WorldWideScience

Sample records for nuclear medical application

  1. Nuclear data for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capote, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear science plays an increasingly important role in medical applications, in particular the need for radioisotopes in both cancer therapy and diagnostic techniques is very well established. Over the previous thirty years, many laboratories have reported a significant body of experimental data relevant to medical radionuclide production, and international data centres have compiled most of these data. However, till late 90s no systematic effort had been devoted to their standardization and assembly. These needs are being addressed through three IAEA Coordinated Research Projects on Nuclear Data for the Production of Radionuclides that started in 1999. Monitor cross sections to be used in charged particle measurements have been also evaluated (see http://www-nds.iaea.org/medical/monitor reactions.html). A review of IAEA recommended cross sections for the production of medical radioisotopes will be presented. Theoretical modelling of nuclear reactions will be discussed both for nuclear data evaluation and validation. The role of the Recommended Input Parameter Library (RIPL) in defining the input for production codes like EMPIRE and TALYS will be highlighted. (author)

  2. Medical applications in a nuclear research centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhavere, F.; Eggermont, G.

    2001-01-01

    In these days of public aversion to nuclear power, it can be important to point at the medical applications of ionising radiation. Not only the general public, but also the authorities and research centres have to be aware of these medical applications, which are not without risk for public health. Now that funding for nuclear research is declining, an opening to the medical world can give new opportunities to a nuclear research centre. A lot of research could be done where the tools developed for the nuclear power world are very useful. Even new applications for the research reactors like BNCT (boron neutron capture therapy) can be envisaged for the near future. In this contribution an overview will be given of the different techniques used in the medical world with ionising radiation. The specific example of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre will be given where the mission statement was changed to include a certain number of medical research topics. (authors)

  3. Nuclear data for medical applications: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaim, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    A brief introduction to nuclear data in medicine is given. The choice of a radioisotope for medical application demands an accurate knowledge of radioactive decay data. Short-lived single photon and beta sup + -emitters are preferred for diagnostic investigations, and longer-lived corpuscular radiation emitting radioisotopes for endo radiotherapy. The nuclear reaction cross section data, on the other hand, are needed for optimising the production routes. Besides radioactive isotopes, the use of ionising radiation in therapy is discussed. External radiation therapy has achieved an important place in medicine. The role of nuclear data is briefly discussed; they are needed for radiation dose calculations. The hitherto rather neglected activation products in proton therapy are considered. The methodology of development of a nuclear data file for medical applications is outlined. (author)

  4. Nuclear data for medical applications: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaim, S.M.

    2001-01-01

    A brief introduction to nuclear data in medicine is given. The choice of a radioisotope for medical application demands an accurate knowledge of radioactive decay data. Short-lived single photon and β + -emitters are preferred for diagnostic investigations, and longer-lived corpuscular radiation emitting radioisotopes for endoradiotherapy. The nuclear reaction cross section data, on the other hand, are needed for optimising the production routes. Besides radioactive isotopes, the use of ionising radiation in therapy is discussed. External radiation therapy has achieved an important place in medicine. The role of nuclear data is briefly discussed; they are needed for radiation dose calculations. The hitherto rather neglected activation products in proton therapy are considered. The methodology of development of a nuclear data file for medical applications is outlined. (orig.)

  5. Medical applications of the nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugarte, Valentin E.

    2001-01-01

    The Nuclear Medicine School Foundation, in Mendoza (Argentina) was created in 1986 by the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) and is supported by the Government of the Mendoza Province, the CNEA, and the National University of Cuyo. The main activities of the school are medical diagnosis using nuclear techniques and the training of physicians and technicians in nuclear medicine. Teletherapy and brachytherapy are also performed. The use of the PET is described in some detail

  6. Nuclear energy and its medical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    Ionising radiation is used in radiotherapy to treat cancer and to sterilise medical equipment because it destroys cells. Radioactive tracers are used in nuclear medicine because the ionising radiation it emits is easy to detect. There are three main uses of ionising radiation in medicine: treatment, diagnosis and sterilisation. Radiotherapy is used to treat cancers by irradiating them with ionising radiation. Radioactive tracers are used to diagnose and investigate several medical conditions. Ionising radiation is used to sterilise medical equipment as it kills germs and/or bacteria

  7. New medical application: nuclear scattering radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saudinos, J.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear scattering of 1 GeV protons is used to obtain three dimensional radiographies with a volume resolution of about 1 mm 3 . The information is different from the one given by X-ray radiographies and in particular one may get radiographies of the hydrogen included in objects. Results on a vertebral column and a 'sella turcica' are presented [fr

  8. Data bank applications of a nuclear medical computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, T.I.; Jucker, A.; Haering, W.; Schmid, B.

    1980-01-01

    Computer systems in nuclear medicine are normally not used for data bank applications. A concept for a PDP-11-34 with RK 05 disc is presented, which serves the needs of data manipulations of a medium sized hospital including management of patient data, pharma stock control etc. besides specific use for nuclear medical work with absolute priority. The program is available upon request. (orig.) [de

  9. Applications of nuclear technique in environmental and medical science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Xianfeng; Shen Hao; Liu Bo; Sun Minde; Yao Huiying; Zhou Shijun; Mi Yong

    2001-01-01

    The serious environmental pollution problem and application of the nuclear technique in environmental and medical sciences were discussed. The analysed results of the elemental distribution of particles in automobile exhaust, the aerosol particle of different size and the effect of Rare Earth on cells were reported. The authors can obtain some information related to element concentration. It offers a convenient method in inspecting the environmental pollution

  10. Medical applications of nuclear physics and heavy-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Jose R.

    2000-01-01

    Isotopes and accelerators, hallmarks of nuclear physics, are finding increasingly sophisticated and effective applications in the medical field. Diagnostic and therapeutic uses of radioisotopes are now a $10B/yr business worldwide, with over 10 million procedures and patient studies performed every year. This paper will discuss the use of isotopes for these applications. In addition, beams of protons and heavy ions are being more and more widely used clinically for treatment of malignancies. To be discussed here as well will be the rationale and techniques associated with charged-particle therapy, and the progress in implementation and optimization of these technologies for clinical use

  11. Medical application of nuclear science: nuclear medicine and production of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornet, L.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear science in attendance on medicine or from Radium to Radiopharmaceuticals. By a brief historical reminder of the evolution of the radioactivity and development of nuclear science, we could see a very early interest and application of the radioactivity in the medical field. Main steps: Detection of natural radioactivity/Discovery of artificial radioactivity/First treatment of leukaemia and thyroid/First nuclear reactor/First radioisotope laboratory in hospital/First scintigraphy/First radiopharmaceutical/First cyclotron and cyclotron products/First immunoscintigraphy/Biotechnology and radioisotope/Evolution of technics [equipment for diagnosis (imaging, scintigraphy) and therapy]/Evolution of production technics and concept of products (generators of Technetium) and machines, reactor, cyclotron/Evolution of importance and interest of nuclear medicine/Creation of international association of nuclear medicine and producers (example ARPR)/Evolution of safety and pharmaceuticals regulation. After the sixties, period extremely rich in invention of products, characterized by a high fertility specially due to a non-restrictive regulation in terms of safety and pharmaceutical consideration, the evolution of technics, the importance of costs (investment, research, healthcare and the evolution of the regulations) have smoothly but continuously transformed the contexts and different actors. Consequences and facts: Rationalization and standardization of the catalogues, total integration of radiopharmaceuticals into the pharmaceutical laws, stop of nuclear research reactors, increase of number of cyclotrons, transformation of size and role of the producers and nuclear centers, risk in supply of some raw materials like Molybdenum, medical nuclear application as a worldwide business

  12. Various dedicated imaging systems for routine nuclear medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bela Kari; Tamas Gyorke; Erno Mako; Laszlo Nagy; Jozsef Turak; Oszkar Partos

    2004-01-01

    The most essential problems of nuclear medical imaging are resolution, signal/noise ratio (S/N) and sensitivity. Nowadays, the vast majority of the Anger system gamma cameras in clinical application are using parallel projection. The main problem of this projection method is the highly dependence of the image quality on the distance from the collimator surface as well as any improvement in the resolution with the distance -i.e. reduction of image blur- significantly reduces sensitivity. The aim of our research and development work was to create imaging geometry, collimator and detector constructions optimized to particular organs (brain, heart, thyroid), where it is simultaneously possible to increase the resolution and sensitivity. Main concept of the imaging geometry construction is based on the size, location and shape of a particular organ. In case of brain SPECT imaging a multiple head (4 heads in cylinder symmetric approximation) arrangement with extra high intrinsic resolution (<2.5 mm) dedicated detector design provide feasible solution for routine clinical application. The imaging system was essentially designed for Tc-99m and I-123 isotopes. The application field can be easily extended for functional small animal research and new born baby studies. Very positive feedbacks were received from both technical (stability and reproducibility of the technical parameters) and clinical sides in the past 2 years routine applications. A unique, novel conception ultra compact dedicated dual head SPECT system has been created only for 2D, 3D nuclear cardiac applications for Tc-99m and T1-201 labeled radio-pharmaceuticals. The two rectangular detectors (with <2.6 mm intrinsic resolution) are mounted fix in 90 degree geometry and move inside the special formed gantry arrangement. The unique and unusual gantry is designed to keep the detector heads as close as possible to the patient, while the patient is not exposed by any moving part. This special construction also

  13. Radiation environmental impact assessment of the radioisotope's application on nuclear medical science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hongshi

    2004-01-01

    The radiation environmental impact assessment of the radioisotope's application on nuclear medical science is introduced, including the assessment criteria, the assessment methods and the environmental impact assessment of three wastes emission. (authors)

  14. Frontier of Advanced Accelerator Applications and Medical Treatments Using Nuclear Techniques. Abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    To address the challenges of research-based practice, developing advanced accelerator applications, and medical treatments using nuclear tecniqoes, researchers from Rajamakala University of Technology Lanna, Office of Atoms for Peace, and Chiang Mai University have joined in hosting this conference. Nuclear medicine, amedical specialty, diagnoses and treats diseases in a safe and painless way. Nuclear techniques can determine medical information that may otherwise be unavailable, require surgery, or necessitate more expensive and invasive diagnostic tests. Advance in nuclear techniques also offer the potential to detect abnormalities at earlier stages, leasding to earlier treatment and a more successful prognosis.

  15. Radioactive ion beams for biomedical research and nuclear medical application

    CERN Document Server

    Beyer, Gerd-Jürgen

    2002-01-01

    The ISOLDE facility at CERN is the world leading on On-Line Isotope Separator installation. The main aspects which makes ISOLDE produced radio-isotopes such valuable for use in biomedical research are: the availability of exotic or uncommon radioisotopes, the high purity and the ion beam quality. A short overview on research strategies, on experimental work and application of ISOLDE produced radionuclides used in the field of biomedicine over a period of more than 2 decades will be given. Special attention will be directed to the radio- lanthanides, because they can be seen as one single element providing the unique possibility to study systematically relationships between molecule parameters and a biological response without changes in the basic tracer molecule. Among those radionuclides we find any radiation properties we wish (single photon emission) suitable for SPECT, positron emission suitable for positron emission tomography (PET), alpha -, beta /sup -/- and Auger electron emission. (21 refs).

  16. A Medical Application of Nuclear Physics: Particle Radiotherapy with Protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Jonathan B.

    2006-10-01

    Since the discovery of radiation, applications have been made to medicine. The advent of higher energy particle accelerators in the second half of the twentieth century enabled modern tele-therapy using relatively high energy x-rays and particles. Today mega-voltage (MV) x-rays are the most common modality of delivering high doses of potentially life saving radiation to a wide variety of disease, mostly malignant cancers. However, the maximum radiation dose that can be delivered is always limited by the effects to critical surrounding biologic structures. In many cases, due to their physical properties, ``heavy'' particle radiotherapy with protons and light ions may provide an advantage in this respect over MV x-rays allowing either a higher dose of radiation to be delivered to the volume or, for the same dose, reducing the concomitant damage to critical structures. This motivation, together with recent advances in particle therapy systems that are making the technology more readily available, is serving to grow the field of particle therapy. In particular, treatment with fast protons is becoming more widespread with over 20 facilities operating worldwide and more under construction. This presentation will provide an introduction to heavy particle therapy and additional details specifically on proton therapy.

  17. Dissemination of medical applications of nuclear energy with virtual reality technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, Felipe M.; Oliveira, Beatriz A.R.

    2007-01-01

    This work makes use of Virtual Reality technology to disseminate medical applications of nuclear energy, with educational purposes. Virtual Reality is an effective learning tool, since navigation and interaction in virtual worlds can improve motivation in the learning process. With this technology, learning can be achieved in a clearer, joyful and more objective way. Among the existing medical applications of nuclear energy, this work focuses on the use of radiopharmaceuticals. The goal is to simulate this application in a virtual environment, for educational purposes, and to show the absorption of a radiopharmaceutical by the human body, during a diagnostics or treatment procedure. An example has been chosen, for Iodine radiopharmaceutical, which has affinity with the thyroid, and then concentrates in this organ. During the simulation, the concentration of the radioactive Iodine in the thyroid can be emphasized, and in the sequence, the virtual patient can be shown during the imaging procedure. (author)

  18. Nuclear Data for Medical Applications – Recent Developments and Future Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, A.L.; Capote, R.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer treatment represents a major economic and medical issue because of the extensive incidence of the disease worldwide, with a particularly large rate of increase to be found in developing countries. Over the previous twenty years, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has dedicated a series of investigations towards identifying and quantifying the production routes and decay characteristics of radioisotopes judged to be of existing and emerging importance in nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. Both the recommendations formulated during the course of these technical debates and the results of recently completed and on-going IAEA coordinated research projects are focused towards the successful evolution of improvements in nuclear data for medical applications throughout the early 21 st century

  19. Medical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Biscari, C.; Falbo, L.

    2016-01-01

    The use of accelerators for medical applications has evolved from initial experimentation to turn-key devices commonly operating in hospitals. New applications are continuously being developed around the world, and the hadrontherapy facilities of the newest generation are placed at the frontier between industrial production and advanced R&D. An introduction to the different medical application accelerators is followed by a description of the hadrontherapy facilities, with special emphasis on ...

  20. IAEA activities in nuclear medicine and related medical applications of nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudley, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    One of the objectives of the International Atomic Energy Agency, as specified in its Statute, is to ''enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world.'' Its programmes in human health include both the exploitation and measurement of radiation fields (radiotherapy and dosimetry) and the use of radionuclides in an investigative or tracer role (the primary subject of this Symposium). The Agency carries out its programmes by means of several mechanisms. The technical co-operation programme, responding to requests for support from governments of Member States, is the dominant mechanism. Through it, experts may be made available to introduce new skills to a laboratory; essential equipment may be provided; and training may be organized in various forms. A second mechanism is the research contract programme, providing financial support to individual laboratories for particular research projects. A third mechanism is information exchange: scientific meetings, publications and the nuclear abstracts service of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). In the field covered by this Symposium, the technical content of the projects supported by the Agency using these mechanisms may be classed in several categories. One domain that penetrates all others is instrumentation: selection, quality control and maintenance to prevent or correct breakdowns. Another category of activity, requiring the least sophisticated technology, is radioimmunoassay and related procedures. A third category involves the use of radionuclides in vivo, notably the classic applications of nuclear medicine in diagnosing the health status of individual patients, but including also investigation of the nature and aetiology of disease. A fourth category of project includes the study of the biological role of trace elements, especially by neutron activation analysis

  1. Medical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Biscari, C.

    2014-12-19

    The use of accelerators for medical applications has evolved from initial experimentation to turn-key devices commonly operating in hospitals. New applications are continuously being developed around the world, and the hadrontherapy facilities of the newest generation are placed at the frontier between industrial production and advanced R&D. An introduction to the different medical application accelerators is followed by a description of the hadrontherapy facilities, with special emphasis on CNAO, and the report closes with a brief outlook on the future of this field.

  2. Medical Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscari, C; Falbo, L

    2014-01-01

    The use of accelerators for medical applications has evolved from initial experimentation to turn-key devices commonly operating in hospitals. New applications are continuously being developed around the world, and the hadrontherapy facilities of the newest generation are placed at the frontier between industrial production and advanced R&D. An introduction to the different medical application accelerators is followed by a description of the hadrontherapy facilities, with special emphasis on CNAO, and the report closes with a brief outlook on the future of this field

  3. Applications of nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A. C.

    2017-02-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  4. Applications of nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Lastly, each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  5. The physical and physiological aspects of xenon isotopes in nuclear medical applicants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolmsjoe, M.

    1981-11-01

    A method for trapping radioactive xenon waste from nuclear medical departments has been investigated. Adsorption of xenon acivitaded charcoal was found to be an efficient trapping method. A large gain in capacity was found when the trap was refrigerated, and permitted a large number of patient investigations before break-through of xenon occurred. By heating charcoal traps to 250-350 degrees C, adsorbed xenon gas is freed and is thus made available for re-use. A technique for room-air monitoring of xenon-leakage from patient investigations is described, where the room-air is continously pumped through a small charcoal filter, mounted close to a detector. The low gammaenergy of Xe-133, 81 keV, introduces problems for in vivo measurements due to the small differences in the energies of the primary and Compton-scattered photons. Influence of scatter and of hemispheric cross-talk was studied for cerebral blood-flow measurements. It was shown that substantial artefacts are introduced in the calculation of regional gray matter flow. The applicability of the xenon-washout technique for liver blood-flow measurements in rat was investigated. (author)

  6. Application of medical psychology in the reception of nuclear medicine department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan Hao; Xiong Jie; Huang Daijuan; Yuan Bin; Xu Wendai; Zhang Yongxue

    2003-01-01

    Reception of nuclear medicine department is often ignored. In fact, it is an important part of clinical work. If the patient's psychological status is understood, and the psychological knowledge is handles and applied in practice, the quality of work can be improved. The personnel in nuclear medicine should recognize the significance of humanity in medical practice and acquire the communication skill between doctors and patients. They should also understand the four aspects of psychological need of patients: The need of being understood and respected; the need of being greeted, accepted and a sense of belonging; the need of being informed; the need of feeling safe and rehabilitated

  7. Medical applications of cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean, R.; Fauchet, M.

    1978-01-01

    Isochronous cyclotrons used to accelerate different charged particles (protons, deuterons, alphas...) at variable energies, have important medical applications, for neutron teletherapy, in vivo or in vitro activation analysis or production of short-lived radioisotopes for nuclear medicine. The characteristics of the cyclotron presently available are described for these three applications (low energy 'compact' cyclotrons, cyclotrons of intermediate and high energies), and their advantages are discussed from the points of view of the medical requirements, the financial investments and the results obtained. (orig.) [de

  8. Clinical applications of PET-CT in nuclear medicine to medical specialists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-08-01

    This regional training course about Clinical Applications of PET-Tc in nuclear medicine include: imaging, pathology, scintigraphy, computed tomography, radiology, endoscopy, magnetic resonance, biopsy, and histology. It also describes pathologies and diseases of organs and bone structures such as: musculoskeletal and osseous damage, tumors, fibroids, metastasize, neoplasm, adenopathies and cancer of liver, brain, glands, kidney, neck, thorax, lungs, uterus, ovaries, craniums, hypophysis etc

  9. Summary report of consultants' meeting on nuclear data of charged-particle interactions for medical therapy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capote Noy, R.; Vatnitskiy, S.

    2007-01-01

    A summary is given of a Consultants' Meeting assembled to assess the viability of a new IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Charged-Particle Interaction Data for Radiotherapy. The need for a programme to compile and evaluate charged-particle nuclear data for therapeutic applications was strongly agreed. Both the technical discussions and the expected outcomes of such a project are described, along with detailed recommendations for implementation. The meeting was jointly organized by NAPC/Nuclear Data Section and NAHU/Dosimetry and Medical Radiation Physics Section. (author)

  10. Radioisotopes for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, S.

    1998-01-01

    For more than 3 decades, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation has been the country's main supplier of radioisotopes for medical applications. The use of radioisotopes in medicine has revolutionised the diagnosis, management and treatment of many serious diseases such as cancer, heart disease and stroke. It is also beginning to play a key role in neurological disorders such as Parkinson and Alzheimers disease and epilepsy. More recently there has been considerable growth in the application of nuclear medicine to treat sport-related injuries - especially wrist, ankle and knees where more common techniques do not always enable accurate diagnosis. Australia is a recognised leader in nuclear medicine. This can be partially attributed to the close relationship between ANSTO and the medical community in providing opportunities to develop and evaluate new agents to support more effective patient care. A list of commercial isotopes produced in the reactor or the cyclotron and used in medical applications is given. Nuclear medicine plays an important role in the clinical environment and the timely supply of radioisotopes is a key element. ANSTO will continue to be the premier supplier of currently available and developing isotopes to support the health and well being of the Australian community

  11. Radioisotopes for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, S. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Radiopharmaceuticals Division

    1998-03-01

    For more than 3 decades, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation has been the country`s main supplier of radioisotopes for medical applications. The use of radioisotopes in medicine has revolutionised the diagnosis, management and treatment of many serious diseases such as cancer, heart disease and stroke. It is also beginning to play a key role in neurological disorders such as Parkinson and Alzheimers disease and epilepsy. More recently there has been considerable growth in the application of nuclear medicine to treat sport-related injuries - especially wrist, ankle and knees where more common techniques do not always enable accurate diagnosis. Australia is a recognised leader in nuclear medicine. This can be partially attributed to the close relationship between ANSTO and the medical community in providing opportunities to develop and evaluate new agents to support more effective patient care. A list of commercial isotopes produced in the reactor or the cyclotron and used in medical applications is given. Nuclear medicine plays an important role in the clinical environment and the timely supply of radioisotopes is a key element. ANSTO will continue to be the premier supplier of currently available and developing isotopes to support the health and well being of the Australian community 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  12. The role of electromagnetic separators in the production of radiotracers for bio-medical research and nuclear medical application

    CERN Document Server

    Beyer, Gerd-Jürgen

    2003-01-01

    With the growing complexity of positron emission tomography/single photon emission computed tomography imaging and the new developments in systemic radionuclide therapy there is a growing need for radioisotope preparations with higher radiochemical and radionuclidic purity that has not been achievable before. Especially important for the new applications is the specific activity of the radiotracer. Conventional methods in medical isotope production have reached their technical limitations. The role of isotope separators is discussed with examples of typical production and characterization experiments conducted at the ISOLDE and TRIUMF facilities. These preliminary experiments indicate that isotope separators have a definite role to play in the future for the production of radioisotopes for biomedical research and medical application.

  13. Nuclear medical examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Kazuo; Yamada, Hideo

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear medical examinations for cerebral vascular diseases were outlined. These procedures developed associated with development of scanners, production of radionuclides and development of labelled compounds. Examination of cerebral circulation with 133 Xe and sup(87m)Kr was replaced by CT. Furthermore, emission CT developed. Each of brain scintiscan, measurement of regional cerebral blood flow, positron emission CT and single photon emission CT was reviewed. (Namekawa, K.)

  14. Nuclear medical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    This three-volume set covers the physical basis of nuclear medicine, and is intended as a source of data for practicing scientists and physicians as well as those beginning their careers or simply studying nuclear medical physics. It leads the reader from quantum theory to the production and attenuation of ionizing radiation; considers dosimetry and the most recent assessment of biological effects of such particles; describes in detail detector materials, signal analysis, and gamma cameras; includes extensive discussions of bone mineral measurement as well as magnetic resonance imaging; covers limited angle, rotating camera, and positron tomography; presents quality assurance and statistical theory with an eye toward enhanced departmental operations; and features descriptions of functional imaging and the psychophysical basis of diagnosis

  15. Nuclear methods in medical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeraj, R.

    2003-01-01

    A common ground for both, reactor and medical physics is a demand for high accuracy of particle transport calculations. In reactor physics, safe operation of nuclear power plants has been asking for high accuracy of calculation methods. Similarly, dose calculation in radiation therapy for cancer has been requesting high accuracy of transport methods to ensure adequate dosimetry. Common to both problems has always been a compromise between achievable accuracy and available computer power leading into a variety of calculation methods developed over the decades. On the other hand, differences of subjects (nuclear reactor vs. humans) and radiation types (neutron/photon vs. photon/electron or ions) are calling for very field-specific approach. Nevertheless, it is not uncommon to see drift of researches from one field to another. Several examples from both fields will be given with the aim to compare the problems, indicating their similarities and discussing their differences. As examples of reactor physics applications, both deterministic and Monte Carlo calculations will be presented for flux distributions of the VENUS and TRIGA Mark II benchmark. These problems will be paralleled to medical physics applications in linear accelerator radiation field determination and dose distribution calculations. Applicability of the adjoint/forward transport will be discussed in the light of both transport problems. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) as an example of the close collaboration between the fields will be presented. At last, several other examples from medical physics, which can and cannot find corresponding problems in reactor physics, will be discussed (e.g., beam optimisation in inverse treatment planning, imaging applications). (author)

  16. Nuclear medical technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daga, Avinash; Sharma, Smita; Sharma, K.S.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear medical technology helps to use radiopharmaceuticals (drugs that give off radiation) to diagnose and treat illness. A more recent development is Positron Emission Tomography (PET) which is a more precise and sophisticated technique that uses isotopes produced in a cyclotron. F-18 in FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose) is one such positron-emitting radionuclide. Chemically, it is 2-deoxy-2-( 18 F) fluoro-D-glucose, a glucose analog with the positron-emitting radioactive isotope fluorine-18 substituted for the normal hydroxyl group at the 2' position in the glucose molecule. It is introduced, usually by injection, and then it gets accumulated in the target tissue. As it decays it emits a positron, which promptly combines with a nearby electron resulting in the simultaneous emission of two identifiable gamma rays in opposite directions. These are detected by a PET camera when the patient is placed in the PET scanner for a series of one or more scans which may take from 20 minutes to as long as an hour. It gives very precise indication of their origin. 18 F in FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose) has become very important in detection of cancers and the monitoring of progress in their treatment, using PET. (author)

  17. Applications of Nuclear Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Anna C.

    2017-01-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that und...

  18. Medical aspects of nuclear armament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janse, M.J.; Schene, A.; Koch, K.

    1983-01-01

    The authors highlight a few medical, biological and psycological aspects of the use of nuclear weapons, drawing attention to their viewpoint that doctors should actively participate in the fight against nuclear armament. The short and long-term radiation effects on man and ecology are presented based on the Hiroshima and Nagasaki experiences. The danger of human error within this framework is emphasised and it is suggested that it is the medical profession's duty to point out how the effect of stress and boredom can lead to a nuclear catastrophe. Medical expertise may also help in the identification of unstable personalities among those who have access to nuclear weapons and in the understanding of the psycology of international conflicts and the psychopathology of those leaders who would use nuclear war as an instrument of national policy. Finally the effects of the nuclear war threat on children and teenagers are considered. (C.F.)

  19. Medical aspects of nuclear armament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janse, M.J.; Schene, A.; Koch, K.

    1983-06-18

    The authors highlight a few medical, biological and psycological aspects of the use of nuclear weapons, drawing attention to their viewpoint that doctors should actively participate in the fight against nuclear armament. The short and long-term radiation effects on man and ecology are presented based on the Hiroshima and Nagasaki experiences. The danger of human error within this framework is emphasised and it is suggested that it is the medical profession's duty to point out how the effect of stress and boredom can lead to a nuclear catastrophe. Medical expertise may also help in the identification of unstable personalities among those who have access to nuclear weapons and in the understanding of the psycology of international conflicts and the psychopathology of those leaders who would use nuclear war as an instrument of national policy. Finally the effects of the nuclear war threat on children and teenagers are considered.

  20. Nuclear applications for health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuaron, A.

    1995-01-01

    Just before the turn of the 20th century, the discoveries of X-rays, in 1895, and of radioactivity, in 1896, opened up whole new worlds of science. For the medical community, the world has been changing ever since, in some countries far more rapidly than in others. Over the past 100 years, the X-ray has become as familiar to most people as the dentist's chair. As we move into the next century, greater attention is being placed upon less known but more far-reaching radiation technologies and nuclear applications that today's physicians are able to use for earlier diagnosis and treatment of serious illness. This article, in question-and-answer format, explains the differences between the various types of nuclear applications for human health and looks at the evolution of the IAEA's related activities. (author)

  1. Radiotracers for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayudu, G.A.S.

    1983-01-01

    This book discusses the medical applications of radiotracers. Diagnostic uses and pharmacokinetics of isotopes and radiopharmaceuticals is emphasized. The volume one covers the following topics: Radiohalogenated compounds, including radioiodine; Tc-labeled compounds; and in-house prepared radiopharmaceuticals. The charge particle range vs. energy in every element is tabulated for protons for cyclotrons users. Discussions are also provided on nonimaging radiotracer methods; /sup 11/C, /sup 13/N, /sup 15/O, /sup 67/Ga. /sup 111/In, /sup 75/Se, /sup 123m/Te compounds; radioactive noble gases; and miscellaneous radiotracers for imaging. Vol. II: Pertinent nuclear science data such as radiation dosimetry, radionuclide production modes, radionuclides for therapy, human experimentation regulations and consent forms, and radiotracer laboratory designs are presented. 272 pp., 7 x 10, 1983, ISBN-0-8493-6016-1

  2. The text of the Agreement establishing the Asian Regional Co-operative Project on Medical and Biological Applications of Nuclear Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The full text of the Agreement establishing the Asian Regional Co-operative Project on Medical and Biological Applications of Nuclear Techniques between the Agency and Member States is reproduced. The Agreement entered into force on 20 May 1986 after the Governments of Japan, Bangladesh and the Philippines had notified the Agency of their acceptance of the Agreement

  3. Seminar Pediatrics. Medical and Technical Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montivero, M.; Nespral, D.O.; Alak, Maria del Carmen

    2012-01-01

    The Association of Biology and Nuclear Medicine has organized the 'Seminar Pediatrics - Medical and Technical Applications', held in Buenos Aires in May 2012, in order to collaborate with the scientific growth of nuclear medicine in pediatrics. The main topics covered were: management of pediatric patients and medical application in childhood, dosimetry in pediatric nuclear medicine, scope of radioisotope - studies in nephrourological pathologies, PET in pediatrics, among others.

  4. High social impact of medical applications in nuclear technology: gynecological brachitherapy remote control in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubizarreta, E.

    1996-01-01

    In the present article is studied many systems for uterine carcinoma therapy. Among modern therapy systems it was found Fletcher applicator compound with Cesium and Iridium sources. This new technology by remote control has improved radioprotection levels in the exposition workers and disappear radioactive sources mislead, increasing sources activities and decreasing the exposition time

  5. Global Security, Medical Isotopes, and Nuclear Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahle, Larry

    2007-10-01

    Over the past century basic nuclear science research has led to the use of radioactive isotopes into a wide variety of applications that touch our lives everyday. Some are obvious, such as isotopes for medical diagnostics and treatment. Others are less so, such as National/Global security issues. And some we take for granted, like the small amount of 241 Am that is in every smoke detector. At the beginning of this century, we are in a position where the prevalence and importance of some applications of nuclear science are pushing the basic nuclear science community for improved models and nuclear data. Yet, at the same time, the push by the basic nuclear science community to study nuclei that are farther and farther away from stability also offer new opportunities for many applications. This talk will look at several global security applications of nuclear science, summarizing current R&D and need for improved nuclear data It will also look at how applications of nuclear science, such as to medicine, will benefit from the push for more and more powerful radioactive ion beam facilities.

  6. Global Security, Medical Isotopes, and Nuclear Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahle, Larry

    2007-01-01

    Over the past century basic nuclear science research has led to the use of radioactive isotopes into a wide variety of applications that touch our lives everyday. Some are obvious, such as isotopes for medical diagnostics and treatment. Others are less so, such as National/Global security issues. And some we take for granted, like the small amount of 241 Am that is in every smoke detector. At the beginning of this century, we are in a position where the prevalence and importance of some applications of nuclear science are pushing the basic nuclear science community for improved models and nuclear data. Yet, at the same time, the push by the basic nuclear science community to study nuclei that are farther and farther away from stability also offer new opportunities for many applications. This talk will look at several global security applications of nuclear science, summarizing current R and D and need for improved nuclear data It will also look at how applications of nuclear science, such as to medicine, will benefit from the push for more and more powerful radioactive ion beam facilities

  7. Active contour segmentation in dynamic medical imaging: application to nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debreuve, Eric

    2000-01-01

    In emission imaging, nuclear medicine provides functional information about the organ of interest. In transmission imaging, it provides anatomical information whose goal may be the correction of physical phenomena that corrupt emission images. With both emission and transmission images, it is useful to know how to extract, either automatically or semi-automatically, the organs of interest and the body outline in the case of a large field of view. This is the aim of segmentation. We developed two active contour segmentation methods. They were implemented using level sets. The key point is the evolution velocity definition. First, we were interested in static transmission imaging of the thorax. The evolution velocity was heuristically defined and depended only on the acquired projections. The segmented transmission map was computed w/o reconstruction and could be advantageously used for attenuation correction. Then, we studied the segmentation of cardiac gated sequences. The developed space-time segmentation method results from the minimization of a variational criterion which takes into account the whole sequence. The computed segmentation could be used for calculating physiological parameters. As an illustration, we computed the ejection fraction. Finally, we exploited some level set properties to develop a non-rigid, non-parametric, and geometric registration method. We applied it for kinetic compensation of cardiac gated sequences. The registered images were then added together providing an image with noise characteristics similar to a cardiac static image but w/o motion-induced blurring. (author)

  8. Nuclear Technology applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cibils Machado, W. E- mail: wrcibils@adinet.com.uy

    2002-01-01

    The present work tries on the applications of the nuclear technology in the life daily, such as agriculture and feeding, human health, industry, non destructive essays, isotopic hydrology, and the nuclear power stations for electricity production and radioisotopes production

  9. Radiation protection in medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado M, H.

    2008-12-01

    The justification of the practices is the fundamental principle on which rests the peaceful use of ionizing radiations. They actually contain as aspirations to improve the quality of people's lives, contributing to sustainable development through environmental protection, so that the sources security and the individuals protection will be conditions which are not and should can not be operated. For medical applications is a highly illustrative example of this, since both for the diagnosis and therapy, the goal is to achieve what is sought for the white tissue, secured the least possible damage to the neighboring tissues so that in turn reduce the negative effects for the patient. As a basis for achieving the above, it is essential to have qualified personnel in all areas incidents, for example users, workers, officials and staff members. There are a variety of specialists in the field of medical applications as, nuclear chemistry, nuclear engineering, radiation protection, medical physics, radiation physics and others. Among the human resource in the country must make up the majority are medical radiologists, highlighting gaps in the number of radiotherapy and nuclear medicine but specially in the medical physics, who is in some way from a special viewpoint of the formal school, new to the country. This is true for the number of facilities which are in the country. The radiation protection responsibilities in medical applications focus primarily on two figures: the radiology safety manager, who is primarily dedicated to the protection of occupationally exposed personnel and the public, and the medical physicist whose functions are geared towards the radiological protection of the patient. The principal legislation in the medical applications area has been enacted and is monitored by the Health Secretary and National Commission on Nuclear Safety and Safeguards, entities that have reached agreements to avoid overlap and over-regulation. Medical applications in the

  10. Medical management of nuclear disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinugasa, Tatsuya

    1996-01-01

    This report briefly describes the measures to be taken other than ordinary duties when an accident happens in nuclear facilities such as atomic power plant, reprocessing plant, etc. Such nuclear disasters are assigned into four groups; (1) accidents in industrial levels, (2) accidents in which the workers are implicated, (3) accidents of which influence to environments should be taken into consideration and (4) accidents to which measures for inhabitants should be taken. Therefore, the measures to be taken at an emergency were also grouped in the following four; (1) treatments for the accident, itself, (2) measures to minimize the effects on the environment, (3) rescues of the victims and emergency cares for them and (4) measures and medical cares to protect the inhabitants from radiation exposure. Presently, medical professionals, especially doctors, nurses etc. are not accustomed to control nuclear contaminations. Therefore, it is needed for radiological professionals to actively provide appropriate advises about the control and measurement of contamination. (M.N.)

  11. Radiation hazards from medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beekman, Z.M.

    1981-01-01

    An introduction is presented on the radiation hazards connected with biomedical radiography and nuclear medicine. The frequency of radiodiagnostic efforts was rather high in the Netherlands. This was reduced considerably by abolishing the thorax screening of the population. About diagnostic nuclear medicine less can be said because far fewer numerical data are available. An exposition of genetically and somatically significant doses and how to compute them is given. The drawing up of a profit versus risk evaluation for medical applications of ionizing radiations is recommended. (Auth.)

  12. Nuclear applications in life sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uenak, P.

    2009-01-01

    Radioactivity has revolutionized life sciences during the last century, and it is still an indispensable tool. Nuclear Medicine, Radiation Biology and Radiotherapy, Dosimetry and Medical Radiation Physics, Nutrition and Environmental Problems Relevant Health are significant application fields of Nuclear Sciences. Nuclear medicine today is a well established branch of medicine. Radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals play a key role both in diagnostic investigations and therapy-Both cyclotron and reactor produced radionuclides find application, the former more in diagnostic studies and the latter in therapy. New therapy applications such as bor neutron therapy are increasing by time together with the technological improvements in imaging systems such as PET and SPECT. Radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals play important role in both therapy and imaging. However cyclotron produced radionuclides have been using generally in imaging purposes while reactor produced radionuclides have also therapeutic applications. With the advent of emission tomography, new vistas for probing biochemistry in vivo have been opened. The radio chemist faces an ever-increasing challenge of designing new tracers for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Rapid, efficient and automated methods of radionuclide and precursor production, labeling of biomolecules, and quality control need to be developed. The purpose of this article is a short interface from Nuclear Medicine, Radiation Biology and Radiotherapy, Dosimetry and Medical Radiation Physics Applications of Nuclear Sciences.

  13. Nuclear cratering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, M.M.

    1969-01-01

    The development of nuclear excavation technology is based on the promise that the relatively inexpensive energy available from thermonuclear explosives can be used to simultaneously break and move age quantities of rock and earth economically and safety. This paper discusses the economic and other advantages of using nuclear excavation for large engineering projects. A brief description of the phenomenology of nuclear excavation is given. Each of the several proposed general applications of nuclear excavation is discussed to include a few specific example of possible nuclear excavation projects. The discussion includes nuclear excavation for harbors, canals, terrain transits, aggregate production, mining and water resource development and conservation. (author)

  14. Nuclear cratering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, M M [U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Germantown, MD (United States)

    1969-07-01

    The development of nuclear excavation technology is based on the promise that the relatively inexpensive energy available from thermonuclear explosives can be used to simultaneously break and move age quantities of rock and earth economically and safety. This paper discusses the economic and other advantages of using nuclear excavation for large engineering projects. A brief description of the phenomenology of nuclear excavation is given. Each of the several proposed general applications of nuclear excavation is discussed to include a few specific example of possible nuclear excavation projects. The discussion includes nuclear excavation for harbors, canals, terrain transits, aggregate production, mining and water resource development and conservation. (author)

  15. Medical applications of accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Sandro

    1998-01-01

    At Present, about five thousands accelerators are devoted to biomedical applications. They are mainly used in radiotherapy, research and medical radioisotopes production. In this framework oncological hadron-therapy deserves particular attention since it represents a field in rapid evolution thanks to the joint efforts of laboratories with long experiences in particle physics. It is the case of CERN where the design of an optimised synchrotron for medical applications has been pursued. These lectures present these activities with particular attention to the new developments which are scientifically interesting and/or economically promising.

  16. Medical applications of colloids

    CERN Document Server

    Matijevic, Egon

    2008-01-01

    The first book of its type on the medical and biomedical applications of colloids, although there are some related titles on different topicsDiscusses the effects of uniform particles in drug formulations and releaseEvaluates particle transport and deposition in the human body.

  17. Microfluidics for medical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Albert; van den Berg, A.; Segerink, L.I.; Segerink, Loes Irene; Unknown, [Unknown

    2015-01-01

    Lab-on-a-chip devices for point of care diagnostics have been present in clinics for several years now. Alongside their continual development, research is underway to bring the organs and tissue on-a-chip to the patient, amongst other medical applications of microfluidics. This book provides the

  18. Medical applications of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1992-01-01

    Ever since the first diagnostic X-ray was done in the United States on February 3, 1896, the application of ionizing radiation to the field of medicine has become incrasingly important. Both in clinical medicine and basic research the use of X-rays for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy is now widespread. Radiography, angiography, CAT and PETT scanning, mammography, and nuclear medicine are all examples of technologies developed to image the human anatomy. In therapeutic applications, both external and internal sources of radiation are applied to the battle against cancer. The development of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has allowed exciting advances to take place in many of these applications. The new sources provide tunable, high-intensity monochromatic beams over a wide range of energies which can be tailored to specific programmatic needs. This paper surveys those areas of medical research in which synchrotron radiation facilities are actively involved. (orig.)

  19. Medical applications of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    Ever since the first diagnostic x-ray was done in the United States on February 3, 1896, the application of ionizing radiation to the field of medicine has become increasingly important. Both in clinical medicine and basic research the use of x-rays for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy is now widespread. Radiography, angiography, CAT and PETT scanning, mammography, and nuclear medicine are all examples of technologies developed to image the human anatomy. In therapeutic applications, both external and internal sources of radiation are applied to the battle against cancer. The development of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has allowed exciting advances to take place in many of these applications. The new sources provide tunable, high-intensity monochromatic beams over a wide range of energies which can be tailored to specific programmatic needs. This paper surveys those areas of medical research in which synchrotron radiation facilities are actively involved

  20. Converting energy to medical progress [nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    For over 50 years the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has been investing to advance environmental and biomedical knowledge connected to energy. The BER Medical Sciences program fosters research to develop beneficial applications of nuclear technologies for medical diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. Today, nuclear medicine helps millions of patients annually in the United States. Nearly every nuclear medicine scan or test used today was made possible by past BER-funded research on radiotracers, radiation detection devices, gamma cameras, PET and SPECT scanners, and computer science. The heart of biological research within BER has always been the pursuit of improved human health. The nuclear medicine of tomorrow will depend greatly on today's BER-supported research, particularly in the discovery of radiopharmaceuticals that seek specific molecular and genetic targets, the design of advanced scanners needed to create meaningful images with these future radiotracers, and the promise of new radiopharmaceutical treatments for cancers and genetic diseases.

  1. Converting energy to medical progress [nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    For over 50 years the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has been investing to advance environmental and biomedical knowledge connected to energy. The BER Medical Sciences program fosters research to develop beneficial applications of nuclear technologies for medical diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. Today, nuclear medicine helps millions of patients annually in the United States. Nearly every nuclear medicine scan or test used today was made possible by past BER-funded research on radiotracers, radiation detection devices, gamma cameras, PET and SPECT scanners, and computer science. The heart of biological research within BER has always been the pursuit of improved human health. The nuclear medicine of tomorrow will depend greatly on today's BER-supported research, particularly in the discovery of radiopharmaceuticals that seek specific molecular and genetic targets, the design of advanced scanners needed to create meaningful images with these future radiotracers, and the promise of new radiopharmaceutical treatments for cancers and genetic diseases

  2. Applications of Particle Accelerators in Medical Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Cuttone, G

    2008-01-01

    Particle accelerators are often associated to high energy or nuclear physics. As well pointed out in literature [1] if we kindly analyse the number of installation worldwide we can easily note that about 50% is mainly devoted to medical applications (radiotherapy, medical radioisotopes production, biomedical research). Particle accelerators are also playing an important indirect role considering the improvement of the technical features of medical diagnostic. In fact the use of radionuclide f...

  3. IAEA nuclear databases for applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwerer, Otto

    2003-01-01

    The Nuclear Data Section (NDS) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) provides nuclear data services to scientists on a worldwide scale with particular emphasis on developing countries. More than 100 data libraries are made available cost-free by Internet, CD-ROM and other media. These databases are used for practically all areas of nuclear applications as well as basic research. An overview is given of the most important nuclear reaction and nuclear structure databases, such as EXFOR, CINDA, ENDF, NSR, ENSDF, NUDAT, and of selected special purpose libraries such as FENDL, RIPL, RNAL, the IAEA Photonuclear Data Library, and the IAEA charged-particle cross section database for medical radioisotope production. The NDS also coordinates two international nuclear data centre networks and is involved in data development activities (to create new or improve existing data libraries when the available data are inadequate) and in technology transfer to developing countries, e.g. through the installation and support of the mirror web site of the IAEA Nuclear Data Services at IPEN (operational since March 2000) and by organizing nuclear-data related workshops. By encouraging their participation in IAEA Co-ordinated Research Projects and also by compiling their experimental results in databases such as EXFOR, the NDS helps to make developing countries' contributions to nuclear science visible and conveniently available. The web address of the IAEA Nuclear Data Services is http://www.nds.iaea.org and the NDS mirror service at IPEN (Brasil) can be accessed at http://www.nds.ipen.br/ (author)

  4. Nuclear astrophysics: An application of nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueloep, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear astrophysics, a fruitful combination of nuclear physics and astrophysics can be viewed as a special application of nuclear physics where the study of nuclei and their reactions are motivated by astrophysical problems. Nuclear astrophysics is also a good example for the state of the art interdisciplinary research. The origin of elements studied by geologists is explored by astrophysicists using nuclear reaction rates provided by the nuclear physics community. Due to the high interest in the field two recent Nuclear Physics Divisional Conferences of the European Physical Society were devoted to nuclear astrophysics and a new conference series entitled 'Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics' has been established. Selected problems of nuclear astrophysics will be presented emphasizing the interplay between nuclear physics and astrophysics. As an example the role of 14 N(p,r) 15 O reaction rate in the determination of the age of globular clusters will be discussed in details

  5. Applications of computational intelligence in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayalal, M.L.; Jehadeesan, R.

    2016-01-01

    Computational intelligence techniques have been successfully employed in a wide range of applications which include the domains of medical, bioinformatics, electronics, communications and business. There has been progress in applying of computational intelligence in the nuclear reactor domain during the last two decades. The stringent nuclear safety regulations pertaining to reactor environment present challenges in the application of computational intelligence in various nuclear sub-systems. The applications of various methods of computational intelligence in the domain of nuclear reactors are discussed in this paper. (author)

  6. Medical assistance in case of nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodig, D.; Tezak, S.; Kasal, B.; Huic, D.; Medvedec, M.; Loncaric, S.; Grosev, D.; Rozman, B.; Popovic, S.

    1996-01-01

    Medical service is a prerequisite for work license of nuclear installation. Every nuclear installation incorporate in their safety procedure also medical emergency plan. Usually the medical emergency plan consists of several degrees of action: 1. First aid, 2. First medical treatment, 3. Treatment in regional hospital, 4. Treatment in special institution (centre for radiation medicine). This paper discusses organization and activities of Centre for Radiation Medicine and Protection - Clinical Hospital Centre Zagreb

  7. Applications of Particle Accelerators in Medical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cuttone, G

    2008-01-01

    Particle accelerators are often associated to high energy or nuclear physics. As well pointed out in literature [1] if we kindly analyse the number of installation worldwide we can easily note that about 50% is mainly devoted to medical applications (radiotherapy, medical radioisotopes production, biomedical research). Particle accelerators are also playing an important indirect role considering the improvement of the technical features of medical diagnostic. In fact the use of radionuclide for advanced medical imaging is strongly increasing either in conventional radiography (CT and MRI) and also in nuclear medicine for Spect an PET imaging. In this paper role of particle accelerators for medical applications will be presented together with the main solutions applied.

  8. The medical consequences of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphrey, J.; Hartog, M.; Middleton, H.

    1982-01-01

    A pamphlet has been produced by the Medical Campaign Against Nuclear Weapons (MCANW) and by the Medical Association for the Prevention of War (MAPW) to bring the catastrophic effects that the use of nuclear weapons would entail to the attention of the general public, politicians and members of the medical profession. It describes the medical consequences of the effects of blast, heat and ionizing radiation from nuclear weapons, including details from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings. The medical consequences of a nuclear attack including consideration of the casualties, care of the injured, psychological effects and the outcome are also discussed. It is concluded that if for none other than purely medical reasons, nuclear warfare must never be allowed to happen. (UK)

  9. Medical, energetic, environmental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) project at ENEA is mainly based on the TAPIRO experimental nuclear reactor and (more recently) also on the TRIGA reactor, both located at ENEA Casaccia. TAPIRO has two facilities: an epithermal column (EPIMED) constructed for research on deep tumours, such as glioblastoma, and a thermal column (HYTHOR) mainly used in collaboration with the Legnaro National Laboratory (LNL) of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) and with the University of Padua for in vivo radiobiological studies and neutron microdosimetry. The feasibility of using the thermal column of the TRIGA reactor to treat explanted livers with BNCT is being studied. The collaboration with INFN Pavia and the University of Pavia on applying BNCT to lung tumours continued. In 2007 the final agreement from the Italian Agency for Environmental Protection and Technical Services (APAT) was obtained and the reactor operating conditions with the EPIMED facility were established. As described in the 2006 Progress Report, the epithermal neutron beam (neutron energy between 1 eV and 10 keV) entering the reactor hall has been shielded by a bunker of limited volume, appropriate for beam characterisation with the reactor operating at a maximum 10% of nominal power (5 kW). The use of nuclear power in space is technically feasible but, due to the remote risk of an accident at launch or in the event of an uncontrolled re-entry, it still remains politically unacceptable. Nevertheless, small and safe nuclear reactors could generate 30-60 kW of electrical power for a period of 10-15 years even in the case of a deep space mission, where conventional energy conversion devices are useless or inefficient. Furthermore, the standard space systems for electrical power generation (photoelectric conversion and radioactive thermal generator) are unable to sustain similar performances even in orbital conditions. A carefully designed nuclear reactor for space application could also be

  10. Medical consequences of a nuclear plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, S.E.; Reizenstein, P.; Stenke, L.

    1987-01-01

    The report gives background information concerning radiation and the biological medical effects and damages caused by radiation. The report also discusses nuclear power plant accidents and efforts from the medical service in the case of a nuclear power plant accident. (L.F.)

  11. 78 FR 29390 - Applications; SHINE Medical Technologies, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Proj-0792; NRC-2013-0053] Applications; SHINE Medical Technologies... (ADAMS) Accession No. ML13088A192), SHINE Medical Technologies (SHINE) filed with the U.S. Nuclear... for a medical radioisotope production facility in Janesville, Wisconsin. An exemption from certain...

  12. Radiation protection in medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacc, R.A.; Rubiolo, J.; Herrero, F.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The goal of this paper is to identify the areas in which radiation protection is actually needed and the relative importance of protection measures. A correlation between the different medical applications of the ionizing radiations and the associated risks, mainly due to ignorance, has been a constant throughout the history of mankind. At the beginning, the accidents were originated in research nuclear laboratories working on the atomic bomb, while the incidents occurred in medical areas because of virtual ignorance of the harmful effects on humans. The 60's were characterized by the oil fever, which produced innumerable accidents due to the practice of industrial radiography; in the 70's the use of radiations on medical applications was intensified, to such and extent that a new type of victim appeared: the patient. Unfortunately, during 80's and 90's the number of accidents in different medical practices has increased, projecting the occurred in Zaragoza (Spain) on 1990 with a linear accelerator for radiotherapy treatments. In some developed countries, foreseeing the probability of producing biological effects as a result of different radiology practices, more strict security rules are adopted to guarantee the application of the three principles of the radioprotection: justification, optimization and limitation of individual dose. In this way, in the U.S.A., the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organization (JCAHO), favors a vigilance politics in the different departments of Radiodiagnostic and Nuclear Medicine to secure an effective management in security, communications and quality control, in which the medical physicists play an important role. One of the requirements for example is to attach the value of entrance exposition dose in the radiological diagnostic report. So, the doses in the different organs are compared with the tabulated doses. Basically, a quality control programme is designed to minimize the risks for patients

  13. Nuclear applications for development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Building capacity for the safe application of nuclear technologies produces tangible socioeconomic benefits to developing countries. Identifying killer infections such as extrapulmonary tuberculosis and drug resistant strains of HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa; Monitoring malaria drug resistance in Myanmar; - Teaching Jordanian farmers how to produce viable crops on salty soils; - Investigating water resources deep beneath the Nubian Desert; - Fighting acid rain in Poland; - Creating an energy strategy for Latin America; - Strengthening the security of nuclear sources in Kazakhstan. These are just some of examples of the practical ways in which the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) fulfils its mandate to 'accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health, and prosperity throughout the world'. And some of the reasons the IAEA's long history of global action was recognized through the Nobel Peace Prize in 2005. This list of activities reflects the diverse needs of Member States. It also demonstrates the enormous potential of nuclear technology and the breadth of expertise that lie within three IAEA technical programmes: Nuclear Sciences and Applications, Nuclear Energy, and Nuclear Safety and Security. More importantly, it speaks to the success of a determined effort to facilitate knowledge sharing and technology transfer through a cross-cutting mechanism known as the technical cooperation programme. Each year, the technical cooperation programme disburses approximately US $90 million, all of which is acquired through voluntary contributions from Member States. The programme concentrates on building capacity through training and education, expert advice, and equipment delivery. It is currently active in more than 110 countries across four geographic regions: Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Europe and Latin America

  14. The applications of nanomaterials in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinjian; Liu Jianfeng

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, nanotechnology and nanomaterials have gained rapid development in medical application, especially in targeted drug delivery and gene transfer vector domain, and nano-materials are also beginning to applied in nuclear medicine. This paper is to make a view of the application research of several types of nanomaterials in nuclear medicine, and discuss some problems and the main direction of future development. (authors)

  15. Economical scale of nuclear energy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The nuclear energy industry is supported by two wheels of radiation and energy applications. When comparing both, they have some different sides, such as numbers of employees and researchers, numbers and scales of works, effect on society, affecting effects and regions of industrial actions, problems on safety, viewpoint on nuclear proliferation protection and safety guarantee, energy security, relationship to environmental problem, efforts on wastes disposal, and so on. Here described on economical scale of radiation application in fields of industry, agriculture, and medicine and medical treatment, and on economical scale of energy application in nuclear power generation and its instruments and apparatus. (G.K.)

  16. Building a medical system for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Mitsuya

    2016-01-01

    To build a medical system for nuclear facilities, I explained what kinds of actions were performed with the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident and what kinds of actions are going to be performed in the future. We examined the health and medical care of the emergency workers in nuclear facilities including TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant from 2014 to 2015 in the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW). We carried out a detailed hearing from stakeholders of electric companies and medical institutions about the medical system in nuclear facilities carrying out urgent activities. It has been said that the electric company is responsible to maintain the medical system for affected workers in nuclear facilities. However, TEPCO could not find the medical staff, such as doctors, by their own effort at the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident. The network of doctors familiar with emergency medical care support dispatched the medical staff after July of 2011. The stakeholders indicated that the following six tasks must be resolved: (1) the fact that no electric company performs the action of bringing up medical staff who can be dispatched into nuclear facilities in emergencies in 2015; (2) bringing up personnel in charge of radiation management and logistics other than the medical staff, such as doctors; (3) cooperation with the community medicine system given the light and shade by nuclear facilities; (4) performing training for the many concurrent wounded based on the scenario of a severe accident; (5) indicating both the condition of the contract and the guarantee of status that is appropriate for dispatched medical staffs; and (6) clarifying the organization of the network of stakeholders. The stakeholders showed the future directionality as follows: (1) To recruit the medical staff expected to be dispatched into nuclear facilities, (2) to carry out the discussion and conveyance training to strengthen cooperation with

  17. Teaching of nuclear medicine at medical faculties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dienstbier, Z.

    1987-01-01

    The teaching of nuclear medicine at medical faculties in the CSSR is analyzed. It is shown that the teaching conditions are different at the individual faculties of medicine and the respective conditions are exemplified. (author). 4 tabs

  18. Nuclear medical examinations in Marfan's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'haene, E.G.M.

    1985-01-01

    Four patients of one family with the Marfan's syndrome have been examined with nuclear medical techniques. A combination of isotopes, angiography and ECG triggered bloodpoolscintigraphy with echocardiography are very suitable to examine the course of the disease. (Auth.)

  19. Japan's contribution to nuclear medical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.; Sakamoto, Junichi; Fukui, Tsuguya

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the degree of Japan's contribution to the nuclear medical research in the last decade. Articles published in 1991-2000 in highly reputed nuclear medical journals were accessed through the MEDLINE database. The number of articles having affiliation with a Japanese institution was counted along with publication year. In addition, shares of top-ranking countries were determined along with their trends over time. Of the total number of articles (7,788), Japan's share of articles in selected nuclear medical journals was 11.4% (889 articles) and ranked 2nd in the world after the USA (2,645 articles). The recent increase in the share was statistically significant for Japan (p=0.02, test for trend). Japan's share in nuclear medical research output is much higher than that in other biomedical fields. (author)

  20. Necessity of long term nuclear data development for various applications needing nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukahori, Tokio

    2001-01-01

    Necessity of long term nuclear data development for accelerator-driven system target design, high-energy radiation shielding, medical application, space and astrophysical applications, etc. is described in this paper. For each application field needing nuclear data, considered were importance of nuclear data in determining the success or failure of the application, important gaps remaining in the nuclear data and feasibility of filling the gaps with a modest research effort. It can be concluded much more international discussions are required. (author)

  1. Fields of nuclear power application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laue, H.J.

    1975-01-01

    The paper deals with nuclear power application in fields different from electricity generation, i.e. district heating, sea water desalination, coal gasification and nuclear splitting of water. (RW) [de

  2. Prospects for the applications of computer in the field of domestic nuclear medicinal instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Changhe

    1993-01-01

    The current situation and prospects about domestic nuclear medical instrument, as well as the comparisons of computer application in nuclear medical instruments with in other medical instruments from various points of view have all been described in the paper

  3. DosedPet application for Nuclear Medicine: Calculation of the volume of medication needed for PET/CT patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Pedro Augusto do; Rodrigues, Araken dos S. Werneck

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the application (APP) DosePet that calculates the amount of medicament for PET / CT in patients according to the predetermined radiation dose. The software has been designed using the web MIT App Inventor2 tool for Android platform. The application allows the workers to simulate the amount of radiation still existing in the facilities after the applications, increasing security and reducing exposures, and enable greater efficiency in the use of the radiopharmaceutical. (author)

  4. Medical Imaging Informatics in Nuclear Medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooijen, Peter; Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.; Medema, Jitze; van Zanten, Annie K.; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Ahaus, C.T.B. (Kees)

    2016-01-01

    Medical imaging informatics is gaining importance in medicine both in clinical practice and in scientific research. Besides radiology, nuclear medicine is also a major stakeholder in medical imaging informatics because of the variety of available imaging modalities and the imaging-oriented operation

  5. Peaceful applications of nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, L.B.

    1975-12-01

    The intension of this report is to give a survey of the field of peaceful applications of nuclear explosions. As an introduction some examples of possibilities of application are given together with a simple description of nuclear explosions under ground. After a summary of what has been done and will be done in this field nationally and internationally, a short discussion of advantages and problems with peaceful application of nuclear explosions follows. The risks of spreading nuclear weapons due to this applications are also touched before the report is finished with an attempt to judge the future development in this field. (M.S.)

  6. Medical application of EPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichhoff, Uwe; Hoefer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Selected applications of continuous-wave EPR in medicine are reviewed. This includes detection of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, pH measurements and oxymetry. Applications of EPR imaging are demonstrated on selected examples and future developments to faster imaging methods are discussed

  7. Pseudo-color processing in nuclear medical image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiqian; Jin Yongjie

    1992-01-01

    The application of pseudo-color technology in nuclear medical image processing is discussed. It includes selection of the number of pseudo-colors, method of realizing pseudo-color transformation, function of pseudo-color transformation and operation on the function

  8. Nuclear medicine. Medical technology research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, H.; Jigalin, A.

    2005-01-01

    Aim, method: the scientific publications in the 2003 and 2004 issues of the journal Nuklearmedizin were analyzed retrospectively with regard to the proportion of medical technology research. Results: out of a total of 73 articles examined, 9 (12%) were classified as medical technology research, that is, 8/15 of the original papers (16%) and one of the case reports (5%). Of these 9 articles, 44% (4/9) focused on the combination of molecular and morphological imaging with direct technical appliance or information technology solutions. Conclusion: medical technology research is limited in the journal's catchment area. The reason for this is related to the interdependency between divergent development dynamics in the medical technology industry's locations, the many years that the area of scintigraphic technology has been underrepresented, research policy particularly in discrepancies in the promotion of molecular imaging and a policy in which health is not perceived as a predominantly good and positive economic factor, but more as a curb to economic development. (orig.)

  9. Accelerator development for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Eiji

    2007-01-01

    Electron linear accelerators have been widely used in medical applications, especially in radiation therapy for cancer treatment. There are more than 7,000 medical electron linear accelerators in the world, treating over 250,000 patients per day. This paper reviews the current status of accelerator applications and technologies in radiation therapy, and presents the anticipated requirements for advanced radiation therapy technology in the foreseeable future. (author)

  10. Clinical application of nuclear medical diagnostic method for adaptation deciion of treatment for circulatory disease and evaluation of its efficacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Yoshio; Hayashida, Kohei; Fukuchi, Kazuki [National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    In this study, the conditions of patients to which cerebral revascularization through anastomosis of internal and external carotid arteries is applicable were investigated. In the first part, classification of the degree of cerebrovascular disease was attempted using positron emission tomography (PET) and in the second, cerebral blood circulation was evaluated using cerebral SPECT to consider in respect of advisability of the revascularization surgery. Since cerebral ischemia tends to be induced by enhancement of cerebral oxygen uptake, cerebral revascularization was thought to be restricted to the patients with cerebrovascular disease in stage 2. So, cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume and cerebral oxygen metabolism were compared among the patients in stage 1 and stage 2, and the normal control. The blood flow was decreased with the severity of disease and lowest in the patients of stage 2. There were significant differences in the oxygen metabolism and blood volume between the patient stage 1 and the control. The cerebral blood flow in patient in stage 2 was decreased to a level below the self-control range, leading to an increase in the cerebral oxygen uptake. Therefore, it was concluded that the severity of cerebrovascular disease could be estimated with cerebrocirculation index and vasodilation ability determined by cerebral SPECT. Patients of which cerebral blood flow is decreased by more than 28.0% can be regarded as the patient in stage 2. When cerebral blood volume determined by IMP-ARG method and PET method and was compared, underestimation was 34.5% for plane phantom and 11% for cranial pseudo phantom. Further classification would be made on the basis of vascular response under the conditions of Diamox loading and it was concluded that cases of which decrease in cerebral blood flow is 10% or less were applicable to cerebral revascularization. (M.N.)

  11. Advanced Accelerators for Medical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesaka, Mitsuru; Koyama, Kazuyoshi

    We review advanced accelerators for medical applications with respect to the following key technologies: (i) higher RF electron linear accelerator (hereafter “linac”); (ii) optimization of alignment for the proton linac, cyclotron and synchrotron; (iii) superconducting magnet; (iv) laser technology. Advanced accelerators for medical applications are categorized into two groups. The first group consists of compact medical linacs with high RF, cyclotrons and synchrotrons downsized by optimization of alignment and superconducting magnets. The second group comprises laser-based acceleration systems aimed of medical applications in the future. Laser plasma electron/ion accelerating systems for cancer therapy and laser dielectric accelerating systems for radiation biology are mentioned. Since the second group has important potential for a compact system, the current status of the established energy and intensity and of the required stability are given.

  12. Medical rescue for nuclear or radiologic emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaohua; Nie Suifeng

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear or radiologic emergencies are defined as incidents that are caused by radioactive substance or by other sources of radiation and can pose a serious hazard to public health. In case of nuclear or radiologic emergencies, radioactive rays will damage the human body and bring about psychological and mental stress, resulting in a series of social psychological effects. The key to medical rescue for nuclear or radiologic emergencies is to take effective measures which can minimize the body harm resulting from nuclear or radiologic emergencies and maintain social stability. This article reviews the personnel protection, on-the-spot salvage, treatments of various harm, and prevention of public psychological effect following nuclear or radiologic emergencies. (authors)

  13. Nuclear and Radiochemistry Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lieser, Karl Heinrich

    2001-01-01

    This handbook gives a complete and concise description of the up-to-date knowledge of nuclear and radiochemsitry and applications in the various fields of science. I is based on teaching courses and on research for over 40 years. The book is addressed to any researcher whishing sound knowledge about the properties of matter, be it a chemist, a physicist, a medical doctor, a mineralogist or a biologist. They will all find it a valuable source of information about the principles and applications of nuclear and radiochemistry. Research in radiochemistry includes: Study of radioactice matter in na

  14. Nuclear physics principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lilley, J S

    2001-01-01

    This title provides the latest information on nuclear physics. Based on a course entitled Applications of Nuclear Physics. Written from an experimental point of view this text is broadly divided into two parts, firstly a general introduction to Nuclear Physics and secondly its applications.* Includes chapters on practical examples and problems* Contains hints to solving problems which are included in the appendix* Avoids complex and extensive mathematical treatments* A modern approach to nuclear physics, covering the basic theory, but emphasising the many and important applicat

  15. Instrumentation for Nuclear Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop and coordinate nuclear instrumentation standards with resulting economies for the nuclear and radiation fields. There was particular emphasis on coordination and management of the Nuclear Instrument Module (NIM) System, U.S. activity involving the CAMAC international standard dataway system, the FASTBUS modular high-speed data acquisition and control system and processing and management of national nuclear instrumentation and detector standards, as well as a modest amount of assistance and consultation services to the Pollutant Characterization and Safety Research Division of the Office of Health and Environmental Research. The principal accomplishments were the development and maintenance of the NIM instrumentation system that is the predominant instrumentation system in the nuclear and radiation fields worldwide, the CAMAC digital interface system in coordination with the ESONE Committee of European Laboratories, the FASTBUS high-speed system and numerous national and international nuclear instrumentation standards

  16. Nuclear physics and medical work in Burma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-02-15

    Useful information connected with environmental radioactivity has already been obtained by the Rangoon Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Burma, the setting up of which was helped by the Agency's Technical Assistance Programme. Other assistance has helped the Rangoon General Hospital to install a scanning unit with which medical diagnosis and treatment can be aided

  17. Medical application of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, S. M.; Kim, E. H.

    2000-05-01

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. Clinical research for radionuclide therapy 2. Development of in vitro assay method with radioisotope 3. Development of binary therapy; Boron neutron capture therapy and photodynamic therapy 4. Development of diagnostic methods in radionuclide imaging. The results can be applied for the following objectives: 1) Radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial 2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research 3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology 4) The result of the project will be expected to develop the new radioimmunoassay for drug monitoring following the clinical experiments 5) Boron porphyrin has been successfully labeled with iodine. This enables the pharmacodynamic study of the boron compound in human body 6) A method to evaluate the biological effect of neutrons on tumor cells has been developed 7) The establishment of macro- and microscopic dose assessment using alpha-track autoradiography 8) Clinical application of PDT in bladder cancers, oropharyngeal cancer and skin cancer 9) Radionuclide imaging of estrogen receptor in breast cancer, lipid metabolism, gene therapy, cancers, brain function and heart disease

  18. Medical application of radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, S M; Kim, E H [and others

    2000-05-01

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. Clinical research for radionuclide therapy 2. Development of in vitro assay method with radioisotope 3. Development of binary therapy; Boron neutron capture therapy and photodynamic therapy 4. Development of diagnostic methods in radionuclide imaging. The results can be applied for the following objectives: (1) Radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial (2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research (3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology (4) The result of the project will be expected to develop the new radioimmunoassay for drug monitoring following the clinical experiments (5) Boron porphyrin has been successfully labeled with iodine. This enables the pharmacodynamic study of the boron compound in human body (6) A method to evaluate the biological effect of neutrons on tumor cells has been developed (7) The establishment of macro- and microscopic dose assessment using alpha-track autoradiography (8) Clinical application of PDT in bladder cancers, oropharyngeal cancer and skin cancer (9) Radionuclide imaging of estrogen receptor in breast cancer, lipid metabolism, gene therapy, cancers, brain function and heart disease.

  19. Medical applications of nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmunt; Waracki, Mateusz; Bugaj, Bartosz; Pypno, Damian; Cabała, Krzysztof

    2015-10-29

    Nanotechnologies are new areas of research focusing on affecting matter at the atomic and molecular levels. It is beyond doubt that modern medicine can benefit greatly from it; thus nanomedicine has become one of the main branches of nanotechnological research. Currently it focuses on developing new methods of preventing, diagnosing and treating various diseases. Nanomaterials show very high efficiency in destroying cancer cells and are already undergoing clinical trials. The results are so promising that nanomaterials might become an alternative to traditional cancer therapy, mostly due to the fact that they allow cancer cells to be targeted specifically and enable detailed imaging of tissues, making planning further therapy much easier. Nanoscience might also be a source of the needed breakthrough in the fight against atherosclerosis, since nanostructures may be used in both preventing and increasing the stability of atherosclerotic lesions. One area of interest is creating nanomaterials that are not only efficient, but also well tolerated by the human body. Other potential applications of nanotechnology in medicine include: nanoadjuvants with immunomodulatory properties used to deliver vaccine antigens; the nano-knife, an almost non-invasive method of destroying cancer cells with high voltage electricity; and carbon nanotubes, which are already a popular way of repairing damaged tissues and might be used to regenerate nerves in the future. The aim of this article is to outline the potential uses of nanotechnology in medicine. Original articles and reviews have been used to present the new developments and directions of studies.

  20. Medical applications of nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygmunt Zdrojewicz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnologies are new areas of research focusing on affecting matter at the atomic and molecular levels. It is beyond doubt that modern medicine can benefit greatly from it; thus nanomedicine has become one of the main branches of nanotechnological research. Currently it focuses on developing new methods of preventing, diagnosing and treating various diseases. Nanomaterials show very high efficiency in destroying cancer cells and are already undergoing clinical trials. The results are so promising that nanomaterials might become an alternative to traditional cancer therapy, mostly due to the fact that they allow cancer cells to be targeted specifically and enable detailed imaging of tissues, making planning further therapy much easier. Nanoscience might also be a source of the needed breakthrough in the fight against atherosclerosis, since nanostructures may be used in both preventing and increasing the stability of atherosclerotic lesions. One area of interest is creating nanomaterials that are not only efficient, but also well tolerated by the human body. Other potential applications of nanotechnology in medicine include: nanoadjuvants with immunomodulatory properties used to deliver vaccine antigens; the nano-knife, an almost non-invasive method of destroying cancer cells with high voltage electricity; and carbon nanotubes, which are already a popular way of repairing damaged tissues and might be used to regenerate nerves in the future.The aim of this article is to outline the potential uses of nanotechnology in medicine. Original articles and reviews have been used to present the new developments and directions of studies.

  1. Myocardium scintiscanning with thallium-201 in case of idiopathic juvenile arteriosclerosis (description of a case and information on further applications of nuclear-medical diagnostic techniques in pediatric cardiology)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoer, G.; Maul, F.D.; Munz, D.L.; Vettermann, H.

    1985-01-01

    In the field of pediatrics and the related literature, the analysis of myocardial perfusion and ventricular function using myocardium scintiscanning and radionuclide ventriculography is a subject discussed rather rarely, in contrast to the medical examination of adult patients where this is a well-established method. The authors have so far not found any information on the use of scintiscanning methods for the diagnosis of idiopathic juvenile arteriosclerosis and hence take the opportunity to describe a case of recent application of this method. In addition, findings and results are discussed that speak in favour of the use of further nuclear-medical techniques in pediatric cardiology. (orig./MG) [de

  2. Medical isotope applications in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1962-10-15

    About $ 12 000 worth of equipment and the services of an expert in the medical applications of radioisotopes were provided by IAEA to the Government of Iceland. The expert was primarily concerned with the establishment of a medical radioisotope laboratory at the State Hospital, Reykjavik. His specific tasks included the setting up of the equipment furnished by IAEA for radioactive measurements in medical work, the establishment of techniques for the routine uses of radioisotopes in medicine, and the training of personnel. The apparatus installed includes a well-type scintillation counter for small samples, a directional scintillation counter, and Geiger counters of different types. The laboratory is thus well equipped for nearly all the conventional applications of radioisotopes in medicine, except those involving very soft beta-ray emitting isotopes

  3. CERN's role in medical applications

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    Last week, CERN hosted the first meeting of the International Strategy Committee for medical applications. This Committee will help CERN establish its roadmap in the field of research and development activities for medical applications. Here the CERN Bulletin speaks with the Chair of the Committee as he shares his expectations and his vision.   Dr Michael Baumann is the Director of the Radiation Oncology department at the Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital in Dresden and of the Institute for Radiooncology of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany). He has recently been appointed Chair of CERN’s International Strategy Committee for medical applications – the team of experts who will advise the CERN Medical Applications Study Group led by Steve Myers. “CERN has a tremendous record in physics and basic research,” says Baumann. “I think that it has a very important role in steering some of the R&D that cannot be done at universities ...

  4. Nuclear and radiochemistry fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lieser, Karl Heinrich

    2001-01-01

    his new edition of the best-selling handbook gives a complete and concise description of the latest knowledge on nuclear and radiochemistry as well as their applications in the various fields of science. It is based on over 40 years experience in teaching courses and research.The book is aimed at all researchers seeking sound knowledge about the properties of matter, whether chemists, physicists, medical doctors, mineralogists or biologists. All of them will find this a valuable source of information

  5. Medical Radioisotopes Production Without A Nuclear Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Keur, H.

    2010-05-15

    This report is answering the key question: Is it possible to ban the use of research reactors for the production of medical radioisotopes? Chapter 2 offers a summarized overview on the history of nuclear medicine. Chapter 3 gives an overview of the basic principles and understandings of nuclear medicine. The production of radioisotopes and its use in radiopharmaceuticals as a tracer for imaging particular parts of the inside of the human body (diagnosis) or as an agent in radiotherapy. Chapter 4 lists the use of popular medical radioisotopes used in nuclear imaging techniques and radiotherapy. Chapter 5 analyses reactor-based radioisotopes that can be produced by particle accelerators on commercial scale, other alternatives and the advantages of the cyclotron. Chapter 6 gives an overview of recent developments and prospects in worldwide radioisotopes production. Chapter 7 presents discussion, conclusions and recommendations, and is answering the abovementioned key question of this report: Is it possible to ban the use of a nuclear reactor for the production of radiopharmaceuticals? Is a safe and secure production of radioisotopes possible?.

  6. Industrial applications of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Celso

    2010-01-01

    Industrial applications of nuclear technology have been very diverse worldwide. This type of technology has begun to introduce in Costa Rica to evaluate and improve different industrial processes. These applications have been classified into two or three categories, according to the criteria used. Nucleonic control systems, the gamma logging and radiotracers are determined. (author) [es

  7. Non power applications of nuclear technology: The case of Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaumotte, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    The historical review and oversight of Belgium activities in applications of nuclear technologies has been presented. Especially attention have been paid on industrial applications as sterilization of surgical tools, medical supplies, drugs, food; radiation induced polymerization and composite materials production; nondestructive testing and application of sealed sources in industry. The detailed review has been done on nuclear medicine development in Belgium covering the range of therapeutic applications as well as diagnostic techniques

  8. Clinical Training of Medical Physicists Specializing in Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The application of radiation in human health, for both diagnosis and treatment of disease, is an important component of the work of the IAEA. The responsibility for the increasingly technical aspects of this work is undertaken by the medical physicist. To ensure good practice in this vital area, structured clinical training programmes are required to complement academic learning. This publication is intended to be a guide to the practical implementation of such a programme for nuclear medicine. There is a general and growing awareness that radiation medicine is increasingly dependent on well trained medical physicists who are based in a clinical setting. However an analysis of the availability of medical physicists indicates a large shortfall of qualified and capable professionals. This is particularly evident in developing countries. While strategies to increase educational opportunities are critical to such countries, the need for guidance on structured clinical training was recognized by the members of the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA) for the Asia-Pacific region. Consequently, a technical cooperation regional project (RAS6038) under the RCA programme was formulated to address this need in this region by developing suitable material and establishing its viability. Development of a clinical training guide for medical physicists specialising in nuclear medicine was started in 2009 with the appointment of a core drafting committee of regional and international experts. The publication drew on the experience of clinical training in Australia, Croatia and Sweden and was moderated by physicists working in the Asian region. The present publication follows the approach of earlier IAEA publications in the Training Course Series, specifically Nos 37 and 47, Clinical Training of Medical Physicists Specializing in Radiation Oncology and Clinical Training of Medical Physicists

  9. Proceedings of the Eighth Conference of Nuclear Sciences and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-02-01

    The publication has been set up as a textbook for researching dealing with radioisotope production during work with Human needs of Nuclear Science and applications. The book consists of the following chapters: chemistry; radioisotope production, trace analysis; environment monitoring; environmental effect; waste management; physics; reactors; nuclear safety and safeguards; materials; radiation protection ; agriculture; hydrology; nuclear medicine; medical applications; radiation chemistry; environmental studies; biological effects of ionizing radiation on agriculture;

  10. [Medical and biological consequences of nuclear disasters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalpers, Lukas J A; van Dullemen, Simon; Franken, N A P Klaas

    2012-01-01

    Medical risks of radiation exaggerated; psychological risks underestimated. The discussion about atomic energy has become topical again following the nuclear accident in Fukushima. There is some argument about the gravity of medical and biological consequences of prolonged exposure to radiation. The risk of cancer following a low dose of radiation is usually estimated by linear extrapolation of the incidence of cancer among survivors of the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. The radiobiological linear-quadratic model (LQ-model) gives a more accurate description of observed data, is radiobiologically more plausible and is better supported by experimental and clinical data. On the basis of this model there is less risk of cancer being induced following radiation exposure. The gravest consequence of Chernobyl and Fukushima is not the medical and biological damage, but the psychological and economical impact on rescue workers and former inhabitants.

  11. Industrial Applications of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This publication provides a detailed overview of the potential use of nuclear energy for industrial systems and/or processes which have a strong demand for process heat/steam and power, and on the mapping of nuclear power reactors proposed for various industrial applications. It describes the technical concepts for combined nuclear-industrial complexes that are being pursued in various Member States, and presents the concepts that were developed in the past to be applied in connection with some major industries. It also provides an analysis of the energy demand in various industries and outlines the potential that nuclear energy may have in major industrial applications such as process steam for oil recovery and refineries, hydrogen generation, and steel and aluminium production. The audience for this publication includes academia, industry, and government agencies.

  12. Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) for medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayotov, Ivan Vladislavov; Orti, Valérie; Cuisinier, Frédéric; Yachouh, Jacques

    2016-07-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is a polyaromatic semi-crystalline thermoplastic polymer with mechanical properties favorable for bio-medical applications. Polyetheretherketone forms: PEEK-LT1, PEEK-LT2, and PEEK-LT3 have already been applied in different surgical fields: spine surgery, orthopedic surgery, maxillo-facial surgery etc. Synthesis of PEEK composites broadens the physicochemical and mechanical properties of PEEK materials. To improve their osteoinductive and antimicrobial capabilities, different types of functionalization of PEEK surfaces and changes in PEEK structure were proposed. PEEK based materials are becoming an important group of biomaterials used for bone and cartilage replacement as well as in a large number of diverse medical fields. The current paper describes the structural changes and the surface functionalization of PEEK materials and their most common biomedical applications. The possibility to use these materials in 3D printing process could increase the scientific interest and their future development as well.

  13. Applications of nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medveczky, L.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a scientific research-work are summarized. Nuclear track detectors were used for new applications or in unusual ways. Photographic films, nuclear emulsions and dielectric track detectors were investigated. The tracks were detected by optical microscopy. Empirical formulation has been derived for the neutron sensitivity of certain dielectric materials. Methods were developed for leak testing of closed alpha emitting sources. New procedures were found for the application and evaluation of track detector materials. The results were applied in the education, personnel dosimetry, radon dosimetry etc. (R.J.)

  14. Steel for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorev, N.N.; Astafiev, A.A.; Loboda, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    A steel contains, in percent by weight, the following constituents: carbon from 0.13 to 0.18, silicon from 0.17 to 0.37, manganese from 0.30 to 0.60, chromium from 1.7 to 2.4, nickel from 1.0 to 1.5, molybdenum from 0.5 to 0.7, vanadium from 0.05 to 0.12, aluminium from 0.01 to 0.035, nitrogen from 0.05 to 0.012, copper from 0.11 to 0.20, arsenic from 0.0035 to 0.0055, iron and impurities, the balance. This steel is preferable for use in the manufacture of nuclear reactors. 1 table

  15. What does the neurosurgeon expect from nuclear medical brain examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, H.

    1985-12-01

    The management of neurosurgical diseases includes a number of measures influencing cerebral pressure, blood flow and metabolism such as hypothermia, hyperventilation, haemodilution, cerebral dehydration, administration of ganglion blockers, steroids, barbiturates - to mention only a few factors - the effect of which has not been proven, though. Combined use of current examination procedures and nuclear medical techniques will enable a critical review of some of these substances or measures in the future. Nuclear medical techniques serve to complement current procedures such as computerized tomography and angiography, thus providing new applications for diagnosis of, and clinical research into cerebral haemodynamics and cerebral metabolism. There is a need for more information about the relationship between the function, blood flow and metabolism of the human brain, especially in neurosurgical patients with craniocerebral traumas, tumours and cerebral ischemia.

  16. Radiochemistry and its application to nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    The role of the radiochemist in Nuclear Medicine has increased since the early 1960's. At that time the first medical 99 Mo/ 99m /Tc generator was developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the first hospital based cyclotron installed at Washington University. Radiochemists have been involved in both the development and application of generator and accelerator based radiopharmaceuticals. The development of oxygen-15, nitrogen 13, carbon-11 and fluorine-18 simple compound and synthetic precursors will be discussed. In recent years new high current accelerators have been proposed from Nuclear Medicine isotope production. Generator produced radiopharmaceuticals continue to play a major role in Nuclear Medicine. Problems in the development of targetry to produce parent nuclides as well as challenges in generator development will be described

  17. Medical problems of survivors of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, H.L.; Von Kaenel, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    The nature of the medical problems that may confront survivors of a nuclear war are discussed with emphasis on infection and the spread of communicable disease. Factors which will increase the risk and severity of infection include: radiation, trauma and burns, malnutrition and starvation, dehydration, exposure, and hardship. Factors which will increase the spread of disease include: crowded shelter conditions, poor sanitation, insects, corpses, free-roaming diseased animals. Shortages of physicians, the destruction of laboratories, and the general disorganization sure to follow the attack will also contribute to the problems. The authors recommend further study in this area

  18. Nuclear isomers and their possible applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Ashok Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear isomers are the long lived excited states of nuclei having half-lives much larger than the half-lives of normal excited states. They are also known as the meta-stable states of atomic nuclei which are formed in nuclear reactions or, in radioactive decay of nuclei. Typical half-lives of isomers may range from nanoseconds to years. One of the most direct applications of nuclear isomers is in nuclear medicine. Radioisotopes are being widely used for imaging and therapeutic applications. They are particularly suitable for Single Photon Emission Computer Tomography (SPECT) imaging, where a single and relatively low energy γ ray photon is emitted. The most common example is "9"9"mTc (T_1_/_2 = 6 hours) which decays via a 142 keV γ ray photon. Examples of other isomers that are used in medical applications will be presented. Relatively long-lived isomers, such as "1"9"3"mPt and "1"9"5"mPt, for example, are being used in certain cancer treatments. Because of the high multi-pole order of the decaying transitions, most of the decays occur via internal conversion electrons, with subsequent emission of Auger electrons that can be used to kill various cancer cells. There are also some cases where the isomer decays by positron emission and is used for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging

  19. Some applications of radioactivity and of nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This document presents various applications of radioactivity. It first addresses the medical field with applications in imagery (principles, used compounds, positron emission tomography, tumour detection, study of brain operation), applications in therapy (biological effects of radiations, principles of radiotherapy, struggle against cancer, notably by proton therapy), and applications in sterilisation and microbiological decontamination of instruments and medical products. It evokes applications in agriculture (irradiation of fruits and vegetables, vegetable conservation), in industry (production of new and stronger materials by irradiation, analysis by activation, thickness, density or homogeneity gauges), in arts (analysis of statues, use of gamma-graphy on dense objects, decontamination by irradiation), and in science (carbon 14 dating). It presents nuclear fission and ways to control it, recalls the main scientific discoveries and their consequences. It describes energy production based on nuclear fission (description of nuclear reactor core, of waste processing), and on nuclear fusion (principle, Tokamak examples with JET and ITER, brief presentation of laser fusion)

  20. Medical applications of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    Hospitals, clinics and other medical complexes are probably the most extensive users of radioactive solutions of Tc-99m, Tl-201, Ga-67, I-123, Xe-133 and radiopharmaceuticals as diagnostic tools to evaluate the dynamic function of various organs in the body, detect cancerous tumors, sites of infection or other bodily dysfunctions. Examples of monitoring blood flow to a stressed heart and to the brain of a cocaine addict are shown. Short-lived positron emitting radionuclides (C-11, N-13, O-15 and F-18) are produced right in a hospital. Other radionuclides are used as therapeutics to reduce tumor size or kill diseased cells. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) is another medical diagnostic tool that is useful in the early detection of the AIDS virus and cancer as well as many other illnesses. Biological researchers, using radioactive biological compounds, have developed many of todays medical diagnostic procedures. Most of the recent Nobel Laureates in the life sciences have used radiolabeled compounds in their research. A brief review of these applications with several examples is presented

  1. Developing the Medication Reminder Mobile Application "Seeb".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghaeiannejad-Isfahani, Sakineh; Ehteshami, Asghar; Savari, Ebtesam; Samimi, Ali

    2017-06-01

    Today, the structure of comprehensive health care emphasizes self-care more than therapy. Medication therapy is a strong instrument for therapy received through the health setting, especially in medication area. Error in medication administration has produced different problems and they cost billions of dollars every year. Regarding mobile phone extensions, we developed a local medication reminder mobile application called "Seeb" as a suitable solution for decreasing medication errors for Iranians. We conducted a mixed methods study in three Phases: 1) Comparative study of existing mobile applications; 2) developed its object-oriented model; 3) Developed the initial version of "Seeb" that was approved for production. This application was designed for the appropriate medication administration including time and dosages through: recording patient and medication data; scheduling patients' medication; and reporting medication administration on progress. "Seeb" has been designed in compliance with Iranian health information technologists and pharmacists requirements. It is expected to reduce medication error and improve patient adherence to medical prescriptions.

  2. Application of nuclear energy in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Thuan, V.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Radioactive isotopes were introduced to medical treatment in Vietnam very early by M. Curie in 1923. A research reactor has been in operation since 1963 serving up to now an effective base for radioisotope production and nuclear analysis. After reunification of the country, the nuclear technique applications are developing faster and getting widespread. The twenty-year period from 1976 to 1995 was relatively limited by activity of R and D institutions. Nowadays, their interaction with companies demonstrates a dynamic commercialization of nuclear techniques in Vietnam. Investment from government as well as from the private sector has been increased significantly for the last ten years to nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. The radiographic NDT is getting a familiar technique to industry, particularly, in construction of strategy-important industrial and civil projects. NCS are upgraded in different factories, such as mining, ore processing and cement industries. Tracer techniques have shown benefit in oil offshore exploring and in sedimentation management of rivers and harbours. Isotope techniques are playing a competitive role for environmental monitoring and underground water management in the country. Radiation processing is transferred to a commercial scale emphasizing on sterilization of medical products and food preservation. There are still some problems such as public acceptance of radioactive techniques or a lack of both infrastructure and manpower to meet the national demands. However, the government of Vietnam has recently approved the national strategy for peaceful uses of atomic energy, which not only highlights the development of isotope and radiation applications in near future, but also clearly emphasizes the need of nuclear electrical generation by 2017-2020 for the national energy security

  3. Applications of nuclear energy in future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitek, J.; Necas, V.

    2012-01-01

    Concepts and international frames of generation IV nuclear reactors. A review of use of nuclear energy for non electric applications especially in areas such as seawater desalination, hydrogen production, district heating and other industrial applications. (Author)

  4. Public Health and Medical Preparedness for a Nuclear Detonation: The Nuclear Incident Medical Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, C. Norman; Sullivan, Julie M.; Bader, Judith L.; Murrain-Hill, Paula; Koerner, John F.; Garrett, Andrew L.; Weinstock, David M.; Case, Cullen; Hrdina, Chad; Adams, Steven A.; Whitcomb, Robert C.; Graeden, Ellie; Shankman, Robert; Lant, Timothy; Maidment, Bert W.; Hatchett, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    Resilience and the ability to mitigate the consequences of a nuclear incident are enhanced by (1) effective planning, preparation and training; (2) ongoing interaction, formal exercises, and evaluation among the sectors involved; (3) effective and timely response and communication; and (4) continuous improvements based on new science, technology, experience and ideas. Public health and medical planning require a complex, multi-faceted systematic approach involving federal, state, local, tribal and territorial governments, private sector organizations, academia, industry, international partners, and individual experts and volunteers. The approach developed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Nuclear Incident Medical Enterprise (NIME) is the result of efforts from government and nongovernment experts. It is a “bottom-up” systematic approach built on the available and emerging science that considers physical infrastructure damage, the spectrum of injuries, a scarce resources setting, the need for decision making in the face of a rapidly evolving situation with limited information early on, timely communication and the need for tools and just-in-time information for responders who will likely be unfamiliar with radiation medicine and uncertain and overwhelmed in the face of the large number of casualties and the presence of radioactivity. The components of NIME can be used to support planning for, response to, and recovery from the effects of a nuclear incident. Recognizing that it is a continuous work-in-progress, the current status of the public health and medical preparedness and response for a nuclear incident is provided. PMID:25551496

  5. Medical imaging. From nuclear medicine to neuro-sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    Nuclear medicine and functional imaging were born of the CEA's ambition to promote and develop nuclear applications in the fields of biology and health. Nuclear medicine is based on the use of radioactive isotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. It could never have developed so rapidly without the progress made in atomic and nuclear physics. One major breakthrough was the discovery of artificial radioelements by Irene and Frederic Joliot in 1934, when a short-lived radioactive isotope was created for the first time ever. Whether natural or synthetic, isotopes possess the same chemical properties as their non-radioactive counterparts. The only difference is that they are unstable and this instability causes disintegration, leading to radiation emission. All we need are suitable detection tools to keep track of them. 'The discovery of artificial radioelements is at the root of the most advanced medical imaging techniques'. The notion of tracer dates back to 1913. Invented by George de Hevesy, it lies at the root of nuclear medicine. By discovering how to produce radioactive isotopes, Irene and Frederic Joliot provided biology researchers with nuclear tools of unrivalled efficiency. Today, nuclear medicine and functional imaging are the only techniques capable of giving us extremely precise information about living organisms in a non-traumatic manner and without upsetting their balance. Positron emission tomography (PET) and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the main imaging techniques used at the CEA in its neuro-imaging research activities. These techniques are now developing rapidly and becoming increasingly important not only in the neuroscience world, but also for innovative therapies and cancer treatment. (authors)

  6. Nuclear detectors: principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belhadj, Marouane

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear technology is a vast domain. It has several applications, for instance in hydrology, it is used in the analysis of underground water, dating by carbon 14, Our study consists on representing the nuclear detectors based on their principle of functioning and their electronic constitution. However, because of some technical problems, we have not made a deepen study on their applications that could certainly have a big support on our subject. In spite of the existence of an equipment of high performance and technology in the centre, it remains to resolve the problem of control of instruments. Therefore, the calibration of these equipment remains the best guaranteed of a good quality of the counting. Besides, it allows us to approach the influence of the external and internal parameters on the equipment and the reasons of errors of measurements, to introduce equivalent corrections. (author). 22 refs

  7. Contemporary vascular smartphone medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Thomas; O'Neill, Stephen; Johns, Neil; Brady, Richard R W

    2013-08-01

    Use of smartphones and medical mHealth applications (apps) within the clinical environment provides a potential means for delivering elements of vascular care. This article reviews the contemporary availability of apps specifically themed to major vascular diseases and the opportunities and concerns regarding their integration into practice. Smartphone apps relating to major vascular diseases were identified from the app stores for the 6 most popular smartphone platforms, including iPhone, Android, Blackberry, Nokia, Windows, and Samsung. Search terms included peripheral artery (arterial) disease, varicose veins, aortic aneurysm, carotid artery disease, amputation, ulcers, hyperhydrosis, thoracic outlet syndrome, vascular malformation, and lymphatic disorders. Forty-nine vascular-themed apps were identified. Sixteen (33%) were free of charge. Fifteen apps (31%) had customer satisfaction ratings, but only 3 (6%) had greater than 100. Only 13 apps (27%) had documented medical professional involvement in their design or content. The integration of apps into the delivery of care has the potential to benefit vascular health care workers and patients. However, high-quality apps designed by clinicians with vascular expertise are currently lacking and represent an area of concern in the mHealth market. Improvement in the quality and reliability of these apps will require the development of robust regulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Biological and medical consequences of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latarjet, R.

    1988-01-01

    The study of the medical and biological consequences of the nuclear accidents is a vast program. The Chernobyl accident has caused some thirty deceases: Some of them were rapid and the others occurred after a certain time. The particularity of these deaths was that the irradiation has been associated to burns and traumatisms. The lesson learnt from the Chernobyl accident is to treat the burn and the traumatism before treating the irradiation. Contrary to what the research workers believe, the first wave of deaths has passed between 15 and 35 days and it has not been followed by any others. But the therapeutic lesson drawn from the accident confirm the research workers results; for example: the radioactive doses band that determines where the therapy could be efficacious or not. the medical cares dispensed to the irradiated people in the hospital of Moscow has confirmed that the biochemical equilibrium of proteinic elements of blood has to be maintained, and the transfusion of the purified elements are very important to restore a patient to health, and the sterilization of the medium (room, food, bedding,etc...) of the patient is indispensable. Therefore, it is necessary to establish an international cooperation for providing enough sterilized rooms and specialists in the irradiation treatment. The genetic consequences and cancers from the Chernobyl accident have been discussed. It is impossible to detect these consequences because of their negligible percentages. (author)

  9. Nuclear radiation application to nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakarvarti, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    Out of the numerous uses and applications of nuclear radiation, in particular heavy ions, the interaction of radiation with materials have culminated into a gamut of fine tools and technologies for taming the synergetic potential of the interaction. One such field of the immense importance is nanotechnology through nuclear radiation via use of ion-crafted polymeric membranes- so called 'Template Synthesis'. This talk will be addressed to the users of membranes - organic (polymeric) in general, formed through irradiation of polymeric foils with heavy and energetic ions followed by chemical processing leading finally to what is known as 'Track Etch Membranes (TEMs)', and present the review of the innovative uses of these membranes from filtration to electro-kinetic based applications and nano-/micro fabrication of devices- the potent aspect of emerging technologies. The emphasis would be on the dependence of useful and novel usages including applications in nano devices' fabrication. A membrane, with its most comprehensive and clear definition, is an intervening phase separating two phases and/or acting as an active or passive barrier to the transport of matter between phases. The very existence of a membrane relies upon the functionality domain of the pores contained therein. The geometrical traits and morphology of the pore ensembles dictate the applications, which any membrane can serve to. There are variety of membranes being developed and used in myriad of applications in diverse fields of science and technology. The range of commercially available membrane materials is quiet diverse and varies widely in terms of composition, and physical structure. The creation of pores, whether through natural self-assembling phenomenon or man-made processes, might itself be an issue of interest but these are the pore-traits which are fundamentally more important, whether the membrane is being used for sieving-one of the ever most important applications the mankind has been

  10. The Application of Nuclear Technology for a Better World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ita, E.B.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear Technology is widely used in different areas and sector of our economy to better man kind and his environment. Peaceful applications of nuclear technology have several benefits to the world today. It is widely believed that nuclear technology is mainly used mainly for the production of electricity (Nuclear Power Plants – NPPs). Many are not aware of the other numerous benefits of nuclear technology. Nuclear technology can be applied in different fields for numerous benefits. Different sectors Nuclear Technology application can improve the living standard of man and his environment: – Food and Agriculture; – Medicine; – Industrial; – Energy; – Education; — Research and Development; – Environment. The benefits of the application of nuclear technology cannot be over emphasised. These benefits range from the improved quality of purified water we drink, the textiles we wear, improved quality of stored grains for preservation of foods, water analyses, improved transportation system work, drugs production, medical tests and analysis, clean environment through radioisotope techniques etc. The application of nuclear technology also gives a safer, greener, healthier and pollution free environment and atmosphere for human habitation. In my poster, the numerous benefits of the various applications of Nuclear Technology will be clearly enumerated and heighted. (author)

  11. Computer applications in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancaster, J.L.; Lasher, J.C.; Blumhardt, R.

    1987-01-01

    Digital computers were introduced to nuclear medicine research as an imaging modality in the mid-1960s. Widespread use of imaging computers (scintigraphic computers) was not seen in nuclear medicine clinics until the mid-1970s. For the user, the ability to acquire scintigraphic images into the computer for quantitative purposes, with accurate selection of regions of interest (ROIs), promised almost endless computational capabilities. Investigators quickly developed many new methods for quantitating the distribution patterns of radiopharmaceuticals within the body both spatially and temporally. The computer was used to acquire data on practically every organ that could be imaged by means of gamma cameras or rectilinear scanners. Methods of image processing borrowed from other disciplines were applied to scintigraphic computer images in an attempt to improve image quality. Image processing in nuclear medicine has evolved into a relatively extensive set of tasks that can be called on by the user to provide additional clinical information rather than to improve image quality. Digital computers are utilized in nuclear medicine departments for nonimaging applications also, Patient scheduling, archiving, radiopharmaceutical inventory, radioimmunoassay (RIA), and health physics are just a few of the areas in which the digital computer has proven helpful. The computer is useful in any area in which a large quantity of data needs to be accurately managed, especially over a long period of time

  12. Therapeutic Applications of Monte Carlo Calculations in Nuclear Medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Sgouros, George

    2003-01-01

    This book examines the applications of Monte Carlo (MC) calculations in therapeutic nuclear medicine, from basic principles to computer implementations of software packages and their applications in radiation dosimetry and treatment planning. It is written for nuclear medicine physicists and physicians as well as radiation oncologists, and can serve as a supplementary text for medical imaging, radiation dosimetry and nuclear engineering graduate courses in science, medical and engineering faculties. With chapters is written by recognised authorities in that particular field, the book covers the entire range of MC applications in therapeutic medical and health physics, from its use in imaging prior to therapy to dose distribution modelling targeted radiotherapy. The contributions discuss the fundamental concepts of radiation dosimetry, radiobiological aspects of targeted radionuclide therapy and the various components and steps required for implementing a dose calculation and treatment planning methodology in ...

  13. Laser applications in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murnick, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    A large fraction of the International Workshop on Hyperfine Interactions was devoted to various aspects of 'laser applications in nuclear physics'. This panel discussion took place before all of the relevant formal presentations on the subject were complete. Nevertheless, there had been sufficient discussions for the significance of this emerging area of hyperfine interaction research to be made clear. An attempt was made to identify critical and controversial aspects of the subject in order to critically evaluate past successes and indicate important future directions of research. Each of the panelists made a short statement on one phase of laser-nuclear physics research, which was followed by general discussions with the other panelists and the audience. In this report, a few areas which were not covered in the formal presentations are summarized: extensions of laser spectroscopy to shorter lifetimes; extension of laser techniques to nuclei far off stability; interpretation of laser spectroscopic data; sensitivity and spectral resolution; polarized beams and targets. (Auth.)

  14. Nuclear data applications in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, M.K.; Schmidt, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    The peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology currently receive an increasing attention in many developing countries. More than 15 developing countries operate, construct or plan nuclear power reactors, 70 developing countries are using or planning to use nuclear techniques in medicine, agriculture, industry, and for other vital purposes. The generation, application and computer processing of nuclear data constitute important elements of the nuclear infrastructure needed for the successful implementation of nuclear science and technology. Developing countries become increasingly aware of this need, and, with the help and cooperation of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, are steadily gaining in experience in this field. The paper illustrates this development in typical examples. (orig.)

  15. Medical Applications at CERN and the ENLIGHT Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosanjh, Manjit; Cirilli, Manuela; Myers, Steve; Navin, Sparsh

    2016-01-01

    State-of-the-art techniques derived from particle accelerators, detectors, and physics computing are routinely used in clinical practice and medical research centers: from imaging technologies to dedicated accelerators for cancer therapy and nuclear medicine, simulations, and data analytics. Principles of particle physics themselves are the foundation of a cutting edge radiotherapy technique for cancer treatment: hadron therapy. This article is an overview of the involvement of CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, in medical applications, with specific focus on hadron therapy. It also presents the history, achievements, and future scientific goals of the European Network for Light Ion Hadron Therapy, whose co-ordination office is at CERN.

  16. Upgradation of nuclear medical equipment in the developing countries and its impact in Bangladesh

    CERN Document Server

    Jahangir, S M; Haque, M A S; Hoq, M; Mawla, Y; Morium, T; Uddin, M R; Xie, Y

    2002-01-01

    Bangladesh has thirteen Nuclear Medical Centres and one Institute of Nuclear Medicine in the country which are being run and maintained by the physicians scientists and engineers of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission. The peaceful application of atomic energy was initiated through all these Centres with the use of clinical isotopes for thyroid and kidney studies. The equipment used for these purposes were the thyroid uptake system, rectilinear scanner and the multiprobe renogram system. The first gamma camera was installed in the country in 1980 at the Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Dhaka. That was the turning point for the country in the field of nuclear medicine. Presently all the nuclear medical establishments are equipped least with a gamma camera, thyroid uptake system and a renogram system. In the last two decades there has been a tremendous development in the design of nuclear medical equipment. Most of the old equipments were slow and manually operated. In the beginning of nineties of the past centur...

  17. Medical activities at nuclear disaster. Experience in the accident of Fukushima nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Arifumi

    2013-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake brought multiple disaster resulting nuclear accident at Fukushima. Existing medical system for emergency radiation exposure did not work well. Present medical system for the nuclear disaster is maintained temporary with supports by teams from regions other than Fukushima Pref. The radiation protection action must be both for the public and the medical persons. Medical activities for nuclear disaster are still in progress now. Medical system for radiation exposure should be maintained in future for works of decommissioning of reactors. Problems, however, may exist in economy and education of medical personnel. (K.Y.)

  18. Application of robotics in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, J.S.; Fisher, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Industrial robots and other robotic systems have been successfully applied at the Savannah River nuclear site. These applications, new robotic systems presently under development, general techniques for the employment of robots in nuclear facilities, and future systems are discussed

  19. Parallel processing in nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muniz, Francisco Junqueira

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes some investigations on effective and scalable dynamic load-balancing mechanisms suitable for distributed-memory (loosely-coupled) MIMD systems. The selected implementation environment is composed of T800 transputers programed in the occam and C languages and an automatic routing package communication software mechanism (the virtual channel router). Tasks were generated, at execution time, using a multiple-spawning mechanism based on a set of remote procedure calls primitives. The objective is to improve maximum resource utilization. In particular, the investigation described here facilitate portability of the user application, since it concentrates on system-level load balancing mechanisms. The load-balancing mechanisms studies are also suitable for systems that can vary in size, concentrating on methods with potential for scalability. Two possible application examples, chosen from the nuclear area, where distributed-memory MIMD machines can be utilized, are mentioned. (author). 24 refs., 1 fig

  20. Nuclear medicine applications in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Dayem, H.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Aids patients are liable to more than one medical problem at anyone time as the number of CD4 cells decrease and the viral load increases. Problems are related to multiple causes of opportunistic Infections, malignant lymphoma and Kaposi sarcoma. Laboratory tests, sputum analysis and bronchial lavage have problems of decreased sensitivity. morphologic Imaging modalities such as chest X-ray, CT or MRI has problems of specificity. Nuclear medicine techniques has the advantage of total body functional imaging that can visualize more than one organ. The use nuclear medicine imaging is recommended when the diagnosis is uncertain and for initiation of proper treatment. Gallium-67 citrate total body scans acquired at 4 hours following the IV injection and at 24-48 hours has been very useful for the early diagnosis of opportunistic infections such as PCP, TB, Disseminated Mycobacterium avii complex; MAI, malignant lymphoma and various forms of AIDS related colitis. Sequential thallium and gallium scan help to differentiate Kaposi sarcoma (thallium positive, gallium negative) from opportunistic infections (gallium positive, thallium negative) and malignant lymphoma (thallium and gallium positive). Gallium is the most convenient radiopharmaceutical for the diagnosis of malignant lymphoma of the heart. Thallium and Tc-99m Sestamibi are useful for the differentiation of intracranial toxoplasmosis from malignant lymphoma. The presentation will illustrate different examples and will explain the limitations of all these tests. (author)

  1. Calculation of nuclear level density parameters of some light deformed medical radionuclides using collective excitation modes of observed nuclear spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuducu, S.; Sarac, H.; Akti, N. N.; Boeluekdemir, M. H.; Tel, E.

    2010-01-01

    In this study the nuclear energy level density based on nuclear collective excitation mechanism has been identified in terms of the low-lying collective level bands at near the neutron binding energy. Nuclear level density parameters of some light deformed medical radionuclides used widely in medical applications have been calculated by using different collective excitation modes of observed nuclear spectra. The calculated parameters have been used successfully in estimation of the neutron-capture cross section basic data for the production of new medical radionuclides. The investigated radionuclides have been considered in the region of mass number 40< A< 100. The method used in the present work assumes equidistance spacing of the collective coupled state bands of the interest radionuclides. The present calculated results have been compared with the compiled values from the literatures for s-wave neutron resonance data.

  2. Radioprotection in the medical applications of the ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This publication presents information about of the radiological safety in the medical application of the ionizing radiation compiled in 11 chapter and 1 annex. The first four chapters are principally dedicated to technical uses in radioprotection, the external and internal irradiation and the biological radiation effects. The radioprotection principles, the individual monitoring techniques, and the radioprotection systems are developed afterwards in the followings three chapters. The second half of the document is dedicated entirely to the medical practices using ionizing radiations, specially to the radioprotection aspects in radiodiagnosis, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. The final chapter is dedicated to radiological accidents happened worldwide in the field of the medical applications of the ionizing radiations. The annex, about of the regulatory area, established a set of standards, laws, decrees and other force regulations in radiological safety, related in radiodiagnosis, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy

  3. Applications of noise analysis to nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar Martinez, Omar

    2000-01-01

    Noise Analysis techniques (analysis of the fluctuation of physical parameters) have been successfully applied to the operational vigilance of the technical equipment that plays a decisive role in the production cycle of a very complex industry. Although fluctuation measurements in nuclear installations started almost at the start of the nuclear era (see works by Feynman and Rossi on the development of neutron methodology), only recently have neutron noise diagnostic applications begun to be a part of the standard procedures for the performance of some modern nuclear installations. Following the relevant technical advances made in information sciences and analogical electronics, measuring the fluctuation of physical parameters has become a very effective tool for detecting, guarding and following up possible defects in a nuclear system. As the processing techniques for the fluctuation of a nuclear reactor's physical-neutron parameters have evolved (temporal and frequency analysis, multi-parameter self -regression analysis, etc.), the applications of the theory of non-lineal dynamics and chaos theory have progressed by focusing on the problem from another perspective. This work reports on those nuclear applications of noise analysis that increase nuclear safety in all types of nuclear facilities and that have been carried out by the author over the last decade, such as: -Void Force Critical Set Applications (Zero Power Reactor Applications, Central Institute of Physical Research, Budapest, Hungary); -Research Reactor Applications (Triga Mark III Reactor, National Institute of Nuclear Research, ININ, Mexico); -Power Reactor Applications in a Nuclear Power Plant (First Circuit of Block II, Paks Nuclear Center, Hungary); -Second Loop applications in a Nuclear Power Plant (Block I Paks Nuclear Center, Hungary; Block II Kalinin Nuclear Center, Russia); -Shield System Applications for the Transport of Radioisotopes (Nuclear Technology Center, Havana, Cuba) New trends in

  4. Medical applications of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Agah, Arvin

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced, more reliable, and better understood than in the past, artificial intelligence (AI) systems can make providing healthcare more accurate, affordable, accessible, consistent, and efficient. However, AI technologies have not been as well integrated into medicine as predicted. In order to succeed, medical and computational scientists must develop hybrid systems that can effectively and efficiently integrate the experience of medical care professionals with capabilities of AI systems. After providing a general overview of artificial intelligence concepts, tools, and techniques, Medical Ap

  5. The value of nuclear medical examinations in paediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixthofer, A.

    1991-02-01

    In 1988 155 children were nuclear medically examined at the university clinic in Innsbruck. The first separations to be made were sex and age. A more precise organization concerning the clinically allocated diagnosis of the patients showed, that nephrological and urological questions were asked in 2/3 of the cases. The second point was the cure of inflammation and tumourous cases of the skeletal system (osteomyelitis, osteosarcoma) followed by the assessment of the practical and morphological disturbances to the thyroid glands. Nuclear medical examinations also, occasionally, used questions from the fields of neurology, gastroenterology, cardiology and pulmonology. Analysis regarding the concordance of nuclear medicine with the clinic expresses the diagnostical precision of nuclear medicine well. Nuclear medical diagnosis corresponded to conclusive clinical diagnosis in 73.75 % of the cases. The classification concerning with clinical relevance of the nuclear medical findings for treatment showed that, in only 7.5 % of all cases there was no influence of the nuclear medical diagnosis on the treatment. The investigation of radiation was done in three age groups (0 to 5 years, 5 to 10 years, 10 to 15 years). The calculations, especially with the kidney examinations, produced definite results, it could be illustrated that the nuclear medical examinations show a smaller amount of radiation as a radiological alternative, on intravenous urogram, for example. (author)

  6. Mapping air pollution. Application of nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, R.M.; Stone, S.F.; Zeisler, R.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear techniques have important applications in the study of air pollution and many of its components. However, it is in the study of airborne particulate matter (APM) that nuclear analytical techniques find many of their most important applications. This article focuses on those applications, and on the work of the IAEA in this important field of study. 2 figs

  7. Radioisotope Production for Medical and Physics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mausner, Leonard

    2012-10-01

    Radioisotopes are critical to the science and technology base of the US. Discoveries and applications made as a result of the availability of radioisotopes span widely from medicine, biology, physics, chemistry and homeland security. The clinical use of radioisotopes for medical diagnosis is the largest sector of use, with about 16 million procedures a year in the US. The use of ^99Mo/^99mTc generator and ^18F make up the majority, but ^201Tl, ^123I, ^111In, and ^67Ga are also used routinely to perform imaging of organ function. Application of radioisotopes for therapy is dominated by use of ^131I for thyroid malignancies, ^90Y for some solid tumors, and ^89Sr for bone cancer, but production of several more exotic species such as ^225Ac and ^211At are of significant current research interest. In physics ^225Ra is of interest for CP violation studies, and the actinides ^242Am, ^249Bk, and ^254Es are needed as targets for experiments to create superheavy elements. Large amounts of ^252Cf are needed as a fission source for the CARIBU experiment at ANL. The process of radioisotope production is multidisciplinary. Nuclear physics input based on nuclear reaction excitation function data is needed to choose an optimum target/projectile in order to maximize desired isotope production and minimize unwanted byproducts. Mechanical engineering is needed to address issues of target heating, induced mechanical stress and material compatibility of target and claddings. Radiochemists are involved as well since chemical separation to purify the desired final radioisotope product from the bulk target and impurities is also usually necessary. Most neutron rich species are produced at a few government and university reactors. Other radioisotopes are produced in cyclotrons in the commercial sector, university/hospital based facilities, and larger devices at the DOE labs. The landscape of US facilities, the techniques involved, and current supply challenges will be reviewed.

  8. BR2 reactor: medical and industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponsard, B.

    2005-01-01

    The radioisotopes are produced for various applications in the nuclear medicine (diagnostic, therapy, palliation of metastatic bone pain), industry (radiography of welds, ...), agriculture (radiotracers, ...) and basic research. Due to the availability of high neutron fluxes (thermal neutron flux up to 10 15 n/cm 2 .s), the BR2 reactor is considered as a major facility through its contribution for a continuous supply of products such 99 Mo ( 99 mTc), 131 I, 133 Xe, 192 Ir, 186 Re, 153 Sm, 90 Y, 32 P, 188 W ( 188 Re), 203 Hg, 82 Br, 41 Ar, 125 I, 177 Lu, 89 Sr, 60 Co, 169 Yb, 147 Nd, and others. Neutron Transmutation Doped (NTD) silicon is produced for the semiconductor industry in the SIDONIE (Silicon Doping by Neutron Irradiation Experiment) facility, which is designed to continuously rotate and traverse the silicon through the neutron flux. These combined movements produce exceptional dopant homogeneity in batches of silicon measuring 4 and 5-inches in diameter by up to 750 mm in length. The main objectives of work performed were to provide a reliable and qualitative supply of radioisotopes and NTD-silicon to the customers in accordance with a quality system that has been certified to the requirements of the EN ISO 9001: 2000. This new Quality System Certificate has been obtained in November 2003 for the Production of radioisotopes for medical and industrial applications and the Production of Neutron Transmutation Doped (NTD) Silicon in the BR2 reactor

  9. Experience and Prospects of Nuclear Heat Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woite, G.; Konishi, T.; Kupitz, J.

    1998-01-01

    Relevant technical characteristics of nuclear reactors and heat application facilities for district heating, process heat and seawater desalination are presented and discussed. The necessity of matching the characteristics of reactors and heat applications has consequences for their technical and economic viability. The world-wide operating experience with nuclear district heating, process heating, process heat and seawater desalination is summarised and the prospects for these nuclear heat applications are discussed. (author)

  10. Applications of nuclear data science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jyrwa, B.

    2015-01-01

    The field of nuclear data has always been at the cutting edge technology since the beginning of nuclear era. Therefore it is a thrust area in the department of atomic energy in our country. It had been observed that even after 60 years of nuclear energy, nuclear data have not been well defined. The reason is not far to seek, it is mainly because nuclear energy has been introduced to mankind without adequate knowledge of nuclear data. Historically, reactor physics designer never used uncertainty information in basic data directly in algorithms in the calculations. Therefore nuclear data covariances is one of the challenges in Basic Nuclear Data Physics, reactor design and plant optimization for Indian Nuclear Industry. The importance of nuclear data for sustainable nuclear energy should be given the top priority

  11. Industrial application of nuclear techniques in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easey, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    The applications of nuclear techniques in Australia was reviewed - the work has been to aid: mining and mineral sector, the manufacturing, chemical and petroleum industries, hydrology and sedimentology

  12. Nuclear battery materials and application of nuclear batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Shaochang; Lu Zhenming; Fu Xiaoming; Liang Tongxiang

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear battery has lots of advantages such as small volume, longevity, environal stability and so on, therefore, it was widely used in aerospace, deep-sea, polar region, heart pacemaker, micro-electromotor and other fields etc. The application of nuclear battery and the development of its materials promote each other. In this paper the development and the latest research progress of nuclear battery materials has been introduced from the view of radioisotope, electric energy conversion and encapsulation. And the current and potential applications of the nuclear battery are also summarized. (authors)

  13. Nuclear Medicine and Application of Nuclear Techniques in Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiharto, Kunto

    1996-01-01

    The use of nuclear techniques medicine covers not only nuclear medicine and radiology in strict sense but also determination of body mineral content by neutron activation analysis and x-ray fluorescence technique either in vitro or in vivo, application of radioisotopes as tracers in pharmacology and biochemistry, etc. This paper describes the ideal tracer in nuclear medicine, functional and morphological imaging, clinical aspect and radiation protection in nuclear medicine. Nuclear technique offers facilities and chances related to research activities and services in medicine. The development of diagnostic as well as therapeutic methods using monoclonal antibodies labeled with radioisotope will undoubtedly play an important role in the disease control

  14. Extracurricular activities of medical school applicants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hyun Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate medical school applicants’ involvements in extracurricular activities including medical volunteering/community services, nonmedical community services, club activities, leadership role, and research. Methods: Extracurricular characteristics were compared for 448 applicants (223 males and 225 females who applied to Kangwon Medical School in 2013 to 2014. Frequency analysis, chi-square test, and simple correlation were conducted with the collected data. Results: The 448 applicants participated in medical volunteer/community services (15.3%, nonmedical community services (39.8%, club activities (22.9%, club officials (10%, and research (13.4%. On average, applicants from foreign universities participated in 0.9 medical volunteer/community service, 0.8 nonmedical community service, 1.7 club activities, and 0.6 research work. On the other hand, applicants from domestic universities reported 0.2 medical volunteer/community service, 1.0 nonmedical community service, 0.7 club activity, and 0.3 research. Conclusion: Involvement in extracurricular activities was extensive for medical school applicants. Participation in extracurricular activities differed between applicants from foreign and domestic universities. Females consistently reported greater participation in extracurricular activities than males. The data can be helpful for admission committees to recruit well-rounded applicants and compare between applicants with similar academic backgrounds.

  15. Application of nuclear activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamonov, E.I.; Khlystova, A.F.

    1979-01-01

    Consideration is given to the applications of nuclear-activation analysis (NAA) as discussed at the International Conference of 1977. One of the new results in the present-day NAA practices is the growing number of elements detected in samples without using a destructive radiochemical separation. An essential feature in this context is the development of the system automation of control and information NAA operations through the use computers. In biological medicine a multicomponent NAA is employed to determine the concentration of elements in various human organs and objects, in metabolic studies and for diagnostic purposes. In agriculture NAA finds applications in the evaluation of grain protein, analysis of element feed composition, soil and fertilizers. The application of this method to the environmental monitoring is considered with particular reference to the element analysis of water (especially drinking water), air, plant residues. Data are presented for the use of NAA in metallurgy, geology, archaeology and criminal law. Tables are provided to illustrate the uses of NAA in various fields

  16. Promoting the development of nuclear technology application in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Naiyan

    2004-01-01

    The application of nuclear technology in China has been playing important parts in the fields of military, industry, agriculture, medical science, life science, material science, environment protection, etc. However, comparing with some advanced countries and to satisfy the need of national economy China still has a long way to go

  17. Physics of nuclear radiations concepts, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rangacharyulu, Chary

    2013-01-01

    Physics of Nuclear Radiations: Concepts, Techniques and Applications makes the physics of nuclear radiations accessible to students with a basic background in physics and mathematics. Rather than convince students one way or the other about the hazards of nuclear radiations, the text empowers them with tools to calculate and assess nuclear radiations and their impact. It discusses the meaning behind mathematical formulae as well as the areas in which the equations can be applied. After reviewing the physics preliminaries, the author addresses the growth and decay of nuclear radiations, the stability of nuclei or particles against radioactive transformations, and the behavior of heavy charged particles, electrons, photons, and neutrons. He then presents the nomenclature and physics reasoning of dosimetry, covers typical nuclear facilities (such as medical x-ray machines and particle accelerators), and describes the physics principles of diverse detectors. The book also discusses methods for measuring energy a...

  18. Nuclear medical investigations of renal transplants in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chocholka, T.G.K.

    1981-01-01

    Within the frame of this study it was investigated if it is possible - by means of nuclear medicine - to assess transplant function after xenogenic (heterologic) renal transplantation, to early diagnose complications and to observe organ function in follow-up examinations. The examination comprised camera-function-scintiscanning (=CFS), i.e. camera-sequence-scintiscanning (=CSS) and radio-isotope-nephrography (=RING), and the clearance measurement, which were carried out in parallel, as one operation. The clearance measurement based on tissue activity decrease graphs, which were registered by means of a body probe. Hippuran iodine 131 was used as radiopharmaceutical which usually is eliminated by the kidneys. In 112 examinations 33 dogs, who had received a fox kidney transplant, were investigated, starting on the day of surgical intervention until the transplant dysfunction was confirmed. These dogs had been treated in advance with immunosuppressive agents: a control group of 8 dogs, who received renal transplants of dingos, were not treated with immunosuppressants. The CFS as simultaneous realisation of CSS and of RING and the clearance measurement by means of hippuran iodine 131 achieved the examination aims. CSS permitted a sufficient survey over the individual functional phases. RING allows the early diagnosis of complications due to transplantation. The nuclear medical findings of camera-functional-scintiscanning and of clearance measurement show correspondence and they correspond also well to those findings resulting from traditional examination techniques which were applied in parallel. This procedure distinguishes itself not only by the diagnostic liability of nuclear medical examination methods, but also by its uncomplicated application, which permits the careful treatment of the dogs. (orig./MG) [de

  19. Cyclotron production of high-purity 123I for medical applications via the 127I(p,5n)123Xe → 123I nuclear reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagunas-Solar, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    The use of iodine-123 in nuclear medicine procedures is well documented in the scientific literature. Also, several methods for its production based on accelerator techniques have been described. Indirectly made 123 I via the 127 I(p,5n) 123 Xe → 123 I reaction produces 123 I of > 99.9% radionuclidic purity, with only 125 I ( 123 I production were developed at the University of California at Davis, where since 1974 the 76-in. isochronous cyclotron of the Crocker Nuclear Laboratory has been used for routine biweekly production of high-purity no-carrier-added 123 I

  20. Nuclear Reactions for Astrophysics and Other Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Scielzo, N D; Ressler, J J

    2011-03-01

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions are required for many applications. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f) reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  1. Molecular biosensing for medical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.W.J.

    2015-01-01

    An important challenge in today’s societies is that life expectancy and the prevalence of chronic conditions are increasing. This puts pressure on the healthcare system and raises a demand for easy to use and cost-effective medical technologies in order to manage chronic conditions outside large

  2. Review of CdTe medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entine, G; Garcia, D A; Tow, D E

    1977-02-01

    CdTe sensors are now being used in several areas of nuclear medicine. CdTe probe technics, originally developed to study dental pathology in dog models, are being used clinically to diagnose venous thrombosis of the legs and to detect occult dental infections in patients scheduled for prosthetic cardiovascular and orthopedic surgery. Similar instrumentation is in use in animal research of myocardial infarction and synthetic tooth substitutes. Transmission technics have also been developed to diagnose pulmonary edema and to measure bone mineral changes in space flight. Investigations are also underway in the use of linear or two-dimensional arrays of CdTe gamma sensors for medical imaging. Economic considerations have slowed this work, but the technology appears to be available. Development of photoconductive CdTe X-ray detectors for scintigraphic scanners has also begun. Rapid detector improvement will be needed for success in this field, but the potential usefulness is very great. Together, the present application results are encouraging and wide use of CdTe detectors should occur within only a few years.

  3. Printing Technologies for Medical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Ashkan; Atala, Anthony

    2016-03-01

    Over the past 15 years, printers have been increasingly utilized for biomedical applications in various areas of medicine and tissue engineering. This review discusses the current and future applications of 3D bioprinting. Several 3D printing tools with broad applications from surgical planning to 3D models are being created, such as liver replicas and intermediate splints. Numerous researchers are exploring this technique to pattern cells or fabricate several different tissues and organs, such as blood vessels or cardiac patches. Current investigations in bioprinting applications are yielding further advances. As one of the fastest areas of industry expansion, 3D additive manufacturing will change techniques across biomedical applications, from research and testing models to surgical planning, device manufacturing, and tissue or organ replacement. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Applications of VLSI circuits to medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, M.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper the application of advanced VLSI circuits to medical imaging is explored. The relationship of both general purpose signal processing chips and custom devices to medical imaging is discussed using examples of fabricated chips. In addition, advanced CAD tools for silicon compilation are presented. Devices built with these tools represent a possible alternative to custom devices and general purpose signal processors for the next generation of medical imaging systems

  5. Some advances in medical applications of low energy accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valković, V.; Moschini, G.

    1991-05-01

    Medical applications of low energy accelerators include: the use of nuclear analytical methods and procedures for laboratory studies and routine measurements; material productions and modifications to meet special requirements; radioisotope productions and their applications in radiopharmaceuticals as well as in positron emission tomography; and radiotherapy with ions, based on improved understanding of the interaction of charged particles with living tissue. Some of the recent advances in these fields are critically summarized. The plan for an improved charged particle facility in a hospital environment dedicated to applications in biology and medicine is presented.

  6. Modeling Medical Services with Mobile Health Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenfei Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of mobile health technology (m-Health provides unprecedented opportunities for improving health services. As the bridge between doctors and patients, mobile health applications enable patients to communicate with doctors through their smartphones, which is becoming more and more popular among people. To evaluate the influence of m-Health applications on the medical service market, we propose a medical service equilibrium model. The model can balance the supply of doctors and demand of patients and reflect possible options for both doctors and patients with or without m-Health applications in the medical service market. In the meantime, we analyze the behavior of patients and the activities of doctors to minimize patients’ full costs of healthcare and doctors’ futility. Then, we provide a resolution algorithm through mathematical reasoning. Lastly, based on artificially generated dataset, experiments are conducted to evaluate the medical services of m-Health applications.

  7. Technical progress in nuclear medical heart diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standke, R.; Hoer, G.

    1989-01-01

    The rapid development in nuclear cardiology worldwide can hardly be surveyed from the point of view of one center. In connection with the general nuclear cardiologic development this study describes a multiparameter analysis of regional left ventricular function during exercise, and the method of sectoranalysis for quantification of myocardial SPECT. Finally a one-step procedure to quantify left ventricular function and myocardial perfusion is presented. (orig.) [de

  8. Calibration services for medical applications of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWerd, L.A.

    1993-12-31

    Calibration services for the medical community applications of radiation involve measuring radiation precisely and having traceability to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Radiation therapy applications involve the use of ionization chambers and electrometers for external beams and well-type ionization chamber systems as well as radioactive sources for brachytherapy. Diagnostic x-ray applications involve ionization chamber systems and devices to measure other parameters of the x-ray machine, such as non-invasive kVp meters. Calibration laboratories have been established to provide radiation calibration services while maintaining traceability to NIST. New radiation applications of the medical community spur investigation to provide the future calibration needs.

  9. Calibration services for medical applications of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWerd, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    Calibration services for the medical community applications of radiation involve measuring radiation precisely and having traceability to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Radiation therapy applications involve the use of ionization chambers and electrometers for external beams and well-type ionization chamber systems as well as radioactive sources for brachytherapy. Diagnostic x-ray applications involve ionization chamber systems and devices to measure other parameters of the x-ray machine, such as non-invasive kVp meters. Calibration laboratories have been established to provide radiation calibration services while maintaining traceability to NIST. New radiation applications of the medical community spur investigation to provide the future calibration needs

  10. Nuclear model developments in FLUKA for present and future applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Francesco; Empl, Anton; Fedynitch, Anatoli; Ferrari, Alfredo; Ruben, GarciaAlia; Sala, Paola R.; Smirnov, George; Vlachoudis, Vasilis

    2017-09-01

    The FLUKAS code [1-3] is used in research laboratories all around the world for challenging applications spanning a very wide range of energies, projectiles and targets. FLUKAS is also extensively used for in hadrontherapy research studies and clinical planning systems. In this paper some of the recent developments in the FLUKAS nuclear physics models of relevance for very different application fields including medical physics are presented. A few examples are shown demonstrating the effectiveness of the upgraded code.

  11. Commentary from Westminster. Medical effects of nuclear war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitch, R

    1983-03-12

    A British Medical Association report on the medical consequences of nuclear war, scheduled for commercial publication in April 1983, could damage the Government's arguments for maintaining a nuclear deterrent. The gist of the BMA's findings is that Britain could not possibly cope with the aftermath of nuclear attack. Although Prime Minister Thatcher has made no comment, both the Home Office and the Department of Health and Social Security have criticized the report's negative conclusions. The BMA is expected to take up the issue at its annual meeting, and the Labour party has called for a Parliamentary debate on the report and its implications.

  12. Non-nuclear power application of nuclear technology in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funtua, I.I.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear Technology applications are found in Food and Agriculture, Human Health, Water Resources, Industry, Environment, Education and Research.There are more potentials for the deployment of nuclear technology in more aspects of our life with needed economic development in Nigeria.Nuclear Technology plays and would continue to play vital role in Agriculture, Human health, Water resources and industry in Nigeria.Nuclear technologies have been useful in developmental efforts worldwide and for these to take hold, capacity building programmes must be expanded and the general public must have informed opinions about the benefits and risk associated with the technologies.This presentation gives an overview of nuclear technology applications in Nigeria in the following areas: Food and Agriculture, Human Health, Water Resources, Industry, Education and Research

  13. Nuclear- and radiochemistry. Vol. 2. Modern applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesch, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This work is conceived to meet the demand of state-of-the-art literature to teach the fundamentals as well as the modern applications of nuclear chemistry. The work will consist of two volumes: the first one covering the basics of nuclear chemistry such as the relevant parameters of instable atomic nuclei, the various modi of radioactive transmutations, the corresponding types of radiation including their detection and dosimetry, and finally the mechanisms of nuclear reactions. The second volume addresses relevant fields of nuclear chemistry, such as the chemistry of radioactive elements, application of radioactive nuclei in life sciences, nuclear energy, waste managements and environmental aspects, radiochemical separations, radioanalytical and spectroscopic methods, etc. Here, leading experts will contribute up-to-date knowledge on the most important application of nuclear chemistry.

  14. Emergency medical assistance programs for nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linnemann, R.E.; Mettler, F.A. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    This paper deals with a simple but practical medical support of geographically distributed nuclear reactors in isolated areas. A staff of experts at a centre devote their full attention to accident prevention and preparedness at reactor sites. They establish and maintain emergency medical programs at reactor sites and nearby support hospitals. The emphasis is on first aid and emergency treatment by medical attendants who are not and cannot be experts in radiation but do know how to treat patients. (author)

  15. [Standards in Medical Informatics: Fundamentals and Applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Obando, Fernando; Camacho Sánchez, Jhon

    2013-09-01

    The use of computers in medical practice has enabled novel forms of communication to be developed in health care. The optimization of communication processes is achieved through the use of standards to harmonize the exchange of information and provide a common language for all those involved. This article describes the concept of a standard applied to medical informatics and its importance in the development of various applications, such as computational representation of medical knowledge, disease classification and coding systems, medical literature searches and integration of biological and clinical sciences. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Planning of emergency medical treatment in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Tomoko

    1989-01-01

    Medical staffs and health physicists have shown deep concerning at the emergency plans of nuclear power plants after the TMI nuclear accident. The most important and basic countermeasure for accidents was preparing appropriate and concrete organization and plans for treatment. We have planed emergency medical treatment for radiation workers in a nuclear power plant institute. The emergency medical treatment at institute consisted of two stages, that is on-site emergency treatment at facility medical service. In first step of planning in each stage, we selected and treatment at facility medical service. In first step of planning in each stage, we selected and analyzed all possible accidents in the institute and discussed on practical treatments for some possible accidents. The manuals of concrete procedure of emergency treatment for some accidents were prepared following discussion and facilities and equipment for medical treatment and decontamination were provided. All workers in the institute had periodical training and drilling of on-site emergency treatment and mastered technique of first aid. Decontamination and operation rooms were provided in the facillity medical service. The main functions at the facility medical service have been carried out by industrial nurses. Industrial nurses have been in close co-operation with radiation safety officers and medical doctors in regional hospital. (author)

  17. Reconfigurable Antenna for Medical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth RUFUS

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Microwave imaging systems offer much promise for biomedical applications such as cancer detection because of their good penetration, non invasive and non ionizing nature and low cost. The resolution is one of the major problems faced in such systems, which can be improved by applying signal processing techniques. The key element for the microwave imaging system is the antenna. This paper present a fractal antenna which has low profile, light weight and is easy to be fabricated. It has been successfully demonstrated to have multiband characteristics. The simulated results show that the proposed antenna has very good radiation characteristics suitable for imaging applications.

  18. Biomagnetics and bioimaging for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Shoogo [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)]. E-mail: ueno@medes.m.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Sekino, Masaki [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2006-09-15

    This paper reviews medical applications of the recently developed techniques in biomagnetics and bioimaging such as transcranial magnetic stimulation, magnetoencephalography, magnetic resonance imaging, cancer therapy based on magnetic stimulation, and magnetic control of cell orientation and cell growth. These techniques are leading medicine and biology into a new horizon through the novel applications of magnetism.

  19. Biomagnetics and bioimaging for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Shoogo; Sekino, Masaki

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews medical applications of the recently developed techniques in biomagnetics and bioimaging such as transcranial magnetic stimulation, magnetoencephalography, magnetic resonance imaging, cancer therapy based on magnetic stimulation, and magnetic control of cell orientation and cell growth. These techniques are leading medicine and biology into a new horizon through the novel applications of magnetism

  20. The medical consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    The author says no one person can successfully communicate what the reality of a nuclear war would be, let alone something smaller, like the reality of a single or a small number of thermonuclear explosions. The author focuses on the effects of a single explosion and what would happen if it occurred in New York City

  1. Main Achievements 2003-2004 - Interdisciplinary Research - Applications of nuclear methods to biomedical physics, environmental biology, environmental physics, and medical physics - Mechanical properties of living cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Mechanical properties of living cells, as potential markers of pathological cell state, were investigated in their native environment by atomic force microscopy. In normal and pathological living cells, local elasticity and the specific binding interactions between biomolecules were measured, showing that the interaction force between lectins (ConA, SNA, PHA-L) and cell surface carbohydrates was altered due to cancerous transformation. In further collaboration with the Collegium Medicum of the Jagiellonian University, the elasticity of large number of blood samples, originated from healthy and hospitalized patients, was studied as a first attempt at applying AFM as a tool in medical diagnostics

  2. Medical applications of californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, G.D. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Primarily, californium-252 sources have been utilized in medicine for the treatment of neoplastic lesions. For five years, a coordinated effort between several cancer research institutions and national laboratories has developed the necessary physics, radiobiology, and engineering skills to establish an evaluation program for californium. Several more years of combined effort are required before it is known whether californium therapy is as good as or better than conventional therapy with sources like radium. Recently, development of diagnostic applications of californium in medicine has received attention. Studies comparing neutron decay activation analysis versus prompt capture gamma ray analysis are in progress. A hopeful application of prompt analysis with reasonable quantities (200 μg) of californium is the elemental analysis of bone in the human body. (U.S.)

  3. Nuclear energy applications - ethical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoermann, K.

    1980-01-01

    Following an Austrian referendum in 1978 which showed a small majority against operation of nuclear power stations, the economic penalties involved by this decision are qualitatively discussed, with emphasis on reduced standards of living. Religious considerations are examined and the difficulty of obtaining informed public opinion is stressed. Alternative sources of energy, including nuclear fusion, are briefly referred to. (G.M.E.)

  4. Medical and biomedical applications of shock waves

    CERN Document Server

    Loske, Achim M

    2017-01-01

    This book provides current, comprehensive, and clear explanations of the physics behind medical and biomedical applications of shock waves. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is one of the greatest medical advances of our time, and its techniques and clinical devices are continuously evolving. Further research continues to improve the understanding of calculi fragmentation and tissue-damaging mechanisms. Shock waves are also used in orthopedics and traumatology. Possible applications in oncology, cardiology, dentistry, gene therapy, cell transfection, transformation of fungi and bacteria, as well as the inactivation of microorganisms are promising approaches for clinical treatment, industrial applications and research. Medical and Biomedical Applications of Shock Waves is useful as a guide for students, technicians and researchers working in universities and laboratories. Chemists, biologists, physicians and veterinarians, involved in research or clinical practice will find useful advice, but also engineer...

  5. Medical profession and nuclear war: a social history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, B.; Waitzkin, H.

    1985-01-01

    Since World War II, individual physicians and medical organizations in the US have cooperated with the federal government in preparing for nuclear war. While most physicians have maintained a neutral stance, a minority have resisted federal policies. Health professionals participated actively at the wartime laboratories that developed the atomic bomb and in the medical research that followed Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Professional organizations helped with civil defense planning for nuclear conflict during the Cold War of the late 1950s and early 1960s. Medical resistance to nuclear war began in the same period, gained wide attention with the growth of Physicians for Social Responsibility in the early 1960s, declined during the Vietnam War, and vastly increased in the early 1980s. Activism by health professionals usually has responded to government policies that have increased the perceived risk of nuclear conflict. The recent return of civil defense planning has stimulated opposition in medical circles. Ambiguities of medical professionalism limit the scope of activism in the nuclear arena. These ambiguities concern the interplay of organized medicine and government, tensions between science and politics, and the difficulties of day-to-day work in medicine while the arms race continues

  6. Physics for Medical Imaging Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Caner, Alesssandra; Rahal, Ghita

    2007-01-01

    The book introduces the fundamental aspects of digital imaging and covers four main themes: Ultrasound techniques and imaging applications; Magnetic resonance and MPJ in hospital; Digital imaging with X-rays; and Emission tomography (PET and SPECT). Each of these topics is developed by analysing the underlying physics principles and their implementation, quality and safety aspects, clinical performance and recent advancements in the field. Some issues specific to the individual techniques are also treated, e.g. choice of radioisotopes or contrast agents, optimisation of data acquisition and st

  7. Non-power application of nuclear energy: Bangladesh perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naiyyum Choudhury

    2002-01-01

    Radiation technology offers a very wide scope for utilisation and commercial exploitation in various fields. All over the world, this non-power nuclear energy is being favourably considered for different applications like radiation processing of polymeric materials, non-destructive testing, nuclear and nuclear-related analytical techniques, radiation sterilization of medical products and human tissue allografts, preservation of food by controlling the physiological processes for extending shelf-life and eradication of microbial and insect pests, nuclear technology in agriculture and treatment of sewage sludge. Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission has taken radiation processing programmes in a big way right from its inception. This paper describes the studies carried out by various research groups in Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission in the planning and development of non-power nuclear technology for peaceful uses in the fields of food, agriculture, medicine, industry and environment. Both food preservation and medical sterilization of medical products are now being commercially carried out in the Gammatech facility as a joint venture company of BAEC and a private entrepreneur. Bangladesh is soon going to establish a full-fledged Tissue Bank to cater the needs of various tissue allografts for surgical replacement. Recently Government of Bangladesh has allocated US$ 1.00 million for strengthening of the Tissue Banking Laboratory. Application of nuclear techniques in agriculture is also quite intensive. BAEC has made quite a good research contribution on vulcanization of natural rubber latex, wood plastic composites, surface coating curing, polymer modification etc. Bangladesh has also made a very good progress in the fields of non-destructive testing, tracer technology, nuclear analytical techniques and nucleonic control. The impact of non-power nuclear energy in selected areas will no doubt be significant in coming years. (Author)

  8. Current trend of robotics application in medical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olanrewaju, O A; Faieza, A A; Syakirah, K

    2013-01-01

    The applications of robotics in recent years has emerged beyond the field of manufacturing or industrial robots itself. Robotics applications are now widely used in medical, transport, underwater, entertainment and military sector. In medical field, these applications should be emphasized in view of the increasing challenges due to the variety of findings in the field of medicine which requires new inventions to ease work process. The objective of this review paper is to study and presents the past and on-going research in medical robotics with emphasis on rehabilitation (assistive care) and surgery robotics which are certainly the two main practical fields where robots application are commonly used presently. The study found that, rehabilitation and surgery robotics applications grow extensively with the finding of new invention, as well as research that is being undertaken and to be undertaken. The importance of medical robot in medical industry is intended to offer positive outcomes to assist human business through a complicated task that involves a long period, accuracy, focus and other routines that cannot be accomplished by human ability alone.

  9. National emergency medical assistance program for commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linnemann, R.E.; Berger, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    Radiation Management Consultant's Emergency Medical Assistance Program (EMAP) for nuclear facilities provides a twenty-four hour emergency medical and health physics response capability, training of site and off-site personnel, and three levels of care for radiation accident victims: first air and rescue at an accident site, hospital emergency assessment and treatment, and definitive evaluation and treatment at a specialized medical center. These aspects of emergency preparedness and fifteen years of experience in dealing with medical personnel and patients with real or suspected radiation injury will be reviewed

  10. Fiber optic applications in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collette, P.; Kwapien, D.

    1984-01-01

    Fiber optic technology possesses many desirable attributes for applications in commercial nuclear power plants. The non-electrical nature of fiber optics is an important factor in an industry governed by federal safety regulations such as Class 1E isolation and separation criteria. Immunity from Electromagnetic Interference (EMI), an increasing industry problem area, is another significant characteristic. Because of the extremely wide bandwidth offered, fiber optics better addresses the data acquistion and communication requirements of the complex processes of a nuclear power plant. Potential for fiber optic sensor applications exists within the nuclear industry because their small size and physical flexibility allows access into normally inaccessible areas. They possess high accuracy and allow environmentally sensitive electronics to be remotely located. The purpose of this paper is to explore current applications for fiber optic technology in modern nuclear plants, document examples of present day usage in C-E plants and suggest possible future application areas

  11. Application of radionuclides in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.

    1983-07-01

    Four main applications of radionuclides in nuclear technology are presented which are level-, density- and thickness gauging and moisture determination. Each method is surveyed for its general principle, various designs, accuracy, errors and practical designs. (Author)

  12. Chiral unitary theory: Application to nuclear problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chiral unitary theory: Application to nuclear problems ... Physics Department, Nara Women University, Nara, Japan. 5 ... RCNP, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan ...... We acknowledge partial financial support from the DGICYT under contract ...

  13. Medical applications with synchrotron radiation in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, T.; Itai, Y. [Univ. of Tsukuba, Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba (Japan); Hyodo, K.; Ando, M. [KEK, Tsukuba (Japan); Akatsuka, T. [Yamagata Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Yamagata (Japan); Uyama, C. [National Cardiovascular Centre, Suita (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    In Japan, various medical applications of synchrotron X-ray imaging, such as angiography, monochromatic X-ray computed tomography (CT), radiography and radiation therapy, are being developed. In particular, coronary arteriography (CAG) is quite an important clinical application of synchrotron radiation. Using a two-dimensional imaging method, the first human intravenous CAG was carried out at KEK in May 1996; however, further improvements of image quality are required in clinical practice. On the other hand, two-dimensional aortographic CAG revealed canine coronary arteries as clearly as those on selective CAG, and coronary arteries less than 0.2 mm in diameter. Among applications of synchrotron radiation to X-ray CT, phase-contrast X-ray CT and fluorescent X-ray CT are expected to be very interesting future applications of synchrotron radiation. For actual clinical applications of synchrotron radiation, a medical beamline and a laboratory are now being constructed at SPring-8 in Harima. 55 refs.

  14. Immediate medical consequences of nuclear accidents: lessons from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    The immediate medical response to the nuclear accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station involved containment of the radioactivity and evacuation of the nearby population. The next step consisted of assessment of the radiation dose received by individuals, based on biological dosimetry, and treatment of those exposed. Medical care involved treatment of skin burns; measures to support bone marrow failure, gastrointestinal tract injury, and other organ damage (i.e., infection prophylaxis and transfusions) for those with lower radiation dose exposure; and bone marrow transplantation for those exposed to a high dose of radiation. At Chernobyl, two victims died immediately and 29 died of radiation or thermal injuries in the next three months. The remaining victims of the accident are currently well. A nuclear accident anywhere is a nuclear accident everywhere. Prevention and cooperation in response to these accidents are essential goals

  15. Medical applications for biomaterials in Bolivia

    CERN Document Server

    Arias, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This book investigates the potential medical benefits natural biomaterials can offer in developing countries by analyzing the case of Bolivia. The book explores the medical and health related applications of Bolivian commodities: quinoa, barley, sugarcane, corn, sorghum and sunflower seeds. This book helps readers better understand some of the key health concerns facing countries like Bolivia and how naturally derived biomaterials and therapeutics could help substantially alleviate many of their problems.

  16. Main Achievements 2003-2004 - Interdisciplinary Research - Applications of nuclear methods to biomedical physics, environmental biology, environmental physics, and medical physics - Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Tensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Tensor Imaging in the human cervical spinal cord, using an in-house developed DW-EPI sequence in the axial plane, was implemented on a 1.5 T SIGNA ECHO-PLUS GE system of the Silesian Imaging Centre HELIMED, tested on 30 volunteers to gather reference data, and used on patients with cervical spinal cord traumatic injury. Original software was developed to analyse data from DTI experiments. This work is performed in collaboration with Collegium Medicum UJ and Silesian Medical University. Special gradient coils capable of delivering gradients up 500 mT/m, a RF birdcage coil and a life-support system including temperature regulation and monitoring were designed and constructed to do MRI on transgenic mouse heart. A fast MRI cine-like FLASH sequence based on gradient echo was developed. Experiments are now under way, in collaboration with the Department of Pharmacology of the Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University to test heart-protecting drugs

  17. Medical applications for pharmacists using mobile devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aungst, Timothy Dy

    2013-01-01

    Mobile devices (eg, smartphones, tablet computers) have become ubiquitous and subsequently there has been a growth in mobile applications (apps). Concurrently, mobile devices have been integrated into health care practice due to the availability and quality of medical apps. These mobile medical apps offer increased access to clinical references and point-of-care tools. However, there has been little identification of mobile medical apps suitable for the practice of pharmacy. To address the shortage of recommendations of mobile medical apps for pharmacists in daily practice. Mobile medical apps were identified via the iTunes and Google Play Stores via the "Medical" app categories and key word searches (eg, drug information, medical calculators). In addition, reviews provided by professional mobile medical app review websites were used to identify apps. Mobile medical apps were included if they had been updated in the previous 3 months, were available in the US, used evidence-based information or literature support, had dedicated app support, and demonstrated stability. Exclusion criteria included apps that were not available in English, had advertisement bias, used nonreferenced sources, were available only via an institution-only subscription, and were web-based portals. Twenty-seven mobile apps were identified and reviewed that involved general pharmacy practice, including apps that involved drug references, clinical references, medical calculators, laboratory references, news and continuing medical education, and productivity. Mobile medical apps have a variety of features that are beneficial to pharmacy practice. Individual clinicians should consider several characteristics of these apps to determine which are suitable to incorporate into their daily practice.

  18. Medical applications of electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Henry C.; Singh, Narendra P.

    2010-04-01

    In this article, we describe two possible applications of low-intensity non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) for the treatment of malaria and cancer, respectively. In malaria treatment, a low-intensity extremely-low frequency magnetic field can be used to induce vibration of hemozoin, a super-paramagnetic polymer particle, inside malaria parasites. This disturbance could cause free radical and mechanical damages leading to the death of the parasite. This concept has been tested in vitro on malaria parasites and found to be effective. This may provide a low cost effective treatment for malaria infection in humans. The rationale for cancer treatment using low-intensity EMF is based on two concepts that have been well established in the literature: (1) low-intensity non-thermal EMF enhances cytotoxic free radicals via the iron-mediated Fenton reaction; and (2) cancer cells have higher amounts of free iron, thus are more susceptible to the cytotoxic effects of EMF. Since normal cells contain minimal amount of free iron, the effect would be selectively targeting cancer cells. Thus, no adverse side effect would be expected as in traditional chemotherapy and radiation therapy. This concept has also been tested on human cancer cell and normal cells in vitro and proved to be feasible.

  19. Medical applications of electromagnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Henry C; Singh, Narendra P, E-mail: hlai@u.washington.ed [Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-5061 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    In this article, we describe two possible applications of low-intensity non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) for the treatment of malaria and cancer, respectively. In malaria treatment, a low-intensity extremely-low frequency magnetic field can be used to induce vibration of hemozoin, a super-paramagnetic polymer particle, inside malaria parasites. This disturbance could cause free radical and mechanical damages leading to the death of the parasite. This concept has been tested in vitro on malaria parasites and found to be effective. This may provide a low cost effective treatment for malaria infection in humans. The rationale for cancer treatment using low-intensity EMF is based on two concepts that have been well established in the literature: (1) low-intensity non-thermal EMF enhances cytotoxic free radicals via the iron-mediated Fenton reaction; and (2) cancer cells have higher amounts of free iron, thus are more susceptible to the cytotoxic effects of EMF. Since normal cells contain minimal amount of free iron, the effect would be selectively targeting cancer cells. Thus, no adverse side effect would be expected as in traditional chemotherapy and radiation therapy. This concept has also been tested on human cancer cell and normal cells in vitro and proved to be feasible.

  20. Medical applications of electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Henry C; Singh, Narendra P

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we describe two possible applications of low-intensity non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) for the treatment of malaria and cancer, respectively. In malaria treatment, a low-intensity extremely-low frequency magnetic field can be used to induce vibration of hemozoin, a super-paramagnetic polymer particle, inside malaria parasites. This disturbance could cause free radical and mechanical damages leading to the death of the parasite. This concept has been tested in vitro on malaria parasites and found to be effective. This may provide a low cost effective treatment for malaria infection in humans. The rationale for cancer treatment using low-intensity EMF is based on two concepts that have been well established in the literature: (1) low-intensity non-thermal EMF enhances cytotoxic free radicals via the iron-mediated Fenton reaction; and (2) cancer cells have higher amounts of free iron, thus are more susceptible to the cytotoxic effects of EMF. Since normal cells contain minimal amount of free iron, the effect would be selectively targeting cancer cells. Thus, no adverse side effect would be expected as in traditional chemotherapy and radiation therapy. This concept has also been tested on human cancer cell and normal cells in vitro and proved to be feasible.

  1. Nuclear Data Needs and Capabilities for Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-27

    In July 2014, DOE NP carried out a review of the US Nuclear Data Program. This led to several recommendations, including that the USNDP should “devise effective and transparent mechanisms to solicit input and feedback from all stakeholders on nuclear data needs and priorities.” The review also recommended that USNDP pursue experimental activities of relevance to nuclear data; the revised 2014 Mission Statement accordingly states that the USNDP uses “targeted experimental studies” to address gaps in nuclear data. In support of these recommendations, DOE NP requested that USNDP personnel organize a Workshop on Nuclear Data Needs and Capabilities for Applications (NDNCA). This Workshop was held at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) on 27-29 May 2015. The goal of the NDNCA Workshop was to compile nuclear data needs across a wide spectrum of applied nuclear science, and to provide a summary of associated capabilities (accelerators, reactors, spectrometers, etc.) available for the required measurements. The first two days of the workshop consisted of 25 plenary talks by speakers from 16 different institutions, on nuclear energy (NE), national security (NS), isotope production (IP), and industrial applications (IA). There were also shorter “capabilities” talks that described the experimental facilities and instrumentation available for the measurement of nuclear data. This was followed by a third day of topic-specific “breakout” sessions and a final closeout session. The agenda and copies of these talks are available online at http://bang.berkeley.edu/events/NDNCA/agenda. The importance of nuclear data to both basic and applied nuclear science was reflected in the fact that while the impetus for the workshop arose from the 2014 USNDP review, joint sponsorship for the workshop was provided by the Nuclear Science and Security Consortium, a UC-Berkeley based organization funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA).

  2. Nuclear Data Needs and Capabilities for Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.

    2015-01-01

    In July 2014, DOE NP carried out a review of the US Nuclear Data Program. This led to several recommendations, including that the USNDP should 'devise effective and transparent mechanisms to solicit input and feedback from all stakeholders on nuclear data needs and priorities. The review also recommended that USNDP pursue experimental activities of relevance to nuclear data; the revised 2014 Mission Statement accordingly states that the USNDP uses 'targeted experimental studies' to address gaps in nuclear data. In support of these recommendations, DOE NP requested that USNDP personnel organize a Workshop on Nuclear Data Needs and Capabilities for Applications (NDNCA). This Workshop was held at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) on 27-29 May 2015. The goal of the NDNCA Workshop was to compile nuclear data needs across a wide spectrum of applied nuclear science, and to provide a summary of associated capabilities (accelerators, reactors, spectrometers, etc.) available for the required measurements. The first two days of the workshop consisted of 25 plenary talks by speakers from 16 different institutions, on Nuclear Energy, national security (NS), isotope production (IP), and industrial applications (IA). There were also shorter 'capabilities' talks that described the experimental facilities and instrumentation available for the measurement of nuclear data. This was followed by a third day of topic-specific 'breakout' sessions and a final closeout session. The agenda and copies of these talks are available online at http://bang.berkeley.edu/events/NDNCA/agenda. The importance of nuclear data to both basic and applied nuclear science was reflected in the fact that while the impetus for the workshop arose from the 2014 USNDP review, joint sponsorship for the workshop was provided by the Nuclear Science and Security Consortium, a UC-Berkeley based organization funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA).

  3. Hydrogels and their medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosiak, Janusz M.; Yoshii, Fumio

    1999-05-01

    Biomaterials play a key role in most approaches for engineering tissues as substitutes for functional replacement, for components of devices related to therapy and diagnosis, for drug delivery systems and supportive scaffolds for guided tissue growth. Modern biomaterials could be composed of various components, e.g. metals, ceramics, natural tissues, polymers. In this last group, the hydrogels, hydrophilic polymeric gels with requested biocompatibility and designed interaction with living surrounding seem to be one of the most promising group of biomaterials. Especially, if they are formed by means of ionizing radiation. In early 1950s, the pioneers of the radiation chemistry of polymers began some experiments with radiation crosslinking of hydrophilic polymers. However, hydrogels were analyzed mainly from the point of view of the phenomenon associated with radiation synthesis, with topology of network and relation between radiation parameters of the processes. Fundamental monographs on radiation polymer physics and chemistry written by A. Charlesby (Atomic Radition and polymers, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1960) and A. Chapiro (Radiation Chemistry of Polymeric Systems, Interscience, New York, 1962) proceed from this time. The noticeable interest in the application of radiation techniques to obtain hydrogels for biomedical purposes began in the late sixties as a result of the papers and patents invented by Japanese and American scientists, headed by Kaetsu in Japan and Hoffman in USA. Immobilization of biologically active species in hydrogel matrices, their use as drug delivery systems and enzyme traps as well as the modification of material surfaces to improve biocompatibility and their ability to bond antigens and antibodies had been the main subjects of these investigations. In this article a brief summary of investigations on mechanism and kinetics of radiation formation of hydrogels as well as some examples of commercialized hydrogel biomaterials have been

  4. Hydrogels and their medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosiak, Janusz M.; Yoshii, Fumio

    1999-01-01

    Biomaterials play a key role in most approaches for engineering tissues as substitutes for functional replacement, for components of devices related to therapy and diagnosis, for drug delivery systems and supportive scaffolds for guided tissue growth. Modern biomaterials could be composed of various components, e.g. metals, ceramics, natural tissues, polymers. In this last group, the hydrogels, hydrophilic polymeric gels with requested biocompatibility and designed interaction with living surrounding seem to be one of the most promising group of biomaterials. Especially, if they are formed by means of ionizing radiation. In early 1950s, the pioneers of the radiation chemistry of polymers began some experiments with radiation crosslinking of hydrophilic polymers. However, hydrogels were analyzed mainly from the point of view of the phenomenon associated with radiation synthesis, with topology of network and relation between radiation parameters of the processes. Fundamental monographs on radiation polymer physics and chemistry written by A. Charlesby (Atomic Radition and polymers, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1960) and A. Chapiro (Radiation Chemistry of Polymeric Systems, Interscience, New York, 1962) proceed from this time. The noticeable interest in the application of radiation techniques to obtain hydrogels for biomedical purposes began in the late sixties as a result of the papers and patents invented by Japanese and American scientists, headed by Kaetsu in Japan and Hoffman in USA. Immobilization of biologically active species in hydrogel matrices, their use as drug delivery systems and enzyme traps as well as the modification of material surfaces to improve biocompatibility and their ability to bond antigens and antibodies had been the main subjects of these investigations. In this article a brief summary of investigations on mechanism and kinetics of radiation formation of hydrogels as well as some examples of commercialized hydrogel biomaterials have been

  5. Virtual reality. Fundamentals and nuclear related applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Hirotake

    2010-01-01

    Since the first virtual reality (VR) system was developed by Dr. Ivan Sutherland in the 1960s, various research and development have been conducted to apply VR to many fields. One promising applications is a nuclear-related one. VR is useful for control room design support, operation training, maintenance training, decommissioning planning support, nuclear education, work image sharing, telecollaboration, and even providing an experimental test-bed. In this lecture note, fundamental knowledge of VR is presented first, and various VR applications to nuclear fields are stated along with their advantages. Then appropriate cases for introducing VR are summarized and future prospects are given. (author)

  6. Functionalized Nanodiamonds for Biological and Medical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Lin; Barnard, Amanda S

    2015-02-01

    Nanodiamond is a promising material for biological and medical applications, owning to its relatively inexpensive and large-scale synthesis, unique structure, and superior optical properties. However, most biomedical applications, such as drug delivery and bio-imaging, are dependent upon the precise control of the surfaces, and can be significantly affected by the type, distribution and stability of chemical funtionalisations of the nanodiamond surface. In this paper, recent studies on nanodiamonds and their biomedical applications by conjugating with different chemicals are reviewed, while highlighting the critical importance of surface chemical states for various applications.

  7. Catastrophe theory with application in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeca, Serban Constantin

    2002-01-01

    The monograph is structured on the following seven chapters: 1. Correlation of risk, catastrophe and chaos at the level of polyfunctional systems with nuclear injection; 1.1 Approaching the risk at the level of power systems; 1.2 Modelling the chaos-catastrophe-risk correlation in the structure of integrated classical and nuclear processes; 2. Catastrophe theory applied in ecosystems models and applications; 2.1 Posing the problems in catastrophe theory; 2.2 Application of catastrophe theory in the engineering of the power ecosystems with nuclear injection; 4.. Decision of abatement of the catastrophic risk based on minimal costs; 4.1 The nuclear power systems sensitive to risk-catastrophe-chaos in the structure of minimal costs; 4.2 Evaluating the market structure on the basis of power minimal costs; 4.3 Decisions in power systems built on minimal costs; 5. Models of computing the minimal costs in classical and nuclear power systems; 5.1 Calculation methodologies of power minimal cost; 5.2 Calculation methods of minimal costs in nuclear power sector; 6. Expert and neuro expert systems for supervising the risk-catastrophe-chaos correlation; 6.1 The structure of expert systems; 6.2 Application of the neuro expert program; 7. Conclusions and operational proposals; 7.1 A synthesis of the problems presented in this work; 7.2 Highlighting the novel aspects applicable in the power systems with nuclear injection

  8. Soviet medical response to the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linnemann, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    The nuclear accident at Chernobyl was the worst in the history of nuclear power. It tested the organized medical response to mass radiation casualties. This article reviews the Soviet response as reported at the 1986 postaccident review meeting in Vienna and as determined from interviews. The Soviets used three levels of care: rescue and first aid at the plant site; emergency treatment at regional hospitals; and definitive evaluation and treatment in Moscow. Diagnosis, triage, patient disposition, attendant exposure, and preventive actions are detailed. The United States would be well advised to organize its resources definitively to cope with future nonmilitary nuclear accidents

  9. Wireless Technology Application to Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Kweon; Jeong, See Chae; Jeong, Ki Hoon; Oh, Do Young; Kim, Jae Hack

    2009-01-01

    Wireless technologies are getting widely used in various industrial processes for equipment condition monitoring, process measurement and other applications. In case of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), it is required to review applicability of the wireless technologies for maintaining plant reliability, preventing equipment failure, and reducing operation and maintenance costs. Remote sensors, mobile technology and two-way radio communication may satisfy these needs. The application of the state of the art wireless technologies in NPPs has been restricted because of the vulnerability for the Electromagnetic Interference and Radio Frequency Interference (EMI/RFI) and cyber security. It is expected that the wireless technologies can be applied to the nuclear industry after resolving these issues which most of the developers and vendors are aware of. This paper presents an overview and information on general wireless deployment in nuclear facilities for future application. It also introduces typical wireless plant monitoring system application in the existing NPPs

  10. Nuclear properties for astrophysical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, P.; Nix, J.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kratz, K.L. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernchemie

    1994-09-23

    We tabulate the ground-state odd-proton and odd-neutron spins, proton and neutron pairing gaps, binding energies, neuton separation energies, quantities related to {beta}-delayed one, two and three neutron emission probabilities, {beta}-decay Q values and half-lives with respect to Gamow-Teller decay, proton separation energies, and {alpha}-decay Q values and half-lives. The starting point of the calculations is a calculation of nuclear ground-states and (information based on the finite-range droplet model and the folded-Yukawa single-particle model published in a previous issue of ATOMIC DATA AND NUCLEAR DATA TABLES. The {beta}-delayed neutron-emission probabilities and Gamow-Teller {beta}-decay rates are obtained from a QRPA model that uses single-particle levels and wave-functions at the calculated nuclear ground-state shape as the starting point.

  11. Nuclear medical examinations of patients with transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratz, K.F.; Schober, O.; Schwarzrock, R.; Ringe, B.; Haverich, A.; Medizinische Hochschule Hannover; Medizinische Hochschule Hannover

    1987-01-01

    Present experience concerning the contribution of nuclear medicine to the follow-up of transplanted organs, such as kidneys, livers, and hearts, is based on analyses of the course of more than 1100 transplanted kidneys, 200 orthotopic livers, and 100 orthotopic transplanted hearts. In the kidneys, 99m Tc-DTPA is used to assess both perfusion and glomerular filtration rate, e.g. rejection and acute tubular necrosis. In combination with ultrasound nuclear medicine procedures serve in the detection of surgical complications, e.g. urinary leakage, vascular occlusion. In the follow-up of liver transplanted patients cholescintigraphy with 99m Tc-DISPA (or JODIDA) is a test for the patency and integrity of bile ducts or hepaticoenterostomy in the grafted patient, e.g. bile leakage, stenosis. The nutritive hepatic flow is estimated by colloid uptake measurements 99m Tc-MMS and the corresponding RES function. Despite inherent limitations the arterial-to-total perfusion ratio is measured with 99m Tc-DTPA, e.g. rejection, vascular problem. Rejection monitoring in orthotopic transplanted hearts includes routine MUGA (multiple gated blood acquisition) studies. The left ventricular ejection fraction is of major value compared to regional parameters of mortality (Fourier analysis) e.g. rejection, infection. 111 In-oxine granulocyte scans and methods for the detection of bleeding are of minor importance and relevance in the follow-up of transplanted organs. The article discusses the value of the diagnostic procedures in terms of statistical parameters, such as sensitivity, specifity, and accuracy. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Linacs for medical and industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Linear accelerators for medical and industrial applications have become an important commercial business. Microwave electron linacs for cancer radiation therapy and high-energy industrial radiography form the bulk of this market, but these, as well as induction linacs, are now being offered for radiation processing applications such as sterilization of disposable medical products, food preservation and material modifications. The radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac has now made the ion linac also practical for commercial applications in medicine and industry, including radiation therapy, isotope production, neutron production, materials modification, and energy transfer processes. Ion linacs for several of these applications will soon be commercially available. The market for both ion and electron linacs is expected to significantly grow in several exciting and important areas

  13. Medical response to a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenot, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The medical handling of a severely irradiated casualty is similar to the treatment of aplasia when caused by medical diseases. The diagnosis and prognosis depend on the level of the dose absorbed by the bone marrow, which is one of the most sensitive organ to radiation, as well on the distribution of the exposure within the body and its distribution in time. Spontaneous repair from isolated patches may be sufficient for the repopulation of deserted marrow; in such cases, bone marrow grafting should not be considered as it would be hazardous. In most case the hematopoietic deficiency will be corrected by substitution therapy, mainly based on transfusions of red cells and platelets, completed with a severe prevention - and treatment when necessary - of infection resulting from immune deficiency. When large groups of individuals are involved, special attention should be given to early diagnosis through an appropriate triage, dividing the victims into main categories such as the individuals with combined injuries, the individuals likely to have received high doses and the individuals likely to have received low doses. The first classification into dose levels categories can be based on clinical signs and hematological symptoms

  14. 21 CFR 515.10 - Medicated feed mill license applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medicated feed mill license applications. 515.10... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Applications § 515.10 Medicated feed mill license applications. (a) Medicated feed mill license applications (Forms FDA 3448) may...

  15. Regulatory frameworks for mobile medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Censi, Federica; Mattei, Eugenio; Triventi, Michele; Calcagnini, Giovanni

    2015-05-01

    A mobile application (app) is a software program that runs on mobile communication devices such as a smartphone. The concept of a mobile medical app has gained popularity and diffusion but its reference regulatory context has raised discussion and concerns. Theoretically, a mobile app can be developed and uploaded easily by any person or entity. Thus, if an app can have some effects on the health of the users, it is mandatory to identify its reference regulatory context and the applicable prescriptions.

  16. Medical applications of diamond particles & surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Roger J Narayan; Ryan D. Boehm; Anirudha V. Sumant

    2011-01-01

    Diamond has been considered for use in several medical applications due to its unique mechanical, chemical, optical, and biological properties. In this paper, methods for preparing synthetic diamond surfaces and particles are described. In addition, recent developments involving the use of diamond in prostheses, sensing, imaging, and drug delivery applications are reviewed. These developments suggest that diamond-containing structures will provide significant improvements in the diagnosis and...

  17. Applications of nuclear technology in industry, environment and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera Ruiz, H.

    1998-01-01

    This article contains information on different applications of nuclear technology, such as: sterilization of single use medical products, radiation serialization of pharmaceutical products,radiation treatment of disposable products, in Europe, radiation treatment of micro-titer plates, several crosslinking processes, radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex, irradiation of polymers to obtain dressings for burns, ulcers bedsores and skin grafts, production of ground water with accelerated electrons in combination with accelerated electrons in combination with ozone, radiation treatment of hospital wastes. (S. Grainger)

  18. Supercomputer applications in nuclear research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Misako

    1992-01-01

    The utilization of supercomputers in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute is mainly reported. The fields of atomic energy research which use supercomputers frequently and the contents of their computation are outlined. What is vectorizing is simply explained, and nuclear fusion, nuclear reactor physics, the hydrothermal safety of nuclear reactors, the parallel property that the atomic energy computations of fluids and others have, the algorithm for vector treatment and the effect of speed increase by vectorizing are discussed. At present Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute uses two systems of FACOM VP 2600/10 and three systems of M-780. The contents of computation changed from criticality computation around 1970, through the analysis of LOCA after the TMI accident, to nuclear fusion research, the design of new type reactors and reactor safety assessment at present. Also the method of using computers advanced from batch processing to time sharing processing, from one-dimensional to three dimensional computation, from steady, linear to unsteady nonlinear computation, from experimental analysis to numerical simulation and so on. (K.I.)

  19. Nuclear spinner for SATCOM applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlin, J.J.; Raab, B.

    1976-01-01

    In order to avoid the power limitations of the solar-powered spinner satellites, operators of commercial communications spacecraft have turned to three-axis-stabilized designs. Nuclear-powered spacecraft can avoid this limitation, while retaining the desirable weight, stability, and cost advantages of the spinner approach. A nuclear spinner satellite launched on a Delta-3914 can provide enough weight and volume capacity for both C- and Ku-band operation, with a total capacity exceeding 40,000 one-way circuits, almost twice the capacity of present-day solar-three-axis designs. It is shown that, based on the criterion of cost-per-satellite-circuit in orbit, a nuclear spinner Satcom is superior to any present day solar-powered satellite in the Delta-launched class. However, in order to retain this superiority in the face of anticipated advances in solar power technology, a nuclear power system of at least 4 watts (e)/lb specific power is required

  20. Medical image informatics infrastructure design and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H K; Wong, S T; Pietka, E

    1997-01-01

    Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) is a system integration of multimodality images and health information systems designed for improving the operation of a radiology department. As it evolves, PACS becomes a hospital image document management system with a voluminous image and related data file repository. A medical image informatics infrastructure can be designed to take advantage of existing data, providing PACS with add-on value for health care service, research, and education. A medical image informatics infrastructure (MIII) consists of the following components: medical images and associated data (including PACS database), image processing, data/knowledge base management, visualization, graphic user interface, communication networking, and application oriented software. This paper describes these components and their logical connection, and illustrates some applications based on the concept of the MIII.

  1. Clinical Training of Medical Physicists Specializing in Nuclear Medicine (Spanish Edition); Capacitacion clinica de fisicos medicos especialistas en medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-15

    The application of radiation in human health, for both diagnosis and treatment of disease, is an important component of the work of the IAEA. The responsibility for the increasingly technical aspects of this work is undertaken by the medical physicist. To ensure good practice in this vital area, structured clinical training programmes are required to complement academic learning. This publication is intended to be a guide to the practical implementation of such a programme for nuclear medicine. There is a general and growing awareness that radiation medicine is increasingly dependent on well trained medical physicists who are based in a clinical setting. However an analysis of the availability of medical physicists indicates a large shortfall of qualified and capable professionals. This is particularly evident in developing countries. While strategies to increase educational opportunities are critical to such countries, the need for guidance on structured clinical training was recognized by the members of the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA) for the Asia-Pacific region. Consequently, a technical cooperation regional project (RAS6038) under the RCA programme was formulated to address this need in this region by developing suitable material and establishing its viability. Development of a clinical training guide for medical physicists specialising in nuclear medicine was started in 2009 with the appointment of a core drafting committee of regional and international experts. The publication drew on the experience of clinical training in Australia, Croatia and Sweden and was moderated by physicists working in the Asian region. The present publication follows the approach of earlier IAEA publications in the Training Course Series, specifically Nos 37 and 47, Clinical Training of Medical Physicists Specializing in Radiation Oncology and Clinical Training of Medical Physicists

  2. Preface book Microfluidics for medical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Albert; Segerink, Loes Irene

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the major microfluidics techniques and platforms used for medicine and medical applications, providing the reader with an overview of the recent developments in this field. It is divided in three parts: (1) tissue and organs on-chip, (2) microfluidics for medicine

  3. Curve Matching with Applications in Medical Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Martin; Bruveris, Martins; Harms, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, Riemannian shape analysis of curves and surfaces has found several applications in medical image analysis. In this paper we present a numerical discretization of second order Sobolev metrics on the space of regular curves in Euclidean space. This class of metrics has several...

  4. Mineral-PET Kimberlite sorting by nuclear-medical technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ballestrero, S; Cafferty, L; Caveney, R; Connell, SH; Cook, M; Dalton, M; Gopal, H; Ives, N; Lee, C A; Mampe, W; Phoku, M; Roodt, A; Sibande, W; Sellschop, J P F; Topkin, J; Unwucholaa, D A

    2010-01-01

    A revolutionary new technology for diamond bearing rock sorting which has its roots in medical-nuclear physics has been taken through a substantial part of the R&D phase. This has led to the construction of the technology demonstrator. Experiments using the technology demonstrator and experiments at a hospital have established the scientific and technological viability of the project.

  5. Nuclear security of Cuba’s medical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlstrom, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Cuba is a leading hub for medical research and cancer treatment in Latin America and the Caribbean. Physical protection is installed at radiotherapy facilities to detect entry of and delay access to an intruder. This minimizes the likelihood of unauthorized access and maximizes nuclear security.

  6. Medical intervention in case of nuclear or radiation event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, J.; Bourguignon, M.; Carli, P.; Carosella, E.; Challeton de Vathaire, C.; Court, L.; Ducousso, R.; Facon, A.; Fleutot, J.B.; Goldstein, P.; Gourmelon, P.; Herbelet, G.; Kolodie, H.; Lallemand, J.; Martin, J.C.; Menthonnex, P.; Masse, R.; Origny, S.; Pasnon, J.; Peton Klein, D.; Rougy, C.; Schoulz, D.; Romet, G.; Telion, C.; Vrousos, C.

    2002-01-01

    This guide aims to be a practical tool for intervenors in case of nuclear or radiation accident. It proposes many sheets to favor the reactivity and the implementing of adapted measures. It concerns the course of action to take in case of irradiation accident or contamination and the reception in medical structure or a hospital. (A.L.B.)

  7. An overview on extremity dosimetry in medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhavere, F.; Carinou, E.; Donadille, L.; Ginjaume, M.; Jankowski, J.; Rimpler, A.; Sans Merce, M.

    2008-01-01

    Some activities of EURADOS Working Group 9 (WG9) are presently funded by the European Commission (CONRAD project). The objective of WG9 is to promote and co-ordinate research activities for the assessment of occupational exposures to staff at workplaces in interventional radiology (IR) and nuclear medicine. For some of these applications, the skin of the fingers is the limiting organ for individual monitoring of external radiation. Therefore, sub-group 1 of WG9 deals with the use of extremity dosemeters in medical radiation fields. The wide variety of radiation field characteristics present in a medical environment together with the difficulties in measuring a local dose that is representative for the maximum skin dose, usually with one single detector, makes it difficult to perform accurate extremity dosimetry. Sub-group 1 worked out a thorough literature review on extremity dosimetry issues in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine and positron emission tomography, interventional radiology and interventional cardiology and brachytherapy. Some studies showed that the annual dose limits could be exceeded if the required protection measures are not taken, especially in nuclear medicine. The continuous progress in new applications and techniques requires an important effort in radiation protection and training. (authors)

  8. Medical applications of superconducting quantum interference devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Gen

    2011-01-01

    SQUIDs (Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices) are applied to clinical areas and basic medical science fields because of their potential for measuring a minute magnetic signal from the human body. Magnetoencephalography, one of their applications, is used for the functional mapping of the brain cortex before surgery and the localization of focus of epilepsy. Recently, their applications to the early-stage detection of dementia and the localization of brain ischemia are suggested. Another application of SQUIDs is magnetospinography, which detects the conduction block in spinal cord signal propagation. (author)

  9. Medical management of radiation/nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, Aseem

    2014-01-01

    The medical issues in a radioactive fallout eventuality include radioprotectors, radioactivity de corporators, hemopoietic system regenerators, community and individual dosage issues, logistic and scale-up issues, regulatory issues. These issues are further compounded by the fact that published literature is (and will be) sparse and outdated, and pharma majors are unlikely to involve themselves in the R and D as well as in the supply chain. Self-developed out-of-box solutions are therefore needed. INMAS, DRDO has recently made progress on all these fronts. Many of these products have already been approved by DCGI and others are in an advanced development stage. Radioprotector has been and is an Achilles heals for the concerned scientists and a number of state agencies for a long time. However, it is a difficult area to work in for a number of reasons. New research in this area shall be highlighted. Finally, clinical trials, which are considered a norm and the final step before introduction of new drugs, are not strictly possible in case of decorporating agents and radioprotectors. Ways and means to collect safety-efficacy data shall be discussed

  10. Measuring emotional intelligence of medical school applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrothers, R M; Gregory, S W; Gallagher, T J

    2000-05-01

    To discuss the development, pilot testing, and analysis of a 34-item semantic differential instrument for measuring medical school applicants' emotional intelligence (the EI instrument). The authors analyzed data from the admission interviews of 147 1997 applicants to a six-year BS/MD program that is composed of three consortium universities. They compared the applicants' scores on traditional admission criteria (e.g., GPA and traditional interview assessments) with their scores on the EI instrument (which comprised five dimensions of emotional intelligence), breaking the data out by consortium university (each of which has its own educational ethos) and gender. They assessed the EI instrument's reliability and validity for assessing noncognitive personal and interpersonal qualities of medical school applicants. The five dimensions of emotional intelligence (maturity, compassion, morality, sociability, and calm disposition) indicated fair to excellent internal consistency: reliability coefficients were .66 to .95. Emotional intelligence as measured by the instrument was related to both being female and matriculating at the consortium university that has an educational ethos that values the social sciences and humanities. Based on this pilot study, the 34-item EI instrument demonstrates the ability to measure attributes that indicate desirable personal and interpersonal skills in medical school applicants.

  11. Optical Fibre Pressure Sensors in Medical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Poeggel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on reviewing the current state-of-the-art of optical fibre pressure sensors for medical applications. Optical fibres have inherent advantages due to their small size, immunity to electromagnetic interferences and their suitability for remote monitoring and multiplexing. The small dimensions of optical fibre-based pressure sensors, together with being lightweight and flexible, mean that they are minimally invasive for many medical applications and, thus, particularly suited to in vivo measurement. This means that the sensor can be placed directly inside a patient, e.g., for urodynamic and cardiovascular assessment. This paper presents an overview of the recent developments in optical fibre-based pressure measurements with particular reference to these application areas.

  12. Optical Fibre Pressure Sensors in Medical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeggel, Sven; Tosi, Daniele; Duraibabu, DineshBabu; Leen, Gabriel; McGrath, Deirdre; Lewis, Elfed

    2015-07-15

    This article is focused on reviewing the current state-of-the-art of optical fibre pressure sensors for medical applications. Optical fibres have inherent advantages due to their small size, immunity to electromagnetic interferences and their suitability for remote monitoring and multiplexing. The small dimensions of optical fibre-based pressure sensors, together with being lightweight and flexible, mean that they are minimally invasive for many medical applications and, thus, particularly suited to in vivo measurement. This means that the sensor can be placed directly inside a patient, e.g., for urodynamic and cardiovascular assessment. This paper presents an overview of the recent developments in optical fibre-based pressure measurements with particular reference to these application areas.

  13. Mammalian synthetic biology: emerging medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Zoltán; Pereira, Hugo Sant'Ana; Homma, Takayuki; Pedrigi, Ryan M; Krams, Rob

    2015-05-06

    In this review, we discuss new emerging medical applications of the rapidly evolving field of mammalian synthetic biology. We start with simple mammalian synthetic biological components and move towards more complex and therapy-oriented gene circuits. A comprehensive list of ON-OFF switches, categorized into transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational and post-translational, is presented in the first sections. Subsequently, Boolean logic gates, synthetic mammalian oscillators and toggle switches will be described. Several synthetic gene networks are further reviewed in the medical applications section, including cancer therapy gene circuits, immuno-regulatory networks, among others. The final sections focus on the applicability of synthetic gene networks to drug discovery, drug delivery, receptor-activating gene circuits and mammalian biomanufacturing processes. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Optical Fibre Pressure Sensors in Medical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeggel, Sven; Tosi, Daniele; Duraibabu, DineshBabu; Leen, Gabriel; McGrath, Deirdre; Lewis, Elfed

    2015-01-01

    This article is focused on reviewing the current state-of-the-art of optical fibre pressure sensors for medical applications. Optical fibres have inherent advantages due to their small size, immunity to electromagnetic interferences and their suitability for remote monitoring and multiplexing. The small dimensions of optical fibre-based pressure sensors, together with being lightweight and flexible, mean that they are minimally invasive for many medical applications and, thus, particularly suited to in vivo measurement. This means that the sensor can be placed directly inside a patient, e.g., for urodynamic and cardiovascular assessment. This paper presents an overview of the recent developments in optical fibre-based pressure measurements with particular reference to these application areas. PMID:26184228

  15. Mobile robotics application in the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S.L.; White, J.R. [REMOTEC, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Mobile robots have been developed to perform hazardous operations in place of human workers. Applications include nuclear plant inspection/maintenance, decontamination and decommissioning police/military explosive ordinance disposal (EOD), hostage/terrorist negotiations and fire fighting. Nuclear facilities have proven that robotic applications can be cost-effective solutions to reducing personnel exposure and plant downtime. The first applications of mobile robots in the nuclear industry began in the early 1980`s, with the first vehicles being one of a kind machines or adaptations of commercial EOD robots. These activities included efforts by numerous commercial companies, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, EPRI, and several national laboratories. Some of these efforts were driven by the recovery and cleanup activities at TMI which demonstrated the potential and need for a remote means of performing surveillance and maintenance tasks in nuclear plants. The use of these machines is now becoming commonplace in nuclear facilities throughout the world. The hardware maturity and the confidence of the users has progressed to the point where the applications of mobile robots is not longer considered a novelty. These machines are being used in applications where the result is to help achieve more aggressive goals for personnel radiation exposure and plant availability, perform tasks more efficiently, and allow plant operators to retrieve information from areas previously considered inaccessible. Typical examples include surveillance in high radiation areas (during operation and outage activities), radiation surveys, waste handling, and decontamination evolutions. This paper will discuss this evolution including specific applications experiences, examples of currently available technology, and the benefits derived from the use of mobile robotic vehicles in commercial nuclear power facilities.

  16. Mobile robotics application in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.L.; White, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Mobile robots have been developed to perform hazardous operations in place of human workers. Applications include nuclear plant inspection/maintenance, decontamination and decommissioning police/military explosive ordinance disposal (EOD), hostage/terrorist negotiations and fire fighting. Nuclear facilities have proven that robotic applications can be cost-effective solutions to reducing personnel exposure and plant downtime. The first applications of mobile robots in the nuclear industry began in the early 1980's, with the first vehicles being one of a kind machines or adaptations of commercial EOD robots. These activities included efforts by numerous commercial companies, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, EPRI, and several national laboratories. Some of these efforts were driven by the recovery and cleanup activities at TMI which demonstrated the potential and need for a remote means of performing surveillance and maintenance tasks in nuclear plants. The use of these machines is now becoming commonplace in nuclear facilities throughout the world. The hardware maturity and the confidence of the users has progressed to the point where the applications of mobile robots is not longer considered a novelty. These machines are being used in applications where the result is to help achieve more aggressive goals for personnel radiation exposure and plant availability, perform tasks more efficiently, and allow plant operators to retrieve information from areas previously considered inaccessible. Typical examples include surveillance in high radiation areas (during operation and outage activities), radiation surveys, waste handling, and decontamination evolutions. This paper will discuss this evolution including specific applications experiences, examples of currently available technology, and the benefits derived from the use of mobile robotic vehicles in commercial nuclear power facilities

  17. Defining nuclear medical file formal based on DICOM standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Bin; Jin Yongjie; Li Yulan

    2001-01-01

    With the wide application of computer technology in medical area, DICOM is becoming the standard of digital imaging and communication. The author discusses how to define medical imaging file formal based on DICOM standard. It also introduces the format of ANMIS system the authors defined the validity and integrality of this format

  18. Applications of nuclear techniques and research 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The application of nuclear techniques, i.e. those techniques where use is made of isotopes and radiation, continues to contribute to progress in science, technology, agriculture, industry and medicine. Nuclear applications found their way into the IAEA's activities from the very beginning, and their promotion constitutes today a substantial fraction of the IAEA's Technical Co-operation and Research Contract Programmes. The 1990 selection is opened by a review of the role and function of the IAEA's Research Contract Programme, which is one of the Agency's most effective tools for promoting and developing nuclear applications. Applications in agriculture are covered in two articles dealing respectively with issues affecting the acceptance of food irradiation by governments, the food industry and consumers and with the use of radiation to induce plant mutation, a practical tool available to plant breeders in their effort to develop better quality crops. The following article deals with a typical nuclear application in medicine, i.e. the use of radionuclides in the diagnosis of lung diseases and in investigations related to the respiratory function. The use of environmental isotopes to assess the energy potential of geothermal fields is the next subject, a good example of nuclear methods applied to the evaluation of natural resources. The 1990 review concludes with a presentation prepared by the Third World Academy of Sciences on magnetic fusion research activity in the developing countries and its connection with the IAEA's own fusion programme

  19. Ionizing radiations: medical and industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, H.

    1994-01-01

    Medical diagnosis with X-rays is the best known use of ionizing radiations on account of its wide diffusion (about 57 500 units in France). Other medical applications of artificial radionuclides involving a smaller number of installations are also well known, i.e. gamma teletherapy (167 units), brachytherapy (119 units) or therapy using unsealed sources (257 units). The industrial uses of ionising radiation, the diversity of which is very large, are generally less well known. The use of X- and gamma rays for non-destructive testing or food preservation and the use of tracers have some notoriety, but few people know that radioactive sources are involved in the measurement of parameters controlling industrial processes. The number of persons authorized to hold, use and/or sell artificial radionuclides amounts to about 4 800, all applications included. Approximately 650 of them are involved in therapy and 500 in medical research. The aim of this paper, which is not exhaustive, is to review a few typical applications of radionuclides both in the medical and industrial fields. It also supplies data both on the number of people authorized to use each technique and the radionuclides involved. (author). 10 tabs

  20. DosedPet application for Nuclear Medicine: Calculation of the volume of medication needed for PET/CT patient; Aplicativo DosedPet para uso em Medicina Nuclear: calculo do volume de medicamento necessario para paciente de PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Pedro Augusto do; Rodrigues, Araken dos S. Werneck, E-mail: pedroan88@gmail.com [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnologias em Saude

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the application (APP) DosePet that calculates the amount of medicament for PET / CT in patients according to the predetermined radiation dose. The software has been designed using the web MIT App Inventor2 tool for Android platform. The application allows the workers to simulate the amount of radiation still existing in the facilities after the applications, increasing security and reducing exposures, and enable greater efficiency in the use of the radiopharmaceutical. (author)

  1. Novel scintillators and silicon photomultipliers for nuclear physics and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, David

    2015-01-01

    Until comparatively recently, scintillator detectors were seen as an old-fashioned tool of nuclear physics with more attention being given to areas such as gamma-ray tracking using high-purity germanium detectors. Next-generation scintillator detectors, such as lanthanum bromide, which were developed for the demands of space science and gamma- ray telescopes, are found to have strong applicability to low energy nuclear physics. Their excellent timing resolution makes them very suitable for fast timing measurements and their much improved energy resolution compared to conventional scintillators promises to open up new avenues in nuclear physics research which were presently hard to access. Such 'medium-resolution' spectroscopy has broad interest across several areas of contemporary interest such as the study of nuclear giant resonances. In addition to the connections to space science, it is striking that the demands of contemporary medical imaging have strong overlap with those of experimental nuclear physics. An example is the interest in PET-MRI combined imaging which requires putting scintillator detectors in a high magnetic field environment. This has led to strong advances in the area of silicon photomultipliers, a solid-state replacement for photomultiplier tubes, which are insensitive to magnetic fields. Broad application to nuclear physics of this technology may be foreseen. (paper)

  2. Microprocessors applications in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethridge, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    Microprocessors in the nuclear industry, particularly at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, have been and are being utilized in a wide variety of applications ranging from data acquisition and control for basic physics research to monitoring special nuclear material in long-term storage. Microprocessor systems have been developed to support weapons diagnostics measurements during underground weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site. Multiple single-component microcomputers are now controlling the measurement and recording of nuclear reactor operating power levels. The CMOS microprocessor data-acquisition instrumentation has operated on balloon flights to monitor power plant emissions. Target chamber mirror-positioning equipment for laser fusion facilities employs microprocessors

  3. Ion thermometers - nuclear reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenkranz, J.; Jakes, D.

    The principle is briefly described of ion thermometers and the effects are reported of radiation on the ion crystal properties. The results show that ion thermometers are applicable for in-core measurements. (J.P.)

  4. Review of the study and application on nuclear forensic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Cheng'an; Song Jiashu; Wu Jun

    2009-01-01

    For the interests of national security, many scientists who work in the field of nuclear forensic analysis have carried out extensive work in the past on the detection of radioactive material and attributions study, developed a series of scientific and technical means to trace and detect illicit circulation of nuclear materials used to weapons and other radioactive materials which impair public security. All these questions relate to physical, chemical, biological attribution of materials. The nuclear forensic analysis has already become a special, up-to-date sphere of learning. The goal of the study of nuclear forensics is to prevent terrorists from acquiring not only nuclear weapons but also mate- rials that can be used to make such weapons, including radioactive materials for nuclear power plants, and medical radioisotope to and provide us as many clues of environmental links as possible that could help us trace the smuggling path, to answer the following questions: What is the material? Where did it come from? How did it pass from legitimate to illicit use? How did it get to where it was interdicted? Who did it? This paper outlines the contents, analysis means and application of nuclear forensics. (authors)

  5. Medical support to a disabled nuclear platform at sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Kansal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Indian Navy has recently joined the select band of countries that are operating nuclear powered platforms. Despite the fact, that the present day nuclear technology is quite advanced and safe; accidents on board can still happen. An accident on board a Nuclear Platform at sea can result in ‘Radiation Exposure and Contamination’ to the crew members; which can prove catastrophic. Management of casualties on board a Nuclear platform at sea presents a formidable challenge. The distressed platform being at sea will also bring in many other operational variables like distance from shore, geographical location, weather conditions, availability of rescue assets and trained manpower etc. Consequently, there is a necessity to have a well defined ‘Medical Contingency Plan’ to deal with any such eventuality happening at sea. The successful execution of the contingency plan will depend upon close coordination among diverse authorities like local Service Hospital, Command Medical & Operational Authorities, Naval Dockyard, Radiation Safety Organisations and the Rescue/Hospital Ship crew. The need is to have a holistic review of our existing medical set up and integrate new equipment, training methodologies, operating procedures to have a credible response capability.

  6. Pulmonary applications of nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, E.L.; Divgi, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear medicine techniques have a long history in pulmonary medicine, one that has been continually changing and growing. Even longstanding methods, such as perfusion scanning for embolic disease or for pretherapy pulmonary function evaluation, have largely withstood the test of recent careful scrutiny. Not only have these techniques remained an important part of the diagnostic armamentarium, but we have learned how to use them more effectively. Furthermore, because of technical advances, we are in a phase of expanding roles for nuclear imaging. Gallium citrate scanning for the mediastinal staging and follow-up of lymphoma has been recognized as a valuable adjunct to the anatomic information provided by CT and MRI. With the growth of PET technology in areas that have been explored in a limited fashion until now, such as noncardiogenic pulmonary edema and lung carcinoma, evaluation and management of these patients may substantially improve. Finally, in the field of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, attention is now being turned to both the diagnostic and the therapeutic problems presented by lung carcinoma. As radiolabeling methods are refined and as new and better antibodies are developed, radioimmunodetection and therapy in lung carcinoma may begin to make inroads on this common and hard to control disease.157 references

  7. Integrating virtual reality applications in nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, Michael; Crete, Jean-Maurice; Pickett, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) tools have already been developed and deployed in the nuclear industry, including in nuclear power plant construction, project management, equipment and system design, and training. Recognized as powerful tools for, inter alia, integration of data, simulation of activities, design of facilities, validation of concepts and mission planning, their application in nuclear safeguards is still very limited. However, VR tools may eventually offer transformative potential for evolving the future safeguards system to be more fully information-driven. The paper focuses especially on applications in the area of training that have been underway in the Department of Safeguards of the International Atomic Energy Agency. It also outlines future applications envisioned for safeguards information and knowledge management, and information-analytic collaboration. The paper identifies some technical and programmatic pre-requisites for realizing the integrative potential of VR technologies. If developed with an orientation to integrating applications through compatible platforms, software, and models, virtual reality tools offer the long-term potential of becoming a real 'game changer,' enabling a qualitative leap in the efficiency and effectiveness of nuclear safeguards. The IAEA invites Member States, industry, and academia to make proposals as to how such integrating potential in the use of virtual reality technology for nuclear safeguards could be realized. (author)

  8. Economics on nuclear techniques application in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Masao

    1979-01-01

    The economics of the application of nuclear techniques to industry is discussed. Nuclear techniques were applied to gauging (physical measurement), analysis, a radioactive tracer method, electrolytic dissociation, and radiography and were found to be very economical. They can be applied to manufacturing, mining, oceano-engineering, environmental engineering, and construction, all of which have a great influence on economics. However, because the application of a radioactive tracer technique does not have a direct influence on economics, it is difficult to estimate how beneficial it is. The cost-benefit ratio method recommended by IAEA was used for economical calculations. Examples of calculations made in gauging and analysis are given. (Ueda, J.)

  9. Effects produced by nuclear weapons from the medical viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messerschmidt, O.

    1982-01-01

    Recommendations are given for the protection commission of the Minister of the Interior on diagnostics and therapy of the acute radiation syndrome. In summary form, findings from the medical viewpoint are given on the biological effects of nuclear explosions - irrespective of their being produced in peace times by reactor accidents or by use of nuclear weapons in warfare. The statements on the therapy of radiation injuries are a practical aid to the experienced catastrophe physician and suggest to the still unexperienced physician to extend his training for mastering radiation injuries in catastrophes. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Advanced teleoperation in nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, W.R.; Feldman, M.J.; Martin, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    A new generation of integrated remote maintenance systems is being developed to meet the needs of future nuclear fuel reprocessing at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Development activities cover all aspects of an advanced teleoperated maintenance system with particular emphasis on a new force-reflecting servomanipulator concept. The new manipulator, called the advanced servomanipulator, is microprocessor controlled and is designed to achieve force-reflection performance near that of mechanical master/slave manipulators. The advanced servomanipulator uses a gear-drive transmission which permits modularization for remote maintainability (by other advanced servomanipulators) and increases reliability. Human factors analysis has been used to develop an improved man/machine interface concept based upon colorgraphic displays and menu-driven tough screens. Initial test and evaluation of two advanced servomanipulator slave arms and several other development components have begun. 9 references, 5 figures

  11. Cytogenetic analysis for radiation dose assessment in the medical nuclear workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milacic, S.; Jovicic, D.; Rakic, B.; Djokovic, J.

    2009-01-01

    Radionuclide is used in medicine for laboratory research, laboratory testing for enzymes, hormones, medicines in vitro and in vivo in nuclear medicine (NM) for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Commissioners, who performed the application radionuclide (RN), are nuclear medicine specialists, senior medical and radiological technicians, nurses and laboratory technicians. They are daily exposed to ionizing irradiations, from outside sources, as well as inside if they were to contamination. Medical nuclear workers (MNW) are exposed to ionizing irradiation, working with radio nuclides. MNW are periodically reviewed for contamination verified. Cytogenetic analysis of peripheral-blood lymphocytes (Ly) is the most sensitive tests for detecting a clinical biologic response to ionizing radiation. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations (f ca) in peripheral circulating lymphocytes (Ly) correlates with the dose received. (author) [sr

  12. Magnetic nanoparticle design for medical application

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mornet, S.; Vasseur, S.; Grasset, F.; Veverka, Pavel; Goglio, G.; Demourgues, A.; Portier, J.; Pollert, Emil; Duguet, E.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 34, - (2006), s. 237-247 ISSN 0079-6786 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS100100553; GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN200200651 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : magnetic nanoparticles * medical applications * magnetic resonance imaging * magnetic hyperthermia Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.500, year: 2006

  13. Medical imaging technology reviews and computational applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dewi, Dyah

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the latest research findings and reviews in the field of medical imaging technology, covering ultrasound diagnostics approaches for detecting osteoarthritis, breast carcinoma and cardiovascular conditions, image guided biopsy and segmentation techniques for detecting lung cancer, image fusion, and simulating fluid flows for cardiovascular applications. It offers a useful guide for students, lecturers and professional researchers in the fields of biomedical engineering and image processing.

  14. Nano materials for Medical and Dental Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yub Kwon, T.; Oh, D.S.; Narayanan, R.

    2015-01-01

    Welcome to this special issue. Nano science and nano technology concepts are applicable across all fields of science and a more widespread application of nano materials and nano technologies is imminent or already occurring in many areas, including health care. Today is scientists take those cutting-edge technologies and concepts and apply them to medicine and dentistry. They are finding a wide variety of ways to make medical and dental materials at the nano scale to take advantage of their enhanced physical and biological properties.The purpose of this special issue is to publish high-quality research papers as well as review articles addressing recent advances in the field of nano materials for medical and dental applications. A particular interest is given to papers exploring or discussing nano materials and nano technologies related to delivery system, bonding substitutes, and surface modification techniques applicable in these areas. For this special issue, several investigators were invited to contribute original research findings that can stimulate continuing efforts to understand the cutting-edge applications of nano materials in medicine and dentistry.

  15. The regulation of mobile medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetisen, Ali Kemal; Martinez-Hurtado, J L; da Cruz Vasconcellos, Fernando; Simsekler, M C Emre; Akram, Muhammad Safwan; Lowe, Christopher R

    2014-03-07

    The rapidly expanding number of mobile medical applications have the potential to transform the patient-healthcare provider relationship by improving the turnaround time and reducing costs. In September 2013, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued guidance to regulate these applications and protect consumers by minimising the risks associated with their unintended use. This guidance distinguishes between the subset of mobile medical apps which may be subject to regulation and those that are not. The marketing claims of the application determine the intent. Areas of concern include compliance with regular updates of the operating systems and of the mobile medical apps themselves. In this article, we explain the essence of this FDA guidance by providing examples and evaluating the impact on academia, industry and other key stakeholders, such as patients and clinicians. Our assessment indicates that awareness and incorporation of the guidelines into product development can hasten the commercialisation and market entry process. Furthermore, potential obstacles have been discussed and directions for future development suggested.

  16. Applications of Nuclear Science for Stewardship Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizewski, Jolie A

    2013-01-01

    Stewardship science is research important to national security interests that include stockpile stewardship science, homeland security, nuclear forensics, and non-proliferation. To help address challenges in stewardship science and workforce development, the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances (SSAA) was inaugurated ten years ago by the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U. S. Department of Energy. The goal was to enhance connections between NNSA laboratories and the activities of university scientists and their students in research areas important to NNSA, including low-energy nuclear science. This paper presents an overview of recent research in low-energy nuclear science supported by the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances and the applications of this research to stewardship science.

  17. Performance management of nuclear medical apparatuses in Osaka University Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikehara, Katsuhiro; Kusumi, Yoshimi; Hayashi, Makoto; Miharu, Tomoyoshi; Masuda, Kazutaka

    1975-01-01

    Nuclear medical out side-body measuring equipments in Osaka University Hospital consist of scinticamera, scintiscanner and movement-measuring equipment as measuring equipments, and central processing equipment, CRT attached with Polaroid camera, data typewriter, X-Y recorder, and high speed tape reader as data processing equipments. Daily and monthly management items are set up to maintain the best function of these equipments. The data processing room is air-conditioned to keep temperature at 25 0 C and humidity at 60% constantly, and they are confirmed with a temperature and humidity self-recorder. Computer system is used for the homogeneity control and the correction to counting failure of the scinticamera. As the repair of nuclear medical apparatuses needs long period and because of the special circumstances of radioactive drugs, very close cooperation among technicians, doctors and equipment makers is required. (Kobatake, H.)

  18. Liquid decontaminants for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, Klaus; Gojowczyk, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Decontaminants used in the nuclear field must meet a variety of requirements. On the one hand, the washing process must remove radioactive contamination and conventional dirt from the items washed. On the other hand, subsequent disposal of the washing water arisings must be feasible by the usual waste disposal pathway. One aspect of particular importance is unproblematic treatment of the radioactively contaminated waste water, as a rule low to medium active, whose final storage must be ensured. Decontaminants must not impair waste treatment processes, such as evaporation, filtration, and centrifuging, as well as further treatment of the concentrates and residues arising which are worked into matrix materials (cementation, bituminization), in drum drying or roller mill drying. For reasons of safety at work and environmental quality, also aspects of human toxicology and ecotoxicology must be taken into account. In this way, handling decontaminants will not jeopardize the health of personnel or cause potential long-term environmental damage. Liquid decontaminants, compared to powders, offer the advantage of automatic dosage. The liquid product is dosed accurately as a function of the washing program used. Liquid decontaminants can be handled safely in hot laundries without causing skin and eye contacts. (orig.)

  19. Space nuclear tug mission applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, J.R.; Rauen, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    An initial assessment indicates that the NEBA-1 and NEBA-3 bimodal reactor designs can be integrated into a reusable tug which is capable of supporting many missions including GSO delivery, GSO retrieval, lunar trajectory deliveries, interplanetary deliveries, and a variety of satellite servicing. The tug close-quote s nuclear thermal propulsion provides timely transport and payload delivery, with GSO deliveries on the order of 3 endash 7 days. In general, the tug may provide a number of potential benefits to users. The tug may, for example, extend the life of an existing on-orbit spacecraft, boost spacecraft which were not delivered to their operational orbit, offer increased payload capability, or possibly allow payloads to launch on smaller less expensive launch vehicles. Reusing the tug for 5 or 10 missions requires total reactor burn times of 50 and 100 hours, respectively. Shielding, boom structure, and radiator requirements were identified as key factors in the configuration layout. Economic feasibility is still under evaluation, but preliminary estimates indicate that average flight costs may range from $32 M to $34 M for a 10-mission vehicle and from $39 M to $42 M for a 5-mission vehicle. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  20. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This document proposes a presentation and discussion of the main notions, issues, principles, or characteristics related to nuclear energy: radioactivity (presence in the environment, explanation, measurement, periods and activities, low doses, applications), fuel cycle (front end, mining and ore concentration, refining and conversion, fuel fabrication, in the reactor, back end with reprocessing and recycling, transport), the future of the thorium-based fuel cycle (motivations, benefits and drawbacks), nuclear reactors (principles of fission reactors, reactor types, PWR reactors, BWR, heavy-water reactor, high temperature reactor of HTR, future reactors), nuclear wastes (classification, packaging and storage, legal aspects, vitrification, choice of a deep storage option, quantities and costs, foreign practices), radioactive releases of nuclear installations (main released radio-elements, radioactive releases by nuclear reactors and by La Hague plant, gaseous and liquid effluents, impact of releases, regulation), the OSPAR Convention, management and safety of nuclear activities (from control to quality insurance, to quality management and to sustainable development), national safety bodies (mission, means, organisation and activities of ASN, IRSN, HCTISN), international bodies, nuclear and medicine (applications of radioactivity, medical imagery, radiotherapy, doses in nuclear medicine, implementation, the accident in Epinal), nuclear and R and D (past R and D programmes and expenses, main actors in France and present funding, main R and D axis, international cooperation)

  1. Helium leak testing methods in nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Anis

    2004-01-01

    Helium mass-spectrometer leak test is the most sensitive leak test method. It gives very reliable and sensitive test results. In last few years application of helium leak testing has gained more importance due to increased public awareness of safety and environment pollution caused by number of growing chemical and other such industries. Helium leak testing is carried out and specified in most of the critical area applications like nuclear, space, chemical and petrochemical industries

  2. Biomedical application of the nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindh, U.

    1987-01-01

    The Studsvik Nuclear Microprobe (SMP) has mainly been devoted to applications in the biomedical field. Its ultimate resolution is reached at 2.9x2.9 μm 2 with a proton current of 100 pA. With this performance the SMP has been used in a wide range of disciplines covering environmental hygiene, toxicology, various aspects of internal medicine and trace element physiology. Examples of recent applications in these fields are described. (orig.)

  3. Advances in Nuclear Power Process Heat Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-05-01

    Following an IAEA coordinated research project, this publication compiles the findings of research and development activities related to practical nuclear process heat applications. An overview of current progress on high temperature gas cooled reactors coupling schemes for different process heat applications, such as hydrogen production and desalination is included. The associated safety aspects are also highlighted. The summary report documents the results and conclusions of the project.

  4. Nuclear radiation applications in hydrological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, S.M.

    1978-01-01

    The applications of radiation sources for the determination of water and soil properties in hydrological investigations are many and varied. These include snow gauging, soil moisture and density determinations, measurement of suspended sediment concentrations in natural streams and nuclear well logging for groundwater exploitation. Besides the above, many radiation physics aspects play an important role in the development of radiotracer techniques, particularly in sediment transport studies. The article reviews the above applications with reference to their limitations and advantages. (author)

  5. Nuclear plant analyzer development and analysis applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laats, E.T.

    1984-10-01

    The Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA) is being developed as the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) state of the art safety analysis and engineering tool to address key nuclear plant safety issues. This paper describes four applications of the NPA in assisting reactor safety analyses. Two analyses evaluated reactor operating procedures, during off-normal operation, for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) and a boiling water reactor (BWR), respectively. The third analysis was performed in support of a reactor safety experiment conducted in the Semiscale facility. The final application demonstrated the usefulness of atmospheric dispersion computer codes for site emergency planning purposes. An overview of the NPA and how it supported these analyses are the topics of this paper

  6. IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The NSS/MIC is a well-established meeting that has continuously provided an exceptional venue to showcase outstanding developments and contributions across the nuclear and medical instrumentation fields. This conference brings together engineers and scientists from around the world to share their knowledge and to gain insight and inspiration from others. The conference will include a distinguished series of short courses, relevant refresher courses, and workshops that will address areas of particular interest.

  7. Nuclear energy I, Non-energetic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lartigue G, J.; Navarrete T, M.; Cabrera M, L.; Arandia, P.A.; Arriola S, H.

    1986-01-01

    The nuclear energy is defined as the energy produced or absorbed in the nuclear reactions, therefore, these are divided in endothermic and exothermic. The exothermic nuclear reactions present more interest from the point of view of its applications and they can show in four main forms: radioactivity (from 0 to 4 MeV/reaction; light nucleus fusion ( ∼ 20 MeV/reaction), heavy nucleus fusion (∼ 200 MeV/reaction) and nucleons annihilation ( ∼ 2000 MeV/reaction). Nowadays only the fission has reached the stage of profitable energetic application, finding the other three forms in research and development. The non-energetic applications of the nuclear energy are characterized by they do not require of prior conversion to another form of energy and they are made through the use of radioisotopes as well as through the use of endothermic reaction caused in particle accelerators. In this work are presented some of the non-energetic applications with its theoretical and experimental basis as well as its benefits of each one. (Author)

  8. Application of nuclear gamma methods in mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, L.; Bosak, J.

    1980-01-01

    A brief review is presented of basic physical characteristics of laboratory, field and operating gamma methods, of their classifications and principles. The measuring instrumentation used and the current state of applications of nuclear gamma methods in coal and ore mining and related branches are described in detail. Principles and practical recommendations are given for safety at work when handling gamma sources. (B.S.)

  9. CVD diamond for nuclear detection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergonzo, P.; Brambilla, A.; Tromson, D.; Mer, C.; Guizard, B.; Marshall, R.D.; Foulon, F.

    2002-01-01

    Chemically vapour deposited (CVD) diamond is a remarkable material for the fabrication of radiation detectors. In fact, there exist several applications where other standard semiconductor detectors do not fulfil the specific requirements imposed by corrosive, hot and/or high radiation dose environments. The improvement of the electronic properties of CVD diamond has been under intensive investigations and led to the development of a few applications that are addressing specific industrial needs. Here, we report on CVD diamond-based detector developments and we describe how this material, even though of a polycrystalline nature, is readily of great interest for applications in the nuclear industry as well as for physics experiments. Improvements in the material synthesis as well as on device fabrication especially concern the synthesis of films that do not exhibit space charge build up effects which are often encountered in CVD diamond materials and that are highly detrimental for detection devices. On a pre-industrial basis, CVD diamond detectors have been fabricated for nuclear industry applications in hostile environments. Such devices can operate in harsh environments and overcome limitations encountered with the standard semiconductor materials. Of these, this paper presents devices for the monitoring of the alpha activity in corrosive nuclear waste solutions, such as those encountered in nuclear fuel assembly reprocessing facilities, as well as diamond-based thermal neutron detectors exhibiting a high neutron to gamma selectivity. All these demonstrate the effectiveness of a demanding industrial need that relies on the remarkable resilience of CVD diamond

  10. Radioisotope licence application: Fixed nuclear gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This guide will assist you in completing and filing an application for a new licence or licence renewal for fixed nuclear gauges in accordance with the Atomic Energy Control Regulations and radioisotope licensing policies. It also provides some of the background information that you will require in order to safely use radioactive materials

  11. The terrorist threat nuclear, radiological, biological, chemical - a medical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revel, M.C. de; Gourmelon, M.C.S.; Vidal, P.C.; Renaudeau, P.C.S.

    2005-01-01

    Since September 11, 2001, the fear of a large scale nuclear, biological and/or chemical terrorism is taken again into consideration at the highest level of national policies of risk prevention. The advent of international terrorism implies a cooperation between the military defense and the civil defense. The nuclear, radiological, biological and chemical (NRBC) experts of the health service of army and of civil defense will have to work together in case of major terror attack. This book presents this cooperation between civil and military experts in the NRBC domain: risk analysis, national defense plans, crisis management, syndromes and treatments. The different aspects linked with the use of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons are analyzed by the best experts from French medical and research institutes. All topics of each NRBC domain are approached: historical, basic, diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive. (J.S.)

  12. Medical measures in case of nuclear power plant accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Laender governments of the Federal Republic of Germany are of the opinion that within the framework of precautionary disaster control, plans have to be set up dealing with nuclear disasters that seem improbable but cannot be completely excluded. Accordingly, recommendations presented by the Federal Government and the Laender governments have been combined into a framework disaster control scheme where the competencies for activities and measures lie with the several Laender governments, as given by the Basic Law. A further recommendation deals with the medical care and service in case of a nuclear disaster, and the practical guide presented here is intended to give the information and instructions needed in order to comply with the legal framework. A working group has been set up in order to work out the rules and facts for optimum medical care. The activities are planned to be based on an emergency station responsible for medical examination, treatment, and transfer of victims. The practical guide has been discussed by the 'Committee for disaster control in the vicinity of nuclear installations' of the SSK, has been approved of by the supreme Land authorities of the Laender concerned, and has been passed by the SSK at its 63rd meeting. With 5 figs., 6 tabs [de

  13. Nuclear microscopy in medical research. Investigations into degenerative diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makjanic, J; Thong, P; Watt, F [National University of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Physics

    1997-03-01

    The high energy (1-4MeV) focused ion beam (nuclear microbeam) has found uses in many scientific disciplines through a wide variety of ion beam based techniques. Of the many techniques available, the powerful combination of Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) is proving to be extremely useful, particularly in the characterisation and elemental analysis of thin specimens. In this paper we briefly review these ion beam techniques, as well as the hardware required for their application. Finally, we describe the application of the PIXE, RBS and STIM techniques in conjunction with a scanning focused 2MeV proton microbeam (nuclear microscopy). The examples chosen to illustrate the potential of nuclear microscopy are recent investigations into the degenerative diseases atherosclerosis (coronary heart disease), Parkinson`s disease and Alzheimer`s disease. (author)

  14. Evaluation of nuclear data for R and D projects; development of database for medical nuclear data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Tae Suk [Catholic University, Seoul (Korea); Shin, D. O. [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea); Joh, C. W.; Chang, J. S. [Ajou University, Suwon (Korea); Choi, Y. [Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul (Korea); Kim, S. H. [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea); Park, S. Y. [National Cancer Center, Seoul (Korea); Shin, D. H.; Lee, S [Kyonggi University, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    Medical nuclear data used in the country is not provided by academic associations and organizations concerned and even by government organizations concerned. This is aimed to investigate the diagnostic and therapeutic equipments in the clinical use and the domestic present status of nuclear data and physical properties of sealed or unsealed radioactive isotopes and to establish the nuclear database. About 120 domestic centers take nuclear medicine tests and 52 medical centers do radiotherapy. The 30-odd different kinds of radionuclides are usually used in nuclear medicine in the country. The 30-odd kinds of unsealed sources are used for diagnosis and therapy and 10-odd kinds of sealed sources for brachytherapy in the country. The special radiotherapy includes Gamma-knife, linac-based stereotactic radiosurgery, conformal radiotherapy and Intensity modulated radiotherapy. The nuclear data base has been completed on the basis of these data collected and the web site made is available with ease to anyone who want to get nuclear data. 39 refs., 20 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  15. Pre-grade academic project: Technicature in nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoud, Adrian; Garcia Blesa, Hernan M.; Lerner, Ana M.; Notari, Carla

    2009-01-01

    The increasing use of radiation and radioactive materials in the world today has created a demand of Specialized Nuclear Technicians. Both at the international level and locally in Argentina, such demand is expected to continue being significant for several years, and at present it already exceeds the offer of qualified personnel, which constitutes an interesting stimulus for graduates. For this reason, the Dan Beninson Nuclear Technology Institute has decided to accept the challenge of educating specialized technicians, and has thus designed a new pre-grade career: the Technicature in Nuclear Applications. The basis of this proposal is to design a three year high level specific training program in order to produce highly qualified technicians with a title issued by our Institute, offer the students a unique education with interesting working opportunities and required in all those areas that in one way or other are related to radiation and radioactive materials. No equivalent academic offer is in place today at university level. Due to the renaissance of nuclear activity and the subsequent increasing use of radioisotopes and radiation in technological applications as well as in energy generation, medical applications, agriculture, pharmacology, among others, it has become mandatory to train specialized human resources in this field. Having these goals in mind, our Institute has created this career, with the purpose of satisfying such request which will benefit the whole society. (author)

  16. From Particle Physics to Medical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosanjh, Manjit

    2017-06-01

    CERN is the world's largest particle physics research laboratory. Since it was established in 1954, it has made an outstanding contribution to our understanding of the fundamental particles and their interactions, and also to the technologies needed to analyse their properties and behaviour. The experimental challenges have pushed the performance of particle accelerators and detectors to the limits of our technical capabilities, and these groundbreaking technologies can also have a significant impact in applications beyond particle physics. In particular, the detectors developed for particle physics have led to improved techniques for medical imaging, while accelerator technologies lie at the heart of the irradiation methods that are widely used for treating cancer. Indeed, many important diagnostic and therapeutic techniques used by healthcare professionals are based either on basic physics principles or the technologies developed to carry out physics research. Ever since the discovery of x-rays by Roentgen in 1895, physics has been instrumental in the development of technologies in the biomedical domain, including the use of ionizing radiation for medical imaging and therapy. Some key examples that are explored in detail in this book include scanners based on positron emission tomography, as well as radiation therapy for cancer treatment. Even the collaborative model of particle physics is proving to be effective in catalysing multidisciplinary research for medical applications, ensuring that pioneering physics research is exploited for the benefit of all.

  17. Advanced Nuclear Applications in Medicinr at Chiang Mai University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilasdechanon, Nonglak

    2015-01-01

    The atomic energy applications in Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University (CMU) are mainly performed by department of Radiology that is divided into three dicisions: 1) Diagnostic Radiology Division for the applications of X-rays, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance, 2) Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Division for cancer treatments by photon accelrator and external radionuclides therapy or brachytherapy, 3) Nuclear Meddicine Division for clinical dignosis by using radionuclide scintigraphy, targeted molecular imaging and internal radionuclide therapy. In the last decade, many advanced medical images for clinical diagnosis included of digital & computed radiology (DR & CR), digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and images (DSI), computed tomography (CT) with dual X-rays energies, manetic resonance imaging (MRI), and hybrid images of SPECT/CT were established in Radiology Department and PET/CT Cyclitron Center Chiang Mai University (PCCMU), respectively. For cancer treatments, the frontier technologies in radiation oncligy therapy such as tomotherapy, IMRT, 3D conformal radiation treatment, stereotactic radiationtherapy (SRT), stereotactic radiation surgery (SRS), and radiation biology laboratory were implemented in the department as well. As far as fast development of nuclear technology in medicine, future implementation of advanced nuclear applications in medicine strongly need an intergrated knoowledge from many specialties e.g. computer softeare in image reconstruction, accuracy and and precision technology, production of specific radiotracers for molecular imaging and therapy, techniques in radionuclide productions, innovation of new wquipment or materials for radiationprotection and safety, etc. However the most important factors of nuclear applications in medicine are the vision, mission and the value statements of the organization on the high cost in radiology investment and human resources development. We have to emphasize that people who are involved

  18. Application state of radioisotopes for medical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Tomoyoshi

    1979-01-01

    Application of unsealed radioisotopes as radiopharmaceuticals has been increasing year by year with the development of nuclear medicine. As for the radioisotopes for in vivo use which are internally administered and are detected by external scanning, the consumption of Tc-99 m drugs has increased rapidly. The sales of radiopharmaceuticals for in vivo use including 131 I, etc. amounted to four billion Yen in 1977. The consumption of the isotopes used in vitro for radioimmunoassay has made more rapid increase, and the sales of radiopharmaceuticals for in vitro use amounted to seven billion Yen in 1977. Radiopharmaceuticals have been used in 1,134 institutes all over Japan in 1978. 534 among them have applied radiopharmaceuticals to both in vivo and in vitro uses. Radioactive wastes have been increasing with the application of these unsealed radiopharmaceuticals, and their disposal method should be examined as there is a limit in their storage. (Kobatake, H.)

  19. Clinical Training of Medical Physicists Specializing in Nuclear Medicine (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The application of radiation in human health, for both diagnosis and treatment of disease, is an important component of the work of the IAEA. The responsibility for the increasingly technical aspects of this work is undertaken by the medical physicist. To ensure good practice in this vital area, structured clinical training programmes are required to complement academic learning. This publication is intended to be a guide to the practical implementation of such a programme for nuclear medicine. There is a general and growing awareness that radiation medicine is increasingly dependent on well trained medical physicists who are based in a clinical setting. However an analysis of the availability of medical physicists indicates a large shortfall of qualified and capable professionals. This is particularly evident in developing countries. While strategies to increase educational opportunities are critical to such countries, the need for guidance on structured clinical training was recognized by the members of the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA) for the Asia-Pacific region. Consequently, a technical cooperation regional project (RAS6038) under the RCA programme was formulated to address this need in this region by developing suitable material and establishing its viability. Development of a clinical training guide for medical physicists specialising in nuclear medicine was started in 2009 with the appointment of a core drafting committee of regional and international experts. The publication drew on the experience of clinical training in Australia, Croatia and Sweden and was moderated by physicists working in the Asian region. The present publication follows the approach of earlier IAEA publications in the Training Course Series, specifically Nos 37 and 47, Clinical Training of Medical Physicists Specializing in Radiation Oncology and Clinical Training of Medical Physicists

  20. Clinical Training of Medical Physicists Specializing in Nuclear Medicine (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The application of radiation in human health, for both diagnosis and treatment of disease, is an important component of the work of the IAEA. The responsibility for the increasingly technical aspects of this work is undertaken by the medical physicist. To ensure good practice in this vital area, structured clinical training programmes are required to complement academic learning. This publication is intended to be a guide to the practical implementation of such a programme for nuclear medicine. There is a general and growing awareness that radiation medicine is increasingly dependent on well trained medical physicists who are based in a clinical setting. However an analysis of the availability of medical physicists indicates a large shortfall of qualified and capable professionals. This is particularly evident in developing countries. While strategies to increase educational opportunities are critical to such countries, the need for guidance on structured clinical training was recognized by the members of the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA) for the Asia-Pacific region. Consequently, a technical cooperation regional project (RAS6038) under the RCA programme was formulated to address this need in this region by developing suitable material and establishing its viability. Development of a clinical training guide for medical physicists specialising in nuclear medicine was started in 2009 with the appointment of a core drafting committee of regional and international experts. The publication drew on the experience of clinical training in Australia, Croatia and Sweden and was moderated by physicists working in the Asian region. The present publication follows the approach of earlier IAEA publications in the Training Course Series, specifically Nos 37 and 47, Clinical Training of Medical Physicists Specializing in Radiation Oncology and Clinical Training of Medical Physicists

  1. Unjustified prenatal radiation exposure in medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas Herrera, J.; Lamadrid, A.I.; Garcia Lima, O.; Diaz Bernal, E.; Freixas, V.; Lopez Bejerano, G.; Sanchez, R.

    2001-01-01

    The exposure to the radiation ionising of pregnant women, frequently constitutes motive of preoccupation for the expectant mother and the medical professionals taken the responsibility with its attention. The protection of the embryo-fetus against the ionising radiation is of singular importance due to its special vulnerability to this agent. On the other hand the diagnosis or treatment with radiations ionising beneficial for the expectant mother, are only indirectly for the embryo-fetus that is exposed to a hazard without perceiving anything. The present paper presents the experience obtained in the clinical and dosimetric evaluation from twenty-one pregnant patients subjected to diverse radiodiagnostic procedures or nuclear medicine during the years 1999-2000. The obtained results evidence that 24% of the patients was subjected to procedures of nuclear medicine with diagnostic purposes. While the period of pregnancy of the patients ranged between 4 and 12 weeks, it could be concluded that in all the cases the doses received by the patients in the whole body did not exceed 2 mSv. When conjugating the period of pregnancy of the patients with the doses received, there is no evidence of significant risk for the embryo-fetus. Paradoxically the physicians of assistance suggested to their patients in all the cases to carry out the interruption of the pregnancy, demonstrating with this decision ignorance on the biological effects of the ionizing radiations during the prenatal exposures. (author)

  2. Discussion of environmental impact assessment for the nuclear technology application in hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shaoting; Xu Zhongyang

    2010-01-01

    Medical use of ionizing radiation has become the greatest artificial radiation in the world. Based on the characteristics of the nuclear technology application in hospital the content of the environmental impact assessment has been stated, including identification of the environmental impact factor, the standard, the environmental impact, control of the pollution as well. The dose of the medical staff which engaged in interventional operation and the accompanies of the patients which received nuclear medicine treatment should be focused on. (authors)

  3. Polymer Based Biosensors for Medical Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherré, Solène; Rozlosnik, Noemi

    2015-01-01

    , environmental monitoring and food safety. The detected element varies from a single molecule (such as glucose), a biopolymer (such as DNA or a protein) to a whole organism (such as bacteria). Due to their easy use and possible miniaturization, biosensors have a high potential to come out of the lab...... and be available for use by everybody. To fulfil these purposes, polymers represent very appropriate materials. Many nano- and microfabrication methods for polymers are available, allowing a fast and cheap production of devices. This chapter will present the general concept of a biosensor in a first part......The objective of this chapter is to give an overview about the newest developments in biosensors made of polymers for medical applications. Biosensors are devices that can recognize and detect a target with high selectivity. They are widely used in many fields such as medical diagnostic...

  4. Augmented reality. Fundamentals and nuclear related applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Hirotake

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, Augmented Reality (AR) has attracted considerable interest from both academia and industry. Virtual Reality enables users to interact only with virtual objects in a virtual environment, but AR enables users to interact with both virtual objects and real objects in the real world. This feature supports application of AR to various fields such as education, driving, entertainment, and navigation. Especially, by application of AR to support workers in nuclear power plants, it is expected that working time and human error can be decreased. However, many problems remain unsolved to apply AR to real fields. In this lecture note, fundamental knowledge of AR is presented first including the overview of elemental technologies to realize AR. Then various AR applications to nuclear fields are described. Finally, future prospects are given. (author)

  5. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR): principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quibilan, E.I.

    The basis for the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is the ability of certain nuclei possessing both intrinsic angular momentum or ''spin'' I and magnetic moment to absorb electromagnetic energy in the radio frequency range. In principle, there are approximately 200 nuclei which may be investigated using the NMR technique. The NMR spectrum consists of intensity peaks along an axis calibrated in terms of the steady magnetic field or the frequency of the radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. Analysis of the number, spacing, position and intensity of the lines in an NMR spectrum consists of intensity peaks along an axis calibrated in terms of the steady magnetic field or the frequency of the radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. Analysis of the number, spacing, position and intensity of the lines in an NMR spectrum provides a variety of qualitative and quantitative analytical applications. The most obvious applications consist of the measurements of nuclear properties, such as spin number and nuclear magnetic moment. In liquids, the fine structure of resonance spectra provides a tool for chemical identification and molecular structure analysis. Other applications include the measurements of self-diffusion coefficients, magnetic fields and field homogeneity, inter-nuclear distances, and, in some cases, the water content of biological materials. (author)

  6. Attitudes of Medical Graduate and Undergraduate Students toward the Learning and Application of Medical Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yazhou; Zhang, Ling; Liu, Ling; Zhang, Yanqi; Liu, Xiaoyu; Yi, Dong

    2015-01-01

    It is clear that the teaching of medical statistics needs to be improved, yet areas for priority are unclear as medical students' learning and application of statistics at different levels is not well known. Our goal is to assess the attitudes of medical students toward the learning and application of medical statistics, and discover their…

  7. ODS Alloys for Nuclear Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jin Sung

    2006-01-01

    ODS (oxide dispersion strengthening) alloy is one of the potential candidate alloys for the cladding or in reactor components of Generation IV reactors and for the structural material even for fusion reactors. It is widely accepted as very resistant material to neutron irradiation as well as strong material at high temperature due to its finely distributed and stable oxide particles. Among Generation IV reactors SFR and SCWR are anticipated in general to run in the temperature range between 300 and 550 .deg. C, and the peak cladding temperature is supposed to reach at about 620 .deg. C during the normal operation. Therefore Zr.base alloys, which have been widely known and adopted for the cladding material due to their excellent neutron economics, are no more adequate at these operating conditions. Fe-base ODS alloys in general has a good high temperature strength at the above high temperature as well as the neutron resistance. In this study a range of commercial grade ODS alloys and their applications are reviewed, including an investigation of the stability of a commercial grade 20% Cr Fe-base ODS alloy(MA956). The alloy was evaluated in terms of the fracture toughness change along with the aging treatment. Also an attempt of the development of 9% Cr Fe-base ODS alloys is introduced

  8. Superalloy applications in the nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanathan, L.V.; Padilha, A.F.

    1984-01-01

    The process conditions in the areas of nuclear fuel processing, fabrication, utilization, reprocessing and disposal are severe, demanding therefore the use of materials with high temperature mechanical strength and corrosion resistance. A number of refractory metal containing superalloys have found application in the diferrent areas of the nuclear field. The main aspects of the microstructure, strengthening mechanisms and corrosion resistance of 3 superalloys, namely Incoloy 825, Inconel 718 and Hastelloy C have been discussed. The role of the refractory metal elements in influencing the mechanical strength and corrosion resistance of superalloys has been emphasised. (Author) [pt

  9. Nuclear magnetic resonance and medicine. Present applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    At the workshop on nuclear magnetic resonance and medicine held at Saclay, the following topics were presented: physical principles of NMR; NMR spectroscopy signal to noise ratio; principles of NMR imaging; methods of NMR imaging; image options in NMR; biological significance of contrast in proton NMR imaging; measurement and significance of relaxation times in cancers; NMR contrast agents; NMR for in-vivo biochemistry; potential effects and hazards of NMR applications in Medicine; difficulties of NMR implantation in Hospitals; NMR imaging of brain tumors and diseases of the spinal cord; NMR and Nuclear Medicine in brain diseases [fr

  10. An introduction to nuclear physics, with applications in medicine and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyson, N.A.

    1981-01-01

    A concise account of the applications of nuclear physics to medical and biological science is given. Half the book is devoted to the basic aspects of nuclear and radiation physics such as interactions between radiation and matter, nuclear reactions and the production of isotopes, an introduction to α, β and γ-radiation detectors and finally the radiation from nuclear decay. Information is then given on the applications of radioisotopes and neutrons and other accelerator-based applications in medicine and biology. The book is aimed at not only those undergraduates and postgraduates who are devoting their main effort to medical physics, but also to those students who are looking primarily for an introduction to nuclear physics together with an account of some of the ways in which it impinges on the work of other scientists. (U.K.)

  11. Medical lessons learned from chernobyl relative to nuclear detonations and failed nuclear reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, Cham E

    2012-12-01

    The Chernobyl disaster in 1986 involved the largest airborne release of radioactivity in history, more than 100 times as much radioactivity as the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs together. The resulting emergency response, administrative blunders, and subsequent patient outcomes from this large-scale radiological disaster provide a wealth of information and valuable lessons for those who may find themselves having to deal with the staggering consequences of nuclear war. Research findings, administrative strategies (successful and otherwise), and resulting clinical procedures from the Chernobyl experience are reviewed to determine a current utility in addressing the appropriate protocols for a medical response to nuclear war. As various myths are still widely associated with radiation exposure, attention is given to the realities of a mass casualty medical response as it would occur with a nuclear detonation.

  12. Upgradation of nuclear medical equipment in the developing countries and its impact in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahangir, Saleh Mahmud; Xie, Y.; Uddin, Md. Rokon; Haque, Mohammod Abu Sayid; Hoq, Mahbubul; Mawla, Yasmeen; Alom, Md. Zahangir; Morium, Tasnim

    2002-11-01

    Bangladesh has thirteen Nuclear Medical Centres and one Institute of Nuclear Medicine in the country which are being run and maintained by the physicians scientists and engineers of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission. The peaceful application of atomic energy was initiated through all these Centres with the use of clinical isotopes for thyroid and kidney studies. The equipment used for these purposes were the thyroid uptake system, rectilinear scanner and the multiprobe renogram system. The first gamma camera was installed in the country in 1980 at the Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Dhaka. That was the turning point for the country in the field of nuclear medicine. Presently all the nuclear medical establishments are equipped least with a gamma camera, thyroid uptake system and a renogram system. In the last two decades there has been a tremendous development in the design of nuclear medical equipment. Most of the old equipments were slow and manually operated. In the beginning of nineties of the past century there was an uprising in the computer technology and most of the manually operated machines were brought under computerization. It was basically done with a custom built processor to perform only the specific job and spare the users from doing some extra manual work. But the performances of the recent models of the same computerized equipment are by far the best as compared with the past ones. This report describes the role of the IAEA in the upgradation of medical equipment, PC interfacing, upgrading of old gamma cameras and the technological and socio-economic impact in Bangladesh

  13. The multiple applications of the nuclear techniques in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzini, Alberto C.

    2001-01-01

    A review is given of the use of nuclear technology in Argentina, especially in the field of the production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals, nuclear medicine, and industrial applications. The applications of ionizing radiation are also reviewed

  14. The national institute of radiation hygiene and the medical application of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baarli, J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper gives a review of the rules and regulations concerning medical application of radiation in Norway. It discusses the intention of the regulations, the way in which the regulations is applied and how the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene as the competent authority assures the application of the regulations. The paper furthermore gives an indication of the areas of radiation application in medicine and the number of location of X-ray equipment, nuclear medical laboratories, radiation therapy equipment, etc. The number of X-ray examinations in Norway per year are also given, together with their distribution among the various types of examinations. Summary results of a quality assurance investigation of nuclear medical laboratories are given, as well as the results of inspections of the various types of equipment used in medical diagnostics

  15. Optical polymers for laser medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultanova, Nina G.; Kasarova, Stefka N.; Nikolov, Ivan D.

    2016-01-01

    In medicine, optical polymers are used not only in ophthalmology but in many laser surgical, diagnostic and therapeutic systems. The application in lens design is determined by their refractive and dispersive properties in the considered spectral region. We have used different measuring techniques to obtain precise refractometric data in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions. Dispersive, thermal and other important optical characteristics of polymers have been studied. Design of a plastic achromatic objective, used in a surgical stereo-microscope at 1064 nm laser wavelength, is accomplished. Geometrical and wavefront aberrations are calculated. Another example of application of polymers is the designed all-mirror apochromatic micro-lens, intended for superluminescent diode fiber coupling in medical systems.

  16. Portable mini gamma camera for medical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Porras, E; Benlloch, J M; El-Djalil-Kadi-Hanifi, M; López, S; Pavon, N; Ruiz, J A; Sánchez, F; Sebastiá, A

    2002-01-01

    A small, portable and low-cost gamma camera for medical applications has been developed and clinically tested. This camera, based on a scintillator crystal and a Position Sensitive Photo-Multiplier Tube, has a useful field of view of 4.6 cm diameter and provides 2.2 mm of intrinsic spatial resolution. Its mobility and light weight allow to reach the patient from any desired direction. This camera images small organs with high efficiency and so addresses the demand for devices of specific clinical applications. In this paper, we present the camera and briefly describe the procedures that have led us to choose its configuration and the image reconstruction method. The clinical tests and diagnostic capability are also presented and discussed.

  17. Thermosyphon evaporator for nuclear waste management application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, Rajani; Singh, A K; Rana, D S [Waste Management Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Nuclear plant equipment are associated with radioactive material which needs to be safely contained under all conditions of operation. Because of large radioactivity associated with the operations of nuclear waste management plants, the equipment are not accessible to human intervention. Hence, the design of the equipment needs to incorporate features for high reliability and safety so as to avoid unnecessary outage. As far as possible the equipment must be maintenance free. Wherever maintenance is inevitable, it has to be designed to be carried out without exposure of personnel to radiation, preventing spread of radiation or contamination. This paper outlines the design features of a thermosyphon evaporator for nuclear application. (author). 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Nuclear decay data: some applications and needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear decay data have broad relevance to a number of basic scientific disciplines as well as to many areas of technology. In this paper we discuss selected applications where decay data are making, or promise to make, important contributions. The following specific illustrations are discussed: the large body of precise new actinide-nuclide decay data produced through the work of the recently concluded IAEA Coordinated Research Program on the Measurement and Evaluation of Transactinium Isotope Nuclear Decay Data; the use of actinide-nuclide half-lives as reference standards in nuclear-data measurements; and the relevance of short-lived fission-product decay data to basic physics and reactor technology and some of the problems and challenges that they present to both theory and experiment

  19. The medical implications of nuclear power plant accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyror, J.G.; Pearson, G.W.

    1989-11-01

    This paper examines the UK position regarding the potential for an accident at a nuclear power plant, the safeguards in place to prevent such an accident occurring and the emergency procedures designed to cope with the consequences should one occur. It focuses on the role of the medical services and examines previous accidents to suggest the nature and likely scale of response that may need to be provided. It is apparent that designs of UK nuclear power stations are robust and that the likelihood of a significant accident occurring is extremely remote. Emergency arrangements are, however, in place to deal with the eventuality should it arise and these incorporate sufficient flexibility to accommodate a wide range of accidents. Analysis of previous nuclear accidents at Windscale, Three Mile Island and Chernobyl provide a limited but valuable insight into the diversity and potential scale of response that may be required. It is concluded that above all, the response must be flexible to enable medical services to deal with the wide range of effects that may arise. (author)

  20. Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1995-01-01

    The medical projects employing synchrotron radiation as discussed in this paper are, for the most part, still in their infancies and no one can predict the direction in which they will develop. Both the basic research and applied medical programs are sure to be advanced at the new facilities coming on line, especially the ESRF and Spring- 8. However, success is not guaranteed. There is a lot of competition from advances in conventional imaging with the development of digital angiography, computed tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. The synchrotron programs will have to provide significant advantages over these modalities in order to be accepted by the medical profession. Advances in image processing and potentially the development of compact sources will be required in order to move the synchrotron developed imaging technologies into the clinical world. In any event, it can be expected that the images produced by the synchrotron technologies will establish ''gold standards'' to be targeted by conventional modalities. A lot more work needs to be done in order to bring synchrotron radiation therapy and surgery to the level of human studies and, subsequently, to clinical applications

  1. Responsibility structure in medical radiation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beekman, Z.M.

    1989-01-01

    The author discusses the various aspects of the responsibilities of physicians and clinical physicists with regard to radiation protection in medical applications of ionizing radiation. It becomes still clearer that the physician, who carries out the examination or the treatment, also has to bear the responsibility. this holds for the indication assessment as well as for optimization of the quality of the examination or treatment versus radiation burden of the patient, radiologic worker and thirds. Further it is clear that the physician in these will have to delegate specific tasks and responsibilities, whether or not in the elongated-arm construction. The clinical physicist is responsible in particular for the applications of the physical methods and watches the quality of the apparatus and methods used. As such he also is responsible for the technical workers, who take care of the preventive and corrective maintenance. The principal responsibility of the clinical physicist however lies in the field of standardization and calibration of medical-physical instruments. Besides this investigation into and development of new techniques, methods and apparatus come up, while also education and training of various profession groups involved need attention. (author). 6 refs.; 1 tab

  2. Applications of lithium in nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliviera, Glaucia A.C. de; Bustillos, José O.V.; Ferreira, João C.; Bergamaschi, Vanderlei S.; Moraes, Rafaeli M. de; Gimenez, Maíse P.; Miyamoto, Flavia K.; Seneda, José A., E-mail: glaucia.oliveira@ipen.br, E-mail: ovega@ipen.br, E-mail: jcferrei@ipen.br, E-mail: vsberga@ipen.br, E-mail: rafaeli.medeiros.moraes@gmail.com, E-mail: maisepastore@hotmail.com, E-mail: fla.kimiyamoto@gmail.com, E-mail: jaseneda@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Lithium is a material of great interest in the world, it is found in different minerals on Earth's crust (spodumene, lepidolite, amblygonite and petalite) also in salt pans. This element belongs to alkaline group and has two natural isotopes: Li-6 and Li-7. In the nuclear field, lithium isotopes are used for different purposes. The Li-6 is applied in the production of energy, because its section of shock is larger than the other isotope. The Li-7 regulates the pH in refrigerant material in the primary circuits of the Pressurized Water Nuclear Reactor (PWR). In nuclear reactor, lithium is used as a heat transfer due its boiling temperature (1342°C), making it an excellent thermal conductor. However, to reach all these applications, lithium must have high purity (> 99%). The main processes to reach a high purity level of lithium employee a combination of solvent extraction and ion exchange process, to obtain its salts or ending with chemical electrolysis of its chlorides to obtain its pure metal. This work presents a review of new applications of Lithium in Nuclear Energy and its purification and enrichment processes. (author)

  3. Applications of lithium in nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliviera, Glaucia A.C. de; Bustillos, José O.V.; Ferreira, João C.; Bergamaschi, Vanderlei S.; Moraes, Rafaeli M. de; Gimenez, Maíse P.; Miyamoto, Flavia K.; Seneda, José A.

    2017-01-01

    Lithium is a material of great interest in the world, it is found in different minerals on Earth's crust (spodumene, lepidolite, amblygonite and petalite) also in salt pans. This element belongs to alkaline group and has two natural isotopes: Li-6 and Li-7. In the nuclear field, lithium isotopes are used for different purposes. The Li-6 is applied in the production of energy, because its section of shock is larger than the other isotope. The Li-7 regulates the pH in refrigerant material in the primary circuits of the Pressurized Water Nuclear Reactor (PWR). In nuclear reactor, lithium is used as a heat transfer due its boiling temperature (1342°C), making it an excellent thermal conductor. However, to reach all these applications, lithium must have high purity (> 99%). The main processes to reach a high purity level of lithium employee a combination of solvent extraction and ion exchange process, to obtain its salts or ending with chemical electrolysis of its chlorides to obtain its pure metal. This work presents a review of new applications of Lithium in Nuclear Energy and its purification and enrichment processes. (author)

  4. Nuclear science in the 20th century. Nuclear technology applications in material science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Junchen; Xu Furong; Zheng Chunkai

    2003-01-01

    The application of nuclear technology to material science has led to a new cross subject, nuclear material science (also named nuclear solid physics) which covers material analysis, material modification and new material synthesis. This paper reviews the development of nuclear technical applications in material science and the basic physics involved

  5. Thorium dioxide: properties and nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belle, J.; Berman, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    This is the sixth book on reactor materials published under sponsorship of the Naval Reactors Office of the United States Department of Energy, formerly the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This book presents a comprehensive compilation of the most significant properties of thorium dioxide, much like the book Uranium Dioxide: Properties and Nuclear Applications presented information on the fuel material used in the Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor core

  6. Thorium dioxide: properties and nuclear applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belle, J.; Berman, R.M. (eds.)

    1984-01-01

    This is the sixth book on reactor materials published under sponsorship of the Naval Reactors Office of the United States Department of Energy, formerly the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This book presents a comprehensive compilation of the most significant properties of thorium dioxide, much like the book Uranium Dioxide: Properties and Nuclear Applications presented information on the fuel material used in the Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor core.

  7. Nuclear plant analyzer development and analysis applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laats, E.T.

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA) is being developed as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) state of the art safety analysis and engineering tool to address key nuclear plant safety issues. The NPA integrates the NRC's computerized reactor behavior simulation codes such as RELAP5 and TRAC-BWR, both of which are well-developed computer graphics programs, and large repositories of reactor design and experimental data. Utilizing the complex reactor behavior codes as well as the experiment data repositories enables simulation applications of the NPA that are generally not possible with more simplistic, less mechanistic reactor behavior codes. These latter codes are used in training simulators or with other NPA-type software packages and are limited to displaying calculated data only. This paper describes four applications of the NPA in assisting reactor safety analyses. Two analyses evaluated reactor operating procedures, during off-normal operation, for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) and a boiling water reactor (BWR), respectively. The third analysis was performed in support of a reactor safety experiment conducted in the Semiscale facility. The final application demonstrated the usefulness of atmospheric dispersion computer codes for site emergency planning purposes. An overview of the NPA and how it supported these analyses are the topics of this paper

  8. Artificial intelligence applications to nuclear reactor diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.C.; Hassberger, J.A.; Wehe, D.K.

    1987-01-01

    The authors research into applications of artificial intelligence to nuclear reactor diagnostics involves three main areas. In the first area, the authors combine reactor simulation models and expert systems to diagnose the state of the plant. The second area examines ways in which the rule or knowledge base of an intelligent controller can be generated systematically from either fault trees or acquired plant data. Third, efforts are described to develop the capabilities to validate these techniques in a realistic reactor setting. The techniques are applicable to all reactor types, including fast reactors

  9. Recent advances in medical device triage technologies for chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdowne, Krystal; Scully, Christopher G; Galeotti, Loriano; Schwartz, Suzanne; Marcozzi, David; Strauss, David G

    2015-06-01

    In 2010, the US Food and Drug Administration (Silver Spring, Maryland USA) created the Medical Countermeasures Initiative with the mission of development and promoting medical countermeasures that would be needed to protect the nation from identified, high-priority chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) threats and emerging infectious diseases. The aim of this review was to promote regulatory science research of medical devices and to analyze how the devices can be employed in different CBRN scenarios. Triage in CBRN scenarios presents unique challenges for first responders because the effects of CBRN agents and the clinical presentations of casualties at each triage stage can vary. The uniqueness of a CBRN event can render standard patient monitoring medical device and conventional triage algorithms ineffective. Despite the challenges, there have been recent advances in CBRN triage technology that include: novel technologies; mobile medical applications ("medical apps") for CBRN disasters; electronic triage tags, such as eTriage; diagnostic field devices, such as the Joint Biological Agent Identification System; and decision support systems, such as the Chemical Hazards Emergency Medical Management Intelligent Syndromes Tool (CHEMM-IST). Further research and medical device validation can help to advance prehospital triage technology for CBRN events.

  10. Collective dose estimation in Portuguese population due to medical exams of diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teles, Pedro; Vaz, Pedro; Paulo, Graciano; Santos, Joana; Pascoal, Ana; Lanca, Isabel; Matela, Nuno; Sousa, Patrick; Carvoeiras, Pedro; Parafita, Rui; Simaozinho, Paula

    2013-01-01

    In order to assess the exposure of the Portuguese population to ionizing radiation due to medical examinations of diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine, a working group, consisting of 40 institutions, public and private, was created to evaluation the coletive dose in the Portuguese population in 2010. This work was conducted in collaboration with the Dose Datamed European consortium, which aims to assess the exposure of the European population to ionizing radiation due to 20 diagnostic radiology examinations most frequent in Europe (the 'TOP 20') and nuclear medicine examinations. We obtained an average value of collective dose of ≈ 1 mSv/caput, which puts Portugal in the category of countries medium to high exposure to Europe. We hope that this work can be a starting point to bridge the persistent lack of studies in the areas referred to in Portugal, and to enable the characterization periodic exposure of the Portuguese population to ionizing radiation in the context of medical applications

  11. Medical cyclotron basic concepts and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Sonkawade, R.G.

    2012-01-01

    More than 3000 nuclides are known, of which approximately 2700 are radioactive, and rest are stable. The majority of radionuclides are artificially produced in the reactor and cyclotron. In a cyclotron, Charge particle such as proton, Deuteron, á (Alpha) particle, 3 He particles and so forth are accelerated in circular paths within the Dees under vacuum by means of an electromagnetic field. These accelerated particles can possess few KeV to several BeV of kinetic energy depending on the design of the cyclotron. At our setup we have an 11 MeV dual beam multi target cyclotron which is capable producing 11 C, 13 N, 15 O, 18 F and 2 F radioisotopes and all have been successfully produced and tested in our lab. Earlier cyclotrons were the best source of high-energy beams for nuclear physics experiments; several cyclotrons are still in use for this type of research. Cyclotrons can be used to treat cancer. Ion beams from cyclotrons can be used, as in proton therapy. The positron emitting isotopes are suitable for PET imaging. As discussed we are producing mainly Carbon-11, Nitrogen-13, Oxygen-15, and Fluorine-18: These are positron emitters used in PET for studying brain physiology and pathology, in particular for localizing epileptic focus, and in dementia, psychiatry and neuropharmacology studies. So these are having significant role in diagnosis of Oncological, Neurological and Cardiological disorder. More than ninety percent we are producing 18 F in FDG. 18 F in FDG (Flouro-Deoxy-glucose) has become very important in detection of cancers and the monitoring of progress in their treatment, using PET. Medical cyclotron is complex equipment requiring delicate handling by highly trained personnel. The aim of this article is to highlight few finer aspects of Medical cyclotron operation, including precautions for safety and smooth functioning of this sophisticated equipment. (author)

  12. Liquid Marbles: From Industrial to Medical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana-Elena Avrămescu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Liquid marbles are versatile structures demonstrating a pseudo-Leidenfrost wetting regime formed by encapsulating microscale volumes of liquid in a particle shell. The liquid core is completely separated from the exterior through air pockets. The external phase consists of hydrophobic particles, in most cases, or hydrophilic ones distributed as aggregates. Their interesting features arise from the double solid-fluid character. Thus, these interesting formations, also known as “dry waters”, have gained attention in surface science. This review paper summarizes a series of proposed formulations, fabrication techniques and properties, in correlation with already discovered and emerging applications. A short general review of the surface properties of powders (contact angle, superficial tension is proposed, followed by a presentation of liquid marbles’ properties (superficial characteristics, elasticity, self-propulsion etc.. Finally, applications of liquid marbles are discussed, mainly as helpful and yet to be exploited structures in the pharmaceutical and medical field. Innovative pharmaceutical forms (Pickering emulsions are also means of use taken into account as applications which need further investigation.

  13. Medical Applications of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, A K; Rai, N K; Singh, Ankita; Rai, A K; Rai, Pradeep K; Rai, Pramod K

    2014-01-01

    Sedentary lifestyle of human beings has resulted in various diseases and in turn we require a potential tool that can be used to address various issues related to human health. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is one such potential optical analytical tool that has become quite popular because of its distinctive features that include applicability to any type/phase of samples with almost no sample preparation. Several reports are available that discusses the capabilities of LIBS, suitable for various applications in different branches of science which cannot be addressed by traditional analytical methods but only few reports are available for the medical applications of LIBS. In the present work, LIBS has been implemented to understand the role of various elements in the formation of gallstones (formed under the empyema and mucocele state of gallbladder) samples along with patient history that were collected from Purvancal region of Uttar Pradesh, India. The occurrence statistics of gallstones under the present study reveal higher occurrence of gallstones in female patients. The gallstone occurrence was found more prevalent for those male patients who were having the habit of either tobacco chewing, smoking or drinking alcohols. This work further reports in-situ LIBS study of deciduous tooth and in-vivo LIBS study of human nail

  14. Production of Thallium 201 for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braghirolli, A.M.S.

    1981-12-01

    With the purpose of producing high purity carrier-free 201 Tl, for medical use, a production and separation method was developed using the CV-28 Cyclotron of the Nuclear Engineering Institute in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 201 Pb was produced by 24 MeV proton bombardment of natural Tl and allowed to decay to 201 Tl. In the separation process the target is dissolved in HNO 3 , the 201 Pb produced is separated by Fe(OH) 3 coprecipitation, and the Fe is latter separated by anion exchange. The 201 Pb is permited to decay during 32 hrs. 201 Tl is then separated from remaining Pb by anion exchange. The chemical separation is done in a remote processing cell using manipulators, tongs, electric and pneumatic systems. The thick target yield of 201 Pb is 1.7 mCi/μAhr. At the moment the production is restricted to 4 mCi of 201 Tl for each irradiation. (Author) [pt

  15. European union legislation in medical application of ionizing radiation and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanlic-Razumenic, N.; Pavlovic, R.; Plecas, I.

    1999-01-01

    The most important aspects of the latest EU legislation concerning medical application of ionizing radiation, with the special emphasis on nuclear medicine are presented in this paper. The EU member countries will start to apply this regulation on 13 th May 2000. Our legislation is already adjusted to IAEA standards and ICRP Recommendation. Those regulations are of special concerns in the Radioisotope Laboratory of The Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences. (author)

  16. Aerosol generation and delivery in medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soni, P.S.; Raghunath, B.

    1998-01-01

    It is well established that radioaerosol lung technique by inhalation is a very versatile technique in the evaluation of health effects and medical diagnostic applications, especially to detect chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, their defence mechanism permeability and many others. Most important part of aerosol technology is to generate reproducibly stable diagnostic radioaerosols of known characteristics. Many compressed air atomisers are commercially available for generating aerosols but they have limited utility in aerosol inhalation, either because of large droplet size, low aerosol output or high airflow rates. There is clearly a need for a versatile and economical aerosol generation/inhalation system that can produce dry labelled aerosol particles with high deep lung delivery efficiency suitable for clinical studies. BARC (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre) has developed a dry aerosol generation/delivery system which operates on compressed air and generates dry polydisperse aerosols. This system is described along with an assessment of the aerosol characteristics and efficiency for diagnosis of various respiratory disorders

  17. From particle physics to medical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dosanjh, Manjit

    2017-01-01

    CERN is the world's largest particle physics research laboratory. Since it was established in 1954, it has made an outstanding contribution to our understanding of the fundamental particles and their interactions, and also to the technologies needed to analyse their properties and behaviour. The experimental challenges have pushed the performance of particle accelerators and detectors to the limits of our technical capabilities, and these groundbreaking technologies can also have a significant impact in applications beyond particle physics. In particular, the detectors developed for particle physics have led to improved techniques for medical imaging, while accelerator technologies lie at the heart of the irradiation methods that are widely used for treating cancer. Indeed, many important diagnostic and therapeutic techniques used by healthcare professionals are based either on basic physics principles or the technologies developed to carry out physics research. Ever since the discovery of x-rays by Roentgen...

  18. Plasma treatment: A Novel Medical Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonyawan, Dheerawan

    2015-01-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) for the medical treatment is a new field in plasma application, called plasma medicine. CAP contrains mix of excited atoms and molecules, UV photons, charged particles as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Typical species in air CAPs are O 3 , OH, N x , and HNO x . Two cold atomospheric plasma devices were utiized (either in an indirect or a direct way) for the treatment of physiologically healthy volunterrs, The results show that CAP is effective againts chronic wound infections and/ or for skin treatment in clinical trials. The current developments in this field have fuelled the hope that CAP could be, and interesting new therapeutic apptoach in the treatment of cancer.

  19. Medical applications of infrared thermography: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, B. B.; Bagavathiappan, S.; Jayakumar, T.; Philip, John

    2012-07-01

    Abnormal body temperature is a natural indicator of illness. Infrared thermography (IRT) is a fast, passive, non-contact and non-invasive alternative to conventional clinical thermometers for monitoring body temperature. Besides, IRT can also map body surface temperature remotely. Last five decades witnessed a steady increase in the utility of thermal imaging cameras to obtain correlations between the thermal physiology and skin temperature. IRT has been successfully used in diagnosis of breast cancer, diabetes neuropathy and peripheral vascular disorders. It has also been used to detect problems associated with gynecology, kidney transplantation, dermatology, heart, neonatal physiology, fever screening and brain imaging. With the advent of modern infrared cameras, data acquisition and processing techniques, it is now possible to have real time high resolution thermographic images, which is likely to surge further research in this field. The present efforts are focused on automatic analysis of temperature distribution of regions of interest and their statistical analysis for detection of abnormalities. This critical review focuses on advances in the area of medical IRT. The basics of IRT, essential theoretical background, the procedures adopted for various measurements and applications of IRT in various medical fields are discussed in this review. Besides background information is provided for beginners for better understanding of the subject.

  20. Summary of nuclear-excavation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toman, John [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Although many nuclear-excavation applications have been proposed, few have been seriously considered and none have been brought to fruition. This paper summarizes and discusses specific examples of a canal, a harbor, a highway cut and a nuclear quarry, all of which have been studied in some detail. It is believed that useful demonstration projects - such as a deep-water harbor and a nuclear quarry - can be safely accomplished with existing technology. Current assessments of the feasibility of constructing a sea-level canal in either Panama or Colombia appear to be favorable from a technical viewpoint. The concept of close spacing in row-charge designs has made it possible to greatly reduce the estimated required salvo yields for both proposed canals. Salvo yields have been reduced from 35 Mt to 13 Mt in Colombia and 11 Mt in Panama. As a result, the seismic motions predicted for large cities in these countries are similar to motions produced in populated areas in the United States by nuclear tests and earthquakes in which no real damage to residential or high-rise structures was noted. (author)

  1. Summary of nuclear-excavation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toman, John

    1970-01-01

    Although many nuclear-excavation applications have been proposed, few have been seriously considered and none have been brought to fruition. This paper summarizes and discusses specific examples of a canal, a harbor, a highway cut and a nuclear quarry, all of which have been studied in some detail. It is believed that useful demonstration projects - such as a deep-water harbor and a nuclear quarry - can be safely accomplished with existing technology. Current assessments of the feasibility of constructing a sea-level canal in either Panama or Colombia appear to be favorable from a technical viewpoint. The concept of close spacing in row-charge designs has made it possible to greatly reduce the estimated required salvo yields for both proposed canals. Salvo yields have been reduced from 35 Mt to 13 Mt in Colombia and 11 Mt in Panama. As a result, the seismic motions predicted for large cities in these countries are similar to motions produced in populated areas in the United States by nuclear tests and earthquakes in which no real damage to residential or high-rise structures was noted. (author)

  2. Fiber optic temperature sensors for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaafsma, David T.; Palmer, Gail; Bechtel, James H.

    2003-07-01

    Recent developments in fiber-optic sensor technology have demonstrated the utility of fiber-optic sensors for both medical and industrial applications. Fiber sensors based on fluorescent decay of rare earth doped materials allow rapid and accurate temperature measurement in challenging environments. Here we review the principles of operation of these sensors with a rare earth doped probe material and demonstrate why this material is an excellent choice for these types of sensors. The decay time technique allows accurate temperature determination from two measurements of the fluorescence intensity at a well-defined time interval. With this method, all instrumental and extraneous environmental effect will cancel, thus providing an accurate temperature measurement. Stability data will be presented for the fiber-optic probes. For medical applications, new breakthroughs in RF ablation technology and electro-surgical procedures are being introduced as alternative, less invasive treatment for removal of small tumors and for removal of plaque within arteries as a preventive treatment that avoids open heart surgery. The availability of small diameter temperature probes (230 microns or 450 microns in diameter) offers a whole new scope to temperature measurement. Accurate and reliable temperature monitoring during any laser treatment procedure or RF ablation at the surgical site is critical. Precise, NIST traceable reliable results are needed to prevent overheating or underheating during treatment. In addition, how interventional catheters are used in hyperthermia studies and the advantages to having flexible cables and multiple sensors are discussed. Preliminary data is given from an animal study where temperature was monitored in a pig during an RF study.

  3. Applications of nuclear physics: Future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichler, R.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear physics and energy research depends on and advances science and technology outside of the nuclear field. Perhaps the most commonly perceived benefits to society from nuclear and particle physics are those derived from particle beam technology. Charged particle accelerators play an increasing role in applications in industry and medicine. Neutrons produced with a high power proton accelerator in a spallation process are used from basic research, radiography in automotive industry (example fuel cell development) to transmutation of highly radioactive fission products. Production and acceleration of ultra cold neutrons provide intense and almost mono-energetic neutrons to study soft matter. Heavier radioisotopes are used in a wide field ranging from medicine to semiconductor industry (ion implantation for doping or coating technologies). Concrete examples and future trends will be given. Detailed understanding of ion physics at low energy allows the design of compact accelerator mass spectroscopy (close to table top size). The ability to measure concentrations of specific radioactive isotopes even below the natural radioactivity widens the scope of applications from archaeology, climate research to food industry. Such a compact device is close to commercialisation. (author)

  4. The medical physicist in a nuclear medicine department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trujillo Z, F.E.; Gomez A, E.

    2007-01-01

    The diagnostic studies and therapeutic treatments carried out in a Nuclear Medicine department make use of radioactive material. For such a reason it becomes necessary to take a strict control in the reception, use and waste that are generated of the typical works inside the department. Also, work related with the quality control of the equipment dedicated to produce images and of those not image formers, need to carry out to guarantee its maximum performance; as well as quality of the diagnostic and of the therapy imparted in patients. Additionally its are needed to make originated works of the individual procedures to patient and of the acquisition of radioactive materials and removal of the waste or radioactive contaminations. Presently work the recommendations of the American College of Radiology (ACR), the European Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (EFOMP) and of the Mexican Official Standards relating to the functions that should be observed in a Nuclear Medicine Department are exposed. The ACR and the EFOMP, conclude in their recommendations that the medical physicist fulfills with the suitable profile and likewise they describe in detail the actions and functions that he should supervise, to carry out, to document and to inform. (Author)

  5. Qualitative knowledge engineering for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae H.; Kim, Ko R.; Lee, Jae C.

    1996-01-01

    After the TMI nuclear power plant accident, the two topics of plant safety and operational efficiency became more important areas of artificial intelligence, which have difference characteristics. Qualitative deep model is the recently prospective technology of AI, that can overcome several handicaps of the existing expert systems such as lack of common sense reasoning. The application of AI to the large and complex system like nuclear power plants is typically and effectively done through a module-based hierarchical system. As each module has to be built with suitable AI system. Through the experiences of hierarchical system construction, we aimed to develop basic AI application schemes for the power plant safety and operational efficiency as well as basic technologies for autonomous power plants. The goal of the research is to develop qualitative reasoning technologies for nuclear power plants. For this purpose, the development of qualitative modeling technologies and qualitative behaviour prediction technologies of the power plant are accomplished. In addition, the feasibility of application of typical qualitative reasoning technologies to power plants is studied . The goal of the application is to develop intelligent control technologies of power plants, support technologies. For these purposes, we analyzed the operation of power plants according to its operation purpose: power generation operation, shut-down and start-up operation. As a result, qualitative model of basic components were sketched, including pipes, valves, pumps and heat exchangers. Finally, plant behaviour prediction technologies through qualitative plant heat transfer model and design support technologies through 2nd-order differential equation were developed. For the construction of AI system of power plants, we have studied on the mixed module based hierarchical software. As a testbed, we have considered the spent fuel system and the feedwater system. We also studied the integration

  6. Radiotracers in medical applications, vols 1-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayudu, G.V.S.

    1983-01-01

    These volumes will serve as a basis for instruction and reference for professionals such as radiopharmaceutical chemists, radiopharmacologists, radiopharmacists, radiobiochemists, and others involved in the medical applications of radiotracers. Vol. I: Topics include radiohalogenated compounds, including radioiodine; Tc-labeled compounds; and in-house prepared radiopharmaceuticals. The charge particle range vs. energy in every element is tabulated for protons for cyclotrons users. Discussions are also provided on nonimaging radiotracer methods; 11 C, 13 N, 15 O, 67 Ga. 111 In, 75 Se, /SUP 123m/ Te compounds; radioactive noble gases; and miscellaneous radiotracers for imaging. Vol. II: Pertinent nuclear science data such as radiation dosimetry, radionuclide production modes, radionuclides for therapy, human experimentation regulations and consent forms, and radiotracer laboratory designs are presented

  7. Manufacturing radioactive material for medical, research and industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    Hospitals, clinics and other medical complexes are among the most extensive users of radioactive material. Nuclear medicine uses radioactive solutions of Tc-99m, Tl-201, Ga-67, I-123, Xe-133 and other radiopharmaceuticals as diagnostic tools to evaluate dynamic functions of various organs in the body, detect cancerous tumors, sites of infection or other bodily dysfunctions. Examples of monitoring blood flow to the brain of a cocaine addict will be shown. Many different radionuclides are also produced for life science research and industrial applications. Some require long irradiations and are needed only periodically. Radiopharmaceutical manufactures look for reliable suppliers that can produce quality product at a reasonable cost. Worldwide production of the processed and unprocessed radionuclides and the enriched stable nuclides that are the target materials used in the accelerators and reactors around the world will be discussed. (author)

  8. Nuclear, biological and chemical warfare. Part I: Medical aspects of nuclear warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasthuri, A S; Pradhan, A B; Dham, S K; Bhalla, I P; Paul, J S

    1990-04-01

    Casualties in earlier wars were due much more to diseases than to weapons. Mention has been made in history of the use of biological agents in warfare, to deny the enemy food and water and to cause disease. In the first world war chemical agents were used to cause mass casualties. Nuclear weapons were introduced in the second world war. Several countries are now involved in developing nuclear, biological and chemical weapon systems, for the mass annihilation of human beings, animals and plants, and to destroy the economy of their enemies. Recently, natural calamities and accidents in nuclear, chemical and biological laboratories and industries have caused mass instantaneous deaths in civilian population. The effects of future wars will not be restricted to uniformed persons. It is time that physicians become aware of the destructive potential of these weapons. Awareness, immediate protective measures and first aid will save a large number of persons. This series of articles will outline the medical aspects of nuclear, biological and chemical weapon systems in three parts. Part I will deal with the biological effects of a nuclear explosion. The short and long term effects due to blast, heat and associated radiation are highlighted. In Part II, the role of biological agents which cause commoner or new disease patterns is mentioned. Some of the accidents from biological warfare laboratories are a testimony to its potential deleterious effects. Part III deals with medical aspects of chemical warfare agents, which in view of their mass effects can overwhelm the existing medical resources, both civilian and military.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. CVD diamond for nuclear detection applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bergonzo, P; Tromson, D; Mer, C; Guizard, B; Marshall, R D; Foulon, F

    2002-01-01

    Chemically vapour deposited (CVD) diamond is a remarkable material for the fabrication of radiation detectors. In fact, there exist several applications where other standard semiconductor detectors do not fulfil the specific requirements imposed by corrosive, hot and/or high radiation dose environments. The improvement of the electronic properties of CVD diamond has been under intensive investigations and led to the development of a few applications that are addressing specific industrial needs. Here, we report on CVD diamond-based detector developments and we describe how this material, even though of a polycrystalline nature, is readily of great interest for applications in the nuclear industry as well as for physics experiments. Improvements in the material synthesis as well as on device fabrication especially concern the synthesis of films that do not exhibit space charge build up effects which are often encountered in CVD diamond materials and that are highly detrimental for detection devices. On a pre-i...

  10. Application of Nuclear Application Programs to APR1400 Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Do Hyun; Lee, Myeong Soo; Hong, Jin Hyuk

    2012-01-01

    Advanced Power Reactor 1400MWe (APR1400) simulator has been developed and installed at Kori Training Center for operators of ShinKori no.3, 4 nuclear power plant by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power,s Central Research Institute (KHNP CRI). NAPS (Nuclear Application Programs) is a computerbased system which provides operators with past and real-time information for monitoring and controlling NSSS (Nuclear Steam Supply System), BOP (Balance Of Plant) and Electric system. NAPS consists of several programs such as COLSS (Core Operating Limit Supervisory System), SPADES+ (Safety Parameter Display and Evaluation System), CEA (Control Element Assembly) Application Program, and so on. Each program makes calculations based on its own algorithm and provides information available for operation. In order to use NAPS programs with a simulator even though they are being used in a real plant, they should be modified to add several simulation functions such as reset, snap, run/freeze and backtrack required by ANSI/ANS-3.5 to the original NAPS functionality. On top of that, interfacing programs should be developed for the data communication between respective NAPS programs and simulator sever. The purpose of this paper is to provide the overall architecture of the communication system between NAPS and simulator model, and to describe the method to apply NAPS to APR1400 simulator

  11. Chemistry of cements for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, P.; Glasser, F.P.

    1992-01-01

    In recent times the nuclear industry has thrown up challenges which cannot be met by the application of conventional civil and materials engineering knowledge. The contributions in this volume investigate all aspects of cement performance. The scope of the papers demonstrates the current balance of activities which have as their objective the elucidation of kinetics and immobilization, determining material interactions and of assessing future performance. The papers reflect the varied goals of the sponsors who include national governments, the Commission of the European Communities and the nuclear industries. In six parts attention is paid to the durability of cement and concrete in repository environment; interactions between cement, waste components and ground water; properties and performance of cement materials; leach behavior and mechanisms, diffusional properties of cement and concrete, including porosity-permeability relationships; and thermodynamics of cementitious systems and modelling of cement performance

  12. How the radiologic and nuclear medical communities can improve nuclear security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Laura H; von Hippel, Frank

    2007-04-01

    Highly enriched uranium (HEU) is used to manufacture technetium-99m, the most widely used medical radioisotope in the world. Highly enriched uranium is also used to make nuclear bombs; 50 kg of HEU is enough to make a Hiroshima-type bomb. It is generally agreed that this technology is within the reach of a terrorist group; the main obstacle is acquiring HEU. Currently, as a legacy of the US and Soviet Atoms for Peace Program, there are civilian users of HEU in 40 countries, and about 1,000 kg are still being shipped each year. Unfortunately, the major international manufacturers of technetium-99m have been refusing to convert their production facilities to use low-enriched uranium (LEU), which cannot be used to make a nuclear bomb. Only 1% to 2% of the HEU is consumed in the process of producing technetium-99m. The remainder is accumulating in radioactive waste storage facilities. The radiologic and nuclear medical communities could make a tremendous contribution to a safer world by supporting the replacement of HEU with LEU in the production of technetium-99m. Low-enriched uranium is just as cost effective as HEU for the manufacture of technetium-99m and does not contribute to the risk for nuclear terrorism.

  13. Tunable white light source for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaszczak, Urszula J.; Gryko, Lukasz; Zajac, Andrzej

    2017-08-01

    Development of light-emitting diodes has brought new possibilities in many applications, especially in terms of flexible adjustment of light spectra. This feature is very useful in construction of many devices, for example for medical diagnosis and treatment. It was proved, that in some cases LEDs can easily replace lasers during therapy of cancer without reduction of efficiency of this process. On the other hand during diagnosis process LED-based constructions can provide unique ability to adjust the color temperature of the output light while maintaining high color rendering. It allows for optimum surface contrast and enhanced tissue differentiation at the operator site. In the paper we describe the construction of the tunable LED-based source designed for application in endoscopy. It was optimized from the point of view of the color rendition for 5 different correlated color temperatures (illuminant A, D55, D65, 3500K and 4500K) with the restriction of very high (>90) values of general and specific color rendering indexes (according to Ra method). The source is composed of 13 light-emitting diodes from visible region mounted on the common radiator and controlled by dedicated system. Spectra of the components are mixed and the spectra of output light is analyzed. On the basis of obtained spectra colorimetric parameters are calculated and compared with the results of theoretical analysis.

  14. U.S. Forward Operating Base Applications of Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, George W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a high level overview of current nuclear power technology and the potential use of nuclear power at military bases. The size, power ranges, and applicability of nuclear power units for military base power are reviewed. Previous and current reactor projects are described to further define the potential for nuclear power for military power.

  15. [VR and AR Applications in Medical Practice and Education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Min-Chai; Lin, Yu-Hsuan

    2017-12-01

    As technology advances, mobile devices have gradually turned into wearable devices. Furthermore, virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), and mixed reality (MR) are being increasingly applied in medical fields such as medical education and training, surgical simulation, neurological rehabilitation, psychotherapy, and telemedicine. Research results demonstrate the ability of VR, AR, and MR to ameliorate the inconveniences that are often associated with traditional medical care, reduce incidents of medical malpractice caused by unskilled operations, and reduce the cost of medical education and training. What is more, the application of these technologies has enhanced the effectiveness of medical education and training, raised the level of diagnosis and treatment, improved the doctor-patient relationship, and boosted the efficiency of medical execution. The present study introduces VR, AR, and MR applications in medical practice and education with the aim of helping health professionals better understand the applications and use these technologies to improve the quality of medical care.

  16. Bioadhesives for internal medical applications: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenzhen; Chuah, Yon Jin; Wang, Dong-An

    2018-04-22

    Bioadhesives such as tissue adhesives, hemostatic agents, and tissue sealants have gained increasing popularity in different areas of clinical operations during the last three decades. Bioadhesives can be categorized into internal and external ones according to their application conditions. External bioadhesives are generally applied in topical medications such as wound closure and epidermal grafting. Internal bioadhesives are mainly used in intracorporal conditions with direct contact to internal environment including tissues, organs and body fluids, such as chronic organ leak repair and bleeding complication reduction. This review focuses on internal bioadhesives that, in contrast with external bioadhesives, emphasize much more on biocompatibility and adhesive ability to wet surfaces rather than on gluing time and intensity. The crosslinking mechanisms of present internal bioadhesives can be generally classified as follows: 1) chemical conjugation between reactive groups; 2) free radical polymerization by light or redox initiation; 3) biological or biochemical coupling with specificity; and 4) biomimetic adhesion inspired from natural phenomena. In this review, bioadhesive products of each class are summarized and discussed by comparing their designs, features, and applications as well as their prospects for future development. Despite the emergence of numerous novel bioadhesive formulations in recent years, thus far, the classification of internal and external bioadhesives has not been well defined and universally acknowledged. Many of the formulations have been proposed for treatment of several diseases even though they are not applicable for such conditions. This is because of the lack of a systematic standard or evaluation protocol during the development of a new adhesive product. In this review, the definition of internal and external bioadhesives is given for the first time, and with a focus on internal bioadhesives, the criteria of an ideal internal

  17. Nuclear imaging in the realm of medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deconinck, Frank

    2003-01-01

    In medical imaging, information concerning the anatomy or biological processes of a patient is detected and presented on film or screen for interpretation by a reader. The information flow from patient to reader optimally implies: - the emission, transmission or reflection of information carriers, typically photons or sound waves, which have to be correctly modulated by patient information through interactions in the patient; - their detection by adequate imaging equipment preserving essential spectral, spatial and/or temporal information; - the presentation of the information in the most perceivable way; - the observation by an unbiased and trained expert. In reality, only an approximation to this optimal situation is achieved. It is the goal of R and D in the medical imaging field to approach the optimum as much as possible within societal constraints such as patient risk and comfort, economics, etc. First, the basic physical concepts underlying the imaging process will be introduced. Different imaging modalities will then be situated in the realm of medical imaging with some emphasis on nuclear imaging

  18. Nuclear risk: information of medical practitioners in Isere Department. Impact of the booklet: 'doctors and nuclear risk'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonquet, M.E.

    1990-02-01

    In this thesis, the author first presents 'Isere, pilot department' operation, then the importance of nuclear risks in Isere, considers the role and place of medical practitioners in the management of this risk and in information request of medical personnel. The author also presents the booklet 'Doctors and nuclear risk' and analyzes the results of study on its impact close to medical population. 9 tabs., 25 figs

  19. New nuclear facilities and their analytical applications in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.Y.; He, X.; Ma, Y.H.; Ding, Y.Y.; Chai, Z.F.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear analytical techniques are a family of modern analytical methods that are based on nuclear reactions, nuclear effects, nuclear radiations, nuclear spectroscopy, nuclear parameters, and nuclear facilities. Because of their combined characteristics of sensitivity and selectivity, they are widely used in projects ranging from life sciences to deep-space exploration. In this review article, new nuclear facilities and their analytical applications in China are selectively reviewed, covering the following aspects: large scientific facilities, national demands, and key scientific issues with the emphasis on the new achievements. (orig.)

  20. Nuclear analytical chemistry: recent developments and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, R.

    2013-01-01

    Recent R and D studies on Nuclear Analytical Chemistry utilizing techniques like Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Prompt Gamma-ray NAA (PGNAA), Particle Induced Gamma Ray and X-Ray Emission (PICE/PIXE) for compositional analysis of materials have been summarized. The work includes developments and applications of (i) single comparator NAA, called as k 0 -NAA, (ii) k 0 -based internal monostandard NAA (IM-NAA), (iii) k 0 -based prompt gamma ray NAA (PGNAA) and (iv) instrumental NAA using thermal and epithermal neutrons and (v) PIGE and PIXE methods using proton beam for low Z and medium Z elements, respectively. (author)

  1. Nuclear energy an introduction to the concepts, systems, and applications of nuclear processes

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, Raymond L; Murphy, Arthur T; Rosenthal, Daniel I

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear Energy: An Introduction to the Concepts, Systems, and Applications of Nuclear Processes introduces the reader to the concepts, systems, and applications of nuclear processes. It provides a factual description of basic nuclear phenomena, as well as devices and processes that involve nuclear reactions. The problems and opportunities that are inherent in a nuclear age are also highlighted.Comprised of 27 chapters, this book begins with an overview of fundamental facts and principles, with emphasis on energy and states of matter, atoms and nuclei, and nuclear reactions. Radioactivi

  2. Medical Applications and Toxicities of Gallium Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Chitambar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two to three decades, gallium compounds have gained importance in the fields of medicine and electronics. In clinical medicine, radioactive gallium and stable gallium nitrate are used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in cancer and disorders of calcium and bone metabolism. In addition, gallium compounds have displayed anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activity in animal models of human disease while more recent studies have shown that gallium compounds may function as antimicrobial agents against certain pathogens. In a totally different realm, the chemical properties of gallium arsenide have led to its use in the semiconductor industry. Gallium compounds, whether used medically or in the electronics field, have toxicities. Patients receiving gallium nitrate for the treatment of various diseases may benefit from such therapy, but knowledge of the therapeutic index of this drug is necessary to avoid clinical toxicities. Animals exposed to gallium arsenide display toxicities in certain organ systems suggesting that environmental risks may exist for individuals exposed to this compound in the workplace. Although the arsenic moiety of gallium arsenide appears to be mainly responsible for its pulmonary toxicity, gallium may contribute to some of the detrimental effects in other organs. The use of older and newer gallium compounds in clinical medicine may be advanced by a better understanding of their mechanisms of action, drug resistance, pharmacology, and side-effects. This review will discuss the medical applications of gallium and its mechanisms of action, the newer gallium compounds and future directions for development, and the toxicities of gallium compounds in current use.

  3. The applications of nuclear techniques in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Huiyang

    1986-01-01

    There are a great deal of advanced techniques in nuclear medicine imaging, because many recent achivements of nuclear techniques have been applied to medicine in recent years. This paper presents the effects of nuclear techniques in development of nuclear medicine imaging. The first part describes radiopharmaceuticals and nuclear medicine imaging including commonly used 99m Tc labeled agents and cyclotron produced radionuclides for organ imaging. The second part describes nuclear medicine instrucments, including PECT, SPECT, MRI ect.; and discussions on the advantages, disadvantages and present status

  4. NUCLEAR SAFETY DESIGN BASES FOR LICENSE APPLICATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify and document the nuclear safety design requirements that are specific to structures, systems, and components (SSCs) of the repository that are important to safety (ITS) during the preclosure period and to support the preclosure safety analysis and the license application for the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The scope of this report includes the assignment of nuclear safety design requirements to SSCs that are ITS and does not include the assignment of design requirements to SSCs or natural or engineered barriers that are important to waste isolation (ITWI). These requirements are used as input for the design of the SSCs that are ITS such that the preclosure performance objectives of 10 CFR 63.111 [DIRS 156605] are met. The natural or engineered barriers that are important to meeting the postclosure performance objectives of 10 CFR 63.113 [DIRS 156605] are identified as ITWI. Although a structure, system, or component (SSC) that is ITS may also be ITWI, this report is only concerned with providing the nuclear safety requirements for SSCs that are ITS to prevent or mitigate event sequences during the repository preclosure period

  5. Nuclear Safety Design Base for License Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.J. Garrett

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify and document the nuclear safety design requirements that are specific to structures, systems, and components (SSCs) of the repository that are important to safety (ITS) during the preclosure period and to support the preclosure safety analysis and the license application for the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The scope of this report includes the assignment of nuclear safety design requirements to SSCs that are ITS and does not include the assignment of design requirements to SSCs or natural or engineered barriers that are important to waste isolation (ITWI). These requirements are used as input for the design of the SSCs that are ITS such that the preclosure performance objectives of 10 CFR 63.111(b) [DIRS 173273] are met. The natural or engineered barriers that are important to meeting the postclosure performance objectives of 10 CFR 63.113(b) and (c) [DIRS 173273] are identified as ITWI. Although a structure, system, or component (SSC) that is ITS may also be ITWI, this report is only concerned with providing the nuclear safety requirements for SSCs that are ITS to prevent or mitigate event sequences during the repository preclosure period

  6. Nuclear gauge application in road industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi Ismail, Mohd

    2017-11-01

    Soil compaction is essential in road construction. The evaluation of the degree of compaction relies on the knowledge of density and moisture of the compacted layers is very important to the performance of the pavement structure. Among the various tests used for making these determinations, the sand replacement density test and the moisture content determination by oven drying are perhaps the most widely used. However, these methods are not only time consuming and need wearisome procedures to obtain the results but also destructive and the number of measurements that can be taken at any time is limited. The test can on be fed back to the construction site the next day. To solve these problems, a nuclear technique has been introduced as a quicker and easier way of measuring the density and moisture of construction materials. Nuclear moisture density gauges have been used for many years in pavement construction as a method of non-destructive density testing The technique which can determine both wet density and moisture content offers an in situ method for construction control at the work site. The simplicity, the speed, and non-destructive nature offer a great advantage for quality control. This paper provides an overview of nuclear gauge application in road construction and presents a case study of monitoring compaction status of in Sedenak - Skudai, Johor rehabilitation projects.

  7. Medical History in the Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine is about to celebrate its 20th anniversary end of 2017. On board of the editorial team since 2003, this journal has influenced me like a good friend over the many past years. From time to time, the journal has published interesting and valuable historical notes. They show that nuclear medicine has a history and that medicine is its basis. They also teach us today, and some of the ancient perspectives and approaches are still valid. The reader of HJNM may be interested in these historical contributions, as they are timeless. Therefore, it was our idea to summarize these in the following pages. Where there is a link to the free article, this is noted. Upon opening all articles, you will find out that these are a book or so of its own. In thanks to the editor-in-chief of the Journal for his continuing support on the historical section. Below we refer to the historical papers of the Journal: History of Nuclear Medicine. Nuclear Medicine and History of Science and Philosophy: Atomic Theory of the Matter. G.N. Sfakianakis, 2001; 4(3); 155-60. Editorial. Pioneers of nuclear medicine, Madame Curie. P.C. Grammaticos. 2004; 7(1); 29-30. http://nuclmed.web.auth.gr/ magazine/eng/jan04/editorial.htm Editor's note. Hippocrates' Oath. The editor. 2004; 7(1); 31. Editorial. Useful known and unknown views of the father of modern medicine, Hippocrates and his teacher Democritus. P. Grammaticos, A. Diamantis. 2008; 11(1): 2-4. http://nuclmed.web.auth.gr/magazine/eng/jan08/2.pdf Special Article. The contribution of Maria Sklodowska-Curie and Pierre Curie to Nuclear and Medical Physics. A hundred and ten years after the discovery of radium. A. Diamantis, E. Magiorkinis, 2008; 11(1): 33-8. http://nuclmed.web.auth.gr/magazine/ eng/jan08/33.pdf Brief Historical Review. Lymphatic system and lymphoscintigraphy. P. Valsamaki. 2009; 12(1): 87-89. http://nuclmed.web. auth.gr/magazine/eng/jan09/89.pdf (In Greek) Historical Review. The philosophic and

  8. A study of RFID application impacts on medical safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, She-I; Ou, Chin-Shyh; Ku, Cheng-Yuan; Yang, Morris

    2008-01-01

    With the international reform in medical management systems gaining ground worldwide, hospital management has gradually begun to shift its focus from providing expensive medical treatment to improving medical service quality and patient safety. In this study, we discuss the application of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and data integrating technology with the medical service, and examine whether or not this technology can enhance medical safety. We also discuss the possible benefits following the application of the RFID system. The findings show that the application of RFID to hospitals can actually generate benefits, which can be further divided into operational structure benefits, users' structure benefits, and organisational and environmental benefits. However, not all these benefits can achieve medical safety. Among them, only the operator and environmental benefits can play such roles. Nevertheless, the application of RFID can bring hospitals towards the integration of technology benefits and improved medical safety.

  9. Prophetic forecast on the nuclear power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang-Kun

    1996-01-01

    It was asked to attempt the ''prophetic forecast''. The time required for the doubling of world population continued to shrink, and now it is mere 40 years. The life of a contemporary person is now sustained by some 30,000 different ''daily necessities'', and despite such proliferation of options, the avarice for much more has not diminished. Over the past 35 years, the Korean population has increased by 1.79 times, and the electric power generation by 168.53 fold. Similar mushrooming trends have occurred in water and food consumption, clothing, plastics, paper, iron and steel, aluminum and so forth. The annual minimum temperature in Seoul has sharply jumped up in the last 80 years, and in the last 2-3 years, sea level went up by 10 mm per annum. Nuclear energy will play a crucial role in helping save all forms of life on the earth and keep the biosphere clean and livable, by reducing the discharge of detrimental gases and contaminating effluents. The main cause of various problems is human population burst, but now there may be a reason for some optimism as far as containing unbounded population growth, by the dilution of sperm density in human semen. In order to avoid the crashing of a large planetoid on the earth in 2126, nuclear architects must develop powerful and accurate nuclear weapons to shoot it off course. The prophetic view is that by the active and judicious applications of nuclear power and technology, the continued survival of mankind will be able to be ensured. (K.I.)

  10. Prophetic forecast on the nuclear power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang-Kun [Atomic Energy Commission (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-10-01

    It was asked to attempt the ``prophetic forecast``. The time required for the doubling of world population continued to shrink, and now it is mere 40 years. The life of a contemporary person is now sustained by some 30,000 different ``daily necessities``, and despite such proliferation of options, the avarice for much more has not diminished. Over the past 35 years, the Korean population has increased by 1.79 times, and the electric power generation by 168.53 fold. Similar mushrooming trends have occurred in water and food consumption, clothing, plastics, paper, iron and steel, aluminum and so forth. The annual minimum temperature in Seoul has sharply jumped up in the last 80 years, and in the last 2-3 years, sea level went up by 10 mm per annum. Nuclear energy will play a crucial role in helping save all forms of life on the earth and keep the biosphere clean and livable, by reducing the discharge of detrimental gases and contaminating effluents. The main cause of various problems is human population burst, but now there may be a reason for some optimism as far as containing unbounded population growth, by the dilution of sperm density in human semen. In order to avoid the crashing of a large planetoid on the earth in 2126, nuclear architects must develop powerful and accurate nuclear weapons to shoot it off course. The prophetic view is that by the active and judicious applications of nuclear power and technology, the continued survival of mankind will be able to be ensured. (K.I.)

  11. Nuclear medical methods for determination of bone mineral content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, M.; Kempers, B.; Tschepke, H.D.; Spitz, J.

    1988-01-01

    Osteoporosis is becoming recognized as a major social and economical health problem. Bone mineral content (BMC) depends on many hormonal and metabolic factors. The pathophysiological mechanism of the loss of bone mass is still unclear. For preventive diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis, quantitative technology is required that will measure BMC with high precision and reproducibility. Nuclear medical methods permit the BMC of the appendicular skeleton to be measured by single photon absorptiometry. Whole-body BMC, as well as spine and femur BMC, can be measured by dual photon absorptiometry. The results from both procedures are reasonably precise and correlate well with the ash weight of isolated bone. The radiation exposure level in both SPA and DPA is low. SPA and DPA may be used for cost-effective screening of high-risk patients to predict the likelihood of future fractures and control osteoporosis therapy. (orig.) [de

  12. Target-fueled nuclear reactor for medical isotope production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, Richard L.; Parma, Edward J.

    2017-06-27

    A small, low-enriched, passively safe, low-power nuclear reactor comprises a core of target and fuel pins that can be processed to produce the medical isotope .sup.99Mo and other fission product isotopes. The fuel for the reactor and the targets for the .sup.99Mo production are the same. The fuel can be low enriched uranium oxide, enriched to less than 20% .sup.235U. The reactor power level can be 1 to 2 MW. The reactor is passively safe and maintains negative reactivity coefficients. The total radionuclide inventory in the reactor core is minimized since the fuel/target pins are removed and processed after 7 to 21 days.

  13. Recent applications of nuclear track emulsion technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarubin, P. I., E-mail: zarubin@lhe.jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of High Energy Physics (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    A survey of recent results obtained using the nuclear track emulsion (NTE) technique in low energy applications is given. NTE irradiation with 60 MeV {sup 8}He nuclei provides identification of their decays at stopping, evaluation of the possibility of α range spectrometry, and observation of drift of thermalized {sup 8}He atoms. Correlations of α particles studied in {sup 12}C → 3α splitting induced by 14.1 MeV neutrons indicate the presence of a superposition of 0{sup +} and 2{sup +} states of the {sup 8}Be nucleus in the ground state of {sup 12}C. Angular correlations of fragments are studied in boron-enriched NTE, and the prospects of NTE application in radioactivity and nuclear fission research are discussed. It is proposed to use an automated microscope to search for collinear tripartition of heavy nuclei implanted in NTE. Surface irradiation of NTE by a {sup 252}Cf source is started. Planar events containing fragment pairs and long range α particles, as well as fragment triples, are studied. NTE samples are calibrated using Kr and Xe ions with an energy of 1.2 and 3 A MeV.

  14. Management of radioactive waste from nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Radioactive waste arises from the generation of nuclear energy and from the production of radioactive materials and their applications in industry, agriculture, research and medicine. The importance of safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized and considerable experience has been gained in this field. Technical expertise is a prerequisite for safe and cost-effective management of radioactive waste. A training course is considered an effective tool for providing technical expertise in various aspects of waste management. The IAEA, in co-operation with national authorities concerned with radioactive waste management, has organized and conducted a number of radioactive waste management training courses. The results of the courses conducted by the IAEA in 1991-1995 have been evaluated at consultants meetings held in December 1995 and May 1996. This guidance document for use by Member States in arranging national training courses on the management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste from nuclear applications has been prepared as the result of that effort. The report outlines the various requirements for the organization, conduct and evaluation of training courses in radioactive waste management and proposes an annotated outline of a reference training course

  15. Triplex DNA: Importance and its medical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noori Dalooei M

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Back in 1957, when investigators produced a triple-stranded form of DNA while studying synthetic nucleic acids, few researchers paid much attention to the discovery. However, triplex DNA was never entirely forgotton and especially since 1987 its structural and functional importance in biological systems as well as its medical applications and therapeutic potentional have been extensively studied. It was suggested that in triplex DNA, the third strand was hydrogen bonded and positioned in the major groove of the Watson-Crick duplex. Protein binding assays show that triplex formation by HR21ap inhibits Sp1 binding to the Ha-ras promoter. These results suggest that the triplex formation by the Ha-ras promoter targed oligonucleotide may provide a means to specifically inhibit transcription of this oncogene in vivo. Triplex DNA can disrupt gene transcriptions and can be used as of this oncogene in vivo. Triplex DNA can disrupt gene transcriptions and can be used as a new strategy for treating viral diseases, such as AIDS, by blocking virus reproduction. As discussed in this article, for a number of reasons, interest in oligonucleotide designed for triplex helices on dsDNA is being steadily increased (including their potential artificial repressors of gene expression, mediator of site specific DNA cleavage and therapeutic use for genetic diseases, cancer and diseases caused by viruses.

  16. Development and application of nuclear power operation database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Juying; Fang Zhaoxia

    1996-01-01

    The article describes the development of the Nuclear Power Operation Database which include Domestic and Overseas Nuclear Event Scale Database, Overseas Nuclear Power Operation Abnormal Event Database, Overseas Nuclear Power Operation General Reliability Database and Qinshan Nuclear Power Operation Abnormal Event Database. The development includes data collection and analysis, database construction and code design, database management system selection. The application of the database to provide support to the safety analysis of the NPPs which have been in commercial operation is also introduced

  17. Laser Isotope Enrichment for Medical and Industrial Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Bond

    2006-07-01

    Laser Isotope Enrichment for Medical and Industrial Applications by Jeff Eerkens (University of Missouri), Jay Kunze (Idaho State University), and Leonard Bond (Idaho National Laboratory) The principal isotope enrichment business in the world is the enrichment of uranium for commercial power reactor fuels. However, there are a number of other needs for separated isotopes. Some examples are: 1) Pure isotopic targets for irradiation to produce medical radioisotopes. 2) Pure isotopes for semiconductors. 3) Low neutron capture isotopes for various uses in nuclear reactors. 4) Isotopes for industrial tracer/identification applications. Examples of interest to medicine are targets to produce radio-isotopes such as S-33, Mo-98, Mo-100, W-186, Sn-112; while for MRI diagnostics, the non-radioactive Xe-129 isotope is wanted. For super-semiconductor applications some desired industrial isotopes are Si-28, Ga-69, Ge-74, Se-80, Te-128, etc. An example of a low cross section isotope for use in reactors is Zn-68 as a corrosion inhibitor material in nuclear reactor primary systems. Neutron activation of Ar isotopes is of interest in industrial tracer and diagnostic applications (e.g. oil-logging). . In the past few years there has been a sufficient supply of isotopes in common demand, because of huge Russian stockpiles produced with old electromagnetic and centrifuge separators previously used for uranium enrichment. Production of specialized isotopes in the USA has been largely accomplished using old ”calutrons” (electromagnetic separators) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These methods of separating isotopes are rather energy inefficient. Use of lasers for isotope separation has been considered for many decades. None of the proposed methods have attained sufficient proof of principal status to be economically attractive to pursue commercially. Some of the authors have succeeded in separating sulfur isotopes using a rather new and different method, known as condensation

  18. Laser Isotope Enrichment for Medical and Industrial Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard Bond

    2006-01-01

    Laser Isotope Enrichment for Medical and Industrial Applications by Jeff Eerkens (University of Missouri), Jay Kunze (Idaho State University), and Leonard Bond (Idaho National Laboratory) The principal isotope enrichment business in the world is the enrichment of uranium for commercial power reactor fuels. However, there are a number of other needs for separated isotopes. Some examples are: (1) Pure isotopic targets for irradiation to produce medical radioisotopes. (2) Pure isotopes for semiconductors. (3) Low neutron capture isotopes for various uses in nuclear reactors. (4) Isotopes for industrial tracer/identification applications. Examples of interest to medicine are targets to produce radio-isotopes such as S-33, Mo-98, Mo-100, W-186, Sn-112; while for MRI diagnostics, the non-radioactive Xe-129 isotope is wanted. For super-semiconductor applications some desired industrial isotopes are Si-28, Ga-69, Ge-74, Se-80, Te-128, etc. An example of a low cross section isotope for use in reactors is Zn-68 as a corrosion inhibitor material in nuclear reactor primary systems. Neutron activation of Ar isotopes is of interest in industrial tracer and diagnostic applications (e.g. oil-logging). . In the past few years there has been a sufficient supply of isotopes in common demand, because of huge Russian stockpiles produced with old electromagnetic and centrifuge separators previously used for uranium enrichment. Production of specialized isotopes in the USA has been largely accomplished using old ''calutrons'' (electromagnetic separators) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These methods of separating isotopes are rather energy inefficient. Use of lasers for isotope separation has been considered for many decades. None of the proposed methods have attained sufficient proof of principal status to be economically attractive to pursue commercially. Some of the authors have succeeded in separating sulfur isotopes using a rather new and different method, known as condensation

  19. Evaluation of XRI-UNO CdTe detector for nuclear medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jambi, L.K.; Lees, J.E.; Bugby, S.L.; Alqahtani, M.S.; Tipper, S.; Perkins, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades advances in semiconductor detector technology have reached the point where they are sufficiently sensitive to become an alternative to scintillators for high energy gamma ray detection for application in fields such as medical imaging. This paper assessed the Cadmium-Telluride (CdTe) XRI-UNO semiconductor detector produced by X-RAY Imatek for photon energies of interest in nuclear imaging. The XRI-UNO detector was found to have an intrinsic spatial resolution of <0.5mm and a high incident count rate capability up to at least 1680cps. The system spatial resolution, uniformity and sensitivity characteristics are also reported

  20. An Evaluation of Free Medical Applications for Android Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana D. CAPRAŞ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ntroduction: The field of healthcare applications (apps currently holds potential to improve the daily medical practice by implementing evidence-based healthcare tools. The purpose of this study was to describe the main characteristics of Android-based healthcare applications available in Google Play and to identify those applications that are evidence-based. Methods: The study was undertaken between the 1st of July and the 30th of August 2016. An evaluation form was developed to characterize the healthcare apps available in Google Play retrieved for the following keywords: (medical apps and (evidence based medical apps respectively. Only the free apps were considered eligible for the purpose of our study. Besides the general characteristics, several criteria with regards to interactivity, functionality, esthetics, contents, benefits, as well as evidence-based aspects were considered. Results: A number of 147 healthcare apps were displayed based on the used keywords and were included in the analysis. 42 of them were excluded due to the need for payment, malfunction after installation or games/animations that used medical terms. The remaining 105 apps were then analyzed by the evaluation criteria established in the research protocol. This study shows that until this point, mobile medical applications are mostly designed for consumers or medical students and less for medical professionals. 2 medical application include evidence based medical information and 19 applications were developed in this direction. The majority of the applications were developed in USA. 60% of the analyzed applications have the capacity of improving the quality of medical care. Conclusions: We found only 2 "ideal" mobile medical applications that brought together all the requirements that every application designed for medical use should fulfill.

  1. BOOK REVIEW: Light, Visible and Invisible and its Medical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newing, Angela

    2000-09-01

    This book is based on various lectures given by Professor Newing over the last few years covering the centenaries of the discovery of x-rays, radioactivity, the electron and radium. It is a splendid follow-up read after studying the more formal presentations in A-level textbooks. The theory of each technique is touched on and the reader is provided with a full list of references for deeper analysis. Intermittently within the text are paragraphs of historical and developmental details, illustrated by contemporary drawings and photographs. These passages, which appear in a different typeface, add greatly to the enjoyment of the book, but could be skipped by an impatient reader seeking to gain an appropriate review knowledge of the subject of medical radiation physics. The areas of physiological measurement and medical engineering are not covered, neither is medical computing. Chapters discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic applications of x-rays. Different methods of scanning are outlined and the appropriateness of techniques brought up-to-date. Treatment with ionizing radiations is expanded to touch on electron radiotherapy, neutron therapy and brachytherapy. Phototherapy and photochemotherapy are considered in the section on treatments using non-ionizing radiations. The story starts with evidence from the ancient worlds of Egypt and Greece, accelerating through the nineteenth and twentieth centuries to the many treatments around today. The laser is shown to be a versatile and exact tool, available in a complete range of wavelengths for different surgical uses. The scientific principles and current applications of nuclear medicine, ultrasound and MRI are described. For each type of procedure, the author includes comments on advantages, disadvantages and operational safety. Dosimetry and quality assurance are touched upon. The book reflects Professor Newing's enthusiasm for her role as a medical physicist both as practitioner and teacher. To any students studying

  2. Application of fieldbus techniques in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xu; Chen Hang; Yu Shuxin; Zhang Xinli

    2012-01-01

    The successful application experience of fieldbus techniques in thermal power plants and nuclear power plants are outlined first. And then, the application of fieldbus techniques in domestic 3rd-generation nuclear power plant (NPP) project is discussed. After that, the solution to the potential problems of fieldbus techniques application in NPP is provided. (authors)

  3. Design Investigation on Applicable Mesh Structures for Medical Stent Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Shoji; He, Jianmei

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, utilization of medical stents is one of effective treatments for stenosis and occlusion occurring in a living body’s lumen indispensable for maintenance of human life such as superficial femoral artery (SFA) occlusion. However, there are concerns about the occurrence of fatigue fractures caused by stress concentrations, neointimal hyperplasia and the like due to the shape structure and the manufacturing method in the conventional stents, and a stent having high strength and high flexibility is required. Therefore, in this research, applicable mesh structures for medical stents based on the design concepts of high strength, high flexibility are interested to solve various problem of conventional stent. According to the shape and dimensions of SFA occlusion therapy stent and indwelling delivery catheter, shape design of the meshed stent are performed using 3-dimensional CAD software Solid Works first. Then analytical examination on storage characteristics and compression characteristics of such mesh structure applied stent models were carried out through finite element analysis software ANSYS Workbench. Meshed stent models with higher strength and higher flexibility with integral molding are investigated analytically. It was found that the storage characteristics and compression characteristics of meshed stent modles are highly dependent on the basic mesh shapes with same surface void ratio. Trade-off relationship between flexibility and storage characteristics is found exited, it is required to provide appropriate curvatures during basic mesh shape design.

  4. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Safeguards Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludewigt, Bernhard A; Quiter, Brian J; Ambers, Scott D

    2011-02-04

    In nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) measurements, resonances are excited by an external photon beam leading to the emission of {gamma} rays with specific energies that are characteristic of the emitting isotope. The promise of NRF as a non-destructive analysis technique (NDA) in safeguards applications lies in its potential to directly quantify a specific isotope in an assay target without the need for unfolding the combined responses of several fissile isotopes as often required by other NDA methods. The use of NRF for detection of sensitive nuclear materials and other contraband has been researched in the past. In the safeguards applications considered here one has to go beyond mere detection and precisely quantify the isotopic content, a challenge that is discussed throughout this report. Basic NRF measurement methods, instrumentation, and the analytical calculation of NRF signal strengths are described in Section 2. Well understood modeling and simulation tools are needed for assessing the potential of NRF for safeguards and for designing measurement systems. All our simulations were performed with the radiation transport code MCNPX, a code that is widely used in the safeguards community. Our initial studies showed that MCNPX grossly underestimated the elastically scattered background at backwards angles due to an incorrect treatment of Rayleigh scattering. While new, corrected calculations based on ENDF form factors showed much better agreement with experimental data for the elastic scattering of photons on an uranium target, the elastic backscatter is still not rigorously treated. Photonuclear scattering processes (nuclear Thomson, Delbruck and Giant Dipole Resonance scattering), which are expected to play an important role at higher energies, are not yet included. These missing elastic scattering contributions were studied and their importance evaluated evaluated against data found in the literature as discussed in Section 3. A transmission experiment

  5. Applications of nuclear technologies for in vivo elemental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Wielopolski, L.

    1983-01-01

    The objectives of this Department of Energy sponsored program are (1) to improve existing nuclear techniques, and (2) to develop new techniques for the analysis and solution of both medical problems and those associated with environmental pollution. Measurement facilities developed, to date, include a unique whole body counter, (WBC); a total body neutron activation facility (TBNAA); and a partial body activation facility (PBNAA). A variation of the prompt gamma neutron activation technique for measuring total body nitrogen has been developed to study body composition of cancer patients and the effect of nutritional regimens on the composition. These new techniques provide data in numerous clinical studies not previously amenable to investigation. The development and perfection of these techniques provide unique applications of radiation and radioisotopes to the early diagnosis of certain diseases and the evaluation of therapeutic programs. The PBNAA technique has been developed and calibrated for in vivo measurement of metals. Development has gone forward on prompt gamma neutron activation for the measurement of cadmium, x-ray fluorescence (XRF) for measurement of lead, and nuclear resonance scattering (NRS) for measurement of iron. Other techniques are being investigated for in vivo measurement of metals such as silicon and beryllium. Cardinal to all toxicological studies of Cd and other metal pollutants is an accurate and sensitive noninvasive technique for measuring organ burdens. In keeping with the mission of Brookhaven, these facilities have been made available to qualified scientists and members of the medical community throughout the world

  6. Explanation of procedure on site medical emergency response for nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yulong; Jiang Zhong

    2012-01-01

    National occupational health standard-Procedure on Site Medical Emergency Response for Nuclear Accident has been approved and issued by the Ministry of Health. This standard is formulated according to the Emergency Response Law of the People's Republic of China, Law of the People 's Republic of China on Prevention and Control of Occupational Diseases, Regulations on Emergency Measures for Nuclear Accidents at Nuclear Power Plants, and Health Emergency Plans for Nuclear and Radiological Accidents of Ministry of Health, supporting the use of On-site Medical Emergency Planning and Preparedness for Nuclear Accidents and Off-site Medical Emergency Planning and Preparedness for Nuclear Accidents. Nuclear accident on-site medical response procedure is a part of the on-site emergency plan. The standard specifies the basic content and requirements of the nuclear accident on-site medical emergency response procedures of nuclear facilities operating units to guide and regulate the work of nuclear accident on-site medical emergency response of nuclear facilities operating units. The criteria-related contents were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  7. A special designed library for medical imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lymberopoulos, D.; Kotsopoulos, S.; Zoupas, V.; Yoldassis, N.; Spyropoulos, C.

    1994-01-01

    The present paper deals with a sophisticated and flexible library of medical purpose image processing routines. It contains modules for simple as well as advanced gray or colour image processing. This library offers powerful features for medical image processing and analysis applications, thus providing the physician with a means of analyzing and estimating medical images in order to accomplish their diagnostic procedures

  8. The waste originating from nuclear energy peaceful applications and its management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Jair Albo Marques de

    1997-05-01

    This work presents the waste originating from nuclear energy and its management. It approaches the following main topics: nature and classification of the wastes; security requirements to the waste management; state of the art related to the wastes derivates of the uses of the nuclear energy; wastes in the fuel cycle; wastes of the industrial, medical and research and development applications; costs of the waste management

  9. Summary Report of Consultants' Meeting on Auger Electron Emission Data Needs for Medical Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noy, Roberto Capote; Chung, Hyun Kyung; Bartschat, Klaus; Dong, Chenzhong; Jonsson, Per; Kibedi, Tibor; Kondev, Filip G.; Nikjoo, Hooshang; Palffy, Adriana

    2013-11-01

    A summary is given of a Consultants' Meeting on 'Auger Electron Emission Data Needs for Medical Applications'. Participants assessed and reviewed detailed atomic and nuclear data needs for a number of Auger emitters deemed as potentially suitable for applications in nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. Technical discussions are described in this report, along with recommendations for future work, along with recommendations for future work. Presentations by the consultants at the meeting are available at http://www-nds.iaea.org/index-meeting-crp/CM-Auger-2013/. (author)

  10. Nuclear-medical local diagnosis of the enthyreotic (bland) goiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerner, W; Reiners, C

    1981-03-04

    The recommendations made by the Goiter Section of the German Society for Endocrinology and by the Task Force on Short-lived Radionuclides for Medical Applications in the USA on the in-vivo application with radionuclides on the goiter are almost completely identical. They can be summarized as follows: a) in-vivo-radionuclide examinations are to be carried out only if there is an indication to do so. b) The radionuclide with the lowest radiation exposure should be applied (e.g. /sup 123/I, /sup 99/sup(m)Tc). c) /sup 131/I is being applied in a few exceptional cases only, but not for the routine scintiscanning of the bland goiter. As camera scintiscanning has been technically improved during the last years, the gamma camera might increasingly prevail over the scanner for thyroid scintiscanning. Taking into consideration possible 'pitfalls' in thyroid scintiscanning helps to avoid false diagnoses.

  11. Towards more accurate and reliable predictions for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goriely, S.

    2015-01-01

    The need for nuclear data far from the valley of stability, for applications such as nuclear astrophysics or future nuclear facilities, challenges the robustness as well as the predictive power of present nuclear models. Most of the nuclear data evaluation and prediction are still performed on the basis of phenomenological nuclear models. For the last decades, important progress has been achieved in fundamental nuclear physics, making it now feasible to use more reliable, but also more complex microscopic or semi-microscopic models in the evaluation and prediction of nuclear data for practical applications. In the present contribution, the reliability and accuracy of recent nuclear theories are discussed for most of the relevant quantities needed to estimate reaction cross sections and beta-decay rates, namely nuclear masses, nuclear level densities, gamma-ray strength, fission properties and beta-strength functions. It is shown that nowadays, mean-field models can be tuned at the same level of accuracy as the phenomenological models, renormalized on experimental data if needed, and therefore can replace the phenomenogical inputs in the prediction of nuclear data. While fundamental nuclear physicists keep on improving state-of-the-art models, e.g. within the shell model or ab initio models, nuclear applications could make use of their most recent results as quantitative constraints or guides to improve the predictions in energy or mass domain that will remain inaccessible experimentally. (orig.)

  12. The INS nuclear microprobe and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coote, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    The nuclear microprobe directs a well-focused beam of high-energy protons or deuterons at a solid specimen inside a vacuum chamber. Atomic and nuclear reactions are induced in those elements in a layer about 20 micro m thick, leading to the emission of characteristic x-rays, gamma rays, and charged particles as well as Rutherford scattering of the incident beam. These radiations impinge on several detectors near the specimen (NaI, Ge(Li), Si(Li) and Si surface barrier). Using proton-excited x-rays all elements above Na may be detected with sensitivities 10 or 100 times that of the electron probe, while elements which can be estimated from their gamma rays include C, N, O, F, Na and Al. In most of our projects the distribution of a trace or minor element (e.g. F, N) is compared to that of a major element (e.g. Ca or Fe). Recent areas of application include archaeometry (diffusion profiles of F in bones and teeth; depth profiles of sodium in obsidian), geology (F concentrations in mineral grains; studies of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary), metallurgy (C, O, N in steel and in welds; S, O, C in corrosion layers), fisheries management (Zn, Sr in otoliths; F in dogfish fin spines and vertebrae), biology (Fe, Sr, N in egg shells; trace elements in human hair), and dental research

  13. Development of structural steels for nuclear application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jun Hwa; Chi, S. H.; Ryu, W. S.; Lee, B. S.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, J. H.; Oh, Y. J.; Byun, T. S.; Yoon, J. H.; Park, D. K.; Oh, J. M.; Cho, H. D.; Kim, H.; Kim, H. D.; Kang, S. S.; Kim, J. W.; Ahn, S. B.

    1997-08-01

    To established the bases of nuclear structural material technologies, this study was focused on the localization and improvement of nuclear structural steels, the production of material property data, and technology developments for integrity evaluation. The important test and analysis technologies for material integrity assessment were developed, and the materials properties of the pressure vessel steels were evaluated systematically on the basis of those technologies, they are microstructural characteristics, tensile and indentation deformation properties, impact properties, and static and dynamic fracture toughness, fatigue and corrosion fatigue etc. Irradiation tests in the research reactors were prepared or completed to obtain the mechanical properties of irradiated materials. The improvement of low alloy steel was also attempted through the comparative study on the manufacturing processes, computer assisted alloy and process design, and application of the inter critical heat treatment. On the other hand, type 304 stainless steels for reactor internals were developed and tested successfully. High strength type 316LN stainless steels for reactor internals were developed and the microstructural characteristics, corrosion resistance, mechanical properties at high temperatures, low cycle fatigue property etc. were tested and analyzed in the view point of the effect of nitrogen. Type 347 stainless steels with high corrosion resistance and toughness for pipings and tubes and low-activated Cr-Mn steels were also developed and their basic properties were evaluated. Finally, the martensitic stainless steels for turbine blade were developed and tests. (author). 242 refs., 100 tabs., 304 figs.

  14. Prospect of nuclear application in food technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maha, M [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre

    1982-04-01

    Irradiation changes the normal living process of cells and the structure of molecules. It is good for food preservation because it kills off many of the microorganisms in the product and makes the remainder more sensitive to antimicrobial factors prevailing after the radiation treatment. It offers more benefits than conventional preservation in that it increases storage stability and quality of foodstuffs with the minimum use of energy. Good storage quality gives way to wider distribution of food, alleviates the world's food shortage, and improves food supplies. Research proved that irradiation increased the quality of subtropical fruits, spices, fish, and meat. No refrigeration is needed to store meat, poultry and fish preserved by the combination of irradiation and mild heat treatment. Nuclear technology can also be applied to destroy harmful insects, to sterilize food, to inhibit the sprouting of root crops, and to control ripening in stored fruits and vegetables. Based on the above potentials of irradiation, the prospect of nuclear application in food technology is promising.

  15. JAERI FEL applications in nuclear energy industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, Eisuke J.

    2005-01-01

    The JAERI FEL has first discovered the new FEL lasing of 255fs ultra fast pulse, 6-9% high efficiency, 1GW high peak power, a few kilowatts average power, and wide tunability of medium and far infrared wavelength regions at the same time. Using the new lasing and energy-recovery linac technology, we could extend a more powerful and more efficient free-electron laser (FEL) than 10kW and 25%, respectively, for nuclear energy industries, and others. In order to realize such a tunable, highly-efficient, high average power, high peak power and ultra-short pulse FEL, we need the efficient and powerful FEL driven by the JAERI compact, stand alone and zero boil-off super-conducting RF linac with an energy-recovery geometry. Our discussions on the FEL will cover the application of non-thermal peeling, cutting, and drilling to prevent cold-worked stress-corrosion cracking failures in nuclear energy and other heavy industries. (author)

  16. Development of structural steels for nuclear application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jun Hwa; Chi, S. H.; Ryu, W. S.; Lee, B. S.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, J. H.; Oh, Y. J.; Byun, T. S.; Yoon, J. H.; Park, D. K.; Oh, J. M.; Cho, H. D.; Kim, H.; Kim, H. D.; Kang, S. S.; Kim, J. W.; Ahn, S. B.

    1997-08-01

    To established the bases of nuclear structural material technologies, this study was focused on the localization and improvement of nuclear structural steels, the production of material property data, and technology developments for integrity evaluation. The important test and analysis technologies for material integrity assessment were developed, and the materials properties of the pressure vessel steels were evaluated systematically on the basis of those technologies, they are microstructural characteristics, tensile and indentation deformation properties, impact properties, and static and dynamic fracture toughness, fatigue and corrosion fatigue etc. Irradiation tests in the research reactors were prepared or completed to obtain the mechanical properties of irradiated materials. The improvement of low alloy steel was also attempted through the comparative study on the manufacturing processes, computer assisted alloy and process design, and application of the inter critical heat treatment. On the other hand, type 304 stainless steels for reactor internals were developed and tested successfully. High strength type 316LN stainless steels for reactor internals were developed and the microstructural characteristics, corrosion resistance, mechanical properties at high temperatures, low cycle fatigue property etc. were tested and analyzed in the view point of the effect of nitrogen. Type 347 stainless steels with high corrosion resistance and toughness for pipings and tubes and low-activated Cr-Mn steels were also developed and their basic properties were evaluated. Finally, the martensitic stainless steels for turbine blade were developed and tests. (author). 242 refs., 100 tabs., 304 figs

  17. Quality assurance in medical radiation applications. The medical and dental appointment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst-Elz, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Medical radiation applications cause averaged over the German population an annual exposure of almost 2 mSv. Medical authorities have the assignment to assure and control the diagnostic and therapeutic quality of these applications and to provide recommendations for operators with respect to dose reductions and radiation protection, including guidance for radiotherapy planning aimed to questions of dose and therapy optimization.

  18. Applications of lasers in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, Rupam; Sanyal, D.N.; Sil, Jaydeb

    2013-01-01

    Applications of lasers in nuclear power plants: Bellow lip cutting and high pressure feeder coupling stud (HPFC) cutting during en-masse coolant channel replacement (EMCCR) campaign at Narora Atomic Power Station Reactor 1 in May 2006; cutting of pressure tubes from Madras Atomic Power Station 1 (MAPS-1) for easy storage in April 2005; In-situ cutting of selected coolant channel S-7 at Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (KAPS-2) (cutting of 12 mm thick end fitting and 4 mm thick liner tube of stainless steel from inside) in January 2005; Development of a miniature cutting mechanism for steam generator tubes (14 mm i.d.) from inside, In-situ bellow repair for secondary shutdown system; LASER welding may be deployed for End shield of MAPS-1 leak repair

  19. Nuclear Cross Sections for Space Radiation Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneth, C. M.; Maung, K. M.; Ford, W. P.; Norbury, J. W.; Vera, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    The eikonal, partial wave (PW) Lippmann-Schwinger, and three-dimensional Lippmann-Schwinger (LS3D) methods are compared for nuclear reactions that are relevant for space radiation applications. Numerical convergence of the eikonal method is readily achieved when exact formulas of the optical potential are used for light nuclei (A = 16) and the momentum-space optical potential is used for heavier nuclei. The PW solution method is known to be numerically unstable for systems that require a large number of partial waves, and, as a result, the LS3D method is employed. The effect of relativistic kinematics is studied with the PW and LS3D methods and is compared to eikonal results. It is recommended that the LS3D method be used for high energy nucleon-nucleus reactions and nucleus-nucleus reactions at all energies because of its rapid numerical convergence and stability for both non-relativistic and relativistic kinematics.

  20. The VirtualwindoW for nuclear applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.O.; McKay, M.D.; Willis, W.D.

    1997-08-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex there are numerous facilities which were constructed to research and develop nuclear materials during the cold war era. As a result, there are now many facilities such as reactors which require dismantlement and clean up. Technological advances over the past 10 years have significantly increased the state of computers, electronics and automated machinery. Because of this rapid growth, the technology of robotics has played a key role in clean up and remote operations. While robotic systems which perform hazardous tasks are being advanced, the human interface has not. Only within the past few years has the human/machine interface been addressed. A growing concern with the rapid advances in technology is that the robotic systems will become so complex that operators will be overwhelmed by the complexity and number of controls. Thus there is an on going effort within the remote and teleoperated robotic field to develop better man-machine interfaces. The Department of Energy`s Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has been researching methods to simplify this interface including telepresence techniques which are applicable to nuclear environments. Initial telepresence research conducted at the INEL developed a concept called the VirtualwindoW. This system minimizes the complexity of remote stereo viewing controls and provides the operator the `feel` of viewing the environment in a natural setting. The VirtualwindoW has shown that the man-machine interface can be simplified while increasing operator performance. This paper deals with the continuing research and development of the VirtualwindoW system to provide a standard camera interface. An application of the VirtualwindoW in the dismantlement of the Chicago Pile-Five (CP-5) reactor at Argonne National Laboratory-East is discussed.

  1. The Virtualwindo W for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.O.; McKay, M.D.; Willis, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex there are numerous facilities which were constructed to research and develop nuclear materials during the cold war era. As a result, there are now many facilities such as reactors which require dismantlement and clean up. Technological advances over the past 10 years have significantly increased the state of computers, electronics and automated machinery. Because of this rapid growth, the technology of robotics has played a key role in clean up and remote operations. While robotic systems which perform hazardous tasks are being advanced, the human interface has not. Only within the past few years has the human/machine interface been addressed. A growing concern with the rapid advances in technology is that the robotic systems will become so complex that operators will be overwhelmed by the complexity and number of controls. Thus there is an on going effort within the remote and teleoperated robotic field to develop better man-machine interfaces. The Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has been researching methods to simplify this interface including telepresence techniques which are applicable to nuclear environments. Initial telepresence research conducted at the INEL developed a concept called the VirtualwindoW. This system minimizes the complexity of remote stereo viewing controls and provides the operator the 'feel' of viewing the environment in a natural setting. The VirtualwindoW has shown that the man-machine interface can be simplified while increasing operator performance. This paper deals with the continuing research and development of the VirtualwindoW system to provide a standard camera interface. An application of the VirtualwindoW in the dismantlement of the Chicago Pile-Five (CP-5) reactor at Argonne National Laboratory-East is discussed

  2. Recommended numerical nuclear physics data for cutting-edge nuclear technology applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesan, S.; Srivenkatesan, R.; Anek Kumar; Murthy, C.S.R.C.; Dhekne, P.S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces some aspects of online nuclear data services at Mumbai as part of today's technology of sharing knowledge of the recommended numerical nuclear physics data for nuclear applications. The physics foundation for cutting-edge technology applications is significantly strengthened by such knowledge generation and sharing techniques. A BARC server is presently mirroring the nuclear data services of the IAEA, Vienna. The users can get all the nuclear data information much faster from the BARC nuclear data mirror website that is now fully operational. The nuclear community is encouraged to develop the habit of accessing the website for recommended values of nuclear data for use in research and applications. The URL is: www-nds.indcentre.org.in (author)

  3. Neutral networks and their application in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Fuyu; Li Tiejun; Liao Zhongyue

    1994-01-01

    The neutral theory has been applied to various fields and many achievements have been obtained in many aspects, and the theory has also applied to nuclear engineering. In this paper, a few patterns of neutral networks and application in nuclear power plant is surveyed so as to bring the researching direction to nuclear work's attention at home

  4. Proceedings of 1. Regional Meeting on Nuclear Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This Meeting describes nuclear methods and techniques, emphasizing the development or adaptation of methodologies and instrumentations for national conditions. The works present here comprise several field of nuclear application as agronomy; industry; nuclear medicine; dosimetry; radiological protection and instrumentation. (C.G.C.)

  5. Light ion linacs for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, J.N.; Knapp, E.A.; Nagle, D.E.

    1975-01-01

    Recent advances in linear accelerator technology point to the feasibility of designing and developing practical medical linacs for producing protons, neutrons, or π mesons for the radiation therapy of cancer. Additional uses of such linacs could include radioisotope production and charged particle radiography. For widespread utilization medical linacs must exhibit reasonable cost, compactness, reliability, and simplicity of operation. Possible extensions of current accelerator technology which might provide these characteristics are discussed in connection with linac design, fabrication techniques, materials, power sources, injectors, and particle collection and delivery systems. Parameters for a medical proton linac for producing pions are listed. (U.S.)

  6. Production capabilities in US nuclear reactors for medical radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzadeh, S.; Callahan, A.P.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Schenter, R.E.

    1992-11-01

    The availability of reactor-produced radioisotopes in the United States for use in medical research and nuclear medicine has traditionally depended on facilities which are an integral part of the US national laboratories and a few reactors at universities. One exception is the reactor in Sterling Forest, New York, originally operated as part of the Cintichem (Union Carbide) system, which is currently in the process of permanent shutdown. Since there are no industry-run reactors in the US, the national laboratories and universities thus play a critical role in providing reactor-produced radioisotopes for medical research and clinical use. The goal of this survey is to provide a comprehensive summary of these production capabilities. With the temporary shutdown of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in November 1986, the radioisotopes required for DOE-supported radionuclide generators were made available at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR). In March 1988, however, the HFBR was temporarily shut down which forced investigators to look at other reactors for production of the radioisotopes. During this period the Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) played an important role in providing these services. The HFIR resumed routine operation in July 1990 at 85 MW power, and the HFBR resumed operation in June 1991, at 30 MW power. At the time of the HFBR shutdown, there was no available comprehensive overview which could provide information on status of the reactors operating in the US and their capabilities for radioisotope production. The obvious need for a useful overview was thus the impetus for preparing this survey, which would provide an up-to-date summary of those reactors available in the US at both the DOE-funded national laboratories and at US universities where service irradiations are currently or expected to be conducted

  7. Production capabilities in US nuclear reactors for medical radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzadeh, S.; Callahan, A.P.; Knapp, F.F. Jr. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Schenter, R.E. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States))

    1992-11-01

    The availability of reactor-produced radioisotopes in the United States for use in medical research and nuclear medicine has traditionally depended on facilities which are an integral part of the US national laboratories and a few reactors at universities. One exception is the reactor in Sterling Forest, New York, originally operated as part of the Cintichem (Union Carbide) system, which is currently in the process of permanent shutdown. Since there are no industry-run reactors in the US, the national laboratories and universities thus play a critical role in providing reactor-produced radioisotopes for medical research and clinical use. The goal of this survey is to provide a comprehensive summary of these production capabilities. With the temporary shutdown of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in November 1986, the radioisotopes required for DOE-supported radionuclide generators were made available at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR). In March 1988, however, the HFBR was temporarily shut down which forced investigators to look at other reactors for production of the radioisotopes. During this period the Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) played an important role in providing these services. The HFIR resumed routine operation in July 1990 at 85 MW power, and the HFBR resumed operation in June 1991, at 30 MW power. At the time of the HFBR shutdown, there was no available comprehensive overview which could provide information on status of the reactors operating in the US and their capabilities for radioisotope production. The obvious need for a useful overview was thus the impetus for preparing this survey, which would provide an up-to-date summary of those reactors available in the US at both the DOE-funded national laboratories and at US universities where service irradiations are currently or expected to be conducted.

  8. Brain-Computer Interfaces : Beyond Medical Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Lotte, F.; Tangermann, M.

    2012-01-01

    Brain-computer interaction has already moved from assistive care to applications such as gaming. Improvements in usability, hardware, signal processing, and system integration should yield applications in other nonmedical areas.

  9. A study on expert system applications for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Young Hwan; Kim, Yeong Jin; Park, Nam Seog; Dong, In Sook; Choi, In Seon

    1987-12-01

    The application of artificial intelligence techniques to nuclear power plants such as expert systems is rapidly emerging. expert systems can contribute significantly to the availability and the improved operation and safety of nuclear power plants. The objective of the project is to develop an expert system in a selected application area in the nuclear power plants. This project will last for 3 years. The first year's tasks are: - Information collection and literature survey on expert systems. - Analysis of several applicable areas for applying AI technologies to the nuclear power plants. - Conceptual design of a few selected domains. - Selection of hardware and software tools for the development of the expert system

  10. Potential refractory alloy requirements for space nuclear power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.H. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    In reviewing design requirements for refractory alloys for space nuclear applications, several key points are identified. First, the successful utilization of refractory alloys is considered an enabling requirement for the successful deployment of high efficiency, lightweight, and small space nuclear systems. Second, the recapture of refractory alloy nuclear technology developed in the 1960s and early 1970s appears to be a pacing activity in the successful utilization of refractory alloys. Third, the successful application of refractory alloys for space nuclear applications will present a significant challenge to both the materials and the systems design communities

  11. Review for the military application of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    In order to understand the broad technology of nuclear energy, we have explored how our present knowledge of nuclear energy has been developed, and how some of this knowledge is applied. Techniques learned from nuclear physics are used the build fearsome weapons of mass destruction, whose proliferation is a constant threat to our future. To develop military applications of nuclear technology systematically, high level human resources and creative brains should be sufficiently trained and secured

  12. Nuclear data, cross section libraries and their application in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    These proceedings contain the articles presented at the named seminar. The articles deal with evaluated nuclear data libraries, computer codes for neutron transport and reactor calculations using nuclear data libraries, and the application of nuclear data libraries for the calculation of the interaction of neutron beams with materials. (HSI)

  13. High temperature heat exchange: nuclear process heat applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrable, D.L.

    1980-09-01

    The unique element of the HTGR system is the high-temperature operation and the need for heat exchanger equipment to transfer nuclear heat from the reactor to the process application. This paper discusses the potential applications of the HTGR in both synthetic fuel production and nuclear steel making and presents the design considerations for the high-temperature heat exchanger equipment

  14. Applications of nuclear data on short-lived fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudstam, G.; Aagaard, P.; Aleklett, K.; Lund, E.

    1981-01-01

    The study of short-lived fission products gives information about the nuclear structure on the neutron-rich side of stability. The data are also of interest for various applications both to basic science and to nuclear technology. Some of these applications, taken up by the OSIRIS group at Studsvik, are described in the present contribution. (orig.)

  15. Nanotechnology and nuclear medicine; research and preclinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadi, Majid; Afrasiabi, Kolsoom; Nabipour, Iraj; Seyedabadi, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    The birth of nanotechnology in human society was around 2000 years ago and soon found applications in various fields. In this article, we highlight the current status of research and preclinical applications and also future prospects of nanotechnology in medicine and in nuclear medicine. The most important field is cancer. A regular nanotechnology training program for nuclear medicine physicians may be welcome.

  16. Application of thermal-hydraulic codes in the nuclear sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queral, C.; Coriso, M.; Garcia Sedano, P. J.; Ruiz, J. A.; Posada, J. M.; Jimenez Varas, G.; Sol, I.; Herranz, L. E.

    2011-01-01

    Use of thermal-hydraulic codes is extended all over many different aspects of nuclear engineering. This article groups and briefly describes the main features of some of the well known codes as an introduction to their recent applications in the Spain nuclear sector. the broad range and quality of applications highlight the maturity achieved both in industry and research organizations and universities within the Spanish nuclear sector. (Author)

  17. Proceedings of the first nuclear science and technology conference no. 1. Nuclear science and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This conference contains papers on non-power applications of nuclear technology in agriculture and industry. These applications include irradiation of food for disinfestation and radiopreservation, radiation monitoring, and radiation chemistry important to industrial processes

  18. Application of stereo-imaging technology to medical field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kyoung Won; Park, Jeongyun; Kim, In Young; Kim, Kwang Gi

    2012-09-01

    There has been continuous development in the area of stereoscopic medical imaging devices, and many stereoscopic imaging devices have been realized and applied in the medical field. In this article, we review past and current trends pertaining to the application stereo-imaging technologies in the medical field. We describe the basic principles of stereo vision and visual issues related to it, including visual discomfort, binocular disparities, vergence-accommodation mismatch, and visual fatigue. We also present a brief history of medical applications of stereo-imaging techniques, examples of recently developed stereoscopic medical devices, and patent application trends as they pertain to stereo-imaging medical devices. Three-dimensional (3D) stereo-imaging technology can provide more realistic depth perception to the viewer than conventional two-dimensional imaging technology. Therefore, it allows for a more accurate understanding and analysis of the morphology of an object. Based on these advantages, the significance of stereoscopic imaging in the medical field increases in accordance with the increase in the number of laparoscopic surgeries, and stereo-imaging technology plays a key role in the diagnoses of the detailed morphologies of small biological specimens. The application of 3D stereo-imaging technology to the medical field will help improve surgical accuracy, reduce operation times, and enhance patient safety. Therefore, it is important to develop more enhanced stereoscopic medical devices.

  19. Application of accelerator in the medical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Lisheng; Wang Bairong; Yang Zhongping

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the human life span compared with before there is an obvious increase in. With the extension of life, cancer incidence is increasing, at the same time, the diagnosis and treatment of cancer has been the development of. Based on the review of the past and present situation of diagnosis and treatment of cancer, the accelerator and the future to introduce, divided into the accelerator treatment, cancer diagnosis, accelerator accelerator with radioactive isotopes, medical accelerator conditions and medical accelerator built five content. (authors)

  20. Proposed medical applications of the National Accelerator Centre facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.T.L.

    1982-01-01

    The National Accelerator Centre is at present under construction at Faure, near Cape Town. The complex will house a 200 MeV separated-sector cyclotron which will provide high quality beams for nuclear physics and related diciplines as well as high intensity beams for medical use. The medical aspects catered for will include particle radiotherapy, isotope production and possibly proton radiography. A 30-bed hospital is to be constructed on the site. Building operations are well advanced and the medical facilities should be available for use by the end of 1984

  1. Lessons from other areas of medical imaging - nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCready, V.R.

    1981-01-01

    Ultrasound and nuclear medicine are similar in that they both have been developed for clinical use in the past decade. Unlike X-ray techniques the success or failure of ultrasound and nuclear medicine depend more upon both the operator and the method of display. Since both ultrasound and nuclear medicine use relatively complicated methods of gathering and displaying information some of the lessons learnt during the development of nuclear medicine can be equally applied to ultrasound techniques. (Auth.)

  2. 41 Polish Seminar on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Its Applications - Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The Report consist of abstracts of 63 communications presented during the 41 Polish Seminar on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Its Applications, held on December 1-2, 2008 in Cracow. Presentations cover a variety of research fields, including magnetic resonance imaging in vivo, applications of NMR spectroscopy to medical diagnosis, studies on molecular properties of different materials as well as quantum chemical calculations of NMR parameters.

  3. Manual on nuclear gauges. Incorporating: Applications guide, procedures guide, basics guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This publication is part of practical radiation safety manual series for different fields of application aimed primarily at persons handling radiation sources on a daily routine basis, which could at same time be used by the competent authorities, supporting their efforts in the radiation protection training of workers or medical assistance personnel or helping on-site management to set up local radiation protection rules. It is dedicated to nuclear gauges: their application and procedures guides

  4. Materials of the 39 Polish Seminar on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Its Applications - Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Report comprises abstracts of 78 communications presented during the 39 Polish Seminar on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Its Applications, held on November, 30 - December, 2006 in Cracow (PL). They cover a variety of research fields, including magnetic resonance imaging in vivo, applications of NMR spectroscopy to medical diagnosis, studies on molecular properties of different materials as well as quantum chemical calculations of NMR parameters

  5. 41 Polish Seminar on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Its Applications - Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Report consist of abstracts of 63 communications presented during the 41 Polish Seminar on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Its Applications, held on December 1-2, 2008 in Cracow. Presentations cover a variety of research fields, including magnetic resonance imaging in vivo, applications of NMR spectroscopy to medical diagnosis, studies on molecular properties of different materials as well as quantum chemical calculations of NMR parameters

  6. Environmental aspects of nuclear power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penner, S.S.; Howe, J.P.; Icerman, L.

    1976-01-01

    The paper estimates the future dangers from the nuclear industry. Historically, the occurrence of nuclear reactor accidents has not been a hazard to the U.S. population, because of relatively limited reactor deployment and because of relatively safe operation. Some factual inputs were taken from the Rasmussen Report, ''An Assessment of Accident Risks in U.S. Commercial Nuclear Power Plants.'' It is noted that data on nuclear power plant accidents follow a curve about four orders of magnitude below that for persons on the ground killed by air crashes. Data show that coal mining produced about ten times as many disabilities as uranium mining and milling per 10 6 MW(e)h of energy recovered, while the number of injuries per 10 6 man-hours of work was roughly comparable for these two types of occupations. Information on the following subjects is then presented: radiation protection standards, radiation exposures; radiation emitted from nuclear reactors under normal operating conditions; accidents involving nuclear fission reactors; fuel reprocessing; nuclear waste disposal; estimates of environmental and safety aspects of fusion power; licensing of nuclear reactors; nuclear safeguards: diversion of nuclear materials, sabotage, and subversion; and nuclear energy and trade deficits in which data are presented estimating a timetable expressing the economic power of OPEC, or the time required for OPEC wealth to purchase the world's major assets

  7. Medical Applications of Remote Electronic Browsing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Joseph

    The purposes of this study are to identify and define viable remote browsing techniques and the requirements for an interactive medical information system that would permit the use of such techniques. The main emphasis is in the areas of: (1) remote viewing of page material; and (2) remote interrogation of fact banks with question-answering…

  8. Medical technology management: from planning to application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Y; Jahnke, E

    2005-01-01

    Appropriate deployment of technological innovation contributes to improvement in the quality of healthcare delivered, the containment of cost, and access to the healthcare system. Hospitals have been allocating a significant portion of their resources to procuring and managing capital assets; they are continuously faced with demands for new medical equipment and are asked to manage existing inventory for which they are not well prepared. To objectively manage their investment, hospitals are developing medical technology management programs that need pertinent information and planning methodology for integrating new equipment into existing operations as well as for optimizing costs of ownership of all equipment. Clinical engineers can identify technological solutions based on the matching of new medical equipment with hospital's objectives. They can review their institution's overall technological position, determine strengths and weaknesses, develop equipment-selection criteria, supervise installations, train users and monitor post procurement performance to assure meeting of goals. This program, together with cost accounting analysis, will objectively guide the capital assets decision-making process. Cost accounting analysis is a multivariate function that includes determining the amount, based upon a strategic plan and financial resources, of funding to be allocated annually for medical equipment acquisition and replacement. Often this function works closely with clinical engineering to establish equipment useful life and prioritization of acquisition, upgrade, and replacement of inventory within budget confines and without conducting time consuming, individual financial capital project evaluations.

  9. Rapid molecular biosensing for medical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.W.J.

    2015-01-01

    An important challenge in today’s societies is that life expectancy and the prevalence of chronic conditions are increasing. This puts pressure on the healthcare system and raises a demand for easy to use and cost-effective medical technologies in order to manage chronic conditions outside large

  10. Application of accelerator mass spectrometry in nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaobo; Hu Jinjun; Wang Huijuan; Guan Yongjing; Wang Wei

    2013-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is a promising method to provide extreme sensitivity measurements of the production yields of long-lived radioisotopes, which cannot be detected by other methods. AMS technique plays an important role in the research of nuclear physics, as well as the application field of AMS covered nuclear science and technology, life science, earth science, environmental science, archaeology etc. The newest AMS field is that of actinide, particularly U and Pu, isotopic assay with expanding applications in nuclear safeguards and monitoring, and as a modern bomb-fallout tracer for atmospheric transport and surface sediment movement. This paper reviews the applications of AMS in the research of nuclear energy and nuclear security including the research of half life of radionuclides, cross section of nuclear reaction. (authors)

  11. Medical and policy considerations for nuclear and radiation accidents, incidents and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert Peter

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this review is to address the increasing medical and public concern regarding the health consequences of radiation exposure, a concern shaped not only by fear of another Chernobyl or Fukushima nuclear power facility accident but also by the intentional use of a nuclear weapon, a radiological dispersion device, a radiological exposure device, or an improved nuclear device by rogue states such as North Korea and terrorist organizations such as Al Qaeda and ISIS. The United States has the medical capacity to respond to a limited nuclear or radiation accident or incident but an effective medical response to a catastrophic nuclear event is impossible. Dealing effectively with nuclear and radiation accidents or incidents requires diverse strategies, including policy decisions, public education, and medical preparedness. I review medical consequences of exposures to ionizing radiations, likely concomitant injuries and potential medical intervention. These data should help haematologists and other healthcare professionals understand the principles of medical consequences of nuclear terrorism. However, the best strategy is prevention.

  12. Application of diagnostic reference levels in medical practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourguignon, Michel [Faculty of Medicine of Paris, Deputy Director General, Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN), Paris (France)

    2006-07-01

    Diagnosis reference levels (D.R.L.) are defined in the Council Directive 97/43 EURATOM as 'Dose levels in medical radio diagnosis practices or in the case of radiopharmaceuticals, levels of activity, for typical examinations for groups of standards-sized patients or standards phantoms for broadly defined types of equipment. These levels are expected not to be exceeded for standard procedures when good and normal practice regarding diagnostic and technical performance is applied'. Thus D.R.L. apply only to diagnostic procedures and does not apply to radiotherapy. Radiation protection of patients is based on the application of 2 major radiation protection principles, justification and optimization. The justification principle must be respected first because the best way to protect the patient is not to carry a useless test. Radiation protection of the patient is a continuous process and local dose indicator values in the good range should not prevent the radiologist or nuclear medicine physician to continue to optimize their practice. (N.C.)

  13. Application of diagnostic reference levels in medical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourguignon, Michel

    2006-01-01

    Diagnosis reference levels (D.R.L.) are defined in the Council Directive 97/43 EURATOM as 'Dose levels in medical radio diagnosis practices or in the case of radiopharmaceuticals, levels of activity, for typical examinations for groups of standards-sized patients or standards phantoms for broadly defined types of equipment. These levels are expected not to be exceeded for standard procedures when good and normal practice regarding diagnostic and technical performance is applied'. Thus D.R.L. apply only to diagnostic procedures and does not apply to radiotherapy. Radiation protection of patients is based on the application of 2 major radiation protection principles, justification and optimization. The justification principle must be respected first because the best way to protect the patient is not to carry a useless test. Radiation protection of the patient is a continuous process and local dose indicator values in the good range should not prevent the radiologist or nuclear medicine physician to continue to optimize their practice. (N.C.)

  14. Biomedical hydrogels biochemistry, manufacture and medical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rimmer, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogels are very important for biomedical applications because they can be chemically manipulated to alter and control the hydrogel's interaction with cells and tissues. Their flexibility and high water content is similar to that of natural tissue, making them extremely suitable for biomaterials applications. Biomedical hydrogels explores the diverse range and use of hydrogels, focusing on processing methods and novel applications in the field of implants and prostheses. Part one of this book concentrates on the processing of hydrogels, covering hydrogel swelling behaviour, superabsorbent cellulose-based hydrogels and regulation of novel hydrogel products, as well as chapters focusing on the structure and properties of hydrogels and different fabrication technologies. Part two covers existing and novel applications of hydrogels, including chapters on spinal disc and cartilage replacement implants, hydrogels for ophthalmic prostheses and hydrogels for wound healing applications. The role of hydrogels in imag...

  15. Relative risk analysis in regulating the use of radiation-emitting medical devices. A preliminary application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, E.D.; Banks, W.W.; Altenbach, T.J.; Fischer, L.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This report describes a preliminary application of an analysis approach for assessing relative risks in the use of radiation- emitting medical devices. Results are presented on human-initiated actions and failure modes that are most likely to occur in the use of the Gamma Knife, a gamma irradiation therapy device. This effort represents an initial step in a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) plan to evaluate the potential role of risk analysis in regulating the use of nuclear medical devices. For this preliminary application of risk assessment, the focus was to develop a basic process using existing techniques for identifying the most likely risk contributors and their relative importance. The approach taken developed relative risk rankings and profiles that incorporated the type and quality of data available and could present results in an easily understood form. This work was performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the NRC.

  16. Relative risk analysis in regulating the use of radiation-emitting medical devices. A preliminary application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.D.; Banks, W.W.; Altenbach, T.J.; Fischer, L.E.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes a preliminary application of an analysis approach for assessing relative risks in the use of radiation- emitting medical devices. Results are presented on human-initiated actions and failure modes that are most likely to occur in the use of the Gamma Knife, a gamma irradiation therapy device. This effort represents an initial step in a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) plan to evaluate the potential role of risk analysis in regulating the use of nuclear medical devices. For this preliminary application of risk assessment, the focus was to develop a basic process using existing techniques for identifying the most likely risk contributors and their relative importance. The approach taken developed relative risk rankings and profiles that incorporated the type and quality of data available and could present results in an easily understood form. This work was performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the NRC

  17. Radiation dosimetry for medical management in nuclear/radiological disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, Pradeep

    2012-01-01

    ; quartz, sand, stones and man made materials such as glasses, bricks, tiles and ceramics from the close proximity of exposed individual can be examined using TL techniques for estimating the radiation doses to the public. TL techniques have been employed to these materials after exposing them with gamma radiation and the results have been found promising. The current trends in methodologies and techniques of radiation dosimetry for medical management of nuclear/radiological disaster will be presented. (author)

  18. Digital nuclear instrumentation application to nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burel, J.-P.; Fanet, H.

    1993-01-01

    The use of digital techniques for the control of nuclear reactors offers an interesting prospect in the improvement of the operation and safety of reactors. Thanks to close collaboration between Merlin Gerin and the French Atomic Energy Commission, a new piece of technology for nuclear instrumentation systems has been developed in order to meet the needs of different types of reactors. The principles of measurement are presented and the technology used is described. Other interesting points of this technology in addition to installation, operation and safety are examined. The digital neutron measurements are already operating in research reactors in France and will be installed in a different configuration in the new 1400 MW nuclear power plant. Integration into different designs is easily attainable by adapting the information transmission mode according to the technology present in the protection system and the treatment and visualization systems. (author)

  19. Nuclear Analytical Applications within the IAEA Nuclear Data Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellett, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    The Nuclear Data Section, International Atomic Energy Agency, supports Member States development of nuclear techniques through a number of targeted actions and projects. The Section fulfills this role by organizing Coordinated Research Projects, or through less formal Data Development Projects and/or Technical Meetings. Training workshops are also regularly organized in conjunction with the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy. A number of projects relating to materials analysis techniques have been recently undertaken, e.g. neutron activation analysis, ion beam analysis, and proton induced X- or γ-ray emission. In particular, details of the Coordinated Research Project focusing on the nuclear data requirements for the k 0 method of neutron activation analysis are given. The paper illustrates how the IAEA strives to bring together relevant partners and provides a unique and structured basis for international collaboration.

  20. A special designed library for medical imaging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lymberopoulos, D; Kotsopoulos, S; Zoupas, V; Yoldassis, N [Departmeent of Electrical Engineering, University of Patras, Patras 26 110 Greece (Greece); Spyropoulos, C [School of Medicine, Regional University Hospital, University of Patras, Patras 26 110 Greece (Greece)

    1994-12-31

    The present paper deals with a sophisticated and flexible library of medical purpose image processing routines. It contains modules for simple as well as advanced gray or colour image processing. This library offers powerful features for medical image processing and analysis applications, thus providing the physician with a means of analyzing and estimating medical images in order to accomplish their diagnostic procedures. 6 refs, 1 figs.

  1. Procedures for the medical application of research reactors (Appendix)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, H.; Kanda, K.

    2004-01-01

    The Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) is one of the four research reactors in Japan that are currently licensed for medical application, in addition to other research purposes. Taking the KUR as an example, legal and other procedures for using research reactors for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) are described, which are practiced in accordance with the 'Provisional Guideline Pertaining to Medical Irradiation by Accelerators and/or Reactors, other than defined by the Medical Service Act' of the Science Council of Japan

  2. Laser-induced nuclear physics and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledingham, K.W.D.; Singhal, R.P.; McKenna, P.; Spencer, I.

    2002-01-01

    With a 1 ps pulse laser at 1 μm wavelength, He gas is ionised at about 3.10 14 W.cm -2 . As the intensity increases, the inert gases become multiple ionised and between 10 18 and 10 19 W.cm -2 photon induced nuclear reactions are energetically possible. Close to 10 21 W.cm -2 pion production can take place. At the very high intensities of 10 28 W.cm -2 , it can be shown that electron-positron pairs can be created from the vacuum. The authors review the applications of high intensity focused laser beams in particle acceleration, laser-induced fission and laser production of protons and neutrons. Exciting new phenomena are expected at intensities higher than 10 22 W.cm -2 , -) the oscillating electric field can affect directly the protons in exactly the same way as the electrons in the plasma, -) fusion reactions by direct laser acceleration of ions. (A.C.)

  3. Applications of PRA in nuclear criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, T.P.

    1992-01-01

    Traditionally, criticality accident prevention at Los Alamos has been based on a thorough review and understanding of proposed operations of changes to operations, involving both process supervision and criticality safety staff. The outcome of this communication was usually an agreement, based on professional judgement, that certain accident sequences were credible and had to be reduced in likelihood either by administrative controls or by equipment design and others were not credible, and thus did not warrant expenditures to further reduce their likelihood. The extent of analysis and documentation was generally in proportion to the complexity of the operation but did not include quantified risk assessments. During the last three years nuclear criticality safety related Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) have been preformed on operations in two Los Alamos facilities. Both of these were conducted in order to better understand the cost/benefit aspects of PRA's as they apply to largely ''hands-on'' operations with fissile material for which human errors or equipment failures significant to criticality safety are both rare and unique. Based on these two applications and an appreciation of the historical criticality accident record (frequency and consequences) it is apparent that quantified risk assessments should be performed very selectively

  4. Digital signal processing application in nuclear spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Zeynalova

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital signal processing algorithms for nuclear particle spectroscopy are described along with a digital pile-up elimination method applicable to equidistantly sampled detector signals pre-processed by a charge-sensitive preamplifier. The signal processing algorithms provided as recursive one- or multi-step procedures which can be easily programmed using modern computer programming languages. The influence of the number of bits of the sampling analogue-to-digital converter to the final signal-to-noise ratio of the spectrometer considered. Algorithms for a digital shaping-filter amplifier, for a digital pile-up elimination scheme and for ballistic deficit correction were investigated using a high purity germanium detector. The pile-up elimination method was originally developed for fission fragment spectroscopy using a Frisch-grid back-to-back double ionisation chamber and was mainly intended for pile-up elimination in case of high alpha-radioactivity of the fissile target. The developed pile-up elimination method affects only the electronic noise generated by the preamplifier. Therefore, the influence of the pile-up elimination scheme on the final resolution of the spectrometer investigated in terms of the distance between piled-up pulses. The efficiency of developed algorithms compared with other signal processing schemes published in literature.

  5. Research on optical applications in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Shin, Jang Soo; Lee, Sang Mock; Baik, Sung Hoon; Kwon, Seong Ouk; Hong, Suc Kyoung; Kim, Duk Hyeon

    1988-12-01

    The laser fluorometer developed in 1987 has been modified to compensate the inner filter and quenching effects. The signal processing electronic circuit was redesigned and a computer interface was introduced for data processing. It has been already used in routine chemical analysis in the chemical analysis division. Its application to uranium monitoring in conversion plant is being investigated. Also, we found that it can be used in trace analysis of samarium and europium with detection limit of 1 ppb and 0.1 ppb, respectively. The IRMPA/D process of CDF 3 and CHF 3 have been studied. The pressure effects of CDF 3 ,CHF 3 and added buffer gas were investigated. Mainly, the change in reaction rate was examined while varying the pressure of CDF 3 , CHF 3 and buffer gas. The IRMPD reaction ratio of CDF 3 and CHF 3 from below 0.1 torr up to a few torr was studied and the buffer gas pressure effect was investigated at constant pressure of CDF 3 or CHF 3 of 1 torr. Several kinds of buffer gas, Ar, N 2 , and SF 6 , were used to investigate the buffer gas pressure effect. We applied double exposure holographic interferometry, and analyzed qualitatively the distortion due to thermal heat and vibration. The research on holographic remote inspection will be achieved to apply this technique to the nuclear fuel cycle facilities. (Author)

  6. Nuclear Techniques in Agriculture: Status and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdali, F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper is focused on the role of nuclear techniques and their applications in agriculture science for plant and animal production, and to study the relationships among soil, plant, air, water, nutrients and agricultural pests. For example, carbon isotope discrimination 12 C/ 13 C can be used to select appropriate plant genotypes which are tolerant to drought and salinity stress. Using 15 N to study, symbiotic N 2 fixation, inorganic N dynamics in the soil, plant system, mineralization of organic N in soils, efficient use of chemical and organic N fertilizers and microbial protein production in ruminants. Neutron gauges are used for soil moisture measurements to assess crop water use efficiencies, crops water requirements, and irrigation scheduling for conventional and new methods of irrigation. The use of environmental isotopes ( 18 O, 2 H, 3 H and 14 C) in hydrology; and 137 Cs to study soil erosion. Using 32 P to study the fate of applied P fertilizers (chemical fractionation and availability), their use efficiency and phosphorus metabolism in animals. Ionizing radiation is used to improve the quality and productivity of major crops, to induce mutations, to improve the metabolisable and digestible energy of unconventional feeds and the nutritive value of agricultural residues, and to protect crops against agricultural pests and in food conservation. Radioimmunoassay is used in studies to improve the production and reproductive performance of indigenous small ruminants. (author)

  7. Atomic nuclei and nuclear reactions. Theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitenko, A.G.; Tartakovsky, V.K.; Kenjebaev, K.K.; Shunkeyev, K.Sh.; Ismatov, E.I.; Mukhammedov, S.; Comsan, M.N.H.; Djuraev, Sh.Kh.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The short description of the book preparation by the collective authors from Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Egypt is given. The present book is the expanded course of lectures on the theory of nuclei, nuclear reactions and their applications delivered by the authors for a number of years in the Ukrainian National University, Aktubinsk State University of the Kazakhstan Republic, Tashkent National University, Samarkand and Termez State Universities of Uzbekistan Republic, Egyptian National Universities (Al-Az'har, Menoufeya, Suez-Canal and Tanta) and the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The lectures present foundations of the modern concepts of the structure of nuclei, on the nature of nuclear processes and nuclear transformations. Main attention in the book was paid to the presentation of the basics and some modern achievements in the field of the theory of nuclei and nuclear reactions. A number of problems was investigated in original works and were not presented in the physics textbooks. The book presents the non-relativistic theory of nuclear reactions, questions of relativistic nuclear physics were not considered here. Non-relativistic theory of nuclear reactions is based on the notions of collision matrix or S-matrix. In absence of consequent microscopic theory, the scattering matrix can be found phenomenological based on definite assumptions on the character of nuclear interactions. Modern applications of nuclear reactions for the development of nuclear methods of analysis are presented. The delayed and nuclear techniques with nuclear reactor, accelerators and radioisotopic sources are considered. The book is designed as a textbook for bachelor and postgraduate students of physical faculties of universities and engineering-physical institutions, lecturers and researchers, working in the field of nuclear physics. The book gives an up-to-date list of references on nuclear reaction theory and

  8. An H-module linear actuator for medical equipment applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiao; Wu, Keyuan; ye, yunyue

    2012-01-01

    An H-module linear actuator (HMLA) is proposed in this paper for medical equipment applications. Compared to the existing linear actuators used in medical equipment, the proposed H-module linear actuator has much lower normal force, which makes use of an additional air-suspension system unnecessary...

  9. Neural networks: Application to medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Laurence P.

    1994-01-01

    The research mission is the development of computer assisted diagnostic (CAD) methods for improved diagnosis of medical images including digital x-ray sensors and tomographic imaging modalities. The CAD algorithms include advanced methods for adaptive nonlinear filters for image noise suppression, hybrid wavelet methods for feature segmentation and enhancement, and high convergence neural networks for feature detection and VLSI implementation of neural networks for real time analysis. Other missions include (1) implementation of CAD methods on hospital based picture archiving computer systems (PACS) and information networks for central and remote diagnosis and (2) collaboration with defense and medical industry, NASA, and federal laboratories in the area of dual use technology conversion from defense or aerospace to medicine.

  10. Solid state nuclear track detection principles, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Durrani, S A; ter Haar, D

    1987-01-01

    Solid State Nuclear Track Detection: Principles, Methods and Applications is the second book written by the authors after Nuclear Tracks in Solids: Principles and Applications. The book is meant as an introduction to the subject solid state of nuclear track detection. The text covers the interactions of charged particles with matter; the nature of the charged-particle track; the methodology and geometry of track etching; thermal fading of latent damage trails on tracks; the use of dielectric track recorders in particle identification; radiation dossimetry; and solid state nuclear track detecti

  11. Medical Engineering and Microneurosurgery: Application and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Akio; Sora, Shigeo; Nakatomi, Hirofumi; Harada, Kanako; Sugita, Naohiko; Saito, Nobuhito; Mitsuishi, Mamoru

    2016-10-15

    Robotics and medical engineering can convert traditional surgery into digital and scientific procedures. Here, we describe our work to develop microsurgical robotic systems and apply engineering technology to assess microsurgical skills. With the collaboration of neurosurgeons and an engineering team, we have developed two types of microsurgical robotic systems. The first, the deep surgical systems, enable delicate surgical procedures such as vessel suturing in a deep and narrow space. The second type allows for super-fine surgical procedures such as anastomosing artificial vessels of 0.3 mm in diameter. Both systems are constructed with master and slave manipulator robots connected to local area networks. Robotic systems allowed for secure and accurate procedures in a deep surgical field. In cadaveric models, these systems showed a good potential of being useful in actual human surgeries, but mechanical refinements in thickness and durability are necessary for them to be established as clinical systems. The super-fine robotic system made the very intricate surgery possible and will be applied in clinical trials. Another trial included the digitization of surgical technique and scientific analysis of surgical skills. Robotic and human hand motions were analyzed in numerical fashion as we tried to define surgical skillfulness in a digital format. Engineered skill assessment is also feasible and should be useful for microsurgical training. Robotics and medical engineering should bring science into the surgical field and training of surgeons. Active collaboration between medical and engineering teams and academic and industry groups is mandatory to establish such medical systems to improve patient care.

  12. Nuclear medicine applications for the diabetic foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartshorne, M.F.; Peters, V.

    1987-01-01

    Although not frequently described in the podiatric literature, nuclear medicine imaging may be of great assistance to the clinical podiatrist. This report reviews in detail the use of modern nuclear medicine approaches to the diagnosis and management of the diabetic foot. Nuclear medicine techniques are helpful in evaluating possible osteomyelitis, in determining appropriate amputation levels, and in predicting response to conservative ulcer management. Specific indications for bone, gallium, and perfusion imaging are described

  13. Nuclear forensics in law enforcement applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, P.M.; Moody, K.J.; Hutcheon, I.D.; Phinney, D.L.; Whipple, R.E.; Haas, J.S.; Alcaraz, A.; Andrews, J.E.; Klunder, G.L.; Russo, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Over the past several years, the Livermore Forensic Science Center has conducted analyses of nuclear-related samples in conjunction with domestic and international criminal investigations. Law enforcement officials have sought conventional and nuclear-forensic analyses of questioned specimens that have typically consisted of miscellaneous metal species or actinide salts. The investigated activities have included nuclear smuggling and the proliferation of alleged fissionable materials, nonradioactive hoaxes such as 'Red Mercury', and the interdiction of illegal laboratories engaged in methamphetamine synthesis. (author)

  14. 15 CFR Notes Applicable to State... - Notes applicable to State of Understanding related to Medical Equipment:

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notes applicable to State of Understanding related to Medical Equipment: applicable Notes applicable to State of Understanding related to Medical Equipment: Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY,...

  15. Advance of nuclear cardiology in clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Hongcheng

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear cardiology has make a little bit progress in the past year. Both nuclear cardiology and other cardiac imaging have its own advantage and disadvantage in the diagnostic of coronary artery disease. And the relationship of them is complementary but not instead of each other. Nuclear cardiology provides a one-stop shop for diagnosis, risk stratification, and management of coronary artery disease. Nuclear cardiology plays a very important role in the diagnostic of coronary artery disease in early stage in the special group of people. (authors)

  16. Nuclear medicine applications: Summary of Panel 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is currently facing a desperate shortage of organic and inorganic chemists and nuclear pharmacists who also have advanced training in nuclear and radiochemistry. Ironically, this shortfall is occurring in the face of rapid growth and technological advances which have made the practice of nuclear medicine an integral part of the modern health care system. This shortage threatens to limit the availability of radiopharmaceuticals required in routine hospital procedures and to impede the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic agents. To redress this need and prevent a similar shortfall in the future, this panel recommends immediate action and a long-term commitment to the following: educating the public on the benefits of nuclear medicine; informing undergraduate and graduate chemistry students about career opportunities in nuclear medicine; offering upper level courses in nuclear and radiochemistry (including laboratory) in universities; establishing training centers and fellowships at the postgraduate level for specialized education in the aspects of nuclear and radiochemistry required by the nuclear medicine profession. 1 tab

  17. X Latin American Symposium on Nuclear Physics and Applications. Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-12-01

    The 10th Latin American Symposium on Nuclear Physics and Applications will be held on December 1-6, 2013 in Montevideo, Uruguay. The symposium will be preceded by a School on Medical Physics, on November 29-30, 2013. The symposium is organized by the Universidad de la Repùblica, Montevideo, by the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan, USA, and by the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Virginia, USA. This is the tenth event in a series which were previously held in Venezuela, Colombia, Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, Peru, Chile and Ecuador. Traditionally, the purpose of these symposia is the dissemination of major theoretical and experimental advances in nuclear science, with emphasis on research topics carried out by Latin American groups or in collaborations involving institutions from Latin America. The topics of the symposium include: Nuclear and Hadron Structure and Interactions Nuclear Reactions and Phases of Nuclear Matter Nuclear and Particle Astrophysics Tests of Fundamental Symmetries and Properties of Neutrinos Nuclear Applications New Facilities and Instrumentation.The 10th Latin American Symposium on Nuclear Physics and Applications will be held on December 1-6, 2013 in Montevideo, Uruguay. The symposium will be preceded by a School on Medical Physics, on November 29-30, 2013. The symposium is organized by the Universidad de la República, Montevideo, by the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan, USA, and by the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Virginia, USA. This is the tenth event in a series which were previously held in Venezuela, Colombia, Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, Peru, Chile and Ecuador. Traditionally, the purpose of these symposia is the dissemination of major theoretical and experimental advances in nuclear science, with emphasis on research topics carried out by Latin American groups or in collaborations involving institutions from Latin America. The topics of the symposium include

  18. Applications of neutron radiography for the nuclear power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craft, Aaron E.; Barton, John P.

    2016-11-01

    The World Conference on Neutron Radiography (WCNR) and International Topical Meeting on Neutron Radiography (ITMNR) series have been running over 35 years. The most recent event, ITMNR-8, focused on industrial applications and was the first time this series was hosted in China. In China, more than twenty new nuclear power plants are in construction and plans have been announced to increase the nuclear capacity further by a factor of three within fifteen years. There are additional prospects in many other nations. Neutron tests were vital during previous developments of materials and components for nuclear power applications, as reported in this conference series. For example a majority of the 140 papers in the Proceedings of the First WCNR are for the benefit of the nuclear power industry. Included are reviews of the diverse techniques being applied in Europe, Japan, the United States, and at many other centers. Many of those techniques are being utilized and advanced to the present time. Neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel provides more comprehensive information about the internal condition of irradiated nuclear fuel than any other non-destructive technique to date. Applications include examination of nuclear waste, nuclear fuels, cladding, control elements, and other critical components. In this paper, the techniques developed and applied internationally for the nuclear power industry since the earliest years are reviewed, and the question is asked whether neutron test techniques can be of value in development of the present and future generations of nuclear power plants world-wide.

  19. Medical applications of synchrotron radiation. Ch. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacomini, J.C.; Gordon, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation has a number of properties which make it uniquely suited for medical diagnostic imaging. The radiation is intense and can be readily monochromatized. With these highly intense, mono-chromatized X-ray beams, iodine K-edge di-chromatography can yield images which greatly enhance the visualization of iodine containing structures. As this technology continues to improve, the possibility of performing diagnostic cardiac, neuroradiological, and other vascular examinations with minimally invasive peripheral venous injections of iodinated contrast agent becomes increasingly practical. (author). 10 refs.; 6 figs

  20. Medical applications of synchrotron radiation in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    The Australian synchrotron is being built at Monash University near Melbourne. The 3 GeV machine is well-suited to the mid X-ray region and will have nine beamlines in its initial phase. The high level of biomedical research in Australia has led to the demand for a beamline capable of supporting medical research in both imaging and therapy. The design features for a versatile imaging and hard X-ray beamline capable of operating in the energy range 10-120 keV are outlined here together with a short review of some of the science that is envisaged

  1. Implementation of graphical user interfaces in nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barmsnes, K.A.; Johnsen, T.; Sundling, C.-V.

    1997-01-01

    During recent years a demand has formed for systems that support design and implementation of graphical user interfaces (GUIs) in the control rooms of nuclear power plants. Picasso-3 is a user interface management system supporting object oriented definition of GUIs in a distributed computing environment. The system is currently being used in a number of different application areas within the nuclear industry, such as retrofitting of display systems in simulators and control rooms, education and training applications, etc. Some examples are given of nuclear applications where the Picasso-3 system has been used

  2. Laser applications in nuclear power plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-09

    Jan 9, 2014 ... Keywords. Nd:YAG laser; fibre-optic beam delivery; laser cutting; laser welding; nuclear reactor. ... Author Affiliations. D N Sanyal1. Remote Tooling Section, Technology Development Group, Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd., Mumbai 400 094, India ...

  3. Chaos and fractals. Applications to nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausse, A.; Delmastro, D.F.

    1990-01-01

    This work presents a description of the research lines carried out by the authors on chaos and fractal theories, oriented to the nuclear field. The possibilities that appear in the nuclear security branch where the information deriving from chaos and fractal techniques may help to the development of better criteria and more reliable designs, are of special importance. (Author) [es

  4. Production of 77 Br for medical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos, M.A.V.

    1982-01-01

    Bromine-77 is produced with the variable energy cyclotron (CV-28) at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, via the 75 As. (α, 2 n) 77 Br reaction, by bombarding arsenic trioxide with 28 MeV alpha-particles. The thick target yield is 0.3 mCi/μAh. The target is dissolved in concentrated N H 4 OH and 77 Br, separated from arsenic, by an anionic exchange resin, is obtained carrier-free with a separation yield greater than 90%. All the process is remotely controlled using electric and pneumatic systems, manipulators and tongs. The quality control is made by atomic absorption and gamma-ray spectroscopy. The present production rate of Br-77 is 2.3 mCi per irradiation. (author)

  5. Viewpoints on Medical Image Processing: From Science to Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deserno Né Lehmann, Thomas M; Handels, Heinz; Maier-Hein Né Fritzsche, Klaus H; Mersmann, Sven; Palm, Christoph; Tolxdorff, Thomas; Wagenknecht, Gudrun; Wittenberg, Thomas

    2013-05-01

    Medical image processing provides core innovation for medical imaging. This paper is focused on recent developments from science to applications analyzing the past fifteen years of history of the proceedings of the German annual meeting on medical image processing (BVM). Furthermore, some members of the program committee present their personal points of views: (i) multi-modality for imaging and diagnosis, (ii) analysis of diffusion-weighted imaging, (iii) model-based image analysis, (iv) registration of section images, (v) from images to information in digital endoscopy, and (vi) virtual reality and robotics. Medical imaging and medical image computing is seen as field of rapid development with clear trends to integrated applications in diagnostics, treatment planning and treatment.

  6. Viewpoints on Medical Image Processing: From Science to Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deserno (né Lehmann), Thomas M.; Handels, Heinz; Maier-Hein (né Fritzsche), Klaus H.; Mersmann, Sven; Palm, Christoph; Tolxdorff, Thomas; Wagenknecht, Gudrun; Wittenberg, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Medical image processing provides core innovation for medical imaging. This paper is focused on recent developments from science to applications analyzing the past fifteen years of history of the proceedings of the German annual meeting on medical image processing (BVM). Furthermore, some members of the program committee present their personal points of views: (i) multi-modality for imaging and diagnosis, (ii) analysis of diffusion-weighted imaging, (iii) model-based image analysis, (iv) registration of section images, (v) from images to information in digital endoscopy, and (vi) virtual reality and robotics. Medical imaging and medical image computing is seen as field of rapid development with clear trends to integrated applications in diagnostics, treatment planning and treatment. PMID:24078804

  7. Master on Nuclear Engineering and Applications (MINA): instrument of knowledge management in the nuclear sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, L. E.; Garcia Cuesta, J. C.; Falcon, S.; Casas, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge Management in nuclear industry is indespensable to ensure excellence in performance and safety of nuclear installations. The Master on Nuclear Engineering and Applications (MINA) is a Spanish education venture which foundations and evolution have meant and adaptation to the European Education system and to the domestic and international changes occured in the nuclear environment. This paper summarizes the most relevant aspects of such transformation, its motivation and the final outcome. Finally, it discusses the potential benefit of a closer collaboration among the existing national education ventures in the frame of Nuclear Engineering. (Author)

  8. Medical countermeasure for Tokyo Electric Power Co. Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Hisayoshi

    2013-01-01

    DMAT (Disaster Medical Assistance Team) is a group of professional medical personnel organized to provide rapid-response medical care at the emergent stage of disasters. At the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, medical response was difficult because many infrastructures were destroyed. Under this situation, emergent medical treatment for heavy irradiation or contamination, cares for habitants and transportation of patients were conducted. Through these activities, it is suggested that rapid response for the radiation exposure should be definitely include in the medical system for usual disasters. (J.P.N.)

  9. Medical and industrial application of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajayi, I.R.

    1999-01-01

    While dosimetry is not a radiation application, accurate dosage of radiation of utmost importance for all radiation applications. For both therapeutic and industrial applications it can be matter of life and death. For this reason, great efforts have been made to ensure that radiation dosages given to patients and used in all industrial applications are as near as possible to those prescribed. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the IAEA, together with many National Standard Laboratories and with the International Bureau of Weight and Measures, have been very active and successful during the last 20 years in ascertaining that normal cobalt-60 therapy unit. For this purpose, 63 Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories have been established of which more than half are in developing countries. FRPS houses one of the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories. As accurate dosimetry is a prerequisite in radiotherapy, so it is in industrial exposures and all laboratories responsible for dosimetry have to make frequent intercomparisons with one of the Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories. The SSDL at FRPS hopes to commence this as soon as our new Harshaw 6600 TLD reader arrives. This has already been approved by the IAEA. Much high doses of radiation are used for some industrial applications, as discussed in a previous lecture, such as sterilization of rubber, and food preservation and newly developed techniques are being used for the assurance of the prescribed dose. IAEA provides assistance in this area also through the secondary standard dosimetry laboratories. The IAEA has a broad programme of assistance which includes the calibration of all instruments in the laboratories of the participants, be it for radiation protection, or high dose measurements

  10. Nuclear safeguards applications of energy-dispersive absorption edge densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, P.A.; Hsue, S.T.; Langner, D.G.; Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The principles and techniques of absorption edge densitometry in the energy-dispersive mode are summarized as they apply to the nondestructive assay of special nuclear materials. Five existing field instruments, designed for special nuclear materials accounting measurements, are described. Results of the testing of these instruments as well as recent laboratory results are used to define the capabilities of the technique for special nuclear materials accounting. Possibilities for future applications are reviewed. 14 figures

  11. Nuclear chromodynamics: applications of QCD to relativistic multiquark systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.; Ji, C.R.

    1984-07-01

    We review the applications of quantum chromodynamics to nuclear multiquark systems. In particular, predictions are given for the deuteron reduced form factor in the high momentum transfer region, hidden color components in nuclear wavefunctions, and the short distance effective force between nucleons. A new antisymmetrization technique is presented which allows a basis for relativistic multiquark wavefunctions and solutions to their evolution to short distances. Areas in which conventional nuclear theory conflicts with QCD are also briefly reviewed. 48 references

  12. Life sciences: Nuclear medicine, radiation biology, medical physics, 1980-1994. International Atomic Energy Agency Publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The catalogue lists all sales publications of the IAEA dealing with Life Sciences issued during the period 1980-1994. The publications are grouped in the following chapters: Nuclear Medicine (including Radiopharmaceuticals), Radiation Biology and Medical Physics (including Dosimetry)

  13. The nuclear terrorist, radiological, biological, chemical threat. Medical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourmelon, P.; Vidal, D.; Renaudeau, C.

    2005-01-01

    This book illustrates the cooperation of the civil and the military experts in the domain of the NBRC (nuclear, biological, radiological and chemical threat). The different aspects bond to the use of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons, are discussed. Al topics of each domains (NRBC) are presented: historical and fundamental aspects, diagnostic, therapeutic and prevention. (A.L.B.)

  14. 76 FR 50231 - Mobile Medical Applications Draft Guidance; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... workshop discussion, a ``mobile medical app'' is a mobile application that meets the definition of ``device... applications are subject to regulation as devices when they meet the definition of a device in section 201(h... man * * * '' or ``* * * intended to affect the structure or any function of the body of man or other...

  15. Application of digital control systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keiper, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a sampling of recent digital applications, both safety related and non-safety related, in four nuclear power plants and discusses a few of the unique application experiences. Each application accrues unique benefits, but also poses unique problems. A few of the benefits and problems are discussed

  16. The waste originating from nuclear energy peaceful applications and its management; Os rejeitos provenientes de aplicacoes pacificas da energia nuclear e o seu gerenciamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jair Albo Marques de [E-mail: jairalbo at ax.apc.org (Brazil)] [and others

    1997-05-01

    This work presents the waste originating from nuclear energy and its management. It approaches the following main topics: nature and classification of the wastes; security requirements to the waste management; state of the art related to the wastes derivates of the uses of the nuclear energy; wastes in the fuel cycle; wastes of the industrial, medical and research and development applications; costs of the waste management.

  17. CT applications of medical computer graphics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    Few applications of computer graphics show as much promise and early success as that for CT. Unlike electron microscopy, ultrasound, business, military, and animation applications, CT image data are inherently digital. CT pictures can be processed directly by programs well established in the fields of computer graphics and digital image processing. Methods for reformatting digital pictures, enhancing structure shape, reducing image noise, and rendering three-dimensional (3D) scenes of anatomic structures have all become routine at many CT centers. In this chapter, the authors provide a brief introduction to computer graphics terms and techniques commonly applied to CT pictures and, when appropriate, to those showing promise for magnetic resonance images. Topics discussed here are image-processing options that are applied to digital images already constructed. In the final portion of this chapter techniques for ''slicing'' CT image data are presented, and geometric principles that describe the specification of oblique and curved images are outlined. Clinical examples are included

  18. Low-temperature nuclear heat applications: Nuclear power plants for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    The IAEA reflected the needs of its Member States for the exchange of information in the field of nuclear heat application already in the late 1970s. In the early 1980s, some Member States showed their interest in the use of heat from electricity producing nuclear power plants and in the development of nuclear heating plants. Accordingly, a technical committee meeting with a workshop was organized in 1983 to review the status of nuclear heat application which confirmed both the progress made in this field and the renewed interest of Member States in an active exchange of information about this subject. In 1985 an Advisory Group summarized the Potential of Low-Temperature Nuclear Heat Application; the relevant Technical Document reviewing the situation in the IAEA's Member States was issued in 1986 (IAEA-TECDOC-397). Programme plans were made for 1986-88 and the IAEA was asked to promote the exchange of information, with specific emphasis on the design criteria, operating experience, safety requirements and specifications for heat-only reactors, co-generation plants and power plants adapted for heat application. Because of a growing interest of the IAEA's Member States about nuclear heat employment in the district heating domaine, an Advisory Group meeting was organized by the IAEA on ''Low-Temperature Nuclear Heat Application: Nuclear Power Plants for District Heating'' in Prague, Czechoslovakia in June 1986. The information gained up to 1986 and discussed during this meeting is embodied in the present Technical Document. 22 figs, 11 tabs

  19. Internet applications in nuclear power plant operation management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, M.

    2000-01-01

    The use of the Internet is quickly becoming widespread in practically all areas of business and industry. The nuclear industry should not remain indifferent to this new trend. This paper analyses some of the Internet applications that can be easily adapted to nuclear power plant operation management, including. (Author)

  20. Recent applications of nuclear orientation to solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turrell, B.G.

    1985-01-01

    The author reviews how certain problems in solid state physics have been clarified by low temperature nuclear orientation and nuclear magnetic resonance of oriented nuclei. The advantages of these techniques, a brief survey of recent progress in traditional applications, and new developments are discussed, and, finally, future trends are suggested. (Auth.)

  1. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-01-01

    The present review provides an understanding of our current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of low-dose radiation in man, and surveys the epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to nuclear explosions and medical radiation. Discussion centers on the contributions of quantitative epidemiology to present knowledge, the reliability of the dose-incidence data, and those relevant epidemiological studies that provide the most useful information for risk estimation of cancer induction in man. Reference is made to dose-incidence relationships from laboratory animal experiments where they may obtain, for problems and difficulties in extrapolation from data obtained at high doses to low doses, and from animal data to the human situation. The paper describes the methods of application of such epidemiological data for estimation of excess risk of radiation-induced cancer in exposed human populations and discusses the strengths and limitations of epidemiology in guiding radiation protection philosophy and public health policy

  2. Medical emergency planning in case of severe nuclear power plant accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlenschlaeger, L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to discuss a three-step-plan on medical emergency planning in case of severe accidents at nuclear power plants on the basis of own experiences in the regional area as well as on the basis of recommendations of the Federal Minister of the Interior. The medical considerations take account of the severity and extension of an accident whereby the current definitions used in nuclear engineering for accident situations are taken as basis. A comparison between obligatory and actual state is made on the possibilities of medical emergency planning, taking all capacities of staff, facilities, and equipment available in the Federal Republic of Germany into account. To assure a useful and quick utilization of the existing infra-structure as well as nation-wide uniform training of physicians and medical assistants in the field of medical emergency in case of a nuclear catastrophe, a federal law for health protection is regarded urgently necessary. (orig.) [de

  3. Study on the action guidelines for medical support team for nuclear and radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chang'an; Liu Ying; Geng Xiusheng

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the action guidelines for medical support team for nuclear and radiological emergency. Methods: It is based on the experience and lessons learned in the course of meeting the emergencies preparedness and response of nuclear and radiological emergencies in China and abroad with the reference of the relevant reports of International Atomic Energy Agency. Results: Essential requirements and practical recommendations for the roles, responsibilities, emergency preparedness, principles and procedures of medical assistance at the scene, as well as the radiological protection of medical support team were provided. Conclusion: The document mentioned above can be applied to direct the establishment, effective medical preparedness and response of the medical support team for nuclear and radiological emergency. (authors)

  4. Possibilities, advantages and disadvantages of application FEM in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankovic, D.

    1997-01-01

    Possibilities of applying the finite element method in nuclear technology are shown in this paper. It has an example of application numerical procedure in fluid mechanics and description of its basic principles. (author)

  5. Dispersion-strengthened aluminium powder products for nuclear application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels

    1967-01-01

    Strength, elongation, corrosion resistance, homogeneity, purity, compatibility with fuel, and resistance to irradiation damage, being main properties of SAP of interest for their application in nuclear technology, are discussed in connection with commercial products; effect on tensile and creep...

  6. Artificial intelligence - applications in high energy and nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, U. E-mail: mueller@whep.uni-wuppertal.de

    2003-04-21

    In the parallel sessions at ACAT2002 different artificial intelligence applications in high energy and nuclear physics were presented. I will briefly summarize these presentations. Further details can be found in the relevant section of these proceedings.

  7. A review of calixarene applications in nuclear industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahram Mokhtari; Iranian Offshore Oil Company, Lavan Island; Kobra Pourabdollah; Naser Dallali

    2011-01-01

    Calixarenes has been subject to extensive research in development of many extractants, transporters, stationary phases, electrode ionophores and optical and electrochemical sensors over the past four decades. In this paper, the nuclear applications of calixarenes are summarized in six fields including complexation studies, solvent extraction, membrane transport, chromatography, luminescent and colorimetric applications, and electroanalytical applications. In the first to fourth sections, the extractability, extraction equilibria and extraction constants of lanthanide, actinide and other nuclear waste cations ions, which were subjected to solvent extraction by the macrocyclic ligands, are reviewed. In two last sections, the analytical applications of calixarene complexes towards nuclear waste cations, including spectroscopic and electroanalytic sensors, are discussed. The examples described in this review illustrate the potential of calixarene derivatives in the rapidly growing field of cations recognition in nuclear wastes. (author)

  8. Proceedings of the 3. Brazilian Meeting on Nuclear Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Researches in nuclear applications have been developed in Brazil, and were presented in this Meeting. Over 230 papers were presented in the areas of dosimetry, instrumentation, medicine, biology, agriculture, industry, radiochemistry, radiological protection, hydrology, environment and waste management

  9. Interview in Radio Educacion on the applications of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcazar G, M.

    1991-01-01

    The objective that presides over this interview, is to show before the public the diverse applications that can have the nuclear energy, apart from the warlike aspect and the electric power generation. (Author)

  10. Nuclear fuels for very high temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, L.B.; Hobbins, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    The success of the development of nuclear thermal propulsion devices and thermionic space nuclear power generation systems depends on the successful utilization of nuclear fuel materials at temperatures in the range 2000 to 3500 K. Problems associated with the utilization of uranium bearing fuel materials at these very high temperatures while maintaining them in the solid state for the required operating times are addressed. The critical issues addressed include evaporation, melting, reactor neutron spectrum, high temperature chemical stability, fabrication, fission induced swelling, fission product release, high temperature creep, thermal shock resistance, and fuel density, both mass and fissile atom. Candidate fuel materials for this temperature range are based on UO 2 or uranium carbides. Evaporation suppression, such as a sealed cladding, is required for either fuel base. Nuclear performance data needed for design are sparse for all candidate fuel forms in this temperature range, especially at the higher temperatures

  11. Stochastic Effects; Application in Nuclear Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazonka, O.

    2000-04-01

    Stochastic effects in nuclear physics refer to the study of the dynamics of nuclear systems evolving under stochastic equations of motion. In this dissertation we restrict our attention to classical scattering models. We begin with introduction of the model of nuclear dynamics and deterministic equations of evolution. We apply a Langevin approach - an additional property of the model, which reflect the statistical nature of low energy nuclear behaviour. We than concentrate our attention on the problem of calculating tails of distribution functions, which actually is the problem of calculating probabilities of rare outcomes. Two general strategies are proposed. Result and discussion follow. Finally in the appendix we consider stochastic effects in nonequilibrium systems. A few exactly solvable models are presented. For one model we show explicitly that stochastic behaviour in a microscopic description can lead to ordered collective effects on the macroscopic scale. Two others are solved to confirm the predictions of the fluctuation theorem. (author)

  12. Nuclear medical determination of left ventricular diastolic function in coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger, P.; Laesser, W.K.; Kullich, W.; Stoiberer, I.; Klein, G.

    1985-01-01

    In 64 patients with coronary heart disease, the left ventricular diastolic function was determined by means of a new nuclear medical method (nuclear stethoscope). The investigations revealed an abnormal diastolic filling in 85.9% of the cases on the basis of the parameters peak filling rate and time to peak filling rate as manifestation of a disturbed ventricular function

  13. Applications in nuclear data and reactor physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, D.E.; Muranaka, R.; Schmidt, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on reactor kinetics and nuclear data collections. Topics considered at the conference included nuclear data processing, PWR core design calculations, reactor neutron dosimetry, in-core fuel management, reactor safety analysis, transients, two-phase flow, fuel cycles of research reactors, slightly enriched uranium, highly enriched uranium, reactor start-up, computer codes, and the transport of spent fuel elements

  14. Training and education in nuclear medicine at the Medical Faculty of the University of Zagreb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivancevic, D.; Popovic, S.; Simonovic, I.; Vlatkovic, M.

    1986-01-01

    Training for specialization in nuclear medicine in Yugoslavia includes 12 months of training in departments of clinical medicine and 24 months of training in departments of nuclear medicine. Since 1974 many physicians have passed the specialist examination in Zagreb. A postgraduate study in nuclear medicine began at the Medical Faculty of the University of Zagreb in 1979. It includes four semesters of courses and research on a selected subject leading to the degree of Magister (Master of Science). Most of the training is conducted by the Institute of Nuclear Medicine at the University Hospital, Rebro, in Zagreb, which has the necessary teaching staff, equipment and space. Forty-four students have completed this postgraduate study. Nuclear medicine in a developing country faces several problems. Scarcity of expensive equipment and radiopharmaceuticals calls for modifications of methods, home made products and instrument maintenance. These, mostly economic, factors are given special emphasis during training. Nuclear power generation may solve some of the country's energy problems; therefore, specialists in nuclear medicine must obtain additional knowledge about the medical care and treatment of persons who might be subject to irradiation and contamination in nuclear power plants. Lower economic resources in developing countries require better trained personnel, stressing the need for organized training and education in nuclear medicine. With some support the Institute of Nuclear Medicine will be able to offer various forms of training and education in nuclear medicine for physicians, chemists, physicists, technologists and other personnel from developing countries. (author)

  15. Application of nuclear irradiation to traditional chinese medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Jianping; Li Xuehu; Lu Xihong; Tao Lei; Wang Shuyang

    2010-01-01

    The application of nuclear irradiation in the field of traditional Chinese medicine has received much attention. In this paper we reviewed the application of nuclear radiation on the cultivation, breeding and disinfection of traditional Chinese medicine, and pointed out that the combination of radiation-induced mutagenesis and biological technology would promise broad prospects for increasing the cellular mutation rate and speeding up the genetic improvement of traditional Chinese medicine. (authors)

  16. Applications in the nuclear fuel cycle and radiopharmacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    Chapter 6 of comprehensive coordination chemistry deals with applications of uranium and thorium in the nuclear fuel cycle. There are sections on the separation and recovery of the two metals from their ores and on the preparation of and re-processing of nuclear fuels. Another section is devoted to the chemistry of gallium, indium and technetium and to pharmaceutical applications of radionuclides for diagnostic imaging. (UK)

  17. Application of proton radiography to medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, S.L.; Martin, R.L.; Moffett, D.R.; Colton, E.

    1977-12-01

    The use of charged particles for radiographic applications has been considered for some time, but progress has been impeded by the cost and availability of suitable accelerators. However, recent developments in technology could overcome these problems. A review is presented of the physical principles leading to an improvement in mass resolution per unit of absorbed dose for charged particle radiography relative to x-ray radiography. The quantitative comparisons between x-ray and proton radiographs presented here confirm this advantage. The implications of proton radiography on cancer detection, as well as future plans for developing a proton tomographic system, are discussed

  18. Anticholinesterases: Medical applications of neurochemical principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millard, C.B.; Broomfield, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    Cholinesterases form a family of serine esterases that arise in animals from at least two distinct genes. Multiple forms of these enzymes can be precisely localized and regulated by alternative mRNA splicing and by co- or posttranslational modifications. The high catalytic efficiency of the cholinesterases is quelled by certain very selective reversible and irreversible inhibitors. Owing largely to the important role of acetylcholine hydrolysis in neurotransmission, cholinesterase and its inhibitors have been studied extensively in vivo. In parallel, there has emerged an equally impressive enzyme chemistry literature. Cholinesterase inhibitors are used widely as pesticides; in this regard the compounds are beneficial with concomitant health risks. Poisoning by such compounds can result in an acute but usually manageable medical crisis and may damage the ONS and the PNS, as well as cardiac and skeletal muscle tissue. Some inhibitors have been useful for the treatment of glaucoma and myasthenia gravis, and others are in clinical trials as therapy for Alzheimer`s dementia. Concurrently, the most potent inhibitors have been developed as highly toxic chemical warfare agents. We review treatments and sequelae of exposure to selected anticholinesterases, especially organophosphorus compounds and carbamates, as they relate to recent progress in enzyme chemistry.

  19. Structured alkali halides for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, B.; Fuchs, M.; Hell, E.; Knuepfer, W.; Hackenschmied, P.; Winnacker, A.

    2002-01-01

    Image plates based on storage phosphors are a major application of radiation defects in insulators. Storage phosphors absorb X-ray quanta creating trapped electron-hole pairs in the material. Optical stimulation of the electron causes recombination leading to light emission. Application of image plates requires an optimal compromise between resolution (represented by the modulation transfer function (MTF)) and sensitivity. In our paper we present a new solution of the problem of combining a high MTF with a high sensitivity by structuring the image plates in form of thin needles acting as light guides. This suppresses the lateral spread of light which is detrimental to resolution. As doped CsBr, e.g. CsBr:Ga [Physica Medica XV (1999) 301], can pose a good storage phosphor evaporated layers are of interest in computed radiography. Needle structured CsI:Tl is used as scintillator in direct radiography [IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45 (3) (1998)]. CsBr layers have been produced by evaporation in vacuum and in inert gas atmosphere varying pressure and temperature. The resulting structures are of fibrous or columnar nature being in good agreement with the zone model of Thornton [Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 7 (1977) 239]. A zone model for CsBr has been developed. Measurements on doped alkali halide image plates having needle structure show good MTF at high sensitivity making a significant progress in image plate technology

  20. Current Status of Non-Electric Applications of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Young Joon; Lee, Jun; Lee, Tae Hoon

    2009-05-01

    IAEA Technical Meeting(I3-TM-37394) on 'Non-Electric Applications of Nuclear Energy' has been successfully held from March 3 to 6 in 2009 at KAERI/INTEC. The 24 experts from 12 countries participated in this meeting and provided 17 presentations and their opinions and comments in desalination, hydrogen production, and heat application sessions. All of the participants from 12 countries agreed that nuclear power should be the potential carbon-free energy source to replace crude oil and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the fields of non-electric applications such as desalination, hydrogen production, district heating, and industrial processes applications

  1. The FLUKA Code: Developments and Challenges for High Energy and Medical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Böhlen, T T; Chin, M P W; Fassò, A; Ferrari, A; Ortega, P G; Mairani, A; Sala, P R; Smirnov, G; Vlachoudis, V

    2014-01-01

    The FLUKA Monte Carlo code is used extensively at CERN for all beam-machine interactions, radioprotection calculations and facility design of forthcoming projects. Such needs require the code to be consistently reliable over the entire energy range (from MeV to TeV) for all projectiles (full suite of elementary particles and heavy ions). Outside CERN, among various applications worldwide, FLUKA serves as a core tool for the HIT and CNAO hadron-therapy facilities in Europe. Therefore, medical applications further impose stringent requirements in terms of reliability and predictive power, which demands constant refinement of sophisticated nuclear models and continuous code improvement. Some of the latest developments implemented in FLUKA are presented in this paper, with particular emphasis on issues and concerns pertaining to CERN and medical applications.

  2. Nuclear medicine and related radionuclide applications in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Symposium presentations were divided into sessions devoted to the following topics: Radioimmunoassay and related techniques (4 papers and 4 poster presentations); Radionuclide applications in the diagnosis of parasitic diseases (7 papers and 2 posters); Instrumentation (6 papers and 4 posters); Clinical nuclear medicine: liver, bones, thyroid, cardiovascular system, lungs, kidneys, brain (23 papers and 15 posters); Organization of nuclear medicine services in the developing countries (9 papers and 5 posters); Training in nuclear medicine (4 papers) and the panel discussion. Future of Nuclear Medicine in the developing countries. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers and posters

  3. Foreseeable medical consequences of use of nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiatt, H.H.

    1982-01-01

    An editorial discussion of the environmental impacts of nuclear warfare is presented. It is expected that the bulk of the urban population in the northern hemisphere would be killed. Long-term consequences mentioned include changes in global climate and weather patterns, destruction of the ozone shield and genetic damage. Efforts are underway to provide the public with a realistic understanding of potential problems in the event of a nuclear holocaust. (JMT)

  4. Medical application of laser hair removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadlalla, Alwalled Hussein Ataalmannan

    2015-12-01

    The use of laser in medical treatment has become of paramount importance proportional to what has high therapeutic privileges such as speed and accuracy in penetrating tissues and high quality especially when used in hair removal which is the subject of our study, this laser operates cards may cause some change in the color of the skin when used in a manner that is correct ratio of the thermal impact force in the laser hair removal process, or if it is exposed directly to his eye. This study is a comparison between the physical properties of laser of lasers used in hair removal, according to previous studies to be the basis for the benefit of doctors who use lasers for hair removal. The aim of this study was to study the effect of laser hair removal using the Nd: YAG laser with a wavelength 1064 nm as well as the risks airing from the assessment. The aim of this study was to identify the appropriate laser energy that absorbed in the hair follicle with a dark color and the appropriate thermal effect occurs to vaporize the follicle cell, a 40 J/cm"2 is to be significant without side effects for healthy tissue. In this study doses for a few laser beam is considered when compared to previous studies. Laser danger to the patient during the operation increases with increasing laser energy emitted during treatment. Laser hair removal by the user and energy emitted by wavelength of the laser device also depends on the hair color and roughness as well as skin color. (Author)

  5. Surface pretreatments for medical application of adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Michael

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Medical implants and prostheses (artificial hips, tendono- and ligament plasties usually are multi-component systems that may be machined from one of three material classes: metals, plastics and ceramics. Typically, the body-sided bonding element is bone. The purpose of this contribution is to describe developments carried out to optimize the techniques , connecting prosthesis to bone, to be joined by an adhesive bone cement at their interface. Although bonding of organic polymers to inorganic or organic surfaces and to bone has a long history, there remains a serious obstacle in realizing long-term high-bonding strengths in the in vivo body environment of ever present high humidity. Therefore, different pretreatments, individually adapted to the actual combination of materials, are needed to assure long term adhesive strength and stability against hydrolysis. This pretreatment for metal alloys may be silica layering; for PE-plastics, a specific plasma activation; and for bone, amphiphilic layering systems such that the hydrophilic properties of bone become better adapted to the hydrophobic properties of the bone cement. Amphiphilic layering systems are related to those developed in dentistry for dentine bonding. Specific pretreatment can significantly increase bond strengths, particularly after long term immersion in water under conditions similar to those in the human body. The bond strength between bone and plastic for example can be increased by a factor approaching 50 (pealing work increasing from 30 N/m to 1500 N/m. This review article summarizes the multi-disciplined subject of adhesion and adhesives, considering the technology involved in the formation and mechanical performance of adhesives joints inside the human body.

  6. Therapeutic Applications of Monte Carlo Calculations in Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulot, J

    2003-01-01

    Monte Carlo techniques are involved in many applications in medical physics, and the field of nuclear medicine has seen a great development in the past ten years due to their wider use. Thus, it is of great interest to look at the state of the art in this domain, when improving computer performances allow one to obtain improved results in a dramatically reduced time. The goal of this book is to make, in 15 chapters, an exhaustive review of the use of Monte Carlo techniques in nuclear medicine, also giving key features which are not necessary directly related to the Monte Carlo method, but mandatory for its practical application. As the book deals with therapeutic' nuclear medicine, it focuses on internal dosimetry. After a general introduction on Monte Carlo techniques and their applications in nuclear medicine (dosimetry, imaging and radiation protection), the authors give an overview of internal dosimetry methods (formalism, mathematical phantoms, quantities of interest). Then, some of the more widely used Monte Carlo codes are described, as well as some treatment planning softwares. Some original techniques are also mentioned, such as dosimetry for boron neutron capture synovectomy. It is generally well written, clearly presented, and very well documented. Each chapter gives an overview of each subject, and it is up to the reader to investigate it further using the extensive bibliography provided. Each topic is discussed from a practical point of view, which is of great help for non-experienced readers. For instance, the chapter about mathematical aspects of Monte Carlo particle transport is very clear and helps one to apprehend the philosophy of the method, which is often a difficulty with a more theoretical approach. Each chapter is put in the general (clinical) context, and this allows the reader to keep in mind the intrinsic limitation of each technique involved in dosimetry (for instance activity quantitation). Nevertheless, there are some minor remarks to

  7. Some arachnidan peptides with potential medical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ME De Lima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for new active drugs that can alleviate or cure different diseases is a constant challenge to researchers in the biological area and to the pharmaceutical industry. Historically, research has focused on the study of substances from plants. More recently, however, animal venoms have been attracting attention and studies have been successful in addressing treatment of accidents. Furthermore, venoms and their toxins have been considered good tools for prospecting for new active drugs or models for new therapeutic drugs. In this review, we discuss some possibilities of using different toxins, especially those from arachnid venoms, which have shown some potential application in diseases involving pain, hypertension, epilepsy and erectile dysfunction. A new generation of drugs is likely to emerge from peptides, including those found in animal venoms.

  8. Applications of computational tools in biosciences and medical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Altenbach, Holm

    2015-01-01

     This book presents the latest developments and applications of computational tools related to the biosciences and medical engineering. It also reports the findings of different multi-disciplinary research projects, for example, from the areas of scaffolds and synthetic bones, implants and medical devices, and medical materials. It is also shown that the application of computational tools often requires mathematical and experimental methods. Computational tools such as the finite element methods, computer-aided design and optimization as well as visualization techniques such as computed axial tomography open up completely new research fields that combine the fields of engineering and bio/medical. Nevertheless, there are still hurdles since both directions are based on quite different ways of education. Often even the “language” can vary from discipline to discipline.

  9. A clinician's artificial organ? Instant messaging applications in medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazegul, Gokhan; Bozoglan, Humeyra; Ogut, Tahir S; Balcı, Mustafa K

    2017-09-15

    After the development of the first phone at the end of 19th century, communication technologies took a great leap forward in the 20th century. With the birth of the "smartphone" in the 21st century, communication technologies exponentially evolved and became an important part of our daily routine. Effective communications between clinicians is critical in medical care and miscommunications are a source of errors. Although telecommunication technologies have proliferated dramatically in the last decade, there is scarce evidence-based information on the use of this technology in medical care. For the purposes of medical communication, we can now consult each other about patients individually and within a group via instant messaging applications by using text messages, photos, audio messages and even videos. In this review, we examine the uses and drawbacks of instant messaging applications in medical communications.

  10. Management of Low-Level Radioactive Waste from Research, Hospitals and Nuclear Medical Centers in Egypt - 13469

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, M.A.; Selim, Y.T.; Lasheen, Y.F. [Hot Labs and Waste Management Center, Atomic Energy Authority, 3 Ahmed El-Zomor St., El-Zohour District, Naser City, 11787, Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-07-01

    The application of radioisotopes and radiation sources in medical diagnosis and therapy is an important issue. Physicians can use radioisotopes to diagnose and treat diseases. Methods of treatment, conditioning and management of low level radioactive wastes from the use of radiation sources and radioisotopes in hospitals and nuclear medicine application, are described. Solid Radioactive waste with low-level activity after accumulation, minimization, segregation and measurement, are burned or compressed in a compactor according to the international standards. Conditioned drums are transported to the interim storage site at the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA) represented in Hot Labs and Waste Management Center (HLWMC) for storage and monitoring. (authors)

  11. ICPMS for nuclear applications: merits, limitations and prospective developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulyga, S.; Poths, J.; Balsley, S.; Donohue, D.; ); Kappel, S.; Prohaska, T.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) is gaining increasing recognition for analysis of nuclear and related samples in safeguards, forensics and environmental monitoring. The most challenging applications of ICPMS include isotopic analysis of microsamples, age determination of nuclear materials as well as comprehensive analysis of nuclear samples. This presentation will discuss particular advantages and limitations of presently available ICPMS instrumentation for such applications. It will also highlight the current need for an improvement of ICPMS performance aimed at obtaining significantly more specific and accurate isotopic information. (author)

  12. Program of medical advice in radioprotection of the Argentinean nuclear regulatory authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M.R.; Gisone, P.; Di Trano, J.L.; Dubher, D.; Michelin, S.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this program is to have a system with the aim of guaranteing an appropriate medical response in the case of radiological or nuclear accidents and to offer medical advice in aspects related to the biological effects of ionizing radiations

  13. 76 FR 81994 - UniStar Nuclear Energy; Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 52-016; NRC-2008-0250] UniStar Nuclear Energy; Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 3; Exemption 1.0 Background: UniStar Nuclear Energy (UNE) submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission ) a...

  14. Russian nuclear power plants for marine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reistad, O. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Oelgaard, P.L. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)

    2006-04-15

    In order to establish a systematic approach for future proliferation and environmental analyses of Russia's marine nuclear reactor systems, this paper summarizes and analyzes the available open-source information on the design properties of reactor systems and nuclear fuels. The most distinctive features of Russian marine reactor development are pointed out, and similarities and differences between Russian military and civilian reactor systems and fuel are discussed. Relevant updated information on all Russian vessels using nuclear propulsion is presented in Annex I. The basic analytic division in this paper follows vessel generations first to third generation; and reactor types PWR and LMC technology. Most of the available information is related to nuclear icebreakers. This information is systematically analyzed in order to identify stages in the development of Russia's civilian naval nuclear reactors. Three different reactor models are discussed: OK-150, OK-900 and KLT-40, together with several versions of these. Concerning military reactors, it is not possible to identify characteristics for the individual reactor models, so the basic division follows vessel generations first to third generation. From the information available, however, it is possible to identify the main lines along which the design of submarines of especially the first and the second generation has been made. The conclusions contain a discussion of possible implications of the results, in addition to suggestions for further work. (au)

  15. Russian nuclear power plants for marine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reistad, O.; Oelgaard, P.L.

    2006-04-01

    In order to establish a systematic approach for future proliferation and environmental analyses of Russia's marine nuclear reactor systems, this paper summarizes and analyzes the available open-source information on the design properties of reactor systems and nuclear fuels. The most distinctive features of Russian marine reactor development are pointed out, and similarities and differences between Russian military and civilian reactor systems and fuel are discussed. Relevant updated information on all Russian vessels using nuclear propulsion is presented in Annex I. The basic analytic division in this paper follows vessel generations first to third generation; and reactor types PWR and LMC technology. Most of the available information is related to nuclear icebreakers. This information is systematically analyzed in order to identify stages in the development of Russia's civilian naval nuclear reactors. Three different reactor models are discussed: OK-150, OK-900 and KLT-40, together with several versions of these. Concerning military reactors, it is not possible to identify characteristics for the individual reactor models, so the basic division follows vessel generations first to third generation. From the information available, however, it is possible to identify the main lines along which the design of submarines of especially the first and the second generation has been made. The conclusions contain a discussion of possible implications of the results, in addition to suggestions for further work. (au)

  16. Aggregation process, application to nuclear multifragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Jean-Baptiste

    1995-01-01

    It is depicted an aggregation model (applied to nuclear multifragmentation) which I have elaborated and validated. This model contains an aggregation procedure, allowing one to determine the aggregation state of a given system. It takes into account spatial and kinetic nucleonic information, as well as in-medium effects. It is made of several energetic linkage criterions, all based on a single quantity: the energy of a system computed in its center of mass frame. This procedure has been applied to nuclear physics, assuming nucleus as a mix of two Fermi gas, interacting via the Yukawa potential (plus Coulomb in between protons) and obeying to a classical exclusion principle. The general trends of the model match with those of nuclear physics. Moreover, two comparisons between the model and nuclear multifragmentation experiments (ALADIN, then FOPI) exhibit nice agreements. The FOPI one, shows that fragments are bound to be formed at the beginning of the expansion phase (Au + Au at 150 MeV/nuc, for central collisions). This work ends with a study of the main ingredients included in the model. It reveals that in-medium effects, exclusion principle as well as the shape of the potential have a non negligible influence on the studied nuclear aggregation process. (author) [fr

  17. United States Department of Health and Human Services Biodosimetry and radiological/nuclear medical countermeasure programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homer, Mary J.; Raulli, Robert; Esker, John; Moyer, Brian; Wathen, Lynne; DiCarlo-Cohen, Andrea L.; Maidment, Bert W.; Rios, Carmen; Macchiarini, Francesca; Hrdina, Chad; Prasanna, Pataje G.

    2016-01-01

    The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is fully committed to the development of medical countermeasures to address national security threats from chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear agents. Through the Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasures Enterprise, HHS has launched and managed a multi-agency, comprehensive effort to develop and operationalize medical countermeasures. Within HHS, development of medical countermeasures includes the National Institutes of Health (NIH), (led by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases), the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Preparedness and Response/Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA); with the Division of Medical Countermeasure Strategy and Requirements, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Food and Drug Administration as primary partners in this endeavor. This paper describes various programs and coordinating efforts of BARDA and NIH for the development of medical countermeasures for radiological and nuclear threats. (authors)

  18. The multiple applications of the nuclear techniques in Argentina; Las multiples aplicaciones de la tecnologia nuclear en Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzini, Alberto C [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Programa de Radioisotopos y Aplicaciones

    2001-07-01

    A review is given of the use of nuclear technology in Argentina, especially in the field of the production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals, nuclear medicine, and industrial applications. The applications of ionizing radiation are also reviewed.

  19. Present and perspective medical applications of microbial exopolysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misu - Moscovici

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial exopolysaccharides (EPS have found outstanding medical applications since the mid-twentieth century, with the first clinical trials on dextran solutions as plasma expanders. Other EPS entered medicine firstly as conventional pharmaceutical excipients (e.g., xanthan - as suspension stabilizer, or pullulan – in capsules and oral care products. Polysaccharides, initially obtained from plant or animal sources, became easily available for a wide range of applications, especially when they were commercially produced by microbial fermentation. Alginates are used as anti-reflux, dental impressions, or as matrix for tablets. Hyaluronic acid and derivatives are used in surgery, arthritis treatment or wound healing. Bacterial cellulose is applied in wound dressings or scaffolds for tissue engineering. The development of drug controlled-release systems and of micro- and nanoparticulated ones, has opened a new era of medical applications for biopolymers. EPS and their derivatives are well suited potentially non-toxic, biodegradable drug carriers. Such systems concern rating and targeting of controlled release. Their large area of applications is explained by the available manifold series of derivatives, whose useful properties can be thereby controlled. From matrix inclusion to conjugates, different systems have been designed to solubilize, and to assure stable transport in the body, target accumulation and variable rate-release of a drug substance. From controlled drug delivery, EPS potential applications expanded to vaccine adjuvants and diagnostic imaging systems. Other potential applications are related to the bioactive (immunomodulator, antitumor, antiviral characteristics of EPS. The numerous potential applications still wait to be developed into commercial pharmaceuticals and medical devices. Based on previous and recent results in important medical-pharmaceutical domains, one can undoubtedly state that EPS medical applications have a

  20. Development of indigenous technology at CNEN in the fields of nuclear medicine, nuclear detectors, instrumentation, radioisotope production and application of nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mafra, O.

    1990-01-01

    The main objectives of the program developed at CNEN in the field of nuclear medicine, nuclear detectors, instrumentation, radioisotope production and application of nuclear technique are described. (E.G.) [pt