to make up for the uncertainty associated with the derivation of weighting factors for the fourteen proliferation resistance attributes.

  20. In situ structural analysis of the human nuclear pore complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Appen, Alexander; Kosinski, Jan; Sparks, Lenore; Ori, Alessandro; DiGuilio, Amanda L; Vollmer, Benjamin; Mackmull, Marie-Therese; Banterle, Niccolo; Parca, Luca; Kastritis, Panagiotis; Buczak, Katarzyna; Mosalaganti, Shyamal; Hagen, Wim; Andres-Pons, Amparo; Lemke, Edward A; Bork, Peer; Antonin, Wolfram; Glavy, Joseph S; Bui, Khanh Huy; Beck, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Nuclear pore complexes are fundamental components of all eukaryotic cells that mediate nucleocytoplasmic exchange. Determining their 110-megadalton structure imposes a formidable challenge and requires in situ structural biology approaches. Of approximately 30 nucleoporins (Nups), 15 are structured and form the Y and inner-ring complexes. These two major scaffolding modules assemble in multiple copies into an eight-fold rotationally symmetric structure that fuses the inner and outer nuclear membranes to form a central channel of ~60 nm in diameter. The scaffold is decorated with transport-channel Nups that often contain phenylalanine-repeat sequences and mediate the interaction with cargo complexes. Although the architectural arrangement of parts of the Y complex has been elucidated, it is unclear how exactly it oligomerizes in situ. Here we combine cryo-electron tomography with mass spectrometry, biochemical analysis, perturbation experiments and structural modelling to generate, to our knowledge, the most comprehensive architectural model of the human nuclear pore complex to date. Our data suggest previously unknown protein interfaces across Y complexes and to inner-ring complex members. We show that the transport-channel Nup358 (also known as Ranbp2) has a previously unanticipated role in Y-complex oligomerization. Our findings blur the established boundaries between scaffold and transport-channel Nups. We conclude that, similar to coated vesicles, several copies of the same structural building block--although compositionally identical--engage in different local sets of interactions and conformations.

  1. Evaluation Indicators for Analysis of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Chang Joon; Ko, Won Il; Chang, Hong Lae

    2008-01-15

    In this report, an attempt was made to derive indicators for the evaluation of the sustainability of the nuclear fuel cycle, using the methodologies developed by the INPRO, OECD/NEA and Gen-IV. In deriving the indicators, the three main elements of the sustainability, i.e., economics, environmental impact, and social aspect, as well as the technological aspect of the nuclear fuel cycle, considering the importance of the safety, were selected as the main criteria. An evaluation indicator for each criterion was determined, and the contents and evaluation method of each indicator were proposed. In addition, a questionnaire survey was carried out for the objectivity of the selection of the indicators in which participated some experts of the Korea Energy Technology and Emergency Management Institute (KETEMI) . Although the proposed indicators do not satisfy the characteristics and requirements of general indicators, it is presumed that they can be used in the analysis of the sustainability of the nuclear fuel cycle because those indicators incorporate various expert judgment and public opinions. On the other hand, the weighting factor of each indicator should be complemented in the future, using the AHP method and expert advice/consultations.

  2. Preliminary radiation criteria and nuclear analysis for ETF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engholm, B.A.

    1980-09-01

    Preliminary biological and materials radiation dose criteria for the Engineering Test Facility are described and tabulated. In keeping with the ETF Mission Statement, a key biological dose criterion is a 24-hour shutdown dose rate of 2 mrem/hr on the surface of the outboard bulk shield. Materials dose criteria, which primarily govern the inboard shield design, include 10/sup 9/ rads exposure limit to epoxy insulation, 3 x 10/sup -4/ dpa damage to the TF coil copper stabilizer, and a total nuclear heating rate of 5 kW in the inboard TF coils. Nuclear analysis performed during FY 80 was directed primarily at the inboard and outboard bulk shielding, and at radiation streaming in the neutral beam drift ducts. Inboard and outboard shield thicknesses to achieve the biological and materials radiation criteria are 75 cm inboard and 125 cm outboard, the configuration consisting of alternating layers of stainless steel and borated water. The outboard shield also includes a 5 cm layer of lead. NBI duct streaming analyses performed by ORNL and LASL will play a key role in the design of the duct and NBI shielding in FY 81. The NBI aluminum cryopanel nuclear heating rate during the heating cycle is about 1 milliwatt/cm/sup 3/, which is far less than the permissible limit.

  3. Developments and needs in nuclear analysis of fusion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pampin, R., E-mail: raul.pampin@f4e.europa.eu [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Davis, A. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Izquierdo, J. [F4E Fusion For Energy, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Barcelona 08019 (Spain); Leichtle, D. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz Platz 1, D-76344 Karlsruhe (Germany); Loughlin, M.J. [ITER Organisation, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Sanz, J. [UNED, Departamento de Ingenieria Energetica, Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Turner, A. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Villari, R. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Wilson, P.P.H. [University of Wisconsin, Nuclear Engineering Department, Madison, WI (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Complex fusion nuclear analyses require detailed models, sophisticated acceleration and coupling of cumbersome tools. • Progress on development of tools and methods to meet specific needs of fusion nuclear analysis reported. • Advances in production of reference models and in preparation and QA of acceleration and coupling algorithms shown. • Evaluation and adaptation studies of alternative transport codes presented. • Discussion made of the importance of efforts in these and other areas, considering some of the more pressing needs. -- Abstract: Nuclear analyses provide essential input to the conceptual design, optimisation, engineering and safety case of fusion technology in current experiments, ITER, next-step devices and power plant studies. Calculations are intricate and computer-intensive, typically requiring detailed geometry models, sophisticated acceleration algorithms, high-performance parallel computations, and coupling of large and complex transport and activation codes and databases. This paper reports progress on some key areas in the development of tools and methods to meet the specific needs of fusion nuclear analyses. In particular, advances in the production and modernisation of reference models, in the preparation and quality assurance of acceleration algorithms and coupling schemes, and in the evaluation and adaptation of alternative transport codes are presented. Emphasis is given to ITER-relevant activities, which are the main driver of advances in the field. Discussion is made of the importance of efforts in these and other areas, considering some of the more pressing needs and requirements. In some cases, they call for a more efficient and coordinated use of the scarce resources available.

  4. Human Factors Considerations in New Nuclear Power Plants: Detailed Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OHara,J.; Higgins, J.; Brown, W.; Fink, R.

    2008-02-14

    This Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored study has identified human-performance issues in new and advanced nuclear power plants. To identify the issues, current industry developments and trends were evaluated in the areas of reactor technology, instrumentation and control technology, human-system integration technology, and human factors engineering (HFE) methods and tools. The issues were organized into seven high-level HFE topic areas: Role of Personnel and Automation, Staffing and Training, Normal Operations Management, Disturbance and Emergency Management, Maintenance and Change Management, Plant Design and Construction, and HFE Methods and Tools. The issues where then prioritized into four categories using a 'Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table' methodology based on evaluations provided by 14 independent subject matter experts. The subject matter experts were knowledgeable in a variety of disciplines. Vendors, utilities, research organizations and regulators all participated. Twenty issues were categorized into the top priority category. This Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) technical report provides the detailed methodology, issue analysis, and results. A summary of the results of this study can be found in NUREG/CR-6947. The research performed for this project has identified a large number of human-performance issues for new control stations and new nuclear power plant designs. The information gathered in this project can serve as input to the development of a long-term strategy and plan for addressing human performance in these areas through regulatory research. Addressing human-performance issues will provide the technical basis from which regulatory review guidance can be developed to meet these challenges. The availability of this review guidance will help set clear expectations for how the NRC staff will evaluate new designs, reduce regulatory uncertainty, and provide a well-defined path to new nuclear power plant

  5. Computation system for nuclear reactor core analysis. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondy, D.R.; Fowler, T.B.; Cunningham, G.W.; Petrie, L.M.

    1977-04-01

    This report documents a system which contains computer codes as modules developed to evaluate nuclear reactor core performance. The diffusion theory approximation to neutron transport may be applied with the VENTURE code treating up to three dimensions. The effect of exposure may be determined with the BURNER code, allowing depletion calculations to be made. The features and requirements of the system are discussed and aspects common to the computational modules, but the latter are documented elsewhere. User input data requirements, data file management, control, and the modules which perform general functions are described. Continuing development and implementation effort is enhancing the analysis capability available locally and to other installations from remote terminals.

  6. Development of RCM analysis software for Korean nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Ho; Choi, Kwang Hee; Jeong, Hyeong Jong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    A software called KEPCO RCM workstation (KRCM) has been developed to optimize the maintenance strategies of Korean nuclear power plants. The program modules of the KRCM were designed in a manner that combines EPRI methodologies and KEPRI analysis technique. The KRCM is being applied to the three pilot system, chemical and volume control system, main steam system, and compressed air system of Yonggwang Units 1 and 2. In addition, the KRCM can be utilized as a tool to meet a part of the requirements of maintenance rule (MR) imposed by U.S. NRC. 3 refs., 4 figs. (Author)

  7. Determination of rare earth and refractory trace element abundances in early solar system objects by ion microprobe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Sahijpal; K K Marhas; J N Goswami

    2003-12-01

    Experimental and analytical procedures devised for measurement of rare earth element (REE) abundances using a secondary ion mass spectrometer (ion microprobe) are described. This approach is more versatile than the conventional techniques such as neutron activation analysis and isotope dilution mass spectrometry by virtue of its high spatial resolution that allows determination of REE abundances in small domains (10-20 micron) within individual mineral phases. The ion microprobe measurements are performed at a low mass-resolving power adopting the energy-filltering technique (Zinner and Crozaz 1986) for removal and suppression of unresolved complex molecular interferences in the REE masses of interest. Synthetic standards are used for determining various instrument specific parameters needed in the data deconvolution procedure adopted for obtaining REE abundances. Results obtained from analysis of standards show that our ion microprobe may be used for determining REE abundances down to ppm range with uncertainties of ∼10 to 15%. Abundances of rare earth and several other refractory trace elements in a set of early solar system objects isolated from two primitive carbonaceous chondrites were determined using the procedures devised by us. The results suggest that some of these objects could be high temperature nebular condensates, while others are products of melting and recrystallization of precursor nebular solids in a high temperature environment.

  8. Nuclear analysis of the IFMIF European lithium target assembly system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisoni, M., E-mail: manuela.frisoni@enea.it [ENEA Bologna, Via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Bernardi, D.; Miccichè, G.; Serra, M. [ENEA CR Brasimone, Bacino del Brasimone 40032, Camugnano (Italy)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •Coupled n–γ transport calculations performed for the ENEA target assembly system. •The MCNP5 1.6 Monte Carlo code was used integrated with the McDeLicious-11 code. •A complete mapping of nuclear responses provided for the thermomechanical analysis. •Neutron activation calculations were performed for backplate, frame, nozzle and target chamber. •Results confirm that the design of the system needs remote handling tools. -- Abstract: In the framework of the Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) phase of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) project, ENEA was in charge of the design of the European version of the target assembly (TA) system which employs a removable bayonet backplate (BP) concept. With the aim of assessing the nuclear behaviour of the system and supplying the necessary input data to the thermomechanical analysis, coupled neutron-gamma transport calculations have been carried out for the whole TA + BP system, using the MCNP5 1.6 Monte Carlo transport code integrated with the McDeLicious-11 neutron source code provided by KIT. Neutron activation calculations have been performed by means of the EASY-2010 activation system in order to provide radioactive inventories useful for thermomechanical analysis and safety purposes. This paper summarizes the results obtained by the neutronic and activation calculations for the most irradiated components of the TA, such as backplate, frame, nozzle and target chamber.

  9. Numerical analysis of a nuclear fuel element for nuclear thermal propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ten-See; Schutzenhofer, Luke

    1991-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics model with porosity and permeability formulations in the transport equations has been developed to study the concept of nuclear thermal propulsion through the analysis of a pulsed irradiation of a particle bed element (PIPE). The numerical model is a time-accurate pressure-based formulation. An adaptive upwind scheme is employed for spatial discretization. The upwind scheme is based on second- and fourth-order central differencing with adaptive artificial dissipation. Multiblocked porosity regions have been formulated to model the cold frit, particle bed, and hot frit. Multiblocked permeability regions have been formulated to describe the flow shaping effect from the thickness-varying cold frit. Computational results for several zero-power density PIPEs and an elevated-particle-temperature PIPE are presented. The implications of the computational results are discussed.

  10. Analysis in environmental radioactivity around Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Woo; Han, Man Jung; Cho, Seong Won; Cho, Hong Jun; Oh, Hyeon Kyun; Lee, Jeong Min; Chang, Jae Sook [KORTIC, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    Twelve kinds of environmental samples such as soil, seawater, underground water, etc. around Nuclear Power Plants(NPPs) were collected. Tritium chemical analysis was tried for the samples of rain water, pine-needle, air, seawater, underground water, chinese cabbage, again of rice and milk sampled around NPPs, and surface seawater and rain water sampled over the country. Strontium in the soil that were sampled at 60 point of district in Korea were analyzed. Tritium were analyzed in 21 samples of surface seawater around the Korea peninsular that were supplied form KFRDI(National Fisheries Research and Development Institute). Sampling and chemical analysis environmental samples around Kori, Woolsung, Youngkwang, Wooljin NPPs and Taeduk science town for tritium and strontium analysis was managed according to plans. Succeed to KINS after all samples were tried.

  11. Nuclear Forensic Science: Analysis of Nuclear Material Out of Regulatory Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristo, Michael J.; Gaffney, Amy M.; Marks, Naomi; Knight, Kim; Cassata, William S.; Hutcheon, Ian D.

    2016-06-01

    Nuclear forensic science seeks to identify the origin of nuclear materials found outside regulatory control. It is increasingly recognized as an integral part of a robust nuclear security program. This review highlights areas of active, evolving research in nuclear forensics, with a focus on analytical techniques commonly employed in Earth and planetary sciences. Applications of nuclear forensics to uranium ore concentrates (UOCs) are discussed first. UOCs have become an attractive target for nuclear forensic researchers because of the richness in impurities compared to materials produced later in the fuel cycle. The development of chronometric methods for age dating nuclear materials is then discussed, with an emphasis on improvements in accuracy that have been gained from measurements of multiple radioisotopic systems. Finally, papers that report on casework are reviewed, to provide a window into current scientific practice.

  12. High-order harmonic generation from polyatomic molecules including nuclear motion and a nuclear modes analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Bruun; Abu-Samha, Mahmoud; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2010-01-01

    We present a generic approach for treating the effect of nuclear motion in high-order harmonic generation from polyatomic molecules. Our procedure relies on a separation of nuclear and electron dynamics where we account for the electronic part using the Lewenstein model and nuclear motion enters...... as a nuclear correlation function. We express the nuclear correlation function in terms of Franck-Condon factors, which allows us to decompose nuclear motion into modes and identify the modes that are dominant in the high-order harmonic generation process. We show results for the isotopes CH4 and CD4...... and thereby provide direct theoretical support for a recent experiment [S. Baker et al., Science 312, 424 (2006)] that uses high-order harmonic generation to probe the ultrafast structural nuclear rearrangement of ionized methane....

  13. Turbopump Design and Analysis Approach for Nuclear Thermal Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-cheng S.; Veres, Joseph P.; Fittje, James E.

    2006-01-01

    A rocket propulsion system, whether it is a chemical rocket or a nuclear thermal rocket, is fairly complex in detail but rather simple in principle. Among all the interacting parts, three components stand out: they are pumps and turbines (turbopumps), and the thrust chamber. To obtain an understanding of the overall rocket propulsion system characteristics, one starts from analyzing the interactions among these three components. It is therefore of utmost importance to be able to satisfactorily characterize the turbopump, level by level, at all phases of a vehicle design cycle. Here at NASA Glenn Research Center, as the starting phase of a rocket engine design, specifically a Nuclear Thermal Rocket Engine design, we adopted the approach of using a high level system cycle analysis code (NESS) to obtain an initial analysis of the operational characteristics of a turbopump required in the propulsion system. A set of turbopump design codes (PumpDes and TurbDes) were then executed to obtain sizing and performance characteristics of the turbopump that were consistent with the mission requirements. A set of turbopump analyses codes (PUMPA and TURBA) were applied to obtain the full performance map for each of the turbopump components; a two dimensional layout of the turbopump based on these mean line analyses was also generated. Adequacy of the turbopump conceptual design will later be determined by further analyses and evaluation. In this paper, descriptions and discussions of the aforementioned approach are provided and future outlooks are discussed.

  14. Turbopump Design and Analysis Approach for Nuclear Thermal Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Cheng S.; Veres, Joseph P.; Fittje, James E.

    2006-01-01

    A rocket propulsion system, whether it is a chemical rocket or a nuclear thermal rocket, is fairly complex in detail but rather simple in principle. Among all the interacting parts, three components stand out: they are pumps & turbines (turbopumps), and the thrust chamber. To obtain an understanding of the overall rocket propulsion system characteristics, one starts from analyzing the interactions among these three components. It is therefore of utmost importance to be able to satisfactorily characterize the turbopump, level by level, at all phases of a vehicle design cycle. Here at the NASA Glenn Research Center, as the starting phase of a rocket engine design, specifically a Nuclear Thermal Rocket Engine design, we adopted the approach of using a high level system cycle analysis code (NESS) to obtain an initial analysis of the operational characteristics of a turbopump required in the propulsion system. A set of turbopump design codes (PumpDes and TurbDes) were then executed to obtain sizing and performance parameters of the turbopump that were consistent with the mission requirements. A set of turbopump analyses codes (PUMPA and TURBA) were applied to obtain the full performance map for each of the turbopump components; a two dimensional layout of the turbopump based on these mean line analyses was also generated. Adequacy of the turbopump conceptual design will later be determined by further analyses and evaluation. In this paper, descriptions and discussions of the aforementioned approach are provided and future outlooks are discussed.

  15. Multi-Detector Analysis System for Spent Nuclear Fuel Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reber, Edward Lawrence; Aryaeinejad, Rahmat; Cole, Jerald Donald; Drigert, Mark William; Jewell, James Keith; Egger, Ann Elizabeth; Cordes, Gail Adele

    1999-09-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Non-Destructive Analysis (NDA) program at INEEL is developing a system to characterize SNF for fissile mass, radiation source term, and fissile isotopic content. The system is based on the integration of the Fission Assay Tomography System (FATS) and the Gamma-Neutron Analysis Technique (GNAT) developed under programs supported by the DOE Office of Non-proliferation and National Security. Both FATS and GNAT were developed as separate systems to provide information on the location of special nuclear material in weapons configuration (FATS role), and to measure isotopic ratios of fissile material to determine if the material was from a weapon (GNAT role). FATS is capable of not only determining the presence and location of fissile material but also the quantity of fissile material present to within 50%. GNAT determines the ratios of the fissile and fissionable material by coincidence methods that allow the two prompt (immediately) produced fission fragments to be identified. Therefore, from the combination of FATS and GNAT, MDAS is able to measure the fissile material, radiation source term, and fissile isotopics content.

  16. Inner/Outer nuclear membrane fusion in nuclear pore assembly: biochemical demonstration and molecular analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtman, Boris; Ramos, Corinne; Rasala, Beth; Harel, Amnon; Forbes, Douglass J

    2010-12-01

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are large proteinaceous channels embedded in double nuclear membranes, which carry out nucleocytoplasmic exchange. The mechanism of nuclear pore assembly involves a unique challenge, as it requires creation of a long-lived membrane-lined channel connecting the inner and outer nuclear membranes. This stabilized membrane channel has little evolutionary precedent. Here we mapped inner/outer nuclear membrane fusion in NPC assembly biochemically by using novel assembly intermediates and membrane fusion inhibitors. Incubation of a Xenopus in vitro nuclear assembly system at 14°C revealed an early pore intermediate where nucleoporin subunits POM121 and the Nup107-160 complex were organized in a punctate pattern on the inner nuclear membrane. With time, this intermediate progressed to diffusion channel formation and finally to complete nuclear pore assembly. Correct channel formation was blocked by the hemifusion inhibitor lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), but not if a complementary-shaped lipid, oleic acid (OA), was simultaneously added, as determined with a novel fluorescent dextran-quenching assay. Importantly, recruitment of the bulk of FG nucleoporins, characteristic of mature nuclear pores, was not observed before diffusion channel formation and was prevented by LPC or OA, but not by LPC+OA. These results map the crucial inner/outer nuclear membrane fusion event of NPC assembly downstream of POM121/Nup107-160 complex interaction and upstream or at the time of FG nucleoporin recruitment.

  17. Qualitative diagnosis for transients analysis on nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorre, J.P.; Dorlet, E.; Evrard, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    One of the major aims of an intelligent monitoring system, is the supervision task which assist the operator in understanding what occurs on a process. Failures hypotheses must be located and the inferring process must be explained. This paper demonstrate a second generation expert system (SEXTANT) decided to the transients analysis on PWR nuclear reactors. This system detects failures by simulating the process with a numerical model. A diagnosis module uses an even graph built from a causal graph model of the plant to generate hypotheses, and a numerical model to validate these hypotheses. Hypotheses are stored into scenarios which are concurrent possible interpretations of the process evolution. The approach is illustrated by an application for the analysis of the house load operation on a pressurized water reactor. (authors). 9 refs., 10 figs.

  18. Sensitivity analysis for reliable design verification of nuclear turbosets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zentner, Irmela, E-mail: irmela.zentner@edf.f [Lamsid-Laboratory for Mechanics of Aging Industrial Structures, UMR CNRS/EDF, 1, avenue Du General de Gaulle, 92141 Clamart (France); EDF R and D-Structural Mechanics and Acoustics Department, 1, avenue Du General de Gaulle, 92141 Clamart (France); Tarantola, Stefano [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission-Institute for Protection and Security of the Citizen, T.P. 361, 21027 Ispra (Italy); Rocquigny, E. de [Ecole Centrale Paris-Applied Mathematics and Systems Department (MAS), Grande Voie des Vignes, 92 295 Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    2011-03-15

    In this paper, we present an application of sensitivity analysis for design verification of nuclear turbosets. Before the acquisition of a turbogenerator, energy power operators perform independent design assessment in order to assure safe operating conditions of the new machine in its environment. Variables of interest are related to the vibration behaviour of the machine: its eigenfrequencies and dynamic sensitivity to unbalance. In the framework of design verification, epistemic uncertainties are preponderant. This lack of knowledge is due to inexistent or imprecise information about the design as well as to interaction of the rotating machinery with supporting and sub-structures. Sensitivity analysis enables the analyst to rank sources of uncertainty with respect to their importance and, possibly, to screen out insignificant sources of uncertainty. Further studies, if necessary, can then focus on predominant parameters. In particular, the constructor can be asked for detailed information only about the most significant parameters.

  19. A probabilistic safety analysis of incidents in nuclear research reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Valdir Maciel; Agostinho Angelo Sordi, Gian Maria; Moralles, Mauricio; Filho, Tufic Madi

    2012-06-01

    This work aims to evaluate the potential risks of incidents in nuclear research reactors. For its development, two databases of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) were used: the Research Reactor Data Base (RRDB) and the Incident Report System for Research Reactor (IRSRR). For this study, the probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) was used. To obtain the result of the probability calculations for PSA, the theory and equations in the paper IAEA TECDOC-636 were used. A specific program to analyse the probabilities was developed within the main program, Scilab 5.1.1. for two distributions, Fischer and chi-square, both with the confidence level of 90 %. Using Sordi equations, the maximum admissible doses to compare with the risk limits established by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) were obtained. All results achieved with this probability analysis led to the conclusion that the incidents which occurred had radiation doses within the stochastic effects reference interval established by the ICRP-64.

  20. Characterization of Nuclear Fuel using Multivariate Statistical Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robel, M; Robel, M; Robel, M; Kristo, M J; Kristo, M J

    2007-11-27

    Various combinations of reactor type and fuel composition have been characterized using principle components analysis (PCA) of the concentrations of 9 U and Pu isotopes in the 10 fuel as a function of burnup. The use of PCA allows the reduction of the 9-dimensional data (isotopic concentrations) into a 3-dimensional approximation, giving a visual representation of the changes in nuclear fuel composition with burnup. Real-world variation in the concentrations of {sup 234}U and {sup 236}U in the fresh (unirradiated) fuel was accounted for. The effects of reprocessing were also simulated. The results suggest that, 15 even after reprocessing, Pu isotopes can be used to determine both the type of reactor and the initial fuel composition with good discrimination. Finally, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PSLDA) was investigated as a substitute for PCA. Our results suggest that PLSDA is a better tool for this application where separation between known classes is most important.

  1. Ion beam induced luminescence from diamond using an MeV ion microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettiol, A.A.; Jamieson, D. N.; Prawer, S.; Allen, M.G. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1993-12-31

    Analysis of the luminescence induced by a MeV ion beam offers the potential to provide useful information about the chemical properties of atoms in crystals to complement the information provided by more traditional Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) such as Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), ion channeling and Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Furthermore, the large penetration depth of the MeV ion beam offers several advantages over the relatively shallow penetration of keV electrons typically employed in cathodoluminescence. An Ion Beam Induced Luminescence (IBIL) detection system was developed for the Melbourne microprobe that allows the spatial mapping of the luminescence signal along with the signals from RBS and PIXE. Homoepitaxial diamond growth has been studied and remarkable shifts in the characteristic blue luminescence of diamond towards the green were observed in the overgrowth. This has been tentatively identified as being due to transition metal inclusions in the epitaxial layers. 8 refs., 2 refs.

  2. The Activities of the European Consortium on Nuclear Data Development and Analysis for Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, U., E-mail: ulrich.fischer@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physic and Reactor Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), RO-077125 Magurele (Romania); Cabellos, O. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Kodeli, I. [Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI), Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Koning, A. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Westerduinweg 3, 1755 LE Petten (Netherlands); Konobeyev, A.Yu. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physic and Reactor Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Leeb, H. [Technische Universitaet Wien, Atominstitut, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8–10, 1040 Wien (Austria); Rochman, D. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Westerduinweg 3, 1755 LE Petten (Netherlands); Pereslavtsev, P. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physic and Reactor Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Sauvan, P. [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, C. Juan del Rosal, 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sublet, J.-C. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Trkov, A. [Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI), Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Dupont, E. [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, Paris (France); Leichtle, D.; Izquierdo, J. [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-06-15

    This paper presents an overview of the activities of the European Consortium on Nuclear Data Development and Analysis for Fusion. The Consortium combines available European expertise to provide services for the generation, maintenance, and validation of nuclear data evaluations and data files relevant for ITER, IFMIF and DEMO, as well as codes and software tools required for related nuclear calculations.

  3. Seismic margin analysis technique for nuclear power plant structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong Moon; Choi, In Kil

    2001-04-01

    In general, the Seismic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (SPRA) and the Seismic Margin Assessment(SAM) are used for the evaluation of realistic seismic capacity of nuclear power plant structures. Seismic PRA is a systematic process to evaluate the seismic safety of nuclear power plant. In our country, SPRA has been used to perform the probabilistic safety assessment for the earthquake event. SMA is a simple and cost effective manner to quantify the seismic margin of individual structural elements. This study was performed to improve the reliability of SMA results and to confirm the assessment procedure. To achieve this goal, review for the current status of the techniques and procedures was performed. Two methodologies, CDFM (Conservative Deterministic Failure Margin) sponsored by NRC and FA (Fragility Analysis) sponsored by EPRI, were developed for the seismic margin review of NPP structures. FA method was originally developed for Seismic PRA. CDFM approach is more amenable to use by experienced design engineers including utility staff design engineers. In this study, detailed review on the procedures of CDFM and FA methodology was performed.

  4. Summary of Prometheus Radiation Shielding Nuclear Design Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Stephens

    2006-01-13

    This report transmits a summary of radiation shielding nuclear design studies performed to support the Prometheus project. Together, the enclosures and references associated with this document describe NRPCT (KAPL & Bettis) shielding nuclear design analyses done for the project.

  5. the international politics of nuclear weapons: a constructivist analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JK

    interest including India, Pakistan, China, North Korea and the US; and .... and conventions against the development, stockpiling and use of nuclear weapons. ...... process, the Agency discovered illicit nuclear procurement networks (UN News.

  6. Sensitivity analysis of parameters important to nuclear criticality safety of Castor X/28F spent nuclear fuel cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leotlela, Mosebetsi J. [Witwatersrand Univ., Johannesburg (South Africa). School of Physics; Koeberg Operating Unit, Johannesburg (South Africa). Regulations and Licensing; Malgas, Isaac [Koeberg Nuclear Power Station, Duinefontein (South Africa). Nuclear Engineering Analysis; Taviv, Eugene [ASARA consultants (PTY) LTD, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2015-11-15

    In nuclear criticality safety analysis it is essential to ascertain how various components of the nuclear system will perform under certain conditions they may be subjected to, particularly if the components of the system are likely to be affected by environmental factors such as temperature, radiation or material composition. It is therefore prudent that a sensitivity analysis is performed to determine and quantify the response of the output to variation in any of the input parameters. In a fissile system, the output parameter of importance is the k{sub eff}. Therefore, in attempting to prevent reactivity-induced accidents, it is important for the criticality safety analyst to have a quantified degree of response for the neutron multiplication factor to perturbation in a given input parameter. This article will present the results of the perturbation of the parameters that are important to nuclear criticality safety analysis and their respective correlation equations for deriving the sensitivity coefficients.

  7. Measurement of solid state nuclear tracks in apatite by thermal analysis method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE ShaoRong; YANG TongSuo; LI TianXiang; LU BaiZuo; JI ShuLi; HENG ShuYun

    2009-01-01

    A new measurement method of thermal analysis for solid state nuclear tracks is proposed. The an-nealing heat emitted by the unit mass of solid state nuclear tracks in heavy particles of the sample is determined via micro-thermal analysis method. Hence, the number of solid state nuclear tracks in the unit mass of sample is determined. In particular, this paper introduces the method and its significance to measure the number of a-particles nuclear tracks in apatite by measuring the annealing heat of a-particles nuclear tracks. In addition, the mechanism of the measurement and potential applications are discussed.

  8. SAFETY ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY FOR AGED CANDU® 6 NUCLEAR REACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WOLFGANG HARTMANN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the Safety Analysis for CANDU® 6 nuclear reactors as affected by main Heat Transport System (HTS aging. Operational and aging related changes of the HTS throughout its lifetime may lead to restrictions in certain safety system settings and hence some restriction in performance under certain conditions. A step in confirming safe reactor operation is the tracking of relevant data and their corresponding interpretation by the use of appropriate thermalhydraulic analytic models. Safety analyses ranging from the assessment of safety limits associated with the prevention of intermittent fuel sheath dryout for a slow Loss of Regulation (LOR analysis and fission gas release after a fuel failure are summarized. Specifically for fission gas release, the thermalhydraulic analysis for a fresh core and an 11 Effective Full Power Years (EFPY aged core was summarized, leading to the most severe stagnation break sizes for the inlet feeder break and the channel failure time. Associated coolant conditions provide the input data for fuel analyses. Based on the thermalhydraulic data, the fission product inventory under normal operating conditions may be calculated for both fresh and aged cores, and the fission gas release may be evaluated during the transient. This analysis plays a major role in determining possible radiation doses to the public after postulated accidents have occurred.

  9. General theory of three-dimensional radiance measurements with optical microprobes RID A-1977-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    FukshanskyKazarinova, N.; Fukshansky, L.; Kuhl, M.;

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of the radiance distribution and fluence rate within turbid samples with fiber-optic radiance microprobes contain a large variable instrumental error caused by the nonuniform directional sensitivity of the microprobes. A general theory of three-dimensional radiance measurements...

  10. Motor-based microprobe powered by bio-assembled catalase for motion detection of DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yuzhe; Fu, Shizhe; Wu, Jie; Lei, Jianping; Ju, Huangxian

    2017-01-15

    A motor-based microprobe is proposed using a tubular microengine powered by bio-assembled enzyme as catalyst and exploited for washing-free detection of DNA through motion readout. The microprobe is fabricated by assembling a catalase layer on the inner surface of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/Au (PEDOT/Au) microtube through DNA conjugate, which is responsible for the biocatalytic bubble propulsion. The sensing concept of the microprobe relies on the target-induced release of catalase through the DNA strand-replacement hybridization, which decreases the amount of enzyme assembled on microtube to slow down the movement of the microprobe. Therefore, the motion speed is negatively correlated with the target concentration. At the optimal conditions, the microprobe can conveniently distinguish the concentration of specific DNA in a range of 0.5-10µM without any washing and separation step. This microprobe can be prepared in batch with good reproducibility and stability, and its motion speed can be conveniently visualized by optical microscope. The proposed motor-based microprobe and its dynamic sensing method provide a novel platform for the development of intelligent microprobe and clinical diagnostic strategy.

  11. RABBIT: an electron microprobe data-reduction program using empirical corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Fraser E.

    1977-01-01

    RABBIT is a FORTRAN IV computer Program that uses Bence-Albee empirical corrections for the reduction of electron microprobe data of silicates, oxides, sulphates, carbonates, and phosphates. RABBIT efficiently reduces large volumes of data collected on 3-11 channel microprobes.

  12. Modeling of Plutonium Ionization Probabilities for Use in Nuclear Forensic Analysis by Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    material and chemical composition within the sample. This data can then be included in analysis by law enforcement and intelligence agencies to...PLUTONIUM IONIZATION PROBABILITIES FOR USE IN NUCLEAR FORENSIC ANALYSIS BY RESONANCE IONIZATION MASS SPECTROMETRY by Steven F. Hutchinson...IONIZATION PROBABILITIES FOR USE IN NUCLEAR FORENSIC ANALYSIS BY RESONANCE IONIZATION MASS SPECTROMETRY 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Steven F

  13. Feasibility of probing solid state nuclear tracks by thermal analysis method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG TongSuo; ZHOU Bing; YANG XinXin; HE ShaoRong; HENG ShuYun; YUAN SunSheng

    2007-01-01

    The feasibility of probing solid state nuclear tracks by thermal analysis method is discussed both theoretically and experimentally. Comparison is made between the thermal analysis method and the optical microscope method, and it is demonstrated that this thermal analysis method is applicable to probing solid state nuclear tracks.

  14. Chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranyl nitrate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The standard covers analytical procedures to determine compliance of nuclear-grade uranyl nitrate solution to specifications. The following methods are described in detail: uranium by ferrous sulfate reduction-potassium dichromate titrimetry and by ignition gravimetry; specific gravity by pycnometry; free acid by oxalate complexation; thorium by the Arsenazo(III) (photometric) method; chromium by the diphenylcarbazide (photometric) method; molybdenum by the thiocyanate (photometric) method; halogens separation by steam distillation; fluorine by specific ion electrode; halogen distillate analysis: chloride, bromide and iodide by amperometric microtitrimetry; bromine by the fluorescein (photometric) method; sulfate sulfur by (photometric) turbidimetry; phosphorus by the molybdenum blue (photometric) method; silicon by the molybdenum blue (photometric) method; carbon by persulfate oxidation-acid titrimetry; nonvolatile impurities by spectrography; volatile impurities by rotating-disk spark spectrography; boron by emission spectrography; impurity elements by spark source mass spectrography; isotopic composition by multiple filament surface-ionization mass spectrometry; uranium-232 by alpha spectrometry; total alpha activity by direct alpha counting; fission product activity by beta and gamma counting; entrained organic matter by infrared spectrophotometry. (JMT)

  15. Helium mobility in SON68 borosilicate nuclear glass: A nuclear reaction analysis approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bès, R., E-mail: rene.bes@cnrs-orleans.fr [CNRS, UPR3079 CEMHTI, 1D Avenue de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orléans cedex 2 (France); Sauvage, T. [CNRS, UPR3079 CEMHTI, 1D Avenue de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orléans cedex 2 (France); Université d’Orléans, Faculté des Sciences, Avenue du Parc Floral, BP 6749, 45067 Orléans cedex 2 (France); Peuget, S. [CEA/DEN/VRH/DTCD/SECM/LMPA Marcoule (France); Haussy, J. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Chamssedine, F. [Université Libanaise, Faculté des Sciences V, Nabatiyeh (Lebanon); Oliviero, E. [CSNSM, CNRS/IN2P3 and Université Paris-Sud, Bât. 104-108, F-91405 Orsay (France); Fares, T. [CEA/DEN/VRH/DTCD/SECM/LMPA Marcoule (France); Vincent, L. [Institut d’Electronique Fondamentale, CNRS and Université Paris-Sud, UMR 8622, F-91405 Orsay (France)

    2013-11-15

    The {sup 3}He behavior in the non active R7T7 type borosilicate glass called SON68 has been investigated using the implantation method to introduce helium in the material. Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) was performed to follow the helium concentration depth profile evolution as a function of annealing time and temperature. In addition, in situ Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) has been implemented to study the formation of helium bubbles during both implantation and annealing processes. Numerical modeling with two different approaches is proposed and discussed to investigate the helium mobility mechanisms. Our study reveals for helium incorporation by implantation at low temperature the presence of several helium populations with disparate diffusivities. The most mobile helium fraction would be attributed to atomic diffusion. The corresponding activation energy value (0.61 eV) extracted from Arrhenius graphs is in good agreement with literature data. The results also highlight that the damages associated to helium sursaturation are the source of small helium clusters formation, with a reduced mobility instead of the atomic mobility measured by the infusion technique. Small cavities that support this assumption have been observed by TEM at low temperature.

  16. New oxidation features in NiCrAl-Zr revealed by an Auger microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, L. A.; Prutton, M.; Poppa, H.; Smialek, J.

    1982-01-01

    A NiCrAl-0.5 (wt %) Zr alloy, oxidized in air for 1 h at 1180 C was studied using a 30-nm resolution Auger microprobe. Depth analysis was achieved using crater edge profiling. This first application of AES to these alloys enabled several new observations of the chemical composition of microstructural features in the corrosion layer. The external oxide was rough, about 2-3 microns thick, and contained Ni, Cr, Al, and O. It was discovered that stoichiometric Al2O3 was restricted to a homogeneous layer about 300-nm thick between the oxide and the base metal. The metal immediately beneath this Al2O3 layer was found to be depleted in Al and roughly ten times richer in Zr than the bulk alloy. These observations are compared with the predictions of current models of the oxidation of MCrAl alloys.

  17. Big data analysis of public acceptance of nuclear power in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Seung Kook [Policy Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Public acceptance of nuclear power is important for the government, the major stakeholder of the industry, because consensus is required to drive actions. It is therefore no coincidence that the governments of nations operating nuclear reactors are endeavoring to enhance public acceptance of nuclear power, as better acceptance allows stable power generation and peaceful processing of nuclear wastes produced from nuclear reactors. Past research, however, has been limited to epistemological measurements using methods such as the Likert scale. In this research, we propose big data analysis as an attractive alternative and attempt to identify the attitudes of the public on nuclear power. Specifically, we used common big data analyses to analyze consumer opinions via SNS (Social Networking Services), using keyword analysis and opinion analysis. The keyword analysis identified the attitudes of the public toward nuclear power. The public felt positive toward nuclear power when Korea successfully exported nuclear reactors to the United Arab Emirates. With the Fukushima accident in 2011 and certain supplier scandals in 2012, however, the image of nuclear power was degraded and the negative image continues. It is recommended that the government focus on developing useful businesses and use cases of nuclear power in order to improve public acceptance.

  18. Analysis of Current Global Nuclear Safety and Security Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu; Chong

    2014-01-01

    Last year, global nuclear security and safety cooperation achieved some progress. In terms of nuclear safety, too many flaws are exposed by the current severe situation of the Fukushima in Japan’s new nuclear safety regulation system, and sound the alarm for East Asia countries accelerating the regional nuclear safety cooperation. In terms of nuclear security, since the Seoul Summit in March 2012, global nuclear security cooperation has achieved new successes. IAEA has and would play the central role in pushing forward the international framework and strengthening nuclear security globally. However, there are still some obstacles to overcome in the future, which need international society to enhance communication and common understanding, especially high-level consultations.

  19. Gold nanoparticle-coated biomaterial as SERS micro-probes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G V Pavan Kumar

    2011-06-01

    We report for the first time, on the utility of plant-based biomaterial as enhanced-Raman scattering probes. The bio-substrate used in this study are commonly found in plant extracts, and are cost-effective, mechanically robust, flexible and easily transportable. The probe was fabricated by coating the plant extract with gold nanoparticles and characterized. By employing a ‘single-touch contact’ method, we reveal the ability of these probes to detect routinely used Raman markers such as 2-napthalenethiol and rhodamine B, at nano-molar concentrations, in dry and liquid forms, respectively. Reproducibility of the signals with variation <5%, and the ability to detect biomolecules are demonstrated herein. We envision these bio-probes as potential candidates for enhanced Raman sensing in chemical, environmental, and archaeological applications. By further engineering the shape, morphology, and surface chemistry of these micro-probes, we foresee their utility as miniaturized, natural SERS substrates.

  20. Materials property testing using a stress-strain microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panayotou, N.F.; Baldrey, D.G. [Lockheed Martin Corp., Schenectady, NY (United States); Haggag, F.M. [Advanced Technology Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The Stress-Strain Microprobe (SSM) uses an automated ball indentation technique to obtain flow data from a localized region of a test specimen or component. This technique is used to rapidly determine the yield strength and microstructural condition of a variety of materials including pressure vessel steels, stainless steels, and nickel-base alloys. The SSM provides an essentially non-destructive technique for the measurement of yield strength data. This technique is especially suitable for the study of complex or highly variable microstructures such as weldments and weld heat affected zones. In this study 119 distinct SSM determinations of the yield strength of eight engineering alloys are discussed and compared to data obtained by conventional tensile tests. The sensitivity of the SSM to the presence of residual stresses is also discussed.

  1. Implementation of ionoluminescence in the AGLAE scanning external microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichon, L.; Calligaro, T.; Gonzalez, V.; Lemasson, Q.; Moignard, B.; Pacheco, C.

    2015-04-01

    The scope of this work is to present the implementation of an IBIL imaging system in the scanning external microprobe of the AGLAE facility so as to correlate luminescence and composition maps provided by PIXE, RBS and PIGE. The challenging integration of the optical spectrometer, due to incompatibility of acquisition timings and data formats with the other IBA channels has motivated the development of a specific acquisition system. This article details the IBIL setup and explains the technical solutions retained for the coupling of IBIL with IBA techniques in order to produce fast and large IBIL-IBA maps. The IBIL maps stored in the same format as the PIXE, RBS and PIGE ones can be visualised and compared using the dedicated AGLAEmap program or the PyMCA processing package. An example of such a coupled mapping on Mesoamerican jade is presented to emphasise the interest of performing simultaneously IBA and IBIL large mappings.

  2. Microprobe of structure of crystal/liquid interface boundary layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The molecular structures and its evolutive regularities within the boundary layers in the crystal growth of KDP and DKDP have been studied in real time by using holography and Raman microprobe. The experiments show that the molecular structure of mother solution within the boundary layers is distinctly different from that of the solutions alone. In this paper, the effects of cations within the boundary layers on the structure of solution are considered. Within the characteristic boundary layers, the effects of cations cause the changes in O-P-O bond angle, electronic density redistribution of the phosphate groups, and significant changes in the bond intensity, thus leading to the breaking of partial hydrogen bonds of the phosphate associations, the readjustment of geometry of anionic phosphate groups and desolvation, and the forming of the smectic ordering structure of the anions_cations. Finally, the crystallization unit of anion_cation should be formed at the proximate interface.

  3. Source term analysis for a nuclear submarine accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, B.J.; Hugron, J.J.M.R. [Royal Military College of Canada, Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    A source term analysis has been conducted to determine the activity release into the environment as a result of a large-break loss-of-coolant accident aboard a visiting nuclear-powered submarine to a Canadian port. This best-estimate analysis considers the fractional release from the core, and fission product transport in the primary heat transport system, primary containment (i.e. reactor compartment) and submarine hull. Physical removal mechanisms such as vapour and aerosol deposition are treated in the calculation. Since a thermalhydraulic analysis indicated that the integrity of the reactor compartment is maintained, release from the reactor compartment will only occur by leakage; however, it is conservatively assumed that the secondary containment is not isolated for a 24-h period where release occurs through an open hatch in the submarine hull. Consequently, during this period, the activity release into the atmosphere is estimated as 4.6 TBq, leading to a maximum individual dose equivalent of 0.5 mSv at 800 metres from the berthing location. This activity release is comparable to that obtained in the BEREX TSA study (for a similar accident scenario) but is four orders of magnitude less than that reported in the earlier Davis study where, unrealistically, no credit had been taken for the containment system or for any physical removal processes. (author)

  4. Seismic design and analysis of nuclear power plant structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pentti Varpasuo

    2013-01-01

    The seismic design and analysis of nuclear power plant (NPP) begin with the seismic hazard assessment and design ground motion development for the site.The following steps are needed for the seismic hazard assessment and design ground motion development:a.the development of regional seismo-tectonic model with seismic source areas within 500 km radius centered to the site; b.the development of strong motion prediction equations;c.logic three development for taking into account uncertainties and seismic hazard quantification; d.the development of uniform hazard response spectra for ground motion at the site; e.simulation of acceleration time histories compatible with uniform hazard response spectra.The following phase two in seismic design of NPP structures is the analysis of structural response for the design ground motion.This second phase of the process consists of the following steps:a.development of structural models of the plant buildings; b.development of the soil model underneath the plant buildings for soil-structure interaction response analysis; c.determination of in-structure response spectra for the plant buildings for the equipment response analysis.In the third phase of the seismic design and analysis the equipment is analyzed on the basis of in-structure response spectra.For this purpose the structural models of the mechanical components and piping in the plant are set up.In large 3D-structural models used today the heaviest equipment of the primary coolant circuit is included in the structural model of the reactor building.In the fourth phase the electrical equipment and automation and control equipment are seismically qualified with the aid of the in-structure spectra developed in the phase two using large three-axial shaking tables.For this purpose the smoothed envelope spectra for calculated in-structure spectra are constructed and acceleration time is fitted to these smoothed envelope spectra.

  5. Cold neutron microprobe for materials analysis using tapered capillary optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharov, V. A.; Xiao, Q.-F.; Ponomarev, I. Yu.; Mildner, D. F. R.; Chen-Mayer, H. H.

    2000-09-01

    A prototype monolithic capillary lens for focusing neutrons produced by thermally drawing straight multicapillary bundles has been characterized with cold neutrons, and gives an intensity gain of a factor of 25 at a focal distance of 8 mm, over the focal spot area of width 87 μm. This is over an order of magnitude smaller in area than for the multifiber capillary lens. The spatial resolution available with the lens has been tested with prompt gamma measurements on slivers of dysprosium. Background problems that can affect the spatial resolution of measurements taken at the focal position of the lens are addressed. The boron glass of the tapered monolithic lens provides good shielding from unfocused neutrons in the vicinity of the lens focus.

  6. Electron Microprobe Analysis in Guided Tissue Regeneration: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    González-Jaranay, Maximino; del Carmen Sánchez-Quevedo, María; Moreu, Gerardo; García, José Manuel; Campos, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Several procedures have been advocated as regenerative procedures in periodontology, but one of the most widely used techniques up to now is guided tissue regeneration (GTR). Likewise, different assessment methods based on clinical, radiographic or histological measurements have been proposed for the evaluation of these regenerative procedures. However, none of the methods used for human material incorporates quantitative X-ray microanalysis to assess the degree of mineralization o...

  7. Case Study for Effectiveness Analysis on Nuclear Regulatory Infrastructure Support for Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. E.; Byeon, M. J.; Yoo, J. W.; Lee, J. M.; Lim, J. H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The donor countries need to make decisions on various steps such as whether to fully accept newcomers’ requests, the depth of support, and how the supportive action will be carried out. Such is not an easy task due to limited time, resources, manpower, etc. Thus, creating an infrastructure to support emerging nuclear energy countries is needed. This paper suggests the resource portfolio concept used in business management and aims to analyze the validity of supporting the new entrants’ development of regulatory infrastructure as a case study. This study tries to develop a very simple Excel-based tool for assessing the supporting strategy quantitatively and screening the activities that is projected to be less effective and attractive. There are many countries, so called newcomers, which have expressed interests in developing their own nuclear power program. It has been recognized by the international community that every country considering embarking upon their own nuclear power program should establish their nuclear safety infrastructure to sustain a high level of nuclear safety. The newcomers have requested for considerable assistance from the IAEA and they already have bilateral cooperation programs with the advanced countries with matured nuclear regulatory programs. Currently, the regulatory bodies that provide support are confronted with two responsibilities as follows; the primary objective of the regulatory bodies is to ensure that the operator fulfills the responsibility to protect human health.

  8. Application of a beta microprobe for quantification of regional cerebral blood flow with {sup 15}O-water and PET in rhesus monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Chie; Okada, Hiroyuki; Mori, Shinsuke; Kakiuchi, Takeharu; Yoshikawa, Etsuji; Nishiyama, Shingo; Tsukada, Hideo; Yamashita, Takaji [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Shizuoka (Japan). Central Research Laboratory

    1998-02-01

    A beta microprobe was successfully applied to monitor arterial input function for quantification of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the monkey brain with {sup 15}O-water and positron emission tomography (PET). The sensitivity of the probe was approximately 0.83 to 1.67 cps/kBq/ml depending on the studies. A preliminary study was performed to find a suitable use and to evaluate the performance of the system and data analysis procedure. The results showed that dispersion correction of measured input function was unnecessary if microprobes were connected directly to the arterial catheter. Then multiple CBF measurements were done in three monkeys under anesthesia. Identical regions of interest were placed with the aid of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of each monkey and rCBF values were estimated. Estimated rCBFs were reproducible for several measurements. The mean CBF value for a pentobarbital anesthetized monkey was 46.0 ml/min/100 g (PaCO{sub 2}=46.3 mmHg). This shows that the use of the beta microprobe for quantification of rCBF with PET was validated. The lack of a need for dispersion correction of observed input function is an advantage with the beta microprobe system because the probes are small enough to be placed near the arterial sampling site. (author)

  9. Characterization of a Continuous Wave Laser for Resonance Ionization Mass Spectroscopy Analysis in Nuclear Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    OF A CONTINUOUS WAVE LASER FOR RESONANCE IONIZATION MASS SPECTROSCOPY ANALYSIS IN NUCLEAR FORENSICS by Sunny G. Lau June 2015 Thesis...IONIZATION MASS SPECTROSCOPY ANALYSIS IN NUCLEAR FORENSICS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Sunny G. Lau 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...200 words) The application of resonance ionization mass spectroscopy (RIMS) to nuclear forensics involves the use of lasers to selectively ionize

  10. Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel in an Underground Geologic Repository - Volume 3: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, L.L.; Wilson, J.R. (INEEL); Sanchez, L.C.; Aguilar, R.; Trellue, H.R.; Cochrane, K. (SNL); Rath, J.S. (New Mexico Engineering Research Institute)

    1998-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management's (DOE/EM's) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP), through a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is conducting a systematic Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) of the disposal of SNFs in an underground geologic repository sited in unsaturated tuff. This analysis is intended to provide interim guidance to the DOE for the management of the SNF while they prepare for final compliance evaluation. This report presents results from a Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) that examined the potential consequences and risks of criticality during the long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel owned by DOE-EM. This analysis investigated the potential of post-closure criticality, the consequences of a criticality excursion, and the probability frequency for post-closure criticality. The results of the NDCA are intended to provide the DOE-EM with a technical basis for measuring risk which can be used for screening arguments to eliminate post-closure criticality FEPs (features, events and processes) from consideration in the compliance assessment because of either low probability or low consequences. This report is composed of an executive summary (Volume 1), the methodology and results of the NDCA (Volume 2), and the applicable appendices (Volume 3).

  11. Nuclear Mass Visualization and Analysis at nuclearmasses.org

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael S.; Lingerfelt, Eric J.; Nesaraja, Caroline D.; Koura, Hiroyuki; Kondev, Filip G.

    2010-08-01

    Nuclear masses play an important role in a wide variety of studies, motivating a tremendous surge in new precision mass measurements and global mass models. To handle this information, and to address inadequacies of existing text-based disseminations of nuclear masses, we have built a suite of codes-online at nuclearmasses.org-to manage, visualize, access, manipulate, share, compare, and analyze nuclear mass datasets. The services at this site are described, along with plans for future development.

  12. Economic Analysis of Different Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Il Ko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An economic analysis has been performed to compare four nuclear fuel cycle options: a once-through cycle (OT, DUPIC recycling, thermal recycling using MOX fuel in a pressurized water reactor (PWR-MOX, and sodium fast reactor recycling employing pyroprocessing (Pyro-SFR. This comparison was made to suggest an economic competitive fuel cycle for the Republic of Korea. The fuel cycle cost (FCC has been calculated based on the equilibrium material flows integrated with the unit cost of the fuel cycle components. The levelized fuel cycle costs (LFCC have been derived in terms of mills/kWh for a fair comparison among the FCCs, and the results are as follows: OT 7.35 mills/kWh, DUPIC 9.06 mills/kWh, PUREX-MOX 8.94 mills/kWh, and Pyro-SFR 7.70 mills/kWh. Due to unavoidable uncertainties, a cost range has been applied to each unit cost, and an uncertainty study has been performed accordingly. A sensitivity analysis has also been carried out to obtain the break-even uranium price (215$/kgU for the Pyro-SFR against the OT, which demonstrates that the deployment of the Pyro-SFR may be economical in the foreseeable future. The influence of pyrotechniques on the LFCC has also been studied to determine at which level the potential advantages of Pyro-SFR can be realized.

  13. Multivariate analysis of gamma spectra to characterize used nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Jamie; Orton, Christopher; Schwantes, Jon

    2017-04-01

    The Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor provides an efficient means to monitor the process conditions in used nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities to support process verification and validation. The MIP Monitor applies multivariate analysis to gamma spectroscopy of key stages in the reprocessing stream in order to detect small changes in the gamma spectrum, which may indicate changes in process conditions. This research extends the MIP Monitor by characterizing a used fuel sample after initial dissolution according to the type of reactor of origin (pressurized or boiling water reactor; PWR and BWR, respectively), initial enrichment, burn up, and cooling time. Simulated gamma spectra were used to develop and test three fuel characterization algorithms. The classification and estimation models employed are based on the partial least squares regression (PLS) algorithm. A PLS discriminate analysis model was developed which perfectly classified reactor type for the three PWR and three BWR reactor designs studied. Locally weighted PLS models were fitted on-the-fly to estimate the remaining fuel characteristics. For the simulated gamma spectra considered, burn up was predicted with 0.1% root mean squared percent error (RMSPE) and both cooling time and initial enrichment with approximately 2% RMSPE. This approach to automated fuel characterization can be used to independently verify operator declarations of used fuel characteristics and to inform the MIP Monitor anomaly detection routines at later stages of the fuel reprocessing stream to improve sensitivity to changes in operational parameters that may indicate issues with operational control or malicious activities.

  14. Sensitivity analysis of FDS 6 results for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvear, Daniel; Puente, Eduardo; Abreu, Orlando [Cantabria Univ., Santander (Spain). Group GIDAI - Fire Safety-Research and Technology; Peco, Julian [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-12-15

    The Spanish standard ''Instruction IS-30, Rev. 1'' (February 21, 2013) allows the new approaches of risk informed performance based design (PBD) The Spanish standard ''Instruction IS-30, rev. 1'' (February 21, 2013) for demonstrating the safe shutdown capability in case of fire in nuclear power plants. In this sense, fire computer models have become an interesting tool to study real fire scenarios. Such models use a set of input parameters that define the features of the physical domain, material, radiation, turbulence, etc. This paper analyses the impact of the grid size and different sub-models of the fire simulation code FDS, version 6 with the objective to evaluate and define their relative weight in the final simulation results. For the grid size analysis, two different scale scenarios were selected, the bench scale test PENLIGHT and a large-scale test similar to Appendix B of NUREG - 1934 (17 m x 10 m x 4.6 m, with an ignition source of 2 MW and 16 cable trays). For the sub-model analysis, the PRS-INT4 real scale configuration of the INTEGRAL experimental campaign of the international OECD PRISME Project has been used. The results offer relevant data for users and show the critical parameters that must be selected properly to guarantee the quality of the simulations.

  15. Multivariate analysis of gamma spectra to characterize used nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coble, Jamie; Orton, Christopher; Schwantes, Jon

    2017-04-01

    Abstract—The Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor provides an efficient approach to monitoring the process conditions in used nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities to support process verification and validation. The MIP Monitor applies multivariate analysis to gamma spectroscopy of reprocessing streams in order to detect small changes in the gamma spectrum, which may indicate changes in process conditions. This research extends the MIP Monitor by characterizing a used fuel sample after initial dissolution according to the type of reactor of origin (pressurized or boiling water reactor), initial enrichment, burn up, and cooling time. Simulated gamma spectra were used to develop and test three fuel characterization algorithms. The classification and estimation models employed are based on the partial least squares regression (PLS) algorithm. A PLS discriminate analysis model was developed which perfectly classified reactor type. Locally weighted PLS models were fitted on-the-fly to estimate continuous fuel characteristics. Burn up was predicted within 0.1% root mean squared percent error (RMSPE) and both cooling time and initial enrichment within approximately 2% RMSPE. This automated fuel characterization can be used to independently verify operator declarations of used fuel characteristics and inform the MIP Monitor anomaly detection routines at later stages of the fuel reprocessing stream to improve sensitivity to changes in operational parameters and material diversions.

  16. UPVapor: Cofrentes nuclear power plant production results analysis software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curiel, M. [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales SAU, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain); Palomo, M. J. [ISIRYM, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, Valencia (Spain); Baraza, A. [Iberdrola Generacion S. A., Central Nuclear Cofrentes, Carretera Almansa Requena s/n, 04662 Cofrentes, Valencia (Spain); Vaquer, J., E-mail: m.curiel@lainsa.co [TITANIA Servicios Tecnologicos SL, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    UPVapor software version 02 has been developed for the Cofrentes nuclear power plant Data Analysis Department (Spain). It is an analysis graphical environment in which users have available all the plant variables registered in the process computer system (SIEC). In order to perform this, UPVapor software has many advanced graphic tools for work simplicity, as well as a friendly environment easy to use and with many configuration possibilities. Plant variables are classified in the same way that they are in SIEC computer and these values are taken from it through the network of Iberdrola. UPVapor can generate two different types of graphics: evolution graphs and X Y graphs. The first ones analyse the evolution up to twenty plant variables in a user's defined time period and according to historic plant files. Many tools are available: cursors, graphic configuration, mobile means, non valid data visualization ... Moreover, a particular analysis configuration can be saved, as a pre selection, giving the possibility of charging pre selection directly and developing quick monitoring of a group of preselected plant variables. In X Y graphs, it is possible to analyse a variable value against another variable in a defined time. As an option, users can filter previous data depending on a variable certain range, with the possibility of programming up to five filters. As well as the other graph, X Y graph has many configurations, saving and printing options. With UPVapor software, data analysts can save a valuable time during daily work and, as it is of easy utilization, it permits to other users to perform their own analysis without ask the analysts to develop. Besides, it can be used from any work centre with access to network framework. (Author)

  17. Stereological analysis of nuclear volume in recurrent meningiomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, C; Schrøder, H D

    1994-01-01

    A stereological estimation of nuclear volume in recurrent and non-recurrent meningiomas was made. The aim was to investigate whether this method could discriminate between these two groups. We found that the mean nuclear volumes in recurrent meningiomas were all larger at debut than in any...... of the control tumors. The mean nuclear volume of the individual recurrent tumors appeared to change with time, showing a tendency to diminish. A relationship between large nuclear volume at presentation and number of or time interval between recurrences was not found. We conclude that measurement of mean...

  18. The Dynamic Monte Carlo Method for Transient Analysis of Nuclear Reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjenitzer, B.L.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis a new method for the analysis of power transients in a nuclear reactor is developed, which is more accurate than the present state-of-the-art methods. Transient analysis is important tool when designing nuclear reactors, since they predict the behaviour of a reactor during changing co

  19. Review of Overall Safety Manual for space nuclear systems. An evaluation of a nuclear safety analysis methodology for plutonium-fueled space nuclear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, J.; Inhaber, H.

    1984-02-01

    As part of its duties in connection with space missions involving nuclear power sources, the Office of Nuclear Safety (ONS) of the Office of Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety, and Emergency Preparedness has been assigned the task of reviewing the Overall Safety Manual (OSM) (memo from B.J. Rock to J.R. Maher, December 1, 1982). The OSM, dated July 1981 and in four volumes, was prepared by NUS Corporation, Rockville, Maryland, for the US Department of Energy. The OSM provides many of the technical models and much of the data which are used by (1) space launch contractors in safety analysis reports and (2) the broader Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) safety evaluation reports. If fhs interaction between the OSM, contractors, and INSRP is to work effectively, the OSM must be accurate, comprehensive, understandable, and usable.

  20. Comparison over the nuclear analysis of the HCLL blanket for the European DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaboulay, Jean-Charles, E-mail: jean-charles.jaboulay@cea.fr [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Aiello, Giacomo; Aubert, Julien [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Villari, Rosaria [ENEA, UTFUS-TECN, Via E. Fermi 4, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Fischer, Ulrich [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • A complete nuclear analysis of the DEMO HCLL has been carried out at CEA with the TRIPOLI-4{sup ®} Monte Carlo code. • The DEMO tokamak model was generated by the CAD import tool McCad. • The HCLL blankets were implemented using a previous MCNP model developed at ENEA. • A good agreement is observed between the results obtained at CEA with TRIPOLI-4 and JEFF-3.1.1 and whose obtained at ENEA with MCNP and FENDL-2.1. - Abstract: This paper presents the comparison over the nuclear analysis of the European DEMO with HCLL blanket carried out with the TRIPOLI-4{sup ®} Monte Carlo code and the JEFF-3.1.1 nuclear data library and with the MCNP5 Monte Carlo code and the FENDL-2.1 nuclear data library. The MCNP5 analysis was conducted firstly by ENEA with a detailed 3D model describing all the HCLL blanket internal structures. This MCNP5 model was converted into TRIPOLI-4{sup ®} representation for performing the nuclear analysis at CEA with the objective to demonstrate consistency between both analyses. A very good agreement was obtained for all of the relevant nuclear responses (neutron wall loading, tritium breeding ratio, nuclear heating, neutron flux distribution, etc.), validating CEA’s nuclear analysis approach, based on TRIPOLI-4{sup ®} Monte Carlo code and JEFF-3.1.1 nuclear data library, for the European DEMO.

  1. Seismic analysis of spent nuclear fuel storage racks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, S.J.; Biddle, J.R.; Bennett, S.M.; Schechter, C.B. [Framatome Cogema Fuels, Lynchburg, VA (United States); Harstead, G.A. [Harstead Engineering Associates, Inc., Old Tappan, NJ (United States); Marquet, F. [ATEA/FRAMATOME, Carquefou (France)

    1996-06-01

    In many nuclear power plants, existing storage racks are being replaced with high-density racks to accommodate the increasing inventory of spent fuel. In the hypothetical design considered here, the high-density arrangement of fuel assemblies, or consolidated fuel canisters, is accomplished through the use of borated stainless steel (BSS) plates acting as neutron absorbers. No structural benefit from the BSS is assumed. This paper describes the methods used to perform seismic analysis of high density spent fuel storage racks. The sensitivity of important parameters such as the effect of variation of coefficients of friction between the rack legs and the pool floor and fuel loading conditions (consolidated and unconsolidated) are also discussed in the paper. Results of this study are presented. The high-density fuel racks are simply supported by the pool floor with no structural connections to adjacent racks or to the pool walls or floor. Therefore, the racks are free standing and may slide and tip. Several time history, nonlinear, seismic analyses are required to account for variations in the coefficient of friction, rack loading configuration, and the type of the seismic event. This paper presents several of the mathematical models usually used. Friction cannot be precisely predicted, so a range of friction coefficients is assumed. The range assumed for the analysis is 0.2 to 0.8. A detailed model representing a single rack is used to evaluate the 3-D loading effects. This model is a controlling case for the stress analysis. A 2-D multi-rack model representing a row of racks between the spent fuel pool walls is used to evaluate the change in gaps between racks. The racks are normally analyzed for the fuel loading conditions of consolidated, full, empty, and half-loaded with fuel assemblies.

  2. Nuclear Propulsion and Power Non-Nuclear Test Facility (NP2NTF): Preliminary Analysis and Feasibility Assessment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nuclear reactors, which power nuclear propulsion and power systems, and the nuclear radiation and residual radioactivity associated with these systems, impose...

  3. Analysis constants for database of neutron nuclear data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedenko, S. V.; Jeremiah, J. Joseph; Knyshev, V. V.; Shamanin, I. V.

    2016-07-01

    At present there is a variety of experimental and calculation nuclear data which are rather entirely presented in the following evaluated nuclear data libraries: ENDF (USA), JEFF (Europe), JENDL (Japan), TENDL (Russian Federation), ROSFOND (Russian Federation). Libraries of nuclear data, used for neutron-physics calculations in programs: Scale (Origen-Arp), MCNP, WIMS, MCU, and others. Nevertheless all existing nuclear data bases, including evaluated ones, contain practically no information about threshold neutron reactions on 232Th nuclei; available values of outputs and cross-sections significantly differ by orders. The work shows necessity of nuclear constants corrections which are used in the calculations of grids and thorium storage systems. The results of numerical experiments lattices and storage systems with thorium.

  4. Monte-Carlo Application for Nondestructive Nuclear Waste Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carasco, C.; Engels, R.; Frank, M.; Furletov, S.; Furletova, J.; Genreith, C.; Havenith, A.; Kemmerling, G.; Kettler, J.; Krings, T.; Ma, J.-L.; Mauerhofer, E.; Neike, D.; Payan, E.; Perot, B.; Rossbach, M.; Schitthelm, O.; Schumann, M.; Vasquez, R.

    2014-06-01

    Radioactive waste has to undergo a process of quality checking in order to check its conformance with national regulations prior to its transport, intermediate storage and final disposal. Within the quality checking of radioactive waste packages non-destructive assays are required to characterize their radio-toxic and chemo-toxic contents. The Institute of Energy and Climate Research - Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety of the Forschungszentrum Jülich develops in the framework of cooperation nondestructive analytical techniques for the routine characterization of radioactive waste packages at industrial-scale. During the phase of research and development Monte Carlo techniques are used to simulate the transport of particle, especially photons, electrons and neutrons, through matter and to obtain the response of detection systems. The radiological characterization of low and intermediate level radioactive waste drums is performed by segmented γ-scanning (SGS). To precisely and accurately reconstruct the isotope specific activity content in waste drums by SGS measurement, an innovative method called SGSreco was developed. The Geant4 code was used to simulate the response of the collimated detection system for waste drums with different activity and matrix configurations. These simulations allow a far more detailed optimization, validation and benchmark of SGSreco, since the construction of test drums covering a broad range of activity and matrix properties is time consuming and cost intensive. The MEDINA (Multi Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation) test facility was developed to identify and quantify non-radioactive elements and substances in radioactive waste drums. MEDINA is based on prompt and delayed gamma neutron activation analysis (P&DGNAA) using a 14 MeV neutron generator. MCNP simulations were carried out to study the response of the MEDINA facility in terms of gamma spectra, time dependence of the neutron energy spectrum

  5. Improved resolution and sensitivity on the ANSTO microprobe and it's application to {mu}-PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegele, R. [Institute for Environmental Research, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), PMB1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)], E-mail: rns@ansto.gov.au; Kachenko, A.G. [Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Ionescu, M.; Cohen, D.D. [Institute for Environmental Research, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), PMB1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2009-06-15

    We report on the improved spatial resolution of the ANSTO heavy ion microprobe, achieved through the use of a higher brightness ion source for hydrogen. The improved resolution will be demonstrated for applications of {mu}-PIXE. With the higher brightness source, a 3 {mu}m resolution was achieved for {mu}-PIXE elemental analysis. This is illustrated in high resolution images of nickel (Ni)-hyperaccumulating Hybanthus floribundus subsp. floribundus leaf tissues, where individual cells were clearly visible in the acquired elemental images. The higher resolution images illustrated that Ni was localised in epidermal cell walls.

  6. Improved resolution and sensitivity on the ANSTO microprobe and it’s application to μ-PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegele, R.; Kachenko, A. G.; Ionescu, M.; Cohen, D. D.

    2009-06-01

    We report on the improved spatial resolution of the ANSTO heavy ion microprobe, achieved through the use of a higher brightness ion source for hydrogen. The improved resolution will be demonstrated for applications of μ-PIXE. With the higher brightness source, a 3 μm resolution was achieved for μ-PIXE elemental analysis. This is illustrated in high resolution images of nickel (Ni)-hyperaccumulating Hybanthus floribundus subsp. floribundus leaf tissues, where individual cells were clearly visible in the acquired elemental images. The higher resolution images illustrated that Ni was localised in epidermal cell walls.

  7. Nuclear data evaluation and group constant generation for reactor analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Doh; Kil, Chung Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    Data testing of ENDF/B-VI.2 was performed and ACE-format continuous point-wise cross section library from ENDF/B-VI.2 for MCNP was validated through CSEWG benchmark and power plant mockup experiments. The calculated k-effective of ORNL-1, -2, -3, -4 and -10 with ENDF/B-VI are low by about 0.5% but those of L-7, -8, -9, -10 and -11 show good agreement with experiments. Overall results for uranium core with ENDF/B-VI is low in critically than with ENDF/B-V. The calculated results with ENDF/B-VI for PNL-6 {approx} 12 of plutonium core and PNL-30 {approx} 35 of mixed oxide core show good agreement with the experiments. The results of critically calculation for fast core benchmark do not show large difference between ENDF/B-VI and -V. But the calculated results of reaction rate ratio with ENDF/B-VI are improved, compared with ENDF/B-V. The calculated power distribution for VENUS PWR mockup core and typical BWR core of GE with both of ENDF/B-VI and -V agree well with measured values. From the above results, newly generated MCNP library from ENDF/B-VI is useful for nuclear and shielding design and analysis. 5 figs, 13 tabs, 11 refs. (Author).

  8. Analysis of the 1957-58 Soviet nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trabalka, J.R.; Eyman, L.D.; Auerbach, S.I.

    1979-12-01

    The occurrence of a Soviet accident in the winter of 1957-58, involving the atmospheric release of reprocessed fission wastes (cooling time approximately 1-2 yrs.), appears to have been confirmed, primarily by an analysis of the USSR radioecology literature. Due to the high population density in the affected region (Cheliabinsk Province in the highly industrialized Urals Region) and the reported level of /sup 90/Sr contamination , the event probably resulted in the evacuation and/or resettlement of the human population from a significant area (100-1000 km/sup 2/). The resulting contamination zone is estimated to have contained approximately 10/sup 6/ Ci of /sup 90/Sr (reference radionuclide); a relatively small fraction of the total may have been dispersed as an aerosol. Although a plausible explanation for the incident exists (i.e., use of now-obsolete waste storage-/sup 137/Cs isotope separation techniques), it is not yet possible, based on the limited information presently available, to completely dismiss this phenomenon as a purely historical event. It seems imperative that we have a complete explanation of the causes and consequences of this incident. Soviet experience gained in application of corrective measures would be invaluable to the rest of the world nuclear community.

  9. Nuclear Safety Analysis for the Mars Exploration Rover 2003 Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firstenberg, Henry; Rutger, Lyle L.; Mukunda, Meera; Bartram, Bart W.

    2004-02-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Mars Exploration Rover (MER) 2003 project is designed to place two mobile laboratories (Rovers) on Mars to remotely characterize a diversity of rocks and soils. Milestones accomplished so far include two successful launches of identical spacecraft (the MER-A and MER-B missions) from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida on June 10 and July 7, 2003. Each Rover uses eight Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs) fueled with plutonium-238 dioxide to provide local heating of Rover components. The LWRHUs are provided by the U.S. Department of Energy. In addition, small quantities of radioactive materials in sealed sources are used in scientific instrumentation on the Rover. Due to the radioactive nature of these materials and the potential for accidents, a formal Launch Approval Process requires the preparation of a Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for submittal to and independent review by an Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel. This paper presents a summary of the FSAR in terms of potential accident scenarios, probabilities, source terms, radiological consequences, mission risks, and uncertainties in the reported results.

  10. Application of CFD Codes in Nuclear Reactor Safety Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Höhne

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD is increasingly being used in nuclear reactor safety (NRS analyses as a tool that enables safety relevant phenomena occurring in the reactor coolant system to be described in more detail. Numerical investigations on single phase coolant mixing in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR have been performed at the FZD for almost a decade. The work is aimed at describing the mixing phenomena relevant for both safety analysis, particularly in steam line break and boron dilution scenarios, and mixing phenomena of interest for economical operation and the structural integrity. For the experimental investigation of horizontal two phase flows, different non pressurized channels and the TOPFLOW Hot Leg model in a pressure chamber was build and simulated with ANSYS CFX. In a common project between the University of Applied Sciences Zittau/Görlitz and FZD the behaviour of insulation material released by a LOCA released into the containment and might compromise the long term emergency cooling systems is investigated. Moreover, the actual capability of CFD is shown to contribute to fuel rod bundle design with a good CHF performance.

  11. Cost benefit analysis for remediation of a nuclear industry landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Tom; Hardisty, Paul [WorleyParsons Komex, Bristol (United Kingdom); Dennis, Frank; Liddiard, Mark; McClelland, Paul [UKAEA, Dounreay (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-15

    An old landfill site, licensed to receive inert construction waste, is situated on the top of hard rock cliffs adjacent to the sea at the Dounreay nuclear facility in Scotland. During restoration and investigation work at the landfill, radioactively contaminated material and asbestos was identified. UKAEA subsequently investigated the feasibility of remediating the landfill with the aim of removing any remaining radioactive or otherwise-contaminated material. The cost of landfill remediation would be considerable, making Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) an ideal tool for assessing remediation options. The overall conclusion of the CBA, from a remedial decision making point of view, is that the remediation objective for the landfill should be to reduce any impacts to the current receptors through a comprehensive pathway control scheme. This would be considerably less expensive than even a limited source removal approach. Aggressive source removal objectives are not likely to be economic, even under the most conservative assumptions. A natural monitored attenuation approach will not be economic. All remediation options are considered assuming compliance with the existing regulatory requirements to monitor and cap the landfill before and after closure.

  12. Survey Analysis on Nuclear Security Culture Recognition of Nuclear Facility in 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Yunjeong; Lee, Jeongho; Kim, Jaekwang [Korea Institute of Nonproliferation and Control International Nuclear Security Academy, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    All organizations involved in implementing physical protection should give due priority to the security culture, to its development and maintenance necessary to ensure its effective implementation in the entire organization. In this context, Korea Institute of Non-proliferation and Control(KINAC) confirms recognition about protection of people who work in nuclear field and developed questionnaire for utilizing fundamental data for nuclear security culture enhancement activity and conducted a survey. As a result, systematic education needs to employees. Choosing differentiated topic is required to consider employees because recognition level of age, position and division is different. And a variety of education technology as obligatory education such as filling the course time or the one-off thing has limitation. And taking complementary measures needs since there were many opinions that employees feel difficult to understand papers such as regulation and guidelines and so on related security. Finally, we hope to make fundament available to evaluate nuclear security culture recognition level based on the existing questionnaire would be changed to realistic and enhancement in recognition survey for future nuclear security culture.

  13. A Study for Appropriateness of National Nuclear Policy by using Economic Analysis Methodology after Fukushima accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Jong Myoung; Roh, Myung Sub [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The aim of this paper is to clarify the appropriateness of national nuclear policy in BPE of Korea from an economic perspective. To do this, this paper only focus on the economic analysis methodology without any considering other conditions such as political, cultural, or historical things. In a number of countries, especially Korea, nuclear energy policy is keeping the status quo after Fukushima accident. However the nation's nuclear policy may vary depending on the choice of people. Thus, to make the right decisions, it is important to deliver accurate information and knowledge about nuclear energy to the people. As proven in this paper, the levelized cost of nuclear power is the most inexpensive among the base load units. As the reliance on nuclear power is getting stronger through the economic logic, the nuclear safety and environmental elements will be strengthened. Based on this, national nuclear policy should be promoted. In the aftermath of the Fukushima accident recognized as the world's worst nuclear disaster since the Chernobyl, there are some changes in the nuclear energy policy of various countries. Germany, for example, called a halt to operate Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) which accounts for about 7.5% of the national power generation capacity of 6.3GW. In developing countries such as China and India they conducted the safety check of the nuclear power plants again before preceding their nuclear business. Korea government announced 'The 6th Basic Plan for Long-term Electricity Supply and Demand (BPE)', considering the safety and general public acceptance of the nuclear power plants. According to BPE, they postponed a plan for additional NPP construction, except for constructions that had been already reflected in the 5th BPE. All told, the responses for nuclear energy policy of countries are different depending on their own circumstances.

  14. Oil prices, nuclear energy consumption, and economic growth: New evidence using a heterogeneous panel analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chien-Chiang, E-mail: cclee@cm.nsysu.edu.t [Department of Finance, National Sun Yat-sen University Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chiu, Yi-Bin [Department of Finance, National Sun Yat-sen University Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2011-04-15

    This paper applies panel data analysis to examine the short-run dynamics and long-run equilibrium relationships among nuclear energy consumption, oil prices, oil consumption, and economic growth for developed countries covering the period 1971-2006. The panel cointegration results show that in the long run, oil prices have a positive impact on nuclear energy consumption, suggesting the existence of the substitution relationship between nuclear energy and oil. The long-run elasticity of nuclear energy with respect to real income is approximately 0.89, and real income has a greater impact on nuclear energy than do oil prices in the long run. Furthermore, the panel causality results find evidence of unidirectional causality running from oil prices and economic growth to nuclear energy consumption in the long run, while there is no causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in the short run. - Research highlights: {yields} We examine the relationship among nuclear energy consumption, oil prices, oil consumption, and economic growth for developed countries. {yields} The existence of the substitution relationship between nuclear energy and oil. {yields} Real income has a greater impact on nuclear energy than do oil prices in the long run. {yields} An unidirectional causality running from oil prices and economic growth to nuclear energy consumption in the long run.

  15. Dynamic Systems Analysis Report for Nuclear Fuel Recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent Dixon; Sonny Kim; David Shropshire; Steven Piet; Gretchen Matthern; Bill Halsey

    2008-12-01

    This report examines the time-dependent dynamics of transitioning from the current United States (U.S.) nuclear fuel cycle where used nuclear fuel is disposed in a repository to a closed fuel cycle where the used fuel is recycled and only fission products and waste are disposed. The report is intended to help inform policy developers, decision makers, and program managers of system-level options and constraints as they guide the formulation and implementation of advanced fuel cycle development and demonstration efforts and move toward deployment of nuclear fuel recycling infrastructure.

  16. Prospective analysis. Nuclear deterrence in 2030; Essai de prospective. La dissuasion nucleaire en 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tertrais, B

    2006-12-15

    This study is a prospective analysis of the long-term future of nuclear weapons, and particularly the future of French nuclear deterrence after 2015. The selected time period is 2025-2030. The principal objective is to reflect on what the nuclear world might look like during the first part of the 21 st century, beyond the modernization decisions already planned or envisaged, and to draw conclusions for the future of the French deterrent. (author)

  17. Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) for trace element detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebeli, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Noll, K. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Ion beam induced nuclear reactions can be used to analyse trace element concentrations in materials. The method is especially suited for the detection of light contaminants in heavy matrices. (author) 3 figs., 2 refs.

  18. [Investigation of Carbonaceous Airborne Particles by Scanning Proton Microprobe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Liang-man; Liu, Jiang-feng; Lei, Qian-tao; Li, Xiao-lin; Zhang, Gui-lin; Li, Yan

    2016-01-15

    Carbonaceous particles are an important component of the atmospheric aerosol particles and important for global climate change, air quality and human health. The PM₁₀ single particles from two environmental monitor locations and seven pollution emission sources were analyzed using scanning proton microprobe (SPM) techniques. The concentration of carbon in individual particles was quantitatively determined by proton non-Rutherford elastic backscattering spectrometry (EBS). The results of this investigation showed that carbonaceous particles were dominant in the pollution sources of coal and oil combustions, diesel busexhaust and automobile exhaust, while inorganic particles were dominant in the sources of steel industry, cement dust and soil dust. Carbonaceous matter was enriched in particles from the city center, while mineral matter was the main component of airborne particles in the industrial area. Elemental mapping of single aerosol particles yielded important information on the chemical reactions of aerosol particles. The micro-PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) maps of S, Ca and Fe of individual carbonaceous particles showed that sulfuration reaction occurred between SO₂and mineral particles, which increased the sulfur content of particles.

  19. Raman microprobe measurements of stress in ion implanted materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, K.W.; Prawer, S.; Weiser, P.S.; Dooley, S.P. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1993-12-31

    Raman microprobe measurements of ion implanted diamond and silicon have shown significant shifts in the Raman line due to stresses in the materials. The Raman line shifts to higher energy if the stress is compressive and to lower energy for tensile stress{sup 1}. The silicon sample was implanted in a 60 {mu}m square with 2.56 x 10{sup 17} ions per square centimeter of 2 MeV Helium. This led to the formation of raised squares with the top 370mm above the original surface. In Raman studies of silicon using visible light, the depth of penetration of the laser beam into the sample is much less than one micron. It was found that the Raman line is due to the silicon overlying the damage region. The diamond sample was implanted with 2 x 10{sup 15} ions per square centimeter of 2.8 MeV carbon. It was concluded that the Raman spectrum could provide information concerning both the magnitude and the direction of stress in an ion implanted sample. It was possible in some cases to determine whether the stress direction is parallel or perpendicular to the sample surface. 1 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Analysis of keff Uncertainty on Nuclear Data of CEFR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Jun; YU; Hong; XU; Li; HU; Yun

    2013-01-01

    The uncertainty to nuclear data is an important part of the total uncertainty of keff calculation value.In order to analyze the nuclear data uncertainty of keff for CEFR,a general expression of sensitivity to an integral quantity was derived based on the generalize perturbation theory(GPT).Using this general expression,the specific calculation formula of the sensitivity of keff was given,and the multi-group

  1. Providing Nuclear Criticality Safety Analysis Education through Benchmark Experiment Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Bess; J. Blair Briggs; David W. Nigg

    2009-11-01

    One of the challenges that today's new workforce of nuclear criticality safety engineers face is the opportunity to provide assessment of nuclear systems and establish safety guidelines without having received significant experience or hands-on training prior to graduation. Participation in the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and/or the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) provides students and young professionals the opportunity to gain experience and enhance critical engineering skills.

  2. Risk analysis and solving the nuclear waste siting problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inhaber, H.

    1993-12-01

    In spite of millions of dollars and countless human resources being expended on finding nuclear wastes sites, the search has proved extremely difficult for the nuclear industry. This may be due to the approach followed, rather than inadequacies in research or funding. A new approach to the problem, the reverse Dutch auction, is suggested. It retains some of the useful elements of the present system, but it also adds new ones.

  3. Theory of equidistant three-dimensional radiance measurements with optical microprobes RID A-1977-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    FukshanskyKazarinova, N.; Fukshansky, L.; Kuhl, Morten;

    1996-01-01

    Fiber-optic radiance microprobes, increasingly applied for measurements of internal light fields in living tissues, provide three-dimensional radiance distribution solids and radiant energy fluence rates at different depths of turbid samples. These data are, however, distorted because...... of an inherent feature of optical fibers: nonuniform angular sensitivity. Because of this property a radiance microprobe during a single measurement partly underestimates light from the envisaged direction and partly senses light from other directions. A theory of three-dimensional equidistant radiance...... measurements has been developed that provides correction for this instrumental error using the independently obtained function of the angular sensitivity of the microprobe. For the first time, as far as we know, the measurements performed with different radiance microprobes are comparable. An example...

  4. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranyl nitrate solutions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranyl nitrate solution to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Determination of Uranium 7 Specific Gravity by Pycnometry 15-20 Free Acid by Oxalate Complexation 21-27 Determination of Thorium 28 Determination of Chromium 29 Determination of Molybdenum 30 Halogens Separation by Steam Distillation 31-35 Fluoride by Specific Ion Electrode 36-42 Halogen Distillate Analysis: Chloride, Bromide, and Iodide by Amperometric Microtitrimetry 43 Determination of Chloride and Bromide 44 Determination of Sulfur by X-Ray Fluorescence 45 Sulfate Sulfur by (Photometric) Turbidimetry 46 Phosphorus by the Molybdenum Blue (Photometric) Method 54-61 Silicon by the Molybdenum Blue (Photometric) Method 62-69 Carbon by Persulfate Oxidation-Acid Titrimetry 70 Conversion to U3O8 71-74 Boron by ...

  5. Systems Thinking Safety Analysis: Nuclear Security Assessment of Physical Protection System in Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Ho Woo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamical assessment has been performed in the aspect of the nuclear power plants (NPPs security. The physical protection system (PPS is constructed by the cyber security evaluation tool (CSET for the nuclear security assessment. The systems thinking algorithm is used for the quantifications by the Vensim software package. There is a period of 60 years which is the life time of NPPs' operation. The maximum possibility happens as 3.59 in the 30th year. The minimum value is done as 1.26 in the 55th year. The difference is about 2.85 times. The results of the case with time delay have shown that the maximum possibility of terror or sabotage incident happens as 447.42 in the 58th year and the minimum value happens as 89.77 in the 51st year. The difference is about 4.98 times. Hence, if the sabotage happens, the worst case is that the intruder can attack the target of the nuclear material in about one and a half hours. The general NPPs are modeled in the study and controlled by the systematic procedures.

  6. Subsidence analysis Forsmark nuclear power plant - unit 1; Saettningsanalys Forsmarks kaernkraftverk - aggregat 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bono, Nancy; Fredriksson, Anders; Maersk Hansen, Lars (Golder Associates AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    On behalf of SKB, Golder Associates Ltd carried out a risk analysis of subsidence during Forsmark nuclear power plant in the construction of the final repository for spent nuclear fuel near and below existing reactors. Specifically, the effect of horizontal cracks have been studied.

  7. Statistical analysis in the design of nuclear fuel cells; Analisis estadistico en el diseno de celdas de combustible nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo M, J. A.; Ortiz S, J. J.; Montes T, J. L.; Perusquia del Cueto, R., E-mail: alejandro.castillo@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    This work presents the preliminary results of a statistical analysis carried out for the design of nuclear fuel cells. The analysis consists in verifying the behavior of a cell, related with the frequency of the pines used for its design. In this preliminary study was analyzed the behavior of infinite multiplication factor and the peak factor of local power. On the other hand, the mentioned analysis was carried out using a pines group of enriched uranium previously established, for which varies the pines frequency used in the design. To carry out the study, the CASMO-IV code was used. The obtained designs are for the different axial areas of a fuel assembly. A balance cycle of the unit 1 of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde was used like reference. To obtain the result of the present work, systems that are already had and in which have already been implemented the heuristic techniques of ant colonies, neural networks and a hybrid between the dispersed search and the trajectories re-chaining. The results show that is possible to design nuclear fuel cells with a good performance, if is considered a statistical behavior in the frequency of the used pines, in a same way. (Author)

  8. Computer programs for absolute neutron activation analysis on the nuclear data 6620 data acquisition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, J.W.; Emery, J.F.

    1982-03-01

    Five computer programs that provide multielement neutron activation analysis are discussed. The software package was designed for use on the Nuclear Data 6620 Data Acquisition System and interacts with existing Nuclear Data Corporation software. The programs were developed to make use of the capabilities of the 6620 system to analyze large numbers of samples and assist in a large sample workload that had begun in the neutron activation analysis facility of the Oak Ridge Research Reactor. Nuclear Data neutron activation software is unable to perform absolute activation analysis and therefore was inefficient and inadequate for our applications.

  9. Analysis of nuclear proliferation resistance reprocessing and recycling technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; Gary Cerefice; Marcela Stacey; Steven Bakhtiar

    2011-05-01

    The PUREX process has been progressively and continuously improved during the past three decades, and these improvements account for successful commercialization of reprocessing in a few countries. The renewed interest in nuclear energy and the international growth of nuclear electricity generation do not equate – and should not be equated -with increasing proliferation risks. Indeed, the nuclear renaissance presents a unique opportunity to enhance the culture of non-proliferation. With the recent revival of interest in nuclear technology, technical methods for prevention of nuclear proliferation are being revisited. Robust strategies to develop new advanced separation technologies are emerging worldwide for sustainability and advancement of nuclear energy with enhanced proliferation resistance. On the other hand, at this moment, there are no proliferation resistance advanced technologies. . Until now proliferation resistance as it applies to reprocessing has been focused on not separating a pure stream of weapons-usable plutonium. France, as an example, has proposed a variant of the PUREX process, the COEX TM process, which does not result on a pure plutonium product stream. A further step is to implement a process based on group extraction of actinides and fission products associated with a homogeneous recycling strategy (UNEX process in the US, GANEX process in France). Such scheme will most likely not be deployable on an industrial scale before 2030 or so because it requires intensive R&D and robust flowsheets. Finally, future generation recycling schemes will handle the used nuclear fuel in fast neutron reactors. This means that the plutonium throughput of the recycling process may increase. The need is obvious for advanced aqueous recycling technologies that are intrinsically more proliferation resistant than the commercial PUREX process. In this paper, we review the actual PUREX process along with the advanced recycling technologies that will enhance

  10. Comparative analysis of dosimetry parameters for nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toohey, R.E.; Stabin, M.G. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1999-01-01

    For years many have employed the concept of ``total-body dose`` or ``whole-body dose,`` i.e., the total energy deposited in the body divided by the mass of the body, when evaluating the risks of different nuclear medicine procedures. The effective dose equivalent (H{sub E}), first described in ICRP Publication 26, has been accepted by some as a better quantity to use in evaluating the total risk of a procedure, but its use has been criticized by others primarily because the tissue weighting factors were intended for use in the radiation worker, rather than the nuclear medicine patient population. Nevertheless, in ICRP Publication 52, the ICRP has suggested that the H{sub E} may be used in nuclear medicine. The ICRP also has published a compendium of dose estimates, including H{sub E} values, for various nuclear medicine procedures at various ages in ICRP Publication 53. The effective dose (E) of ICRP Publication 60 is perhaps more suitable for use in nuclear medicine, with tissue weighting factors based on the entire population. Other comparisons of H{sub E} and E have been published. The authors have used the program MIRDOSE 3.1 to compute total-body dose, H{sub E}, and E for 62 radiopharmaceutical procedures, based on the best current biokinetic data available.

  11. Analysis of prospects for advanced nuclear reactors in western countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Sapia, R. [ENEA, Rome (Italy). Area Energetica; Foskolos, K. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1994-05-01

    Nuclear energy deployment faces stagnation in western european and north american countries as a result of barriers that have appeared over the years. Such barriers were identified in the domains of economics, public acceptance, energy policy, technology, licensing and regulations as well as environment and waste disposal. It is to the nuclear community and particularly the industry to take the initiative and the leadership role for the most significant approaches to overcome these barriers. These approaches include concetration of efforts, lowering of costs and financial risks and extensive use of the experience accumulated so far; clear setting of priorities and long-term global consideration of the energy issue; encouraging an appropriate, stable regulatory environment and harmonisation of general safety objectives and principles, and adequate, globally consistent and clear information to the public. Also within the prime responsability of the nuclear community belong the safe operation of existing plants; making available all necessary information to the public, the media and the political leaders, supporting the development and execution of national energy polcies; supporting authorities in improving regulatory processes; taking all measures to improve economics of nuclear power; pursuing plans for the safe disposal of radioactive wastes. Governments should place energy issues in the appropriate priority level and encourage the establishment of an equally favourable environment for nuclear energy, including a greater consensus among controversial opinion representatives. Finally, authorities should established reasonable, transparent and predictable regulatory enviroments. This paper describes the barriers in a systematic way and proposes appropriate measures to overcame them.

  12. Direct reading spectrochemical analysis of nuclear graphite; Analisis espectroquimico de lectura directa de grafito nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca Adell, M.; Becerro Ruiz, E.; Alvarez Gonzalez, F.

    1964-07-01

    A description is given about the application of a direct-reading spectrometer the Quantometer, to the determination of boron. calcium, iron, titanium and vanadium in nuclear grade graphite. for boron the powdered sample is mixed with 1% cupric fluoride and excited in a 10-amperes direct current arc and graphite electrodes with a crater 7 mm wide and 10 mm deep. For the other elements a smaller crater has been used and dilution with a number of matrices has been investigated; the best results are achieved by employing 25% cupric fluoride. The sensitivity limit for boron is 0,15 ppm. (Author) 21 refs.

  13. Factorized molecular wave functions: Analysis of the nuclear factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefebvre, R., E-mail: roland.lefebvre@u-psud.fr [Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d’ Orsay, Bâtiment 350, UMR8214, CNRS- Université. Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay, France and Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UFR925, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2015-06-07

    The exact factorization of molecular wave functions leads to nuclear factors which should be nodeless functions. We reconsider the case of vibrational perturbations in a diatomic species, a situation usually treated by combining Born-Oppenheimer products. It was shown [R. Lefebvre, J. Chem. Phys. 142, 074106 (2015)] that it is possible to derive, from the solutions of coupled equations, the form of the factorized function. By increasing artificially the interstate coupling in the usual approach, the adiabatic regime can be reached, whereby the wave function can be reduced to a single product. The nuclear factor of this product is determined by the lowest of the two potentials obtained by diagonalization of the potential matrix. By comparison with the nuclear wave function of the factorized scheme, it is shown that by a simple rectification, an agreement is obtained between the modified nodeless function and that of the adiabatic scheme.

  14. Neutron analysis of the fuel of high temperature nuclear reactors; Analisis neutronico del combustible de reactores nucleares de alta temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastida O, G. E.; Francois L, J. L., E-mail: gbo729@yahoo.com.mx [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    In this work a neutron analysis of the fuel of some high temperature nuclear reactors is presented, studying its main features, besides some alternatives of compound fuel by uranium and plutonium, and of coolant: sodium and helium. For this study was necessary the use of a code able to carry out a reliable calculation of the main parameters of the fuel. The use of the Monte Carlo method was convenient to simulate the neutrons transport in the reactor core, which is the base of the Serpent code, with which the calculations will be made for the analysis. (Author)

  15. Stanford-USGS shrimp-RG ion microprobe: A new approach to determining the distribution of trace elements in coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, A.; Wooden, J.L.; Persing, H.M.; Zielinski, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    The distribution of Cr and other trace metals of environmental interest in a range of widely used U.S. coals was investigated using the Stanford-USGS SHRIMP-RG ion microprobe . Using the oxygen ion source, concentrations of Cr (11 to 176 ppm), V (23 to 248 ppm), Mn (2 to 149 ppm), Ni (2 to 30 ppm), and 13 other elements were determined in illite/smectite, a group of clay minerals commonly present in coal. The results confirm previous indirect or semi-quantitative determinations indicating illite/smectite to be an important host of these metals. Calibration was achieved using doped aluminosilicate-glass synthetic standards and glasses prepared from USGS rock standards. Grains for analysis were identified optically, and confirmed by 1) precursory electron microprobe analysis and wavelength-dispersive compositional mapping, and 2) SHRIMP-RG major element data obtained concurrently with trace element results. Follow-up investigations will focus on the distribution of As and other elements that are more effectively ionized with the cesium primary beam currently being tested.

  16. Nuclear forensic analysis of a non-traditional actinide sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Jamie L; Kuhn, Kevin; Byerly, Benjamin; Colletti, Lisa; Fulwyler, James; Garduno, Katherine; Keller, Russell; Lujan, Elmer; Martinez, Alexander; Myers, Steve; Porterfield, Donivan; Spencer, Khalil; Stanley, Floyd; Townsend, Lisa; Thomas, Mariam; Walker, Laurie; Xu, Ning; Tandon, Lav

    2016-10-01

    Nuclear forensic publications, performance tests, and research and development efforts typically target the bulk global inventory of intentionally safeguarded materials, such as plutonium (Pu) and uranium (U). Other materials, such as neptunium (Np), pose a nuclear security risk as well. Trafficking leading to recovery of an interdicted Np sample is a realistic concern especially for materials originating in countries that reprocesses fuel. Using complementary forensic methods, potential signatures for an unknown Np oxide sample were investigated. Measurement results were assessed against published Np processes to present hypotheses as to the original intended use, method of production, and origin for this Np oxide.

  17. Style, content and format guide for writing safety analysis documents. Volume 1, Safety analysis reports for DOE nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of Volume 1 of this 4-volume style guide is to furnish guidelines on writing and publishing Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) for DOE nuclear facilities at Sandia National Laboratories. The scope of Volume 1 encompasses not only the general guidelines for writing and publishing, but also the prescribed topics/appendices contents along with examples from typical SARs for DOE nuclear facilities.

  18. Adapting Human Reliability Analysis from Nuclear Power to Oil and Gas Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-09-01

    ABSTRACT: Human reliability analysis (HRA), as currently used in risk assessments, largely derives its methods and guidance from application in the nuclear energy domain. While there are many similarities be-tween nuclear energy and other safety critical domains such as oil and gas, there remain clear differences. This paper provides an overview of HRA state of the practice in nuclear energy and then describes areas where refinements to the methods may be necessary to capture the operational context of oil and gas. Many key distinctions important to nuclear energy HRA such as Level 1 vs. Level 2 analysis may prove insignifi-cant for oil and gas applications. On the other hand, existing HRA methods may not be sensitive enough to factors like the extensive use of digital controls in oil and gas. This paper provides an overview of these con-siderations to assist in the adaptation of existing nuclear-centered HRA methods to the petroleum sector.

  19. Comparison of Hazard Analysis Requirements for Instrumentation and Control System of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jang Soo [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Jun Beom [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    A hazard, in general, is defined as 'potential for harm.' In this paper, the scope of 'harm' is limited to the loss of a safety function in a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The Hazard Analysis (HA) of an Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems is to identify the relationship from the logical faults, error, and failure of I and C systems to the physical harm of the nuclear power plant, and also to find the impact of the external hazard, e.g., tsunami, of the nuclear power plant to the I and C systems. This paper includes the survey of the existing hazard analysis requirements in the nuclear industries. The purpose of the paper is to compare the HA requirements in various international standards in unclear domain, specifically the safety requirements and guidance for the instrumentation and control system for the nuclear power plant from IAEA, IEC, IEEE, and NRC.

  20. Handbook of nuclear engineering: vol 1: nuclear engineering fundamentals; vol 2: reactor design; vol 3: reactor analysis; vol 4: reactors of waste disposal and safeguards

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The Handbook of Nuclear Engineering is an authoritative compilation of information regarding methods and data used in all phases of nuclear engineering. Addressing nuclear engineers and scientists at all academic levels, this five volume set provides the latest findings in nuclear data and experimental techniques, reactor physics, kinetics, dynamics and control. Readers will also find a detailed description of data assimilation, model validation and calibration, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, fuel management and cycles, nuclear reactor types and radiation shielding. A discussion of radioactive waste disposal, safeguards and non-proliferation, and fuel processing with partitioning and transmutation is also included. As nuclear technology becomes an important resource of non-polluting sustainable energy in the future, The Handbook of Nuclear Engineering is an excellent reference for practicing engineers, researchers and professionals.

  1. Human Reliability Analysis for Digitized Nuclear Power Plants: Case Study on the LingAo II Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua Zou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main control room (MCR in advanced nuclear power plants (NPPs has changed from analog to digital control system (DCS. Operation and control have become more automated, centralized, and accurate due to the digitalization of NPPs, which has improved the efficiency and security of the system. New issues associated with human reliability inevitably arise due to the adoption of new accident procedures and digitalization of main control rooms in NPPs. The LingAo II NPP is the first digital NPP in China to apply the state-oriented procedure. In order to address issues related to human reliability analysis for DCS and DCS + state-oriented procedure, the Hunan Institute of Technology conducted a research project based on a cooperative agreement with the LingDong Nuclear Power Co. Ltd. This paper is a brief introduction to the project.

  2. Nuclear expert web mining system: monitoring and analysis of nuclear acceptance by information retrieval and opinion extraction on the Internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Thiago; Barroso, Antonio C.O.; Imakuma, Kengo, E-mail: thiagoreis@usp.b, E-mail: barroso@ipen.b, E-mail: kimakuma@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a research initiative that aims to collect nuclear related information and to analyze opinionated texts by mining the hypertextual data environment and social networks web sites on the Internet. Different from previous approaches that employed traditional statistical techniques, it is being proposed a novel Web Mining approach, built using the concept of Expert Systems, for massive and autonomous data collection and analysis. The initial step has been accomplished, resulting in a framework design that is able to gradually encompass a set of evolving techniques, methods, and theories in such a way that this work will build a platform upon which new researches can be performed more easily by just substituting modules or plugging in new ones. Upon completion it is expected that this research will contribute to the understanding of the population views on nuclear technology and its acceptance. (author)

  3. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium nitrate solutions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium nitrate solutions to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Plutonium by Controlled-Potential Coulometry Plutonium by Amperometric Titration with Iron(II) Plutonium by Diode Array Spectrophotometry Free Acid by Titration in an Oxalate Solution 8 to 15 Free Acid by Iodate Precipitation-Potentiometric Titration Test Method 16 to 22 Uranium by Arsenazo I Spectrophotometric Test Method 23 to 33 Thorium by Thorin Spectrophotometric Test Method 34 to 42 Iron by 1,10-Phenanthroline Spectrophotometric Test Method 43 to 50 Impurities by ICP-AES Chloride by Thiocyanate Spectrophotometric Test Method 51 to 58 Fluoride by Distillation-Spectrophotometric Test Method 59 to 66 Sulfate by Barium Sulfate Turbidimetric Test Method 67 to 74 Isotopic Composition by Mass Spectrom...

  4. The 2011 nuclear medicine technology job analysis project of the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dan; Hubble, William; Press, Bret A; Hall, Scott K; Michels, Ann D; Koenen, Roxanne; Vespie, Alan W

    2010-12-01

    The American Registry of Radiologic Technologists (ARRT) conducts periodic job analysis projects to update the content and eligibility requirements for all certification examinations. In 2009, the ARRT conducted a comprehensive job analysis project to update the content specifications and clinical competency requirements for the nuclear medicine technology examination. ARRT staff and a committee of volunteer nuclear medicine technologists designed a job analysis survey that was sent to a random sample of 1,000 entry-level staff nuclear medicine technologists. Through analysis of the survey data and judgments of the committee, the project resulted in changes to the nuclear medicine technology examination task list, content specifications, and clinical competency requirements. The primary changes inspired by the project were the introduction of CT content to the examination and the expansion of the content covering cardiac procedures.

  5. 78 FR 4477 - Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... subsection to NUREG-0800, ``Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power... incorporate the final approved guidance into the next revision of NUREG 0800. Dated at Rockville,...

  6. Elementary analysis of the corrosion products in the nuclear power plants` primary water; Ydinvoimalaitosveden korroosiotuotteiden alkuaineanalytiikka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, R.

    1995-02-01

    The study, based on a literature survey, concentrates on the sampling and analysis methods of the dissolved or colloidal transition metals: iron, manganese, nickel and cobalt in the primary coolant waters of the nuclear power plants. (73 refs.).

  7. Sensitivity analysis in discrete multiple criteria decision problems: on the siting of nuclear power plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, R.; Rietveld, P.

    1989-01-01

    Inclusion of evaluation methods in decision support systems gives way to extensive sensitivity analysis. In this article new methods for sensitivityanalysis are developed and applied to the siting of nuclear power plants in the Netherlands.

  8. A study of aluminium-exposed fish using a scanning proton microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cholewa, M.; Legge, G.L.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Eeckhaoudt, S.; Van Grieken, R. [Universitaire Instelling Antwerpen, Antwerp (Belgium)

    1993-12-31

    A major problem has arisen in Europe with the depopulation of fresh water fish in lakes and streams collecting acid rain. The sensitivity to acidification is species specific and appears to be associated with metal levels. The Scanning Proton Microprobe (SPMP) at the Micro Analytical Research Centre of the University of Melbourne was used to study the subcellular distribution of aluminium and other elements in the gills of fish exposed to acidified water with elevated Al-levels. Experiments were performed on thin sections taken from fish exposed to media with different pH and aluminium concentration. Aluminium was found on the surface of the gill lamellae, but also inside the tissue. Bulk analysis of the gills showed much higher concentrations in the aluminium-exposed fish, compared to the control ones, but no information regarding the actual accumulation sites can be inferred. Extensive study of damage done to the sample by intense proton beams during elemental analysis was performed with scanning transmission ion microscopy. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Legal analysis at the Law for Civil liabilities by nuclear damage; Analisis juridico a la Ley de responsabilidad civil por danos nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez G, A

    2000-07-01

    The present work has the objective to analyse in specific terms the legal regime of the Civil liability by nuclear damage. It has been the intention of that this compilation is the initiation of a large way which awake the interests of jurists and specialists dedicated to study the aspects as the liability by nuclear damage, compensation guarantee, risk and nuclear damage among others. The peaceful applications of the nuclear energy require the necessity of a legal ordinance that it is updated according to the nuclear technology development that the regulations of the common law do not cover. This work is initiated mentioning some antecedents of the nuclear energy law in Mexico. Also is realized the study of the elemental concepts and definitions about the subject as the evolution of the legal figure in the National law frame where the jurist must do an incursion in the nuclear field and make use of scientific and technical terminology. It was analysed and it was made the reflection of the legal figure of liability, its exoneration cases, about the concepts of risk and nuclear damage overcoming the conceptual error among them. It is talked about the study of nuclear damage and its repairing as financial guarantee to compensate to the people injured by a nuclear accident. Finally, it was treated about the legal analysis and proposals of additions and reforms for updating the Nuclear damage liability Law, concluding with general contributions to the Law resulting products of this work. (Author)

  10. Study of visualized simulation and analysis of nuclear fuel cycle system based on multilevel flow model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jing-Quan; YOSHIKAWA Hidekazu; ZHOU Yang-Ping

    2005-01-01

    Complex energy and environment system, especially nuclear fuel cycle system recently raised social concerns about the issues of economic competitiveness, environmental effect and nuclear proliferation. Only under the condition that those conflicting issues are gotten a consensus between stakeholders with different knowledge background, can nuclear power industry be continuingly developed. In this paper, a new analysis platform has been developed to help stakeholders to recognize and analyze various socio-technical issues in the nuclear fuel cycle system based on the functional modeling method named Multilevel Flow Models (MFM) according to the cognition theory of human being. Its character is that MFM models define a set of mass, energy and information flow structures on multiple levels of abstraction to describe the functional structure of a process system and its graphical symbol representation and the means-end and part-whole hierarchical flow structure to make the represented process easy to be understood. Based upon this methodology, a micro-process and a macro-process of nuclear fuel cycle system were selected to be simulated and some analysis processes such as economics analysis, environmental analysis and energy balance analysis related to those flows were also integrated to help stakeholders to understand the process of decision-making with the introduction of some new functions for the improved Multilevel Flow Models Studio, and finally the simple simulation such as spent fuel management process simulation and money flow of nuclear fuel cycle and its levelised cost analysis will be represented as feasible examples.

  11. 78 FR 64029 - Cost-Benefit Analysis for Radwaste Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Cost-Benefit Analysis for Radwaste Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors AGENCY... Systems for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors,'' in which the NRC made editorial corrections and... analysis for liquid and gaseous radwaste system components for light water nuclear power...

  12. Accidental safety analysis methodology development in decommission of the nuclear facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, G. H.; Hwang, J. H.; Jae, M. S.; Seong, J. H.; Shin, S. H.; Cheong, S. J.; Pae, J. H.; Ang, G. R.; Lee, J. U. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) of a nuclear reactor cost about 20% of construction expense and production of nuclear wastes during decommissioning makes environmental issues. Decommissioning of a nuclear reactor in Korea is in a just beginning stage, lacking clear standards and regulations for decommissioning. This work accident safety analysis in decommissioning of the nuclear facility can be a solid ground for the standards and regulations. For source term analysis for Kori-1 reactor vessel, MCNP/ORIGEN calculation methodology was applied. The activity of each important nuclide in the vessel was estimated at a time after 2008, the year Kori-1 plant is supposed to be decommissioned. And a methodology for risk analysis assessment in decommissioning was developed.

  13. Analysis of simulation results of damaged nuclear fuel accidents at NPPs with shell-type nuclear reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor L. Kozlov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lessons from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP made it necessary to reevaluate and intensificate the work on modeling and analyzing various scenarios of severe accidents with damage to the nuclear fuel in the reactor, containment and spent nuclear fuel storage pool with the expansion of the primary initiating event causes group listing. Further development of computational tools for modeling the explosion prevention criteria as to steam and gas mixtures, considering the specific thermal-hydrodynamic conditions and mechanisms of explosive situations arrival at different stages of a severe accident development, is substantiated. Based on the analysis of the known shell-type nuclear reactors accidents results the explosion safety thermodynamic criteria are presented, the parameters defining the steam and gas explosions conditions are found, the need to perform the further verification and validation of deterministic codes serving to simulate general accident processes behavior as well as phase-to-phase interaction calculated dependencies is established. The main parameters controlling and defining the criteria explosion safety effective regulation areas and their optimization conditions are found.

  14. Temperature measuring analysis of the nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    F., Urban; Ľ., Kučák; Bereznai, J.; Závodný, Z.; Muškát, P.

    2014-08-01

    Study was based on rapid changes of measured temperature values from the thermocouple in the VVER 440 nuclear reactor fuel assembly. Task was to determine origin of fluctuations of the temperature values by experiments on physical model of the fuel assembly. During an experiment, heated water was circulating in the system and cold water inlet through central tube to record sensitivity of the temperature sensor. Two positions of the sensor was used. First, just above the central tube in the physical model fuel assembly axis and second at the position of the thermocouple in the VVER 440 nuclear reactor fuel assembly. Dependency of the temperature values on time are presented in the diagram form in the paper.

  15. Compartmental analysis of dynamic nuclear medicine data: models and identifiability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbary, Fabrice; Garbarino, Sara; Vivaldi, Valentina

    2016-12-01

    Compartmental models based on tracer mass balance are extensively used in clinical and pre-clinical nuclear medicine in order to obtain quantitative information on tracer metabolism in the biological tissue. This paper is the first of a series of two that deal with the problem of tracer coefficient estimation via compartmental modelling in an inverse problem framework. Specifically, here we discuss the identifiability problem for a general n-dimension compartmental system and provide uniqueness results in the case of two-compartment and three-compartment compartmental models. The second paper will utilize this framework in order to show how nonlinear regularization schemes can be applied to obtain numerical estimates of the tracer coefficients in the case of nuclear medicine data corresponding to brain, liver and kidney physiology.

  16. Evaluation of the analysis models in the ASTRA nuclear design code system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Nam Jin; Park, Chang Jea; Kim, Do Sam; Lee, Kyeong Taek; Kim, Jong Woon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-11-15

    In the field of nuclear reactor design, main practice was the application of the improved design code systems. During the process, a lot of basis and knowledge were accumulated in processing input data, nuclear fuel reload design, production and analysis of design data, et al. However less efforts were done in the analysis of the methodology and in the development or improvement of those code systems. Recently, KEPO Nuclear Fuel Company (KNFC) developed the ASTRA (Advanced Static and Transient Reactor Analyzer) code system for the purpose of nuclear reactor design and analysis. In the code system, two group constants were generated from the CASMO-3 code system. The objective of this research is to analyze the analysis models used in the ASTRA/CASMO-3 code system. This evaluation requires indepth comprehension of the models, which is important so much as the development of the code system itself. Currently, most of the code systems used in domestic Nuclear Power Plant were imported, so it is very difficult to maintain and treat the change of the situation in the system. Therefore, the evaluation of analysis models in the ASTRA nuclear reactor design code system in very important.

  17. Data analysis for inelastic nuclear resonant absorption experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, M Y; Toellner, T S; Hession, P M; Sutter, J P; Alp, E E

    1999-01-01

    Inelastic nuclear resonant absorption method has been applied to study lattice dynamics. The data evaluation procedure for such experiments using synchrotron radiation is presented. Various moments of the measured spectra provide model-independent information on vibrational excitations, such as the recoilless fraction, the average kinetic energy per nucleus, and the average force constant. In addition, the partial phonon density of states is extracted assuming a harmonic lattice model. A measurement performed on alpha-iron is shown as an example.

  18. Analysis of suprathermal nuclear processes in the solar core plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronchev, Victor T.; Nakao, Yasuyuki; Watanabe, Yukinobu

    2017-04-01

    A consistent model for the description of suprathermal processes in the solar core plasma naturally triggered by fast particles generated in exoergic nuclear reactions is formulated. This model, based on the formalism of in-flight reaction probability, operates with different methods of treating particle slow-down in the plasma, and allows for the influence of electron degeneracy and electron screening on processes in the matter. The model is applied to examine slowing-down of 8.7 MeV α-particles produced in the {}7{Li}(p,α )α reaction of the pp chain, and to analyze suprathermal processes in the solar CNO cycle induced by them. Particular attention is paid to the suprathermal {}14{{N}}{(α ,{{p}})}17{{O}} reaction unappreciated in standard solar model simulations. It is found that an appreciable non-standard (α ,p) nuclear flow due to this reaction appears in the matter and modifies running of the CNO cycle in ∼95% of the solar core region. In this region at R> 0.1{R}ȯ , normal branching of nuclear flow {}14{{N}}≤ftarrow {}17{{O}}\\to {(}18{{F}})\\to {}18{{O}} transforms to abnormal sequential flow {}14{{N}}\\to {}17{{O}}\\to {(}18{{F}})\\to {}18{{O}}, altering some element abundances. In particular, nuclear network calculations reveal that in the outer core the abundances of 17O and 18O isotopes can increase by a factor of 20 as compared with standard estimates. A conjecture is made that other CNO suprathermal (α ,p) reactions may also affect abundances of CNO elements, including those generating solar neutrinos.

  19. Semiclassical analysis of the electron-nuclear coupling in electronic non-adiabatic processes

    CERN Document Server

    Agostini, Federica; Gross, E K U

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the exact factorization of the electron-nuclear wave function, the coupling between electrons and nuclei beyond the adiabatic regime is encoded (i) in the time-dependent vector and scalar potentials and (ii) in the electron-nuclear coupling operator. The former appear in the Schroedinger-like equation that drives the evolution of the nuclear degrees of freedom, whereas the latter is responsible for inducing non-adiabatic effects in the electronic evolution equation. As we have devoted previous studies to the analysis of the vector and scalar potentials, in this paper we focus on the properties of the electron-nuclear coupling operator, with the aim of describing a numerical procedure to approximate it within a semiclassical treatment of the nuclear dynamics.

  20. Social impact theory based modeling for security analysis in the nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Tae Ho [Systemix Global Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    The nuclear fuel cycle is investigated for the perspective of the nuclear non-proliferation. The random number generation of the Monte-Carlo method is utilized for the analysis. Five cases are quantified by the random number generations. These values are summed by the described equations. The higher values are shown in 52{sup nd} and 73{sup rd} months. This way could be a useful obligation in the license of the plant construction. The security of the nuclear fuel cycle incorporated with nuclear power plants (NPPs) is investigated using social impact theory. The dynamic quantification of the theory shows the non-secured time for act of terrorism which is considered for the non-secured condition against the risk of theft in nuclear material. For a realistic consideration, the meta-theoretical framework for modeling is performed for situations where beliefs, attributes or behaviors of an individual are influenced by those of others.

  1. MicroPET outperforms beta-microprobes in setermining neuroreceptor availability under pharmacological restriction for cold mass occupancy

    OpenAIRE

    Glorie, Dorien; Servaes, Stijn; Verhaeghe, Jeroen; Wyckhuys, Tine; wyffels, Leonie; Vanderveken, Olivier; Stroobants, Sigrid; Staelens, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Both non-invasive micro-positron emission tomography (μPET) and in situ beta-microprobes have the ability to determine radiotracer kinetics and neuroreceptor availability in vivo. Beta-microprobes were proposed as a cost-effective alternative to μPET, but literature revealed conflicting results most likely due to methodological differences and inflicted tissue damage. The current study has three main objectives: (i) evaluate the theoretical advantages of beta-microprobes; (ii) perfo...

  2. MicroPET Outperforms Beta-Microprobes in Determining Neuroreceptor Availability under Pharmacological Restriction for Cold Mass Occupancy

    OpenAIRE

    Glorie, Dorien; Servaes, Stijn; Verhaeghe, Jeroen; Wyckhuys, Tine; wyffels, Leonie; Vanderveken, Olivier; Stroobants, Sigrid; Staelens, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Both non-invasive micro-positron emission tomography (μPET) and in situ beta-microprobes have the ability to determine radiotracer kinetics and neuroreceptor availability in vivo. Beta-microprobes were proposed as a cost-effective alternative to μPET, but literature revealed conflicting results most likely due to methodological differences and inflicted tissue damage. The current study has three main objectives: (i) evaluate the theoretical advantages of beta-microprobes; (ii) perform μPET im...

  3. MicroPET outperforms beta-microprobes in determining neuroreceptor availability under pharmacological restriction for cold mass occupancy

    OpenAIRE

    Glorie, Dorien; Servaes, Stijn; Verhaeghe, Jeroen; Wyckhuys, Tine; wyffels, Leonie; Vanderveken, Olivier; Stroobants, Sigrid; Staelens, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Both non-invasive micro-positron emission tomography (μPET) and in situ beta-microprobes have the ability to determine radiotracer kinetics and neuroreceptor availability in vivo. Beta-microprobes were proposed as a cost-effective alternative to μPET, but literature revealed conflicting results most likely due to methodological differences and inflicted tissue damage. The current study has three main objectives: (i) evaluate the theoretical advantages of beta-microprobes; (ii) perfo...

  4. Structured information analysis for human reliability analysis of emergency tasks in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Won Dea; Kim, Jae Whan; Park, Jin Kyun; Ha, Jae Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-02-01

    More than twenty HRA (Human Reliability Analysis) methodologies have been developed and used for the safety analysis in nuclear field during the past two decades. However, no methodology appears to have universally been accepted, as various limitations have been raised for more widely used ones. One of the most important limitations of conventional HRA is insufficient analysis of the task structure and problem space. To resolve this problem, we suggest SIA (Structured Information Analysis) for HRA. The proposed SIA consists of three parts. The first part is the scenario analysis that investigates the contextual information related to the given task on the basis of selected scenarios. The second is the goals-means analysis to define the relations between the cognitive goal and task steps. The third is the cognitive function analysis module that identifies the cognitive patterns and information flows involved in the task. Through the three-part analysis, systematic investigation is made possible from the macroscopic information on the tasks to the microscopic information on the specific cognitive processes. It is expected that analysts can attain a structured set of information that helps to predict the types and possibility of human error in the given task. 48 refs., 12 figs., 11 tabs. (Author)

  5. Structured information analysis for human reliability analysis of emergency tasks in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Won Dea; Kim, Jae Whan; Park, Jin Kyun; Ha, Jae Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-02-01

    More than twenty HRA (Human Reliability Analysis) methodologies have been developed and used for the safety analysis in nuclear field during the past two decades. However, no methodology appears to have universally been accepted, as various limitations have been raised for more widely used ones. One of the most important limitations of conventional HRA is insufficient analysis of the task structure and problem space. To resolve this problem, we suggest SIA (Structured Information Analysis) for HRA. The proposed SIA consists of three parts. The first part is the scenario analysis that investigates the contextual information related to the given task on the basis of selected scenarios. The second is the goals-means analysis to define the relations between the cognitive goal and task steps. The third is the cognitive function analysis module that identifies the cognitive patterns and information flows involved in the task. Through the three-part analysis, systematic investigation is made possible from the macroscopic information on the tasks to the microscopic information on the specific cognitive processes. It is expected that analysts can attain a structured set of information that helps to predict the types and possibility of human error in the given task. 48 refs., 12 figs., 11 tabs. (Author)

  6. Analysis of the evolution of the collective dose in nuclear power plants in Spain; Analisis de la evolucion de la dosis colectiva en las centrales nucleares de Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponjuan Reyes, G.; Ruibia Rodiz, M. A. de la; Rosales Calvo, M.; Labarta Mancho, T.; Calavia Gimenez, I.

    2011-07-01

    This article presents an analysis of the evolution of occupational collective dose of the Spanish nuclear power plants during the period 2000 - 2008 within the international context, by the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN) in order to have information contrasted to assessing the extent of application of the ALARA criteria in the Spanish plants and identify areas of priority attention.

  7. The NeuroMedicator—a micropump integrated with silicon microprobes for drug delivery in neural research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieth, S.; Schumacher, A.; Kallenbach, C.; Messner, S.; Zengerle, R.

    2012-06-01

    The NeuroMedicator is a micropump integrated with application-specific silicon microprobes aimed for drug delivery in neural research with small animals. The micropump has outer dimensions of 11 × 15 × 3 mm3 and contains 16 reservoirs each having a capacity of 0.25 µL. Thereby, the reservoirs are interconnected in a pearl-chain-like manner and are connected to two 8 mm long silicon microprobes. Each microprobe has a cross-sectional area of 250 × 250 µm2 and features an integrated drug delivery channel of 50 × 50 µm2 with an outlet of 25 µm in diameter. The drug is loaded to the micropump prior to implantation. After implantation, individual 0.25 µL portions of drug can be sequentially released by short heating pulses applied to a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer containing Expancel® microspheres. Due to local, irreversible thermal expansion of the elastic composite material, the drug is displaced from the reservoirs and released through the microprobe outlet directly to the neural tissue. While implanted, leakage of drug by diffusion occurs due to the open microprobe outlets. The maximum leakage within the first three days after implantation is calculated to be equivalent to 0.06 µL of drug solution.

  8. Using Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence Microprobes in the Study of Metal Homeostasis in Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punshon, T.; Guerinot, M; Lanzirotti, A

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims: This Botanical Briefing reviews the application of synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microprobes to the plant sciences; how the technique has expanded our knowledge of metal(loid) homeostasis, and how it can be used in the future. Scope: The use of SXRF microspectroscopy and microtomography in research on metal homeostasis in plants is reviewed. The potential use of SXRF as part of the ionomics toolbox, where it is able to provide fundamental information on the way that plants control metal homeostasis, is recommended. Conclusions: SXRF is one of the few techniques capable of providing spatially resolved in-vivo metal abundance data on a sub-micrometre scale, without the need for chemical fixation, coating, drying or even sectioning of samples. This gives researchers the ability to uncover mechanisms of plant metal homeostasis that can potentially be obscured by the artefacts of sample preparation. Further, new generation synchrotrons with smaller beam sizes and more sensitive detection systems will allow for the imaging of metal distribution within single living plant cells. Even greater advances in our understanding of metal homeostasis in plants can be gained by overcoming some of the practical boundaries that exist in the use of SXRF analysis.

  9. Ion microprobe elemental analyses of impact features on interplanetary dust experiment sensor surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jerry L.; Wortman, Jim J.; Griffis, Dieter P.; Simon, Charles G.

    1991-01-01

    Hypervelocity impact features on several of the electro-active dust sensors utilized in the Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) were subjected to elemental analysis using an ion microprobe. The negatively biased dust sensor surfaces acted as ion traps for cations produced in the plasma plumes of impacting particles. Impactor residue surrounds most impact features to two or three feature diameters. After etching away a layer of carbonaceous/silicaceous surface contamination, low mass resolution elemental survey scans are used to tentatively identify the presence of impactor debris. High mass resolution two-dimensional elemental maps and three dimensional depth profiling of the feature and surrounding area show the distribution and relative composition of the debris. The location of these sensors on the six primary Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) sides provides a unique opportunity to further define the debris environment. Researchers applied the same techniques to impact and contaminant features on a set of ultra-pure, highly polished single crystal germanium wafer witness plates that were mounted on row 12 and exposed to the environment during the entire mission.

  10. Development of a bio-PIXE setup at the Debrecen scanning proton microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertész, Zs.; Szikszai, Z.; Uzonyi, I.; Simon, A.; Kiss, Á. Z.

    2005-04-01

    On the growing need of an accurate, quantitative method for the analysis of thin biological tissues down to the cell level, a measurement setup and data evaluating system has been developed at the Debrecen scanning proton microprobe facility, using its unique capability of the PIXE-PIXE technique. Quantitative elemental concentrations and true elemental maps from C to U can be produced in the case of thin (10-50 μm), inhomogeneous samples of organic matrix with a 2 μm lateral resolution. The method is based on the combined application of on-axis STIM and PIXE-PIXE ion beam analytical techniques. STIM spectra and maps are used to determine the morphology and the area density of the samples. PIXE spectra and maps of an ultra thin windowed and a conventional Be-windowed Si(Li) X-ray detectors are used to quantify concentrations and distributions of elements in the C to Fe (light and medium) and S to U (medium and heavy) atomic number regions, separately. For cross-checking the validation of the obtained data in a few cases RBS technique was used simultaneously. The application of the new bio-PIXE method is shown through an example, the study of the penetration and clearance of ultra-fine particles containing heavy metals (TiO2) of physical bodycare cosmetics in different layers of skin within the frame of the NANODERM EU5 project.

  11. Investigation of elemental distribution in human femoral head by PIXE and SRXRF microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.X. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)]. E-mail: yxzhang@sinap.ac.cn; Wang, Y.S. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)]. E-mail: wangyinsong@sinap.ac.cn; Zhang, Y.P. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)]. E-mail: zhangyongping@sinap.ac.cn; Zhang, G.L. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)]. E-mail: zhangguilin@sinap.ac.cn; Huang, Y.Y. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China)]. E-mail: huangyy@mail.ihep.ac.cn; He, W. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China)]. E-mail: hew@mail.ihep.ac.cn

    2007-07-15

    In order to study the distribution and possible degenerative processes inducing the loss of inorganic substances in bone and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and therapy of osteoporosis, proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method is used for the determination of elemental concentrations in femoral heads from five autopsies and seven patients with femoral neck fractures. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) microprobe analysis technique is used to scan a slice of the femoral head from its periphery to its center, via cartilage, compact and spongy zones. The specimen preparation and experiment procedure are described in detail. The results show that the concentrations of P, Ca, Fe, Cu, Sr in the control group are higher than those in the patient group, but the concentrations of S, K, Zn, Mn are not significantly different. The quantitative results of elemental distribution, such as Ca, P, K, Fe, Zn, Sr and Pb in bone slice tissue including cartilage, substantial compact and substantial spongy, are investigated. The data obtained show that the concentrations of Ca, P, K, (the major elements of bone composition), are obviously low in both spongy and cartilage zones in the patient group, but there are no remarkable differences in the compact zone. Combined with the correlations between P, K, Zn, Sr and Ca, the loss mechanism of minerals and the physiological functions of some metal elements in bone are also discussed.

  12. Preliminary Nuclear Analysis for the HANARO Fuel Element with Burnable Absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Chul Gyo; Kim, So Young; In, Won Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Burnable absorber is used for reducing reactivity swing and power peaking in high performance research reactors. Development of the HANARO fuel element with burnable absorber was started in the U-Mo fuel development program at HANARO, but detailed full core analysis was not performed because the current HANARO fuel management system is uncertain to analysis the HANARO core with burnable absorber. A sophisticated reactor physics system is required to analysis the core. The McCARD code was selected and the detailed McCARD core models, in which the basic HANARO core model was developed by one of the McCARD developers, are used in this study. The development of nuclear fuel requires a long time and correct developing direction especially by the nuclear analysis. This paper presents a preliminary nuclear analysis to promote the fuel development. Based on the developed fuel, the further nuclear analysis will improve reactor performance and safety. Basic nuclear analysis for the HANARO and the AHR were performed for getting the proper fuel elements with burnable absorber. Addition of 0.3 - 0.4% Cd to the fuel meat is promising for the current HANARO fuel element. Small addition of burnable absorber may not change any fuel characteristics of the HANARO fuel element, but various basic tests and irradiation tests at the HANARO core are required.

  13. Establishment of a clean laboratory for ultra trace analysis of nuclear materials in safeguards environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanzawa, Yukiko; Magara, Masaaki; Watanabe, Kazuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] (and others)

    2003-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has established a cleanroom facility with cleanliness of ISO Class 5: the Clean Laboratory for Environmental Analysis and Research (CLEAR). It was designed to be used for the analysis of nuclear materials in environmental samples mainly for the safeguards, in addition to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty verification and research on environmental sciences. The CLEAR facility was designed to meet conflicting requirements of a cleanroom and for handling of nuclear materials according to Japanese regulations, i.e., to avoid contamination from outside and to contain nuclear materials inside the facility. This facility has been intended to be used for wet chemical treatment, instrumental analysis and particle handling. A fume-hood to provide a clean work surface for handling of nuclear materials was specially designed. Much attention was paid to the selection of construction materials for use to corrosive acids. The performance of the cleanroom and analytical background in the laboratory are discussed. This facility has satisfactory specification required for joining the International Atomic Energy Agency Network of Analytical Laboratories. It can be concluded that the CLEAR facility enables analysis of ultra trace amounts of nuclear materials at sub-pictogram level in environmental samples. (author)

  14. Nuclear-Renewable Energy Systems Secondary Product Market Analysis Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deason, Wesley Ray [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    In order to properly create a program surrounding the development of any technological concept it is necessary to fully understand the market in which it is being developed. In the case of Integrated Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems (HES), there are two economic markets in which it must be able to participate in: the electricity market and the secondary product market associated with the specific system. The purpose of the present report is to characterize the secondary product market in the U.S. and to provide recommendations for further developing the HES program. While HESs have been discussed in depth in many other reports, it is helpful to discuss them briefly in the present work [REF]. The concept of the HES can be deduced to a system, featuring a combination of a nuclear power plant, a renewable energy source, and an industrial manufacturing plant . The system is designed in a fashion that allows it either to produce electricity or to manufacture a secondary product as needed. The primary benefit of this concept lies in its ability to maximize economic performance of the integrated system and to manufacture products in a carbon-free manner. A secondary benefit is the enhanced supply-side flexibility gained by allowing the HES to economically provide grid services. A key tenant to nuclear power plant economics in today’s electricity market is their ability to operate at a very high capacity factor. Unfortunately, in regions with a high penetration of renewable energy, the carbon free energy produced by nuclear power may not be needed at all times. This forces the nuclear power plant to find a user for its excess capacity. This may include paying the electric grid to find a user, releasing energy to the environment by ‘dumping steam’, or reducing power. If the plant is unable to economically or safely do any of these actions, the plant is at risk of being shutdown. In order to allow for nuclear power plants to continue to contribute carbon free

  15. Verification and uncertainty evaluation of CASMO-3/MASTER nuclear analysis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jae Seung; Cho, Byung Oh; Joo, Han Kyu; Zee, Sung Quun; Lee, Chung Chan; Park, Sang Yoon

    2000-06-01

    MASTER is a nuclear design code developed by KAERI. It uses group constants generated by CASMO-3 developed by Studsvik. In this report the verification and evaluation of uncertainty were performed for the code system application in nuclear reactor core analysis and design. The verification is performed via various benchmark comparisons for static and transient core condition, and core follow calculations with startup physics test predictions of total 14 cycles of pressurized water reactors. Benchmark calculation include comparisons with reference solutions of IAEA and OECA/NEA problems and critical experiment measurements. The uncertainty evaluation is focused to safety related parameters such as power distribution, reactivity coefficients, control rod worth and core reactivity. It is concluded that CASMO-3/MASTER can be applied for PWR core nuclear analysis and design without any bias factors. Also, it is verified that the system can be applied for SMART core, via supplemental comparisons with reference calculations by MCNP which is a probabilistic nuclear calculation code.

  16. A Study on the Analysis and Systematization of National Nuclear Policy Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T. J.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, Y. J.

    2011-11-15

    Ο In this study we explored the present state, the connectivity and dynamics of nuclear related public statements, laws, organizations and mid/long term national plans in Korea to systemize them. Ο We collected enormous amounts of data to analyze the current situation and connectivity of key components through horizontal and vertical structure analysis. Ο And also we have offered comprehensive understanding about a process of development of policy components by analyzing their transition process and presented future-oriented improvements of the policy based on the implications derived. Ο To give the baseline data for establishing the nuclear policy effectively and to promote the understanding of national nuclear policy, we carried out the cross-sectional and dynamic analysis of national nuclear policy.

  17. Fault Tree Analysis for an Inspection Robot in a Nuclear Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Thomas A.; Lu, Lixuan

    2017-09-01

    The life extension of current nuclear reactors has led to an increasing demand on inspection and maintenance of critical reactor components that are too expensive to replace. To reduce the exposure dosage to workers, robotics have become an attractive alternative as a preventative safety tool in nuclear power plants. It is crucial to understand the reliability of these robots in order to increase the veracity and confidence of their results. This study presents the Fault Tree (FT) analysis to a coolant outlet piper snake-arm inspection robot in a nuclear power plant. Fault trees were constructed for a qualitative analysis to determine the reliability of the robot. Insight on the applicability of fault tree methods for inspection robotics in the nuclear industry is gained through this investigation.

  18. Impact of risk analysis on ITER nuclear buildings layout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabathe, Laurent [AREVA NP SAS, 10 rue Juliette Recamier, 69456 Lyon Cedex 06 (France)], E-mail: laurent.sabathe@areva.com; Lignini, Franck [AREVA NP SAS, 10 rue Juliette Recamier, 69456 Lyon Cedex 06 (France)], E-mail: franck.lignini@areva.com; Rodriguez-Rodrigo, Lina [EFDA-CSU Barcelona and Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT para Fusion, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Uzan-Elbez, Joelle [Agence ITER-France, Cadarache, St Paul Lez Durance F-13108 (France); Girard, Jean-Philippe [ITER-JWS, Cadarache, St Paul Lez Durance F-13108 (France)

    2007-10-15

    The internal layout of ITER nuclear buildings (Tokamak, Tritium, Hot cell and Radwaste buildings) is the result of an iterative process. Notwithstanding civil engineering requirements, technical and functional requirements for the processes housed in the buildings, the internal layout must also take into account safety requirements and workers protection requirements in normal, incidental and accidental conditions. Potential hazards and constraints result in the definition of various zonings. Each room is classified depending on the level of the risks induced by normal and incidental or accidental conditions: - radiological exposure to tritium, and activated products {yields} radiological zoning; - exposure to beryllium (vacuum vessel blankets) {yields} beryllium zoning; - exposure to electromagnetic fields during plasma shots {yields} electromagnetic zoning; - fire hazard: fire compartmentalization; {center_dot}explosion hazard: anti-blast zoning; - waste treatment {yields} waste zoning. Prevention of common mode failure due to internal hazards (fire, flooding, load drop...) for redundant safety important components is also taken into account by geographical separation or by installation of protections between components (either in the same room or preferably when possible by segregation in different rooms). The designer has also taken into account access requirements to equipments and circulation rules for personal, material and substances in ITER nuclear buildings. Risk analyses are performed in the Preliminary Safety Report in order to demonstrate that the layout of ITER nuclear buildings allows meeting the safety objectives and takes into account the requirements associated with the zonings classifications and complies with the regulation. When necessary, modifications are implemented in the design. For example, recent layout modifications are been studied in the tritium building: utility rooms (electrical supply) were transferred outside the radiological

  19. Automated local bright feature image analysis of nuclear proteindistribution identifies changes in tissue phenotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowles, David; Sudar, Damir; Bator, Carol; Bissell, Mina

    2006-02-01

    The organization of nuclear proteins is linked to cell and tissue phenotypes. When cells arrest proliferation, undergo apoptosis, or differentiate, the distribution of nuclear proteins changes. Conversely, forced alteration of the distribution of nuclear proteins modifies cell phenotype. Immunostaining and fluorescence microscopy have been critical for such findings. However, there is an increasing need for quantitative analysis of nuclear protein distribution to decipher epigenetic relationships between nuclear structure and cell phenotype, and to unravel the mechanisms linking nuclear structure and function. We have developed imaging methods to quantify the distribution of fluorescently-stained nuclear protein NuMA in different mammary phenotypes obtained using three-dimensional cell culture. Automated image segmentation of DAPI-stained nuclei was generated to isolate thousands of nuclei from three-dimensional confocal images. Prominent features of fluorescently-stained NuMA were detected using a novel local bright feature analysis technique, and their normalized spatial density calculated as a function of the distance from the nuclear perimeter to its center. The results revealed marked changes in the distribution of the density of NuMA bright features as non-neoplastic cells underwent phenotypically normal acinar morphogenesis. In contrast, we did not detect any reorganization of NuMA during the formation of tumor nodules by malignant cells. Importantly, the analysis also discriminated proliferating non-neoplastic cells from proliferating malignant cells, suggesting that these imaging methods are capable of identifying alterations linked not only to the proliferation status but also to the malignant character of cells. We believe that this quantitative analysis will have additional applications for classifying normal and pathological tissues.

  20. Living near nuclear power plants and thyroid cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaeyoung; Bang, Yejin; Lee, Won Jin

    2016-02-01

    There has been public concern regarding the safety of residing near nuclear power plants, and the extent of risk for thyroid cancer among adults living near nuclear power plants has not been fully explored. In the present study, a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies was conducted to investigate the association between living near nuclear power plants and the risk of thyroid cancer. A comprehensive literature search was performed on studies published up to March 2015 on the association between nuclear power plants and thyroid cancer risk. The summary standardized incidence ratio (SIR), standardized mortality ratio (SMR), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effect model of meta-analysis. Sensitivity analyses were performed by study quality. Thirteen studies were included in the meta-analysis, covering 36 nuclear power stations in 10 countries. Overall, summary estimates showed no significant increased thyroid cancer incidence or mortality among residents living near nuclear power plants (summary SIR=0.98; 95% CI 0.87-1.11, summary SMR=0.80; 95% CI 0.62-1.04). The pooled estimates did not reveal different patterns of risk by gender, exposure definition, or reference population. However, sensitivity analysis by exposure definition showed that living less than 20 km from nuclear power plants was associated with a significant increase in the risk of thyroid cancer in well-designed studies (summary OR=1.75; 95% CI 1.17-2.64). Our study does not support an association between living near nuclear power plants and risk of thyroid cancer but does support a need for well-designed future studies.

  1. Analysis of nuclear material flow for experimental DUPIC fuel fabrication process at DFDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H. H.; Park, J. J.; Shin, J. M.; Lee, J. W.; Yang, M. S.; Baik, S. Y.; Lee, E. P

    1999-08-01

    This report describes facilities necessary for manufacturing experiment for DUPIC fuel, manufacturing process and equipment. Nuclear material flows among facilities, in PIEF and IMEF, for irradiation test, for post examination of DUPIC fuel, for quality control, for chemical analysis and for treatment of radioactive waste have been analyzed in details. This may be helpful for DUPIC project participants and facility engineers working in related facilities to understand overall flow for nuclear material and radioactive waste. (Author). 14 refs., 15 tabs., 41 figs.

  2. Round Robin: Quantitative Lateral Resolution of PHI XPS microprobes Quantum 2000 / Quantera SXM

    CERN Document Server

    Scheithauer, U; Kip, G A M; Naburgh, E; Snijders, J H M

    2016-01-01

    The quantitative lateral resolution is a reliable measure for the quality of an XPS microprobe equipped with a focused X-ray beam. It describes the long tail contributions of the X-ray beam intensity distribution. The knowledge of these long tail contributions is essential when judging on the origin of signals of XPS spectra recorded on small-sized features. In this round robin test the quantitative lateral resolution of 7 PHI XPS microprobes has been estimated. As expected, the quantitative lateral resolution has significantly larger values than the nominal X-ray beam diameter. The estimated values of the quantitative lateral resolution follow a trend in time: The newer the monochromator of an XPS microprobe so much the better the quantitative lateral resolution.

  3. Progress on radiochemical analysis for nuclear waste management in decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, X. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. Center for Nuclear Technologies (NuTech), Roskilde (Denmark))

    2012-01-15

    This report summarized the progress in the development and improvement of radioanalytical methods for decommissioning and waste management completed in the NKS-B RadWaste 2011 project. Based on the overview information of the analytical methods in Nordic laboratories and requirement from the nuclear industry provided in the first phase of the RadWaste project (2010), some methods were improved and developed. A method for efficiently separation of Nb from nuclear waste especially metals for measurement of long-lived 94Nb by gamma spectrometry was developed. By systematic investigation of behaviours of technetium in sample treatment and chromatographic separation process, an effective method was developed for the determination of low level 99Tc in waste samples. An AMS approachment was investigated to measure ultra low level 237Np using 242Pu for AMS normalization, the preliminary results show a high potential of this method. Some progress on characterization of waste for decommissioning of Danish DR3 is also presented. (Author)

  4. Combined analysis of fourteen nuclear genes refines the Ursidae phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagès, Marie; Calvignac, Sébastien; Klein, Catherine; Paris, Mathilde; Hughes, Sandrine; Hänni, Catherine

    2008-04-01

    Despite numerous studies, questions remain about the evolutionary history of Ursidae and additional independent genetic markers were needed to elucidate these ambiguities. For this purpose, we sequenced ten nuclear genes for all the eight extant bear species. By combining these new sequences with those of four other recently published nuclear markers, we provide new insights into the phylogenetic relationships of the Ursidae family members. The hypothesis that the giant panda was the first species to diverge among ursids is definitively confirmed and the precise branching order within the Ursus genus is clarified for the first time. Moreover, our analyses indicate that the American and the Asiatic black bears do not cluster as sister taxa, as had been previously hypothesised. Sun and sloth bears clearly appear as the most basal ursine species but uncertainties about their exact relationships remain. Since our larger dataset did not enable us to clarify this last question, identifying rare genomic changes in bear genomes could be a promising solution for further studies.

  5. High Fidelity Thermal Simulators for Non-Nuclear Testing: Analysis and Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Dixon, David

    2007-01-01

    Non-nuclear testing can be a valuable tool in the development of a space nuclear power system, providing system characterization data and allowing one to work through various fabrication, assembly and integration issues without the cost and time associated with a full ground nuclear test. In a non-nuclear test bed, electric heaters are used to simulate the heat from nuclear fuel. Testing with non-optimized heater elements allows one to assess thermal, heat transfer, and stress related attributes of a given system, but fails to demonstrate the dynamic response that would be present in an integrated, fueled reactor system. High fidelity thermal simulators that match both the static and the dynamic fuel pin performance that would be observed in an operating, fueled nuclear reactor can vastly increase the value of non-nuclear test results. With optimized simulators, the integration of thermal hydraulic hardware tests with simulated neutronie response provides a bridge between electrically heated testing and fueled nuclear testing, providing a better assessment of system integration issues, characterization of integrated system response times and response characteristics, and assessment of potential design improvements' at a relatively small fiscal investment. Initial conceptual thermal simulator designs are determined by simple one-dimensional analysis at a single axial location and at steady state conditions; feasible concepts are then input into a detailed three-dimensional model for comparison to expected fuel pin performance. Static and dynamic fuel pin performance for a proposed reactor design is determined using SINDA/FLUINT thermal analysis software, and comparison is made between the expected nuclear performance and the performance of conceptual thermal simulator designs. Through a series of iterative analyses, a conceptual high fidelity design can developed. Test results presented in this paper correspond to a "first cut" simulator design for a potential

  6. Molecular identification of foreign inclusions in inflammatory tissue surrounding metal implants by Fourier transform laser microprobe mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nollin, S; Poels, K; Van Vaeck, L; De Clerck, N; Bakker, A; Duwel, V; Vandevelde, D; Van Marck, E

    1997-01-01

    Fourier transform laser microprobe mass spectrometry (FT LMMS) is a novel technique for micro-analysis of solids with a lateral resolution in the 5 microns range. One of the major advantages of the technique is the capability to perform characterisation of the molecular composition of both organic and inorganic compounds. The information is directly deduced from the signals without the aid of reference spectra. FT LMMS was applied to the characterisation of black tissue fragments in a biopsy from a patient, in which a constrained condylar nodular knee system was implanted ten years ago. The tissue contained numerous foreign giant cells with a black non-birefringent pigment in their cytoplasm. FT LMMS analysis allowed us to detect directly by means of molecular signals, that the debris consisted primarily of titanium oxide and not metallic titanium, while the implant itself only contained titanium.

  7. Evaluation of fatigue damage in nuclear power plants: evolution and new tools of analysis; Evaluacion del dano a fatiga en centrales nucleares: evolucion y nuevas herramientas de analisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicero, R.; Corchon, F.

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents new fatigue mechanisms requiring analysis, tools developed for evaluation and the latest trends and studies that are currently working in the nuclear field, and allow proper management referring facilities the said degradation mechanism.

  8. Design and construction of an electrostatic quadrupole doublet lens for nuclear microprobe application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Jack E.; Szilasi, Szabolcs Z.; Phillips, Dustin; Dymnikov, Alexander D.; Reinert, Tilo; Rout, Bibhudutta; Glass, Gary A.

    2017-08-01

    An electrostatic quadrupole doublet lens system has been designed and constructed to provide strong, mass-independent focusing of 1-3 MeV ions to a 1 μm2 spot size. The electrostatic doublet consists of four sets of gold electrodes deposited on quartz rods that are positioned in a precision machined rigid frame. The 38 mm electrodes are fixed in a quadrupole doublet arrangement having a bore diameter of 6.35 mm. The coating process allows uniform, 360° coverage with minimal edge defects. Determined via optical interferometry, typical surface roughness is 6 nm peak to valley. Radial and coaxial alignment of the electrodes within the frame is accomplished by using a combination of rigid and adjustable mechanical supports. Axial alignment along the ion beam is accomplished via external manipulators. COMSOL Multiphysics® v5.2 and Propagate Rays and Aberrations by Matrices (PRAM) were used to simulate ion trajectories through the system.

  9. Austenitic steel corrosion in IGCC environment. Characterisation by photon and nuclear microprobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillmann, Philippe; Weulersse, Katia; Regad, Belkacem; Moulin, Gérard; Barrett, Ray; Bonnin-Mosbah, Michelle; Lequien, Stéphane; Berger, Pascal

    2001-07-01

    An austenitic steel sample was treated simulating particular working conditions of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant. Several classical characterisation techniques were used to investigate the oxide scales. In addition, micro-particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) analyses were performed and permit us to identify several phases constitutive of the oxide. Moreover, micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) experiments allow us to determine the valence of the vanadium incorporated in the scale in the form of microscopic islets. The comparison of all these results leads to the proposal of a corrosion mechanism for this alloy.

  10. The proteins of intra-nuclear bodies: a data-driven analysis of sequence, interaction and expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodén Mikael

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cajal bodies, nucleoli, PML nuclear bodies, and nuclear speckles are morpohologically distinct intra-nuclear structures that dynamically respond to cellular cues. Such nuclear bodies are hypothesized to play important regulatory roles, e.g. by sequestering and releasing transcription factors in a timely manner. While the nucleolus and nuclear speckles have received more attention experimentally, the PML nuclear body and the Cajal body are still incompletely characterized in terms of their roles and protein complement. Results By collating recent experimentally verified data, we find that almost 1000 proteins in the mouse nuclear proteome are known to associate with one or more of the nuclear bodies. Their gene ontology terms highlight their regulatory roles: splicing is confirmed to be a core activity of speckles and PML nuclear bodies house a range of proteins involved in DNA repair. We train support-vector machines to show that nuclear proteins contain discriminative sequence features that can be used to identify their intra-nuclear body associations. Prediction accuracy is highest for nucleoli and nuclear speckles. The trained models are also used to estimate the full protein complement of each nuclear body. Protein interactions are found primarily to link proteins in the nuclear speckles with proteins from other compartments. Cell cycle expression data provide support for increased activity in nucleoli, nuclear speckles and PML nuclear bodies especially during S and G2 phases. Conclusions The large-scale analysis of the mouse nuclear proteome sheds light on the functional organization of physically embodied intra-nuclear compartments. We observe partial support for the hypothesis that the physical organization of the nucleus mirrors functional modularity. However, we are unable to unambiguously identify proteins' intra-nuclear destination, suggesting that critical drivers behind of intra-nuclear translocation are yet to

  11. Fuel cycle analysis of once-through nuclear systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T. K.; Taiwo, T. A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-08-10

    Once-through fuel cycle systems are commercially used for the generation of nuclear power, with little exception. The bulk of these once-through systems have been water-cooled reactors (light-water and heavy water reactors, LWRs and HWRs). Some gas-cooled reactors are used in the United Kingdom. The commercial power systems that are exceptions use limited recycle (currently one recycle) of transuranic elements, primarily plutonium, as done in Europe and nearing deployment in Japan. For most of these once-through fuel cycles, the ultimate storage of the used (spent) nuclear fuel (UNF, SNF) will be in a geologic repository. Besides the commercial nuclear plants, new once-through concepts are being proposed for various objectives under international advanced nuclear fuel cycle studies and by industrial and venture capital groups. Some of the objectives for these systems include: (1) Long life core for remote use or foreign export and to support proliferation risk reduction goals - In these systems the intent is to achieve very long core-life with no refueling and limited or no access to the fuel. Most of these systems are fast spectrum systems and have been designed with the intent to improve plant economics, minimize nuclear waste, enhance system safety, and reduce proliferation risk. Some of these designs are being developed under Generation IV International Forum activities and have generally not used fuel blankets and have limited the fissile content of the fuel to less than 20% for the purpose on meeting international nonproliferation objectives. In general, the systems attempt to use transuranic elements (TRU) produced in current commercial nuclear power plants as this is seen as a way to minimize the amount of the problematic radio-nuclides that have to be stored in a repository. In this case, however, the reprocessing of the commercial LWR UNF to produce the initial fuel will be necessary. For this reason, some of the systems plan to use low enriched uranium

  12. Fuel cycle analysis of once-through nuclear systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T. K.; Taiwo, T. A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-08-10

    Once-through fuel cycle systems are commercially used for the generation of nuclear power, with little exception. The bulk of these once-through systems have been water-cooled reactors (light-water and heavy water reactors, LWRs and HWRs). Some gas-cooled reactors are used in the United Kingdom. The commercial power systems that are exceptions use limited recycle (currently one recycle) of transuranic elements, primarily plutonium, as done in Europe and nearing deployment in Japan. For most of these once-through fuel cycles, the ultimate storage of the used (spent) nuclear fuel (UNF, SNF) will be in a geologic repository. Besides the commercial nuclear plants, new once-through concepts are being proposed for various objectives under international advanced nuclear fuel cycle studies and by industrial and venture capital groups. Some of the objectives for these systems include: (1) Long life core for remote use or foreign export and to support proliferation risk reduction goals - In these systems the intent is to achieve very long core-life with no refueling and limited or no access to the fuel. Most of these systems are fast spectrum systems and have been designed with the intent to improve plant economics, minimize nuclear waste, enhance system safety, and reduce proliferation risk. Some of these designs are being developed under Generation IV International Forum activities and have generally not used fuel blankets and have limited the fissile content of the fuel to less than 20% for the purpose on meeting international nonproliferation objectives. In general, the systems attempt to use transuranic elements (TRU) produced in current commercial nuclear power plants as this is seen as a way to minimize the amount of the problematic radio-nuclides that have to be stored in a repository. In this case, however, the reprocessing of the commercial LWR UNF to produce the initial fuel will be necessary. For this reason, some of the systems plan to use low enriched uranium

  13. Current status of neutron activation analysis using the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Van Suc; Nguyen Mong Sinh [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    1999-10-01

    Neutron activation analysis is one of the most sensitive, rapid, accurated methods for determination of trace elements in different materials. A review is made of the current status of the activities and the results in studying and developing NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis) at the Dalat Nuclear Research Institute and applying this method to different sectors of science and technology in Vietnam. (author)

  14. Phylogenetic Analysis of Phytophthora Species Based on Mitochondrial and Nuclear DNA Sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, L.P.N.M.; Bakker, F.T.; Bosch, van den G.B.M.; Bonants, P.J.M.; Flier, W.G.

    2004-01-01

    A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the genus Phytophthora was performed, 113 isolates from 48 Phytophthora species were included in this analysis. Phylogenetic analyses were performed on regions of mitochondrial (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1; NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1) and nuclear gene sequen

  15. Core Community Specifications for Electron Microprobe Operating Systems: Software, Quality Control, and Data Management Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournelle, John; Carpenter, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Modem electron microprobe systems have become increasingly sophisticated. These systems utilize either UNIX or PC computer systems for measurement, automation, and data reduction. These systems have undergone major improvements in processing, storage, display, and communications, due to increased capabilities of hardware and software. Instrument specifications are typically utilized at the time of purchase and concentrate on hardware performance. The microanalysis community includes analysts, researchers, software developers, and manufacturers, who could benefit from exchange of ideas and the ultimate development of core community specifications (CCS) for hardware and software components of microprobe instrumentation and operating systems.

  16. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Analysis by Integrated AHP and TOPSIS Method Using an Equilibrium Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, S. R. [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S. Y. [UNIST, Ulju (Korea, Republic of); Koc, W. I. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Determining whether to break away from domestic conflict surrounding nuclear power and step forward for public consensus can be identified by transparent policy making considering public acceptability. In this context, deriving the best suitable nuclear fuel cycle for Korea is the key task in current situation. Assessing nuclear fuel cycle is a multicriteria decision making problem dealing with multiple interconnected issues on efficiently using natural uranium resources, securing an environment friendliness to deal with waste, obtaining the public acceptance, ensuring peaceful uses of nuclear energy, maintaining economic competitiveness compared to other electricity sources, and assessing technical feasibility of advanced nuclear energy systems. This paper performed the integrated AHP and TOPSIS analysis on three nuclear fuel cycle options against 5 different criteria including U utilization, waste management, material attractiveness, economics, and technical feasibility. The fuel cycle options analyzed in this paper are three different fuel cycle options as follows: PWR-Once through cycle(PWR-OT), PWR-MOX cycle, Pyro- SFR cycle. These fuel cycles are most likely to be adopted in the foreseeable future. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and TOPSIS (Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution). The analyzed nuclear fuel cycle options include the once-through cycle, the PWR-MOX recycle, and the Pyro-SFR recycle.

  17. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectral analysis and molecular properties of berberine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Ju; Lee, Ken S.; Hurley, Sharon J.

    An extensive theoretical study of berberine has been performed at the ab initio HF/6-31G**, HF/6-311G**, and B3LYP/6-311G** levels with and without solvent effects. The optimized structures are compared with X-ray data. We found that the optimized structures with solvent effects are in slightly better agreement with X-ray data than those without solvent effects. The 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of berberine were calculated by using the gauge-independent atomic orbital (GIAO) (with and without solvent effects), CSGT, and IGAIM methods. The calculated chemical shifts were compared with the two-dimensional NMR experimental data. Overall, the calculated chemical shifts show very good agreement with the experimental results. The harmonic vibrational frequencies for berberine were calculated at the B3LYP/6-311G** level.

  18. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Resilient Control System Functional Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynne M. Stevens

    2010-07-01

    Control Systems and their associated instrumentation must meet reliability, availability, maintainability, and resiliency criteria in order for high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) to be economically competitive. Research, perhaps requiring several years, may be needed to develop control systems to support plant availability and resiliency. This report functionally analyzes the gaps between traditional and resilient control systems as applicable to HTGRs, which includes the Next Generation Nuclear Plant; defines resilient controls; assesses the current state of both traditional and resilient control systems; and documents the functional gaps existing between these two controls approaches as applicable to HTGRs. This report supports the development of an overall strategy for applying resilient controls to HTGRs by showing that control systems with adequate levels of resilience perform at higher levels, respond more quickly to disturbances, increase operational efficiency, and increase public protection.

  19. BISON Theory Manual The Equations behind Nuclear Fuel Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, J. D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Williamson, R. L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Novascone, S. R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pastore, G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spencer, B. W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Stafford, D. S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gamble, K. A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Perez, D. M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Liu, W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    BISON is a finite element-based nuclear fuel performance code applicable to a variety of fuel forms including light water reactor fuel rods, TRISO particle fuel, and metallic rod and plate fuel. It solves the fully-coupled equations of thermomechanics and species diffusion, for either 2D axisymmetric or 3D geometries. Fuel models are included to describe temperature and burnup dependent thermal properties, fission product swelling, densification, thermal and irradiation creep, fracture, and fission gas production and release. Plasticity, irradiation growth, and thermal and irradiation creep models are implemented for clad materials. Models are also available to simulate gap heat transfer, mechanical contact, and the evolution of the gap/plenum pressure with plenum volume, gas temperature, and fission gas addition. BISON is based on the MOOSE framework and can therefore efficiently solve problems using standard workstations or very large high-performance computers. This document describes the theoretical and numerical foundations of BISON.

  20. Hydrodynamic Scaling Analysis of Nuclear Fusion in Hot Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, Sachie

    2011-01-01

    Proton beams generated by ultraintense laser pulse irradiations have potential applications in industry and in medicine. However, the laser pulse parameters are currently not optimized for practical applications. We discuss scaling laws of fusion yields generated by laser-plasma interactions. The yields are found to scale as a function of the laser power. The origin of the scaling law in the laser driven fusion yield is derived in terms of hydrodynamical scaling and it is attributed to the laser power dependence of three terms: the reaction rate, the density of the plasma and the pro- jected range of the plasma particle in the medium. The resulting scaling relations have a powerful predictive power that enables estimating the fusion yield for a nuclear reaction which has not been investigated by means of the laser accelerated ion beams.

  1. Identification and Analysis of Critical Gaps in Nuclear Fuel Cycle Codes Required by the SINEMA Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrian Miron; Joshua Valentine; John Christenson; Majd Hawwari; Santosh Bhatt; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar: Michael Lineberry

    2009-10-01

    The current state of the art in nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) modeling is an eclectic mixture of codes with various levels of applicability, flexibility, and availability. In support of the advanced fuel cycle systems analyses, especially those by the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), Unviery of Cincinnati in collaboration with Idaho State University carried out a detailed review of the existing codes describing various aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle and identified the research and development needs required for a comprehensive model of the global nuclear energy infrastructure and the associated nuclear fuel cycles. Relevant information obtained on the NFC codes was compiled into a relational database that allows easy access to various codes' properties. Additionally, the research analyzed the gaps in the NFC computer codes with respect to their potential integration into programs that perform comprehensive NFC analysis.

  2. Performance Analysis of Thermal Vapour Compression Desalination System Coupled to Cogeneration Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Asiedu-Boateng

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear desalination of seawater has been identified as one of the affordable means of fresh water production. However this can only be achieved by the design of energy efficient desalination systems. This study focused on cycle analysis of the cogeneration nuclear power plant. A theoretical model of the Thermo Vapour Compression (TVC desalination process was also developed and coupled to the cogeneration nuclear power plant. The modeled coupled system was developed on the computer code, NUCDES using FORTRAN language to investigate the effect of design and operating parameters on parameters controlling the cost of producing fresh water from TVC process. The results showed that the performance of the TVC desalination process and the efficiency of the cogeneration nuclear power improve with the motive steam pressure.

  3. Office of Nuclear Energy Knowledge Management Program Situational Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimberlyn C. Mousseau

    2011-12-01

    Knowledge management (KM) has been a high priority for the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) for the past several years. NE Programs are moving toward well-established knowledge management practices and a formal knowledge management program has been established. Knowledge management is being practiced to some level within each of the NE programs. Although it continues to evolve as NE programs evolve, a formal strategic plan that guides the implementation of KM has been developed. Despite the acceptance of KM within DOE NE, more work is necessary before the NE KM program can be considered fully successful. Per Dr. David J. Skyrme[1], an organization typically moves through the following evolutionary phases: (1) Ad-hoc - KM is being practiced to some level in some parts of the organization; (2) Formal - KM is established as a formal project or program; (3) Expanding - the use of KM as a discipline grows in practice across different parts of the organization; (4) Cohesive - there is a degree of coordination of KM; (5) Integrated - there are formal standards and approaches that give every individual access to most organizational knowledge through common interfaces; and (6) Embedded - KM is part-and-parcel of everyday tasks; it blends seamlessly into the background. According to the evolutionary phases, the NE KM program is operating at the two lower levels, Ad-hoc and Formal. Although KM is being practiced to some level, it is not being practiced in a consistent manner across the NE programs. To be fully successful, more emphasis must be placed on establishing KM standards and processes for collecting, organizing, sharing and accessing NE knowledge. Existing knowledge needs to be prioritized and gathered on a routine basis, its existence formally recorded in a knowledge inventory. Governance to ensure the quality of the knowledge being used must also be considered. For easy retrieval, knowledge must be organized according to a taxonomy that

  4. Radiochemical analysis of concrete samples for decommission of nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata-Garcia, Daniel; Wershofen, Herbert [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100 38116, Braunschweig (Germany); Larijani, Cyrus; Sobrino-Petrirena, Maitane; Garcia-Miranda, Maria; Jerome, Simon M. [National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Decommissioning of the oldest nuclear power reactors are some of the most challenging technological legacy issues many countries will face in forthcoming years, as many power reactors reach the end of their design lives. Decommissioning of nuclear reactors generates large amounts of waste that need to be classified according to their radioactive content. Approximately 10 % of the contaminated material ends up in different repositories (depending on their level of contamination) while the rest is decontaminated, measured and released into the environment or sent for recycling. Such classification needs to be done accurately in order to ensure that both the personnel involved in decommissioning and the population at large are not needlessly exposed to radiation or radioactive material and to minimise the environmental impact of such work. However, too conservative classification strategies should not be applied, in order to make proper use of radioactive waste repositories since space is limited and the full process must be cost-effective. Implicit in decommissioning and classification of waste is the need to analyse large amounts of material which usually combine a complex matrix with a non-homogeneous distribution of the radionuclides. Because the costs involved are large, it is possible to make great savings by the adoption of best available practices, such as the use of validated methods for on-site measurements and simultaneous determination of more than one radionuclide whenever possible. The work we present deals with the development and the validation of a procedure for the simultaneous determination of {sup 241}Am, plutonium isotopes, uranium isotopes and {sup 90}Sr in concrete samples. Samples are firstly ground and fused with LiBO{sub 2} and Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}. After dissolution of the fused sample, silicate and alkaline elements are removed followed by radiochemical separation of the target radionuclides using extraction chromatography. Measurement

  5. Nuclear stockpile stewardship and Bayesian image analysis (DARHT and the BIE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, James L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-11

    Since the end of nuclear testing, the reliability of our nation's nuclear weapon stockpile has been performed using sub-critical hydrodynamic testing. These tests involve some pretty 'extreme' radiography. We will be discussing the challenges and solutions to these problems provided by DARHT (the world's premiere hydrodynamic testing facility) and the BIE or Bayesian Inference Engine (a powerful radiography analysis software tool). We will discuss the application of Bayesian image analysis techniques to this important and difficult problem.

  6. Investigation of the uptake of drugs, carcinogens and mutagens by individual mammalian cells using a scanning proton microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholewa, M.; Turnbull, I. F.; Legge, G. J. F.; Weigold, H.; Marcuccio, S. M.; Holan, G.; Tomlinson, E.; Wright, P. J.; Dillon, C. T.; Lay, P. A.; Bonin, A. M.

    1995-09-01

    The use of micro-PIXE [1] in measuring the quantitative uptake of drugs containing metal atoms by individual Vero cells (African green monkey kidney cell line) and V79 Chinese hamster lung cells is demonstrated. One class of drugs, heteropolytungstates, which are being assessed for activity against the HIV virus, were studied using Vero cells. The cellular uptake of a series of chromium compounds, including carcinogens and mutagens, in which the metal oxidation state was either (III), (V) or (VI), was measured using V79 cells. It was found that, unlike any other techniques, scanning proton microprobe (SPM) offers both the sensitivity and spatial resolution to carry out unicellular analysis. The use of cultured cell lines in these analyses was shown to have distinct advantages over cells such as peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs).

  7. Ex Vessel neutron dosimetry analysis of Korea standard nuclear plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Mi Joung; Kim, Byoung Chul; Kim, Kyung Sik; Jeon, Young Kyou; Maeng, Young Jae [Korea Reactor Integrity Surveillance Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Choon Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The Code of Federal Regulations (CFRs), Title 10, Part 50, Appendix H, requires that neutron dosimetry be present to monitor the reactor vessel throughout plant life and that material specimens be used to measure damage associated with the end-of-life fast neutron exposure of the reactor vessel. Currently, Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry (EVND) sets are installed in 16 operating pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in Korea, and of which Yonggwang (YG) Units 3, 4, 5, and 6 and UlChin (UC) Units 3, 4, 5, and 6 are Korea Standard Nuclear Plants (KSNPs). The EVND Program has been designed primarily to meet the code and provide a long term monitoring of fast neutron exposure distributions within the reactor vessel wall that could experience significant radiation induced increases in reference nil ductility transition temperature (RT{sub NDT}) over the service lifetime of the plant. The EVND sets installed have been analyzed regularly according to the plant specification, which is a part of the comprehensive EVND surveillance programs, in all 16 operating PWRs.

  8. Time-domain soil-structure interaction analysis of nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Justin L., E-mail: justin.coleman@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States); Bolisetti, Chandrakanth, E-mail: chandrakanth.bolisetti@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States); Whittaker, Andrew S., E-mail: awhittak@buffalo.edu [University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, North Campus, 212 Ketter Hall, Amherst, NY 14260 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulation 10 CFR Part 50 Appendix S requires consideration of soil-structure interaction (SSI) in nuclear power plant (NPP) analysis and design. Soil-structure interaction analysis for NPPs is routinely carried out using guidance provided in the ASCE Standard 4-98 titled “Seismic Analysis of Safety-Related Nuclear Structures and Commentary”. This Standard, which is currently under revision, provides guidance on linear seismic soil-structure-interaction (SSI) analysis of nuclear facilities using deterministic and probabilistic methods. A new appendix has been added to the forthcoming edition of ASCE Standard 4 to provide guidance for time-domain, nonlinear SSI (NLSSI) analysis. Nonlinear SSI analysis will be needed to simulate material nonlinearity in soil and/or structure, static and dynamic soil pressure effects on deeply embedded structures, local soil failure at the foundation-soil interface, nonlinear coupling of soil and pore fluid, uplift or sliding of the foundation, nonlinear effects of gaps between the surrounding soil and the embedded structure and seismic isolation systems, none of which can be addressed explicitly at present. Appendix B of ASCE Standard 4 provides general guidance for NLSSI analysis but will not provide a methodology for performing the analysis. This paper provides a description of an NLSSI methodology developed for application to nuclear facilities, including NPPs. This methodology is described as series of sequential steps to produce reasonable results using any time-domain numerical code. These steps require some numerical capabilities, such as nonlinear soil constitutive models, which are also described in the paper.

  9. Graphical analysis of French nuclear power plant production date

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jourdan, J.P. [Electricite de France (EDF), Projet Production EPR 1, 93 - Saint-Denis (France)

    2001-07-01

    The analysis of values of plant production uses here an original method of graphical analysis. This method clarifies various difficulties of analysing big experience feedback databases among which the language interpretation and distinctions between scarce events and multi-annual events. In general, the method shows the logical processes that production values obey (pure chance logic, administrative logic, and willpower) This method of graphical analysis provides a tool to observe and question in a concrete way so that each person involved can put the events in which he played a role into the general context of other plants. It is a deductible method to improve this big and complex system. (author)

  10. High-speed microprobe for roughness measurements in high-aspect-ratio microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, Lutz; Brand, Uwe; Bütefisch, Sebastian; Ahbe, Thomas; Weimann, Thomas; Peiner, Erwin; Frank, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Cantilever-type silicon microprobes with an integrated tip and a piezoresistive signal read out have successfully proven to bridge the gap between scanning force microscopy and stylus profilometry. Roughness measurements in high-aspect-ratio microstructures (HARMS) with depths down to 5 mm and widths down to 50 µm have been demonstrated. To improve the scanning speed up to 15 mm s‑1, the wear of the tip has to be reduced. The atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique with alumina (Al2O3) has been tested for this purpose. Repeated wear measurements with coated and uncoated microprobe cantilevers have been carried out on a roughness standard at a speed of 15 mm s‑1. The tip shape and the wear have been measured using a new probing tip reference standard containing rectangular silicon grooves with widths from 0.3 µm to 3 µm. The penetration depth of the microprobe allows one to measure the wear of the tip as well as the tip width and the opening angle of the tip. The roughness parameters obtained on the roughness standard during wear experiments agree well with the reference values measured with a calibrated stylus instrument, nevertheless a small amount of wear still is observable. Further research is necessary in order to obtain wear resistant microprobe tips for non-destructive inspection of microstructures in industry and microform measurements, for example in injection nozzles.

  11. Development of a soft X-ray microprobe for single cell radiobiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Liang; YAN Jingwen; JIANG Shiping; YU Yang

    2009-01-01

    An X-ray microprobe for radiobiological studies was developed which deliver precise doses of radiation to the selected individual cells. The facility used synchrotron radiation as soft X-ray source. A zone plate combining with a pinhole produced a fine probe from bending magnet for single cell irradiating with defined doses. The diameter of microprobe at the target position was about 2 μm by scanning a knife-edge with an AXUV photo diode. The fluxes of soft X-rays at 516.7 eV (2.4 nm) were about 5.4×104 photons/s.100mA measured with the photo diode. The absorbed dose rate for typical yeast cells was about 11.34 Gy/s with the storage current of 100 mA. A preliminary experiment for yeast cells irradiation has shown that the microprobe had a definite biological effect for radiobiological investigations. The soft X-ray microprobe at "water window" region has provided a useful tool for single cell irradiating damage and a capability of individually irradiating a certain numbers of cells each time.

  12. Scanning deep level transient spectroscopy using an MeV ion microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.A.; Saint, A.; Moloney, G.M.; Legge, G.F.J. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Traditionally the scanning ion microprobe has given little or no information regarding the electronic structure of materials in particular semiconductors. A new imaging technique called Scanning Ion Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (SIDLTS) is presented which is able to spatially map alterations in the band gap structure of materials by lattice defects or impurities. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Round robin: Quantitative lateral resolution of PHI XPS microprobes Quantum 2000/Quantera SXM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheithauer, Uwe, E-mail: scht.uhg@googlemail.com [82008 Unterhaching (Germany); Kolb, Max, E-mail: max.kolb@airbus.com [Airbus Group Innovations, TX2, 81663 Munich (Germany); Kip, Gerard A.M., E-mail: G.A.M.Kip@utwente.nl [Universiteit Twente, MESA+ Nanolab, Postbus 217, 7500AE Enschede (Netherlands); Naburgh, Emile, E-mail: e.p.naburgh@philips.com [Materials Analysis, Philips Innovation Services, High Tech Campus 11, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Snijders, J.H.M., E-mail: j.h.m.snijders@philips.com [Materials Analysis, Philips Innovation Services, High Tech Campus 11, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • The quantitative lateral resolution of 7 PHI XPS microprobes has been estimated in a round robin. • An ellipsoidally shaped quartz crystal monochromatizes the Alkα radiation and refocuses it from the Al anode to the sample surface. • The long tail contributions of the X-ray beam intensity distribution were measured using a new and innovative approach. • This quantitative lateral resolution has a significantly larger value than the nominal X-ray beam diameter. • The quantitative lateral resolution follows a trend in time: The newer the monochromator so much the better the quantitative lateral resolution. - Abstract: The quantitative lateral resolution is a reliable measure for the quality of an XPS microprobe equipped with a focused X-ray beam. It describes the long tail contributions of the X-ray beam intensity distribution. The knowledge of these long tail contributions is essential when judging on the origin of signals of XPS spectra recorded on small-sized features. In this round robin test the quantitative lateral resolution of 7 PHI XPS microprobes has been estimated. As expected, the quantitative lateral resolution has significantly larger values than the nominal X-ray beam diameter. The estimated values of the quantitative lateral resolution follow a trend in time: the newer the monochromator of an XPS microprobe so much the better the quantitative lateral resolution.

  14. Seismic fragility analysis of a nuclear building based on probabilistic seismic hazard assessment and soil-structure interaction analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, R.; Ni, S.; Chen, R.; Han, X.M. [CANDU Energy Inc, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Mullin, D. [New Brunswick Power, Point Lepreau, New Brunswick (Canada)

    2016-09-15

    Seismic fragility analyses are conducted as part of seismic probabilistic safety assessment (SPSA) for nuclear facilities. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) has been undertaken for a nuclear power plant in eastern Canada. Uniform Hazard Spectra (UHS), obtained from the PSHA, is characterized by high frequency content which differs from the original plant design basis earthquake spectral shape. Seismic fragility calculations for the service building of a CANDU 6 nuclear power plant suggests that the high frequency effects of the UHS can be mitigated through site response analysis with site specific geological conditions and state-of-the-art soil-structure interaction analysis. In this paper, it is shown that by performing a detailed seismic analysis using the latest technology, the conservatism embedded in the original seismic design can be quantified and the seismic capacity of the building in terms of High Confidence of Low Probability of Failure (HCLPF) can be improved. (author)

  15. Procedure for conducting a human-reliability analysis for nuclear power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, B.J.; Swain, A.D.

    1983-05-01

    This document describes in detail a procedure to be followed in conducting a human reliability analysis as part of a probabilistic risk assessment when such an analysis is performed according to the methods described in NUREG/CR-1278, Handbook for Human Reliability Analysis with Emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications. An overview of the procedure describing the major elements of a human reliability analysis is presented along with a detailed description of each element and an example of an actual analysis. An appendix consists of some sample human reliability analysis problems for further study.

  16. Nuclear charge and neutron radii and nuclear matter: Trend analysis in Skyrme density-functional-theory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, P.-G.; Nazarewicz, W.

    2016-05-01

    Background: Radii of charge and neutron distributions are fundamental nuclear properties. They depend on both nuclear interaction parameters related to the equation of state of infinite nuclear matter and on quantal shell effects, which are strongly impacted by the presence of nuclear surface. Purpose: In this work, by studying the correlation of charge and neutron radii, and neutron skin, with nuclear matter parameters, we assess different mechanisms that drive nuclear sizes. Method: We apply nuclear density functional theory using a family of Skyrme functionals obtained by means of optimization protocols, which do not include any radius information. By performing the Monte Carlo sampling of reasonable functionals around the optimal parametrization, we scan all correlations between nuclear matter properties and observables characterizing charge and neutron distributions of spherical closed-shell nuclei 48Ca,208Pb, and 298Fl. Results: By considering the influence of various nuclear matter properties on charge and neutron radii in a multidimensional parameter space of Skyrme functionals, we demonstrate the existence of two strong relationships: (i) between the nuclear charge radii and the saturation density of symmetric nuclear matter ρ0, and (ii) between the neutron skins and the slope of the symmetry energy L . The impact of other nuclear matter properties on nuclear radii is weak or nonexistent. For functionals optimized to experimental binding energies only, proton and neutron radii are found to be weakly correlated due to canceling trends from different nuclear matter characteristics. Conclusion: The existence of only two strong relations connecting nuclear radii with nuclear matter properties has important consequences. First, by requiring that the nuclear functional reproduces the empirical saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter practically fixes the charge (or proton) radii, and vice versa. This explains the recent results of ab initio calculations

  17. Analysis of the formation, expression, and economic impacts of risk perceptions associated with nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, T.; Hunter, S.; Calzonetti, F.J.

    1992-10-01

    This report investigates how communities hosting nuclear facilities form and express perceptions of risk and how these risk perceptions affect local economic development. Information was collected from site visits and interviews with plant personnel, officials of local and state agencies, and community activists in the hosting communities. Six commercial nuclear fuel production facilities and five nuclear facilities operated for the US Department of Energy by private contractors were chosen for analysis. The results presented in the report indicate that the nature of risk perceptions depends on a number of factors. These factors are (1) level of communication by plant officials within the local community, (2) track record of the facility. operator, (3) process through which community and state officials receive information and form opinions, (4) level of economic links each plant has with the local community, and (15) physical characteristics of the facility itself. This report finds that in the communities studied, adverse ask perceptions have not affected business location decisions, employment levels in the local community, tourism, or agricultural development. On the basis of case-study findings, this report recommends that nuclear facility siting programs take the following observations into account when addressing perceptions of risk. First, the quality of a facility`s participation with community activists, interest groups, and state agencies helps to determine the level of perceived risk within a community. Second, the development of strong economic links between nuclear facilities and their host communities will produce a higher level of acceptance of the nuclear facilities.

  18. Report to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission on Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1987-05-01

    This annual report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) is devoted to the activities performed during calendar year 1986. Comments and observations are provided on operating experience at nuclear power plants and other NRC licensees, including results from selected AEOD studies; summaries of abnormal occurrences involving US nuclear plants; reviews of licensee event reports and their quality, reactor scram experience from 1984 to 1986, engineered safety features actuations, and the trends and patterns analysis program; and assessments of nonreactor and medical misadministration events. In addition, the report provides the year-end status of all recommendations included in AEOD studies, and listings of all AEOD reports issued from 1980 through 1986.

  19. Analysis of nuclear export using photoactivatable GFP fusion proteins and interspecies heterokaryons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakrieko, Kerry-Ann; Ivanova, Iordanka A; Dagnino, Lina

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, we review protocols for the analysis of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of transcription factors and nuclear proteins, using two different approaches. The first involves the use of photoactivatable forms of the protein of interest by fusion to photoactivatable green fluorescent protein to follow its movement out of the nucleus by live-cell confocal microscopy. This methodology allows for the kinetic characterization of protein movements as well as measurement of steady-state levels. In a second procedure to assess the ability of a nuclear protein to move into and out of the nucleus, we describe the use of interspecies heterokaryon assays, which provide a measurement of steady-state distribution. These technologies are directly applicable to the analysis of nucleocytoplasmic movements not only of transcription factors, but also other nuclear proteins.

  20. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  1. Study on the dynamic response analysis for evaluating the effectiveness of base isolation for nuclear components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Kazunari; Tsutsumi, Hideaki; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Ebisawa, Katsumi; Shibata, Katsuyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-07-01

    Introduction of the base isolation technique into the seismic design of nuclear power plant components as well as buildings has been expected as one of the effective countermeasure to reduce the seismic force applied to components. A research program on the base isolation of nuclear components has been carried out at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) since 1991. A methodology and a computer code (EBISA: Equipment Base Insolation System Analysis) for evaluating the failure frequency of the nuclear component with the base isolation were developed. In addition, a test program, which is concerned with the above development, aiming at improvement of failure frequency analysis models in the code has been conducted since 1996 to investigate the dynamic behavior and to verify the effectiveness of component base isolation systems. In the failure frequency analysis, methodology for evaluating the actual dynamic responses of the nuclear components with the base isolation in detail has been examined. In the methodology, the actual responses are computed by considering the scatter in mechanical properties of rock masses, reactor building and components under many earthquake motions with various frequency characteristics. The failure frequency of component is computed as the conditional probability where the actual response exceeds the capacity of components. It is a very important in the above methodology to investigates the dynamic response analysis method for the ground, reactor building and nuclear components as well as the scattering factors in the dynamic analysis. This report describes the accuracy of the dynamic response analysis method and analysis models, and the influence of scatters in properties of rock masses and reactor building on the dynamic response. (author)

  2. A Delayed Neutron Counting System for the Analysis of Special Nuclear Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Madison Theresa

    Nuclear forensic analysis is a modem science that uses numerous analytical techniques to identify and attribute nuclear materials in the event of a nuclear explosion, radiological terrorist attack or the interception of illicit nuclear material smuggling. The Canadian Department of National Defence has participated in recent international exercises that have highlighted the Nation's requirement to develop nuclear forensics expertise, protocol and capabilities, specifically pertaining to the analysis of special nuclear materials (SNM). A delayed neutron counting (DNC) system has been designed and established at the Royal Military College of Canada (RMC) to enhance the Government's SNM analysis capabilities. This analytical technique complements those already at RMC by providing a rapid and non-destructive method for the analysis of the fissile isotopes of both uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu). The SLOWPOKE-2 reactor at RMC produces a predominately thermal neutron flux. These neutrons induce fission in the SNM isotopes 233U, 235U and 239Pu releasing prompt fast neutrons, energy and radioactive fission fragments. Some of these fission fragments undergo beta - decay and subsequently emit neutrons, which can be recorded by an array of sensitive 3He detectors. The significant time period between the fission process and the release of these neutrons results in their identification as 'delayed neutrons'. The recorded neutron spectrum varies with time and the count rate curve is unique to each fissile isotope. In-house software, developed by this project, can analyze this delayed neutron curve and provides the fissile mass in the sample. Extensive characterization of the DNC system has been performed with natural U samples with 235 U content ranging from 2--7 microg. The system efficiency and dead time behaviour determined by the natural uranium sample analyses were validated by depleted uranium samples with similar quantities of 235 U resulting in a typical relative error of

  3. Macro elemental analysis of food samples by nuclear analytical technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahfitri, W. Y. N.; Kurniawati, S.; Adventini, N.; Damastuti, E.; Lestiani, D. D.

    2017-06-01

    Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry is a non-destructive, rapid, multi elemental, accurate, and environment friendly analysis compared with other detection methods. Thus, EDXRF spectrometry is applicable for food inspection. The macro elements calcium and potassium constitute important nutrients required by the human body for optimal physiological functions. Therefore, the determination of Ca and K content in various foods needs to be done. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the applicability of EDXRF for food analysis. The analytical performance of non-destructive EDXRF was compared with other analytical techniques; neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. Comparison of methods performed as cross checking results of the analysis and to overcome the limitations of the three methods. Analysis results showed that Ca found in food using EDXRF and AAS were not significantly different with p-value 0.9687, whereas p-value of K between EDXRF and NAA is 0.6575. The correlation between those results was also examined. The Pearson correlations for Ca and K were 0.9871 and 0.9558, respectively. Method validation using SRM NIST 1548a Typical Diet was also applied. The results showed good agreement between methods; therefore EDXRF method can be used as an alternative method for the determination of Ca and K in food samples.

  4. Incorporating nuclear vibrational energies into the "atom in molecules" analysis: An analytical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharabaghi, Masumeh; Shahbazian, Shant

    2017-04-21

    The quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) is based on the clamped nucleus paradigm and solely working with the electronic wavefunctions, so does not include nuclear vibrations in the AIM analysis. On the other hand, the recently extended version of the QTAIM, called the multi-component QTAIM (MC-QTAIM), incorporates both electrons and quantum nuclei, i.e., those nuclei treated as quantum waves instead of clamped point charges, into the AIM analysis using non-adiabatic wavefunctions. Thus, the MC-QTAIM is the natural framework to incorporate the role of nuclear vibrations into the AIM analysis. In this study, within the context of the MC-QTAIM, the formalism of including nuclear vibrational energy in the atomic basin energy is developed in detail and its contribution is derived analytically using the recently proposed non-adiabatic Hartree product nuclear wavefunction. It is demonstrated that within the context of this wavefunction, the quantum nuclei may be conceived pseudo-adiabatically as quantum oscillators and both isotropic harmonic and anisotropic anharmonic oscillator models are used to compute the zero-point nuclear vibrational energy contribution to the basin energies explicitly. Inspired by the results gained within the context of the MC-QTAIM analysis, a heuristic approach is proposed within the context of the QTAIM to include nuclear vibrational energy in the basin energy from the vibrational wavefunction derived adiabatically. The explicit calculation of the basin contribution of the zero-point vibrational energy using the uncoupled harmonic oscillator model leads to results consistent with those derived from the MC-QTAIM.

  5. CALCMIN - an EXCEL™ Visual Basic application for calculating mineral structural formulae from electron microprobe analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandelik, Andreas

    2009-07-01

    CALCMIN, an open source Visual Basic program, was implemented in EXCEL™. The program was primarily developed to support geoscientists in their routine task of calculating structural formulae of minerals on the basis of chemical analysis mainly obtained by electron microprobe (EMP) techniques. Calculation programs for various minerals are already included in the form of sub-routines. These routines are arranged in separate modules containing a minimum of code. The architecture of CALCMIN allows the user to easily develop new calculation routines or modify existing routines with little knowledge of programming techniques. By means of a simple mouse-click, the program automatically generates a rudimentary framework of code using the object model of the Visual Basic Editor (VBE). Within this framework simple commands and functions, which are provided by the program, can be used, for example, to perform various normalization procedures or to output the results of the computations. For the clarity of the code, element symbols are used as variables initialized by the program automatically. CALCMIN does not set any boundaries in complexity of the code used, resulting in a wide range of possible applications. Thus, matrix and optimization methods can be included, for instance, to determine end member contents for subsequent thermodynamic calculations. Diverse input procedures are provided, such as the automated read-in of output files created by the EMP. Furthermore, a subsequent filter routine enables the user to extract specific analyses in order to use them for a corresponding calculation routine. An event-driven, interactive operating mode was selected for easy application of the program. CALCMIN leads the user from the beginning to the end of the calculation process.

  6. Ion microprobe U-Pb dating and REE abundance of biogenic apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Y.; Terada, K.; Ueki, S.

    2001-12-01

    If the direct U-Pb dating of a fossil itself is possible, the method could have great impact on stratigraphic studies in establishing the absolute chronology of sedimentary sequences. Micro fossil ?conodont? are candidates for this purpose since they consist of apatite (Ca2(PO5)3 (F,Cl,OH)), which would uptake U, Th and Pb after sedimentation no longer than a few million years and is supposed to remain closed to U and Pb under relatively low effective closure temperature. We report here results of direct ion microprobe U-Th-Pb dating of two conodonts; Trichognathus from Kinderhookian stage of Mississippian sedimentary sequence from Illinois Basin region in North America and Panderodus from a Llandoverian sedimentary sequence on Langkawi Island, northern Malaysia. Secondary purpose of the study is to indicate in situ analysis of all REE on the same spots of U-Pb measurements. Samples were cast into epoxy resin discs with a few grains of standard apatite, PRAP, derived from an alkaline rock of Prairie Lake circular complex in the Canadian Shield and polished until they were exposed through their mid-sections. U, Th and REE abundances, and Pb isotopic compositions were measured by using SHRIMP installed at Hiroshima University. Thirteen spots on Trichognathus yield a 238U/206Pb isochron age of 323+/-36 Ma, which is consistent with the depositional and early diagenetic ages. Fifteen spots on Panderodus give 232Th/208Pb isochron age of 429+/-50 Ma, which is again comparable to an early Silurian. Shale-normalized REE of Trichognathus shows a broadly flat pattern from light to middle REE and a decrease from middle to heavy REE with negative anomalies of Ce and Eu. In contrast Panderodus indicates a concave-shape pattern with middle REE enrichment. These characteristics are probably due to a different formation environment as suggested by other workers.

  7. Mapping the Earth's mantle in 4D using the proton microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, W. L.; Ryan, C. G.; Win, T. T.

    1995-09-01

    The CSIRO proton microprobe is used to study the trace element chemistry of garnet and chromite grains recovered from kimberlites and other volcanic rocks, both to develop new diamond exploration methods and to further understanding of the makeup and evolution of the earth's upper mantle. Analysis of the partitioning of trace and major elements between garnet and chromite and their coexisting phases in mantle rocks has led to the development of two single-mineral thermometers and a barometer. Trace Ni in Cr-pyrope garnet is used to determine the equilibration temperature ( TNi) of each garnet grain. This is the temperature of the garnet in its source rock before it was entrained in the erupting magma. Similarly, trace Zn in chromite yields an estimate ( TZn) of its equilibration temperature. To relate these temperature to depth in the lithosphere a measure of pressure ( PCr) has been developed that estimates pressure directly from Cr-pyrope garnet composition and TNi. This breakthrough enables the information on rock composition and metasomatic processes held in the trace and major element chemistry of each garnet to be located in P and T and thus placed in its stratigraphic context. Y, Ga and Cr provide information on mantle depletion by partial melting. Zr, Y and Ti provide clues to metasomatic processes such as infiltration of asthenospheric melts. Together the result is both an improved diamond exploration tool and a method of mapping the 3D structure, lithology and metasomatic processes in the lithosphere. With the added knowledge of the date of each intrusion, these methods permit the construction of 4D maps of the lithosphere, charting variation in mantle composition both laterally, with depth and through time.

  8. An Analysis of the Multinational Approach in Nuclear Fuel Cycle for East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Viet Phuong; Yim, Man Sung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    To balance the need to develop nuclear power for peaceful purposes and to prevent the risks of nuclear proliferation, multinational approach (MNA) of nuclear fuel cycle has been developed on the basis that nuclear technology is managed not by individual countries, but by a community of state-level technology users, so that countries can have access to the benefits of peaceful applications of nuclear technology while any proliferation intention will be collectively eliminated by the community. This paper focuses on why MNA is still necessary for this region in the non-proliferation and nuclear power development context of East Asia. Following the analysis on the need for MNA, the possible challenges and necessary considerations for new proposal of MNA in East Asia are provided. The paper is concluded with a summarization on the necessity and challenges of MNA as well as further direction for research. From the analysis in this paper, it could be concluded that the development of MNA for nuclear fuel cycle is a complex process, of which the success could only be assured by the combination of political effort, feasible technology choice, and practical approach. The complexity and political-implied nature of MNA in East Asia have resulted in the failure of every proposals in this region. Nevertheless, given the numerous issues of the regional nuclear industry, MNA has become once again a reasonable choice for the East Asia countries, which are thriving to a solution to assure fuel supply and back-end fuel cycle management while trying to eliminate the risk of nuclear proliferation in the region. The creation of such cooperation regime will have to surpass the obstacles of international relations, regional political tension and scope of approach. In this paper, a comprehensive coverage of the MNA for nuclear fuel cycle is not presented due to space limitation. Rather, this paper focuses on analysing the advantages and obstacles of MNA in East Asia, with the hope that it

  9. Seismic analysis of the APR1400 nuclear reactor system using a verified beam element model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong-beom [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Park, No-Cheol, E-mail: pnch@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Jeong; Park, Young-Pil [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Youngin [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 62 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34142 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • A simplified beam element model is constructed based on the real dynamic characteristics of the APR1400. • Time history analysis is performed to calculate the seismic responses of the structures. • Large deformations can be observed at the in-phase mode of reactor vessel and core support barrel. - Abstract: Structural integrity is the first priority in the design of nuclear reactor internal structures. In particular, nuclear reactor internals should be designed to endure external forces, such as those due to earthquakes. Many researchers have performed finite element analyses to meet these design requirements. Generally, a seismic analysis model should reflect the dynamic characteristics of the target system. However, seismic analysis based on the finite element method requires long computation times as well as huge storage space. In this research, a beam element model was developed and confirmed based on the real dynamic characteristics of an advanced pressurized water nuclear reactor 1400 (APR1400) system. That verification process enhances the accuracy of the finite element analysis using the beam elements, remarkably. Also, the beam element model reduces seismic analysis costs. Therefore, the beam element model was used to perform the seismic analysis. Then, the safety of the APR1400 was assessed based on a seismic analysis of the time history responses of its structures. Thus, efficient, accurate seismic analysis was demonstrated using the proposed beam element model.

  10. Comparative Analysis of Codon Usage Patterns Among Mitochondrion, Chloroplast and Nuclear Genes in Triticum aestivum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Juan Zhang; Jie Zhou; Zuo-Feng Li; Li Wang; Xun Gu; Yang Zhong

    2007-01-01

    In many organisms, the difference in codon usage patterns among genes reflects variation in local base compositional biases and the intensity of natural selection. In this study, a comparative analysis was performed to investigate the characteristics of codon bias and factors in shaping the codon usage patterns among mitochondrion,chloroplast and nuclear genes in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). GC contents in nuclear genes were higher than that in mitochondrion and chloroplast genes. The neutrality and correspondence analyses indicated that the codon usage in nuclear genes would be a result of relative strong mutational bias, while the codon usage patterns of rnitochondrion and chloroplast genes were more conserved in GC content and influenced by translation level.The Parity Rule 2 (PR2) plot analysis showed that pyrimidines were used more frequently than purines at the third codon position in the three genomes. In addition, using a new alterative strategy, 11, 12, and 24 triplets were defined as preferred codons in the mitochondrion, chloroplast and nuclear genes, respectively. These findings suggested that the mitochondrion, chloroplast and nuclear genes shared particularly different features of codon usage and evolutionary constraints.

  11. Availability analysis of the nuclear instrumentation of a research reactor; Analise da disponibilidade da instrumentacao nuclear de um reator de pesquisa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianna Filho, Alfredo Marques

    2016-07-01

    The maintenance of systems and equipment is a central question related to Production Engineering. Although systems are not fully reliable, it is often necessary to minimize the failure occurrence likelihood. The failures occurrences can have disastrous consequences during a plane flight or operation of a nuclear power plant. The elaboration of a maintenance plan has as objective the prevention and recovery from system failures, increasing reliability and reducing the cost of unplanned shutdowns. It is also important to consider the issues related to organizations safety, especially those dealing with dangerous technologies. The objective of this thesis is to propose a method for maintenance analysis of a nuclear research reactor, using a socio-technical approach, and focused on existing conditions in Brazil. The research reactor studied belongs to the federal government and it is located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The specific objective of this thesis is to develop the availability analysis of one of the principal systems of the research reactor, the nuclear instrumentation system. In this analysis, were taken into account not only the technical aspects of the modules related to nuclear instrumentation system, but also the human and organizational factors that could affect the availability of the nuclear instrumentation system. The results showed the influence of these factors on the availability of the nuclear instrumentation system. (author)

  12. An enhancement of NASTRAN for the seismic analysis of structures. [nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughs, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    New modules, bulk data cards and DMAP sequence were added to NASTRAN to aid in the seismic analysis of nuclear power plant structures. These allow input consisting of acceleration time histories and result in the generation of acceleration floor response spectra. The resulting system contains numerous user convenience features, as well as being reasonably efficient.

  13. Discussion about modeling the effects of neutron flux exposure for nuclear reactor core analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondy, D.R.

    1986-04-01

    Methods used to calculate the effects of exposure to a neutron flux are described. The modeling of the nuclear-reactor core history presents an analysis challenge. The nuclide chain equations must be solved, and some of the methods in use for this are described. Techniques for treating reactor-core histories are discussed and evaluated.

  14. Compartmental analysis of renal physiology using nuclear medicine data and statistical optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Garbarino, Sara; Brignone, Massimo; Massollo, Michela; Sambuceti, Gianmario; Piana, Michele

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a general approach to the compartmental modeling of nuclear data based on spectral analysis and statistical optimization. We utilize the renal physiology as test case and validate the method against both synthetic data and real measurements acquired during two micro-PET experiments with murine models.

  15. Instrumental nuclear activation analysis (INAA) characterization of environmental air filter samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemón, Ernesto; Herrera, Luis; Ortiz, Elba; Longoria, L C Luis C

    2004-06-01

    Nuclear techniques have been used in quantitations of environmental pollutants, and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has turned out to be particularly useful in the analysis of airborne suspended particles. This work describes the INAA characterization of the particulate material in the environmental samples obtained in a monitoring campaign in Mexico City's Metropolitan Area. As the types of the irradiation facilities and gamma-ray detection system impose some limitations on the possibilities of INAA analysis, the actual experimental conditions at Gamma Spectroscopy Laboratory, where the analysis was performed, had been assessed. The facilities had been found suitable for the analysis of samples from this campaign, in which 22 elements were determined.

  16. Toward the greening of nuclear energy: A content analysis of nuclear energy frames from 1991 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sonya R.

    Framing theory has emerged as one of the predominant theories employed in mass communications research in the 21st century. Frames are identified as interpretive packages for content where some issue attributes are highlighted over other attributes. While framing effects studies appear plentiful, longitudinal studies assessing trends in dominant framing packages and story elements for an issue appear to be less understood. Through content analysis, this study examines dominant frame packages, story elements, headline tone, story tone, stereotypes, and source attribution for nuclear energy from 1991-2008 in the New York Times, USA Today, the Wall Street Journal, and the Washington Post. Unlike many content analysis studies, this study compares intercoder reliability among three indices---percentage agreement, proportional reduction of loss and Scott's Pi. The newspapers represented in this study possess a commonality in the types of dominant frames packages employed. Significant dominant frame packages among the four newspapers include human/health, proliferation, procedural, and marketplace. While the procedural frame package was more likely to appear prior to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, the proliferation frame packaged was more likely to appear after the Kyoto Protol. Over time, the sustainable frame package demonstrated increased significance. This study is part of the growing literature regarding the function of frames over time.

  17. Analysis of nuclear organization with TANGO, software for high-throughput quantitative analysis of 3D fluorescence microscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollion, Jean; Cochennec, Julien; Loll, François; Escudé, Christophe; Boudier, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The cell nucleus is a highly organized cellular organelle that contains the genome. An important step to understand the relationships between genome positioning and genome functions is to extract quantitative data from three-dimensional (3D) fluorescence imaging. However, such approaches are limited by the requirement for processing and analyzing large sets of images. Here we present a practical approach using TANGO (Tools for Analysis of Nuclear Genome Organization), an image analysis tool dedicated to the study of nuclear architecture. TANGO is a generic tool able to process large sets of images, allowing quantitative study of nuclear organization. In this chapter a practical description of the software is drawn in order to give an overview of its different concepts and functionalities. This description is illustrated with a precise example that can be performed step-by-step on experimental data provided on the website http://biophysique.mnhn.fr/tango/HomePage.

  18. LANDSAT-4 image data quality analysis for energy related applications. [nuclear power plant sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wukelic, G. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    No useable LANDSAT 4 TM data were obtained for the Hanford site in the Columbia Plateau region, but TM simulator data for a Virginia Electric Company nuclear power plant was used to test image processing algorithms. Principal component analyses of this data set clearly indicated that thermal plumes in surface waters used for reactor cooling would be discrenible. Image processing and analysis programs were successfully testing using the 7 band Arkansas test scene and preliminary analysis of TM data for the Savanah River Plant shows that current interactive, image enhancement, analysis and integration techniques can be effectively used for LANDSAT 4 data. Thermal band data appear adequate for gross estimates of thermal changes occurring near operating nuclear facilities especially in surface water bodies being used for reactor cooling purposes. Additional image processing software was written and tested which provides for more rapid and effective analysis of the 7 band TM data.

  19. Economic Analysis of the Management of the Nuclear Spent Fuel in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Yolanda Moratilla Soria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the economic and technical viability for either nuclear fuel reprocessing or permanent storage in Spain. Utilizing various international studies regarding nuclear fuel reprocessing, this study reaches an objective conclusion while taking into consideration the various variable and stable costs for the open and closed cycles. A sensitivity analysis was then introduced which identifies the most influential parameters in the final price. This analysis is essential in understanding the results obtained and emphasizes the need to specify a range of costs for both cycles and to see what factors affect these results. The sensitivity analysis describes the factors that play a large role in determining costs and will display the range of values that arise from the variability of costs for those factors. The uncertainty analysis compares the nominal values used in this study and describes how these values are likely to change with time resulting in a range of values for both cycles.

  20. A multiprocessor system for the analysis of pictures of nuclear events

    CERN Document Server

    Bacilieri, P; Matteuzzi, P; Sini, G P; Zanotti, U

    1979-01-01

    The pictures of nuclear events obtained from the bubble chambers such as Gargamelle and BEBC at CERN and others from Serpukhov are geometrically processed at CNAF (Centro Nazionale Analysis Photogrammi) in Bologna. The analysis system includes an Erasme table and a CRT flying spot digitizer. The difficulties connected with the pictures of the four stereoscopic views of the bubble chambers are overcome by the choice of a strong interactive system. (0 refs).

  1. Uranium analysis by neutron induced fissionography method using solid state nuclear track detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Akyuez, T; Guezel, T; Akyuz, S

    1999-01-01

    In this study total twenty samples (eight reference materials and twelve sediment samples) were analysed for their uranium content which is in the range of 1-17 mu g/g, by neutron induced fissionography (NIF) method using solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) in comparison with the results of neutron activation analysis (NAA), delayed neutron counting (DNC) technique or fluorometric method. It is found that NIF method using SSNTDs is very sensitive for analysis of uranium.

  2. Applications of nuclear reaction analysis for determining hydrogen and deuterium distribution in metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altstetter, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    The use of ion beams for materials analysis has made a successful transition from the domain of the particle physicist to that of the materials scientist. The subcategory of this field, nuclear reaction analysis, is just now undergoing the transition, particularly in applications to hydrogen in materials. The materials scientist must locate the nearest accelerator, because now he will find that using it can solve mysteries that do not yield to other techniques. 9 figures

  3. In Situ Microprobe Single-Cell Capillary Electrophoresis Mass Spectrometry: Metabolic Reorganization in Single Differentiating Cells in the Live Vertebrate (Xenopus laevis) Embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onjiko, Rosemary M; Portero, Erika P; Moody, Sally A; Nemes, Peter

    2017-07-05

    Knowledge of single-cell metabolism would provide a powerful look into cell activity changes as cells differentiate to all the tissues of the vertebrate embryo. However, single-cell mass spectrometry technologies have not yet been made compatible with complex three-dimensional changes and rapidly decreasing cell sizes during early development of the embryo. Here, we bridge this technological gap by integrating capillary microsampling, microscale metabolite extraction, and capillary electrophoresis electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-MS) to enable direct metabolic analysis of identified cells in the live frog embryo (Xenopus laevis). Microprobe CE-ESI-MS of cell content allowed us to detect ∼230 different molecular features (positive ion mode), including 70 known metabolites, in single dorsal and ventral cells in 8-to-32-cell embryos. Relative quantification followed by multivariate and statistical analysis of the data found that microsampling enhanced detection sensitivity compared to whole-cell dissection by minimizing chemical interferences and ion suppression effects from the culture media. In addition, higher glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratios suggested that microprobed cells exhibited significantly lower oxidative stress than those dissected from the embryo. Fast (5 s/cell) and scalable microsampling with minimal damage to cells in the 8-cell embryo enabled duplicate and triplicate metabolic analysis of the same cell, which surprisingly continued to divide to the 16-cell stage. Last, we used microprobe single-cell CE-ESI-MS to uncover previously unknown reorganization of the single-cell metabolome as the dorsal progenitor cell from the 8-cell embryo formed the neural tissue fated clone through divisions to the 32-cell embryo, peering, for the first time, into the formation of metabolic single-cell heterogeneity during early development of a vertebrate embryo.

  4. Collaborative human-machine nuclear non-proliferation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, F.L.; Badalamente, R.V.; Stewart, T.S.

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on the results of a project investigating support concepts for the information treatment needs of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, also referred to as the Agency) and its attempts to strengthen international safeguards. The aim of the research was to define user/computer interface concepts and intelligent support features that will enhance the analyst`s access to voluminous and diverse information, the ability to recognize and evaluate uncertain data, and the capability to make decisions and recommendations. The objective was to explore techniques for enhancing safeguards analysis through application of (1) more effective user-computer interface designs and (2) advanced concepts involving human/system collaboration. The approach was to identify opportunities for human/system collaboration that would capitalize on human strengths and still accommodate human limitations. This paper documents the findings and describes a concept prototype, Proliferation Analysis Support System (PASS), developed for demonstration purposes. The research complements current and future efforts to enhance the information systems used by the IAEA, but has application elsewhere, as well.

  5. Collaborative human-machine nuclear non-proliferation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, F.L.; Badalamente, R.V.; Stewart, T.S.

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on the results of a project investigating support concepts for the information treatment needs of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, also referred to as the Agency) and its attempts to strengthen international safeguards. The aim of the research was to define user/computer interface concepts and intelligent support features that will enhance the analyst`s access to voluminous and diverse information, the ability to recognize and evaluate uncertain data, and the capability to make decisions and recommendations. The objective was to explore techniques for enhancing safeguards analysis through application of (1) more effective user-computer interface designs and (2) advanced concepts involving human/system collaboration. The approach was to identify opportunities for human/system collaboration that would capitalize on human strengths and still accommodate human limitations. This paper documents the findings and describes a concept prototype, Proliferation Analysis Support System (PASS), developed for demonstration purposes. The research complements current and future efforts to enhance the information systems used by the IAEA, but has application elsewhere, as well.

  6. Incorporating the nuclear vibrational energies into the -atom in molecules- analysis: An analytical study

    CERN Document Server

    Gharabaghi, Masumeh

    2016-01-01

    The orthodox quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) is based on the clamped nucleus paradigm and working solely with the electronic wavefunctions, so unable to include nuclear vibrations in the AIM analysis. On the other hand, the recently extended version of the QTAIM, called the multi-component QTAIM (MC-QTAIM), incorporates both electrons and quantum nuclei, i.e. those nuclei treated as quantum waves instead of clamped point charges, into the AIM analysis using non-adiabatic wavefunctions. Thus, the MC-QTAIM is the natural framework to incorporate the role of nuclear vibrations into the AIM analysis. In this study, within the context of the MC-QTAIM, the formalism of including nuclear vibrational energy in the atomic basin energy is developed in detail and its contribution is derived analytically using the recently proposed non-adiabatic Hartree product nuclear wavefunction. It is demonstrated that within the context of this wavefunction the quantum nuclei may be conceived pseudo-adiabatically as qua...

  7. Recurrence plots and its quantification analysis applied to the monitoring and surveillance in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naranjo, Alberto R.; Otero, Maria Elena M.; Poveda, Aylin G. [Higher Institute of Technologies and Applied Sciences, Havana City (Cuba)]. E-mails: rolo@instec.cu; mmontesi@instec.cu; Guerra, Alexeis C. [University of Informatic Sciences, Havana City (Cuba)]. E-mail: alexeis@uci.cu

    2007-07-01

    The application of non-linear dynamic methods in many scientific fields has demonstrated its great potentiality in the early detection of significant dynamic singularities. The introduction of these methods oriented to the surveillance of anomalies and failures of nuclear reactors and their fundamental equipment have been demonstrated in the last years. Specifically, Recurrence Plot and its Quantification Analysis are methods currently used in many scientific fields. The paper focuses its attention on the estimation of the Recurrence Plots and its Quantification Analysis applied to signal samples obtained from different types of reactors: research reactor TRIGA MARK-III, BWR/5 and PHWR. Different behaviors are compared in order to look for a pattern for the characterization of the power instability events in the nuclear reactor. These outputs have a great importance for its application in systems of surveillance and monitoring in Nuclear Power Plants. For its introduction in a real time monitoring system, the authors propose some useful approaches. The results indicate the potentiality of the method for its implementation in a system of surveillance and monitoring in Nuclear Power Plants. All the calculations were performed with two computational tools developed by Marwan: Cross Recurrence Plot Toolbox for Matlab (Version 5.7, Release 22) and Visual Recurrence Analysis (Version 4.8). (author)

  8. MCO Pressurization analysis of spent nuclear fuel transporation and storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, D.M., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-20

    A series of analysis were performed to evaluate the pressurization of the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) during the stages of transport, processing and storage for expected operational and off normal events. The study examined both MCO sealing and venting issues. Computer models were developed for the MCO and its transport and storage environments using the GOTH and COBRA-TF computer codes. These thermal- hydraulic models included chemical corrosion and ranged in complexity from simple scoping models to full three-dimensional models. Results of the evaluation indicate that overpressurization of the MCO can occur within hours given the bounding reaction surface area and 3.0 Kg of residual water during shipping or 2.5 Kg of residual water during storage. Overpressurization can be prevented during shipping if the MCO reaction surface area is shown to be less than 80,000 cm{sup 2}. During storage the overpressurization can be prevented by limiting the available water.

  9. ANSYS 3-D analysis of nuclear steel containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanous, F.; Greimann, L.; Rogers, J. (Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Considerable analytical and experimental research has been devoted recently to containment building performance under severe accident loadings. Among other potential leakage paths, the containment shell may fail in highly strained regions and release radioactive material into the surrounding environment. After testing 1:32-scale and 1:8-scale steel models, the researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have suggested that the rupture of a steel containment will occur when the equivalent membrane strain reaches the ultimate strain of the material with some allowance for higher strain for bending. The actual containment geometry must be analysed when these criteria are applied. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the capabilities of the ANSYS finite element program to predict a containment failure pressure utilising the Sandia failure criteria. This was accomplished by analysing a portion of the as-built 1:8-scale model. The overall size of the model was determined from Saint-Venant type considerations of the stress field around the model equipment hatch. Geometric and material nonlinear behaviours were included. Triangular shell (STIF48 in the ANSYS element library) elements were used in the finite element model. The model was loaded in steps up to a pressure of 165 psi (1.138 MPa). At this pressure, a strain of 19.7 percent was induced into the intersection between the shell ring stiffener and the equipment hatch-formed stiffener. The ANSYS large deflection, small-strain analysis results agreed well with the Sandia experimental results and with those predicted by the large deflection, large strain analysis option available in MARC finite element code. (author).

  10. Communication analysis and strategy for nuclear from a university student's point of view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Min Ji [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Public awareness survey on nuclear in 2015, 94.4% of the nuclear information access was done through advertising and news media. TV, internet, and radio was the main source for advertising media. The media coverage was achieved through the selection of newspapers, magazines, transport media, outdoor media, and etc. For public relations by using these media- press releases, press conferences, contribution, inviting journalists, self-produced promotional materials, distribution of materials, holding events- were conducted. A use of the internet takes up a minimal piece on public relations of nuclear energy. The internet media used were the, blogs, mobile, SNS, and etc. In this paper, analysis on current trend in advertisements and suggestions towards building a good relationship with the public will be introduced. A popular trend and the trend-based advertisement was briefly analyzed to derive some nuclear advertising ideas. Strategy sought some concrete measures for mobile applications for nuclear information, celebrity ambassadors and use of SNS, college education and vending machines. Suggested tactics are a part of author's ideas.

  11. A structural analysis on the KN-12 spent nuclear fuel transport casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dew Hey [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Shin; Ryu, Chung Hyun; Kim, Hyun Su; Lee, Jae Hyung; Na, Jae Yun [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-08-15

    In this study, safety of the spent nuclear fuel cask KN-12 which is developed in 2000 is evaluated for hypothetical accidents conditions such as free drop, puncture, fire accident and water immersion. Finite element code ABAQUS/Explicit is used to compare with safety analysis report of the GNB in which analysis is performed with LS-DYNA3D for hypothetical accident conditions. Through this study, the safety of KN-12 is evaluated by comprehensive structural analysis. The capability and technological advancement of Korean community on the analysis and structural assessment of the cask will be improved. Also people's anxiety about radioactive dangers will be eliminated.

  12. 3D nuclear track analysis by digital holographic microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, F. [Universidad de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba); Palacios Fernandez, D., E-mail: danpalacios@cantv.ne [Universidad Simon Bolivar, P.O. 89000, Caracas 1080 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Ricardo, J.; Palacios, G.F. [Universidad de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba); Sajo-Bohus, L. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, P.O. 89000, Caracas 1080 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Goncalves, E. [Polytechnical School, Sao Paulo University (USP) (Brazil); Valin, J.L. [Instituto Politecnico Superior ' Jose Antonio Echeverria' , Habana (Cuba); Monroy, F.A. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Bogota (Colombia)

    2011-01-15

    A new method, based on Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM), to visualize and to analyze etched tracks in SSNTD has been developed. The proposed method is based on the possibility of the digital holography to perform whole reconstruction of the recorded wave front, so that phase and intensity distribution at a plane located between the object and recording plane and along the reconstructed image of the object can be determined. In a DHM system, the back focal plane of the lens can be reconstructed so that complex amplitudes of the Fraunhofer diffraction of light distribution across the object can be known. With the knowledge and manipulation of the components of this plane is possible to design different methods of image analysis. In this paper, the DHM method was applied to determine the track parameters in CR-39 detectors, showing that most of studies carried out with Confocal Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy could be also done, with the sufficient exactitude and precision, but in a simpler and more economic way. The developed microholographic method provides a new alternative procedure that overcomes the current techniques at least in technological simplicity.

  13. On the benefits of multi-attribute risk analysis in nuclear emergency management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haemaelaeinen, R.P.; Lindstedt, M. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland). Systems Analysis Lab.; Sinkko, K. [The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-12-01

    The radiation protection authorities have seen a need to apply multi-attribute risk analysis in the nuclear emergency management and planning processes to deal with the conflicting objectives, different parties involved and uncertainties. This type of an approach is expected to help in at least the following three areas; to ensure that all the relevant attributes are considered in the decision making, to enhance communication between concerned parties including the population, and to provide a method for including risk analysis explicitly in the process. A MAUT analysis was used to select a strategy for protecting the population after a simulated nuclear accident. A value-focused approach and the use of a neutral facilitator were seen as very useful.

  14. Progress report on neutron activation analysis at Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuan, Nguyen Ngoc [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    2003-03-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is one of most powerful techniques for the simultaneous multi-elements analysis. This technique has been studied and applied to analyze major, minor and trace elements in Geological, Biological and Environmental samples at Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor. At the sixth Workshop, February 8-11, 1999, Yojakarta, Indonesia we had a report on Current Status of Neutron Activation Analysis using Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor. Another report on Neutron Activation Analysis at the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor also was presented at the seventh Workshop in Taejon, Korea from November 20-24, 2000. So in this report, we would like to present the results obtained of the application of NAA at NRI for one year as follows: (1) Determination of the concentrations of noble, rare earth, uranium, thorium and other elements in Geological samples according to requirement of clients particularly the geologists, who want to find out the mineral resources. (2) The analysis of concentration of radionuclides and nutrient elements in foodstuffs to attend the program on Asian Reference Man. (3) The evaluation of the contents of trace elements in crude oil and basement rock samples to determine original source of the oil. (4) Determination of the elemental composition of airborne particle in the Ho Chi Minh City for studying air pollution. The analytical data of standard reference material, toxic elements and natural radionuclides in seawater are also presented. (author)

  15. Exploration of High-Dimensional Scalar Function for Nuclear Reactor Safety Analysis and Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Maljovec; Bei Wang; Valerio Pascucci; Peer-Timo Bremer; Michael Pernice; Robert Nourgaliev

    2013-05-01

    The next generation of methodologies for nuclear reactor Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) explicitly accounts for the time element in modeling the probabilistic system evolution and uses numerical simulation tools to account for possible dependencies between failure events. The Monte-Carlo (MC) and the Dynamic Event Tree (DET) approaches belong to this new class of dynamic PRA methodologies. A challenge of dynamic PRA algorithms is the large amount of data they produce which may be difficult to visualize and analyze in order to extract useful information. We present a software tool that is designed to address these goals. We model a large-scale nuclear simulation dataset as a high-dimensional scalar function defined over a discrete sample of the domain. First, we provide structural analysis of such a function at multiple scales and provide insight into the relationship between the input parameters and the output. Second, we enable exploratory analysis for users, where we help the users to differentiate features from noise through multi-scale analysis on an interactive platform, based on domain knowledge and data characterization. Our analysis is performed by exploiting the topological and geometric properties of the domain, building statistical models based on its topological segmentations and providing interactive visual interfaces to facilitate such explorations. We provide a user’s guide to our software tool by highlighting its analysis and visualization capabilities, along with a use case involving dataset from a nuclear reactor safety simulation.

  16. Exploration of High-Dimensional Scalar Function for Nuclear Reactor Safety Analysis and Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Maljovec; Bei Wang; Valerio Pascucci; Peer-Timo Bremer; Michael Pernice; Robert Nourgaliev

    2013-05-01

    The next generation of methodologies for nuclear reactor Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) explicitly accounts for the time element in modeling the probabilistic system evolution and uses numerical simulation tools to account for possible dependencies between failure events. The Monte-Carlo (MC) and the Dynamic Event Tree (DET) approaches belong to this new class of dynamic PRA methodologies. A challenge of dynamic PRA algorithms is the large amount of data they produce which may be difficult to visualize and analyze in order to extract useful information. We present a software tool that is designed to address these goals. We model a large-scale nuclear simulation dataset as a high-dimensional scalar function defined over a discrete sample of the domain. First, we provide structural analysis of such a function at multiple scales and provide insight into the relationship between the input parameters and the output. Second, we enable exploratory analysis for users, where we help the users to differentiate features from noise through multi-scale analysis on an interactive platform, based on domain knowledge and data characterization. Our analysis is performed by exploiting the topological and geometric properties of the domain, building statistical models based on its topological segmentations and providing interactive visual interfaces to facilitate such explorations. We provide a user’s guide to our software tool by highlighting its analysis and visualization capabilities, along with a use case involving dataset from a nuclear reactor safety simulation.

  17. CONCH: A Visual Basic program for interactive processing of ion-microprobe analytical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David R.

    2006-11-01

    A Visual Basic program for flexible, interactive processing of ion-microprobe data acquired for quantitative trace element, 26Al- 26Mg, 53Mn- 53Cr, 60Fe- 60Ni and U-Th-Pb geochronology applications is described. Default but editable run-tables enable software identification of secondary ion species analyzed and for characterization of the standard used. Counts obtained for each species may be displayed in plots against analysis time and edited interactively. Count outliers can be automatically identified via a set of editable count-rejection criteria and displayed for assessment. Standard analyses are distinguished from Unknowns by matching of the analysis label with a string specified in the Set-up dialog, and processed separately. A generalized routine writes background-corrected count rates, ratios and uncertainties, plus weighted means and uncertainties for Standards and Unknowns, to a spreadsheet that may be saved as a text-delimited file. Specialized routines process trace-element concentration, 26Al- 26Mg, 53Mn- 53Cr, 60Fe- 60Ni, and Th-U disequilibrium analysis types, and U-Th-Pb isotopic data obtained for zircon, titanite, perovskite, monazite, xenotime and baddeleyite. Correction to measured Pb-isotopic, Pb/U and Pb/Th ratios for the presence of common Pb may be made using measured 204Pb counts, or the 207Pb or 208Pb counts following subtraction from these of the radiogenic component. Common-Pb corrections may be made automatically, using a (user-specified) common-Pb isotopic composition appropriate for that on the sample surface, or for that incorporated within the mineral at the time of its crystallization, depending on whether the 204Pb count rate determined for the Unknown is substantially higher than the average 204Pb count rate for all session standards. Pb/U inter-element fractionation corrections are determined using an interactive log e-log e plot of common-Pb corrected 206Pb/ 238U ratios against any nominated fractionation-sensitive species pair

  18. Twitter Analysis of Public Acceptance between Seoul and Gori of Nuclear Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Seungkook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Public acceptance is critical for sustaining nuclear power, and researchers have devised various methods to measure it (Stritar, 1996). Existing literatures suggest that rationality, emotion, knowledge of nuclear technology, trust, policy executor, and risk perception variables affect public acceptance. These attempts, however, have been limited to epistemological measurements using methods such as the Likert scale (Sjoberg and Drottz-Sjoberg, 2009; Slovic, 2000; Tanaka, 2004). Because such methods are standardized, it is difficult to reflect on emotions latent in individuals within the public. Moreover, surveys can be conducted only on people in a specific region and time interval, and it may be misleading to generalize the results to represent the attitude of the public. Because big data methods are based on unstructured data, which contain the live experiences/opinions, and are virtually real-time with almost no delay between the events of concern and the data collection, big data analysis allows real-time identification of relationships among different variables and their significance (Graham and Shelton, 2013). In this research, we propose big data analysis as a solution and attempt to identify the attitudes of the public on nuclear energy using big data analysis. To conclude, big data is a useful tool to measure the public acceptance of nuclear technology efficiently (i.e., saves cost, time, and effort of measurement and analysis), and this research was able to provide a case for using big data to analyze the public acceptance of nuclear technology. The trends and opinions of opinion leaders on SNSs should be monitored and responded to in real time. As demonstrated from the rejection of the extension of the Gori nuclear power plant, image and feeling are more important than the performance of the safety technology on the operation of a nuclear power plant. Because Korea has many aging reactors, evaluation of projects to extend the operation of old reactors

  19. Central depression in nucleonic densities: Trend analysis in the nuclear density functional theory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetrumpf, B.; Nazarewicz, W.; Reinhard, P.-G.

    2017-08-01

    Background: The central depression of nucleonic density, i.e., a reduction of density in the nuclear interior, has been attributed to many factors. For instance, bubble structures in superheavy nuclei are believed to be due to the electrostatic repulsion. In light nuclei, the mechanism behind the density reduction in the interior has been discussed in terms of shell effects associated with occupations of s orbits. Purpose: The main objective of this work is to reveal mechanisms behind the formation of central depression in nucleonic densities in light and heavy nuclei. To this end, we introduce several measures of the internal nucleonic density. Through the statistical analysis, we study the information content of these measures with respect to nuclear matter properties. Method: We apply nuclear density functional theory with Skyrme functionals. Using the statistical tools of linear least square regression, we inspect correlations between various measures of central depression and model parameters, including nuclear matter properties. We study bivariate correlations with selected quantities as well as multiple correlations with groups of parameters. Detailed correlation analysis is carried out for 34Si for which a bubble structure has been reported recently, 48Ca, and N =82 , 126, and 184 isotonic chains. Results: We show that the central depression in medium-mass nuclei is very sensitive to shell effects, whereas for superheavy systems it is firmly driven by the electrostatic repulsion. An appreciable semibubble structure in proton density is predicted for 294Og, which is currently the heaviest nucleus known experimentally. Conclusion: Our correlation analysis reveals that the central density indicators in nuclei below 208Pb carry little information on parameters of nuclear matter; they are predominantly driven by shell structure. On the other hand, in the superheavy nuclei there exists a clear relationship between the central nucleonic density and symmetry energy.

  20. RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF THE ELECTRICAL POWER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM TO SELECTED PORTIONS OF THE NUCLEAR HVAC SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Ramirez

    2004-12-16

    A design requirement probability of 0.01 or less in a 4-hour period ensures that the nuclear heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system in the primary confinement areas of the Dry Transfer Facilities (DTFs) and Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) is working during a Category 1 drop event involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) assemblies (BSC 2004a , Section 5.1.1.48). This corresponds to an hourly HVAC failure rate of 2.5E-3 per hour or less, which is contributed to by two dominant causes: equipment failure and loss of electrical power. Meeting this minimum threshold ensures that a Category 1 initiating event followed by the failure of HVAC is a Category 2 event sequence. The two causes for the loss of electrical power include the loss of offsite power and the loss of onsite power distribution. Thus, in order to meet the threshold requirement aforementioned, the failure rate of mechanical equipment, loss of offsite power, and loss of onsite power distribution must be less than or equal to 2.5E-3 per hour for the nuclear HVAC system in the primary confinement areas of the DTFs and FHF. The loss of offsite power occurs at a frequency of 1.1E-5 per hour (BSC 2004a, Section 5.1.1.48). The purpose of this analysis is to determine the probability of occurrence of the unavailability of the nuclear HVAC system in the primary confinement areas of the DTFs and FHF due to loss of electrical power. In addition, this analysis provides insights on the contribution to the unavailability of the HVAC system due to equipment failure. The scope of this analysis is limited to finding the frequency of loss of electrical power to the nuclear HVAC system in the primary confinement areas of the DTFs and FHF.

  1. A survey on reliability and safety analysis techniques of robot systems in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, H.S.; Kim, J.H.; Lee, J.C.; Choi, Y.R.; Moon, S.S

    2000-12-01

    The reliability and safety analysis techniques was surveyed for the purpose of overall quality improvement of reactor inspection system which is under development in our current project. The contents of this report are : 1. Reliability and safety analysis techniques suvey - Reviewed reliability and safety analysis techniques are generally accepted techniques in many industries including nuclear industry. And we selected a few techniques which are suitable for our robot system. They are falut tree analysis, failure mode and effect analysis, reliability block diagram, markov model, combinational method, and simulation method. 2. Survey on the characteristics of robot systems which are distinguished from other systems and which are important to the analysis. 3. Survey on the nuclear environmental factors which affect the reliability and safety analysis of robot system 4. Collection of the case studies of robot reliability and safety analysis which are performed in foreign countries. The analysis results of this survey will be applied to the improvement of reliability and safety of our robot system and also will be used for the formal qualification and certification of our reactor inspection system.

  2. Dating monazite with the electron microprobe. Datation de la monazite a la microsonde electronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montel, J.M.; Veschambre, M.; Nicollet, C. (Clermont-Ferrand-2 Univ., 63 - Aubiere (France))

    1994-06-01

    Lead, uranium and thorium can be analyzed with precision in monazite using the electron microprobe. The concentrations can be interpreted directly as an age with a typical precision of [+-] 30 Ma for a 300 Ma age and [+-] 100 Ma for a 3.0 Ga age. For samples of known age, the discrepancy between the microprobe age and the isotopic age is less than the errors. This method is an in situ dating technique, which can be used to date domains at the microscopic scale, with a spatial resolution of a few microns. The first results indicate that, as for zircon, monazite can display age heterogeneity, preserving old domains in a more recent crystal. (authors). 12 refs.

  3. A high energy, heavy ion microprobe for ion beam research on the tandem accelerator at ANSTO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, D.D.; Siegele, R.; Dytlewski, N.

    1996-04-01

    A comprehensive review is given on the production and use of heavy ion beams with spot sizes of a few {mu}m. The development of a high energy, heavy ion microprobe at ANSTO and its possible applications are discussed. The microprobe is designed to focus a wide range of ion beam types, from light ions such as protons up to ions as heavy as iodine. Details of the ion beam optics, optical calculations and a description of the proposed microbeam design are given. The unique combination of high energy, heavy ions and improved detection systems will provide high sensitivity elemental composition and depth profiling information, allowing surface topography and 3D surface reconstruction to be performed on a broad range of materials. 86 refs., 5 tabs., 15 figs.

  4. Proteomic analysis of nuclear matrix proteins during arsenic trioxide induced apoptosis in leukemia K562 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zi-hui; YU Ding; CHEN Yan; HAO Jian-zhong

    2005-01-01

    Background Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has been identified as a very potent anti-acute leukemic agent. However its role in apoptosis needs to be elucidated. As2O3 interferes with the proliferation and survival of tumor cells via a variety of mechanisms. Drug-target interactions at the level of nuclear matrix (NM) may be critical events in the induction of cell death by As2O3. This study dealt with As2O3-target interactions at the level of NM in chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line K562 by proteomics. Methods K562 cells were cultured in MEM and treated with different concentrations of As2O3. The nuclear matrix proteins were analyzed by high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and computer-assisted image analysis. Results As2O3 significantly inhibited the growth of chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line K562 at low concentrations. While more than 200 protein spots were shared among the nuclear matrices, about 18 distinct spots in the nuclear matrices were found characteristic for As2O3 treated cells. Conclusions: As2O3 induces apoptosis in K562 cells in a dose and time-dependent manner. Our results demonstrated that for the detection of the onset of apoptosis, the alteration in the composition of nuclear matrix proteins was a more sensitive indicator than nucleosomal DNA fragmentation test. These results indicated that As2O3 might be clinically useful in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. The changes of nuclear matrix proteins in the treated cells can be used as a useful indicator for this treatment.

  5. Applications of laser produced ion beams to nuclear analysis of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mima, K.; Azuma, H.; Fujita, K.; Yamazaki, A.; Okuda, C.; Ukyo, Y.; Kato, Y.; Arrabal, R. Gonzalez; Soldo, F.; Perlado, J. M.; Nishimura, H.; Nakai, S.

    2012-07-01

    Laser produced ion beams have unique characteristics which are ultra-short pulse, very low emittance, and variety of nuclear species. These characteristics could be used for analyzing various materials like low Z ion doped heavy metals or ceramics. Energies of laser produced ion beam extend from 0.1MeV to 100MeV. Therefore, various nuclear processes can be induced in the interactions of ion beams with samples. The ion beam driven nuclear analysis has been developed for many years by using various electrostatic accelerators. To explore the applicability of laser ion beam to the analysis of the Li ion battery, a proton beam with the diameter of ˜ 1.0 μm at Takasaki Ion Acceleration for Advanced Radiation Application (TIARA), JAEA was used. For the analysis, the PIGE (Particle-Induced Gamma Ray Emission) is used. The proton beam scans over Li battery electrode samples to diagnose Li density in the LiNi0.85Co0.15O2 anode. As the results, PIGE images for Li area density distributions are obtained with the spatial resolution of better than 1.5μm FWHM. By the Li PIGE images, the depth dependence of de-intercalation levels of Li in the anode is obtained. By the POP experiments at TIARA, it is clarified that laser produced ion beam is appropriate for the Li ion battery analysis. 41.85.Lc, 41.75.Jv, 42.62.cf.

  6. Trace Element Zoning and Incipient Metamictization in a Lunar Zircon: Application of Three Microprobe Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wopenka, Brigitte; Jollife, Bradley L.; Zinner, Ernst; Kremser, Daniel T.

    1996-01-01

    We have determined major (Si, Zr, Hf), minor (Al, Y, Fe, P), and trace element (Ca, Sc, Ti, Ba, REE, Th, U) concentrations and Raman spectra of a zoned, 200 microns zircon grain in lunar sample 14161,7069, a quartz monzodiorite breccia collected at the Apollo 14 site. Analyses were obtained on a thin section in situ with an ion microprobe, an electron microprobe, and a laser Raman microprobe. The zircon grain is optically zoned in birefringence, a reflection of variable (incomplete) metamictization resulting from zo- nation in U and Th concentrations. Variations in the concentrations of U and Th correlate strongly with those of other high-field-strength trace elements and with changes in Raman spectral parameters. Concentrations of U and Th range from 21 to 55 ppm and 6 to 31 ppm, respectively, and correlate with lower Raman peak intensities, wider Raman peaks, and shifted Si-O peak positions. Concentrations of heavy rare earth elements range over a factor of three to four and correlate with intensities of fluorescence peaks. Correlated variations in trace element concentrations reflect the original magmatic differentiation of the parental melt approx. 4 b.y. ago. Degradation of the zircon structure, as reflected by the observed Raman spectral parameters, has occurred in this sample over a range of alpha-decay event dose from approx. 5.2 x 10(exp 14) to 1.4 x 10(exp 15) decay events per milligram of zircon, as calculated from the U and Th concentrations. This dose is well below the approx. 10(exp 16) events per milligram cumulative dose that causes complete metamictization and indicates that laser Raman microprobe spectroscopy is an analytical technique that is very sensitive to the radiation-induced damage in zircon.

  7. Ion beam induced charge characterisation of a silicon microdosimeter using a heavy ion microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Iwan; Siegele, Rainer; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B.; Cohen, David D.

    2002-05-01

    An ion beam induced charge (IBIC) facility has been added to the existing capabilities of the ANSTO heavy ion microprobe and the results of the first measurements are presented. Silicon on insulator (SOI) diode arrays with microscopic junction sizes have recently been proposed as microdosimeters for hadron therapy. A 20 MeV carbon beam was used to perform IBIC imaging of a 10 μm thick SOI device.

  8. Global analysis of nuclear parton distribution functions and their uncertainties at next-to-next-to-leading order

    CERN Document Server

    Khanpour, Hamzeh

    2016-01-01

    We perform a next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) analysis of nuclear parton distribution functions (nPDFs) using neutral current charged-lepton ($\\ell ^\\pm$ + nucleus) deeply inelastic scattering (DIS) data and Drell-Yan (DY) cross-section ratios $\\sigma_{DY}^{A}/\\sigma_{DY}^{A^\\prime}$ for several nuclear targets. We study in details the parameterizations and the atomic mass (A) dependence of the nuclear PDFs at this order. The present nuclear PDFs global analysis provides us a complete set of nuclear PDFs, $f_i^{(A,Z)}(x,Q^2)$, with a full functional dependence on $x$, A, Q$^2$. The uncertainties of the obtained nuclear modification factors for each parton flavour are estimated using the well-known Hessian method. The nuclear charm quark distributions are also added into the analysis. We compare the parametrization results with the available data and the results of other nuclear PDFs groups. We found our nuclear PDFs to be in reasonably good agreement with them. The estimates of errors provided by our glob...

  9. Modal seismic analysis of a nuclear power plant control panel and comparison with SAP 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamidi, M. R.; Pamidi, P. R.

    1976-01-01

    The application of NASTRAN to seismic analysis by considering the example of a nuclear power plant control panel was considered. A modal analysis of a three-dimensional model of the panel, consisting of beam and quadri-lateral membrane elements, is performed. Using the results of this analysis and a typical response spectrum of an earthquake, the seismic response of the structure is obtained. ALTERs required to the program in order to compute the maximum modal responses as well as the resultant response are given. The results are compared with those obtained by using the SAP IV computer program.

  10. NPTool: a simulation and analysis framework for low-energy nuclear physics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, A.; Morfouace, P.; de Séréville, N.; Flavigny, F.; Labiche, M.; Shearman, R.

    2016-08-01

    The Nuclear Physics Tool (NPTool) is an open source data analysis and Monte Carlo simulation framework that has been developed for low-energy nuclear physics experiments with an emphasis on radioactive beam experiments. The NPTool offers a unified framework for designing, preparing and analyzing complex experiments employing multiple detectors, each of which may comprise some hundreds of channels. The framework has been successfully used for the analysis and simulation of experiments at facilities including GANIL, RIKEN, ALTO and TRIUMF, using both stable and radioactive beams. This paper details the NPTool philosophy together with an overview of the workflow. The framework has been benchmarked through the comparison of simulated and experimental data for a variety of detectors used in charged particle and gamma-ray spectroscopy.

  11. ANALYSIS OF MEDIA PUBLICATIONS ON THE FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Zykova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of informing the public about radiation and radiation risks is made on the basiс of publications on the Fukushima nuclear accident after the earthquake and tsunami of March 11, 2011, by five newspapers and the official internet sites of the Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-being and the Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring. The analysis of the data suggests that the population is satisfied with its request in timely, clear, and reliable information on the radiation situation, protective measures and forecast of the situation development in the future. The possibility to learn about different viewpoints positively affects the mood of readers and reduces their anxiety. However, it should be recognized that, if the information have been provided by a single media only, the population would not have adequate understanding of the situation related to the accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant.

  12. Phenotype Clustering of Breast Epithelial Cells in Confocal Imagesbased on Nuclear Protein Distribution Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Fuhui; Peng, Hanchuan; Sudar, Damir; Levievre, Sophie A.; Knowles, David W.

    2006-09-05

    Background: The distribution of the chromatin-associatedproteins plays a key role in directing nuclear function. Previously, wedeveloped an image-based method to quantify the nuclear distributions ofproteins and showed that these distributions depended on the phenotype ofhuman mammary epithelial cells. Here we describe a method that creates ahierarchical tree of the given cell phenotypes and calculates thestatistical significance between them, based on the clustering analysisof nuclear protein distributions. Results: Nuclear distributions ofnuclear mitotic apparatus protein were previously obtained fornon-neoplastic S1 and malignant T4-2 human mammary epithelial cellscultured for up to 12 days. Cell phenotype was defined as S1 or T4-2 andthe number of days in cultured. A probabilistic ensemble approach wasused to define a set of consensus clusters from the results of multipletraditional cluster analysis techniques applied to the nucleardistribution data. Cluster histograms were constructed to show how cellsin any one phenotype were distributed across the consensus clusters.Grouping various phenotypes allowed us to build phenotype trees andcalculate the statistical difference between each group. The resultsshowed that non-neoplastic S1 cells could be distinguished from malignantT4-2 cells with 94.19 percent accuracy; that proliferating S1 cells couldbe distinguished from differentiated S1 cells with 92.86 percentaccuracy; and showed no significant difference between the variousphenotypes of T4-2 cells corresponding to increasing tumor sizes.Conclusion: This work presents a cluster analysis method that canidentify significant cell phenotypes, based on the nuclear distributionof specific proteins, with high accuracy.

  13. Comparative analysis of LWR and FBR spent fuels for nuclear forensics evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Su'ud, Zaki

    2012-06-01

    Some interesting issues are attributed to nuclide compositions of spent fuels from thermal reactors as well as fast reactors such as a potential to reuse as recycled fuel, and a possible capability to be manage as a fuel for destructive devices. In addition, analysis on nuclear forensics which is related to spent fuel compositions becomes one of the interesting topics to evaluate the origin and the composition of spent fuels from the spent fuel foot-prints. Spent fuel compositions of different fuel types give some typical spent fuel foot prints and can be estimated the origin of source of those spent fuel compositions. Some technics or methods have been developing based on some science and technological capability including experimental and modeling or theoretical aspects of analyses. Some foot-print of nuclear forensics will identify the typical information of spent fuel compositions such as enrichment information, burnup or irradiation time, reactor types as well as the cooling time which is related to the age of spent fuels. This paper intends to evaluate the typical spent fuel compositions of light water (LWR) and fast breeder reactors (FBR) from the view point of some foot prints of nuclear forensics. An established depletion code of ORIGEN is adopted to analyze LWR spent fuel (SF) for several burnup constants and decay times. For analyzing some spent fuel compositions of FBR, some coupling codes such as SLAROM code, JOINT and CITATION codes including JFS-3-J-3.2R as nuclear data library have been adopted. Enriched U-235 fuel composition of oxide type is used for fresh fuel of LWR and a mixed oxide fuel (MOX) for FBR fresh fuel. Those MOX fuels of FBR come from the spent fuels of LWR. Some typical spent fuels from both LWR and FBR will be compared to distinguish some typical foot-prints of SF based on nuclear forensic analysis.

  14. Report on preliminary analysis of state of nuclear criticality accident at JCO at Tokaimura, Ibaraki, Japan (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, J.J.; Park, J.H.; Chang, J.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    This preliminary report was prepared by the Special Task Force Team of KAERI in order to analysis status of nuclear criticality accident broken out at 10:35 September 30, 1999 at JCO nuclear conversion test facility located at Tokaimura, Ibaraki, Japan. The report was consisted of accident summary of cause of accident summary of cause of accident and response by relevant organizations, and preliminary technical analysis of radiation exposure of JCO workers, analysis of cause of accident, and accident assessment and preventive actions against criticality accident. It is expected that JCO accident, Japan's first nuclear criticality accident, would make significant effects to Japan nuclear policy and would be also a good example to Korea future actions to be taken in use and development of nuclear energy. 63 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  15. The application of research reactor Maria for analysis of thorium use in nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chwaszczewski, S.; Andrzejewski, K.; Myslek-Laurikainen, B.; Pytel, B.; Szczurek, J. [Dep. Thorium Project, Institute of Atomic Energy POLATOM, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Polkowska-Motrenko, H. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, ul.Dorodna 16 03-195 Warszawa (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    The MARIA reactor, pool-type light-water cooled and beryllium moderated nuclear research reactor was used to evaluate the {sup 233}U breeding during the experimental irradiation of the thorium samples. The level of impurities concentrations was determined using ICP-MS method. The associated development of computer programs for analysis of application of thorium in EPR reactor consist of PC version of CORD-2/GNOMER system are presented. (authors)

  16. Assessment of Non-Traditional Isotopic Ratios by Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of Nuclear Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Assessment of Non-traditional Isotopic Ratios by Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of Nuclear Activities Distribution Statement A. Approved for pubic...12. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...Fahrenheit ( o F) [T( o F) + 459.67]/1.8 kelvin (K) Radiation curie (Ci) [ activity of radionuclides] 3.7 × 10 10 per second (s –1 ) [becquerel (Bq

  17. Design and Transient Analysis of Passive Safety Cooling Systems for Advanced Nuclear Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Galvez, Cristhian

    2011-01-01

    The Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) is a pebble fueled, liquid salt cooled, high temperature nuclear reactor design that can be used for electricity generation or other applications requiring the availability of heat at elevated temperatures. A stage in the design evolution of this plant requires the analysis of the plant during a variety of potential transients to understand the primary and safety cooling system response. This study focuses on the performance of the pa...

  18. Seismic analysis and design of a spent nuclear fuel dry storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyu-Sup; Jeong, In-Su; Kim, Kap-Sun; Kim, Jong-Soo [KONES Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jeong-Hyoun; Kang, Young-Gon; Cho, Chun-Hyung; Lee, Heung-Young [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-11-15

    A comprehensive seismic analysis has been conducted in this paper by using the computer programs, SHAKE and SASSI, for a consolidated dry storage module named MACSTOR/KN-400, which will be constructed in Wolsung CANDU Nuclear Power Plant site. Especially seismic soil-structure interaction effects have been investigated in terms of transfer functions, maximum floor acceleration and floor response spectrum, and finally those effects are to be incorporated in the detailed structure design.

  19. Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel in an Underground Geologic Repository--Volume 1: Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, L.L.; Wilson, J.R.; Sanchez, L.Z.; Aguilar, R.; Trellue, H.R.; Cochrane, K.; Rath, J.S.

    1998-10-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management's (DOE/EM's) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP), through a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is conducting a systematic Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) of the disposal of SNFs in an underground geologic repository sited in unsaturated tuff. This analysis is intended to provide interim guidance to the DOE for the management of the SNF while they prepare for final compliance evaluation. This report presents results from a Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) that examined the potential consequences and risks of criticality during the long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel owned by DOE-EM. This analysis investigated the potential of post-closure criticality, the consequences of a criticality excursion, and the probability frequency for post-closure criticality. The results of the NDCA are intended to provide the DOE-EM with a technical basis for measuring risk which can be used for screening arguments to eliminate post-closure criticality FEPs (features, events and processes) from consideration in the compliance assessment because of either low probability or low consequences. This report is composed of an executive summary (Volume 1), the methodology and results of the NDCA (Volume 2), and the applicable appendices (Volume 3).

  20. Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel in an Underground Geologic Repository--Volume 2: Methodology and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, L.L.; Wilson, J.R.; Sanchez, L.C.; Aguilar, R.; Trellue, H.R.; Cochrane, K.; Rath, J.S.

    1998-10-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management's (DOE/EM's) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP), through a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is conducting a systematic Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) of the disposal of SNFs in an underground geologic repository sited in unsaturated tuff. This analysis is intended to provide interim guidance to the DOE for the management of the SNF while they prepare for final compliance evaluation. This report presents results from a Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) that examined the potential consequences and risks of criticality during the long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel owned by DOE-EM. This analysis investigated the potential of post-closure criticality, the consequences of a criticality excursion, and the probability frequency for post-closure criticality. The results of the NDCA are intended to provide the DOE-EM with a technical basis for measuring risk which can be used for screening arguments to eliminate post-closure criticality FEPs (features, events and processes) from consideration in the compliance assessment because of either low probability or low consequences. This report is composed of an executive summary (Volume 1), the methodology and results of the NDCA (Volume 2), and the applicable appendices (Volume 3).

  1. Activation analysis study on Li-ion batteries for nuclear forensic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Erik B.; Whitney, Chad; Holbert, Keith E.; Zhang, Taipeng; Stannard, Tyler; Christie, Anthony; Harper, Peter; Anderson, Blake; Christian, James F.

    2015-06-01

    The nuclear materials environment has been increasing significantly in complexity over the past couple of decades. The prevention of attacks from nuclear weapons is becoming more difficult, and nuclear forensics is a deterrent by providing detailed information on any type of nuclear event for proper attribution. One component of the nuclear forensic analysis is a measurement of the neutron spectrum. As an example, the neutron component provides information on the composition of the weapons, whether boosting is involved or the mechanisms used in creating a supercritical state. As 6Li has a large cross-section for thermal neutrons, the lithium battery is a primary candidate for assessing the neutron spectrum after detonation. The absorption process for 6Li yields tritium, which can be measured at a later point after the nuclear event, as long as the battery can be processed in a manner to successfully extract the tritium content. In addition, measuring the activated constituents after exposure provides a means to reconstruct the incident neutron spectrum. The battery consists of a spiral or folded layers of material that have unique, energy dependent interactions associated with the incident neutron flux. A detailed analysis on the batteries included a pre-irradiated mass spectrometry analysis to be used as input for neutron spectrum reconstruction. A set of batteries were exposed to a hard neutron spectrum delivered by the University of Massachusetts, Lowell research reactor Fast Neutron Irradiator (FNI). The gamma spectra were measured from the batteries within a few days and within a week after the exposure to obtain sufficient data on the activated materials in the batteries. The activity was calculated for a number of select isotopes, indicating the number of associated neutron interactions. The results from tritium extraction are marginal. A measurable increase in detected particles (gammas and betas) below 50 keV not self-attenuated by the battery was observed

  2. Activation analysis study on Li-ion batteries for nuclear forensic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Erik B., E-mail: ejohnson@rmdinc.com [Radiation Monitoring Devices Inc., 44 Hunt Street, Watertown, MA 02472 (United States); Whitney, Chad [Radiation Monitoring Devices Inc., 44 Hunt Street, Watertown, MA 02472 (United States); Holbert, Keith E.; Zhang, Taipeng; Stannard, Tyler; Christie, Anthony; Harper, Peter; Anderson, Blake [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Christian, James F. [Radiation Monitoring Devices Inc., 44 Hunt Street, Watertown, MA 02472 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The nuclear materials environment has been increasing significantly in complexity over the past couple of decades. The prevention of attacks from nuclear weapons is becoming more difficult, and nuclear forensics is a deterrent by providing detailed information on any type of nuclear event for proper attribution. One component of the nuclear forensic analysis is a measurement of the neutron spectrum. As an example, the neutron component provides information on the composition of the weapons, whether boosting is involved or the mechanisms used in creating a supercritical state. As {sup 6}Li has a large cross-section for thermal neutrons, the lithium battery is a primary candidate for assessing the neutron spectrum after detonation. The absorption process for {sup 6}Li yields tritium, which can be measured at a later point after the nuclear event, as long as the battery can be processed in a manner to successfully extract the tritium content. In addition, measuring the activated constituents after exposure provides a means to reconstruct the incident neutron spectrum. The battery consists of a spiral or folded layers of material that have unique, energy dependent interactions associated with the incident neutron flux. A detailed analysis on the batteries included a pre-irradiated mass spectrometry analysis to be used as input for neutron spectrum reconstruction. A set of batteries were exposed to a hard neutron spectrum delivered by the University of Massachusetts, Lowell research reactor Fast Neutron Irradiator (FNI). The gamma spectra were measured from the batteries within a few days and within a week after the exposure to obtain sufficient data on the activated materials in the batteries. The activity was calculated for a number of select isotopes, indicating the number of associated neutron interactions. The results from tritium extraction are marginal. A measurable increase in detected particles (gammas and betas) below 50 keV not self-attenuated by the battery

  3. On the validity of within-nuclear-family genetic association analysis in samples of extended families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau, Alexandre; Duchesne, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    Splitting extended families into their component nuclear families to apply a genetic association method designed for nuclear families is a widespread practice in familial genetic studies. Dependence among genotypes and phenotypes of nuclear families from the same extended family arises because of genetic linkage of the tested marker with a risk variant or because of familial specificity of genetic effects due to gene-environment interaction. This raises concerns about the validity of inference conducted under the assumption of independence of the nuclear families. We indeed prove theoretically that, in a conditional logistic regression analysis applicable to disease cases and their genotyped parents, the naive model-based estimator of the variance of the coefficient estimates underestimates the true variance. However, simulations with realistic effect sizes of risk variants and variation of this effect from family to family reveal that the underestimation is negligible. The simulations also show the greater efficiency of the model-based variance estimator compared to a robust empirical estimator. Our recommendation is therefore, to use the model-based estimator of variance for inference on effects of genetic variants.

  4. SUS in nuclear medicine in Brazil: analysis and comparison of data provided by Datasus and CNEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzo, Lorena; Coura Filho, George; Osso Júnior, João Alberto; Squair, Peterson Lima

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the outpatient access to nuclear medicine procedures by means of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS), analyzing the correspondence between data provided by this system and those from Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) (National Commission of Nuclear Energy). Data provided by Datasus regarding number of scintillation chambers, outpatient procedures performed from 2008 to 2012, administrative responsibility for such procedures, type of service providers and outsourced services were retrieved and evaluated. Also, such data were compared with those from institutions certified by CNEN. The present study demonstrated that the system still lacks maturity in terms of correct data input, particularly regarding equipment available. It was possible to list the most common procedures and check the growth of the specialty along the study period. Private centers are responsible for most of the procedures covered and reimbursed by SUS. However, many healthcare facilities are not certified by CNEN. Datasus provides relevant data for analysis as done in the present study, although some issues still require attention. The present study has quantitatively depicted the Brazilian reality regarding access to nuclear medicine procedures offered by/for SUS.

  5. Neutron-activation analysis of hot particles from the vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyul`, A.Yu.; Kolesov, G.M.; Cherkezyan, V.O. [V.I. Vernadskii Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1994-04-10

    A considerable portion of the radioactive contamination of the surface layers of soil after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant was caused by hot particles or aggregates with a diameter of several tens microns and a specific activity >n{center_dot}10{sup {minus}11} Ci. They consist of primary particles of the dispersed material of the nuclear fuel and secondary particles formed as a result of the interaction of the fuel and uranium fission products with the structural materials of the reactor and the destroyed active zone. The radionuclide composition of the hot particles characterizes the nuclear fuel used and the temperature conditions in the reactor during the first weeks after the accident and their chemical composition reflects the conditions and processes leading to their formation, which must be known in order; to ascertain the mechanism of the formation of the radioactive emission from the reactor and to evaluate the degree of ecological danger posed by the particles. All this promotes the urgency and importance of studying the radiation-chemical characteristics of such hot particles. Their small sizes and masses impose definite restrictions; on the investigative methods used, which must be highly sensitive and must offer the possibility of performing a nondestructive analysis. One such method is neutron-activation analysis. The purpose of the present investigation was to apply instrumental neutron-activation analysis to the simultaneous determination of the elemental composition of hot particles and establishment of the isotopic composition of the uranium in them.

  6. Anomalous transient uplift observed at the Lop Nor, China nuclear test site using satellite radar interferometry time-series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, P.; Buckley, S. M.; Yang, D.; Carle, S. F.

    2011-12-01

    Anomalous uplift is observed at the Lop Nor, China nuclear test site using ERS satellite SAR data. Using an InSAR time-series analysis method, we show that an increase in absolute uplift with time is observed between 1997 and 1999. The signal is collocated with past underground nuclear tests. Due to the collocation in space with past underground tests we postulate a nuclear test-related hydrothermal source for the uplift signal. A possible mechanism is presented that can account for the observed transient uplift and is consistent with documented thermal regimes associated with underground nuclear tests conducted at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) (formerly the Nevada Test Site).

  7. A Study on the Dynamic Analysis of the Nuclear Fuel Test Rig Using 1-Way Fluid-Structure Coupled Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Tae-Ho; Hong, Jin-Tae; Ahn, Sung-Ho; Joung, Chang-Young; Heo, Sung-Ho; Jang, Seo-Yun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    1-way fluid-structure coupled analysis is used to estimate the dynamic characteristic of the fuel test rig. the motion at the bottom of the test rig is confirmed. The maximum deformation of the test rig is 0.11 mm. The structural integrity of the test rig is performed by using the comparison with the Von-mises stress of the analysis and yield stress of the material. It is evaluated that the motion at the bottom of the test rig is able to cause other structural problem. Using the 2-way fluid-structural coupled analysis, the structural integrity of the test rig will be performed in further paper. The cooling water with specific flow rate was flowed in the nuclear fuel test rig. The structural integrity of the test rig was affected by the vibration. The fluid-induced vibration test had to be performed to obtain the amplitude of the vibration on the structure. Various test systems was developed. Flow-induced vibration and pressure drop experimental tester was developed in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. The vibration test with high fluid flow rate was difficult by the tester. To generate the nuclear fuel test environment, coolant flow simulation system was developed. The scaled nuclear fuel test was able to be performed by the simulation system. The mock-up model of the test rig was used in the simulation system. The mock-up model in the simulation system was manufactured with scaled down full model. In this paper, the fluid induced vibration characteristic of the full model in the nuclear fuel test is studied. The hydraulic pressure on the velocity of the fluid was calculated. The static structure analysis was performed by using the pressure. The structural integrity was assessed using the results of the analysis.

  8. Electron-microprobe study of chromitites associated with alpine ultramafic complexes and some genetic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, M.L.

    1978-01-01

    Electron-microprobe and petrographic studies of alpine chromite deposits from around the world demonstrate that they are bimodal with respect to the chromic oxide content of their chromite. The two modes occur at 54 ? 4 and 37 ? 3 weight per cent chromic oxide corresponding to chromite designated as high-chromium and high-aluminum chromite respectively. The high-chromium chromite occurs exclusively with highly magnesian olivine (Fo92-97) and some interstitial diopside. The high-aluminum chromite is associated with more ferrous olivine (Fo88-92), diopside, enstatite, and feldspar. The plot of the mole ratios Cr/(Cr+Al+Fe3+) vs. Mg/(Mg+Fe2+) usually presented for alpine chromite is shown to have a high-chromium, high-iron to low-chromium, low-iron trend contrary to that shown by stratiform chromite. This trend is characteristic of alpine type chromite and is termed the alpine trend. However, a trend similar to that for startiform chromite is discernable on the graph for the high-chromium chromite data. This latter trend is well-developed at Red Mountain, Seldovia, Alaska. Analysis of the iron-magnesium distribution coefficient, Kd=(Fe/Mg)ol/(Fe/Mg)ch, between olivine and chromite shows that Kd for the high-chromium chromite from all ultramafic complexes has essentially the same constant value of .05 while the distribution coefficient for the high-aluminum chromite varies with composition of the chromite. These distribution coefficients are also characteristic of alpine-type chromites. The constant value for Kd for the high-chromium chromite and associated high-magnesium olivine in all alpine complexes suggests that they all crystallized under similar physico-chemical conditions. The two types of massive chromite and their associations of silicate minerals suggest the possibility of two populations with different origins. Recrystallization textures associated with the high-aluminum chromite together with field relationships between the gabbro and the chromite pods

  9. Advances and Challenges in Laser Microprobe (U-Th)/He Chronometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, J. W.; Hodges, K. V.

    2006-05-01

    The Excimer laser microprobe has proven to be extremely effective for (U-Th)/He thermochronology, as demonstrated by application to monazite crystals of widely varying ages. Ablation pits 20-30 μm in diameter, and 2-15 μm deep are created liberating the radiogenic He within for measurement by quadrupole mass spectrometry. Pit volumes are then quantitatively measured by optical interferometry or laser confocal microscopy, permitting He concentrations to be calculated. U and Th concentrations are measured by electron microprobe, resulting in an independent age determination for each spot - many of which can be placed on a single crystal. For a Brazilian monazite with a conventional laser-heating (U-Th)/He closure age of 449.6 ± 9.8 Ma (2SE), we determined 18 laser microprobe (U-Th)/He dates for one crystal with an error-weighted mean for all analyses of 453 ± 14 Ma (2σ). Ten ablation pits on a second crystal yield a similar weighted mean, albeit with more scatter, of 459 ± 25 Ma (2σ). All together, these dates yield a weighted mean cooling age of 455.3 ± 3.7 Ma (2SE), which is indistinguishable from the conventional laser-heating age. The total variation from the mean is observed to always be less than 7% using the laser microprobe, a reproducibility similar to previous conventional (U-Th)/He applications. Two monazite crystals from Nanga Parbat, Pakistan, with crystallization ages of ~1.5 Ma, yield 7 and 14 spot ages per crystal, with indistinguishable weighted mean dates (0.746 ± 0.049 Ma and 0.753 ± 0.036 Ma, 2σ). Taken together, the two crystals yield a single weighted mean cooling age of 0.748 ± 0.019 Ma (2.5% at 2SE). This demonstrates the ability of the laser microprobe to generate precise (U- Th)/He cooling age constraint on even some of the youngest intrusive rocks exposed at the Earth's surface. Results for the mineral zircon have been, to date, more difficult to interpret. Application to zircons of varying ages (0.5 to 2050 Ma) have resulted in

  10. Analysis of opinion about nuclear energy and sustainability in a graduate level population; Analisis de opinion sobre la energia nuclear y sustentabilidad en una poblacion de nivel superior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meza L, C.D.; Arredondo S, C. [IPN, ESFM, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: angie2esa@hotmail.com

    2007-07-01

    The Mexican society has a modest knowledge of the nuclear energy, even at the participant students of superior education level in this survey is finds a scarce compression with regard to their obtaining, use and manage. As a result of the lack of interest of the same society and at the problems that know each other like they are: the pollutants that it produces those nuclear waste and the possible use or warlike end, a fear is believed about this energy type. In the Superior School of Physics and Mathematics there is the possibility to make studies so much at master degree level in the one fear of the nuclear energy and the applications of the same one in peaceful uses. However, particularly the studies at master level seem to be immersed in a crisis that requires of different supports to be resolved. For all it previous was thought in carrying out a survey inside a student population with superior level to know the opinion and the knowledge on the nuclear energy in Mexico. In this work the results of the survey are analyzed with the purpose of to determine which is the knowledge of the community mentioned regarding the other energy types, the impact that they have these in the environment, the sustenance of the same ones and in particular on knowledge about the nuclear energy considering the aspects before mentioned. With base had said analysis settles down that the interviewed community knows very little about the nuclear energy but they show interest to study and to obtain bigger information about the same one, for what is very important to diffuse but and better information on the nuclear energy to the population's strata, because it is of supposing that the rest of the population has erroneous information on the nuclear energy. In particular for the community of the Superior School of Physics and Mathematics the diffusion of all the benefits of the peaceful applications of the nuclear energy, including the capacity to generate enormous quantities and

  11. Automated analysis of NF-κB nuclear translocation kinetics in high-throughput screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi Di

    Full Text Available Nuclear entry and exit of the NF-κB family of dimeric transcription factors plays an essential role in regulating cellular responses to inflammatory stress. The dynamics of this nuclear translocation can vary significantly within a cell population and may dramatically change e.g. upon drug exposure. Furthermore, there is significant heterogeneity in individual cell response upon stress signaling. In order to systematically determine factors that define NF-κB translocation dynamics, high-throughput screens that enable the analysis of dynamic NF-κB responses in individual cells in real time are essential. Thus far, only NF-κB downstream signaling responses of whole cell populations at the transcriptional level are in high-throughput mode. In this study, we developed a fully automated image analysis method to determine the time-course of NF-κB translocation in individual cells, suitable for high-throughput screenings in the context of compound screening and functional genomics. Two novel segmentation methods were used for defining the individual nuclear and cytoplasmic regions: watershed masked clustering (WMC and best-fit ellipse of Voronoi cell (BEVC. The dynamic NFκB oscillatory response at the single cell and population level was coupled to automated extraction of 26 analogue translocation parameters including number of peaks, time to reach each peak, and amplitude of each peak. Our automated image analysis method was validated through a series of statistical tests demonstrating computational efficient and accurate NF-κB translocation dynamics quantification of our algorithm. Both pharmacological inhibition of NF-κB and short interfering RNAs targeting the inhibitor of NFκB, IκBα, demonstrated the ability of our method to identify compounds and genetic players that interfere with the nuclear transition of NF-κB.

  12. Comparative analysis of publications on nuclear field in the world, Ukraine and in the institute for nuclear research of the national academy of sciences of Ukraine

    CERN Document Server

    Trofimenko, A P; Lipska, A Y

    2003-01-01

    Comparative analysis of publications in the world, in Ukraine and in the Institute for Nuclear Research of NAS of Ukraine (INR) in nuclear physics and other directions of INR research was performed. Conclusions about the intensity of research, contribution of Ukraine in this research and the INR role in it are presented. It is shown that 30 % of Ukrainian publications in nuclear physics, and about 8 % of them in other fields belong to the INR. Part of Ukrainian authors who publish their works in Ukraine and abroad, as well as the part of foreign authors publishing in Ukraine is shown. Distribution of the INR publications among 16 countries is indicated. Ths mentioned information can be used for profound study of research in Ukraine and INR.

  13. Comparative analysis of radiation characteristics from various types of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryuchkov, E.F.; Opalovsky, V.A.; Tikhomirov, G.V. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (State University) (Russian Federation)

    2003-07-01

    At the present time, in purposes of the most effective utilization of nuclear materials, new advanced fuel cycles are under development. These cycles imply application of uranium-plutonium, uranium-thorium and some other types of nuclear fuel. However, it is obvious that the parameters of new nuclear fuel (NF) types will be quite different from those for traditional NF types. These differences can affect significantly the conditions for storage, transportation and reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). So, it is necessary to carry out a comparative analysis of radiation characteristics for various NF types at different stages of nuclear fuel cycle (NFC). The present paper addresses radiation properties of the following NF types: UO{sub 2}, UO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2}, ThO{sub 2}-PaO{sub 2}-UO{sub 2}. Numerical studies have been carried out to determine radiation properties of these NF types at the following NFC stages: radiation properties of NF directly before and after irradiation in the reactor core, after different cooling time, radiation properties of uranium and plutonium fractions after chemical separation, radiation properties of NF re-fabricated for recycle, radiation properties of NF after the second and third recycles. The computer code package SCALE is used for evaluating the radiation properties of different SNF types. Finally, the following major conclusions can be made: 1) Correct description of SNF radiation and dosimetric properties requires available benchmark data on contents of heavy nuclides in SNF; 2) ThO{sub 2}-PaO{sub 2}-UO{sub 2} fuel demonstrates an important feature: internal transmutation of minor actinides provided the ultra-high fuel burn-up is achieved.

  14. Convergence Nanorobot Analysis for Radiation Therapy-Industrial Innovations in Nuclear Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Taeho [Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The important step of the commercialization is the make the prototype nanorobot where lots of applications could be introduced for the industry. For the much more advanced operations of the nanorobot, it is needed to imagine the strategy for the operation in the non-regular shaped organs like the lung which shows the different feature following breaths. The biological stuffs are usually in the irregular shape and could be changed by the external force or the infected viruses. The biological substance could be made by the amorphous material which is used frequently in the industry. The antibody reaction is a particular matter which could be happen in the human body. So, the adaptations of the nanorobot could be increased for the practical purposed. Fig. 7 is the newly imagined convergence nuclear technology with nanorobotics for nuclear engineering fields in which many kinds of applications are imagined. Following the new applications of the nanorobot, it is possible to challenge for the difficult matters in the conventional nuclear industry. Fig. 8 shows the historic mistakes in commercialized nuclear power plants (NPPs) considering the nuclear reactor analysis and safety system induced by the accident. Firstly, the non-matched flux shapes made by the multiplications of Bessel function and cosine function by the cylindrical core shape, which is different from the spherical or rectangular core shape, couldn't describe the exact flux shape. Secondly, the safety system installed to start in the accident is the piping-based injection equipment. However, the safety injection systems have failed in three major sever accidents as Three Mile Island (TMI), Chernobyl, and Fukushima cases due to the significant piping failures.

  15. Differentiated rare-element mineralization in an ongonite − topazite composite dike at the Xianghualing tin district, Southern China: an electron-microprobe study on the evolution from niobium-tantalum-oxides to cassiterite

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Fang-fang; Wang, Ru-Cheng; Xie, Lei; Zhu, Jin-Chu; Erdmann, Saskia; Che, Xu-Dong; Zhang, Rong-Qing

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Our study characterizes in detail the mineralogical, textural and compositional features of a highly evolved, composite ongonite-topazite dike and its magmatic differentiation history. We present compositional data collected by established techniques, i.e. by electron microprobe and wet-chemical analysis, which provide a detailed framework for future studies that employ state-of-the-art analytical techniques. The studied dike (referred to as the No. 431 dike) crops out...

  16. Multi-level governance-perspective on management of nuclear waste disposal. A comparative analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunnengraeber, Achim; Haefner, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The primary aim of the project is to conduct a detailed social and political analysis of the preconditions for the development of an acceptable strategy for nuclear waste disposal in Germany. This includes the identification of stakeholders and their interests, responsibilities, value systems, views and expectations as well as paths for a constructive approach to dialogue and problem-solving. A focus of the research project will be an international comparative multi-level governance analysis of acceptance patterns and steering mechanisms for conflict resolution.

  17. A feasibility study on regulatory analysis in the nuclear regulatory decision making process in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. J.; Lee, B. W.; Lee, D. K.; Lim, C. Y.; Choi, Y. S.; Kim, K. K. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-15

    Nuclear safety regulation has different implications from economic regulation. In recent survey, it was found that Korea people want more regulatory effort than current one. This indicates that scientific method is necessary to improve the efficiency of regulation with limited resources of regulators. The main reason to conduct the regulatory analysis like cost-benefit analysis is obtaining the rationality of regulation to be implemented and persuading the licensees to comply under the quantified condition. That is, the ultimate goal is to verify the necessity and justice of regulation and to achieve the safety goal with minimum impacts. Guidelines and procedures developed in this study should help regulators to reach that goal.

  18. Survey of systems safety analysis methods and their application to nuclear waste management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelto, P.J.; Winegardner, W.K.; Gallucci, R.H.V.

    1981-11-01

    This report reviews system safety analysis methods and examines their application to nuclear waste management systems. The safety analysis methods examined include expert opinion, maximum credible accident approach, design basis accidents approach, hazard indices, preliminary hazards analysis, failure modes and effects analysis, fault trees, event trees, cause-consequence diagrams, G0 methodology, Markov modeling, and a general category of consequence analysis models. Previous and ongoing studies on the safety of waste management systems are discussed along with their limitations and potential improvements. The major safety methods and waste management safety related studies are surveyed. This survey provides information on what safety methods are available, what waste management safety areas have been analyzed, and what are potential areas for future study.

  19. The Capability of isotopic uranium analysis in nuclear material at KINAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jong-Ho; Choi, Jung Youn; Ahn, Gil Hoon [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation And Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Destructive analysis is used to verify that protracted diversion of safeguard nuclear materials has not occurred. The alpha spectrometry has been mainly used in analyzing Pu material especially 238Pu for isotopic analysis at IAEA. In addition, it is possible to analysis of isotopic composition of uranium and has advantage of cheapness in comparison with Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry(TIMS). In this paper, the results of the enrichment for alpha spectrometry will be compared with two results of KOLAS testing lab for uranium isotope analysis by mass spectrometry. The results of analysis for alpha spectrometry are not perfectly matched in comparison with the two results for TIMS. Also The average value of the percent difference for pellets and powder are - 12.8 % and -22.3 % respectively. The differences of each results are considered many chemical pretreatment procedures for measuring alpha. Furthermore the reason may be that powder samples were scattered whenever put samples out from the bottle and weighed it.

  20. The feasibility of a nuclear renaissance: A cost-benefit analysis of nuclear energy as a source of electricity

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This article evaluates a possible global nuclear renaissance in the provision of electrical energy.Problem investigated: Several countries, such as South Africa, are experiencing problems in the provision of electricity and the maintenance of the infrastructure to answer growing demand. This article investigates an alternative, which was popular in the 1970s and provides clean energy.Methodology: The study firstly evaluates the main arguments set by anti-nuclear activists critically....

  1. Multiscale integral analysis of a HT leakage in a fusion nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde, M.; Fradera, J.; Perlado, J. M.; Zamora, I.; Martínez-Saban, E.; Colomer, C.; Briani, P.

    2016-05-01

    The present work presents an example of the application of an integral methodology based on a multiscale analysis that covers the whole tritium cycle within a nuclear fusion power plant, from a micro scale, analyzing key components where tritium is leaked through permeation, to a macro scale, considering its atmospheric transport. A leakage from the Nuclear Power Plants, (NPP) primary to the secondary side of a heat exchanger (HEX) is considered for the present example. Both primary and secondary loop coolants are assumed to be He. Leakage is placed inside the HEX, leaking tritium in elementary tritium (HT) form to the secondary loop where it permeates through the piping structural material to the exterior. The Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system removes the leaked tritium towards the NPP exhaust. The HEX is modelled with system codes and coupled to Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) to account for tritium dispersion inside the nuclear power plants buildings and in site environment. Finally, tritium dispersion is calculated with an atmospheric transport code and a dosimetry analysis is carried out. Results show how the implemented methodology is capable of assessing the impact of tritium from the microscale to the atmospheric scale including the dosimetric aspect.

  2. An improved global analysis of nuclear parton distribution functions including RHIC data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskola, Kari J.; Paukkunen, Hannu; Salgado, Carlos A.

    2008-07-01

    We present an improved leading-order global DGLAP analysis of nuclear parton distribution functions (nPDFs), supplementing the traditionally used data from deep inelastic lepton-nucleus scattering and Drell-Yan dilepton production in proton-nucleus collisions, with inclusive high-pT hadron production data measured at RHIC in d+Au collisions. With the help of an extended definition of the χ2 function, we now can more efficiently exploit the constraints the different data sets offer, for gluon shadowing in particular, and account for the overall data normalization uncertainties during the automated χ2 minimization. The very good simultaneous fit to the nuclear hard process data used demonstrates the feasibility of a universal set of nPDFs, but also limitations become visible. The high-pT forward-rapidity hadron data of BRAHMS add a new crucial constraint into the analysis by offering a direct probe for the nuclear gluon distributions—a sector in the nPDFs which has traditionally been very badly constrained. We obtain a strikingly stronger gluon shadowing than what has been estimated in previous global analyses. The obtained nPDFs are released as a parametrization called EPS08.

  3. An improved global analysis of nuclear parton distribution functions including RHIC data

    CERN Document Server

    Eskola, K J; Salgado, C A

    2008-01-01

    We present an improved leading-order global DGLAP analysis of nuclear parton distribution functions (nPDFs), supplementing the traditionally used data from deep inelastic lepton-nucleus scattering and Drell-Yan dilepton production in proton-nucleus collisions, with inclusive high-$p_T$ hadron production data measured at RHIC in d+Au collisions. With the help of an extended definition of the $\\chi^2$ function, we now can more efficiently exploit the constraints the different data sets offer, for gluon shadowing in particular, and account for the overall data normalization uncertainties during the automated $\\chi^2$ minimization. The very good simultaneous fit to the nuclear hard process data used demonstrates the feasibility of a universal set of nPDFs, but also limitations become visible. The high-$p_T$ forward-rapidity hadron data of BRAHMS add a new crucial constraint into the analysis by offering a direct probe for the nuclear gluon distributions -- a sector in the nPDFs which has traditionally been very b...

  4. Nuclear Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E G [ed.

    1989-01-01

    This document is a review journal that covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  5. Fractal analysis in radiological and nuclear medicine perfusion imaging: a systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michallek, Florian; Dewey, Marc [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Medical School, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    To provide an overview of recent research in fractal analysis of tissue perfusion imaging, using standard radiological and nuclear medicine imaging techniques including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and to discuss implications for different fields of application. A systematic review of fractal analysis for tissue perfusion imaging was performed by searching the databases MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE (via Ovid) and ISI Web of Science. Thirty-seven eligible studies were identified. Fractal analysis was performed on perfusion imaging of tumours, lung, myocardium, kidney, skeletal muscle and cerebral diseases. Clinically, different aspects of tumour perfusion and cerebral diseases were successfully evaluated including detection and classification. In physiological settings, it was shown that perfusion under different conditions and in various organs can be properly described using fractal analysis. Fractal analysis is a suitable method for quantifying heterogeneity from radiological and nuclear medicine perfusion images under a variety of conditions and in different organs. Further research is required to exploit physiologically proven fractal behaviour in the clinical setting. (orig.)

  6. Compact Short-Pulsed Electron Linac Based Neutron Sources for Precise Nuclear Material Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesaka, M.; Tagi, K.; Matsuyama, D.; Fujiwara, T.; Dobashi, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Harada, H.

    2015-10-01

    An X-band (11.424GHz) electron linac as a neutron source for nuclear data study for the melted fuel debris analysis and nuclear security in Fukushima is under development. Originally we developed the linac for Compton scattering X-ray source. Quantitative material analysis and forensics for nuclear security will start several years later after the safe settlement of the accident is established. For the purpose, we should now accumulate more precise nuclear data of U, Pu, etc., especially in epithermal (0.1-10 eV) neutrons. Therefore, we have decided to modify and install the linac in the core space of the experimental nuclear reactor "Yayoi" which is now under the decommission procedure. Due to the compactness of the X-band linac, an electron gun, accelerating tube and other components can be installed in a small space in the core. First we plan to perform the time-of-flight (TOF) transmission measurement for study of total cross sections of the nuclei for 0.1-10 eV energy neutrons. Therefore, if we adopt a TOF line of less than 10m, the o-pulse length of generated neutrons should be shorter than 100 ns. Electronenergy, o-pulse length, power, and neutron yield are ~30 MeV, 100 ns - 1 micros, ~0.4 kW, and ~1011 n/s (~103 n/cm2/s at samples), respectively. Optimization of the design of a neutron target (Ta, W, 238U), TOF line and neutron detector (Ce:LiCAF) of high sensitivity and fast response is underway. We are upgrading the electron gun and a buncher to realize higher current and beam power with a reasonable beam size in order to avoid damage of the neutron target. Although the neutron flux is limited in case of the X-band electron linac based source, we take advantage of its short pulse aspect and availability for nuclear data measurement with a short TOF system. First, we form a tentative configuration in the current experimental room for Compton scattering in 2014. Then, after the decommissioning has been finished, we move it to the "Yayoi" room and perform

  7. Can renewable energy replace nuclear power in Korea? An economic valuation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soo Ho [Korea Institute for Advancement of Technology, Korea Technology Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Woo Jin [Graduate School of Information, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Sang Yong Tom [School of Business, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    This paper studies the feasibility of renewable energy as a substitute for nuclear and energy by considering Korean customers' willingness to pay (WTP). For this analysis, we use the contingent valuation method to estimate the WTP of renewable energy, and then estimate its value using ordered logistic regression. To replace nuclear power and fossil energy with renewable energy in Korea, an average household is willing to pay an additional 102,388 Korean Won (KRW) per month (approx. US $85). Therefore, the yearly economic value of renewable energy in Korea is about 19.3 trillion KRW (approx. US $16.1 billion). Considering that power generation with only renewable energy would cost an additional 35 trillion KRW per year, it is economically infeasible for renewable energy to be the sole method of low-carbon energy generation in Korea.

  8. Analysis of antimycin A by reversed-phase liquid chromatography/nuclear magnetic-resonance spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Steven T.K.; Wilkins, Charles L.; Abidi, Sharon L.

    1989-01-01

    A mixture of closely related streptomyces fermentation products, antimycin A, Is separated, and the components are identified by using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with directly linked 400-MHz proton nuclear magnetic resonance detection. Analyses of mixtures of three amino acids, alanine, glycine, and valine, are used to determine optimal measurement conditions. Sensitivity increases of as much as a factor of 3 are achieved, at the expense of some loss in chromatographic resolution, by use of an 80-μL NMR cell, Instead of a smaller 14-μL cell. Analysis of the antimycin A mixture, using the optimal analytical high performance liquid chromatography/nuclear magnetic resonance conditions, reveals it to consist of at least 10 closely related components.

  9. Relativistic analysis of nuclear ground state densities at 135 to 200 MeV

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M A Suhail; N Neeloffer; Z A Khan

    2005-12-01

    A relativistic analysis of p + 40Ca elastic scattering with different nuclear ground state target densities at 135 to 200 MeV is presented in this paper. It is found that the IGO densities are more consistent in reproducing the data over the energy range considered here. The reproduction of spin-rotation-function data with the simultaneous fitting of differential cross-section and analyzing power, and the appearance of wine-bottle-bottom shaped Re eff() in the transition energy region, sensitively depends on the input nuclear ground state densities and are not solely the relativistic characteristic signatures. We also found that the wine-bottle-bottom shaped Re eff() is preferred by the spin observables in the transition energy region (i.e. 181 MeV to 200 MeV).

  10. Zero Boil-Off System Design and Thermal Analysis of the Bimodal Thermal Nuclear Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Robert J.; Plachta, David W.

    2006-01-01

    Mars exploration studies at NASA are evaluating vehicles that incorporate Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rocket (BNTR) propulsion which use a high temperature nuclear fission reactor and hydrogen to produce thermal propulsion. The hydrogen propellant is to be stored in liquid state for periods up to 18 months. To prevent boil-off of the liquid hydrogen, a system of passive and active components are needed to prevent heat from entering the tanks and to remove any heat that does. This report describes the design of the system components used for the BNTR Crew Transfer Vehicle and the thermal analysis performed. The results show that Zero Boil-Off (ZBO) can be achieved with the electrical power allocated for the ZBO system.

  11. Health effects models for off-site radiological consequence analysis on nuclear reactor accidents (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homma, Toshimitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Takahashi, Tomoyuki [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst; Yonehara, Hidenori [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)] [eds.

    2000-12-01

    This report is a revision of JAERI-M 91-005, 'Health Effects Models for Off-Site Radiological Consequence Analysis of Nuclear Reactor Accidents'. This revision provides a review of two revisions of NUREG/CR-4214 reports by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission which is the basis of the JAERI health effects models and other several recent reports that may impact the health effects models by international organizations. The major changes to the first version of the JAERI health effects models and the recommended parameters in this report are for late somatic effects. These changes reflect recent changes in cancer risk factors that have come from longer followup and revised dosimetry in major studies on the Japanese A-bomb survivors. This report also provides suggestions about future revisions of computational aspects on health effects models. (author)

  12. Large break loss-of-coolant accident analysis for China Qinshan-2 nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Yong; Ban, Chang Hwan; Chung, Bub Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Rongzhong; Yu, Hongxing [Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu, SC (China)

    1994-12-01

    Large break LOCA analysis for China Qinshan-2 nuclear power plant has been performed using realistic evaluation model which has been being developed by KAERI. RELAP5/MOD3/KAERI code, which is a modified version of RELAP5/MOD3, is coupled with CONTEMPT4/MOD5 and is used as a best estimate code to predict the thermal hydraulic behavior of the system. PCT uncertainty which stems from code uncertainty, plant application uncertainty, scaling uncertainty and PCT bias are discussed. Among them, plant application uncertainty is described in detail. The licensing PCT is calculated by adding all the uncertainties to the best-estimate PCT. The result indicates the Qinshan-2 nuclear power plant has at least 37 deg C safety margin for large break LOCA. (Author) 10 refs., 47 figs., 14 tabs.

  13. The Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept methodology: Four years later

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, S.B.; Shurberg, D.A.; Barriere, M.T.; Hall, R.E.

    1992-08-01

    The Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept was first presented at the IEEE Human Factors meeting in Monterey in 1988. In the four years since that paper, the concept and its associated methodology has been demonstrated at two commercial nuclear power plants (NPP) and one fossil power plant. In addition, applications of some of the methods have been utilized in other types of organizations, and products are being developed from the insights obtained using the concept for various organization and management activities. This paper will focus on the insights and results obtained from the two demonstration studies at the commercial NPPs. The results emphasize the utility of the methodology and the comparability of the results from the two organizations.

  14. The Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept methodology: Four years later

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, S.B.; Shurberg, D.A.; Barriere, M.T.; Hall, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept was first presented at the IEEE Human Factors meeting in Monterey in 1988. In the four years since that paper, the concept and its associated methodology has been demonstrated at two commercial nuclear power plants (NPP) and one fossil power plant. In addition, applications of some of the methods have been utilized in other types of organizations, and products are being developed from the insights obtained using the concept for various organization and management activities. This paper will focus on the insights and results obtained from the two demonstration studies at the commercial NPPs. The results emphasize the utility of the methodology and the comparability of the results from the two organizations.

  15. Consideration of Evaluation of Communication using Work Domain Analysis (WDA) in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, In Seok; Seong, Poong Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Kyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    The nature of work has changed, this corresponding to a trend toward to computerization. In this phase, the role of people began to evolve from one of manual laborer, requiring primarily perception-motor skill, to intellectual worker, thereby requiring more conceptual knowledge and cognitive skills which means system such as nuclear power plant are getting more complicated and complex. Thus, the evolution of work has led to a greater demand for communication, collaboration, problem solving thereby increasing the discretion, and therefore the variability, in worker action. Because of these reasons, traditional approaches, normative method and descriptive method, have not been proper anymore. Naikar points out that by focusing on constraints, rather than on particular ways of working, it is possible to support workers in adapting their behavior online and in real time in a variety of situation, including unanticipated events. For these complex domain such as communication in nuclear power plant control room, an approach is required that models the conditions framing formative behavior, allowing the examination of emergent, unanticipated, unpredicted actions. In this study, it could be helpful to introduce the method that is proper to apply in complex and unanticipated like nuclear power plants. Thus, Abstraction Decomposition Space (ADS) which is the tool of Work Domain Analysis(WDA) is presented as an approach that is particularly amenable for this domain. The aim is to address ADS as a beginning of modeling the structure of what need to be analyzed can be used to support the analysis of communication in nuclear power plants. If the model that is made by ADS is correct, quantitative evaluation of communication could be done.

  16. AZTLAN platform: Mexican platform for analysis and design of nuclear reactors; AZTLAN platform: plataforma mexicana para el analisis y diseno de reactores nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez T, A. M.; Puente E, F. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Del Valle G, E. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Av. IPN s/n, Edif. 9, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Francois L, J. L.; Martin del Campo M, C. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico); Espinosa P, G., E-mail: armando.gomez@inin.gob.mx [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    The Aztlan platform Project is a national initiative led by the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) which brings together the main public houses of higher studies in Mexico, such as: Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico and Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana in an effort to take a significant step toward the calculation autonomy and analysis that seeks to place Mexico in the medium term in a competitive international level on software issues for analysis of nuclear reactors. This project aims to modernize, improve and integrate the neutron, thermal-hydraulic and thermo-mechanical codes, developed in Mexican institutions, within an integrated platform, developed and maintained by Mexican experts to benefit from the same institutions. This project is financed by the mixed fund SENER-CONACYT of Energy Sustain ability, and aims to strengthen substantially to research institutions, such as educational institutions contributing to the formation of highly qualified human resources in the area of analysis and design of nuclear reactors. As innovative part the project includes the creation of a user group, made up of members of the project institutions as well as the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Central Nucleoelectrica de Laguna Verde (CNLV), Secretaria de Energia (Mexico) and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany) among others. This user group will be responsible for using the software and provide feedback to the development equipment in order that progress meets the needs of the regulator and industry; in this case the CNLV. Finally, in order to bridge the gap between similar developments globally, they will make use of the latest super computing technology to speed up calculation times. This work intends to present to national nuclear community the project, so a description of the proposed methodology is given, as well as the goals and objectives to be pursued for the development of the

  17. Nuclear data uncertainty analysis on a minor actinide burner for transmuting spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hangbok

    1998-08-01

    A comprehensive sensitivity and uncertainty analysis was performed on a 1200 MWt minor actinides burner designed for a low burnup reactivity swing, negative doppler coefficient, and low sodium void worth. Sensitivities of the performance parameters were generated using depletion perturbation methods for the constrained close fuel cycle of the reactor. The uncertainty analysis was performed using the sensitivity and covariance data taken from ENDF-B/V and other published sources. The uncertainty analysis of a liquid metal reactor for burning minor actinide has shown that uncertainties in the nuclear data of several key minor actinide isotopes can introduce large uncertainties in the predicted performance of the core. The relative uncertainties in the burnup swing, doppler coefficient, and void worth were conservatively estimated to be 180 %, 97 %, and 46 %, respectively. An analysis was performed to prioritize the minor actinide reactions for reducing the uncertainties. (author). 41 refs., 17 tabs., 1 fig.

  18. A model-based framework for the analysis of team communication in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yun Hyung [Knowledge and Information Management Department, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 19 Guseong-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 335-338 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: yhchung@kins.re.kr; Yoon, Wan Chul [Intelligent Service Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Daihwan [Department of MIS, Korea University, 208 Seochang-Dong, Jochiwon-Eup, Yongi-Gun, Choongnam 339-700 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    Advanced human-machine interfaces are rapidly changing the interaction between humans and systems, with the level of abstraction of the presented information, the human task characteristics, and the modes of communication all affected. To accommodate the changes in the human/system co-working environment, an extended communication analysis framework is needed that can describe and relate the tasks, verbal exchanges, and information interface. This paper proposes an extended analytic framework, referred to as the H-H-S (human-human-system) communication analysis framework, which can model the changes in team communication that are emerging in these new working environments. The stage-specific decision-making model and analysis tool of the proposed framework make the analysis of team communication easier by providing visual clues. The usefulness of the proposed framework is demonstrated with an in-depth comparison of the characteristics of communication in the conventional and advanced main control rooms of nuclear power plants.

  19. General and hybrid correlation nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of phosphorus in Phytophthora palmivora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, Gemma M; Fernandez, David I; Niere, Julie O; Adams, Michael J

    2012-10-01

    Generalized two-dimensional (Gen2D) correlation analysis and hybrid correlation analysis have been applied to a series of dynamic (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra to monitor the in vivo metabolic changes of the plant pathogen Phytophthora palmivora in the presence and absence of phosphonate over an 18-h period. Results indicate that phosphonate exposure causes cleavage in organism polyphosphate chains as well as an increase in total sugar phosphates. In the presence of phosphonate, the NMR resonances attributed to terminal polyphosphate phosphorus reduced at a lower rate than those of middle polyphosphate phosphorus, indicating a change in average chain length and suggesting cleavage in the middle of the chain as well as at the ends. The correlation analysis techniques serve to identify and confirm spectral regions undergoing major change in the time-series data and facilitate the analysis of these dynamic changes.

  20. Applications of laser produced ion beams to nuclear analysis of materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mima, K.; Azuma, H.; Fujita, K.; Yamazaki, A.; Okuda, C.; Ukyo, Y.; Kato, Y.; Arrabal, R. Gonzalez; Soldo, F.; Perlado, J. M.; Nishimura, H.; Nakai, S. [Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries, Shizuoka (Japan) and Institute de Fusion Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain) and Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Toyota Central R and D Labs., Inc., Aichi (Japan); Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Gunnma (Japan); Toyota Central R and D Labs., Inc., Aichi (Japan)

    2012-07-11

    Laser produced ion beams have unique characteristics which are ultra-short pulse, very low emittance, and variety of nuclear species. These characteristics could be used for analyzing various materials like low Z ion doped heavy metals or ceramics. Energies of laser produced ion beam extend from 0.1MeV to 100MeV. Therefore, various nuclear processes can be induced in the interactions of ion beams with samples. The ion beam driven nuclear analysis has been developed for many years by using various electrostatic accelerators. To explore the applicability of laser ion beam to the analysis of the Li ion battery, a proton beam with the diameter of {approx} 1.0 {mu}m at Takasaki Ion Acceleration for Advanced Radiation Application (TIARA), JAEA was used. For the analysis, the PIGE (Particle-Induced Gamma Ray Emission) is used. The proton beam scans over Li battery electrode samples to diagnose Li density in the LiNi{sub 0.85}Co{sub 0.15}O{sub 2} anode. As the results, PIGE images for Li area density distributions are obtained with the spatial resolution of better than 1.5{mu}m FWHM. By the Li PIGE images, the depth dependence of de-intercalation levels of Li in the anode is obtained. By the POP experiments at TIARA, it is clarified that laser produced ion beam is appropriate for the Li ion battery analysis. 41.85.Lc, 41.75.Jv, 42.62.cf.

  1. Analysis of the national nuclear policy environment in the 21st century - Analysis of U.S. nuclear policy and directives for Korea-U.S. cooperation -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Han Myung; Kim, Kyung Pyo; Kim, Jong Sook; Kim, Hyun Joon; Lee, Dong Jin; Lee, Tae Joon; Jung, Hwan Sam [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    In this report, U.S. nuclear utilization and development trends were analyzed focused on nuclear policy changes from the 1950s to recent years. Specifically, the nuclear policy of the Clinton administration which is carrying out both internal reorganization and enhancement of international cooperation, was analyzed in detail. Korea-U.S. nuclear cooperation was analyzed focused on international joint research contracted through national long-term nuclear R and D implementation. In addition, the history of Korea-U.S. JSCNOET(Joint Standing Committee on Nuclear and Other Energy Technology) was analyzed in order to aid decision making on future cooperation between the two countries. 9 figs, 42 tabs, 64 refs. (Author).

  2. Standard model for the safety analysis report of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants; Modelo padrao para relatorio de analise de seguranca de usinas de reprocessamento de combustiveis nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-02-15

    This norm establishes the Standard Model for the Safety Analysis Report of Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plants, comprehending the presentation format, the detailing level of the minimum information required by the CNEN for evaluation the requests of Construction License or Operation Authorization, in accordance with the legislation in force. This regulation applies to the following basic reports: Preliminary Safety Analysis Report - PSAR, integrating part of the requirement of Construction License; and Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) which is the integrating part of the requirement for Operation Authorization.

  3. Regional analysis of the nuclear-electricity; Analisis regional de la nucleoelectricidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parera, M. D., E-mail: dparera@cnea.gov.ar [CNEA, Gerencia de Planificacion, Coordinacion y Control, Subgerencia de Planificacion Estrategica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-11-15

    In this study was realized a regional analysis of the Argentinean electric market contemplating the effects of regional cooperation, the internal and international interconnections; and the possibilities of insert of new nuclear power stations were evaluated in different regions of the country, indicating the most appropriate areas to carry out these facilities to increase the penetration of the nuclear energy in the national energy matrix. Also was studied the interconnection of the electricity and natural gas markets, due to the existent linking among both energy forms. With this purpose the program Message (Model for energy supply strategy alternatives and their general environmental impacts) was used, promoted by the International Atomic Energy Agency. This model carries out an economic optimization level country, obtaining the minimum cost as a result for the modeling system. The division for regions realized by the Compania Administradora del Mercado Mayorista Electrico (CAMMESA) was used, which divides to the country in eight regions. They were considered the characteristics and necessities of each one of them, their respective demands and offers of electric power and natural gas, as well as their existent and projected interconnections, composed by the electric lines and gas pipes. According to the results obtained through the model, the nuclear-electricity is a competitive option. (Author)

  4. Of Disasters and Dragon Kings: A Statistical Analysis of Nuclear Power Incidents & Accidents

    CERN Document Server

    Wheatley, Spencer; Sornette, Didier

    2015-01-01

    We provide, and perform a risk theoretic statistical analysis of, a dataset that is 75 percent larger than the previous best dataset on nuclear incidents and accidents, comparing three measures of severity: INES (International Nuclear Event Scale), radiation released, and damage dollar losses. The annual rate of nuclear accidents, with size above 20 Million US$, per plant, decreased from the 1950s until dropping significantly after Chernobyl (April, 1986). The rate is now roughly stable at 0.002 to 0.003, i.e., around 1 event per year across the current fleet. The distribution of damage values changed after Three Mile Island (TMI; March, 1979), where moderate damages were suppressed but the tail became very heavy, being described by a Pareto distribution with tail index 0.55. Further, there is a runaway disaster regime, associated with the "dragon-king" phenomenon, amplifying the risk of extreme damage. In fact, the damage of the largest event (Fukushima; March, 2011) is equal to 60 percent of the total damag...

  5. Empirical Risk Analysis of Severe Reactor Accidents in Nuclear Power Plants after Fukushima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Christian Kaiser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many countries are reexamining the risks connected with nuclear power generation after the Fukushima accidents. To provide updated information for the corresponding discussion a simple empirical approach is applied for risk quantification of severe reactor accidents with International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES level ≥5. The analysis is based on worldwide data of commercial nuclear facilities. An empirical hazard of 21 (95% confidence intervals (CI 4; 62 severe accidents among the world’s reactors in 100,000 years of operation has been estimated. This result is compatible with the frequency estimate of a probabilistic safety assessment for a typical pressurised power reactor in Germany. It is used in scenario calculations concerning the development in numbers of reactors in the next twenty years. For the base scenario with constant reactor numbers the time to the next accident among the world's 441 reactors, which were connected to the grid in 2010, is estimated to 11 (95% CI 3.7; 52 years. In two other scenarios a moderate increase or decrease in reactor numbers have negligible influence on the results. The time to the next accident can be extended well above the lifetime of reactors by retiring a sizeable number of less secure ones and by safety improvements for the rest.

  6. The Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Program Results of the Environmental Impact Analysis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Charles D.; Kristensen, David H.; McCulloch, William H.

    1994-07-01

    The Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program initiated an environmental impact analysis process (EIAP) in March of 1992 to support design and construction of a nuclear thermal rocket engine ground testing facility. The `` Notice of Intent'' appeared in the Federal Register on March 12, 1992 and Scoping Meetings occurred during April 1992. The Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) was publicly available on August 21, 1993 and public hearings were conducted during September 1992. Comments were resolved and the Final EIS `` Notice of Availability'' appeared in the Federal Register on May 14, 1993. Although program termination negated the need for a Record of Decision, completion of this EIAP demonstrates that the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) provides an adequate framework for involving the general public in all governmental decisions irrespective of either the technical complexities or the potential for nonacceptance. This paper discusses the SNTP EIAP and the associated analyses which indicated that ground testing of nuclear rocket engine concepts could be accomplished without significantly affecting the surrounding environment.

  7. Characterization/Selection of a Continuous Wave Laser for RIMS Analysis in Nuclear Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Sunny; Alves, F.; Karunasiri, G.; Smith, C.; Isselhardt, B.

    2015-03-01

    The effort to implement the technology of resonance ionization mass spectroscopy (RIMS) to problems of nuclear forensics involves the use of multiple lasers to selectively ionize the elements of concern. While current systems incorporate pulsed lasers, we present the results of a feasibility study to determine alternative (Continuous Wave) laser technologies to be employed for analysis of the actinides and fission products of debris from a nuclear detonation. RIMS has the potential to provide rapid isotope ratio quantification of the actinides and important fission products for post detonation nuclear forensics. The current approach to ionize uranium and plutonium uses three Ti-Sapphire pulsed lasers capable of a fundamental wavelength range of 700-1000 nm. In this work, we describe the use of a COTS CW laser to replace one of the pulsed lasers used for the second resonance excitation step of plutonium near 847.282 nm. We characterize the critical laser parameters necessary to achieve high precision isotope ratio measurements including the stability over time of the mean wavelength, bandwidth and spectral mode purity. This far narrower bandwidth laser provides a simpler setup, more robust hardware (greater mobility), and more efficient use of laser irradiance.

  8. Verification of HELIOS/MASTER Nuclear Analysis System for SMART Research Reactor, Rev. 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Hoon; Kim, Kang Seog; Cho, Jin Young; Lee, Chung Chan; Zee, Sung Quun

    2005-12-15

    Nuclear design for the SMART reactor is performed by using the transport lattice code HELIOS and the core analysis code MASTER. HELIOS code developed by Studsvik Scandpower in Norway is a transport lattice code for the neutron and gamma behavior, and is used to generate few group constants. MASTER code is a nodal diffusion code developed by KAERI, and is used to analyze reactor physics. This nuclear design code package requires verification. Since the SMART reactor is unique, it is impossible to verify this code system through the comparison of the calculation results with the measured ones. Therefore, the uncertainties for the nuclear physics parameters calculated by HELIOS/MASTER have been evaluated indirectly. Since Monte Carlo calculation includes least approximations an assumptions to simulate a neutron behavior, HELIOS/MASTER has been verified by this one. Monte Carlo code has been verified by the Kurchatov critical experiments similar to SMART reactor, and HELIOS/MASTER code package has been verified by Monte Carlo calculations for the SMART research reactor.

  9. Verification of HELIOS/MASTER Nuclear Analysis System for SMART Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kang Seog; Cho, Jin Young; Lee, Chung Chan; Zee, Sung Quun

    2005-07-15

    Nuclear design for the SMART reactor is performed by using the transport lattice code HELIOS and the core analysis code MASTER. HELIOS code developed by Studsvik Scandpower in Norway is a transport lattice code for the neutron and gamma behavior, and is used to generate few group constants. MASTER code is a nodal diffusion code developed by KAERI, and is used to analyze reactor physics. This nuclear design code package requires verification. Since the SMART reactor is unique, it is impossible to verify this code system through the comparison of the calculation results with the measured ones. Therefore, the uncertainties for the nuclear physics parameters calculated by HELIOS/MASTER have been evaluated indirectly. Since Monte Carlo calculation includes least approximations an assumptions to simulate a neutron behavior, HELIOS/MASTER has been verified by this one. Monte Carlo code has been verified by the Kurchatov critical experiments similar to SMART reactor, and HELIOS/MASTER code package has been verified by Monte Carlo calculations for the SMART research reactor.

  10. Electric Power quality Analysis in research reactor: Impacts on nuclear safety assessment and electrical distribution reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touati, Said; Chennai, Salim; Souli, Aissa [Nuclear Research Centre of Birine, Ain Oussera, Djelfa Province (Algeria)

    2015-07-01

    The increased requirements on supervision, control, and performance in modern power systems make power quality monitoring a common practise for utilities. Large databases are created and automatic processing of the data is required for fast and effective use of the available information. Aim of the work presented in this paper is the development of tools for analysis of monitoring power quality data and in particular measurements of voltage and currents in various level of electrical power distribution. The study is extended to evaluate the reliability of the electrical system in nuclear plant. Power Quality is a measure of how well a system supports reliable operation of its loads. A power disturbance or event can involve voltage, current, or frequency. Power disturbances can originate in consumer power systems, consumer loads, or the utility. The effect of power quality problems is the loss power supply leading to severe damage to equipments. So, we try to track and improve system reliability. The assessment can be focused on the study of impact of short circuits on the system, harmonics distortion, power factor improvement and effects of transient disturbances on the Electrical System during motor starting and power system fault conditions. We focus also on the review of the Electrical System design against the Nuclear Directorate Safety Assessment principles, including those extended during the last Fukushima nuclear accident. The simplified configuration of the required system can be extended from this simple scheme. To achieve these studies, we have used a demo ETAP power station software for several simulations. (authors)

  11. Multicriteria relocation analysis of an off-site radioactive monitoring network for a nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Ning, Shu-Kuang; Chen, Jen-Chang

    2006-08-01

    Due to increasing environmental consciousness in most countries, every utility that owns a commercial nuclear power plant has been required to have both an on-site and off-site emergency response plan since the 1980s. A radiation monitoring network, viewed as part of the emergency response plan, can provide information regarding the radiation dosage emitted from a nuclear power plant in a regular operational period and/or abnormal measurements in an emergency event. Such monitoring information might help field operators and decision-makers to provide accurate responses or make decisions to protect the public health and safety. This study aims to conduct an integrated simulation and optimization analysis looking for the relocation strategy of a long-term regular off-site monitoring network at a nuclear power plant. The planning goal is to downsize the current monitoring network but maintain its monitoring capacity as much as possible. The monitoring sensors considered in this study include the thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) and air sampling system (AP) simultaneously. It is designed for detecting the radionuclide accumulative concentration, the frequency of violation, and the possible population affected by a long-term impact in the surrounding area regularly while it can also be used in an accidental release event. With the aid of the calibrated Industrial Source Complex-Plume Rise Model Enhancements (ISC-PRIME) simulation model to track down the possible radionuclide diffusion, dispersion, transport, and transformation process in the atmospheric environment, a multiobjective evaluation process can be applied to achieve the screening of monitoring stations for the nuclear power plant located at Hengchun Peninsula, South Taiwan. To account for multiple objectives, this study calculated preference weights to linearly combine objective functions leading to decision-making with exposure assessment in an optimization context. Final suggestions should be useful for

  12. NUSTART: A PC code for NUclear STructure And Radiative Transition analysis and supplementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, G.L.; Gardner, D.G.; Gardner, M.A.

    1990-10-01

    NUSTART is a computer program for the IBM PC/At. It is designed for use with the nuclear reaction cross-section code STAPLUS, which is a STAPRE-based CRAY computer code that is being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The NUSTART code was developed to handle large sets of discrete nuclear levels and the multipole transitions among these levels; it operates in three modes. The Data File Error Analysis mode analyzes an existing STAPLUS input file containing the levels and their multipole transition branches for a number of physics and/or typographical errors. The Interactive Data File Generation mode allows the user to create input files of discrete levels and their branching fractions in the format required by STAPLUS, even though the user enters the information in the (different) format used by many people in the nuclear structure field. In the Branching Fractions Calculations mode, the discrete nuclear level set is read, and the multipole transitions among the levels are computed under one of two possible assumptions: (1) the levels have no collective character, or (2) the levels are all rotational band heads. Only E1, M1, and E2 transitions are considered, and the respective strength functions may be constants or, in the case of E1 transitions, the strength function may be energy dependent. The first option is used for nuclei closed shells; the bandhead option may be used to vary the E1, M1, and E2 strengths for interband transitions. K-quantum number selection rules may be invoked if desired. 19 refs.

  13. Redefining the U.S. Agenda for Nuclear Disarmament, Analysis and Reflections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Lewis A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Center for Global Security Research

    2016-10-01

    With Lewis Dunn’s paper on nuclear disarmament diplomacy, we are inaugurating a new monograph series under the auspices of the Center for Global Security Research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The series will explore complex emerging challenges in the emerging security environment as they bear on issues of deterrence, assurance, and strategic stability. Our goal is to explore these issues deeply enough to provide significant new understanding that is technically informed and policy relevant. Our premise is that thoughtful students of international security affairs continue to value such in-depth analysis as a way to help make sense of the large flow of data and opinion that reaches all of us on a daily basis. Our ambition is to generate four to six such papers per year on especially salient topics. The views expressed in these papers are those of the author and should not be attributed to the Center, the Laboratory, or the U.S. government. This inaugural paper addresses one of the key questions facing national leadership seven to eight years after President Obama’s April 2009 remarks in Prague and his commitment to take practical steps towards the long-term goal of the elimination of nuclear weapons. In the interim, some important steps have been taken. But there have also been many disappointments. The new presidential administration will face a security landscape quite different from that of eight years ago and must reassess U.S. priorities and approaches. As Lewis Dunn argues, some will be tempted to walk away entirely from the disarmament agenda, while others will advocate even more forcefully for unilateral U.S. steps to further reduce the role and number of nuclear weapons in its posture. Dr. Dunn sets out his own vision of how to adapt and carry forward the disarmament agenda, in a manner informed by developments in the security environment that point to a continuing role for nuclear deterrence. The result is both fresh and compelling.

  14. Applications of computer simulation, nuclear reactions and elastic scattering to surface analysis of materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacheco de Carvalho, J. A.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This article involves computer simulation and surface analysis by nuclear techniques, which are non-destructive. Both the “energy method of analysis” for nuclear reactions and elastic scattering are used. Energy spectra are computer simulated and compared with experimental data, giving target composition and concentration profile information. The method is successfully applied to thick flat targets of graphite, quartz and sapphire and targets containing thin films of aluminium oxide. Depth profiles of 12C and 16O nuclei are determined using (d,p and (d,α deuteron induced reactions. Rutherford and resonance elastic scattering of (4He+ ions are also used.

    Este artículo trata de simulación por ordenador y del análisis de superficies mediante técnicas nucleares, que son no destructivas. Se usa el “método de análisis en energia” para reacciones nucleares, así como el de difusión elástica. Se simulan en ordenador espectros en energía que se comparan com datos experimentales, de lo que resulta la obención de información sobre la composición y los perfiles de concentración de la muestra. Este método se aplica con éxito em muestras espesas y planas de grafito, cuarzo y zafiro y muestras conteniendo películas finas de óxido de aluminio. Se calculan perfiles en profundidad de núcleos de 12C y de 16O a través de reacciones (d,p y (d,α inducidas por deuterones. Se utiliza también la difusión elástica de iones (4He+, tanto a Rutherford como resonante.

  15. Methodology for risk analysis based on atmospheric dispersion modelling from nuclear risk sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklanov, A.; Mahura, A.; Sørensen, J. H.; Rigina, O.

    2003-04-01

    The main purpose of this multidisciplinary study is to develop a methodology for complex nuclear risk and vulnerability assessment, and to test it on example of estimation of nuclear risk to the population in the Nordic countries in case of a severe accident at a nuclear risk site (NRS). The main focus of the paper is the methodology for the evaluation of the atmospheric transport and deposition of radioactive pollutants from NRSs. The method developed for this evaluation is derived from a probabilistic point of view. The main question we are trying to answer is: What is the probability for radionuclide atmospheric transport and impact to different neighbouring regions and countries in case of an accident at an NPP? To answer this question we applied a number of different tools: (i) Trajectory Modelling - to calculate multiyear forward trajectories originating over the locations of selected risk sites; (ii) Dispersion Modelling - for long-term simulation and case studies of radionuclide transport from hypothetical accidental releases at NRSs; (iii) Cluster Analysis - to identify atmospheric transport pathways from NRSs; (iv) Probability Fields Analysis - to construct annual, monthly, and seasonal NRS impact indicators to identify the most impacted geographical regions; (v) Specific Case Studies - to estimate consequences for the environment and the populations after a hypothetical accident; (vi) Vulnerability Evaluation to Radioactive Deposition - to describe its persistence in the ecosystems with a focus to the transfer of certain radionuclides into the food chains of key importance for the intake and exposure for a whole population and for certain population groups; (vii) Risk Evaluation and Mapping - to analyse socio-economical consequences for different geographical areas and various population groups taking into account social-geophysical factors and probabilities, and using demographic databases based on GIS analysis.

  16. M and c'99 : Mathematics and computation, reactor physics and environmental analysis in nuclear applications, Madrid, September 27-30, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragones, J. M.; Ahnert, C.; Cabellos, O.

    1999-07-01

    The international conference on mathematics and computation, reactor physics and environmental analysis in nuclear applications in the biennial topical meeting of the mathematics and computation division of the American Nuclear Society. (Author)

  17. Nuclear Smuggling Detection and Deterrence FY 2016 Data Analysis Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enders, Alexander L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harris, Tyrone C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pope, Thomas C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Patterson, Jeremy B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration’s Office of Nuclear Smuggling Detection and Deterrence (NSDD) has facilitated the installation of more than 3,500 radiation portal monitors (RPMs) at 606 sites in 56 countries worldwide. This collection of RPMs represents the world’s largest network of radiation detectors and provides one element in the defense-in-depth approach that supports the Global Nuclear Detection Architecture. These systems support NSDD’s mission to build partner country capability to deter, detect, and interdict the illicit transport of radiological and fissile material through strategic points of entry and exit at seaports, airports, and border crossings. NSDD works collaboratively with partner countries and international organizations to optimize the operation of these RPMs. The large amount of data provided by NSDD partner countries highlights the close cooperation and partnerships NSDD has built with 56 countries around the world. Thirty-seven of these countries shared at least some RPM-related data with NSDD in fiscal year 2016. This significant level of data sharing is a key element that distinguishes the NSDD office as unique among nuclear nonproliferation programs and initiatives: NSDD can provide specific, objective, data-driven decisions and support for sustaining the radiation detection systems it helped deploy. This data analysis report summarizes and aggregates the RPM data provided to the NSDD office for analysis and review in fiscal year 2016. The data can be used to describe RPM performance and characterize the wide diversity of NSDD deployment sites. For example, NSDD deploys detector systems across sites with natural background radiation levels that can vary by a factor of approximately six from site to site. Some lanes have few occupancies, whereas others have approximately 8,000 occupancies per day and the different types of cargo that travel through a site can result in site-wide alarm rates that range from near 0% at

  18. Data analysis from monitoring of radionuclides in the nuclear power plant Temelin ecosystem area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thinova, Lenka [Czech Technical University, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Department of Dosimetry, Brehova 7, 110 00 Prague (Czech Republic)], E-mail: thinova@fjfi.cvut.cz; Trojek, Tomas [Czech Technical University, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Department of Dosimetry, Brehova 7, 110 00 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2009-07-15

    Changes in the ecosystem occur naturally, however, can also be due to man's activity. The unique ecosystem monitoring based on studying contamination of the bioindicators by man-made radionuclides has been providing data from the area of nuclear power plant (NPP) Temelin (CR) using laboratory gamma spectrometry for past 8 years. The increase in radioactivity in the NPP ecosystem area resulting from its operation is evaluated through comparison with a zero level of {sup 137}Cs mass activities and by obtained data trend analysis.

  19. Data analysis from monitoring of radionuclides in the nuclear power plant Temelin ecosystem area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thinova, Lenka; Trojek, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    Changes in the ecosystem occur naturally, however, can also be due to man's activity. The unique ecosystem monitoring based on studying contamination of the bioindicators by man-made radionuclides has been providing data from the area of nuclear power plant (NPP) Temelin (CR) using laboratory gamma spectrometry for past 8 years. The increase in radioactivity in the NPP ecosystem area resulting from its operation is evaluated through comparison with a zero level of (137)Cs mass activities and by obtained data trend analysis.

  20. BOLD VENTURE COMPUTATION SYSTEM for nuclear reactor core analysis, Version III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondy, D.R.; Fowler, T.B.; Cunningham, G.W. III.

    1981-06-01

    This report is a condensed documentation for VERSION III of the BOLD VENTURE COMPUTATION SYSTEM for nuclear reactor core analysis. An experienced analyst should be able to use this system routinely for solving problems by referring to this document. Individual reports must be referenced for details. This report covers basic input instructions and describes recent extensions to the modules as well as to the interface data file specifications. Some application considerations are discussed and an elaborate sample problem is used as an instruction aid. Instructions for creating the system on IBM computers are also given.

  1. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) nuclear weapons effects on submarine cable systems. Volume 1. Experiments and analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-06-01

    This report presents a study of the nuclear weapons magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects on submarine communications cables. The study consisted of the analysis and interpretation of currently available data on submarine cable systems TAT-4, TAT-6, and TAT-7. The primary result of the study is that decrease of the effective resistivity with frequency over the available experimental range, coupled with the model results, leads to quite small effective resistivities at the MHD characteristic frequencies, and hence small earth potential differences. Thus, it appears that submarine cable systems are less susceptible to an MHD threat than their land-based counter-parts.

  2. Application of wavelet transforms as a time-series analysis tool for nuclear thermalhydraulics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohl, D.J.; Pascoe, J.; Popescu, A.I., E-mail: daniel.pohl@amec.com, E-mail: jason.pascoe@amec.com, E-mail: adrian.popescu@amec.com [AMEC NSS Limited, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Wavelet transforms can be a valuable time-series analysis tool in the field of nuclear thermalhydraulics. As an example, the Morlet wavelet transform can be used to reduce the aleatory (random) uncertainty of a voiding transient in a large loss of coolant accident (LOCA). The wavelet transform is used to determine the cutoff frequency for a low pass Butterworth filter in order to remove the noisy part of the signal without infringing upon the characteristic frequencies of the phenomenon. This technique successfully reduced the standard random uncertainty by 42.4%. (author)

  3. Nuclear Pairing from Two-body Microscopic Forces: Analysis of the Cooper Pair Wavefunctions

    CERN Document Server

    Finelli, P; Holt, J W

    2014-01-01

    In a recent paper we studied the behavior of the pairing gaps $\\Delta_F$ as a function of the Fermi momentum $k_F$ for neutron and nuclear matter in all relevant angular momentum channels where superfluidity is believed to naturally emerge. The calculations employed realistic chiral nucleon-nucleon potentials with the inclusion of three-body forces and self-energy effects. In this contribution, after a detailed description of the numerical method we employed in the solution of the BCS equations, we will show a preliminary analysis of the Cooper pair wavefunctions.

  4. Analysis considerations in the future of the nuclear energy in Mexico; Consideraciones de analisis en el futuro de la energia nuclear en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso V, G., E-mail: gustavo.alonso@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    Mexico requires for legal command reducing the participation of fossil energy for the electric power production to not more than 65% for 2024, the other 35% will be covered by sources of clean energy, among which are the renewable sources and the nuclear energy. Inside the National Strategy of Energy 2012-2016 3 possible scenarios are outlined to give execution to this command, in this work is made an analysis of these scenarios and its implications in energy safety. (Author)

  5. Neutron activation analysis via nuclear decay kinetics using gamma-ray spectroscopy at SFU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Thomas; Chester, Aaron; Starosta, Krzysztof; Williams, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    Gamma-ray spectroscopy is a powerful tool used in a variety of fields including nuclear and analytical chemistry, environmental science, and health risk management. At SFU, the Germanium detector for Elemental Analysis and Radiation Studies (GEARS), a low-background shielded high-purity germanium gamma-ray detector, has been used recently in all of the above fields. The current project aims to expand upon the number of applications for which GEARS can be used while enhancing its current functionality. A recent addition to the SFU Nuclear Science laboratory is the Thermo Scientific P 385 neutron generator. This device provides a nominal yield of 3 ×108 neutrons/s providing the capacity for neutron activation analysis, opening a major avenue of research at SFU which was previously unavailable. The isotopes created via neutron activation have a wide range of half-lives. To measure and study isotopes with half-lives above a second, a new analogue data acquisition system has been installed on GEARS allowing accurate measurements of decay kinetics. This new functionality enables identification and quantification of the products of neutron activation. Results from the neutron activation analysis of pure metals will be presented.

  6. Design, Fabrication, and Testing of a SOI-MEMS-Based Active Microprobe for Potential Cellular Force Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, analysis, fabrication, and characterization of an electrostatically driven single-axis active probing device for the applications of cellular force sensing and materials characterization. The active microprobe is actuated by linear comb drivers to generate the motion in the probing direction. Both actuation and sensing comb-drive structures are designed for the probing stage. The sensing comb structures enable us to sense the probe displacement when the device is actuated, which enables applications of force-balanced sensing and provides the capability of closed-loop control towards better accuracy. The designed active probing device is fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI substrate with a 10 μm thick device layer through surface micromachining technologies and deep reactive-ion etching (DRIE process. The handle layer beneath probe stage is etched away by DRIE process to decrease the film damping between the stage and the handle wafer thus achieving high-quality factor. The fabricated stage provides a motion range of 14 μm at actuation voltage of 140 V. The measured natural frequency of the stage is 1.5 kHz under ambient conditions. A sensitivity of 6 fF/μm has been achieved. The proposed single-axis probe is aimed at sensing cellular force which ranges from a few nano-Newton to μN and micromanipulation applications.

  7. Determination of the chemical properties of residues retained in individual cloud droplets by XRF microprobe at SPring-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, C.-J. E-mail: ma@uji.energy.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Tohno, S.; Kasahara, M.; Hayakawa, S

    2004-06-01

    To determine the chemical properties of residue retained in individual cloud droplets is primarily important for the understanding of rainout mechanism and aerosol modification in droplet. The sampling of individual cloud droplets were carried out on the summit of Mt. Taiko located in Tango peninsula, Kyoto prefecture, during Asian dust storm event in March of 2002. XRF microprobe system equipped at SPring-8, BL-37XU was applied to the subsequent quantification analysis of ultra trace elements in residues of individual cloud droplets. It was possible to form the replicas of separated individual cloud droplets on the thin collodion film. The two dimensional XRF maps for the residues in individual cloud droplets were clearly drawn by scanning of micro-beam. Also, XRF spectra of trace elements in residues were well resolved. From the XRF spectra for individual residues, the chemical mixed state of residues could be assumed. The chemical forms of Fe (Fe{sup +++}) and Zn (Zn{sup +}) could be clearly characterized by their K-edge micro-XANES spectra. By comparison of Z/Si mass ratios of residues in cloud droplets and those of the original sands collected in desert areas in China, the aging of ambient dust particles and their in cloud modification were indirectly assumed.

  8. Sampling and chemical analysis in environmental samples around Nuclear Power Plants and some environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Woo; Han, Man Jung; Cho, Seong Won; Cho, Hong Jun; Oh, Hyeon Kyun; Lee, Jeong Min; Chang, Jae Sook [KORTIC, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    Twelve kinds of environmental samples such as soil, seawater, underground water, etc. around Nuclear Power Plants(NPPs) were collected. Tritium chemical analysis was tried for the samples of rain water, pine-needle, air, seawater, underground water, chinese cabbage, a grain of rice and milk sampled around NPPs, and surface seawater and rain water sampled over the country. Strontium in the soil that sere sampled at 60 point of district in Korea were analyzed. Tritium were sampled at 60 point of district in Korea were analyzed. Tritium were analyzed in 21 samples of surface seawater around the Korea peninsular that were supplied from KFRDI(National Fisheries Research and Development Institute). Sampling and chemical analysis environmental samples around Kori, Woolsung, Youngkwang, Wooljin Npps and Taeduk science town for tritium and strontium analysis was managed according to plans. Succeed to KINS after all samples were tried.

  9. A study of thermal, structural and shielding safety analysis for dry storage of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, S. H. [Kyungpook Nationl Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-03-15

    As a replaced method for MRS, the dry storage has been intensively developed by the advanced countries of nuclear power technology. Currently, the domestic technology for the dry storage is also under development. In the present study, the developed technical standards for USNRC and its operation are summarized. Futhermore, the SAR for VECTRA's NUHOMES satisfied with DOE and NRC's requirements is inversely analyzed and combined with both USNRC's regulatory guide and LLNL's SARS. In the safety analysis of a dry storage, the principal design criteria which identifies the structural and mechanical safety criteria is investigated. Based on the design criteria, hypothetical accident analysis as well as off-normal operation analysis are investigated.

  10. Spent nuclear fuel corrosion: The application of ICP-MS to direct actinide analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, R. [Caledon-Consult AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Eklund, U.B. [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    The ICP-MS technique has been applied to the analysis of the actinide contents of corrodant solutions from experiments performed to study the corrosion of spent nuclear fuel in simulated groundwaters. Analysis was performed directly on the solutions, without employing separation or isotope dilution techniques. The results from two analytical campaigns using natural indium and thorium internal standards are compared. Under both oxic and anoxic conditions, the U contents can be determined with good accuracy and precision. The same applies to Np and Pu under oxic conditions, where the solution concentrations range down to about 0.1 ppb. Under anoxic conditions, where solution concentrations are lower by one or two orders of magnitude, reasonable results for these two actinides can be obtained, but with much lower precision. Direct analysis of Am and Cm, however, gave unsatisfactory results, since the technique is limited by poor measurement statistics and background uncertainty.

  11. CFD analysis of moderator flow and temperature fields inside a vertical calandria vessel of nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kansal, Anuj Kumar, E-mail: akansal@barc.gov.in [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Joshi, Jyeshtharaj B., E-mail: jbjoshi@gmail.com [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Maheshwari, Naresh Kumar, E-mail: nmahesh@barc.gov.in [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Vijayan, Pallippattu Krishnan, E-mail: vijayanp@barc.gov.in [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • 3D CFD of vertical calandria vessel. • Spatial distribution of volumetric heat generation. • Effect of Archimedes number. • Non-dimensional analysis. - Abstract: Three dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis has been performed for the moderator flow and temperature fields inside a vertical calandria vessel of nuclear reactor under normal operating condition using OpenFOAM CFD code. OpenFOAM is validated by comparing the predicted results with the experimental data available in literature. CFD model includes the calandria vessel, calandria tubes, inlet header and outlet header. Analysis has been performed for the cases of uniform and spatial distribution of volumetric heat generation. Studies show that the maximum temperature in moderator is lower in the case of spatial distribution of heat generation as compared to that in the uniform heat generation in calandria. In addition, the effect of Archimedes number on maximum and average moderator temperature was investigated.

  12. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of uranium hexafluoride

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for subsampling and for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of uranium hexafluoride UF6. Most of these test methods are in routine use to determine conformance to UF6 specifications in the Enrichment and Conversion Facilities. 1.2 The analytical procedures in this document appear in the following order: Note 1—Subcommittee C26.05 will confer with C26.02 concerning the renumbered section in Test Methods C761 to determine how concerns with renumbering these sections, as analytical methods are replaced with stand-alone analytical methods, are best addressed in subsequent publications. Sections Subsampling of Uranium Hexafluoride 7 - 10 Gravimetric Determination of Uranium 11 - 19 Titrimetric Determination of Uranium 20 Preparation of High-Purity U3O 8 21 Isotopic Analysis 22 Isotopic Analysis by Double-Standard Mass-Spectrometer Method 23 - 29 Determination of Hydrocarbons, Chlorocarbons, and Partially Substitut...

  13. Analysis of Emergency Diesel Generators Failure Incidents in Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Ronderio LaDavis

    In early years of operation, emergency diesel generators have had a minimal rate of demand failures. Emergency diesel generators are designed to operate as a backup when the main source of electricity has been disrupted. As of late, EDGs (emergency diesel generators) have been failing at NPPs (nuclear power plants) around the United States causing either station blackouts or loss of onsite and offsite power. These failures occurred from a specific type called demand failures. This thesis evaluated the current problem that raised concern in the nuclear industry which was averaging 1 EDG demand failure/year in 1997 to having an excessive event of 4 EDG demand failure year which occurred in 2011. To determine the next occurrence of the extreme event and possible cause to an event of such happening, two analyses were conducted, the statistical and root cause analysis. Considering the statistical analysis in which an extreme event probability approach was applied to determine the next occurrence year of an excessive event as well as, the probability of that excessive event occurring. Using the root cause analysis in which the potential causes of the excessive event occurred by evaluating, the EDG manufacturers, aging, policy changes/ maintenance practices and failure components. The root cause analysis investigated the correlation between demand failure data and historical data. Final results from the statistical analysis showed expectations of an excessive event occurring in a fixed range of probability and a wider range of probability from the extreme event probability approach. The root-cause analysis of the demand failure data followed historical statistics for the EDG manufacturer, aging and policy changes/ maintenance practices but, indicated a possible cause regarding the excessive event with the failure components. Conclusions showed the next excessive demand failure year, prediction of the probability and the next occurrence year of such failures, with an

  14. Alkahest NuclearBLAST : a user-friendly BLAST management and analysis system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke Mark

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background - Sequencing of EST and BAC end datasets is no longer limited to large research groups. Drops in per-base pricing have made high throughput sequencing accessible to individual investigators. However, there are few options available which provide a free and user-friendly solution to the BLAST result storage and data mining needs of biologists. Results - Here we describe NuclearBLAST, a batch BLAST analysis, storage and management system designed for the biologist. It is a wrapper for NCBI BLAST which provides a user-friendly web interface which includes a request wizard and the ability to view and mine the results. All BLAST results are stored in a MySQL database which allows for more advanced data-mining through supplied command-line utilities or direct database access. NuclearBLAST can be installed on a single machine or clustered amongst a number of machines to improve analysis throughput. NuclearBLAST provides a platform which eases data-mining of multiple BLAST results. With the supplied scripts, the program can export data into a spreadsheet-friendly format, automatically assign Gene Ontology terms to sequences and provide bi-directional best hits between two datasets. Users with SQL experience can use the database to ask even more complex questions and extract any subset of data they require. Conclusion - This tool provides a user-friendly interface for requesting, viewing and mining of BLAST results which makes the management and data-mining of large sets of BLAST analyses tractable to biologists.

  15. New features and improved uncertainty analysis in the NEA nuclear data sensitivity tool (NDaST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrda, J.; Soppera, N.; Hill, I.; Bossant, M.; Gulliford, J.

    2017-09-01

    Following the release and initial testing period of the NEA's Nuclear Data Sensitivity Tool [1], new features have been designed and implemented in order to expand its uncertainty analysis capabilities. The aim is to provide a free online tool for integral benchmark testing, that is both efficient and comprehensive, meeting the needs of the nuclear data and benchmark testing communities. New features include access to P1 sensitivities for neutron scattering angular distribution [2] and constrained Chi sensitivities for the prompt fission neutron energy sampling. Both of these are compatible with covariance data accessed via the JANIS nuclear data software, enabling propagation of the resultant uncertainties in keff to a large series of integral experiment benchmarks. These capabilities are available using a number of different covariance libraries e.g., ENDF/B, JEFF, JENDL and TENDL, allowing comparison of the broad range of results it is possible to obtain. The IRPhE database of reactor physics measurements is now also accessible within the tool in addition to the criticality benchmarks from ICSBEP. Other improvements include the ability to determine and visualise the energy dependence of a given calculated result in order to better identify specific regions of importance or high uncertainty contribution. Sorting and statistical analysis of the selected benchmark suite is now also provided. Examples of the plots generated by the software are included to illustrate such capabilities. Finally, a number of analytical expressions, for example Maxwellian and Watt fission spectra will be included. This will allow the analyst to determine the impact of varying such distributions within the data evaluation, either through adjustment of parameters within the expressions, or by comparison to a more general probability distribution fitted to measured data. The impact of such changes is verified through calculations which are compared to a `direct' measurement found by

  16. Results of a nuclear power plant application of A New Technique for Human Error Analysis (ATHEANA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, D.W.; Forester, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bley, D.C. [Buttonwood Consulting, Inc. (United States)] [and others

    1998-03-01

    A new method to analyze human errors has been demonstrated at a pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant. This was the first application of the new method referred to as A Technique for Human Error Analysis (ATHEANA). The main goals of the demonstration were to test the ATHEANA process as described in the frame-of-reference manual and the implementation guideline, test a training package developed for the method, test the hypothesis that plant operators and trainers have significant insight into the error-forcing-contexts (EFCs) that can make unsafe actions (UAs) more likely, and to identify ways to improve the method and its documentation. A set of criteria to evaluate the success of the ATHEANA method as used in the demonstration was identified. A human reliability analysis (HRA) team was formed that consisted of an expert in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) with some background in HRA (not ATHEANA) and four personnel from the nuclear power plant. Personnel from the plant included two individuals from their PRA staff and two individuals from their training staff. Both individuals from training are currently licensed operators and one of them was a senior reactor operator on shift until a few months before the demonstration. The demonstration was conducted over a 5-month period and was observed by members of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s ATHEANA development team, who also served as consultants to the HRA team when necessary. Example results of the demonstration to date, including identified human failure events (HFEs), UAs, and EFCs are discussed. Also addressed is how simulator exercises are used in the ATHEANA demonstration project.

  17. Probing beer aging chemistry by nuclear magnetic resonance and multivariate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, J.A. [CICECO-Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Barros, A.S. [QOPNA-Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Carvalho, B.; Brandao, T. [UNICER, Bebidas de Portugal, Leca do Balio, 4466-955, S. Mamede de Infesta (Portugal); Gil, Ana M., E-mail: agil@ua.pt [CICECO-Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2011-09-30

    Graphical abstract: The use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabonomics for monitoring the chemical changes occurring in beer exposed to forced aging (at 45 deg. C for up to 18 days) is described. Both principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were applied to the NMR spectra of beer recorded as a function of aging and an aging trend was observed. Inspection of PLS-DA loadings and peak integration revealed the importance of well known markers (e.g. 5-HMF) as well