WorldWideScience

Sample records for nuclear law issued

  1. The review conference mechanism in nuclear law: issues and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoiber, C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to assess the major issues arising from reliance on the review conference mechanism as a measure for enhancing the effectiveness of multilateral legal instruments, particularly those in the nuclear field. In view of the perceived failure of the 2005 review conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and the need to avoid a similar result at the upcoming 2010 review conference, it is hoped that this analysis will provide a timely review of the review conference mechanism. (N.C.)

  2. Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascal, Maurice.

    1979-01-01

    This book on nuclear law is the first of a series of analytical studies to be published by the French Energy Commission (CEA) concerning all the various nuclear activities. It describes national and international legislation applicable in France covering the following main sectors: the licensing procedure for nuclear installations, the law of the sea and nuclear law, the legal system governing radioisotopes, the transport of radioactive materials, third party liability and insurance and radiation protection. In each chapter, the overall analysis is supplemented by the relevant regulatory texts and by organisation charts in annex. (NEA) [fr

  3. Nuclear energy policy and atomic energy law. Issues and developmental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Preuss, M.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear energy policy and the atomic energy law recurrently have been a focal point of interest and an issue of political debate in Germany. However, this time the political debate is gaining a new dimension in the wake of the general elections held in September 1998 and the resulting change of government. The contribution compares aspects of the history of atomic energy research and nuclear technology with the current political situation and assesses the impacts of announced changes in government policy and legislation. (orig./CB) [de

  4. Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesbauer, Bruno

    1978-01-01

    This book is the first attempt of a comprehensive compilation of national Austrian Nuclear Law (Nuclear Liability Act; Radiation protection Act, Radiation Protection Ordinance, Security Control Act, Act on the uses of Nuclear Energy - Zwentendorf Nuclear Power Plant) and the most important international agreements to which Austria is a party. Furthermore, the book contains the most important Nuclear Liability Conventions to which Austria is not yet a party, but which are applicable in neighbouring; the Paris Convention served as a model for the national Nuclear Liability Act and may be used for its interpretation. The author has translated a number of international instruments into German, such as the Expose des Motifs of the Paris Convention. (NEA) [fr

  5. Nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringuier, P.

    2009-01-01

    The object of this report is to present the evolution of the nuclear law during the period from 2006 to 2008, period that was characterized in France by a real rewriting from the implementation of a control authority. The prescriptive backing of nuclear activities has been deeply changed by numerous texts. In this first part are presented: (1) the institutional aspects, (2) openness and public information, (7) radioactive wastes and (9) liability and insurance. In a next publication will be treated: (3) safety and radiation protection; (4) nuclear matter, inspection, physical protection; (5) transports; (6) trade, non-proliferation; (8) radiological accidents. (N.C.)

  6. Nuclear law - Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontier, Jean-Marie; Roux, Emmanuel; Leger, Marc; Deguergue, Maryse; Vallar, Christian; Pissaloux, Jean-Luc; Bernie-Boissard, Catherine; Thireau, Veronique; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Spencer, Mary; Zhang, Li; Park, Kyun Sung; Artus, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    This book contains the contributions presented during a one-day seminar. The authors propose a framework for a legal approach to nuclear safety, a discussion of the 2009/71/EURATOM directive which establishes a European framework for nuclear safety in nuclear installations, a comment on nuclear safety and environmental governance, a discussion of the relationship between citizenship and nuclear, some thoughts about the Nuclear Safety Authority, an overview of the situation regarding the safety in nuclear waste burying, a comment on the Nome law with respect to electricity price and nuclear safety, a comment on the legal consequences of the Fukushima accident on nuclear safety in the Japanese law, a presentation of the USA nuclear regulation, an overview of nuclear safety in China, and a discussion of nuclear safety in the medical sector

  7. The French nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear law had been out of the environmental law. The act on the transparency and the security of the nuclear matter was enacted in 2006 and set in the code of the environment in 2012. It means that the nuclear law is part of the environmental law and that it is advanced. I will report the French nuclear law. (author)

  8. Themes in nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The nuclear law was analyzed during a workshop. The main aspects were: the law of population to access to information on nuclear energy and the relationship between the Regulator Organism and the nuclear power plants managers

  9. Conflict of law issues related to Switzerland's participation in the Paris Nuclear Third Party Liability Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldner, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In spite of the active role Switzerland played during the negotiation process of the Paris Convention, it only recently ratified the Convention including all its amending Protocols. The whole Paris regime will become binding for Switzerland only upon entry into force of the Protocols of 2004. Concurrently, the Federal Council will put into force a revised Swiss Nuclear Liability Act and ratify the Joint Protocol. Being a party to the Paris regime and the Joint Protocol, Switzerland will be in treaty relationships with Paris states and with Vienna states which are party to the Joint Protocol. This paper assesses the legal protection of Swiss victims and the liability risks faced by Swiss operators and other potential defendants (such as suppliers and builders) under the new legal regime with a particular view to conflict of laws issues. For the purpose of this assessment the paper examines which courts will be competent to hear claims of Swiss victims and against Swiss defendants in different scenarios, which law these courts should apply, whether or not the principle of legal channelling will apply and what the applicable liability amounts are. The assessment shows an ambiguous picture: Swiss operators, suppliers and builders clearly benefit from a higher degree of legal certainty. While in the absence of treaty relationships Swiss operators could potentially be sued before any foreign court, there will now be only one court with jurisdiction over claims of victims of convention states; Swiss suppliers and builders for their part will be protected by the principle of legal channelling, which basically exempts them from any liability risk. Swiss victims will benefit from treaty-backed entitlement to compensation from foreign operators; also, the judgements rendered in their favour will be enforceable in the whole convention territory; however, the limitation of the operator's liability in many Paris and Vienna states, raises doubts about whether the available funds

  10. Essay on nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig, Diva

    1994-01-01

    This book is divided in seven parts, covering international organizations in nuclear energy. agreements, nuclear laws and environment, national legislation program and Uruguayan legislation. The texts of the nuclear laws in Uruguay are reproduced, and several aspects on nuclear energy are discussed

  11. Nuclear energy law after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, P.; Harcher, L.

    1988-01-01

    This work examines the legal issues surrounding the possibility of accidents at nuclear installations in Europe. Contents include: Regulations and control by international organizations in the context of a nuclear accident; The role of Euratom; Border installations: the interaction of administrative, European community and public international law; and Border installations: the experience of Wackersdorf. Concepts of nuclear liability and the liability of suppliers to nuclear power plants are discussed

  12. Nuclear security and law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozal, Y.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study is to show that the classical distinction between the military nuclear law and the civil nuclear law is outdated. The technologies are dual and might be misused from a pacific to a military goal. The central element of the nuclear law is thus the integration of the safety rules: the nuclear risk being universal, it has created an universal law (first part) that reflects our scientific knowledge and might thus evaluate. This universal law has been a factor of nuclear security (part 2), as in 50 years, there had been only one major nuclear accident and no nuclear conflict. The horizontal proliferation has been limited and the international community has understood that time had come to reduce our arsenals. (author)

  13. Nuclear law in progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manóvil, Rafael Mariano

    2014-01-01

    The 21. AIDN / INLA Congress was organized by the International Nuclear Law Association, in Buenos Aires, between the October 20 and 23, 2014. In this event, were presented almost 50 papers about these subjects: radioactive sources, safety and licensing, radioactive waste management, radiation protection, nuclear transport, security and non-proliferation, nuclear liability and insurance, etc.

  14. Nuclear law and radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frois, F.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear activities in Brazil, and particularly the radiological accident of Goiania, are examined in the light of the environmental and nuclear laws of Brazil and the issue of responsibility. The absence of legislation covering radioactive wastes as well as the restrictions on Brazilian States to issue regulations covering nuclear activities are reviewed. The radiological accident and its consequences, including the protection and compensation of the victims, the responsibility of the shareholders of the Instituto Goiano de Radioterapia, operator of the radioactive source, the provisional storage and the final disposal at Abadia de Goias of the radioactive waste generated by the accident are reviewed. Finally, nuclear responsibility, the inapplicability of the Law 6453/77 which deals with nuclear damages, and the state liability regime are analysed in accordance with the principles of the Brazilian Federal Constitution. (author)

  15. Nuclear law reviewed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    When an Agency Seminar on the Development of Nuclear Law was held in Bangkok during April, those taking part included two previous trainees with the Agency's Legal Division. Both hold important positions with their national Atomic Energy Commissions, one as Legal Adviser and the other as Chief Legal Officer. All others who attended are closely associated with drafting laws and regulations for nuclear activities. (author)

  16. International nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, M.M. de.

    1981-01-01

    The peculiar feature of a developing nuclear law is discussed. Opinions from various writers and jurists are presented. It is concluded that it should be considered as international law, whose main sources are the various treaties, conventions and agreements. (A.L.) [pt

  17. Handbook on nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoiber, C.; Baer, A.; Pelzer, N.; Tonhauser, W.

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this handbook is to assist States in drafting national legislation that provides an adequate legal basis for pursuing the economic and social benefits of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation. At the outset, therefore, it is important to offer a basic concept of nuclear law. In the light of these basic factors, nuclear law can be defined as: The body of special legal norms created to regulate the conduct of legal or natural persons engaged in activities related to fissionable materials, ionizing radiation and exposure to natural sources of radiation. Before attempting to identify which special aspects of nuclear law distinguish it from other types of law, it is important to highlight briefly the fundamental reason why a State would decide to make the major effort necessary in order to promulgate such legislation. Simply stated, the primary objective of nuclear law is: To provide a legal framework for conducting activities related to nuclear energy and ionizing radiation in a manner which adequately protects individuals, property and the environment. In light of this objective, it is particularly important that responsible authorities carefully assess their current nuclear energy activities and their plans for future nuclear energy development so that the legislation ultimately adopted is adequate. What are the characteristics of nuclear law that distinguish it from the other aspects of national law? A number of basic concepts, often expressed as fundamental principles, can be mentioned in this regard: (a) The safety principle; (b) The security principle; (c) The responsibility principle; (d) The permission principle; (e) The continuous control principle; (f) The compensation principle; (g) The sustainable development principle; (h) The compliance principle; (i) The independence principle; (j) The transparency principle; (k) The international co-operation principle

  18. Handbook on nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoiber, C.; Baer, A.; Pelzer, N.; Tonhauser, W.

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this handbook is to assist States in drafting national legislation that provides an adequate legal basis for pursuing the economic and social benefits of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation. At the outset, therefore, it is important to offer a basic concept of nuclear law. In the light of these basic factors, nuclear law can be defined as: The body of special legal norms created to regulate the conduct of legal or natural persons engaged in activities related to fissionable materials, ionizing radiation and exposure to natural sources of radiation. Before attempting to identify which special aspects of nuclear law distinguish it from other types of law, it is important to highlight briefly the fundamental reason why a State would decide to make the major effort necessary in order to promulgate such legislation. Simply stated, the primary objective of nuclear law is: To provide a legal framework for conducting activities related to nuclear energy and ionizing radiation in a manner which adequately protects individuals, property and the environment. In light of this objective, it is particularly important that responsible authorities carefully assess their current nuclear energy activities and their plans for future nuclear energy development so that the legislation ultimately adopted is adequate. What are the characteristics of nuclear law that distinguish it from the other aspects of national law? A number of basic concepts, often expressed as fundamental principles, can be mentioned in this regard: (a) The safety principle. (B) The security principle. (C) The responsibility principle. (D) The permission principle. (E) The continuous control principle. (F) The compensation principle. (G) The sustainable development principle. (H) The compliance principle. (I) The independence principle. (J) The transparency principle. (K) The international co-operation principle

  19. Handbook on nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoiber, C.; Baer, A.; Pelzer, N.; Tonhauser, W.

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this handbook is to assist States in drafting national legislation that provides an adequate legal basis for pursuing the economic and social benefits of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation. At the outset, therefore, it is important to offer a basic concept of nuclear law. In the light of these basic factors, nuclear law can be defined as: The body of special legal norms created to regulate the conduct of legal or natural persons engaged in activities related to fissionable materials, ionizing radiation and exposure to natural sources of radiation. Before attempting to identify which special aspects of nuclear law distinguish it from other types of law, it is important to highlight briefly the fundamental reason why a State would decide to make the major effort necessary in order to promulgate such legislation. Simply stated, the primary objective of nuclear law is: To provide a legal framework for conducting activities related to nuclear energy and ionizing radiation in a manner which adequately protects individuals, property and the environment. In light of this objective, it is particularly important that responsible authorities carefully assess their current nuclear energy activities and their plans for future nuclear energy development so that the legislation ultimately adopted is adequate. What are the characteristics of nuclear law that distinguish it from the other aspects of national law? A number of basic concepts, often expressed as fundamental principles, can be mentioned in this regard: (a) The safety principle. (B) The security principle. (C) The responsibility principle. (D) The permission principle. (E) The continuous control principle. (F) The compensation principle. (G) The sustainable development principle. (H) The compliance principle. (I) The independence principle. (J) The transparency principle. (K) The international co-operation principle

  20. Nuclear law and disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    One would like to say that world attention will be focussed on the 2005 Review Conference of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), that governments will rush to implement the 13 Practical Steps to nuclear disarmament already agreed on, that the combined actions of the political and civil order will greatly reduce the present high level of danger of the use of nuclear weapons. Unfortunately, in the real world of political disorder that we live in, none of this is likely to occur. There is no doubt in my mind that the present crisis is the worst the NPT has experienced. The treaty is on the verge of collapse, and the proliferation of nuclear weapons, both among those who already have them and those who want them, is staring us in the face. It is truly shocking that the public knows so little about the nature of the danger and that governments, for the most part, are so desultory in their approach to the upholding of law. While NPT meetings have never been free of conflict, the battles of the past were frequently patched over by an application of goodwill and a minimum show of trust. Now the goodwill and trust are gone largely because the nuclear-weapons States (NWS) have tried to change the rules of the game. Adherence to that bargain enabled the indefinite extension of the treaty in 1995 and the achievement of an 'unequivocal undertaking' in 2000 toward elimination through a programme of 13 Practical Steps. Now the US is rejecting the commitments of 2000 and premising its aggressive diplomacy on the assertion that the problem of the NPT lies not in the NWS's own actions but in the lack of compliance by States such as North Korea and Iran. Brazil bluntly warned: 'The fulfillment of the 13 steps on nuclear disarmament agreed during the 2000 Review Conference have been significantly - one could even say systematically - challenged by action and omission, and various reservations and selective interpretation by Nuclear Weapon States.' The whole international

  1. Nuclear Liability Laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntosh, S.

    2016-01-01

    The principles of the nuclear liability regime, including their application to the case of transport, are described in the IAEA Handbook on Nuclear Law, and will not be repeated in this paper. Rather, this paper examines some specific aspects of liability during transport, and particularly draws on some of the work of the IAEA International Expert Group on Nuclear Liability (INLEX). In that regard, particular reference is made to the Explanatory Texts published in 2004

  2. Nuclear Energy Law and Arbo Law/Safety Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eijnde, J.G. van den

    1986-01-01

    The legal aspects of radiation protection in the Netherlands are described. Radiation protection is regulated mainly in the Nuclear Energy Law. The Arbo Law also has some sections about radiation protection. The interaction between both laws is discussed. (Auth.)

  3. Reflections on nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbone, F.

    1977-01-01

    Despite contradictory public attitudes to nuclear power, this source of energy is bound to be used all over the world because of exhaustible other energy sources and increasing energy needs. The role of nuclear law is analysed in this context. Innovative legislation in this field has kept in step with the constant evolution of nuclear technology and has fixed new criteria of liability, financial coverage and specific standards for users of nuclear power, and set administrative measures to be complied with. It has fixed a barrier of protection mechanisms, i.e. licences, exemptions, controls, to keep an acceptable balance between economic advantages and social needs. In Italy, apart from ratification of international nuclear conventions, an increasing number of laws and decrees are made touching the various aspects of nuclear energy, thus providing a detailed, expanding legal framework for nuclear activities. Finally, existing legislation should be still further refined as regards emergency plans and measures to ensure maximum protection in the event, however remote, of a major nuclear incident. (NEA) [fr

  4. 14th German nuclear law symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgi, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear law is still relevant and topical. The nuclear power phase-out in response to the nuclear accident of Fukushima and the turnaround in German energy policy raise new legal issues. In several lectures of practioners and scientists the 14th German Nuclear Law Symposium examined questions regarding the retrofitting of nuclear power plants, their decommissioning and disposal, the current developements in the European nuclear and radiation protection law and the search for a final nuclear waste repository. The nuclear law provides examples for central challenges of administrative law, such as the independence of authorities and the protection of third parties. The discussions between the almost 150 participants are documented in several reports.

  5. Legislative duty of care in the context of the energy turnaround. Constitutional issues of the 13th amendment to the Nuclear Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degenhart, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The present publication shows how the Thirteenth Law Amending the Nuclear Energy Law, whose enactment on 31 July 2011 (Federal Law Gazette I p. 1704), during the aftermath of the events of Fukushima, by accelerating the phaseout of nuclear energy, has given rise to a number of constitutional issues in regard to the manner in which it came about as well as to its content. The law is founded essentially on an observation made by the Ethics Commission called in by the Federal Chancellor that not the risk itself had changed but rather its perception. The present study, which is based on a legal opinion commissioned by E.ON AG, investigates whether this observation can legitimately serve as the foundation of such a momentous legislative decision and whether the legislature, in establishing the relevant facts of the case, acted within the bounds of its lawful capacity to make assessments and forecasts and hence in accord with its constitutional duties. It is dedicated to exploring whether the legislature made proper use of its discretionary powers, whether the law, with all its follow-on effects, does justice to the proportionality principle, and whether due consideration was given in its enactment to the constitutional requirement to weigh the arguments of a case against each other.

  6. An area of protection around nuclear facilities - questions at issue in atomic law and law concerning the protection against nuisances. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blickle, D.

    1973-01-01

    The necessity for an area of protection around nuclear facilities could originate from the need to protect these facilities against outside effects. Danger to nuclear facilities can only threaten from a few industries which are of a dangerous nature. In order to keep away these industries there is no need for an area of protection around the nuclear facilities. It would be sufficient to consider in the licensing procedures, according to the trade regulations, that the close proximity of nuclear facilities can present a danger of a special kind, whereby the standards of the nuclear licensing procedures are to be applied. In this context it would be permissible, too, to make bigger demands on the safety requirements than requested by the trade regulations solely. Furthermore, the need to keep away human settlements from the area with nuclear facilities without creating an area of protection can be complied with area planning by interpreting the laws of area planning in such a way that subsequent planning which would increase the risks can be rejected. In any case, poltical clarification of this point seems to be necessary. (orig./LN) [de

  7. Some issues on the Law for the Regulations of Nuclear Source Material, Nuclear Fuel Material and Reactors Amendment after JCO criticality accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Tomoyuki

    2001-01-01

    As the Amendment of the Law for the Regulation of Nuclear Material, Nuclear Fuel Material and Reactors on an opportunity of the JCO criticality accident can be almost evaluated at a viewpoint of upgrading on effectiveness of safety regulation, it is thought to remain a large problem to rely on only enforcement of regulation due to amendment of the Law at future accident. In future, it can be also said to be important subjects to further expand a philosophy on the regulation (material regulation) focussed to hazards of nuclear material itself, not only to secure effectiveness on the multi-complementary safety regulation due to the administrative agency and the Nuclear Safety Commission but also to prepare a mechanism reflexible of a new information to the safety regulation, and to prepare a mechanism to assist adequate business execution and so forth of enterprises. (G.K.)

  8. International School of Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    This is a report about the fourth International School of Nuclear Law (ISNL) held in Montpellier, France, on 23 August to 3 September 2004 by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the University of Montpellier 1 with the support of the International Nuclear Law Association (INLA), the European Commission, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (orig.)

  9. Nuclear laws and radiologic accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frois, Fernanda

    1997-01-01

    Some aspects of the nuclear activities in Brazil, specially concerning the Goiania s accident are demonstrated using concepts from environmental and nuclear law. Nuclear and environmental competence, the impossibility of the states of making regional laws, as the lack of regulation about the nuclear waste, are discussed. The situation of Goiania when the accident happened, the present situation of the victims and the nuclear waste provisionally stored in Abadia de Goias is reported

  10. The maturity of Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Favini, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    The ever-increasing use of atomic energy since 1950 has generated a set of rules called for practical reasons Nuclear Law. This branch of law covers a wide scope of related activities and, specialized studies have apparently foreseen all conceivable hypotheses. The international character of Nuclear Law explains the basic harmony of international legislation. The methods of comparative Law and International Private Law as well as the joint, indepth work of scientists and jurists will bring about steady progress towards legislative unity and prompt solution to conflicts. The expectable revitalization of nuclear-electric programs early in the 21st. century will give rise to a Nuclear juridical community which can already be perceived through the maturity Nuclear Law has reached. (Author) [es

  11. Uranium and nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This seminar focussed on the major issues affecting the future of the entire nuclear fuel cycle. In particular it covered issues bearing on the formation of public policy in relation to the use of uranium as an energy source: economic risk, industrial risks, health effects, site selection, environmental issues, and public acceptance

  12. German nuclear law day 2004 - a conference report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    Topical issues of nuclear law constituted the main subjects discussed at the 2004 German Nuclear Law Day organized in Berlin on November 11 to 12, 2004. The agenda included actual issues potentially arising from the topics final storage of nuclear waste, financing a new site search for a repository, and supervision of nuclear installations. Experts from the administration of justice, the federal and state governments, law offices, universities, and the industry discussed the matters in 14 lectures. (orig.)

  13. Nuclear Law: A Key Against Nuclear Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardozo, P.

    2004-01-01

    The role of the legal instruments in the war against nuclear terrorism. Control of radioactive sources. Elements of Nuclear Law: Definition: it is the body of special legislation that regulates the pacific uses of nuclear energy and the conduct of the persons engaged in activities related to fissionable materials and ionizing radiation . Objective: to provide a legal framework in order to protect individuals , property and the environment against the harmful effects of the use of nuclear energy and ionising radiation. Principles of nuclear energy legislation: safety principle, exclusively operator responsibility, authorization, independence of the regulatory body, inspections and enforcement, nuclear damage compensation, international cooperation. National regulatory infrastructure. Establishment of special law in Emergency Preparedness for nuclear or radiological disaster. IAEA Conventions. Transportation of nuclear material. IAEA regulations on radioactive material. Compensation for nuclear damage. Nuclear safety, security and terrorism. International and domestic instruments. Anti terrorism acts. International agreements on Safety Cooperation. (Author)

  14. General presentation of nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nercy, B. de

    1981-01-01

    This article defines the characteristics and origin of nuclear law, in particular the recent existence of this legal discipline in view of the novelty of atomic energy and the need to take into account radiation protection of workers and the population, the increasing internationalisation of this law, and the importance given to non-proliferation physical protection and to control of nuclear activities. Following an analysis of the main international regulations elaborated in the respective frameworks of Euratom, NEA/OECD and IAEA, the author reviews French legislation in this field and finally, he describes the principal fields of application of nuclear law. (NEA) [fr

  15. Nuclear safety - Topical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The following topical issues related to nuclear safety are discussed: steam generators; maintenance strategies; control rod drive nozzle cracks; core shrouds cracks; sump strainer blockage; fire protection; computer software important for safety; safety during shutdown; operational safety experience; external hazards and other site related issues. 5 figs, 5 tabs

  16. Nuclear law - Year 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringuier, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    This document proposes a synthesis and brief discussions of legal and regulatory texts related to nuclear activities, and of their consequences. Different domains are addressed: institutional aspects, transparency and public information, safety and radiation protection, control and physical protection of nuclear materials, trade and non proliferation, radioactive wastes (definition, management of used fuels and wastes), radiological accident, responsibility and insurance, and nuclear weapons

  17. Nuclear law Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bischof, W.

    1976-01-01

    This publication gives, in Dutch and German, a comprehensive survey of the Netherland's current law in the field of reactor safety and radiation protection, including a survey of international agreements. (orig./HP) [de

  18. International nuclear energy law - present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrie, G.N.

    1988-01-01

    International nuclear energy law, as discussed in this article, is the law relating to the global, peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology. The position of nuclear law in the wide realm of law itself as well as the present status of nuclear legislation is assessed. This article also covers the development of international nuclear energy law, from the first nuclear law - the New Zealand Atomic Energy Act of 1945-, the present and the future. National and international organizations concerned with nuclear energy and their contribribution to nuclear law are reviewed

  19. An area of protection around nuclear facilities - questions at issue in atomic law and law concerning the protection against nuisances. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenfuss, W.

    1973-01-01

    The author takes the view that areas of protection do not only not promote but can impede more than hitherto the development of nuclear energy, a field in which it is vital to keep pace with other countries in the world, also after the decision of the Federal Court of Justice regarding the location of the KWO. The best guarantee for safe operation of a nuclear facility and for the protection of citizens, which would be the guarantee for the development of nuclear energy as well, are the safety precautions in the nuclear facility itself which are generally accepted and finely balanced with regard to their necessity and consequence. (orig./LN) [de

  20. Canada's domestic nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The Interfaith Program for Public Awareness of Nuclear Issues (IPPANI) is a committee of representatives of religious groups in Toronto, a group of people concerned about the moral and ethical implications of the operation of Canada's nuclear industry and of its exports to other countries. The faith groups represented are the Anglican Diocese of Toronto, the Baha'i Community of Canada, the Jewish Community of Toronto, the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Toronto and the United Church of Canada Toronto Conference. Wishing to encourage the Canadian government to enquire into this broad question, the faith groups established IPPANI and assigned to it the task of enhancing their knowledge of the nuclear industry. IPPANI was to develop an effective set of questions to be placed before governments and to promote public discussion so that governments might become more responsive to these issues

  1. Rewriting Germany's nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1992-01-01

    In Germany, the private use of nuclear energy for peaceful uses is strictly regulated by a Nuclear Energy Act. Since its enactment back in 1959, this legislation has been overhauled five times - most recently in 1985. Now Klaus Toepfer, Germany's Federal Minister for the Environment, Protection of Nature, and Nuclear Safety, has set out to revise the Act for the sixth time. The present draft bill is intended to reorganise the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle; eliminate public promotion of nuclear power; clarify points of legal dispute. Of the draft bill's three aims, the last two are more parochial. The real novelty lies in the changes to the rules for the back end of the fuel cycle. First, the Federal Government proposes to abandon the priority given to spent fuel recycling. In future, direct disposal will be an equivalent option, and waste avoidance will have top priority. Intimately linked to the back end proposal is the Government's plan to load on the shoulders of nuclear operators the full responsibility for building and operating repositories for the final disposal of nuclear waste. The third aspect of Government's back end plans concerns decommissioning. At present, operators accumulate provisions over the plant lifetime, which for that purpose is estimated at 19 years. The provisions vary from plant to plant but are generally around DM1 billion and are tax free. Under the proposed regulations, this sum must be available from the first day of operation to cover the case of an early shutdown. In practice, this will increase the initial investment for a nuclear power plant in Germany by 10-20% and so make nuclear power less competitive. (author)

  2. The juridical issues of nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaume, M.; Kerever, A.; Pasquier, J.L.; Brillanceau, F.; Besson, J.P.; Chaumette, L.; Niel, J.C.; Reculeau, Y.; Treflez, M.; Pezennec, D.; Cochaud, J.F.; Phan Van, L.; Cormis, F. de; Galmot, Y.; Saint-Raymond, P.; Blanchard, P.; Robert, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    This issue is dedicated to the juridical aspects of civil nuclear activities. It comprises 3 parts and 16 papers. Radiation protection law is dealt with in part 1: prevention of risks due to ionizing radiations in occupational environment; sources and men; the regulation of radioactive materials transport; the regulation of the rejection of gaseous and liquid radioactive effluents. Part 2 tackles the question of checking the pacific uses of nuclear energy, that is the juridical consequences of the non-proliferation and physical protection policies are reviewed: international efforts that aim to limit the military uses of nuclear energy; the juridical and practical aspects of non-proliferation rules and international controls; the national control of radioactive materials. The juridical framing of nuclear activities, nuclear civil liability and infraction of the law are gathered in part 3: the CIINB and its contribution to the safety of nuclear installations; the mining law; the control of nuclear installations safety; the influence of the realization of the nuclear program on the evolution of the French law; the intervention of the administrative judge in nuclear affairs; the protection of population against nuclear risk - statement of existing provisions and new trends; the special regime of the civil nuclear responsibility - at the time of change; the penal infractions of the nuclear law. (J.S.)

  3. Nuclear Law Bulletin No. 92 - Volume 2013/2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chennoufi, F.; Pelzer, N.; Martirosyan, A.; Cook, H.; Fischer, D.; Clark, S.; Rothschild, T.; Touitou-Durand, F.; Guezou, O.; Manson, S.; Tafili, V.; Bolger, I.; Majerus, P.; Sieczak, K.; Sousa-Ferro, M.; Pospisil, M.; Skraban, A.; Portmann-Bochsler, F.; Shvytai, V.; Puig, D.; Durand, A.; Rivera, S.; Reyners, P.; Ryan-Taix, V.

    2013-01-01

    The Nuclear Law Bulletin is a unique international publication for both professionals and academics in the field of nuclear law. It provides authoritative and comprehensive information on nuclear law developments. Published twice a year in both English and French, it features topical articles written by renowned legal experts, covers nuclear legislative developments worldwide and reports on relevant case law, bilateral and international agreements and regulatory activities of international organisations. The topical articles of this issue deal with: - Uranium mining and production: A legal perspective on regulating an important resource by Lisa Thiele; - Turkish nuclear legislation: Developments for a nuclear newcomer by Erinc Ercan and Horst Schneider; - Nuclear law and environmental law in the licensing of nuclear installations by Christian Raetzke

  4. Private Arbitration of Incidental Public Law Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

     The article discusses the incidental public law issues which can arise in an arbitration case, e.g. concerning power, heating, natural gas and other public facility legislation, national or Community legal restrictive trade practices law, and rules on state administration approval of the terms...... by arbitration, and where the award is nullifiable only if its findings are in violation of public policy, the ordre public. The article relies on UNCITRAL's Model Arbitration Law, the new Danish arbitration act (DAA), national European case law, and literature and case law of the European Court....

  5. Nuclear Law Bulletin No. 96. Volume 2015/2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, M.; Thiele, L.; Touitou-Durand, F.; Pelzer, N.; Tafili, V.; Manually, Y.; Adomaityte, U.; Adamczyk, K.; Nowacki, T.; Chiripus, V.; Pistekova, Z.; Skraban, A.; Knopp Pisi, S.; Hoang, V.; Rothschild, T.; Durand, A.; Rivera, S.R.; Salter, I.

    2015-01-01

    The Nuclear Law Bulletin is a unique international publication for both professionals and academics in the field of nuclear law. It provides readers with authoritative and comprehensive information on nuclear law developments. Published free online twice a year in both English and French, it features topical articles written by renowned legal experts, covers legislative developments worldwide and reports on relevant case law, bilateral and international agreements as well as regulatory activities of international organisations. Feature articles in this issue include 'Treaty implementation applied to conventions on nuclear safety' and 'Crisis, criticism, change: Regulatory reform in the wake of nuclear accidents'. (authors)

  6. Teaching nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is based on the assumption that the nuclear debate, both globally and within Britain, is one of critical importance in the late twentieth century and that it should therefore, at some juncture, be explored as part of the school curriculum. An essential part of 'good education' in a democratic society is to teach young people how to think about such an issue, but not what to think about it. This paper attempts to set out some of the key issues and dilemmas in relation to what we may call 'nuclear education'. It perhaps asks more questions than it gives answers, but they are all essential questions which teachers must ask themselves if they are to teach sensitively about these matters. Some of these questions are given as examples. (author)

  7. Developing nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    Many aspects of nuclear energy pose special problems for the lawmakers because of the unusual materials and processes involved. Much of it calls for international agreements to protect people, to guard against military exploitation of peaceful work, to promote trade in the new industry, to increase collaboration and to encourage new projects. Mr. Werner Boulanger, Director of the IAEA Legal Division, here indicates the part played by the Agency and other international organizations in securing compatibility of legislation. (author)

  8. Environmental law and nuclear law: a growing symbiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ennerechts, S.

    2008-01-01

    This article is divided in two parts. The first part deals with the interrelationship between environmental law and nuclear law. It specifically addresses selective topics which the author considers as substantial proof that environmental law is in evidence in the nuclear field. These topics are access to nuclear information, public participation in nuclear decision-making and prevention and compensation of environmental damage caused by nuclear incidents. Environmental law will be considered in its narrow sense, meaning the law that seeks to protect nature such as soil, water, air and biodiversity. The position of the author is that the importance of environmental law for nuclear activities is increasing and may lead to a growing symbiosis with nuclear law. Environmental law and nuclear law share the same objectives: protection against mitigation of and compensation for damage to the environment. In the second part a specific problem that touches upon the extra-territorial effect of environmental legislation in the nuclear field will be examined. At the beginning of the 21. century, it can be expected that vendors of nuclear facilities will spare no efforts in trying to enter new markets all over the world. Countries with more developed environmental requirements on the construction of nuclear facilities by their national vendors in customer countries. This part of the article will analyse whether public international laws to the construction of nuclear facilities abroad. The author believes that there may well be a legal basis under customary international law justifying the application of national environmental law to the construction of nuclear facilities and the performance of work on nuclear facilities in foreign countries, but there would appear to be none permitting the enforcement of these laws in the absence of an agreement with the foreign country. (N.C.)

  9. Topical problems of nuclear law viewed internationally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bischof, W.

    1978-01-01

    The International Nuclear Law Association, on its 3rd Congress Nuclear Inter Jura from October 2-5, 1977 in Italy, dealt with a number of topical problems of nuclear law, in particular aspects concerning agreements in connection with the construction of nuclear facilities, the influence of nuclear energy on the environment and the public acceptance, third party liability, and nuclear insurance, radiation protection law and international judicial problems. (orig.) [de

  10. Themes in nuclear law; Temas de Derecho Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The nuclear law was analyzed during a workshop. The main aspects were: the law of population to access to information on nuclear energy and the relationship between the Regulator Organism and the nuclear power plants managers.

  11. Nuclear law and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muguet, Tania Mara F.

    2009-01-01

    After the fission of the atom and its use for military purposes, the imposition of controls and restrictions to prevent the proliferation of atomic weapons was established and led to the drafting of a series of international conventions to promote the harmonization of domestic legislation. In this context, to provide a legal framework for conducting activities related to nuclear energy and ionizing radiation, in a manner that adequately protects individuals, property and environment, the nuclear energy law was created and widely adopted. To better control the risks associated with the use of nuclear energy and in order to adapt its technological developments in constant state of evolution, a growing body of international law of nuclear energy is emerging from instruments (universal, regional, bilateral and multilateral) to impose obligation in the use of the technology. In sum, changes in technological, economic, political or social conditions created the need for legal solutions and the public understanding and confidence in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy requires extensive information to be made available on the risks and benefits to stakeholders (effected public, press, media, and legislators etc.). (author)

  12. Nuclear law and public acceptance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muguet, Tania Mara F. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao Geral de Assuntos Internacionais], e-mail: tmuguet@cnen.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    After the fission of the atom and its use for military purposes, the imposition of controls and restrictions to prevent the proliferation of atomic weapons was established and led to the drafting of a series of international conventions to promote the harmonization of domestic legislation. In this context, to provide a legal framework for conducting activities related to nuclear energy and ionizing radiation, in a manner that adequately protects individuals, property and environment, the nuclear energy law was created and widely adopted. To better control the risks associated with the use of nuclear energy and in order to adapt its technological developments in constant state of evolution, a growing body of international law of nuclear energy is emerging from instruments (universal, regional, bilateral and multilateral) to impose obligation in the use of the technology. In sum, changes in technological, economic, political or social conditions created the need for legal solutions and the public understanding and confidence in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy requires extensive information to be made available on the risks and benefits to stakeholders (effected public, press, media, and legislators etc.). (author)

  13. Nuclear economics: Issues and facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear economics has become on the more prominent topics related to nuclear power. Beyond the subjects of nuclear safety and waste disposal, questions and concerns of nuclear power economics have emerged with growing frequency in utility board rooms, in state and federal regulatory proceedings, and in the media. What has caused nuclear power economics to become such a popular topic? This paper addresses issues and facts related to historical nuclear plant costs, new nuclear plant projections, and warning signals for future plants

  14. Nuclear law and law of the sea - a synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courteix, S.

    1976-01-01

    The general idea behind the work of the Paris Colloqium on Nuclear Law and Law of the Sea was that of an agreement and sometimes opposition between two specificities, that of the law of the maritime and, in particular, ocean environment, and that of the law of nuclear techniques. These relationships were studied notably in the perspective of the problems of transport of nuclear materials and their liability insurance, as well as from the viewpoint of the operation of nuclear powered ships. Another problem studied in this context is that of radioactive marine pollution. (N.E.A.) [fr

  15. View points on a not well known law, the nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbousset, Herve; Lahorgue, Marie-Beatrice; Rambour, Muriel; Schellenberger, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    While indicating the relevant French decrees and laws which have been building up what can be called the nuclear law, this article first proposes a discussed overview of the evolution of this law between a decree published in 1963 and the law on energy transition, while noticing what went in the USA in this respect. Based on the example of the project of geological storage of nuclear wastes, the authors outline that this nuclear law is evolving out of standards as it is evolves in order to fit with the project, and not the other way. Therefore democratic anchoring is rather fragile. The author outlines the influence of new threats related to terrorism and their influence on the nuclear law. They also comment the issue of compensation for victims of French nuclear tests in Algeria and in French Polynesia, and notice that hope has been followed by disillusion and questions

  16. Nuclear Law Bulletin No. 95. Volume 2015/1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The Nuclear Law Bulletin is a unique international publication for both professionals and academics in the field of nuclear law. It provides readers with authoritative and comprehensive information on nuclear law developments. Published free online twice a year in both English and French, it features topical articles written by renowned legal experts, covers legislative developments worldwide and reports on relevant case law, bilateral and international agreements as well as regulatory activities of international organisations. Feature articles in this issue include 'Entry into force of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage: Opening the umbrella'; 'Towards a new international framework for nuclear safety: Developments from Fukushima to Vienna'; 'Nuclear arbitration: Interpreting non-proliferation agreements'. Other chapters deal with case laws, legislative and regulatory activities, intergovernmental organisation activities, and documents and legal texts

  17. Nuclear Law Bulletin No. 93, Volume 2014/1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Nuclear Law Bulletin is a unique international publication for both professionals and academics in the field of nuclear law. It provides authoritative and comprehensive information on nuclear law developments. Published free online twice a year in both English and French, it features topical articles written by renowned legal experts, covers legislative developments worldwide and reports on relevant case law, bilateral and international agreements as well as regulatory activities of international organisations. Feature articles in this issue include: 'Progress towards a global nuclear liability regime'; 'The Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage and participation by developing countries: A South African perspective'; 'Fusion energy and nuclear liability considerations'; and 'Nuclear energy and Indian society: Public engagement, risk assessment and legal frameworks'

  18. Nuclear Law Bulletin No. 94, Volume 2014/2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Nuclear Law Bulletin is a unique international publication for both professionals and academics in the field of nuclear law. It provides subscribers with authoritative and comprehensive information on nuclear law developments. Published free online twice a year in both English and French, it features topical articles written by renowned legal experts, covers legislative developments worldwide and reports on relevant case law, bilateral and international agreements as well as regulatory activities of international organisations. Feature articles in this issue include 'Facilitating the entry into force and implementation of the Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material: Observations, challenges and benefits'; 'The legal status of nuclear power in Germany'; 'Challenges facing the insurance industry since the modernisation of the international nuclear third party liability regime'; 'Draft Federal Act of the Russian Federation, 'The Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and its Financial Security''. (authors)

  19. Nuclear Law Bulletin No. 99. Volume 2017/1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, Stephen G.; Lamm, Vanda; Pelzer, Norbert; Popov, A.; ); Chirtes, A.P.; ); Raetzke, C.; Chennoufi, F.; Beyens, M.; Vandeputte, G.; Saric, J.; Touitou-Durand, F.; Pelzer, N.; Adomaityte, U.; Pavlovic, P.; Skraban, A.; Carroll, S.; Averbach, A.; Brown, O.; Irving, I.; Joyner, D.

    2017-01-01

    The Nuclear Law Bulletin is a unique international publication for both professionals and academics in the field of nuclear law. It provides readers with authoritative and comprehensive information on nuclear law developments. Published free online twice a year in both English and French, it features topical articles written by renowned legal experts, covers legislative developments worldwide and reports on relevant case law, bilateral and international agreements as well as regulatory activities of international organisations. Feature articles in this issue include: 'Reformed and reforming: Adapting the licensing process to meet new challenges'; 'Reflections on the development of international nuclear law'; and 'Facing the challenge of nuclear mass tort processing'

  20. Nuclear Law Bulletin No. 97. Volume 2016/1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, D.; Saric, J.; Touitou-Durand, F.; Mannully, Y.; Parle, M.; Adomaityte, U.; Majerus, P.; Adamczyk, K.; Nowacki, T.; Pavlovic, P.; Dovale Hernandez, I.; Ammon, B.; Popov, A.; Drillat, C.; Reynaers Kini, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Nuclear Law Bulletin is a unique international publication for both professionals and academics in the field of nuclear law. It provides readers with authoritative and comprehensive information on nuclear law developments. Published free online twice a year in both English and French, it features topical articles written by renowned legal experts, covers legislative developments worldwide and reports on relevant case law, bilateral and international agreements as well as regulatory activities of international organisations. Feature articles in this issue include 'Nuclear third party liability in Germany' and 'Towards nuclear disarmament: State of affairs in the international legal framework'. Other chapters deal with case laws, legislative and regulatory activities, intergovernmental organisation activities, and documents and legal texts

  1. Discussion on nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrlova, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of the radioactive waste and utilisation of the ionisation radiation. Interesting contributions to two topics appeared in conference of Slovak Nuclear Society in Casta-Papiernicka in May 2012. The members from the female section 'Women in nuclear sector; were discussing in particular of the mind-set of Europeans to radioactive waste and novelties in nuclear medicine. (author)

  2. Evolution of the nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virot, L.

    2000-01-01

    The jurist has to tackle the nuclear domain with modesty because this domain largely exceeds the boundaries of law. The nuclear energy has been successively the domain of the scientists, through its contribution to the development of the civilization, and then of the army and of the industry for which the nuclear energy is a symbol of power. The jurist has to translate these contradictory feelings and from this point of view, the international texts are significant: the fear of the applications follows the enthusiasm of the intentions. The jurist has a huge field of research at his disposition and assists in a relatively brief delay to the invention of a legal system. Moreover, the jurist has to question himself about his role: is it limited to the elaboration of the reactions imposed by the catastrophe? Will the scientific revolution of the nuclear domain lead to a revolution of the legal approach? And is the jurist capable of giving some answers to expectations and contestation? (J.S.)

  3. Legislative duty of care in the context of the energy turnaround. Constitutional issues of the 13th amendment to the Nuclear Energy Law; Gesetzgeberische Sorgfaltspflichten bei der Energiewende. Verfassungsfragen der 13. AtG-Novelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degenhart, Christoph

    2013-11-01

    The present publication shows how the Thirteenth Law Amending the Nuclear Energy Law, whose enactment on 31 July 2011 (Federal Law Gazette I p. 1704), during the aftermath of the events of Fukushima, by accelerating the phaseout of nuclear energy, has given rise to a number of constitutional issues in regard to the manner in which it came about as well as to its content. The law is founded essentially on an observation made by the Ethics Commission called in by the Federal Chancellor that not the risk itself had changed but rather its perception. The present study, which is based on a legal opinion commissioned by E.ON AG, investigates whether this observation can legitimately serve as the foundation of such a momentous legislative decision and whether the legislature, in establishing the relevant facts of the case, acted within the bounds of its lawful capacity to make assessments and forecasts and hence in accord with its constitutional duties. It is dedicated to exploring whether the legislature made proper use of its discretionary powers, whether the law, with all its follow-on effects, does justice to the proportionality principle, and whether due consideration was given in its enactment to the constitutional requirement to weigh the arguments of a case against each other.

  4. Law for nuclear experts only

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, H [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.)

    1980-02-01

    The Federal Ministry of the Interior is preparing an ordinance on expert consultants under the Atomic Energy Act which, among other topics, is to include legal norms for the criteria to be met by experts in terms of non-partisanship, training, capabilities, technical equipment and cooperation in expert organizations of members of various scientific and technical disciplines. A summary of general criteria relating to the qualification, selection and status of experts called in by the legislative and executive branches and by courts of law, which could be organized as a series of guidelines without any original qualities of legal norms, could be recommended in view of the increasing quantitative and qualitative importance of experts. However, passing an ordinance merely fixing and putting into concrete terms the image of an 'expert under the Atomic Energy Act' is intolerable, because the status of scientific and technical experts by far extends beyond the field of nuclear law in our industrial society characterized by a far reaching division of labor. Weak points in the organization of expert services are not confined to technology or nuclear power. Separate rules establishing legal norms are not convincing also for reasons of technology policy and legal policy as well as for those of social psychology and practice.

  5. Law no. 111/1996 on the safe deployment of nuclear activities - A law central to the Romanian nuclear law system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiripus, Vlad-Ionut

    2004-01-01

    Law no. 111/1996 on the safe deployment of nuclear activities was published in its original form in the Official Gazette of Romania, Part no. 267 of 29th October 1996. The complexity of this law prevents from performing a comprehensive analysis of the legal provisions thereof for which reason the author shall review only those aspects he consider to be relevant to the issues dealt with by this law. Furthermore, as the author intends his undertaking to be a comparative analysis of Law no. 111/1996 in its successive stages - from its issue till the present - he uses mostly the present tense even though the law has been amended and in some respects the changes are quite significant. The presentation contains the following three sections: 1. Passing of Law no. 111/1996 on the safe deployment of nuclear activities - a turning point in the development of the Romanian nuclear law; 2. The successive modifications of Law no. 111/1996 on safe deployment of nuclear activities; 3. Law no. 193/2003 for the modification and completion of Law no. 111/1996 on the safe deployment of nuclear activities - a key moment in the modernization of Romanian nuclear law and harmonization with the relevant international requirement. In conclusion, the issue of Law no. 111/1996 on safe deployment of nuclear activities represents a turning point in the development of Romanian nuclear law. From this moment on one may regard it as a modern area of the Romanian law, European in spirit. The pre-existent legal framework - namely the Law no. 61/1974 on the deployment of activities in the Romanian nuclear field - was no longer up to the existing standards and its replacement by a new, modern law, fully harmonized with the European and NATO accession requirements was a must. Such a new, European law was to fully guarantee the safe deployment of nuclear activities for exclusively peaceful purposes, so that the requirements regarding the nuclear safety, protection of professionally exposed personnel

  6. Understanding the nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mooradian, A.J.

    1976-06-01

    Nuclear power is presented as a necessary power source for the transition from fossil fuels to a no-growth society of the future. It is already economic and on-stream all over the world. Radiation is a very tractable hazard. New fuel cycles would provide extraordinary increases in our nuclear fuel reserves. (E.C.B.)

  7. Nuclear issues in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Switkowski, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: After a twenty year pause in discussion of nuclear power in Australia, the public debate has resumed in this past year - partly in search for clean, non fossil fuel energy alternatives, and partly from the different political strategies in the lead up to this year's federal election. Although there is evidence of a revival of interest in the nuclear power globally, countries considering installing their first nuclear reactor confront formidable obstacles including community concerns and long lead times. This presentation will describe the Climate Change context which shapes political and corporate strategies, possible nuclear scenarios for Australia, solutions to the still long list of reservations, and likely milestones ahead. It concludes that if we are to decarbonise our economy, and continue on a path of improving standards of living and prosperity, then any strategy for adding the required base-load electricity generation capacity must consider nuclear power for Australia

  8. The law concerning liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinouchi, Kazuo

    1978-01-01

    This treatise outlines the Law on Compensation for Nuclear Damage (Law No. 147, June 17, 1961) and the Law on Indemnity Agreement for Compensation of Nuclear Damage (Law, No. 148, June 17, 1961) which are both came into effect in March, 1962, and describes how these laws will be executed if an accident occurs actually in nuclear facilities. The first law which prescribes various provisions for compensation of nuclear damage is characterised as having the principle of no-fault liability and hence making a nuclear enterpriser responsible for securing adequate financial resources to indemnify general public for their damages from nuclear accidents. Thus, in compliance with the law a nuclear enterpriser should effect both the contract of the indemnity responsible insurance and the indemnity agreement for compensation of nuclear damage. The second law deals with the indemnity agreement which is concluded by a nuclear enterpriser with the government and constitutes a full measure for compensation of nuclear damage supplementing the indemnity responsible insurance. The indemnity agreement is to insure compensation liabilities for nuclear damages which the indemnity responsible insurance can not cover-that is, damages caused by earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, and also damages from normal operations of nuclear facilities and those occurs after 10 years of an accident. Then, the author describes in detail how these laws apply in a nuclear accident to damages to third parties and those to facilities of related nuclear enterpriser himself and to his employees. Finally, the author refers to the legal systems for compensation of nuclear damage in the United States, Britain, France and West Germany. (Matsushima, A.)

  9. Nuclear reactors safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, Francois; Seiler, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Since the seventies, economic incentives have led the utilities to drive a permanent evolution of the light water reactor (LWR). The evolution deals with the reactor designs as well as the way to operate them in a more flexible manner. It is for instance related to the fuel technologies and management. On the one hand, the technologies are in continuous evolution, such as the fuel pellets (MOX, Gd fuel, or Cr doped fuels..) as well as advanced cladding materials (M5 TM , MDA or ZIRLO). On the other hand, the fuel management is also subject to continuous evolution in particular in terms of increasing the level of burn-up, the reactor (core) power, the enrichment, as well as the duration of reactor cycles. For instance, in a few years in France, the burn-up has raised beyond the value of 39 GWj/t, initially authorized up to 52 GWj/t for the UO 2 fuel. In the near future, utilities foreseen to reach fuel burn-up of 60 GWj/t for MOX fuel and 70 GWj/t for UO 2 fuel. Furthermore, the future reactor of fourth generation will use new fuels of advanced conception. Furthermore with the objective of improving the safety margins, methods and calculation tools used by the utilities in the elaboration of their safety demonstrations submitted to the Safety Authority, are in movement. The margin evaluation methodologies often consist of a calculation chain of best-estimate multi-field simulations (e.g. various codes being coupled to simulate in a realistic way the evolution of the thermohydraulic, neutronic and mechanic state of the reactor). The statistical methods are more and more sophisticated and the computer codes are integrating ever-complex physical models (e.g. three-dimensional at fine scale). Following this evolution, the Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), whose one of the roles is to examine the safety records and to rend a technical expertise, considers the necessity of reevaluating the safety issues for advanced

  10. Nuclear Law Bulletin No. 98. Volume 2016/2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetherall, Anthony C.; Soedersten, Anna; Berger, Marjorie; Paez, M.R.; Touitou-Durand, F.; Pelzer, N.; Adomaityte, U.; Majerus, P.; Nowacki, T.; Pospisil, M.; Skraban, A.; Noelliste, N.E.; Popov, A.; Drillat, C.; Reynaers Kini, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Nuclear Law Bulletin is a unique international publication for both professionals and academics in the field of nuclear law. It provides readers with authoritative and comprehensive information on nuclear law developments. Published free online twice a year in both English and French, it features topical articles written by renowned legal experts, covers legislative developments worldwide and reports on relevant case law, bilateral and international agreements as well as regulatory activities of international organisations. Feature articles in this issue include 'Strengthening the international legal framework for nuclear security: Better sooner rather than later'; 'Brexit, Euratom and nuclear proliferation'; and 'McMunn et al. v Babcock and Wilcox Power Generation Group, Inc., et al.: The long road to dismissal'

  11. The growing interrelationship between nuclear law and environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdon, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    With the recent United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP21) in Paris, a great deal of attention is being given to low-carbon energy technologies and policies that could help the world limit the global temperature increase to 2 deg. Celsius. Among these technologies, nuclear energy, which remains the largest source of low-carbon electricity in OECD countries and the second largest source of electricity at the global level after hydropower, can play a key role. The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi accident heightened public concern over the safety of nuclear energy in many countries. Because of the potentially far-reaching consequences of the use of nuclear energy on the environment in the case of an accident, it is commonly thought that nuclear law and environmental law are not entirely compatible or do not necessarily share the same objectives. Nuclear law may be defined as 'the body of special legal norms created to regulate the conduct of legal or natural persons engaged in activities related to fissionable materials, ionizing radiation and exposure to natural sources of radiation', while environmental law can be defined as 'the body of law that contains elements to control the human impact on the Earth and on public health'. These two areas of law were considered independently in the past, since the initial focus of nuclear law, which was developed before environmental law, was to protect people and property, without explicitly referring to the environment. However, the 1986 Chernobyl accident and increasing environmental concerns during that same decade led to a growing emphasis on environmental protection in the field of nuclear activities. On the one hand, nuclear law, as 'lex specialis', aims to ensure that nuclear activities are carried out in a manner that is safe for both the public and the environment. On the other hand, the expansion of the realm of environmental law has given rise to the application of environmentally focused

  12. Nuclear waste issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryhanen, V.

    2000-01-01

    A prerequisite for future use of nuclear energy in electricity production is safe management of the radioactive wastes generated by nuclear power industry. A number of facilities have been constructed for different stages of nuclear waste management around the world, for example for conditioning of different kind of process wastes and for intermediate storage of spent nuclear fuel. Difficulties have often been encountered particularly when trying to advance plans for final stage of waste management, which is permanent disposal in stable geological formations. The main problems have not been technical, but poor public acceptance and lack of necessary political decisions have delayed the progress in many countries. However, final disposal facilities are already in operation for low- and medium-level nuclear wastes. The most challenging task is the development of final disposal solutions for long-lived high-level wastes (spent fuel or high-level reprocessing waste). The implementation of deep geological repositories for these wastes requires persistent programmes for technology development, siting and safety assessments, as well as for building public confidence in long-term safety of the planned repositories. Now, a few countries are proceeding towards siting of these facilities, and the first high-level waste repositories are expected to be commissioned in the years 2010 - 2020. (author)

  13. Law, science and technology. The nuclear option, ethics and law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Technological innovations in the field of nuclear energy, as well as the diversity of applications using ionizing radiations contribute to the necessity of implementation of legislation and laws. This conference will give some ideas on political, ethical and legal aspects as far as nuclear energy development is concerned. Separate abstract were prepared for all the papers in this volume. (TEC)

  14. Civil liability for nuclear damage law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    This Law has as its main objective to regulate civic responsability on damages or injuries that may be brought about by the usage of nuclear reactors and the use of nuclear substances or fuels and their consecuent wastes. The text of this law is consituted by 5 chapters that deal with the following subjects: CHAPTER ONE.- Objective and Definitions. CHAPTER TWO.-On Civic Responsability on Nuclear Damages or Injuries. CHAPTER THREE.- On the Limits of Responsability. CHAPTER FOUR.- On Prescription. CHAPTER FIVE.- General Regulations Concepts such as the following are defined concretely and precisely: Nuclear Accident, Nuclear Damage or Injury, Atomic Energy, Operator of a Nuclear Facility, Nuclear Facility, Radioactive Product or Waste Material, Nuclear Reactor, Nuclear Substances Remittance and Hazardous Nuclear Substance

  15. The role of nuclear law in nuclear safety after Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardozo, Diva E. Puig

    2013-01-01

    The paper contains the following topics: nuclear law, origin and evolution, role of the legal instruments on nuclear safety, nuclear safety the impact of major nuclear accidents: Chernobyl and Fukushima. The response of the nuclear law post Fukushima. Safety and security. International framework for nuclear safety: nuclear convention joint convention on safety on spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. The Fukushima World Conference on Nuclear Safety. Convention on Prompt Notification and Assistance in case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. Plan of Action for Nuclear Safety. IAEA recommendations for the safety transport of radioactive material. International framework for nuclear security. Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials. International Convention for the Suppression of Acts Against Nuclear Terrorism. Resolution No. 1540 of the Security Council of United Nations (2004). Measures to strengthen international safety. Code of conduct on the safety research reactor

  16. Nuclear Law Bulletin : Index Nbs. 1 to 55

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    In this book are given the laws concerning the following subjects : the field of application of the Nuclear Conventions, international conventions relating to radioactive marine pollution, international co-operation in the field of radioactive transfrontier pollution, compensation for nuclear damage in OECD Member Countries, spent fuel and radioactive waste management issues, the regulation of food irradiation, the accident at Chernobyl-economic damage and its compensation in Western Europe, development and harmonization of intervention levels in case of a nuclear accident, three negotiations concerning nuclear law, potential liability of contractors working on nuclear safety improvement projects in Central and Eastern Europe, overview of nuclear legislation in Central and Eastern Europe countries, problems raised by the application of the Nuclear Third Party Liability Conventions to radioactive waste repositories. (O.L.)

  17. The nuclear energy: law and fear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezghani, A.

    1996-01-01

    This document mentions the feeling of fear which goes along the idea of nuclear energy, as well as ethics and law. Technological aspects, political choices and financial matters are responsible for the nuclear energy development. Then it is shown that the consequences of this development is the continuous feeling of fear and risk which goes with every nuclear activities. (TEC)

  18. Nuclear fusion: The issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    The taming of fusion energy, has proved one of the most elusive quests of modern science. For four decades, the United States has doggedly pursued energy's holy grail, pumping more than $9 billion into research and reactor prototypes. This year, the federal government is slated to spend $339 million on fusion, more than the combined amount the government will spend for research on oil, natural gas, solar power, wind power, geothermal energy, biofuels and conservation. This article summarizes the technical, political in terms of international cooperation, economic, planning, etc. issues surrounding the continued development of fusion as a possible power source for the next century. Brief descriptions of how fusion works and of the design of a tokamak fusion machine are included

  19. Nuclear law: organization and responsibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Vinh Phuong.

    1986-01-01

    The paper emphasizes the importance of a special legislation insuring the governmental control of nuclear applications and other related activities. This legislation must establish the authority in charge for the development of peaceful applications of nuclear energy and the specialized body legally competent to insure an independent control of nuclear activities, it must define the principles and the conditions for licensing nuclear activities insuring the physical protection of nuclear materials and installations and must establish the specific rules for nuclear liability in the case of a nuclear accident. A list of IAEA publications related to the safety of nuclear power plants is included

  20. The contradictions in nuclear trade law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    1988-01-01

    International law applicable to trade in nuclear materials, equipment and technology still lacks homogeneity and its implementation gives rise to some controversy. This is explained by the fact that this law, whose pivot is the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, reflects several contradictions: the need to restrict communication of sensitive information and the will to encourage international cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy; acknowledgement of the differences in the status of the countries concerned and the principle of non-discrimination established by the Treaty; a selective policy for imports and the aim to achieve free access to nuclear technology. (NEA) [fr

  1. Nuclear law and new legal concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atias, Ch.; Warusfel, B.; Byk, Ch.

    2003-01-01

    The articles on this topic have been written from three of the papers of the Conference organized on January 14, in Paris by the 'Law and Insurance' Section of the French Nuclear Energy Society together with the French Section of the International Nuclear Law Association. The first two articles deal with transparency, its justifications and limits. The third article analyses the rights of the future generations and our duties towards them. (authors)

  2. Legal Analysis of EPC Contract of the Nuclear Reactor in the aspect of Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. S.; Chung, W. S.; Yun, S. W.; Yang, M. H.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, Korea Nuclear Industry and R and D Institute obtained order of Nuclear Reactor construction from the UAE and the Jordan. Though the UAE's nuclear power plant and the Jordan's Research Reactor were different each other legal issues raised in EPC contract between employer and contractor had very close characters and similar suggestions. New nuclear country have not established all necessary entities regarding regulation and control and enacted laws yet. However, nuclear technology shall be transferred to the country that is ready to or have equipped all mandatory safeguard and safety. From the reality, nuclear specific issues such as the Nuclear Indemnity, Ownership of Intellectual property, Training program for operating technicians, and nuclear licensing are emerging in the EPC contract and finding consensus to the issues between both parties were time consuming work. Our studies will analysis the issues and try to find impartial guideline

  3. The issue of surrogacy in Czech law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lojková, Jana

    2012-03-01

    Surrogacy is thought to be one of the most controversial methods of assisted reproduction. It involves cases where a commissioning couple asks a surrogate mother to give birth to a child that will be conceived from their egg and sperm because the woman from the commissioning couple is not able to bear the child to full term herself. They conclude an agreement where the surrogate mother binds herself to terminate all her parental rights to the child immediately after the child's birth and to delegate them together with the child to the commissioning couple. Ethical dilemmas concerning the issue of surrogacy together with all the possibilities of today's globalised world that enable infertile couples to find surrogate mothers abroad in case the legal regulations of their country put a ban on it create a space for a legislator to try to find a solution that will avoid all the risks and highlight a number of positives on the other hand. A Czech legislator is currently trying to find this solution and even though there are few children demonstrably born to surrogate mothers in the Czech Republic, the whole process of surrogacy still proceeds in a legal vacuum at the moment. We can only find the legal definition of a mother of a child as a woman that gives him or her birth and a provision of law that makes all the legal acts that evade the law void. Some practical consequences of this situation will be described in the text together with possibilities and the inspiration that comes from foreign legal regulations and cases.

  4. The Newcomb-Benford law and nuclear half-lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.; Gyuerky, Gy.

    2010-01-01

    Compete text of publication follows. The satisfaction of the Newcomb-Benford law (a.k.a. Benford's first digit law) is a long standing issue in science, and has interesting mathematical and philosophical consequences. It was identified by Newcomb in 1881 and reinvented later by Benford in 1938. The law states that the distribution of the first digit of numbers taken from various sources like magazines, scientific publications, wealth statistics, etc. . . follows the law P d = lg (1 + 1/d) (d = 1, 2, ..., 9), where d is the given digit. It was reported recently that the satisfaction of the law was observed in nuclear decay half-life datasets. Based on this fact, it was implied that the law is helpful as a test for nuclear decay models, as well as it can be used to search for new physical phenomena (like self organized criticality) which can be responsible for the satisfaction of the law. The mathematical conundrum of the Newcomb-Benford law has been solved in 2008 for numbers coming from a data set with a given distribution. The 'Benford compliance theorem' uses the Fourier transform of the probability distribution function of the numbers to identify the characteristics of the distribution responsible for the satisfaction of the law. In our work we confirmed that the halflives of radioactive nuclei satisfy the law by using two standard techniques: direct plotting and the 'ones scaling test' method. We also showed that the distribution of the half-life values closely resembles a log-normal distribution stretching through about 54 orders of magnitude. By using the Fourier transform of the distribution function we showed that the numbers with such a distribution automatically satisfy the Newcomb-Benford law, due to the compliance theorem. Thus we concluded that the satisfaction of the law provides no additional clue on whether a nuclear model is valid or not, given it produces a similar distribution of halflives as observed.

  5. Nuclear forensics in law enforcement applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, P.M.; Moody, K.J.; Hutcheon, I.D.; Phinney, D.L.; Whipple, R.E.; Haas, J.S.; Alcaraz, A.; Andrews, J.E.; Klunder, G.L.; Russo, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Over the past several years, the Livermore Forensic Science Center has conducted analyses of nuclear-related samples in conjunction with domestic and international criminal investigations. Law enforcement officials have sought conventional and nuclear-forensic analyses of questioned specimens that have typically consisted of miscellaneous metal species or actinide salts. The investigated activities have included nuclear smuggling and the proliferation of alleged fissionable materials, nonradioactive hoaxes such as 'Red Mercury', and the interdiction of illegal laboratories engaged in methamphetamine synthesis. (author)

  6. Special issue: the nuclear industry in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    This special issue contains papers on the following topics: French nuclear policy; nuclear energy development in Europe; nuclear diversification; Alsthom-Atlantique in the nuclear field; 1981 nuclear electricity generation; EDF siting policy; the N4 model of the 1300 MW series; Creys-Malville; the nuclear industry in Europe; pumps in the nuclear industry [fr

  7. New Tool to Draft National Nuclear Laws. Second Nuclear Law Handbook Available Online

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Drafting new national nuclear laws and reviewing existing laws and regulations requires extensive and specialized expertise. For many countries this represents a significant challenge. The IAEA's legislative assistance programme was established to help Member States adopt adequate national nuclear legislation. In 2003, the legistlative assistance programme published the Handbook on Nuclear Law. The reference text provides a fundamental understanding of the key elements and principles of national nuclear legislation. The Handbook is widely utilized by Member States, industry and experts. A second volume of the Handbook was released during the IAEA's 54th General Conference, which convened in Vienna from 20 to 24 September 2010.

  8. Women and the nuclear issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locke, David

    1989-01-01

    From the opinion surveys it was concluded that women do have different attitudes towards nuclear power compared to men. Women are more likely to be suspicious of nuclear power, mention the problem areas and less likely to mention benefits. The reasons for this are not difficult to understand, with, for example, the media highlighting the dangers of nuclear power, in particular the hazards of radiation as it affects people, especially children. The majority of women associate nuclear power with weapons and radiation, though specific fears about cancer including leukaemia are not as strong as might be expected. The major issue is still the disposal of waste, though for a time after Chernobyl the major nuclear accident superseded this. Women tend to be more confused by the wide range of issues presented to them and the contradictory attitudes. In our experience about twice as many women as men admit to being a d on't know . Women are more concerned with people and the environment than men. Men are more inclined to be brought up from an early age to be machine minded and they tend as a result to be more sympathetic towards the use of technology in society. It is not necessarily true that women are more 'anti-nuclear' although this does come out in many opinion polls. I think that women react to the leading question as to whether they are 'in favour' or 'not' of nuclear power by responding negatively because of their confusion. We have asked similar questions in our own opinion surveys but have given the opportunity for the respondent to declare a positive attitude towards nuclear power 'with reservations'. If they are allowed to express their reservations they often come to the conclusion in an intuitive way that nuclear power will be needed in the next century to provide energy for their children when the oil and gas run out and the coal is used to substitute for the hydrocarbons. A 'necessary evil' as one person put it. In the main our recommendation is that although

  9. Women and the nuclear issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locke, David [UKAEA (United Kingdom)

    1989-07-01

    From the opinion surveys it was concluded that women do have different attitudes towards nuclear power compared to men. Women are more likely to be suspicious of nuclear power, mention the problem areas and less likely to mention benefits. The reasons for this are not difficult to understand, with, for example, the media highlighting the dangers of nuclear power, in particular the hazards of radiation as it affects people, especially children. The majority of women associate nuclear power with weapons and radiation, though specific fears about cancer including leukaemia are not as strong as might be expected. The major issue is still the disposal of waste, though for a time after Chernobyl the major nuclear accident superseded this. Women tend to be more confused by the wide range of issues presented to them and the contradictory attitudes. In our experience about twice as many women as men admit to being a ''don't know''. Women are more concerned with people and the environment than men. Men are more inclined to be brought up from an early age to be machine minded and they tend as a result to be more sympathetic towards the use of technology in society. It is not necessarily true that women are more 'anti-nuclear' although this does come out in many opinion polls. I think that women react to the leading question as to whether they are 'in favour' or 'not' of nuclear power by responding negatively because of their confusion. We have asked similar questions in our own opinion surveys but have given the opportunity for the respondent to declare a positive attitude towards nuclear power 'with reservations'. If they are allowed to express their reservations they often come to the conclusion in an intuitive way that nuclear power will be needed in the next century to provide energy for their children when the oil and gas run out and the coal is used to substitute for the hydrocarbons. A 'necessary evil' as one person put it. In the main our recommendation is that

  10. The law concerning indemnification of nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This Law aims at determining the basic system concerning indemnification for nuclear damage caused by the operation of reactors, fabrication, reprocessing and use of nuclear fuel materials as well as the transportation, storing or disposal of such materials or those contaminated by such materials (including fission products) accompanying these operations in view of protecting the sufferers and contributing to the wholesome development of atomic energy enterprises. The ''nuclear damage'' referred to in this Law is the damages caused by the action during the process of fission of nuclear fuel materials or the action of radiation or the poisonous action of said nuclear fuel materials or matters contaminated by said materials (those causing poisoning or deuteropathy in human bodies by taking in or inhaling such materials). Upon giving nuclear damage by the operation of reactors and others, the atomic energy entrepreneurs concerned are responsible for indemnifying the damage. Atomic energy entrepreneurs should not operate reactors without first taking the measures for indemnifying nuclear damages. Said measures are conclusion of nuclear damage indemnification responsibility insurance contract and nuclear damage indemnification contract or deposit, by which 6,000 million yen may be earmarked for such indemnification per factory, place of business or nuclear ship

  11. A nuclear law in development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudahrain, A.

    1991-01-01

    In this work the author demonstrates that the nuclear option for increasing the maghrebian capacities for electrical power production can not be conceived, from the ethic and humane point of view, for only one maghrebian country because of both external and internal constraints and difficulties which mortgage the future of destitute population and future generations. It is essential to lead intensive studies in this field by maghrebian research workers not accepting blindly foreign preconceptions. However, as a prelimenary, it is advisable to wonder about the ethical value of nuclear option, avoiding the multiform domination misdeeds (e.g. cultural and strategic) that such a choice involves for the maghrebis. 184 refs. (author)

  12. Nuclear Law Bulletin Index Nos. 1 to 99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This new edition of the Nuclear Law Bulletin Index covers the first 99 issues of the Nuclear Law Bulletin (NLB). By established practice, the plan of the Index is not a replica of the Bulletin, as it was considered more useful for research purposes to group together all the information concerning legislative and regulatory activities, case law and bilateral agreements and to classify this information by country. Following classification by country, references to the work of international organisations, multilateral agreements, studies and articles are set out in separate sections. The 'Bibliography and News Briefs' section is omitted from the Index. A separate chapter of the Index has been devoted to the listing of the instruments published in the Supplements to the Bulletin, or in the Chapter 'Texts' from past Bulletins, up until the present date. Each item in the Index is followed by a reference to the relevant Bulletin. Legislative and regulatory texts, as well as agreements reproduced in the Bulletins or their Supplements, are also referenced. Plan of index: 1 - Reports and commentary 1a - Classification by country Legislative and regulatory activities (Environmental protection, Food irradiation, General legislation, regulations and instruments, International co-operation, Liability and compensation, Licensing and regulatory infrastructure, Nuclear installations, Nuclear safety and radiological protection - including nuclear emergency planning, Nuclear security, Nuclear trade - including non-proliferation, Nuclear-powered ships, Organisation and structure, Radioactive materials - including physical protection, Radioactive waste management, Transport of radioactive materials); Case law; Administrative decisions; Agreements; 1b - International organisations; 1c - Multilateral agreements; 2 - Studies and articles; 3 - Texts reproduced in the nuclear law bulletin; 3a - Classification by country; 3b - International organisations; 3c

  13. Competition Law and the Nuclear Sector: An EU Outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa Ferro, M.

    2010-01-01

    Competition law essentially aims at preventing harmful distortions of competition in the market which may be caused by agreements between companies, by the abusive behaviour of dominant companies, by structural changes in the market due to mergers or by state aid.1 However, often such practices and measures are actually necessary to render certain services viable, to obtain new or better products, to pursue other policies for the greater benefit of the collective, etc. Occasionally, this raises interesting issues in the nuclear sector. This paper aims to provide European competition law practitioners with a summary of the leading legal issues and precedents in this domain, alerting them to relevant specifics. It also aims to introduce nuclear lawyers to the reality and potential of antitrust enforcement in this sector. For the purposes of this paper, the 'nuclear sector' shall be broadly defined so as to include any activity which, given its link to nuclear energy or to ionizing radiation, is (at least partially) subject to special regulation under nuclear law. While many nuclear-related activities will not, in principle, require a special analysis beyond the usual parameters of competition law enforcement, others present distinct challenges to practitioners. Some of these challenges are specific to the European legal order and justify the restriction of the scope of this analysis to the European Union. That being said, the extensive harmonization of the national competition law of member states, as well as the fact that national competition authorities are required to enforce EU competition law, makes it advisable to look simultaneously at European-wide and national antitrust enforcement. The relationship between EU competition law and the nuclear sector remains somewhat shrouded in mystery - perhaps excessively so. The issue has been tackled to some extent in general works on competition law and energy law. As one would expect, research developed in the framework

  14. Nuclear technology and the export control laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munroe, J.L.; Pankratz, M.C.; Hogsett, V.H.; Lundy, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    Three basic US laws regulate the export of commodities, services, and technical data. People working in nuclear fields need to know of these laws and their impact on professional endeavors. Export of technical data means the communication of any information by oral, written, or any other means to foreign nationals within or outside the US. The medium for the communication may be a model, blueprint, sketch, or any other device that can convey information. If the data relates to items on one of the control lists, a license must be sought from the appropriated federal agency. The Militarily Critical Technologies List (MCTL), though not itself a control list, plays a major role in determining what technical data will require a validated license. The US Department of Energy (DOE), through Technical Working Gorup (TWG) 11, is responsible for the Nuclear Technology chapter of the MCTL. TWG 11 also prepares the Nuclear Technology Reference Book (NTRB), a classified guide to sensitive nuclear technology

  15. Nuclear Law Bulletin: Index + supplement no.56

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    This book deals with the status of legislation governing the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in Central and Eastern European Countries. Readers are informed about regulatory and institutional developments in these countries. The Supplement to this Bulletin reproduces the Ukraine fundamental nuclear law of the 8 february 1995 on the use of nuclear energy and radiation safety. It shall establish the priority of human and environmental safety and the rights and responsibilities of citizens with regard to the use of nuclear energy, it shall regulate activities connected with the use of nuclear installations and ionizing radiation sources, and, as well, establish the legal basis for Ukraine's international commitments with respect to the use of nuclear energy. (authors). 71 refs

  16. Liability and damages in Japanese nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, E.

    1981-01-01

    The Japanese legislation relating to nuclear liability is based on two laws which date back to 1961, i.e. the law concerning compensation for nuclear damage and the law concerning financial damage compensation indemnification. In Japan, the legal channelling of liability is in force, a contractual recourse is not possible unless there is intent. The financial security act in Japan consists of a (third-party) liability insurance contract concluded with a private insurer and the cover contract concluded with the state. According to the agreement on financial security concluded between government and operator, the operator has to pay the state a certain sum per year. Basically, the amount covered is DM 50 million per site. This sum will be increased to DM 90 million. The operator is fully liable. The state is not bound by law to fully cover damages but will be - de facto - prepared to do so anyway. For potential damage to personnel, the social insurance law is applicable as it is in the Federal Republic of Germany. However, this damage is intended to be subject to nuclear liability, to be effected by an amendmend. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Nuclear law and environmental law in the licensing of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raetzke, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Large nuclear installations can have a considerable impact on the environment, both in actual terms, due to the construction and operation of the plant and in potential terms, related to the risk of an accident. A considerable part of the multiple authorisation processes required to develop a large nuclear project is devoted to addressing the possible impact on the environment. Accordingly, environmental protection is not only warranted by requirements and processes arising out of what is generally considered 'environmental law', but also by laws governing the design, siting, construction and operation of nuclear installations. By ensuring prevention and control of radiation releases to the environment, the aspects of nuclear law governing the design, construction, operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities pertain to the field of environmental protection just like other fields of environmental law. The perception of the public that nuclear energy is 'anti-environmental' and the generally antinuclear stance of environmental non-governmental organisations (NGOs) should not deflect attention from the fact that protection of the environment is one of the main functions of the body of nuclear law. In this article, the general relationship between the law governing civil nuclear installations and environmental law will be analysed. The subsequent chapters will deal with environmental requirements and procedures as part of the authorisation process for a nuclear installation. The role of public participation and the involvement of neighbouring states in the licensing process will also be investigated, as they are today mainly based on environmental law. Some other aspects which may also have some relation to environmental protection, such as waste management, emergency planning, multinational early notification and assistance in the case of an accident and nuclear liability, have been omitted from discussion as they lie outside the focus of this article

  18. Conservation laws and nuclear transport models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, C.; Das Gupta, S.

    1990-01-01

    We discuss the consequences of energy and angular momentum conservation for nucleon-nucleon scattering in a nuclear environment during high-energy heavy-ion collisions. We describe algorithms that ensure stricter enforcement of such conservation laws within popular microscopic models of intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions. We find that the net effects on global observables are small

  19. 10th German nuclear law symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, H.J.; Rossnagel, A.

    2000-01-01

    This 10th symposium on nuclear law in Germany was held eight years after the 9th symposium. Due to the change of government after the last general elections, there had been a turnaround in Germany's energy policy. 'Phasing out nuclear energy' was the major strategy of the new Federal Government. The topics of the papers presented at the symposium therefore focus on: a new time frame for NPP shutdown and termination of operating licences; ensuring the safe operation of nuclear power plants for the remaining operating periods; new concepts for radwaste management and ultimate disposal. (orig./CB) [de

  20. Trends in nuclear third party liability law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avossa, G.

    1992-01-01

    For some ten years now, nuclear third-party liability has been changing at an ever-faster pace, further accelerated by the Chernobyl catastrophe. Some of these changes are discussed in this article. A joint protocol drawn up by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) mutually extends the benefit of the special third-party liability system regarding nuclear damage instituted by virtue of previous Conventions and settles the conflicts of law likely to result from the simultaneous application of the two international instruments. Within the framework of the IAEA, a review procedure of the Convention of Vienna has been underway since 1989, in which the NEA has taken an integral part. At the outcome of the process underway, not only will the Convention of Vienna be revised, but so, indirectly but very rapidly, will the Conventions of Paris and Brussels. Ultimately, the entire field of nuclear third-party liability will be recast for decades to come. The texts under discussion are as yet nowhere near their final stage but two areas of consideration have already emerged, which will be discussed. Substantial modifications are made in nuclear third-party liability law. Secondly, the indemnification process for nuclear damage will be vastly modified, due to the subsidiary nature of government intervention and new obligations on operators to become members of a Nuclear Operator Pool. (author)

  1. European atomic (nuclear) law and Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitzinger, R.

    2000-05-01

    The dissertation investigates the question, how the Austrian membership in the European Community works out to the Austrian Atomic Nonproliferation Law, which is a simple federal law. By the day of the Austrian accession to the European Community, the whole law of the European Community became part of the Austrian Legal Order. Also part of the primary right, the constitutional law of the European Community, is the contract for founding the European Atomic Energy Community, which also became part of the Austrian Legal Order. In 1978 Austria decided after the plebiscite of November the 5th against the opening of the nuclear power station in Zwentendorf. The result of this plebiscite was the Austrian Atomic Nonproliferation Law, a simple federal law from December the 15th, BGBl 676/1978. To continue their atomic politics, forbidding the use of nuclear powerstations for producing energy, after becoming a member of the European Community, Austria and the members of the European Community signed the Fourth Common Declaration at September the 23rd in 1993 for the use of the contract for founding the European Atomic Energy Community. This Common Declaration is neither a part of the accession of the contract, nor a part of the accessions to the acts of the contract of the European Community, and also not a part of the primary right of the European Community. It is only an agreement between the signatory states, which can be characterized as a part of the context. The sphere of the context, where the Fourth Common Declaration could be important, restrains to the secondary right of the European Community. This means, that the opinion on the rage of application is a decision of the executive bodies of the European Community. Consequently is to say, that the declaration, that the continuance of the Austrian Atomic Nonproliferation Law is save, can't resist an analysis in the law of nations. (author)

  2. NEA, Nuclear law and information processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    1977-01-01

    NEA has for many years now been collating information on, and analysing, laws and regulations on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and this work has resulted in a series of publications. However, as seen by the multiplication of computer-based legal information centres, both at national and international level, conventional information systems are no longer adequate to deal with the increasing volume of information and with users' needs. In view of the particular aspects of nuclear law and of its own availabilities, NEA has endeavoured to make the best possible use of existing structures by opting for participation in the IAEA International Nuclear Information System rather than by creating a specialised centre. Before becoming operational, the arrangements concluded between NEA and IAEA required that the INIS rules be altered somewhat to take account of the specific problems raised by treatment of legal literature and also to improve the quality of information provided to users. (auth.) [fr

  3. Nuclear power infrastructure - issues, strategy and possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, Y.A.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Today humanity faces daunting challenges: the pressing need for development in many parts of the world and the desire for a more effective system of international security. At the outset of the 21st century, the Millennium Development Goals and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation have both set global objectives for sustainable development (SD) that give high priority to the eradication of poverty and hunger, environmental sustainability, universal access to plentiful fresh water and energy. In this context there are many expectations about Nuclear Renascence supported by many national and international studies, by discussions in the mass media and international forums, etc. The Agency has taken an integrated approach outlining all considerations that have to be taken into account for the introduction of a nuclear power programme, providing guiding documents, forums for sharing information, consultancies and technical meetings and sending multidisciplinary teams to countries requesting assistance with nuclear power infrastructure. The process also includes specific assistance and review services in the areas of infrastructure readiness, feasibility studies, draft nuclear law, regulatory frameworks and organization, siting issues, human resource development and planning, bid evaluation and technology assessment, owner/operator competence, and safety and security. It is important to support the decision making processes of States introducing nuclear power to ensure they can make informed choices on the role of nuclear power in their energy mixes. The IAEA helps countries prepare for the introduction or expansion of nuclear power by 1) helping them ensure that nuclear energy is used safely, securely and with minimal proliferation risk, and 2) meeting the need of developing countries to build capacity in terms of human resources, energy analysis, regulatory capabilities and other infrastructure necessary for nuclear power. The process also includes

  4. Contemplations on the further development of nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlmann, W.

    1977-01-01

    Various considerations on the further development of nuclear law are made. The necessity is pointed out to do away with the 'jungle of regulations' and to regain more legal security and transparency in nuclear law. (HP) [de

  5. Annual meeting on nuclear technology '88. Technical session on focal points of the atomic energy law and the radiation protection law in 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This issue of Annual Meeting on Nuclear Technology reports presents the papers of the technical session on 'Focal points of the atomic energy law and the radiation protection law in 1988'. The titles are: Is there a binding link between decisions of the atomic energy authority and criminal law? Conclusions to be drawn from the Alkem case court decision. - Recent developments in atomic energy law. - Current radiation protection law. - Codetermination at plant level in a nuclear installation. - The legal position of foreigners from neigbour countries in the field of atomic energy law. The licensing of nuclear installations near the border. (RST) [de

  6. Issues concerning outer space investments in international law ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Issues concerning outer space investments in international law. ... Recent improvements in technology have in essence increased the viability of outer space as the next frontier for international investment and development. In addition to ... Key words: Outer Space, Investments, International Law, International Space Station ...

  7. The new law on radiation and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niittylae, A.

    1990-01-01

    The Law on Nuclear Energy, which entered into force in 1988, controls the use of nuclear power. The new Law on Radiation is under consideration in the Parliament. The internationally approved main principles on radiation protection are the basis of the law. In the article, these principles and the contents of the law are described

  8. The law concerning indemnification of nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The law defines the basic system of indemnification of nuclear damage by the operation of reactors to protect sufferers and help the sound development of atomic energy business. The operation of reactors means hereunder the operation of reactors, processing, reprocessing and the uses of nuclear fuel materials as well as transport, storage and disposal of nuclear fuel materials or things contaminated by them, which accompany with those procedures. The nuclear damage signifies injuries due to functions of fission of nuclear fuel materials or radiation or poisonous functions of things contaminated by them. When nuclear damage happens by the operation of reactors, the atomic energy enterpriser concerned shall indemnify the damage. Atomic energy undertakers shall not operate reactors without taking measures for compensation. The measures shall be the conclusion of nuclear damage compensation insurance contracts and indemnification contracts or the deposit. The amount of less than yen 10 milliards specified by the order and acknowledged by the Director General of Science and Technology Agency shall be allotted to the compensation by these measures for each works, enterprise or nuclear ship. The government shall assist atomic energy enterprisers to indemnify, when such compensation surpasses the amount assigned and the support is considered necessary. (Okada, K.)

  9. 10. anniversary International School of Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In August 2010, the International School of Nuclear Law (ISNL) will hold its 10. anniversary session. It has already been a decade since the Nuclear Energy Agency, in co-operation with the University of Montpellier 1 in France, decided to establish a 'summer university' programme to teach international nuclear law. The major impetus for doing so largely resulted from the fact that university law faculties at that time did not offer specialized courses in nuclear law, a situation that has not changed significantly over the years despite the recent and growing interest of the international community in nuclear energy production. The founders of the ISNL, Mr. Patrick Reyners formerly of the Nuclear Energy Agency and Professor Pierre Bringuier from the University of Montpellier 1, embarked on this experiment as an attempt to fill this educational gap, at least at the international level, and they each obtained significant support for the project from their respective institutions. Nuclear law is one of the most highly technical and thus often difficult areas in the legal discipline. Yet, the highly regulated nature of nuclear activities, both at national and international levels, demands that legal practitioners develop both expertise in drafting and interpreting the large number and wide variety of associated legal instruments. At the start of the 21. century, comprehensive national and international legal frameworks covering virtually all aspects of nuclear activities existed in all developed countries without an equivalent educational programme to teach future generations. Although the success of the school in its early days was difficult to predict, we can now proudly state that the ISNL has been, and continues to be, a great achievement with a reputation for excellence that spans six continents. The ISNL team is a professional collaboration, not only between the NEA and the University of Montpellier 1, but between the organizers, lecturers and participants of each

  10. Development of nuclear safety issues program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, J. C.; Yoo, S. O.; Yoon, Y. K.; Kim, H. J.; Jeong, M. J.; Noh, K. W.; Kang, D. K

    2006-12-15

    The nuclear safety issues are defined as the cases which affect the design and operation safety of nuclear power plants and also require the resolution action. The nuclear safety issues program (NSIP) which deals with the overall procedural requirements for the nuclear safety issues management process is developed, in accordance with the request of the scientific resolution researches and the establishment/application of the nuclear safety issues management system for the nuclear power plants under design, construction or operation. The NSIP consists of the following 4 steps; - Step 1 : Collection of candidates for nuclear safety issues - Step 2 : Identification of nuclear safety issues - Step 3 : Categorization and resolution of nuclear safety issues - Step 4 : Implementation, verification and closure The NSIP will be applied to the management directives of KINS related to the nuclear safety issues. Through the identification of the nuclear safety issues which may be related to the potential for accident/incidents at operating nuclear power plants either directly or indirectly, followed by performance of regulatory researches to resolve the safety issues, it will be possible to prevent occurrence of accidents/incidents as well as to cope with unexpected accidents/incidents by analyzing the root causes timely and scientifically and by establishing the proper flow-up or remedied regulatory actions. Moreover, the identification and resolution of the safety issues related to the new nuclear power plants completed at the design stage are also expected to make the new reactor licensing reviews effective and efficient as well as to make the possibility of accidents/incidents occurrence minimize. Therefore, the NSIP developed in this study is expected to contribute for the enhancement of the safety of nuclear power plants.

  11. Development of nuclear safety issues program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, J. C.; Yoo, S. O.; Yoon, Y. K.; Kim, H. J.; Jeong, M. J.; Noh, K. W.; Kang, D. K.

    2006-12-01

    The nuclear safety issues are defined as the cases which affect the design and operation safety of nuclear power plants and also require the resolution action. The nuclear safety issues program (NSIP) which deals with the overall procedural requirements for the nuclear safety issues management process is developed, in accordance with the request of the scientific resolution researches and the establishment/application of the nuclear safety issues management system for the nuclear power plants under design, construction or operation. The NSIP consists of the following 4 steps; - Step 1 : Collection of candidates for nuclear safety issues - Step 2 : Identification of nuclear safety issues - Step 3 : Categorization and resolution of nuclear safety issues - Step 4 : Implementation, verification and closure The NSIP will be applied to the management directives of KINS related to the nuclear safety issues. Through the identification of the nuclear safety issues which may be related to the potential for accident/incidents at operating nuclear power plants either directly or indirectly, followed by performance of regulatory researches to resolve the safety issues, it will be possible to prevent occurrence of accidents/incidents as well as to cope with unexpected accidents/incidents by analyzing the root causes timely and scientifically and by establishing the proper flow-up or remedied regulatory actions. Moreover, the identification and resolution of the safety issues related to the new nuclear power plants completed at the design stage are also expected to make the new reactor licensing reviews effective and efficient as well as to make the possibility of accidents/incidents occurrence minimize. Therefore, the NSIP developed in this study is expected to contribute for the enhancement of the safety of nuclear power plants

  12. Environmental law in Thuringia. Text collection with introduction. Pt. 1. Waste law, nuclear, radiation and energy law, soil protection law and land reparcelling, forestry law, fishing and hunting law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Matthias Werner

    2015-01-01

    The volume 1 of the collection on the Thuringian Environmental Law contains additional to a detailed introduction: - Waste management - Nuclear, radiation and energy law - Soil protection law and land reparcelling - Forestry, fishery and hunting law. [de

  13. Environment and nuclear law from the lawyer point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orol, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    This work has a two-fold purpose: first, to enunciate the characteristics of Environmental and Nuclear Law; and second, to take a glance at the lawyer's interest on these subjects. The beginnings of both subjects are different. Environmental law has evolved slower than Nuclear Law. Nuclear Law presents the following characteristics: strong state intervention, strong international cooperation, emphasis on the prevention of risks, and effective responsibility for nuclear risk. Environmental Law has as characteristics: a constitutional rank, horizontal authority, and diversified risk. A comparison between both laws could be undertaken on: state participation, legislative activity, institutional set up and organization, as well as on public participation through information. (author)

  14. Nuclear Inter Jura '91: nuclear law and nuclear energy for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The 1991 congress of the International Nuclear Law Association took as its subject Nuclear Law and Nuclear Energy for the future. As well as individual reports, there were four sessions each covering the report of one or more working groups. The first session investigated licensing and decommissioning, while the second focussed on insurance and liability. The third session was devoted to nuclear supply and commerce at an international level. Finally radiological protection and nuclear waste management was discussed in the fourth session. (UK)

  15. The nuclear debate - examination of the issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellington, H.I.; Addinall, E.

    1981-01-01

    Issues examined in a package of educational exercises, written by the present authors, entitled The Nuclear Debate are discussed. The three sections are entitled: (1) Does Britain really need nuclear power. (2) What sort of nuclear power programme would be best suited to meeting Britain's future energy needs. (3) Is nuclear power socially and environmentally acceptable in an open society such as Britain (alleged dangers to workers, dangers to the general public, and genetic hazards, political freedom and proliferation issues). (U.K.)

  16. Nuclear standards: current issues and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landis, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of the important issues that currently face the nuclear standards field is presented and a discussion of how each of these issues is being resolved is given. The economic benefits that properly developed standards produce are listed

  17. Public policy issues in nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nealey, S.M.; Radford, L.M.

    1978-10-01

    This document aims to raise issues and to analyze them, not resolve them. The issues were: temporal equity, geographic and socioeconomic equity, implementation of a nuclear waste management system, and public involvement

  18. The international school of nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kus, S.

    2007-01-01

    The International School of Nuclear Law (ISNL) was established in 2000 by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the University of Montpellier 1. It benefits from the support of the International Nuclear Law Association (INLA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The school offers a high-quality educational programme acknowledged for its intensive courses, professional lecturers, as well as its academic and practical balance. In the past seven years, the ISNL has been attended by approximately 400 participants from 78 countries around the world. The NEA awards scholarships to enable certain meritorious students from its member countries to benefit from the course. The IAEA also awards a number of fellowships to participants from its member countries. This helps ensure broad representation from different countries and bestows the ISNL with the different views, experience and legal backgrounds of its participants. The applicants are mostly but not necessarily lawyers. Such diversity is welcomed as the interdisciplinary composition of classes contributes to the dialogue and mutual learning between lawyers and scientists or economists for example. (author)

  19. Republic of Lithuania law on nuclear energy. No. I-1613

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Law on Nuclear Energy adopted by the Parliament 14 November, 1996 has the main goals of ensuring nuclear safety, peaceful use of nuclear energy and preventing from illegal use of nuclear materials. The basic assumptions of the law reinforce obligations of Lithuania under Convention on Nuclear Safety. The law determines fundamentals on nuclear energy management, principles for the state regulation for nuclear safety and radiation protection, guidelines for licensing in nuclear energy, special requirements for the design and construction of nuclear energy facilities, basic conditions for the operation of nuclear energy installations, basic requirements for the transportation and storage of nuclear and radioactive materials, basic requirements for preventing nuclear or radiation related incidents together with procedures for elimination of consequences, basic economic and financial conditions for nuclear energy and specificity of working relations in nuclear energy

  20. The nuclear law: safety. 2006-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringuier, P.

    2010-01-01

    The author discusses the legal evolutions related to nuclear safety between 2006 and 2010. He identifies three main topics of unequal importance. Firstly, he comments the implementation of an international reference framework which has been completed at the European level and which aims at the harmonization of safety and security rules. Secondly, he comments the creation of the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN, Autorite de Surete Nucleaire). Thirdly, he comments the recast of the standard framework in order to update the French law with respect to the international reference framework. This leaded to a new distribution of power and authority, to more complete and constraining procedures, and to the definition of procedures for each step of an installation life cycle

  1. Nuclear Data Newsletter. Issue No. 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    This issue of the Nuclear Data Newsletter (March 1991) gives information on the following topics: Data indexes and bibliographies, new data libraries received, selected new publications on nuclear data, related to the activity of the Nuclear Data Section of the IAEA

  2. Nuclear law in Cuba. Utopia or reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Gonzalez, Ivonne

    2009-01-01

    The present article is a summary review of the legal basis for the use of nuclear energy in Cuba. Background, historical evolution and the current concept of the Cuban legislation are approached by illustrating the reader on a topic that is practically unknown, in spite of its daily presence in places such as hospitals, factories or airports. The awareness, perception and acceptance of nuclear energy applications consequently should have an impact on the ignorance of their legal edges, the issue we approached presenting a group of weighing elements, in pursue of the answer. Utopia or Reality

  3. The Alsos library for nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Settle, F.A.; Whaley, T.; Blackmer, E.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: This presentation will describe the content and features of the Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues (http://alsos.wlu.edu). The library, funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation, provides a broad, balanced collection of indexed, annotated references for the study of nuclear issues ranging from nuclear reactors to Japanese poetry. All annotations have been reviewed by members of the library's prestigious National Advisory Board. The searchable collection includes books, articles, films, CD-ROMs, and websites. It currently contains approximately 1600 references and receives over 15000 visits per month. The mission of the library is to make the history and current status of nuclear issues more accessible and comprehensible to the general public as well as to students, educators, and other professionals in the many fields influenced by the forces of the nuclear age. References may be accessed by conventional keyword, creator, and title searches or by browsing topics under one of five categories; issues, warfare, science, people, and places. Of particular interest to conference participants are topics in the issues category that include nuclear power, terrorism, and nuclear waste. The library can also provide bibliographies for specific topics which can be embedded as hyperlinks on other websites which address of nuclear issues. Finally the Alsos Library is the bibliographical component of Nuclear Pathways (nuclearpathways.org), a composite site which is attempting to integrate websites dedicated to nuclear issues. The initial partner sites are: Atomic Archive (http://atomicarchive.com), Nuclear Chemistry in the Community (http://www.chemcases.com/2003version/nuclear/index2.htm), and Nuclear Files (http://nuclearfiles.org). (author)

  4. Supervision in compliance with nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Disputes about the exercise of supervision by the state in the course of erection and operation of a nuclear power station are to be dealt with in the first instance by a higher administrative court (Art. 2, Sec. 9, sub-sec (1) No. 1 EntlG). If the state - as provided for in Sec. 7, sub-sec. (1) Atomic Energy Act - in fulfilment of its obligation under the Basic Law, to protect the life, health and property of the citizens, demands a specific licensing procedure to be applied for certain hazardous activities, any citizen whose rights are endangered by such activity hence has the right under public law, on the basis of the procedural provisions to be interpreted in the light of the Basic Law, to claim vis-a-vis all public authorities that the procedure provided for is observed, so as to ensure that infringement of the citizen's rights thus protected cannot be done, or connived, without the license required by the state. (orig.) [de

  5. A law for nuclear experts only

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.

    1980-01-01

    The Federal Ministry of the Interior is preparing an ordinance on expert consultants under the Atomic Energy Act which, among other topics, is to include legal norms for the criteria to be met by experts in terms of non-partisanship, training, capabilities, technical equipment and cooperation in expert organizations of members of various scientific and technical disciplines. A summary of general criteria relating to the qualification, selection and status of experts called in by the legislative and executive branches and by courts of law, which could be organized as a series of guidelines without any original qualities of legal norms, could be recommended in view of the increasing quantitative and qualitative importance of experts. However, passing an ordinance merely fixing and putting into concrete terms the image of an 'expert under the Atomic Energy Act' is intolerable, because the status of scientific and technical experts by far extends beyond the field of nuclear law in our industrial society characterized by a far reaching division of labor. Weak points in the organization of expert services are not confined to technology or nuclear power. Separate rules establishing legal norms are not convincing also for reasons of technology policy and legal policy as well as for those of social psychology and practice. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MKO [de

  6. History of the nuclear matter safety and control law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, G.

    1994-01-01

    In this text we give the history of the law creation on the control and safety of nuclear matter. Initially based on the CEA regulation single owner of nuclear matter, the development of nuclear energy has conducted the French government to edict law in relation with IAEA and Euratom recommendations

  7. French case law and the use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebert, Jean

    1980-01-01

    This Article which covers the most representative examples of French case-law in the nuclear field, analyses the cases involved and the relevant court decisions. It describes the evolution of the nuclear debate in France, the progressive constitution of anti-nuclear associations and their fight against nuclear energy development in the courts in the context of the licensing procedures for nuclear installations. The author analyses French law and the legal basis for the courts' decisions. (NEA) [fr

  8. The sources of the specificity of nuclear law and environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainaud, J.M.; Cristini, R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper analyses the sources of the specificity of nuclear law and its relationship with environmental law as well as with ordinary law. The characteristics of nuclear law are summarized thus: recent discovery of the atom's uses and mandatory protection against its effects; internationalization of its use, leading to a limitation of national authorities competence. Several international treaties are cited (Antarctic Treaty, NPT, London Dumping Convention etc.) showing the link between radiation protection and the environment. (NEA) [fr

  9. Real issue with nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    The voter referendums on nuclear power planned in some states can affect the energy supply and economic health of the public at large more than it affects the industry that provides nuclear power, the author states. He makes the point that those responsible for energy supplies in the U. S.--the President and all relevant Federal agencies, the majority of Congress, the national utility industry, major laboratories, universities and consulting firms, and other energy industries--all favor nuclear power. The complex U.S. energy situation is reviewed, and the hope of alternative energy sources, practice of energy conservation, and benefits of nuclear power are summarized. Specifically, the California Initiative and its three conditions which it says should dictate the future of nuclear power are reviewed. The author does not believe that the reasons that are usually given in opposing nuclear power are the real reasons. He states that ''it seems clear that the principal philosophy behind the initiatives is one of halting economic growth by striking at the energy source that would make that growth possible.'' Attention is called to the morality of nuclear power by asking where is the morality: in leaving future generations an insufficient amount of energy, limiting their abilities to solve the economic and employment problems; in squandering our finite supply of fossil fuels while ignoring nuclear fuels; in forcing the nation into further dependence on unpredictable foreign nations for its energy supply; in expecting other states to provide California with the energy that it does not want to generate itself; and in allowing an arbitrary limit on growth to be set by groups of political activists

  10. Nuclear power: Issues and misunderstandings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.

    2000-01-01

    A sizeable sector of the public remains hesitant or opposed to the use of nuclear power. With other groups claiming nuclear power has a legitimate role in energy programs, there is a need to openly and objectively discuss the concerns limiting its acceptance: the perceived health effects, the consequences of severe accidents, and the disposal of high level waste. This paper discusses these concerns using comparisons with other energy sources. (author)

  11. School Transportation Issues, Laws and Concerns: Implications for Future Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durick, Jody M.

    2010-01-01

    Nearly all building administrators are confronted with a variety of transportation issues. Challenges, concerns and questions can arise from various aspects, including student misbehaviors, transportation laws and its implications at the school level, to importance and implementation of a school bus safety program. As new and upcoming future…

  12. The Goettingen nuclear law catalogue 1976. Pt. B: bibliography - sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zieger, G.; Bauer, G.; Bischof, W.; Pelzer, N.

    1976-01-01

    In volume 26, the bibliography covering domestic and foreign publications on atomic energy law is continued. 2,930 publications are cited on: bibliographies, collections of texts, treatises, handbooks, commentaries, reference, books and dictionaries, concept of atomic energy law, organization, radiation protection and reactor safety, liability and insurance, licence and control, nuclear fuels, other radioactive substances and wastes, nuclear installations, nuclear ships, transport, investions and information, economic law, criminal law, mining law, research, training, documentation, environmental protection, and other special subjects. (orig./LN) [de

  13. Emerging nuclear security issues for transit countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabulov, I.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Tragic events of September eleventh have made nuclear terrorism dangers more evident. In the light of increased terrorism preventing the spread of nuclear and nuclear related items as well as radioactive materials that can be used for production so-called 'dirty bomb'is an urgent global claim. Nuclear Security issues cover multiple aspects of the security and first of all the threat from nuclear terrorism, detection and protection of illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and other radioactive sources, legal shipment of such type materials as well as nuclear related dual use items. In the face of emerging threats the prevention of proliferation by the development of effective national system of nuclear export controls is hugely important for transit countries like Azerbaijan with underdeveloped export controls and strategic locations along trade and smuggling routes between nuclear suppliers States and countries attempting to develop nuclear weapons or any nuclear explosive devices. Thus, in the face of increasing international threat from nuclear terrorism the role and place of Azerbaijan Republic in the struggle against terrorism increases. In this context it is very important to establish effective national capabilities for detection and prevention of illicit trafficking of radioactive and nuclear materials as well as nuclear related dual use items across Azerbaijan's borders. One of the ways for enhancing and strengthening existing activities in this field is carrying out joint actions between scientists and enforcement officials in order to improve knowledge of the front-line customs and border guard inspectors concerning multiple aspects of Nuclear Security

  14. Nuclear power and greenhouse - twin issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Row, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that nuclear electric power generation has been widely vilified in recent years. Its detractors have gained ascendancy over its proponents in guiding the political processes that control the approval of new civilian nuclear power stations for electricity generation in many countries. As a consequence, worldwide nuclear capacity growth is slowing to about 2.5% per year through the 1990s with a potential decline in nuclear capacity thereafter. This is occurring despite nuclear power's excellent record of safety and economy in comparison with other means of producing electricity, and while technical developments to improve this record continue. Proponents hope that its virtue of being the only proven means of generating electricity worldwide on a large scale that does not produce any greenhouse gases will appeal to environmentalists and help lead to a renewed nuclear age. This paper suggests that more than hope and rational argument based on scientific facts are needed to persuade the public to revise its opinion of nuclear power. A widespread nuclear fear based in part on ignorance, misinformation, and nuclear mythology, encouraged by nuclear opponents and ineptly countered by nuclear advocates, has had an important role in creating this situation. The greenhouse issues, closely resembling the nuclear issues in a number of ways, are also discussed. 23 refs

  15. EU Energy Law and Policy Issues. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delvaux, B.; Hunt, M.; Talus, K. (eds.)

    2011-12-15

    This third volume of EU Energy Law and Policy Issues presents an overview of some of the most recent developments taking place in the EU energy sector at a time when the Third Energy Package is likely to be or has been implemented in the EU Member States. In this respect, the reader will find a number of contributions which offer detailed and critical views on some of the main issues tackled by the Third Energy Package. Aside from this, the relationship between sector specific regulation and the rules of general competition law is examined in the second section of the book. This part also contains particular contributions on access regimes in gas and electricity markets as well as an innovating analysis on the methods for allocating allowances under the EU Emissions trading scheme and the interaction of such methods with EU state aid rules. Just like the previous volumes of the book, section III offers a deep insight into the external aspects of EU energy policy. Accordingly, the role of the Lisbon Treaty in promoting EU energy policy in the international arena is scrutinized in addition to the most recent evolutions on the topical issue of the Energy Charter Treaty. This section is completed with a daring contribution about the need to adopt a comprehensive theory of legal harmonization between the EU and third partners, which is presented using the specific case of the EU-Russia Energy Dialogue. Last but not least, some fundamental issues regarding the environmental aspects of EU Energy policy undergo an in-depth study in the final section of the book. Not only is the legal regime of energy efficiency in energy-related products examined, but also the issue of carbon constraining policies under WTO law. Finally, the electricity's industry viewpoint on the 2020 targets rounds off this third volume of EU Energy Law and Policy Issues with judicious comments.

  16. EU Energy Law and Policy Issues. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delvaux, B.; Hunt, M.; Talus, K.

    2011-12-01

    This third volume of EU Energy Law and Policy Issues presents an overview of some of the most recent developments taking place in the EU energy sector at a time when the Third Energy Package is likely to be or has been implemented in the EU Member States. In this respect, the reader will find a number of contributions which offer detailed and critical views on some of the main issues tackled by the Third Energy Package. Aside from this, the relationship between sector specific regulation and the rules of general competition law is examined in the second section of the book. This part also contains particular contributions on access regimes in gas and electricity markets as well as an innovating analysis on the methods for allocating allowances under the EU Emissions trading scheme and the interaction of such methods with EU state aid rules. Just like the previous volumes of the book, section III offers a deep insight into the external aspects of EU energy policy. Accordingly, the role of the Lisbon Treaty in promoting EU energy policy in the international arena is scrutinized in addition to the most recent evolutions on the topical issue of the Energy Charter Treaty. This section is completed with a daring contribution about the need to adopt a comprehensive theory of legal harmonization between the EU and third partners, which is presented using the specific case of the EU-Russia Energy Dialogue. Last but not least, some fundamental issues regarding the environmental aspects of EU Energy policy undergo an in-depth study in the final section of the book. Not only is the legal regime of energy efficiency in energy-related products examined, but also the issue of carbon constraining policies under WTO law. Finally, the electricity's industry viewpoint on the 2020 targets rounds off this third volume of EU Energy Law and Policy Issues with judicious comments.

  17. Nuclear medicine : occupational health issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossleigh, M.

    1988-01-01

    The occupational health aspects of nuclear medicine are discussed. There is a lack of demonstrable biological effects from low level radiation. The radiation protection measures that are applied to ensure that staff are exposed to as low a level of radiation as is possible are outlined

  18. Radioactivity and Nuclear Issues in Science Fiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franic, Z.

    2008-01-01

    In this work are presented and reviewed science fiction narratives, films and comics that exploit radioactivity and nuclear issues. These topics to some science fiction authors serve as metaphor of evil and holocaust as well as nice instrument for elaborating various manipulations and conspiracy theories. In that context are of special interest science fiction works depicting apocalyptic post-nuclear worlds and societies, such works being closely connected with cyberpunk genre. However, other more technologically optimistic authors nuclear energy and research regarding nuclear technology and radioactivity consider as eligible and inevitable solution for world peace and prosperity Nowadays, public interest and global fears are shifted from radioactivity and nuclear issues to other catastrophic scenarios threatening future of the mankind, these for example being climate changes and global warming, asteroid impact, collapse of information infrastructure, nanotechnology, robotics and artificial intelligence etc. Consequently, these issues are as well increasingly reflected in contemporary science fiction stories.(author)

  19. The nuclear law from the 20. to the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In the framework of its biennial sessions the International Nuclear Law Association held a meeting in Tours 14-19 September 1997 'Nuclear Inter Jura 97' on Nuclear Law: from the 20. to the 21. century. This book publishes all papers delivered by experts from more than 20 countries on the following subjects: licensing and decommissioning, radiological protection, international nuclear trace, radioisotopes, liability and cover, radioactive waste management. (author)

  20. Corrosion issues in nuclear industry today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattant, F.; Crusset, D.; Feron, D.

    2008-01-01

    In the context of global warming, nuclear energy is a carbon-free source of power and so is a meaningful option for energy production without CO 2 emissions. Currently, there are more than 440 commercial nuclear reactors, accounting for about 15% of electric power generation in the world, and there has not been a major accident in over 20 years. The world's fleet of nuclear power plants is, on average, more than 20 years old. Even though the design life of a nuclear power plant is typically 30 or 40 years, it is quite feasible that many nuclear power plants will be able to operate for longer than this. The re-emergence of nuclear power today is founded on the present generation of nuclear reactors meeting the demands of extended service life, ensuring the cost competitiveness of nuclear power and matching enhanced safety requirements. Nuclear power plant engineers should be able to demonstrate such integrity and reliability of their system materials and components as to enable nuclear power plants to operate beyond their initial design life. Effective waste management is another challenge for sustainable nuclear energy today; more precisely, a solution is needed for the management of high-level and long-lived intermediate-level radioactive waste over the very long term. Most nuclear countries are currently gathering the data needed to assess the feasibility of a deep geological waste repository, including the prediction of the behaviour of materials over several thousands of years. The extended service life of nuclear power plants and the need for permanent disposal for nuclear waste are today's key issues in the nuclear industry. We focus here on the major role that corrosion plays in these two factors, and on the French approaches to these two issues. (authors)

  1. The nuclear fuels tax is in conformity with constitutional law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faehrmann, Ingo; Ringwald, Roman

    2012-01-01

    There are rulings by three courts of finance concerning the conformity of the nuclear fuels tax with German constitutional law. While the FG Hamburg and FG Munich were in some doubt, the FG Baden-Wuerttemberg was of the opinion that the nuclear fuels tax act is compatible with German constitutional law.

  2. Resolving Standard Essential Patents Issues through Competition Law (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    KAWAHAMA Noboru

    2015-01-01

    The number of disputes relating to standard essential patents (SEPs), in which patent holders submit statements to commit to granting licenses on a fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory (FRAND) basis, have increased. The exercise of SEPs tends to cause problems such as hold-ups and royalty stacking and needs to be constrained somehow. Despite wide recognition of the need to address these problems, devising measures to resolve the issue has not been an easy task since various laws and princi...

  3. Overview of Major Issues of Tax Treaties Law in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Bedri Peci

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to analyze and find out the major issue of tax treaties law in Kosovo. In this analysis we have used the research method of case study. The results of research show that the legal framework for the elimination of double taxation, after 1999, initially started its establishment journey from the United Nations Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK). Taking into consideration the specifications of the political status, the process for the establishment of the unilat...

  4. Nuclear Cyber Security Issues and Policy Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Cheol-Kwon; Lee, Dong-Young; Lee, Na-Young; Hwang, Young-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The cyber-attack against computer systems causes the loss of function which brings about the big economic loss, and it becomes a national-wide issue. In recent days the cyber threat has occurred in the national critical infrastructure around the world. In the nuclear industry, while discussing responses to various threats against nuclear facilities since 2006, cyber-terrorism was also discussed. But at that time, cyber-attacks against control networks in nuclear facilities were not seriously considered because those networks were isolated from the Internet thoroughly and it was evaluated that cyber penetration would not be possible. However Stuxnet worm virus which attacked Iran's nuclear facilities confirmed that the cyber security problem could occur even in other nuclear facilities. The facilities were isolated from the Internet. After the cyber incident, we began to discuss the topic of NPP cyber security. It is very difficult to predict whether or when or how the cyber-attack will be occurred, which is a characteristic of cyber-attack. They could be always detected only after when an incident had occurred. This paper summarizes the report, 'Nuclear Cyber Security Issues and Policy Recommendations' by issue committee in the Korea Nuclear Society, which reviewed the cyber security framework for nuclear facilities in the Republic of Korea being established to prevent nuclear facilities from cyber-attacks and to respond systematically. As a result this paper proposes several comments to improve the security and furthermore safety of nuclear facilities Digital technology will be used more widely at the national critical infrastructure including nuclear facilities in the future, and moreover wireless technologies and mobile devices will be soon introduced to nuclear industry. It is therefore anticipated that the rapid advance in digital technology will accelerate the opportunity of hacking these facilities

  5. Nuclear Cyber Security Issues and Policy Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Cheol-Kwon; Lee, Dong-Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Na-Young; Hwang, Young-Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The cyber-attack against computer systems causes the loss of function which brings about the big economic loss, and it becomes a national-wide issue. In recent days the cyber threat has occurred in the national critical infrastructure around the world. In the nuclear industry, while discussing responses to various threats against nuclear facilities since 2006, cyber-terrorism was also discussed. But at that time, cyber-attacks against control networks in nuclear facilities were not seriously considered because those networks were isolated from the Internet thoroughly and it was evaluated that cyber penetration would not be possible. However Stuxnet worm virus which attacked Iran's nuclear facilities confirmed that the cyber security problem could occur even in other nuclear facilities. The facilities were isolated from the Internet. After the cyber incident, we began to discuss the topic of NPP cyber security. It is very difficult to predict whether or when or how the cyber-attack will be occurred, which is a characteristic of cyber-attack. They could be always detected only after when an incident had occurred. This paper summarizes the report, 'Nuclear Cyber Security Issues and Policy Recommendations' by issue committee in the Korea Nuclear Society, which reviewed the cyber security framework for nuclear facilities in the Republic of Korea being established to prevent nuclear facilities from cyber-attacks and to respond systematically. As a result this paper proposes several comments to improve the security and furthermore safety of nuclear facilities Digital technology will be used more widely at the national critical infrastructure including nuclear facilities in the future, and moreover wireless technologies and mobile devices will be soon introduced to nuclear industry. It is therefore anticipated that the rapid advance in digital technology will accelerate the opportunity of hacking these facilities.

  6. The operation of nuclear power plants in the conflict between administrative law and criminal law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubbe, C.

    1989-01-01

    The conflicting interests of administrative law and criminal law give rise to a number of burdensome conditions to be met by the operators of nuclear plants. Of course, it is one of the peculiarities of criminal law that nobody can decide for himself whether he wants to become involved in it. There is probably no other choice than meeting, with a good blend of composure and cleverness, the criteria now surrounding the operation of a nuclear facility. (orig.) [de

  7. Nuclear energy and radiation protection law: no. 14 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The full text of Jordan's Nuclear Energy and Radiation Protection Law, no. 14 1987. The law's 39 articles govern all aspects organizing the utilization of nuclear energy and radiation protection activities in the country; including terms and conditions for licensing activities and personnel, and the import, export, and disposal of radioactive sources. The law establishes for the purpose of implementing its regulations, a consultative technical committee and a radiation protection board, both in the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources

  8. International issue: the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    In this special issue a serie of short articles of informations are presented on the following topics: the EEC's medium term policy regarding the reprocessing and storage of spent fuel, France's natural uranium supply, the Pechiney Group in the nuclear field, zircaloy cladding for nuclear fuel elements, USSI: a major French nuclear engineering firm, gaseous diffusion: the only commercial enrichment process, the transport of nuclear materials in the fuel cycle, Cogema and spent fuel reprocessing, SGN: a leader in the fuel cycle, quality control of mechanical, thermal and termodynamic design in nuclear engineering, Sulzer's new pump testing station in Mantes, the new look of the Ateliers et Chantiers de Bretagne, tubes and piping in nuclear power plants, piping in pressurized water reactor. All these articles are written in English and in French [fr

  9. Institutional issues affecting transportation of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, R.T.; Luna, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    The institutional issues affecting transportation of nuclear materials in the United States represent significant barriers to meeting future needs in the transport of radioactive waste materials to their ultimate repository. While technological problems which must be overcome to perform such movements seem to be within the state-of-the-art, the timely resolution of these institutional issues seems less assured. However, the definition of these issues, as attempted in this paper, together with systematic analysis of cause and possible solutions are the essential elements of the Transportation Technology Center's Institutional Issues Program

  10. GENDER ISSUES IN APPLICATION OF ISLAMIC LAW IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad S. Umar

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores gender issues in the contemporary application of Islamic law in the Muslim majority-states of northern Nigeria. Brief political background helps to explain the shari‘a codes enacted by the legislatures of the states, drawing largely from the classical formulations of Maliki school of Islamic law. Women were among the first to be prosecuted and sentenced to death by stoning for the offence of zina. To provide effective legal defense for the accused women, their lawyers and activists for women human rights had to argue in Islamic law before they could convince Shari‘a Courts of Appeal to overturn the sentences of death by stoning and set the women free. In the process, women activists learned a lot about the classical formulations of Maliki school of Islamic law, where they discovered the rich flexibility of Islamic thought, and that has empowered them to articulate Islamic criticisms against gender bias in the recently enacted shari‘a codes.

  11. Nuclear law. January 2011 - July 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringuier, Pierre; Di Costanzo, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives a synthesis of legal aspects concerning nuclear power in France. The following main points are reviewed: institutional aspects (notably the independence of the Nuclear Safety Authority - ASN); transparency and public information; nuclear safety and radiation protection; nuclear materials, their control and security aspects; transports; trade and non-proliferation agreements; radioactive wastes; radiation accidents; liabilities and insurance; nuclear arms

  12. Licences issued under environmental law in international private and procedural law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohler, C.

    1991-01-01

    The paper examines the following points in connection with claims for compensation and to protection against abridgement of legal rights involving foreign persons or legal entities: - The limits set by international law to national judicial authority, - the international competence of courts, i.e. under which conditions national courts can have jurisdiction in cases involving foreign persons or legal entities, - the applicable law, and finally the question of - under which conditions judgements of the judiciary state must be observed abroad and foreign judgements must be observed in the judiciary state, i.e. acknowledged and executed. In the case of impairments of the environment the particular problem arises of the effect of licences issued under public law. The paper discusses the former practice, the qualification, the ways of observing the legal rules governing licences and their effects, and the question as to the unconditional enforcement of national licences against foreign affected parties. (HSCH) [de

  13. Focus on the future of nuclear liability law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelzer, N.

    2000-01-01

    The main nuclear liability principles are examined. Then, aspects newly introduced by the 1997 Convention on Supplementary Compensation and by the new austrian nuclear liability law are studied. Then general deliberations on the extent and the limits of a civil nuclear liability regime are tackled. (N.C.)

  14. Difficulties are multiplying - topical legal issues relating to nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strassburg, W.

    1985-01-01

    The report points out topical legal issues relating to nuclear waste disposal, yet leaves no doubt that the technical-scientific concept for nuclear waste disposal incorporated into the nuclear energy law in 1976 was a success. Nonetheless it is desirable that there should be persistent efforts especially on the part of parliament when issuing legislation or statutory orders to reach greater clearness and thus predictability in areas where technology has been proven by many years of practice. (orig./HSCH) [de

  15. Some Major Issues Influencing Nuclear Energy Prospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feretic, D.

    2012-01-01

    The presentation analyses some issues which are of particular importance for future nuclear power application. These include duration of uranium reserves and high level radioactive waste decay period in function of uranium reserves (determined, assumed and speculative) and type of fuel cycle used. Public acceptance during essential historical milestones of nuclear power use, influence of safety and compatibility evaluations, quantified risk, externalities and nuclear accidents. Short review of major accidents, causes, consequences, impact of LNT and hormesis hypothesis. Particular problem for future of nuclear power is potential shortage of experienced personnel due to long period without plants construction. To address some of problems which may face future investors a brief review of specific events experienced during construction of NPP Krsko is presented. Such events could be of interest to countries planning to construct nuclear power plant.(author).

  16. Some issues on Japanese nuclear armament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Tetsuya

    2007-01-01

    The author considers the possibility that Japanese nuclear armament might be a realistic political option. Firstly introducing various issues on Japanese nuclear armament existing since long time ago, he classifies them according to the view point from internal and international problems. Internally, the armament is not possible at present on the ground of the nation's non-nuclear policy but it might be conditionally a choice in such case as the reliability of US nuclear deterrence declines or possibility of nuclear attack to Japan actually may be predicted. The armament may be possible technically and legally based on the consensus of the people. Various concerns by neighboring countries are discussed. Finally, the author stresses the importance of continuing to consolidate bilateral relationship with US, to deploy missile defensive system and to make every effort in the diplomatic activity for strong international ties and cooperation. (S. Ohno)

  17. 2002 summit course at the international nuclear law school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietze, W.

    2003-01-01

    Report by a participant in the International Nuclear Law School. In 2001, this advanced training course was first offered by the OECD-NEA together with the University of Montpellier and other international partners. This effort is intended to provide an overview of nuclear law, a discipline normally playing a subordinate role in curricula. In this way, a contribution is to be made to the important preservation of the existing knowledge base and to increasing know-how in this field. In 2003, the International Nuclear Law School will be continued with a new curriculum addressed to all interested participants. (orig.) [de

  18. International and European regulations in the energy law: selected issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, F.

    2010-01-01

    This work deals with four selected legal aspects or issues in the energy sector, which are mainly located in the international, European and at the interface to national law. The first question is 'The status of the investor to the Energy Charter' and addresses issues regarding the investor position and their characteristics according to the Energy Charter Treaty. The second question is 'aspects of energy competence under the Treaty of Lisbon' and deals among others questions with the new energy expertise offense, as well as direct investment. The third issue, titled 'The admissibility of ownership unbundling' illuminates terms of a proposal, which plan a full ownership unbundling of transmission system operators, in more detail. The fourth issue is 'aspects for the implementation of directive 2006/32/EC' and deals with aspects of the implementation of this directive in Austria. This work is making an attempt to shed light on these questions and their issues in more detail by also taking into account the Austrian perspectives. In my view the energy sector is an economically important and politically embossed area that always has a current relevance to daily life and will raise more legal questions in future. (kancsar) [de

  19. The law for Japan Nuclear Ship Development Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The Agency aims at developing nuclear-ships according to the priciples of the Atomic Energy Basic Law to promote the uses of atomic energy and help the progress of shipbuilding and marine transportation. The capital is 100 million yen plus the funds invested by the persons other than the government. The investment certificates are issued for the funds invested. The officers consist of the chief director, the representative director, not more than three directors and one auditor. The chief director and the auditor are appointed by the competent minister (the Prime Minister and the Minister of Transport) consulting with the Atomic Energy Commission. The representative director and directors are nominated by the chief director with approval of the competent minister. The scope of business includes the undertakings concerning nuclear ships, such as; the planning, building and operation; the training of the crew; the research and study; popularization of the results of such operations, etc. These activities are to be made in accordance with the basic program of nuclear-ship development determined by the competent minister. A chapter is dedicated to the finance and accounting, which includes provisions on the business year, authorization of the business program and others, the disposition of the business program and others, the disposition of profits and losses, and loans, etc. The Agency is supervised by the competent minister. (Okada, K.)

  20. The Nuclear Safety Convention - does it confirm existing German law, and update international law?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemann, C.

    1995-01-01

    Some selected examples are discussed that are intended to answer the question of whether the NSC in its essence represents a development in confirmation of existing German nuclear law, and whether, assuming its coming into effect, this Convention will mean a step forward in the development of international law. The author examines the value of this codification of international law as such, and some of the obligations and standards such as retrofitting measures or shutdown of reactors below safety standard, and continues with briefly discussing the relationship between the NSC and nuclear liability law, the planned provisions for radiological protection in Art. 15, and the obligations for transboundary notification of safety-relevant events. These stipulations are analysed in comparison to existing international law, and with a view to their implementation under German law. Some provisions of the NSC that are based on standards of international technical guidance are compared with German regulatory guides. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Nuclear waste management and problems arising from constitutional law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauschning, D.

    1983-01-01

    The author discusses the problems arising in the field of nuclear waste management on account of the constitutional law. Especially the difficulties emanating from the conflict between the provisions of section 9a of the Atomic Energy Act and the provisions of constitutional law are dealt with in detail, referring to the monography of H. Hofmann, 'legal aspects of nuclear waste management'. The author comes to the conclusion that the reqquirements laid down in section 9a-9c of the Atomic Energy Act are in agreement with the Basic law. There is, he says, no unreasonable risk for future generations, as the provisions of the nuclear law provide for sufficient safety of sites and equipment selected for the final storage of nuclear waste, ensuring that radioactive leakage is excluded over long periods of time. In the second part of his lecture, the author discusses the problem of competency and delegation of authority with regard to the reprocessing of radioactive waste. (BW) [de

  2. 20 CFR 405.325 - Issues before an administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., before deciding the issue, provides you an opportunity to address it. The administrative law judge or any... Act, we already may have decided a fact that is an issue before the administrative law judge. If this... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Issues before an administrative law judge...

  3. FERC perspectives on nuclear fuel accounting issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDanal, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the presentation is to discuss the treatment of nuclear fuel and problems that have evolved in industry practices in accounting for fuel. For some time, revisions to the Uniform System of Accounts have been considered with regard to the nuclear fuel accounts. A number of controversial issues have been encountered on audits, including treatment of nuclear fuel enrichment charges, costs associated with delays in enrichment services, the treatment and recognition of fuel inventories in excess of current or projected needs, and investments in and advances to mining and milling companies for future deliveries of nuclear fuel materials. In an effort to remedy the problems and to adapt the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's accounting to more easily provide for or point out classifications for each problem area, staff is reevaluating the need for contemplated amendments to the Uniform System of Accounts

  4. Development of international law concerning nuclear liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ifflaender, G.; Kantner, G.

    1979-01-01

    A short overview is given of the most important international conventions relating to civil liability for damage to, or loss of, life of persons or property, caused by nuclear incidents during the operation of stationary and non-stationary nuclear installations or transport of nuclear material. In accord with the international provisions, in the German Democratic Republic too, nuclear operators are exclusively liable for such damage unless it has been caused intentionally by the injury party. (author)

  5. Nuclear facility safeguards as specified by the Czechoslovak administrative law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, J.; Svab, J.

    1978-01-01

    A study is presented of the legal aspects of nuclear safeguards for the operation of nuclear power facilities evaluating the development of the legal arrangement over the past five years, i.e., encoding nuclear safeguards for nuclear facilities in the new building regulations (Act No. 50/1976 Coll. of Laws on Urban Planning and Building Regulations and implementing provisions). It also discusses the juridical position of State surveillance over the nuclear safety of nuclear facilities and its relation to surveillance carried out by specialized bodies of the State work safety inspection and to surveillance carried out by hygiene inspection bodies. (J.S.)

  6. Legal issues associated with opting out of the use of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butzke, K.; Storr, S.

    2000-01-01

    The article is a summary of a conference held at Jena University at which the political issues of opting out of using nuclear power were scrutinized under aspects of (constitutional) law. The results of the conference were summed up in the Jena Theses about Opting out of the use of Nuclear Power. (orig.) [de

  7. Reflections on the development of international nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamm, Vanda

    2017-01-01

    Over the course of more than seven decades, treaty norms on the production and utilisation of nuclear energy have been developed, which together form a special section within international law. These norms are the consequence of the unique nature of the field, namely that on the one hand some aspects of the uses of nuclear energy should be covered by totally new and special norms (e.g. in the field of disarmament, seeking to eliminate or at least to control the spread of nuclear weapons, and nuclear weapons tests) and on the other hand that several traditional legal solutions were not suitable for the problems that emerged in connection with other uses of nuclear energy (like liability). In this article, three aspects of the development of that special section of international law will be explored, namely: the close connections between the regulation of peaceful and military uses of nuclear energy; the effects of nuclear catastrophes on the development of international nuclear legislation; and the interaction between soft law norms and binding norms in the area of nuclear law

  8. State and perspectives of Czechoslovakian nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezdek, R.

    1992-01-01

    In Czechoslovakia, the peaceful utilization of nuclear energy is governed by a series of legislative norms of varied character and legal power. The most important are the Act No. 194/1988 and the Act No. 28/1984. The former defines the competence of the Czechoslovak Atomic Energy Commission (CAEC), which is the central authority of state administration in the field of utilization of nuclear energy. The latter deals with the State inspection for the nuclear safety of nuclear facilities. In accordance with this Act, the CAEC is the competent authority for the licensing and inspection of nuclear safety. In addition to the two main Acts, a series of CAEC Regulations govern nuclear activities (accounting and control of nuclear materials, radioactive waste management, physical protection, qualifications of personnel in nuclear facilities, quality assurance, etc.). There is no specific legislation governing nuclear third liability. The solution for the various shortcomings of the contemporary codification lies primarily in change of the present codification. This change, however, should not mean a general and indiscriminate ''destruction'' of the legal norms in force at present, but in gradual and purposive creation of an integral, legal system capable of reacting flexibly, the core of which would consist of an Act concerning the peaceful utilization of nuclear energy and on liability for nuclear damage. (author)

  9. Law on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy: key concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pompignan, D. de

    2005-01-01

    The key concepts which ought to be included in legislation governing the peaceful uses of nuclear energy can be divided into two categories depending on whether they derive from the fundamental principles of nuclear law or reflect categories of general law. Their inclusion results in compliance with a shared obligation when they derive from a binding international instrument. It also permits the transposition into law of broader nuclear concepts and principles, and the more specific characteristics of a general nuclear law, which is to lay down priorities. When the resulting classification is tested in reality, we can see that it is difficult to measure the effectiveness of the two concept categories inasmuch as this depends not only on quantifiable and controllable legal elements but also on non-legal behavioural factors, an obvious example of which is safety culture. Once the difficulties of defining a legal framework for nuclear activities and selecting the key concepts to guide them are known, the inclusion of a concept in a general nuclear law is determined by national legal and ethical considerations. Thus, a general nuclear law should indicate the way in which the legal principles which reflect various prevailing ethical imperatives with regard to the environment, participation, and public interest, are applicable to the development of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, having regard to the national specificities of each country and the particular nature of these activities. This means that there is a need to find original legal solutions reconciling the constraints of a specific law with the requirements of the ordinary law, i.e. the key concepts deriving from the principles of nuclear law. Given the possible reluctance of lawmakers to commit themselves for the future by formulating detailed provisions valid over the long term, it has been suggested that a code of good practice for the nuclear industry should be introduced which would go beyond the

  10. Nuclear energy as reflected in Constitutional Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ossenbuehl, F.

    1981-01-01

    The author analyses the Federal Constitutional Court's decision on the Kalkar and Muehlheim-Kaerlich reactors with regard to its content relating to the Atomic Energy Law. He examines the Atomic Energy Law within the system in which power is shared: The legal provisio of the Atomic Energy Law, the application of undetermined legal terms, the involvement of extra-legislative bodies, the statements made on residual risks. He discusses the statutory obligation of the legislator to protect, and the protection of basic rights by means of participation in procedures, the effecting of basic rights protection by means of participation in procedures, the translation into action of basic rights protection by means of participation in procedures and the interpretation of the elementary (simple) Atomic Law by the Federal Constitutional Court with regard to the interpreation and application of the Atomic Energy Law in conformity with the Basic Law. Finally, he gives his opinion on the practical consequences the decision will have, and on its binding effects for current and future licensing procedures. (HSCH) [de

  11. Reciprocity within the framework of nuclear civil liability law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    With regard to reciprocity in international and national nuclear liability law, the Federal Republic of Germany attaches great importance to that principle, especially under the following three aspects: 1.) Application of the international conventions in national law, irrespective of their internationally binding nature, 2.) application of the international conventions in relations with non-convention states in cases of damage, 3.) application of supplementary national nuclear liability law in relations with convention as well as non-convention states in cases of damage. (CW) [de

  12. Proposed law concerning the phase-out of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Government bill that will be presented to the Swedish Parliament, gives the Government the right to revoke the licence of operating a nuclear power plant at a certain time. The operator is given the right to a financial compensation when the licence is revoked, in line with the rules in the expropriation laws. Safety aspects of operation of nuclear installations are not regulated in this law, i.e. the law can not be used when the operating licence is revoked due to safety reasons

  13. Safeguards Status in Lebanon as SQP Country and Reinforcement within a Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roumie, M.; Nsouli, B.

    2015-01-01

    As SQP State, the Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission LAEC, as regulatory authority, was assigned by the Lebanese government to deal with all issues related to safeguards within the small quantities protocol. Consequently, the State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material (SSAC) was established within the LAEC and linked to the Nuclear Security Department. In this regard, an initial report was submitted to the IAEA, followed by a first inventory on nuclear materials existing in Lebanon. In the initial report, it was declared that there are no nuclear facilities in Lebanon (power plant, reactor, nuclear fuel fabrication, nuclear fuel processing) and no mining activities related to nuclear materials, therefore, there is no nuclear material used for the above mentioned purposes. However, in the first inventory it was reported on the existing of nuclear materials, commonly for non-nuclear use, and they are mainly located in hospitals, industries, universities and research institutes. In this inventory report, we have included information about these materials such as type, quantity, form, location and exact use, in compliance with the inventory form attached to the SQP guidance document. During the inventory preparation, it was noticed some synergy between nuclear safety, nuclear security and safeguards. However, this inventory should be upgraded soon. A nuclear law is prepared by LAEC with the technical assistance of IAEA. The first draft is already available and waiting to be promulgated to the Lebanese parliament. In this law, the IAEA-SSS concept (safety, security and safeguards) is covered in a comprehensive way. (author)

  14. Modeling news dissemination on nuclear issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis Junior, Jose S.B.; Barroso, Antonio C.O.; Menezes, Mario O., E-mail: jsbrj@ime.usp.b, E-mail: barroso@ipen.b, E-mail: mario@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Using a modified epidemiological model, the dissemination of news by media agents after the occurrence of large scale disasters was studied. A modified compartmented model was developed in a previous paper presented at INAC 2007. There it used to study to the Chernobyl's nuclear accident (1986) and the Concorde airplane crash (2000). Now the model has been applied to a larger and more diverse group of events - nuclear, non-nuclear and naturally caused disasters. To be comprehensive, old and recent events from various regions of the world were selected. A more robust news repository was used, and improved search techniques were developed to ensure that the scripts would not count false positive news. The same model was used but with improved non-linear embedded simulation optimization algorithms to generate the parameters of interest for our model. Individual parameters and some specific combination of them allow some interesting perceptions on how the nature of the accident / disaster gives rise to different profiles of growth and decay of the news. In our studies events involving nuclear causes generate news repercussion with more explosive / robust surge profiles and longer decaying tails than those of other natures. As a consequence of these differences, public opinion and policy makers are also much more sensitive to some issues than to others. The model, through its epidemiological parameters, shows in quantitative manner how 'nervous' the media content generators are with respect to nuclear installations and how resilient this negative feelings about nuclear is. (author)

  15. Modeling news dissemination on nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis Junior, Jose S.B.; Barroso, Antonio C.O.; Menezes, Mario O.

    2011-01-01

    Using a modified epidemiological model, the dissemination of news by media agents after the occurrence of large scale disasters was studied. A modified compartmented model was developed in a previous paper presented at INAC 2007. There it used to study to the Chernobyl's nuclear accident (1986) and the Concorde airplane crash (2000). Now the model has been applied to a larger and more diverse group of events - nuclear, non-nuclear and naturally caused disasters. To be comprehensive, old and recent events from various regions of the world were selected. A more robust news repository was used, and improved search techniques were developed to ensure that the scripts would not count false positive news. The same model was used but with improved non-linear embedded simulation optimization algorithms to generate the parameters of interest for our model. Individual parameters and some specific combination of them allow some interesting perceptions on how the nature of the accident / disaster gives rise to different profiles of growth and decay of the news. In our studies events involving nuclear causes generate news repercussion with more explosive / robust surge profiles and longer decaying tails than those of other natures. As a consequence of these differences, public opinion and policy makers are also much more sensitive to some issues than to others. The model, through its epidemiological parameters, shows in quantitative manner how 'nervous' the media content generators are with respect to nuclear installations and how resilient this negative feelings about nuclear is. (author)

  16. Environmental issues and the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castle, P.

    1995-01-01

    Health safety and environmental liabilities of the 'nuclear industry' reflect those of industry in general and may broadly be divided into two areas: criminal liability for regulatory non-compliance; and civil liability for damage caused to persons and their property (for example, neighbours, employees etc). In addition, environmental liability may be incurred as a result of powers of the regulatory authorities to clean up contamination and to recoup the cost. These are in addition to the regime of strict liability imposed, where relevant, by the Nuclear Installations Act 1965. In the case of environmental liabilities, 'owners;, 'occupiers', 'persons responsible', 'persons in control' may all be held to be liable and for the most part these terms remain undefined both under English law and European Community (now European Union) law. This potentially has ramifications for current and former owners and operators, their boards and senior managers, other employees, parent companies, shareholders and their lenders and investors - of particular relevance in the context of privatization. (author)

  17. The nuclear energy in the context of Brazilian law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, N.M. de; Goes Fischer, M.D. de

    1981-01-01

    The present work has as its objective the study of nuclear activity within the context of Brazilian Law. It focuses on the organizational structure in which, as part of the Directives of the National Nuclear Energy Policy, this activity is being developed through specific legal norms. (Author) [pt

  18. IAEA and the international nuclear law development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowitsh, O.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes the different objectives of the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) as far as nuclear energy use is concerned. It presents the status of the organization, its action int the non-proliferation treaty, and its work on the safeguard regulations. These measures have been taken during the Convention on nuclear safety in 1994. This convention concerns nuclear power plants as well as storage of radioactive wastes. (TEC)

  19. EU law on nuclear safety / Ana Stanic

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stanic, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Tuumaseadmete tuumaohutust käsitlevast õigusest Euroopa Liidus. ELi direktiivist 2009/71 ja 1994. aasta tuumaohutuse konventsioonist (Convention on Nuclear Safety), Rahvusvahelise Aatomienergiaagentuuri (IAEA) standarditest

  20. The Hanau atomic energy laws. Nuclear fuel fabrication and the administrative law system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker-Neetz, G.; Uebersohn, G.

    1989-01-01

    The review concentrates on administrative law aspects in the discussion of problems relating to the licences and preliminary notices of approval issued for the Hanau nuclear industry. The authors deal with the licences granted in 1974 (according to sec. 9 Atomic Energy Act), with the extended licensing requirements of sec. 7 Atomic Energy Act as amended by the 3rd amendment (concerning fabrication and handling of nuclear fuels), and the criminal court proceedings examining the conduct of the Alkem management and senior officers of the Hessian Ministry of Economics. Specific aspects investigated in the review include continuation of existing operations in accordance with transitory provisions, replacement of existing by new installations, and preliminary notice of approval. The preliminary notices of approval given up to the date of December 31, 1977 are said to have been illegal and extinct at that date, but the court's decision to abstain from punishment is accepted. The authors outline some possibilities of giving more concrete shape to the judicial control by administrative courts. (RST) [de

  1. The national law on nuclear activity: some consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Acosta, G.

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the contents of the new National Law on Nuclear Activities of the Argentine Republic, analysing the functions of the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) (former National Board of Nuclear Regulation -ENREN) and the privatisation of the nuclear power generation performed by the enterprise Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A. (NASA). It also includes some comments about political and legislative records of the Law in the framework of the Nation's reorganization undertaken by the National Government for the privatisation of the rendering of public services, such as the production of energy and related activities. The Law was approved by Law 24.804 of April 2, 1997, and published in the Official Bulletin of the Argentine Republic on April 25, 1997. In accordance with the provisions of this Law, the National Government, through the above mentioned organisations, will fix the nuclear policy and the functions of research, development, surveillance and control of the nuclear activity. Also, as part of the execution of the nuclear policy, all the obligations accepted by Argentina as signatory party to the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (Tlatelolco Treaty), the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (TNP), the Agreement between the Argentine Republic and the Federative Republic of Brazil through the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to enforce Safeguards, in addition to the commitments signed by Argentina as a member of the Suppliers Group and the National Control System for Sensitive Exports, shall be met [es

  2. The Public Opinion participation in the Nuclear Facilities Licensing Regime: A study for The Egyptian Nuclear Law and other countries laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A. M.; Abd El-Moniem, A. E.

    2012-12-01

    This paper deals with the Nuclear Facilities Licensing Regime and the public Opinion participation. It discusses the general conceptual framework such as the importance of public opinion in the licensing process for nuclear facilities. It deals with the transparency principle and the nuclear safety. It also an analysis the Egyptian nuclear law for regulating the nuclear and radiological activities(law No.7) and its provisions that regulate the participation of the public in the licensing process (Article No.12 paragraph No.7 and 16 ) that staled that the regulatory body will set the regulation to involve the public in the licensing and it will also issues publicly a garrulity report about the nuclear safety situation in the state. It also deals with the legal rules for licensing and the participation of public in it many states such as Japan, France and Germany. The paper concluded that the lunch of a nuclear programme should lunch, in parallel, a programme for the public communications because in the absent of such a public programme, the political decisions of nuclear programme might be lose its effectiveness and the programme might be slow dow. (Author)

  3. Nuclear power and related safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdezco, Eulinia M.

    2009-01-01

    There are a cluster of trends that reinforce the importance of nuclear power on the world scene. Energy is the essential underpinning for economic and societal progress and, as the developing world advances, the demand for energy is growing significantly. At the same time, the carbon-intensive sources of energy on which the world has traditionally relied - in particular, coal, oil, and natural gas - pose grave threats because the growing concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere will bring about climate and ocean acidification. At the same time, rising and volatile fossil fuel prices, coupled with concerns about the security of supplies of oil and gas, enhance interest in sources of energy that do not pose the same costs and risks. As an important part of the world's response to these threats, many countries are embarking on either new or expanded nuclear power programs, more commonly referred to as a nuclear renaissance. The construction of nuclear power plants is under consideration in over thirty countries that do not currently use nuclear power. For new entrants that may have experience in constructing and operating large-scale industrial and infrastructure projects, they may not be fully familiar with the unique requirements of nuclear power and may not be fully recognize the major commitments and understandings that they must assume. Additionally, an understanding of the full range of obligations may have diminished in those countries with only one or a few reactors and where nuclear construction has not been undertaken for a long time. It is therefore in the interest of all to ensure that every country with a nuclear power program has the resources, expertise, authority and capacity to assure safety in a complete and effective manner and is committed to doing so. This presentation will outline some of the more important national infrastructure considerations including nuclear safety issues for launching a nuclear power program. An update on the

  4. Safety issues of nuclear production of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piera, Mireia; Martinez-Val, Jose M.; Jose Montes, Ma

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen is not an uncommon issue in Nuclear Safety analysis, particularly in relation to severe accidents. On the other hand, hydrogen is a household name in the chemical industry, particularly in oil refineries, and is also a well known chemical element currently produced by steam reforming of natural gas, and other methods (such as coal gasification). In the not-too-distant future, hydrogen will have to be produced (by chemical reduction of water) using renewable and nuclear energy sources. In particular, nuclear fission seems to offer the cheapest way to provide the primary energy in the medium-term. Safety principles are fundamental guidelines in the design, construction and operation both of hydrogen facilities and nuclear power plants. When these two technologies are integrated, a complete safety analysis must consider not only the safety practices of each industry, but any interaction that could be established between them. In particular, any accident involving a sudden energy release from one of the facilities can affect the other. Release of dangerous substances (chemicals, radiotoxic effluents) can also pose safety problems. Although nuclear-produced hydrogen facilities will need specific approaches and detailed analysis on their safety features, a preliminary approach is presented in this paper. No significant roadblocks are identified that could hamper the deployment of this new industry, but some of the hydrogen production methods will involve very demanding safety standards

  5. Nuclear Issues in a Non-nuclear Country Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latek, S.

    2002-01-01

    The absence of nuclear power program in a given country does not mean that the nuclear option is not discussed. Greenhouse effect is a global phenomenon, thus each and every factor enabling the reduction of CO 2 emissions has to be examined. Not a single NPP is in operation in Poland and this will be so for the nearest dozen years. But the discussion over political decisions to delay the possible NPP construction beyond 2020 continues. In the country whose electricity in 95% comes from coal, the clean (from the greenhouse effect viewpoint) nuclear power makes an attractive solution for many experts. This paper presents Polish debates on the electricity production environmental impacts, which are followed by the media. Unfortunately, a favorite subject of Polish media is still Chernobyl accident, but presented in an exaggerated and often untrue way. This one-sided fear campaign has been interrupted recently by a publication calling the reports on Chernobyl victims a biggest bluff of XX century. This paper presents some examples of nuclear campaigns in the media, e.g. the issues of depleted uranium ammunition, Temelin NPP commissioning and the transit of fresh nuclear fuel for this facility through Poland, radiation accident in one of Polish hospitals, possible terrorist attacks on nuclear facilities, UNSCEAR report on Chernobyl accident health impacts. It remains to be seen how the hundreds of publications appearing each week will shape public attitudes towards nuclear power in Poland. (author)

  6. Nuclear third party liability under Polish law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewaszkiewic-Petrykowska, B.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the system governing liability for nuclear incidents in Poland. The Atomic Energy Act of 10 April 1986, which entered into force on 1 July 1986, covers all aspects of nuclear activities, including third party liability. Such liability is channelled onto the nuclear operator who must take out insurance to cover his liability up to an amount fixed in the contract. The Act provides that questions not settled by its provisions are governed by the Civil Code; therefore, if personal injuries exceed that amount victims may claim the difference from the State under that Code (NEA) [fr

  7. Intercontinental nuclear transport from the private international law perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnus, U.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give a survey on choice of law rules which apply outside the nuclear liability conventions in case of damage caused by international nuclear transports. We found a remarkable variety of solutions. Some of the solutions make it difficult or even impossible to predict in advance which substantive law in a hypothetical case would apply. These difficulties are increased by the fact that more often than not, a victim can choose where to sue and thereby also influence the final outcome of a case. As far as private international law rules apply - and as mentioned the non-ratification of the nuclear liability conventions by many nuclear states forces us to fall back on the choice of law rules in many cases - the applicable law and the hypothetical level of compensation therefore often remain uncertain when judged at the time of organisation of the nuclear transport. However, at this time the question of undertaking risks and of insurability must be decided. (author)

  8. Children’s Protection in the Issue of Hadhanah Based on Islamic Family Law and The Law of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohanee Machae

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses Children Protection in the Islamic Family Law of Southern Thailand and the Civil Law of Thailand. The common issue faced by the Court or the District Islamic Department is the rising number of hadhanah claim cases. This research is meant to investigate the rights of children regarding hadhanah based on the Islamic Family Law of Southern Thailand and to what extent the laws follow the principles of Islamic law. This research utilized few approaches which are the content, deductive, inductive, and comparative analysis. Basically, the findings suggest that the differences between the two laws can be accepted as both laws originated from distinguished backgrounds. Therefore, both laws play crucial roles in completely protecting the children in hadhanah cases, as well as promising safety and peaceful life for the children even though their parents’ relationship is in crisis.

  9. Iranian nuclear power and international law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aivo, G.

    2006-01-01

    Does the Iranian programme violate the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)? Iran is a signatory to the NPT and whilst certainly within its rights in developing civil nuclear energy, this is not so for the development of nuclear weapons in order to become a regional power which Iran is already not far from becoming. In the face of diverging opinions among the major interested parties (including the UN, United States, EU, Russia and China), how might this crisis be resolved? (author)

  10. EuGH: Innocuousness of the nuclear fuel tax according to the European community law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2015-01-01

    The tax levied on nuclear fuel in Germany does not contravene European law. This was the conclusion of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) on 4 June. The ECJ has now, for the first time, made a clear decision on the admissibility of preliminary ruling proceedings referred to the ECJ and to the domestic constitutional court in parallel: Article 267 TFEU not only entitles the domestic court but even obliges it to submit issues that are decisive for the dispute to the European Court of Justice for interpretation or a decision on the applicability of European law. Such an obligation and the issue of incompatibility with European law did not depend on whether the same provision had been submitted to the domestic court for review or not. After all, even if a provision has been declared unconstitutional under domestic law it will still remain applicable for a certain period of time.

  11. Nuclear waste management: A review of issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angino, E.E.

    1985-01-01

    The subject of radioactive waste management and burial is a subject that raises strong emotional and political issues and generates sharp technical differences of opinion. The overall problem can be subdivided into the three major categories of (1) credibility and emotionalism, (2) technology, and (3) nuclear waste isolation and containment. An area of concern desperately in need of attention is that of proper public education on all aspects of the high-level radioactive-waste (rad-waste) burial problem. A major problem related to the rad-waste issue is the apparent lack of an official, all-encompassing U.S. policy for nuclear waste management, burial, isolation, and regulation. It is clear from all past technical reports that disposal of rad wastes in an appropriate geologic horizon is the best ultimate solution to the waste problem. After 25 y of dealing with the high-level radioactive waste problem, the difficulty is that no proposed plan has to date been tested properly. It is this indecision and reaction that has contributed in no small way to the public perception of inability to solve the problem. One major change that has occurred in the last few years was the enactment of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. This act mandates deadlines, guidelines, and state involvement. It is time that strong differences of opinions be reconciled. One must get on with the difficult job of selecting the best means of isolating and burying these wastes before the task becomes impossible

  12. The development of nuclear law during the third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welck, S. von

    1976-01-01

    The Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea will influence nuclear law in the following fields: construction and operation of offshore nuclear power plants, dumping of radioactive wastes in the sea, navigation of nuclear ships and maritime transport of radioactive materials. Nuclear law experts should take advantage of the situation of the present conference which may enable them the influence discussions as well as the outcome of the Conference in these fields by their expertise and knowledge. (Auth) [fr

  13. Community conflict in the nuclear power issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burt, R.S.

    1978-05-01

    This is the first of a two part discussion the purpose of which is to demonstrate that a frankly structural, or network, approach to the analysis of community decision-making allows an observer to anticipate and manage community response to specific policies. Here I am concerned with anticipating community response. In part two (Burt, 1978), I am concerned with conflict resolution strategies. The specific policy used as illustration is siting nuclear power facilities. Published accounts of siting nuclear facilities are used to identify basic social parameters of the nuclear power issue as a community conflict. Changes in the form and content of relations in the network among opponents and proponents of a facility are described. Subsequently, the description is used to specify a causal model of the manner in which conflict escalation is promoted or inhibited by the characteristics and leadership structure of a community in which a nuclear facility is proposed. Hypotheses are derived predicting what types of communities can be expected to become embroiled in conflict and the process that conflict escalation will follow

  14. Community conflict in the nuclear power issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burt, R.S.

    1978-05-01

    This is the first of a two part discussion the purpose of which is to demonstrate that a frankly structural, or network, approach to the analysis of community decision-making allows an observer to anticipate and manage community response to specific policies. Here I am concerned with anticipating community response. In part two (Burt, 1978), I am concerned with conflict resolution strategies. The specific policy used as illustration is siting nuclear power facilities. Published accounts of siting nuclear facilities are used to identify basic social parameters of the nuclear power issue as a community conflict. Changes in the form and content of relations in the network among opponents and proponents of a facility are described. Subsequently, the description is used to specify a causal model of the manner in which conflict escalation is promoted or inhibited by the characteristics and leadership structure of a community in which a nuclear facility is proposed. Hypotheses are derived predicting what types of communities can be expected to become embroiled in conflict and the process that conflict escalation will follow.

  15. Nuclear waste issues: a perspectives document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, J.J.; Smith, C.F.; Ciminese, F.J.

    1983-02-01

    This report contains the results of systematic survey of perspectives on the question of radioactive waste management. Sources of information for this review include the scientific literature, regulatory and government documents, pro-nuclear and anti-nuclear publications, and news media articles. In examining the sources of information, it has become evident that a major distinction can be made between the optimistic or positive viewpoints, and the pessimistic or negative ones. Consequently, these form the principal categories for presentation of the perspectives on the radioactive waste management problem have been further classified as relating to the following issue areas: the physical aspects of radiation, longevity, radiotoxicity, the quantity of radioactive wastes, and perceptual factors

  16. Nuclear waste issues: a perspectives document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, J.J.; Smith, C.F.; Ciminese, F.J.

    1983-02-01

    This report contains the results of systematic survey of perspectives on the question of radioactive waste management. Sources of information for this review include the scientific literature, regulatory and government documents, pro-nuclear and anti-nuclear publications, and news media articles. In examining the sources of information, it has become evident that a major distinction can be made between the optimistic or positive viewpoints, and the pessimistic or negative ones. Consequently, these form the principal categories for presentation of the perspectives on the radioactive waste management problem have been further classified as relating to the following issue areas: the physical aspects of radiation, longevity, radiotoxicity, the quantity of radioactive wastes, and perceptual factors.

  17. Nuclear law bulletin supplement to no. 72

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    When the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety ofRadioactive Waste Management1 came into force in June 2002, following by almost five years theentry into force of the Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS),2 the major elements3 of the InternationalAtomic Energy Agency's long-planned international legal regime on nuclear safety4 appeared to befinally in place. This fact might have been expected to be a cause for general satisfaction, if not

  18. Six Decades of Nuclear Accidents, Nuclear Compensation, and Issues of Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonsuwan, P.; Songjakkeaw, A.

    2011-11-01

    Thailand has made a serious aim to employ nuclear power by adopting five 1,000 MWt in the 2010 national Power Development Plan (PDP 2010) with the first NPP coming online in 2020. However, after the Fukushima nuclear disaster in March 2011, the National Energy Policy Committee had made the resolution to postpone the plan by 3 years. The post-Fukushima atmosphere does not bode well for the public sentiment towards the proposed programme, especially with regards to safety of an NPP. Nonetheless, during the six decades that NPPs have been in operation in 32 countries worldwide, there are only 19 serious accidents involving fatalities and/or damage to properties in excess of 100 million USD. Out of the three significant accidents - Fukushima nuclear accident (2011), Chernobyl nuclear accident (1986), and Three Miles Island nuclear accident (1979) - only the accident at Three Miles Island occurs during normal operation. Such can be implied that the operation of NPPs does maintain a high level of safety. The current technology on nuclear safety has been advancing greatly to the point that the new NPP design claims to render the possibility of a severe accident resulting in core melting insignificant. Along with the technical improvements, laws and regulations have also be progressing in parallel to adequately compensate and limit the liability of operators in case of a nuclear accident. The international agreements such as the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and the Convention of the Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy had also been established and also the national laws of countries such as the United States and Japan have been implemented to address such issues to the point that victims of a nuclear accidents are adequately and justly compensated. In addition to the issues of nuclear accident, the dilemma in nuclear waste management, especially with regards to the High Level Waste which is highly radioactive while having very

  19. Environmental protection and international law: the case of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagicour, F.

    2002-03-01

    Given the very hazardous nature of its activity, the nuclear industry has often been considered to be without a future. Concerns over climate change and increasing international energy needs have, however, shone a new light on the positive aspects of nuclear energy. As the only clean, stable and inexpensive energy source, available, nuclear energy promises a constant supply of electricity while protecting the atmosphere. This new relationship between the environment and nuclear energy calls for an analysis of the international regulation of the risks posed by nuclear energy production. Since the beginning of the nuclear age, the long term, unknown, and large geographic scope of the risks and effects of this activity have led to the adoption of a set of normative rules outside of the scope of international environmental law. The norms that now regulate this new, ultra-hazardous activity resulted in a set of rules aimed at protecting the environment in the face of high risk activities that now form the heart of international environmental law. Unwilling relinquish national sovereignty, States adopted a system of non-binding regulation to protect the environment and promote the nuclear industry. The Chernobyl accident later pointed to the weakness of this approach. Despite this weakness, the adoption of a soft law approach has led to progress in environmental protection in an area where States have been loathe to give up their sovereignty. (author)

  20. Overview of Major Issues of Tax Treaties Law in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedri Peci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze and find out the major issue of tax treaties law in Kosovo. In this analysis we have used the research method of case study. The results of research show that the legal framework for the elimination of double taxation, after 1999, initially started its establishment journey from the United Nations Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK. Taking into consideration the specifications of the political status, the process for the establishment of the unilateral and bilateral legal framework has been made with mistakes, slow and with delays. Following its declaration of independence, Kosovo has paid greater attention to tax treaties. Although double taxation relief in Kosovo may be obtained either unilaterally or under a tax treaty, there remains a lot of work to be done for the completion of the necessary framework for elimination of double taxation. The double taxation relief provided by a tax treaty prevails over the domestic relief. The study is of particular relevance to scholars, tax practitioners, expatriates who work and invest in Kosovo, etc

  1. Nuclear energy and nuclear law in Macedonia and neighbor countries Bulgaria, Serbia and Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Ampovska, Marija

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the emphasis is on nuclear energy and its peaceful use in the world, in accordance with the construction of nuclear law on international level and in the scope of the national regime. The world today is living in a nuclear renaissance where nuclear energy is used in great quantity and the usage is growing. On the other side, the 1986 Chernobyl accident confirmed prior theoretical assessments that a nuclear accident might cause damage of an extreme magnitude. The detrimental effe...

  2. India and Iran's nuclear issue: the three policy determinants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajiv, S. Samuel C.

    2011-01-01

    Three broad policy determinants can be discerned in Indian reactions to the Iranian nuclear issue. These include: 'strategic autonomy' as it relates to Indian foreign policy decision making; concerns regarding 'regional strategic stability' as it relates to events in its 'proximate neighbourhood'; and 'national security' implications on account of operative clandestine proliferation networks. Issues relating to the role of the US in influencing Indian policy positions at international forums and vis-a-vis domestic policy were prominent as regards the first determinant. Threats and 'advice' by American policy makers and law makers on specific issues like the Indo-US nuclear deal and the Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline gave further grist to critics. However, an analysis of India's concerns regarding the other two policy considerations, i.e., strategic stability and national security were 'real and present' and also dominated public discourse as well. With India having become a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council from January 2011, it should be the task of Indian diplomacy, at the UNSC as well as at other bilateral and multilateral settings, to help expand the space for the application of 'satisfactory strategies' and reduce the range of 'unsatisfactory strategies'. (author)

  3. Nuclear Energy and Liability in Law. Records of the meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The question of nuclear energy and liability in law was discussed at a one-day meeting organised jointly by the Societe francaise de radioprotection and the Societe francaise d'energie nucleaire. This report contains three of the papers presented. The first paper describes the different types of liability: civil, penal, administrative, international and explains the reasons which have led the legislator to introduce special liability rules to meet the problems raised by nuclear energy. The second paper deals with radiation protection and the different types of liability in law which may result from activities involving radiation protection. Finally, the third paper discusses nuclear risk insurance from the viewpoint of atomic insurance pools and specifies that insurers are concerned with improving accident prevention measures, in close collaboration with nuclear operators and the public authorities. (NEA) [fr

  4. Does international nuclear trade law have a specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    This study on the specificity of international nuclear trade law covers public international and private international aspects. As regards the first, international organisations and agreements (bilateral and multilateral) are reviewed. In the context of the second, the international organisations with a scientific, legal or commercial vocation are briefly listed. Commercial contracts are then studied in greater detail from the viewpoint of contractual nuclear liability and that outside the contracts. In addition, special aspects are examined, relating to the flexibility of supply contracts, swap agreements in the nuclear field, and other more particular clauses such as the ''Consensus'' framework for export credits. The authors' conclusion is that while there is no specificity properly speaking in international nuclear trade law, it nevertheless has original features (NEA) [fr

  5. New Trends in European Nuclear Liability Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getz, H.; Steinkemper, M.H.

    1981-10-01

    This paper analyses recent developments in nuclear liability legislation in Europe. The first part deals with the planned revision of the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention; the second part focuses on the reforms envisaged in the field in Switzerland and in the Federal Republic of Germany, in particular concerning unlimited liability. Finally, the author concludes that national reform plans and work at international level are not opposed, but supplementary activities. (NEA) [fr

  6. Handbook on Nuclear Law: Implementing Legislation (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoiber, C.; Cherf, A.; Tonhauser, W.; Vez Carmona, Maria de Lourdes

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, the IAEA published the Handbook on Nuclear Law (the 2003 Handbook), which emphasized that the safe and peaceful uses of nuclear energy in any State can only be ensured with the promulgation and implementation of an effective national legal framework to govern this technology. The IAEA has long been involved in providing assistance to its Member States in developing these frameworks, and demand for such assistance has increased dramatically. Since publication of the 2003 Handbook, requests for IAEA legislative assistance have - if anything - been even more numerous, in large part due to the fact that over sixty Member States that currently do not utilize nuclear energy for the production of electrical power have recently expressed interest in pursuing this option. The current nuclear laws in many of these States are limited to non-power uses of ionizing radiation, such as those utilizing radiation sources for medical, agricultural and industrial purposes. If these States move toward nuclear power development, they will need to adopt legislation consistent with the various relevant international legal instruments covering the field (such as the Convention on Nuclear Safety and the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, among others) and with relevant voluntary guidance documents developed under the aegis of the IAEA. The 2003 Handbook has already made an important contribution to enhancing national capabilities to develop the necessary legal frameworks by setting out the general scheme of nuclear law. However, a number of important developments in nuclear law have occurred since its publication. These developments are discussed in the present volume. Also, over the past six years, representatives of many Member States receiving IAEA legislative assistance have suggested that it would be valuable to develop model texts of legislative provisions covering the key elements needed in a national nuclear law. The present volume provides such

  7. Nuclear laws and radiologic accidents; Direito nuclear e os acidentes radiologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frois, Fernanda [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    Some aspects of the nuclear activities in Brazil, specially concerning the Goiania s accident are demonstrated using concepts from environmental and nuclear law. Nuclear and environmental competence, the impossibility of the states of making regional laws, as the lack of regulation about the nuclear waste, are discussed. The situation of Goiania when the accident happened, the present situation of the victims and the nuclear waste provisionally stored in Abadia de Goias is reported 7 refs.; e-mail: froes at sti.com.br

  8. Nuclear law in progress; Derecho nuclear en evolución

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manóvil, Rafael Mariano [ed.

    2014-07-01

    The 21. AIDN / INLA Congress was organized by the International Nuclear Law Association, in Buenos Aires, between the October 20 and 23, 2014. In this event, were presented almost 50 papers about these subjects: radioactive sources, safety and licensing, radioactive waste management, radiation protection, nuclear transport, security and non-proliferation, nuclear liability and insurance, etc.

  9. Nuclear issues on the agenda of the conference on disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernauer, T.

    1991-01-01

    This research report examines three nuclear arms control and disarmament issues which figure on the agenda of the Conference on Disarmament - security assurance to non-nuclear-weapon States, the prevention of nuclear war, and the cessation of the nuclear arms race and nuclear disarmament

  10. Scaling laws for modeling nuclear reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahavandi, A.N.; Castellana, F.S.; Moradkhanian, E.N.

    1979-01-01

    Scale models are used to predict the behavior of nuclear reactor systems during normal and abnormal operation as well as under accident conditions. Three types of scaling procedures are considered: time-reducing, time-preserving volumetric, and time-preserving idealized model/prototype. The necessary relations between the model and the full-scale unit are developed for each scaling type. Based on these relationships, it is shown that scaling procedures can lead to distortion in certain areas that are discussed. It is advised that, depending on the specific unit to be scaled, a suitable procedure be chosen to minimize model-prototype distortion

  11. Procedural problems in phase-out regulations in nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloepfer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The contribution discusses the legal regulations accompanying German nuclear policy during the past twelve years. There were several radical changes in 2002, 2010, and 2011 which reflect the opinions of the then German governments; some of these regulations, according to the author, were not compatible with German constitutional law.

  12. Legal Elements For Nuclear Security: Egyptian Nuclear Law As A Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the legal bases for nuclear security. First, It analysis the international legal framework for nuclear security. Second, it analysis the legal bases for the import-export control. The legal aspects related with illicit trafficking (IT) were also reviewed. Third, It deals with the Egyptian nuclear law no. 7 and its executive regulation. The Egyptian legal regime for nuclear security and the role of State System for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (SSAC) in realizing the nuclear security were also discussed. The purpose of the paper is to evaluate the Egyptian legal framework for nuclear security.

  13. Nuclear law; Le droit nucleaire 2006-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringuier, P. [Montpellier-1 Univ., Droit International Public, UMR 5815, 34 (France)

    2009-10-15

    The object of this report is to present the evolution of the nuclear law during the period from 2006 to 2008, period that was characterized in France by a real rewriting from the implementation of a control authority. The prescriptive backing of nuclear activities has been deeply changed by numerous texts. In this first part are presented: (1) the institutional aspects, (2) openness and public information, (7) radioactive wastes and (9) liability and insurance. In a next publication will be treated: (3) safety and radiation protection; (4) nuclear matter, inspection, physical protection; (5) transports; (6) trade, non-proliferation; (8) radiological accidents. (N.C.)

  14. Memoirs of law, sciences and technologies - Law and climate thematic issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torre-Schaub, M.; Jouzel, J.; Boisson de Chazournes, L.; Sadeleer, N. de; Denis, B.; Godard, O.; Le Prestre, P.; Maljean-Dubois, S.; Wemaere, M.; Rousseaux, S.; Louchard, O.

    2009-01-01

    standards elaboration devoted to mitigate the difficulties generated by the global warming in various domains, like the building industry, the transports or the energy sectors. This book is organized in two parts. Part one deals with climate as a scientific question between science and governance: the inter-disciplinary nature in the center of the problem, the law and the universality of the fight against climatic change, the precaution principle and the fight against climatic change, the economy of climatic change, the civil society and the international climate policy. The second part treats of the globalization of the climate issue: regional climate geopolitics and international cooperation, the post-Kyoto perspectives of the international legal framework of fight against climatic change, the legal architecture of a future international agreement of fight against climatic change, the climate governance between old notions and new stakes, the legal stakes of the implementation of emissions trading markets, the emissions trading system in the European Communities, and the 'Grenelle de l'Environnement' experience feedback. (J.S.)

  15. Minimum Wage Laws: Who Benefits, Who Loses? Series on Public Issues No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Margaret Jane; Maurice, S. Charles

    It is the thesis of this booklet, one of a series intended to apply economic principles to major social and political issues of the day, that minimum wage laws actually hurt those whom such laws are designed to help. From this point of departure, separate subsections examine economic implications of minimum wage laws, including discussion of what…

  16. Law created by the National Commission for Nuclear Energy. Ley que crea la Comision Nacional de Energia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1955-12-01

    The National Commission for Nuclear Energy issued a law, enforced on January 1, 1956, in its position as an organ of the Federal Executive Power, with its own personality and patrimony, and the judicial capacities necessary to carry out its purposes: for all matters pertaining this law, 'atomic materials' are those included in the Mineral Resources; uranium, thorium and in general all elements from which energy may be obtained in large amounts through nuclear reactions, based upon the judgement of the Commission. The objective of the National Commission for Nuclear Energy is to control, survey, coordinate, foster and carry out: (a) Exploration and exploitation of atomic material deposits, as well as the deposits of all other material that may be of specific use for the construction of nuclear reactors. (b) Possession of atomic material. (c) Exports and imports of such material. (d) Imports and exports of equipment for the use of nuclear energy. (e) Trade and local transportation of these materials. (f) The production and use of nuclear energy, intended primarily to satisfy national needs. (g) Scientific research in the field of nuclear fission and all related technical and scientific disciplines.

  17. 20 CFR 667.830 - When will the Administrative Law Judge issue a decision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When will the Administrative Law Judge issue... Adjudication and Judicial Review § 667.830 When will the Administrative Law Judge issue a decision? (a) The ALJ... ARB must be decided within 180 days of acceptance. If not so decided, the decision of the ALJ...

  18. Pakistan's Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kerr, Paul; Nikitin, Mary B

    2007-01-01

    Pakistan's nuclear arsenal consists of approximately 60 nuclear warheads. Pakistan continues fissile material production for weapons, and is adding to its weapons production facilities and delivery vehicles...

  19. Radioactive waste management and the need for a nuclear law in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colson, Jean Philippe; Schapira, Jean Paul

    1995-01-01

    France appears today as a country who has no general nuclear law, despite its strong involvement in nuclear energy production. Recently, the search for a deep underground disposal site for radioactive wastes has led to strong local oppositions, and therefore a law was passed in Parliament by the end of 1991. This paper reviews the general aspects of radioactive waste management and proposes a nuclear law as the best way to take into account the various questions raised by long term management implied by final waste disposal. The first part describes the technical issues on short and long term of radioactive waste management ant its socio-ethical aspects. In the second part, we attempt to demonstrate the need of a nuclear law which will include some basic principles both in the field of environment and more specifically of waste management. Special emphasis will be given to long-term constraints such as uncertainty and lack of reversibility of some technical schemes, with regard to sustainable development. (author)

  20. Plight of China nuclear liability law and solutions of nuclear operating companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Guangchao; Wang Yonggang; Tang Yangyang

    2010-01-01

    With the development of nuclear use for peaceful purposes and the intensification of international cooperation in the field of nuclear energy, many countries attach more and more importance to legal risks of nuclear liability, and the companies in nuclear industry also enhance research on restrictive articles of nuclear liability in their international businesses. However, because China has neither signed any international convention on civil liability for nuclear damage nor adopted any law on atomic energy and on compensation for nuclear damage, many impediments often occur in international cooperation and trade. This essay is trying to outline the status and structure of international nuclear liability, analyze nuclear liabilities in international procurement for nuclear operating companies and respective solutions. (authors)

  1. Nuclear issues in the Canadian energy context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Participants holding a wide spectrum of views and representing the nuclear industry, churches, anti-nuclear groups, and the general public participated in sessions on the ethics of nuclear power, waste disposal, health and environmental effects of energy development, decision making and the regulatory process, and the economics of nuclear and other energy sources.

  2. New Law on Nuclear Energy into force on March 1, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santaholma, J.

    1988-01-01

    In Finland new Law on Nuclear Energy enters into force on March 1, 1988 after ten years' preparation work. The Parliament approved the new law, compensating the old law on atomic energy on 1957, unanimously in November 1987. The new law provides the decisions on new nuclear power plants to be made by the Government and finally ratified by the Parliament

  3. Applications of neuroscience in criminal law: legal and methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, John B

    2015-01-01

    The use of neuroscience in criminal law applications is an increasingly discussed topic among legal and psychological scholars. Over the past 5 years, several prominent federal criminal cases have referenced neuroscience studies and made admissibility determinations regarding neuroscience evidence. Despite this growth, the field is exceptionally young, and no one knows for sure how significant of a contribution neuroscience will make to criminal law. This article focuses on three major subfields: (1) neuroscience-based credibility assessment, which seeks to detect lies or knowledge associated with a crime; (2) application of neuroscience to aid in assessments of brain capacity for culpability, especially among adolescents; and (3) neuroscience-based prediction of future recidivism. The article briefly reviews these fields as applied to criminal law and makes recommendations for future research, calling for the increased use of individual-level data and increased realism in laboratory studies.

  4. Federal Administrative Court on priorities between water law and nuclear law procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    With its decision of November 22, 1979 - BVerwG 4 B 162/79 -, the Federal Administration Court, at the expense of the plaintiff, has judged against a Bremen resident who had lodged a complained against the non-admission of an appeal in a partial verdict by the Lueneburg Higher Administrative Court concerning licenses under water law for Kernkraftwerk Unterweser. The value in litigation for the complaint procedure was set at DM 5000,-. In its partial verdict of February 12, 1979 - VII OVG A 113/77 - the Lueneburg Higher Administrative Court had decided that the plaintiff's rights are not infringed by the administrative steps under water law taken by the defendant district, and that pleas under nuclear law cannot be entered in the present procedure. The Federal Administrative Court was of the same opinion. The reasons for its decision are given in full wording. (orig./HP) 891 HP/orig.- 892 CKA [de

  5. Prevention of damage and 'residual risk' in nuclear power laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greipl, C.

    1992-01-01

    The concept of prevention of damage within the framework of nuclear power laws includes averting danger for the protection of third parties and preventing risks for the partial protection of third parties with the proviso that still a desire to use the concept 'residual risk' in addition, it should be limited, on the grounds of what can be reasonably expected, to those risks which cannot be reduced any further by the government, i.e. to risks which the public in general and third parties ('actually') must accept. In the future, questions regarding safety systems should be taken into account exclusively withing the context of 'what is necessary for protection against damage in keeping with the latest developments in science and technology' and not at the discretion of the law in denying permission according to Article 7 Paragraph 2 Atomic Energy Law. (orig.) [de

  6. Nuclear-industry employee protection provisions of federal law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidell, E.R.; Marcoux, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    Legislation enacted by Congress in 1978 to provide protection for those employed in the construction or operation of civil nuclear projects who express concerns to employers or others about the propriety of procedures in their places of employment from the standpoint of safety is summarized. The authors describe some recent and anticipated developments in the implementation of the law and offer practical suggestions for the avoidance of particular problems under the law. They counsel that the prudent utility company or other firm involved with nuclear energy will see the statute as another reason for facilitating the flow of bona fide safety concerns rather than as a vehicle for the expression of generalized complaints by malcontents and a convenient shield for substandard performers in the work force

  7. Position paper on nuclear proliferation issues preventing nuclear proliferation. A duty for the nuclear community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, Pierre; Bonin, Bernard [ENS High Scientific Council, Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-06-15

    The production of electricity from nuclear power plants is widely seen today as having an increasing role to play in meeting global energy requirements in a sustainable manner. Conscious of the inherently sensitive nature of nuclear technology and materials the ENS-HSC (European Nuclear Society - High Scientific Council) is well aware that a severe safety, security, environmental or proliferation mishap stemming from nuclear energy anywhere in the world would undermine the potential for nuclear energy to contribute to the global energy supply and the minimization of harmful carbon emissions. While the safety of nuclear power plants has continuously improved over the last three decades, the same degree of success cannot be claimed when it comes to the achievements of the international community in stemming the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation. This unfortunate situation is due to both technical and political reasons. The European nuclear industry is committed to the exclusively peaceful use of nuclear energy and to export nuclear facilities and related materials, equipment and technology solely in accordance with relevant national export laws and regulations, Nuclear Suppliers Group guidelines and pertinent United Nations Security Council Resolutions. The ENS-HSC considers that, as a manifestation of their strong commitment to nonproliferation, it is important for the nuclear industry to pay special attention to and promote proliferation-resistant designs and to take IAEA safeguards requirements into account at the design stage. Preventing nuclear proliferation is primarily the responsibility of states but, as major stakeholders, the nuclear industry and scientific community should actively support nuclear disarmament as foreseen in the Non-Proliferation Treaty and measures necessary to strengthen the non-proliferation regime, particularly the international control of the flux of nuclear material and technology. (orig.)

  8. Position paper on nuclear proliferation issues preventing nuclear proliferation. A duty for the nuclear community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, Pierre; Bonin, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The production of electricity from nuclear power plants is widely seen today as having an increasing role to play in meeting global energy requirements in a sustainable manner. Conscious of the inherently sensitive nature of nuclear technology and materials the ENS-HSC (European Nuclear Society - High Scientific Council) is well aware that a severe safety, security, environmental or proliferation mishap stemming from nuclear energy anywhere in the world would undermine the potential for nuclear energy to contribute to the global energy supply and the minimization of harmful carbon emissions. While the safety of nuclear power plants has continuously improved over the last three decades, the same degree of success cannot be claimed when it comes to the achievements of the international community in stemming the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation. This unfortunate situation is due to both technical and political reasons. The European nuclear industry is committed to the exclusively peaceful use of nuclear energy and to export nuclear facilities and related materials, equipment and technology solely in accordance with relevant national export laws and regulations, Nuclear Suppliers Group guidelines and pertinent United Nations Security Council Resolutions. The ENS-HSC considers that, as a manifestation of their strong commitment to nonproliferation, it is important for the nuclear industry to pay special attention to and promote proliferation-resistant designs and to take IAEA safeguards requirements into account at the design stage. Preventing nuclear proliferation is primarily the responsibility of states but, as major stakeholders, the nuclear industry and scientific community should actively support nuclear disarmament as foreseen in the Non-Proliferation Treaty and measures necessary to strengthen the non-proliferation regime, particularly the international control of the flux of nuclear material and technology. (orig.)

  9. Nuclear energy: Environmental issues at DOE's nuclear defense facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    GAO's review of nine Department of Energy defense facilities identified a number of significant environmental issues: (1) eight facilities have groundwater contaminated with radioactive and/or hazardous substances to high levels; (2) six facilities have soil contamination in unexpected areas, including offsite locations; (3) four facilities are not in full compliance with the Clean Water Act; and (4) all nine facilities are significantly changing their waste disposal practices to obtain a permit under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. GAO is recommending that DOE develop and overall groundwater and soil protection strategy that would provide a better perspective on the environmental risks and impacts associated with operating DOE's nuclear defense facilities. GAO also recommends that DOE allow outside independent inspections of the disposal practices used for any waste DOE self-regulates and revise its order governing the management of hazardous and mixed waste

  10. TOWARDS FULFILLMENT OF FUNDAMENTAL RULES OF HUMANITARIAN LAW IN THE CONTEXT OF THE NUCLEAR NON-PROLIFERATION TREATY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    s. Bagheri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT is an international treaty that should be implemented during both peace and wartime. However, the obligations included in the treaty are dependent upon states' attitudes regarding other issues. Non-use of nuclear weapons is directly related to negotiations done for the purpose of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, non-production or accumulation by other means and disarmament. In our day, prevention of the proliferation of nuclear weapons has been one of the issues of international law.The present study is of crucial significance due to its endeavor to clarify the general principles of Humanitarian Law in a relationship to the threat of nuclear weapons' up to now, a special norm; significantly limiting or completely prohibiting the use of nuclear weapons, has not been accepted in international law. However, customary international humanitarian law regarding the use of nuclear weapons holds great value because of its purpose in eliminating nuclear weapons as a means of war through ascertaining their non-use and also appeasing the importance of nuclear ascendancy. In this respect, the NPT regime and its relationship with international humanitarian law will be discussed. Firstly, the NPT background, formation, main objectives and principles will be analyzed. In order to evaluate the relationship between the NPT and humanitarian law, the humanitarian obligations in general, humanitarian obligations in the context of the NPT and fulfillmen t of these obligations under the NPT should be studied. One of the main parts of the study is nuclear disarmament obligation included in the NPT. In this section, nuclear disarmament obligation in the context of the NPT and the legal framework of possible, general and comprehensive disarmament will be examined.

  11. Law, Medicine, Veterinary Medicine: Issues in Supply and Demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galambos, Eva C.

    Expansion in the South for providing professional education in medicine, veterinary medicine, and law was undertaken to extend access to desirable professionals to young people and to increase the supply of needed professionals in underserved areas. How these objectives have been met is analyzed from an economist's perspective by relating supply…

  12. Borosilicate nuclear waste glass alteration kinetics theoretical basis for the kinetic law of nuclear glass alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jegou, Ch.; Gin, St.; Advocat, Th.; Vernaz, E.

    1997-01-01

    Work carried out since the early 1980's to predict the long-term behavior of nuclear containment glasses has revealed the inadequacy of existing models, notably in accounting for the fundamental mechanisms involved in some complex systems (e.g. glass-water-clay), inciting us to examine and discuss the theoretical basis for the hypotheses generally assumed in our models. This paper discusses the theoretical basis for the Aagaard-Helgeson law and its application to nuclear glasses. The contribution of other types of kinetic laws is also considered to describe the alteration kinetics of nuclear glasses. (authors)

  13. Amendment of the atomic energy basic law and other related laws and establishment of the nuclear safety commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochi, Kenji

    1978-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Basic Law and related several laws were amended in the recent diet session. The amendment of the laws was requested after the radiation leakage from nuclear-powered ship ''Mutsu''. The reform of administrative system of atomic energy development and utilization are consisted of two important points: one is to establish the Nuclear Safety Commission for strengthening nuclear safety administration, and the other is to give an authority to each ministry or agency to regulate nuclear power reactor from the establishment to operation according to its original mission. (author)

  14. Nuclear choice: are health and safety issues pre-empted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, G.B. II.

    1980-01-01

    This article examines the scope of the NRC's regulatory jurisdiction under the Atomic Energy Act in order to determine its proper effect on state siting laws. At the outset, a brief history of federal regulation of commercial nuclear power plants is set forth, and the cases that have dealt with the pre-emption issue in this area are reviewed. Next, an examination of the doctrine of federal pre-emption is conducted, focussing on the legal principles as they have been developed by the Supreme Court. Since the application of the pre-emption doctrine turns largely on the intent of Congress, the Atomic Energy Act and other pertinent federal legislation are examined to discern how far Congress has sought to extend its power over regulation of nuclear power. Some policy questions are also explored to determine whether it is appropriate to imply an intent on the part of Congress to pre-empt the field. Finally, a conclusion having been reached, the practical problems of what types of evidence may be admitted into the state siting agency's hearing are discussed and some solutions offered

  15. Introduction to inland nuclear power abroad and issues to be solved in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shaowei; Chen Haiying; Lin Quanyi; Xiong Wenbin; Yue Huiguo

    2013-01-01

    All operating nuclear power units in China located at coast, but half of operating nuclear power units in the world located at inland. The principle of inland site and coastal site is consistent both in France and USA. The long practice in these two great nuclear power countries proves that, the inland nuclear power is credible on the aspect of security and acceptable on the aspect of environment. Based on the existing research results, the experiences of choosing power sites, the related rules of law on nuclear safe and environment protection in China, the following issues should be given more research, including the relationship between inland power site and distribution of population, the eco-environmental effect caused by radioactive effluents, the problems on earthquake and beyond design basis flood, the nuclear power water consumption conflict with water resources carrying capacity, the nuclide transfer effected by hydrogeology condition, the popularization of nuclear culture and the emergency response on water resources. (authors)

  16. The regulation for enforcing the law concerning indemnification of nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The regulation is set up under the provisions of the law concerning the indemnification for atomic energy damages, to enforce them. An atomic energy business enterpriser who intends to get the approval of indemnification measures specified under the law shall file an application to the General Director of the Science Technology Agency, attaching particular documents and writing the following matters: his name and address; the kinds of operation of reactors; the names and addresses of works or places of business where reactors are operated; the thermal output of reactors; the kinds and quantities of nuclear fuel materials processed or employed; the kinds and quantities of nuclear fuel materials or contaminated materials to be transported; the kinds and quantities of nuclear fuel materials or contaminated materials to be disposed; beginning dates and expected ending dates of the operation of reactors; and other items stipulated concerning liability insurance and indemnification contracts. The negotiable securities qualified to be trusted include government bonds; municipal bonds; bonds issued by particular legal persons; bonds issued by banks, Central Cooperative Bank for Agriculture and Forestry, or Bank for Commerce and Industrial Cooperatives, and secured debentures under the secured debenture trust law. The recovering of trusted securities and identification cards are defined, respectively. (Okada, K.)

  17. The Choice of Law Issues in Resolution of Marine Insurance Disputes in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnia Rani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine insurance business in Indonesia such as marine hull and machinery insurance and cargo insurance are subject to applicable laws and practices in the United Kingdom. Although Indonesia already has marine insurance law which is regulated in Wetboek van Koophandel, in fact, this busisness subject to English Law and Practice. The choice of law are listed in the insurance policy. Submission of the law and practice in UK raises the issue for the parties in the insurance contract, between Insurer and Insured. Although the principle of contract is a law for those who make it, but in practice there is a problem. The problem is especially when there is a dispute between Insurer and Insured. When disputes occur, each party has a different opinion regarding which country's laws may be applied to resolve disputes between Insurance Companies and Policyholders (the proper law of the contract, the applicable law. When referring to the provisions contained in the marine insurance policy which is a contract of the parties, it should be settled under the legal system and practice of law which is in force in the United Kingdom, because the choice of law is written in the contract. However, the problem arises again, whether the choice of law in the insurance contract can be applied, if the insurance company as a legal entity is established under Indonesian law and domiciled in Indonesia, as well as the policy holders who are Indonesian. On the basis of such matters, this paper intended to elaborate the principles of international civil law in Indonesia regarding the choice of law in the contract and is also associated with the personal status of the insurance company, the personal status of the policyholder who are Indonesian, as well as the consequences of the choice of law listed in marine hull and machinery insurance or cargo insurance and national laws which can be applied to marine insurance disputes occurring in Indonesia.  Keywords : Marine Insurance

  18. The accelerated phase-out from the peaceful use of nuclear energy. An evaluation of the nuclear moratorium with respect to the atomic law, the constitutional law, European law and the 13th atomic law amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schloemer, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The report covers the following topics related to the legal situation as consequence of the nuclear moratorium in Germany: description of the topics, legal consideration of the moratorium analysis of the hazard definition, consequences of the nuclear phase-out in terms of the constitutional law, European constraints and possibilities following the nuclear phase-out.

  19. Price-Anderson Law - reports on Price-Anderson issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Five of the six papers in this study are by experts outside the nuclear industry, and deal with fear, risk, and risk management as they apply to the review of the Price-Anderson Act. The purpose of the Act is to encourage private enterprise to develop a reliable source of electric power and to protect the public from the financial consequences of injury or damage that may occur during the process. The titles of the five papers are: (1) the effects of ionizing radiation on human health, (2) proof of causation through expert opinion evidence in low-level radiation cases, (3) a critical review of the probability of causation method, (4) the nuclear liability claims experience of the nuclear insurance pools, (5) review of nuclear liability compensation systems applicable to reactors outside the United States, and (6) the economic foundations of limited liability for nuclear reactor accidents. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the papers for EDB, EPA, and INS

  20. Nuclear law in Morocco: national and international aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabil, M.

    2004-01-01

    The use of nuclear technology in medicine, agriculture and industry is very advanced in Morocco. This technological progress has been accompanied by fairly detailed legislation and significant involvement on the part of Morocco in international conventions and agreements. The desire to progress further with regard to research and the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes requires a twofold effort: the various pieces of national legislation on nuclear law need to be reformulated to bring them into line with the most recent rules in this sphere; Morocco international undertakings need to be revised in light of its immediate interests, certainly, but also of foreseeable developments, particularly with regard to safety and third party liability. (author)

  1. Comparative study on the Nuclear Energy Laws of Korea and Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sin, Byung Woo; Park, Jae Beom; Chung, Sang Tae

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear materials are commonly used for civil and military purposes. Theses materials are used in medical, industrial and research fields. Applications for depleted uranium include radiation shielding material used in radiological-camera devices, protecting people from radioactive sources used in the medical and industrial fields. Industrial gamma radiography uses sealed radioactive sources. Depleted Uranium(DU) is a by-product of enriched or reprocessed uranium. DU refers to uranium in which the isotopes of uranium-235 are less than that occurring in natural. Most stocks of depleted uranium were made of result of enrichment operations. The IAEA requested that Korea establish and manage laws governing all nuclear materials through the INFCIRC/153. Korea has tried its best to meet this international standard of regulating nuclear materials, including small quantity nuclear materials. The government has also ask KINAC to establish a system for monitoring nuclear material in the industrial fields. Regarding this issue, it is beneficial to make an in depth study of Japan's regulation system. Because Japan has a similar industrial structure and law system, surveying Japan's system for DU management can be a good guide to establish a management system for small quantity nuclear materials in Korea

  2. The law on indemnity agreement for compensation of nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Basic terms are defined, such as: operation of reactors; nuclear damage; nuclear enterpriser; nuclear ship; measure for compensation; amount of compensation and liability insurance contract. The government may conclude with nuclear enterprisers indemnity agreements, in which in the case of reparation responsibilities of the enterprisers coming into being, the government agrees to make for losses of the enterprisers not possible to be compensated by liability insurance contracts, etc., and the enterprisers comply to pay indemnity charges. Losses indemnified by the government with the said agreements (indemnity agreement) shall be losses of the enterprisers (indemnity loss) which occur from reparation of nuclear damages due to earthquakes or eruptions, or regular operation of reactors or damages to be compensated by the insurance contracts, which are not demanded by the sufferers for 10 years from the day of events, and others. The term of indemnity agreements is from the time of the conclusion to the date of suspension of the operation of reactors. Indemnity charges, amount of indemnity, limit of conclusion of indemnity agreements, notice, prescription and others are prescribed respectively. The government may dissolute indemnity agreements in specified particular cases, including violation of the provisions of the law concerning indemnification of nuclear damage by the enterprisers, etc. (Okada, K.)

  3. Various issues associated with laws concerning atomic energy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Tadao.

    1989-01-01

    It the report, the legislation and policymaking systems, particularly for high-level radioactive wastes, in Japan and the U.S. are compared. Major legislation that reflects the policies for atomic energy in the U.S. includes: National Environmental Policy Act (1960, Nixon Administration), Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (1980, Carter Administration), Reagan's statement in October 1981, Nuclear Waste Policy Act (1982, Reagan Administration), 1986 Revision of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, and 1987 Revision of Nuclear Waste Policy Act. According to the basic concept specified in the revised Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the Department of Energy is required to establish the 'Mission Plan'. The 1988 Mission Plan describes details of the wastes, MRS and repository as covered by the above-mentioned basic concept. The 1982 Nuclear Waste Policy Act and its 1987 revision focus procedures for policymaking concerning the treatment and disposal of wastes. In particular, the Act specifies the time sequence of the processes down to the waste disposal together with material-related processes including the material selection at the disposal site, and also clarifies the rights and obligations of the persons and organizations having the legal responsibility. (N.K.)

  4. The nuclear issue in the cuban press. Challenges and realities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras Izquierdo, Marta; Rodriguez Guerra, Ingrids; Gonzalez Montoto, Iosbel; Fernandez Rondon, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    The work presents an analysis of the impact of nuclear issue on the Cuban press from 1990 to 2005 that was carried out by a group of communications specialists from nuclear area. An analysis of main challenges and actions of this group, aimed at informing the public the present situation of the Cuban nuclear programme and its perspectives, was also included

  5. Japan's regulatory and safety issues regarding nuclear materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, T.; Yamanaka, T.

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the regulatory and safety issues on nuclear materials transport which the Government of Japan (GOJ) faces and needs to well handle. Background information about the status of nuclear power plants (NPP) and nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) facilities in Japan will promote a better understanding of what this paper addresses

  6. The role of nuclear law in nuclear safety after Fukushima; El rol del derecho nuclear en seguridad nuclear luego de Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardozo, Diva E. Puig, E-mail: d.puig@adinet.com.uy [International Nuclear Law Association (INLA), Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2013-07-01

    The paper contains the following topics: nuclear law, origin and evolution, role of the legal instruments on nuclear safety, nuclear safety the impact of major nuclear accidents: Chernobyl and Fukushima. The response of the nuclear law post Fukushima. Safety and security. International framework for nuclear safety: nuclear convention joint convention on safety on spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. The Fukushima World Conference on Nuclear Safety. Convention on Prompt Notification and Assistance in case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. Plan of Action for Nuclear Safety. IAEA recommendations for the safety transport of radioactive material. International framework for nuclear security. Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials. International Convention for the Suppression of Acts Against Nuclear Terrorism. Resolution No. 1540 of the Security Council of United Nations (2004). Measures to strengthen international safety. Code of conduct on the safety research reactor.

  7. Emerging Environmental Justice Issues in Nuclear Power and Radioactive Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Kyne

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, and the mining and processing industries that have supported it. To approach the topic, first we discuss distributional justice issues of NPP sites in the U.S. and related procedural injustices in siting, operation, and emergency preparedness. Then we discuss justice concerns involving the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the ways that uranium mining, processing, and weapons development have affected those living downwind, including a substantial American Indian population. Next we examine the problem of high-level nuclear waste and the risk implications of the lack of secure long-term storage. The handling and deposition of toxic nuclear wastes pose new transgenerational justice issues of unprecedented duration, in comparison to any other industry. Finally, we discuss the persistent risks of nuclear technologies and renewable energy alternatives.

  8. Emerging Environmental Justice Issues in Nuclear Power and Radioactive Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyne, Dean; Bolin, Bob

    2016-07-12

    Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP) reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, and the mining and processing industries that have supported it. To approach the topic, first we discuss distributional justice issues of NPP sites in the U.S. and related procedural injustices in siting, operation, and emergency preparedness. Then we discuss justice concerns involving the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the ways that uranium mining, processing, and weapons development have affected those living downwind, including a substantial American Indian population. Next we examine the problem of high-level nuclear waste and the risk implications of the lack of secure long-term storage. The handling and deposition of toxic nuclear wastes pose new transgenerational justice issues of unprecedented duration, in comparison to any other industry. Finally, we discuss the persistent risks of nuclear technologies and renewable energy alternatives.

  9. The Legal Regime of Nuclear Power Satellites-A Problem at the Cross-Roads of Nuclear Law and Space Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courteix, S.

    1992-01-01

    The number of nuclear-powered satellites rises constantly and, recalling the fear generated by the crash of the Cosmos 954 satellite, the author points out that radioactive debris falling on earth could represent as great a hazard as accidental releases of radioactive material from land-based nuclear installations. Such satellites, therefore, can be governed by both space law and nuclear law. On the basis of international conventions applicable in the two fields and also with reference to the Law of the Sea and environmental law, the article analyses preventive and radiation protection measures as well as emergency plans and also raises the problem of liability and compensation for damage. (NEA)

  10. Attitudes of the Japanese elite toward nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yasumasa

    1979-01-01

    The results of a survey by questionnaire on ''the attitudes of Japanese elite toward nuclear issues'' are described as follows: post-TMI Japanese attitude toward nuclear issues, dominant 'must-is-master' attitude toward nuclear power, domestic enrichment and reprocessing seen as more proliferation-prone, high consensus gained on internationalization of enrichment and reprocessing, diminishing psychological deterrent against nuclear proliferation, dim future of nuclear non-proliferation and growing importance of nuclear-age nationalism, knowledge of leaders concerning the number of nuclear power reactors in Japan. For so-called 'consistency' operating in attitude system, the data were cross-tabulated by the question ''Japan should increase nuclear power to free itself from excessive dependence upon oil imports,'' and the resultant cross-tabulations were submitted to chi-square test. Throughout, the presence of attitudinal consistency was confirmed. (J.P.N.)

  11. 'May issue' gun carrying laws and police discretion: Some evidence from Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, David; Hicks, James G

    2015-08-01

    In almost all states in the United States, to carry a concealed handgun legally requires a permit from the police. Many states have changed from may-issue laws (where the local police chief has discretion about to whom to issue a license) to shall-issue laws (where the police chief must issue a permit if the applicant passes a computerized federal background check). Studies conflict on the effect on crime. None considered the situation in may-issue states when police used discretion and refused to issue a permit. We provide suggestive evidence from a December 2013 survey of police chiefs in Massachusetts' 351 cities and towns. Of the 121 responding police chiefs, a large majority favored retaining police discretion. Chiefs issued few discretionary denials - median 2 per year, citing providing false information, a history of assault (often domestic violence), a history of drug or alcohol abuse, or of mental-health issues as the most common reasons for denial.

  12. Managing nuclear wastes: an overview of the issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, R.G.; Utton, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    The issues involving nuclear waste management are reviewed. The author points out the need for a critical overview of research priorities concerning nuclear waste management (NWM), and he discusses the uncertainties surrounding the scope of the problem (i.e., the controversy concerning the extent of dangers to public health and safety associated with the transport and storage of nuclear wastes). This article, intended as a introdution to the other nuclear waste management papers in the journal, also briefly discusses the papers

  13. Stillbirth and the law: options for law reform and issues for the coronial jurisdiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckelton, Ian

    2013-09-01

    In spite of its relative frequency, stillbirth is a phenomenon that has been relatively little discussed and requires further research for comprehensive clinical understanding. It impacts upon the legal system by way of the need to determine whether a life has come into being such that legal consequences such as criminal law, probate law and the coronial jurisdiction can attach to it. This requires contemporary clinically informed interpretation and application of the ancient "born alive rule" in respect of the ramifications of matters such as pulseless electrical activity in the heart, brain activity and agonal gasping. In the coronial domain, arguments have been put in South Australia, Victoria and Northern Ireland in recent cases and discussion has taken place publicly about whether coroners should be permitted to investigate and make findings and recommendations about cases of stillbirth. The article identifies merit in principle in such a development but highlights the need for care about such reform to the law lest it engender inconsistency in respect of important threshold definitions of "life" and "death" lest it generate incoherent approaches of the law on the subject, and lest it have unforeseen counter-therapeutic consequences for the grieving parents of infants who have been stillborn. It notes, too, that such a change to the ambit of coronial jurisdiction would have important resourcing ramifications.

  14. AESJ: communicating about nuclear issues in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2016-01-01

    The AESJ (Atomic Energy Society of Japan) was founded in 1959 to promote the information of the Japanese public about nuclear energy and to develop exchanges between professionals of the sector. AESJ gathers about 7000 professionals and is organized around 8 regional groups and 10 technical sessions. AESJ has been publishing 2 journals: Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology since 1964 and ATOMOΣ since 1959. AESJ also awards several prizes for promoting communication and technical achievements in nuclear activities. AESJ takes part into numerous international events like for instance supporting conferences or organizing student exchanges between research centers or universities. (A.C.)

  15. Sharea Issues in the Application of Takaful: Review on Islamic Law Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Suharto Suharto; Muhammad Iqbal Fasa

    2018-01-01

    Insurance is still debated between scholars when viewed in the light of Islamic law. Contemporary Muslim jurists are fully aware that the legal status of Insurance not been determined by Islamic law thinkers in advance (jurists). The application of Takāful today is the result of a struggle between the understanding of Islami law with the reality of what happened. Thus, the problem needs to be reviewed in the light of Islamic law in depth. This paper attempts to offer Shariah Issues in the App...

  16. Demarketing fear: Bring the nuclear issue back to rational discourse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore the strategies for breaking the deadlock between the demand for resolving climate crisis and the resistance to deploying nuclear power. Since our present renewable technology is not advanced enough to replace fossil fuel power plants, nuclear power becomes the only available means that can buy us more time to explore better energy sources for coping with the dilemma of global warming and energy security. Therefore, this paper proposes an elaborated fear appeal framework that may shed light on the intervention points for mitigating fear. By examining the influence of fear appeal on the nuclear issue, three strategies for demarketing the nuclear fear of the public are recommended. The paper concludes that only when energy policy makers and the nuclear industry recognize the significance of minimizing fear and begin to work on removing the sources of fear, can we then expect to bring the nuclear issue back to rational discourse. - Highlights: • Both cognition and emotion are critical in decision-making processes. • Dealing with the emotion of fear is essential for resolving the nuclear issue. • Fear should be mitigated to make rational discourses on nuclear power happen. • Fear can be mitigated by manipulating issue familiarity and response feasibility. • Using equivalency and issue framing may alter public perceptions of nuclear power

  17. Nuclear power and the proliferation issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, W.

    1978-02-01

    The purpose of the lecture is to discuss nuclear proliferation, analyse which problems are real and which are a misapprehension, and to suggest a way forward which retains the benefits of nuclear power while providing a more certain protection against undesirable proliferation. After an introductory section the lecture continues under the following headings: plutonium production and accessibility; the use of plutonium; fast reactor fuel; the interim period; conclusions. (U.K.)

  18. Nuclear waste: How the issue falls out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, W.L.

    1995-01-01

    Unless Congress takes some action, utilities will be forced to provide onsite storage of spent fuel from civilian nuclera reactors much longer than they ever imagined. Congress's failure to authorize the Department of Energy (DOE) to begin planning a centralized, interim storage facility and, equally important, to accelerate development of a permanent repository, means that spent nuclear fuel will remain in limbo at 73 reactor sites in 34 states. Today's 30,000 metric tons of spent fuel from civilian nuclear plants will grow to 85,000 metric tons by 2033, according to DOE. The agency also must find a home for a future 70,000 tons of defense waste. There is a growing sense of urgency in Congress this year that something must be done about the nation's nuclear waste problem. By 1998, 26 civilian nuclear units will have exhausted their storage capacity. By 2010 - the earliest DOE says it could open a permanent repository at Yucca Mountain in Nevada, provided the site proves feasible - 80 nuclear units will be out of storage space. At least half a dozen bills have been introduced so far in the 104th Congress, by both propoents and opponents of nuclear power. Recent events in Washington suggest this will be a hard-fought battle

  19. Nuclear energy - social and ethical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Association believes that the continued exploration and mining and the construction and operation of nuclear reactors, both domestically and for export, is and will continue to be ethically and socially sound. Benefit and risk should be shared equally in the ideal society, in the real world this does not seem possible, but nuclear power appears not to worsen the situation and may even improve it. The real risks of nuclear power are less than those tolerated by many in their daily lives, but the public is relucant to accept them. The diversion of effort from dealing with real risks to worrying about hypothetical ones can be a disservice to society. Technology is inherently value-free, but can be used to raise the standard of living and provide a lifestyle in which non-material values can thrive. Withholding uranium from world markets increases the pressure on oil and the probability of armed conflict. A connection is made between uranium supply and food production. Social justice is a vital concern, but boycotts and trade embargoes may worsen suffering and have little effect on oppressors. There are formally defined international obligations to share nuclear technology. Scientists and engineers have a responsibility, which they are living up to more frequently, to make their specialized knowledge available to decision makers, and to express the ethical basis for their work. Nuclear energy appears to be more benign to future generations than many other present-day activities. (LL)

  20. Strategic perspective: Nuclear issues in the New Zealand media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridriksson, L.N.

    1992-01-01

    New Zealand's anti-nuclear policy drew international attention and threw the nation into a foreign policy crisis with the United States over the trilateral mutual security pact ANZUS. After more than a year of diminished intelligence and military cooperation, New Zealand was expelled from the alliance. This study involved a content analysis of coverage of these events and other nuclear issues in selected newspapers of New Zealand and the United States. Research points to the roles of the media as a critical one in the overall relations among countries. Through their frequent use of official government sources, the media tend to uphold the government line or status quo with regard to foreign affairs. This study sought to identify the nuclear issues covered in the New Zealand and US media, the characteristics of that coverage, the sources of that coverage and how coverage varied during changing US-New Zealand relations. The official frame prevailed in coverage of nuclear issues. In the New Zealand and US newspapers under study, most sources of nuclear issue news were government officials. This research also found that most coverage of nuclear issues in the New Zealand media was related to some aspect of US interests, and that coverage of New Zealand's policy in the US media was covered most often when related to the United States. Nuclear issue coverage was most often not crisis-oriented in New Zealand and US newspapers, but coverage of all nuclear issues increased dramatically during the period of the ANZUS policy crisis. This study found a number of changes in nuclear issue coverage in the New Zealand media after the policy crisis was resolved. Among those changes were a tendency to focus less on economic and trade effects of the anti-nuclear policy, a tendency to focus more on ties with other South Pacific nations, use more sources from those countries, and a tendency to focus less on the moral and ethical position of the country

  1. Nuclear energy in Texas: major issues and policy recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    On December 15, 1978 the Texas Energy Advisory Council (TEAC) adopted the Texas Energy Policy, 1978 Update. The Council recognized the great complexity of technical, economic, social, and political issues which have an impact on nuclear power, and therefore decided that a special committee was needed to examine in greater detail the nuclear energy issues facing Texas. This report summarizes the work of the Advisory Committee on Nuclear energy. Topics discussed include: biological affects of low levels of radiation; transportation of radioactive material in Texas; uranium mining and milling; severance tax on uranium mining; alternate reactor designs and fuel cycles; financing nuclear plant construction; cost of disposing of nuclear wastes and decommissioning nuclear plants; low-level wastes; disposal of high-level wastes; commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing; and transmutation of radioactive wastes

  2. Cyber security issues imposed on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do-Yeon

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Provide history of cyber attacks targeting at nuclear facilities. • Provide cyber security issues imposed on nuclear power plants. • Provide possible countermeasures for protecting nuclear power plants. - Abstract: With the introduction of new technology based on the increasing digitalization of control systems, the potential of cyber attacks has escalated into a serious threat for nuclear facilities, resulting in the advent of the Stuxnet. In this regard, the nuclear industry needs to consider several cyber security issues imposed on nuclear power plants, including regulatory guidelines and standards for cyber security, the possibility of Stuxnet-inherited malware attacks in the future, and countermeasures for protecting nuclear power plants against possible cyber attacks

  3. Issues of law concerning the boycotting of electricity rate payments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studenkowski, W.

    1981-01-01

    It is for the first time that a Regional Court has handed down a decision on the so-called boycotting of electricity rate payments at first instance. Above all, the Court has confirmed the right of the electricity supply utility to shut off electricity. In the future, this will make it easier to make use of power stoppages vis-a-vis electricity rate payment boycotters after giving the warning required according to Sect. 30 (2) of the General Conditions and Terms Governing Electricity Supply. Fortunately, the Court's decision clearly subscribes to the maintenance of our constitutional order. It does not allow a civil action to be turned into a forum of political debate an the pros and cons of the peaceful utilization of nuclear energy. (HSCH) [de

  4. Major nuclear safety and regulatory issues in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Soon Heung

    2004-01-01

    Recently the value of nuclear energy is being re-considered due to the increase of oil price, the lack of energy supply, and the competition with renewable energy source. In Unites States, Europe, and East Asia, the prospects for continuous nuclear energy development or the policy for retaining nuclear energy have been announced. According to the nuclear energy promotion plan in Korea, there are 19 operating nuclear plants currently and more 7 plants will be constructed in the future. Until now, qualitative as well as quantitative growth is remarkable. Korean nuclear power plants achieved world-best level of capacity factor. However, because of the various nuclear industrial activities, we have a lot of regulatory issues for operating plants, building new plants, and other nuclear related facilities such as research reactors or radioactive waste storage facility. In this article, important regulatory issues which are emerging in Korea will be reviewed and the approaches to solve the issues including public acceptance will be presented. Especially, I will go into detail of two special case studies: The one is the thermal sleeve separation incident in Younggwang nuclear units 5 and 6 whose outage lasts about 80 days and 90 days respectively, which is not common in worldwide nuclear history. The other is about consensus meeting of Korea nuclear energy policy which was managed by a non-governmental organization. (author)

  5. Fundamental features and main problems of nuclear power and radiological safety law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, B.

    1981-01-01

    This report deals on a general basis with the legal spheres affected by the utilisation of nuclear energy and protection from ionising radiation. Following a historical survey of the development both in the field of national legisation in Austria and internationally, the five principal legal spheres are discussed in detail. These are administrative law, liability and insurance law, criminal law, constitutional law and international law. In the foreground of discussion is administrative law, which is mainly of a preventive nature. This also comprises radiological safety law. Next in importance is liability and insurance law, which, in contrast to the former, aims at compensation for damage. Criminal law is also intended to have a preventive effect. Finally, the author discusses the peaceful use of nuclear energy in relation to the constitutional law and the international law in force. (Auth.)

  6. Law concerning water and nuclear power station licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The competent water authority, within the purview of the legal provisions concerning water is entitled to define a maximum of radioactive contamination of cooling water taken from and re-fed into the Rhine river, and is entitled to make such limit form part of the permit granted to a nuclear power station (here: Biblis B reactor). This right is not overruled by sections 45, 46 of the Rad. Protection Ordinance which determine dose limits (among others also for radioactivity released through waste water), and which state the competent licensing authority under atomic energy law to be entitled to set higher or lower limits by discretion. The provisions of sections 45 ff Rad. Prot. Ordinance are to be interpreted to mean that since the competent authority in accordance with section 46, sub-sections (2) and (5) Rad. Prot. Ordinance is given the right to define maximum acceptable radioactivity release through water discharge, it many also define the lowest limit of contamination and is hence entitled to declare discharged cooling water not to fall under atomic energy law, but rather under the law relating to water management. (orig.) [de

  7. Ethical Issues in Nuclear Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oughton, Deborah [Agricultural Univ. of Norway, Aas (Norway). Dept. of Chemistry and Biotechnology

    2001-07-01

    Nuclear experts claim that the health risks from radioactive waste disposal are low compared to other environmental hazards, yet the general public is sceptical of the industry's ability to guarantee acceptable safety standards. Many allude to what might be deemed morally relevant factors, such as potential harms to future generations, possibly catastrophic consequences and environmental effects. Industry has often tended to respond with a claim that the public has an irrational perception of radiation risks, particularly those from man-made rather than natural sources. From a philosophical point of view it is interesting to consider exactly how nuclear risks might differ from other hazards, not least to evaluate which ethically relevant factors could be used to defend the stringent demands made by society for nuclear waste disposal.

  8. Ethical Issues in Nuclear Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oughton, Deborah

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear experts claim that the health risks from radioactive waste disposal are low compared to other environmental hazards, yet the general public is sceptical of the industry's ability to guarantee acceptable safety standards. Many allude to what might be deemed morally relevant factors, such as potential harms to future generations, possibly catastrophic consequences and environmental effects. Industry has often tended to respond with a claim that the public has an irrational perception of radiation risks, particularly those from man-made rather than natural sources. From a philosophical point of view it is interesting to consider exactly how nuclear risks might differ from other hazards, not least to evaluate which ethically relevant factors could be used to defend the stringent demands made by society for nuclear waste disposal

  9. Nuclear weapons issues in South Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joeck, N.

    1993-07-02

    This report discusses how the US can play a productive mediating role in South Asia by engaging India and Pakistan in an international forum to manage nuclear weapons, as Edward Teller advocated. India and Pakistan have developed their nuclear capabilities because they fear their neighbors, not because they want to threaten fear their neighbors, not because they want to threaten the US. The appropriate response for the US, therefore, is diplomatic engagement and negotiations. In addition to the international approach, encouragement and facilitation of regional and bilateral interactions will also be important. Formal arms control agreements have been reached, but less formal confidence-building measures, and unilateral security pledges may well be combined to form a more secure strategic environment in South Asia than a nuclear armed confrontation across the porous South Asian border.

  10. The nuclear controversy-what are the issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, A.

    1976-01-01

    The various issues raised by anti-nuclear groups are outlined and rebutted. Issues are grouped under four headingss - Economic; Technical; Social/Ethical/Moral; Political. Issues debated under economic aspects include conservation, unemployment resulting from energy use, use of alternative enrgy sources, high capital cost of nuclear power, high energy consumption in construction of plants, performance unreliability, depletion of uranium and excessive cost of decommissioning. Technically related issues, reactor safety, possibility of nuclear power plant explosion, waste managment, toxicity of plutonium, emission of radioactive material, thermal pollution and environmental effect of heavy water production are also discussed. Social/ethical/moral issues rebutted include radiation effects on health and genetic effects, deaths among uranium miners, morality of long-term waste storage, lack of faith in technical solutions and technical people, opposition to current life style, secrecy of information, nuclear proliferation and unsuitability of nuclear technology to the needs of developing countries. Political issues discussed are sabotage/terrorism possibilites, police state tactics in protection of nuclear facilities, misuse of technolgy by society, high energy society is capitalist and low energy society is Marxist, centralization of power, need for a great nuclear debate and the question of who pays for safety. Scientists and technical people are called upon to debate in their areas of specialty and are cautioned to be aware of tactics involved in meeting challengers head-on. (J.T.A.)

  11. Nuclear power plant safety related pump issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colaccino, J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper summarizes of a number of pump issues raised since the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in 1994. General issues discussed include revision of NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, issuance of NRC Information Notice 95-08 on ultrasonic flow meter uncertainties, relief requests for tests that are determined by the licensee to be impractical, and items in the ASME OM-1995 Code, Subsection ISTB, for pumps. The paper also discusses current pump vibration issues encountered in relief requests and plant inspections - which include smooth running pumps, absolute vibration limits, and vertical centrifugal pump vibration measurement requirements. Two pump scope issues involving boiling water reactor waterlog and reactor core isolation cooling pumps are also discussed. Where appropriate, NRC guidance is discussed.

  12. Nuclear power plant safety related pump issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colaccino, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes of a number of pump issues raised since the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in 1994. General issues discussed include revision of NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, issuance of NRC Information Notice 95-08 on ultrasonic flow meter uncertainties, relief requests for tests that are determined by the licensee to be impractical, and items in the ASME OM-1995 Code, Subsection ISTB, for pumps. The paper also discusses current pump vibration issues encountered in relief requests and plant inspections - which include smooth running pumps, absolute vibration limits, and vertical centrifugal pump vibration measurement requirements. Two pump scope issues involving boiling water reactor waterlog and reactor core isolation cooling pumps are also discussed. Where appropriate, NRC guidance is discussed

  13. Potential cooperative measures on nuclear issues in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, J.

    1997-01-01

    Cooperation on nuclear issues is receiving increased attention in Asia. In Northeast Asia, where the nuclear industry is well-developed, cooperation in the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle could help deal with issues such as disposition of spent fuel and long term storage options. In Southeast Asia, where countries are just beginning to introduce nuclear energy, cooperation would be useful in developing standards for the nuclear industry. Throughout Asia, nuclear research and power activities can raise concerns about safety, environmental pollution and proliferation. The sharing of relevant information, i.e. cooperative monitoring, will be essential to addressing these issues. In fact, a number of regional interactions on nuclear issues are already occurring. These range from training exchanges sponsored by the more advanced states to participation in environmental monitoring of the East Sea (Sea of Japan). Several states are considering sharing information from their nuclear facilities; some exchanges of radiation data are already in place. The KEDO reactor project will involve close working relations between the nuclear experts of South Korea, North Korea, Japan, and the US. Areas for further regional cooperation are discussed

  14. Potential Nuclear Power Plant Siting Issues in the United Arab Emirates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Hanai, Waddah T.

    2011-01-01

    Based on the need to develop additional sources of electricity to meet future demand and to ensure the rapid growth of its economy, the United Arab Emirates has embarked on a nuclear programme. The Federal Law by Decree No. 6 of 2009, Concerning the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy was signed by the President, last fall. This law created the Federal Authority for Nuclear Regulation (FANR), which is developing the framework of regulations which will guide the UAE programme. This paper reviews the development of the FANR regulation on Siting and the related environmental issues in general and those unique to the area. This will include steps being planned by the Authority to review the license application and the current concepts being looked at for the inspection programme. Among the unique aspects the author will look at are the results from a recent in-depth study performed on dust and sand storms. (author)

  15. Nuclear powerplant design and issues of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, E.

    1984-01-01

    Various alternatives being looked at by electric utilities management considering additional or replacement nuclear power units are noted. Examples are sizing of units, service life extension of equipment, incremental capacity improvements, load management and pricing, robotics for reduction of occupational exposure, technical advances in water chemistry management and materials, information systems, reactor safety and emergency planning

  16. Malaysian public perception towards nuclear power energy-related issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misnon, Fauzan Amin; Hu, Yeoh Siong; Rahman, Irman Abd.; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi

    2017-01-01

    Malaysia had considered nuclear energy as an option for future electricity generation during the 9th Malaysia Development Plan. Since 2009, Malaysia had implemented a number of important preparatory steps towards this goal, including the establishment of Nuclear Power Corporation of Malaysia (MNPC) as first Nuclear Energy Programme Implementing Organization (NEPIO) in Malaysia. In light of the establishment of MNPC, the National Nuclear Policy was formulated in 2010 and a new comprehensive nuclear law to replace the existing Atomic Energy Licensing Act (Act 304) is currently in the pipeline. Internationally, public acceptance is generally used to gauge the acceptance of nuclear energy by the public whenever a government decides to engage in nuclear energy. A public survey was conducted in between 14 March 2016 to 10 May 2016 focusing on the Malaysian public acceptance and perception towards the implementation of nuclear energy in Malaysia. The methodology of this research was aim on finding an overview of the general knowledge, public-relation recommendation, perception and acceptance of Malaysian towards the nuclear power development program. The combination of information gathered from this study can be interpreted as an indication of the complexity surrounding the development of nuclear energy and its relationship with the unique background of Malaysian demography. This paper will focus mainly on energy-related section in the survey in comparison with nuclear energy.

  17. Persona Grata - Bernard Vanheusden, Contemporary Issues in International Law, an Interview with Associate Professor of Environmental Law, Hasselt University

    OpenAIRE

    Gordeeva, Yelena M.

    2016-01-01

    An Interview with an Associate Professor of Environmental Law, Law Faculty, Hasselt University, PhD in Law Bernard Vanheusden environmental law; climate change; European Environmental Law Forum; procedural environmental rights

  18. Public acceptance of nuclear power - Some ethical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arungu-Olende, S.; Francis, J.M.; Gaspar, D. de; Nashed, W.; Nwosu, B.C.E.; Rose, D.J.; Shinn, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    With the increased public perception of the future scale of dependence on nuclear energy a debate has started, raising the level of public awareness of the social, political and technical risks that are inevitably associated with the large-scale and accelerating adoption of nuclear power generation. The nuclear industry has given a mixed response to this debate, to accusations of irresponsibility and to demands for more specific attention to the recognized hazards of the fuel cycle. In this situation, non-governmental bodies such as the World Council of Churches, has taken the responsibility to examine the issues so far identified and to place these in a social and ethical context. The W.C.C. general position on nuclear energy is presented. It includes the risk associated with nuclear technology; nuclear waste disposal; catastrophic accidents; accidents in reprocessing plants, low-level radiation; nuclear weapons; security; nuclear energy and a new international economic order; ethical and religious perspectives

  19. Public acceptance of nuclear power - Some ethical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arungu-Olende, S; Francis, J M; Gaspar, D de; Nashed, W; Nwosu, B C.E.; Rose, D J; Shinn, R L [World Council of Churches, Working Committee on Church and Society, Energy Advisory Group, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1977-12-15

    With the increased public perception of the future scale of dependence on nuclear energy a debate has started, raising the level of public awareness of the social, political and technical risks that are inevitably associated with the large-scale and accelerating adoption of nuclear power generation. The nuclear industry has given a mixed response to this debate, to accusations of irresponsibility and to demands for more specific attention to the recognized hazards of the fuel cycle. In this situation, non-governmental bodies such as the World Council of Churches, has taken the responsibility to examine the issues so far identified and to place these in a social and ethical context. The W.C.C. general position on nuclear energy is presented. It includes the risk associated with nuclear technology; nuclear waste disposal; catastrophic accidents; accidents in reprocessing plants, low-level radiation; nuclear weapons; security; nuclear energy and a new international economic order; ethical and religious perspectives.

  20. Science Communication for the Public Understanding of Nuclear Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seongkyung [Myungji Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-04-15

    Uncertainty, stigma, risk perception, and value judgment represent characteristics of nuclear issues in the public arena. Nuclear issue, in the public arena, is a kind of risk rather than technology that we are willing to use for good purpose. There are uncertainty, stigma, risk perception, and value judgment as characteristics of nuclear. The notion of the public, here is of active, sensitive, and sensible citizens, with power and influence. The public understands nuclear issues less through direct experience or education than through the filter of mass media. Trust has been a key issue on public understanding of nuclear issues. Trust belongs to human. The public understanding process includes perception, interpretation, and evaluation. Therefore, science communication is needed for public understanding. Unfortunately, science communication is rarely performed well, nowadays, There are three important actors-the public, experts, and media. Effective science communication means finding comprehensible ways of presenting opaque and complex nuclear issues. It makes new and strong demands on experts. In order to meet that requirement, experts should fulfill their duty about developing nuclear technology for good purpose, understand the public before expecting the public to understand nuclear issues, accept the unique culture of the media process, take the responsibility for any consequence which nuclear technologies give rise to, communicate with an access route based on sensibility and rationality, have a flexible angle in the science communication process, get creative leadership for the communication process with deliberation and disagreement, make efficient use of various science technologies for science communication. We should try to proceed with patience, because science communication makes for a more credible society.

  1. Science Communication for the Public Understanding of Nuclear Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seongkyung

    2006-01-01

    Uncertainty, stigma, risk perception, and value judgment represent characteristics of nuclear issues in the public arena. Nuclear issue, in the public arena, is a kind of risk rather than technology that we are willing to use for good purpose. There are uncertainty, stigma, risk perception, and value judgment as characteristics of nuclear. The notion of the public, here is of active, sensitive, and sensible citizens, with power and influence. The public understands nuclear issues less through direct experience or education than through the filter of mass media. Trust has been a key issue on public understanding of nuclear issues. Trust belongs to human. The public understanding process includes perception, interpretation, and evaluation. Therefore, science communication is needed for public understanding. Unfortunately, science communication is rarely performed well, nowadays, There are three important actors-the public, experts, and media. Effective science communication means finding comprehensible ways of presenting opaque and complex nuclear issues. It makes new and strong demands on experts. In order to meet that requirement, experts should fulfill their duty about developing nuclear technology for good purpose, understand the public before expecting the public to understand nuclear issues, accept the unique culture of the media process, take the responsibility for any consequence which nuclear technologies give rise to, communicate with an access route based on sensibility and rationality, have a flexible angle in the science communication process, get creative leadership for the communication process with deliberation and disagreement, make efficient use of various science technologies for science communication. We should try to proceed with patience, because science communication makes for a more credible society

  2. Ethics, Law and Professional Issues Gallagher Ann and Hodge Sue Ethics, Law and Professional Issues 192pp £20.99 Palgrave Macmillan 9780230279940 0230279945 [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    THE EDITORS provide a sound introduction to ethics, law and professional issues in health care. Scenarios before each chapter help the reader to digest and comprehend the information. My only criticism is that it is not directly relevant to nursing alone. Although there is some benefit in being aware of how other practitioners may be affected by these issues, another book aimed at nurses would be more appropriate. Later chapters about responding to unprofessional practice and promoting professional healthcare practice may be of more interest to nursing students and recently qualified healthcare professionals.

  3. International humanitarian law, nuclear weapons and the prospects for nuclear disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastassov, Anguel

    2013-11-01

    The author first recalls the general principles of the International Humanitarian Law (IHL) and outlines its main gaps (application of the notion of protected person, classification between own territory and occupied territory). Then and in this respect, he comments the various characteristics of nuclear weapons considered as explosive devices, and notably as they are thus addressed by the International Court of Justice (ICJ). He comments the legal status of the ICJ advisory opinions, and more particularly the relationship between the ICJ advisory opinion on nuclear weapons and the IHL. Different aspects are addressed and discussed: the principle of distinction, the prohibition of the use of weapons that cause unnecessary suffering or superfluous injury. The author then comments NATO's nuclear policy in the international environment, and discusses the status and condition of nuclear deterrence. In order to address prospects for nuclear disarmament, the author notably compares differences between the arms control and non-proliferation approach, and the humanitarian disarmament approach

  4. Nuclear law in motion. Report on the 15th regional meeting of the German section of AIDN/INLA e.V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    For the 15th time the German National Group of the Association Internationale du Droit Nucleaire/International Nuclear Law Association (AIDN/IN-LA) e.V. organised a regional conference. 90 participants from 15 countries, including representatives of Euratom and OECD/NEA, met in Bonn on 28 and 29 September to exchange views on current issues of nuclear law. The Rhine, which was in sight of the conference centre and connects countries, provided an excellent backdrop not only for the conference that connects nations, but also for the title of the conference ''Atomic Energy Law in Motion'' and for various lectures on nuclear transport.

  5. Soviet Theater Nuclear Forces’ Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    survivability) of those staffs. 18 Receit Soviet accounts of the "revolution in military affairs" stress the growing operational role of the General Staff...e.g., 29 economic) means and (ii) the West is preparing to take military advantage of its growing relative strength. The other factor is China. It seems...simple model of Soviet theater nuclear doctrine, might as well go hunting unicorns . He will not find it because, in any meaningful sense, it does not

  6. Progress in fission product nuclear data. Issue no. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lammer, G.; Lammer, M.

    1980-06-01

    This is the sixth issue of a report series on Fission Product Nuclear Data (FPND) which is published by the Nuclear Data Section (NDS) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The purpose of this series is to inform scientists working on FPND, or using such data, about all activities in this field which are planned, ongoing, or have recently been completed

  7. Constructibility issues associated with a nuclear waste repository in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    This report contains the text and slide reproductions of a speech on nuclear waste disposal in basalt. The presentation addresses the layout of repository access shafts and subsurface facilities resulting from the conceptual design of a nuclear repository in basalt. The constructibility issues that must be resolved prior to construction are described

  8. Nuclear Issues in the Post-September 11 era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, Lewis; Wheeler, Michael; May, Michael; Pikayev, Alexander; Wolfstahl, Jon; Roberts, Brad; Tertrais, Bruno; Umbach, Frank

    2003-03-01

    In the fall of 2002, the Foundation for Strategic Research convened a small group of high-level experts on nuclear policy issues to discuss the consequences of September 11 and of the 'war on terrorism' for nuclear debates. Participants met in Paris on September 26-27, 2002, and later provided papers which are reproduced here. This project was sponsored by the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA). Contents: 1 - Nuclear Issues in the Post-September 11 era: emerging Trends (Bruno Tertrais); 2 - Nuclear energy Issues: Global Dimensions and Security Challenges (Frank Umbach); 3 - Proliferation and Non-Proliferation: What's Changed-What Hasn't? (Jon B. Wolfstahl); 4 - Non-Proliferation: Possible New Trends after September 11 (Alexander A. Pikayev); 5 - Nuclear Deterrence Issues in the Post-September 11 World: An American Perspective (Michael O. Wheeler); 6 - The Nuclear Balance of Terror and September 11 (Brad Roberts); 7 - Nuclear Weapons after September 11 (Lewis A. Dunn); 8 - September 11 and the Need for International Nuclear Agreements (Michael May)

  9. Colloquium on the Past, Present and Future of the Nuclear Law Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echavarri, Luis; Schwartz, Julia; Dussart-Desart, Roland; Pelzer, Norbert; Leger, Marc

    2007-01-01

    The NEA Nuclear Law Committee (NLC) celebrated its 50. anniversary in February 2007. To mark the occasion, a colloquium was organised on 6 February 2007 in conjunction with the committee's regular meeting in Paris, France. Those attending included nearly all former NLC chairs and former heads of NEA Legal Affairs. This document brings together the available presentations given at this colloquium: 1 - Welcoming Address (Luis Echavarri); 2 - The Nuclear Law Committee - A Historical Perspective (Julia Schwartz); 3 - The NEA Nuclear Law Committee - From the Viewpoint of a Committee Member (Norbert Pelze); 4 - Memorable Moments from Special guests; 5 - The Prospects for Nuclear Law (Marc Leger); 6 - Concluding Remarks (Roland Dussart-Desart)

  10. Investment issues in nuclear plant license renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eynon, R.T.

    1999-01-01

    A method that determines the operating lives for existing nuclear power plants is discussed. These assumptions are the basis for projections of electricity supply through 2020 reported in the Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) Annual Energy Outlook 1999. To determine if plants will seek license renewal, one must first determine if they will be operating to the end of their current licenses. This determination is based on an economic test that assumes an investment of $150/kW will be required after 30 yr of operation for plants with older designs. This expenditure is intended to be equivalent to the cost that would be associated with any of several needs such as a one0time investment to replace aging equipment (steam generators), a series of investments to fix age-related degradation, increases in operating costs, or costs associated with decreased performance. This investment is compared with the cost of building and operating the lowest-cost new plant over the same 10-yr period. If a plant fails this test, it is assumed to be retired after 30 yr of service. All other plants are then considered candidates for license renewal. The method used to determine if it is economic to apply for license renewal and operate plants for an additional 20 yr is to assume that plants face an investment of $250 million after 40 yr of operation to refurbish aging components. This investment is compared with the lowest-cost new plant alternative evaluated over the same 20 yr that the nuclear plant would operate. If the nuclear plant is the lowest cost option, it is projected to continue to operate. EIA projects that it would be economic to extend the operating licenses for 3.7 GW of capacity (6 units)

  11. Nuclear power and the proliferation issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, W.

    1978-02-01

    This lecture addresses the question of ''accessibility'' of plutonium as it would arise in fully commercial LMFBR and LWR once-through operations. It is pointed out that the storage of spent LWR fuel results in the progressive accumulation of plutonium which becomes increasingly accessible with time (the ''plutonium mine'') whereas with the LMFBR, economic considerations demand the rapid recycle of plutonium. Furthermore, the fast breeder reactor is primarily a plutonium incinerator, the net production of plutonium being rather small and controllable so as not to exceed society's needs for new energy supplies. An eight-point world nuclear development programme is suggested, taking full note of non-proliferation considerations

  12. Energy consensus talks collapse over nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Germany's energy consensus talks, ongoing since March 1993, were brought to unsuccessful end on October 26. Representatives from the Social Democratic Party (SDP), led by Lower Saxony's prime minister, Gerhard Schroeder, failed to get approval from party leaders on continued development of advanced reactors with enhanced safety - notably the Siemens/Framatome-designed 1500-MWe European pressurized water reactor (EPR) plan, for which the prospective schedule envisages a construction start in 1998. Nor would the SDP leadership accept the continued operation of existing nuclear plans to the end of their design life (some 20 to 25 years)

  13. Know Nukes: A Nuclear Power Issues Curriculum Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Charlie; McCandless, Marjorie

    Classroom activities are presented to help teachers introduce general controversial issues and specific issues on nuclear power in their high school science, social studies, and English classes. Objectives are to help students understand the various techniques of persuasion; the relationship between bias, persuasion, and fact; how these techniques…

  14. Legal issues associated with preparing for a nuclear energy programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelzer, N.

    2009-01-01

    Developing and implementing a national programme for the civilian use of nuclear energy means embarking on the use of a Janus-faced form of energy. We all know that nuclear energy implies both extraordinary benefits and extraordinary risks. This fact requires a legal framework appropriate to cope with both elements of nuclear power. Legislators and State authorities have to establish a sound balance between risks and benefits. That is not at all an easy task. While excluding or limiting risks requires severe legal control mechanisms, the benefits can only fully be enjoyed if the legal framework ensures freedom of research and of economic and industrial development including the guarantee of property ownership and of investments. Combining both opposite poles seems like trying to square the circle. In case of a conflict between promotion and protection, there is no doubt that the protection against nuclear risks has to prevail. Therefore this aspect of nuclear law will be mainly dealt with in this presentation. Establishing a legal framework to tame the hazards of nuclear energy is a much more challenging task for law-makers than providing a legal basis for promoting the use of nuclear energy. With regard to the promotion of nuclear energy, States enjoy a broad range of discretion and may use a great number of legal and non-legal instruments to support the development of a nuclear programme. From a legal point of view, promoting nuclear energy does not require a specific regime. However, it does require a specific regime to control the risks of nuclear energy. States preparing for a nuclear energy programme have to be aware that the use of nuclear energy is not an exclusively national matter. In particular the risk associated with nuclear energy extends beyond national borders. Using the benefits also needs international cooperation in many fields including, e.g., research or fuel supply. Today a network of multilateral and bilateral international treaties exists

  15. Constitutional lawful questions of the getout from the use of nuclear energy for generation of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denninger, E.

    2000-01-01

    The author of the book under consideration reports on constitution lawful questions of the exit from the use of nuclear energy to generate electricity. The main aspects of this book are: (a) Realization of the decision of dropping out by means of the parliamentary law; (b) Requirement of the maintenance of the use of nuclear energy due to a law of higher rank?; (c) Legal status of power supply companies and their operating companies; (d) Concrete protection area of ownership guarantee of Article 14 GG according to nuclear power stations; (e) Supplementary time limit of atom lawful permissions as limiting stipulation according to Article 14 sect. 1 sentence 2 GG; (f) Constitution lawful requirements according to get out law, I: The abstract scale; (g) Constitutional lawful requirements according to get out law, II: Application of scales and consequences

  16. Nuclear power debate: moral, economic, technical, and political issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, D. III.

    1977-01-01

    The pace at which nuclear power will develop is clouded with uncertainties. At the end of 1976 in the United States, 61 nuclear reactors were operating, representing slightly more than 9 percent of the country's total generating capacity. Another 168 reactors were either planned, under construction, or on order. Outside the United States, commitments to nuclear power grew by 17 percent in 1975 over 1974. Indonesia, Turkey, and Poland ordered nuclear plants, bringing to 41 the number of countries committed to nuclear energy. In 1976, 112 nuclear reactors were operating in 18 countries; an additional 342 plants were planned, on order, or under construction. The speed at which nuclear power will continue to grow is dependent on a number of factors: the rate at which demand for energy increases, the changing economics of alternative methods of energy production, the processes by which decisions affecting nuclear power development are made, and the degree to which they satisfy public concerns about the safety of nuclear energy. This book addresses itself to these factors as follows: Economic issues: At what rate will demand for energy increase, and how can that demand be met. (Chapter 2.) How cost-competitive are the major alternative methods of producing electricity that now exist--nuclear power and coal. (Chapter 3.) Decision making issues: Are the processes by which decisions to proceed with development of nuclear power, both in government and in industry, adequate to protect the interests of the public and of investors. (Chapters 4 and 5.) Safety issues: Are nuclear power plants themselves safe. (Chapters 6 and 7.) Can adequate safeguards be established to ensure protection against misuse of the products or by-products of those plants and to ensure the permanent safe storage of radioactive wastes

  17. Comparative Study Between The IAEA Model Regulations and The Egyptian Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abaza, A.; Hosni, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study deals with the security of radioactive sources due to its great importance, in order to provide the adequate security of these sources from the threat of theft, sabotage, illegal seizure through doing a comparison between the model regulations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (11) and the Egyptian law (No. 7/2010) that regulates nuclear and radiation activities and its executive regulations. The Egyptian legislator has put a chapter entitled n uclear security w ith the aim of organizing the security of nuclear materials. However, there was a review to some regulatory rules issued by the IAEA on the security of these sources which include the responsibilities of the licensee towards it. This chapter also, addressed the security culture through rehabilitation and training, in addition to the obligations of the competent authorities who is responsible for the process of issuing the license when full requirements are met. It has been shown that the Egyptian law and its executive regulations contained the rule that provides the necessary protection for these radioactive sources. Furthermore, more regulations are still needed to provide adequate security and more protection for the radioactive sources and its facilities

  18. Nuclear energy - the century's principles of law and good conduct in international nuclear trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coimbra, G.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper considers the object and nature of the models of nuclear co-operation between Brazil and developed countries, with regard to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. As an observer, the author analyses some of the juridicial and ethical aspects of the Brazilian Nuclear Programme. She examines some of the realities to be faced, and points out how important it is to anticipate and take necessary steps in order that difficulties, which are easily identifiable, may be reversed in the near future. The author also calls into question the means for reversal of the current situation, so as to satisfy the parties concerned: Brazil and her potential partners. Finally, the paper aims at complying with the conclusions reached by Working Group number 3 of the International Law Association on ''The Principles of Good Conduct in the International Nuclear Trade''. (author)

  19. News from the front lines of nuclear law; Aus der Werkstatt des Nuklearrechts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raetzke, Christian; Feldmann, Ulrike; Frank, Akos (eds.)

    2016-07-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 14th Regional Conference of the German Branch of the International Nuclear Law Association (INLA) held in Nuremberg in September 2015. In five chapters, German and international experts, with contributions partly in German but predominantly in English, explain the most recent developments in nuclear law in Germany, in other countries and on the international level. The topics include: turnkey contracts in the nuclear industry; claims under EU environmental law and under ICSID arbitration; developments in legal requirements for final disposal of nuclear waste in various countries such as Germany and the US; topics of nuclear liability, such as the situation in India; and finally nuclear safety and regulation. For anyone who wants to keep up-to-date on important developments of nuclear law, this volume is an obvious choice.

  20. Survey on Issues related to National Nuclear Promotion Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Byungchool; Lee, Youngjoon; Lee, Youngcheol; Jeong, I. K.; Kim, Hyunjun; Kim, Youngsoo; Yun, Sungwon; Moon, Keehwan; Chung, Whansam

    2013-06-01

    Ο Major issues surrounding nuclear are including suspicions about nuclear safety, spent-fuel management, acquiring the advanced R and D capabilities and making the nuclear a creative industry Ο Solid measures for securing safety should be formulated and implemented for reducing public anxiety of nuclear use Ο The long-term R and D performance system from a scientific perspective should be established for expanding Research and Development for safer use of nuclear Ο The spent-fuel management policy should be determined through publicizing process Ο Establishing small and medium enterprises-oriented supply system of reactors and SMRs and Encouraging the radiation fusion technology industrialization for promoting creative industry utilizing nuclear

  1. Interfaith Program for Public Awareness of Nuclear Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    Planning for the Interfaith Progam for Public Awareness of Nuclear Issues (IPPANI) began at the time of the Falkland Islands crisis. At that time representatives of certain of the faith groups in Toronto became concerned about the moral and ethical implications of Canada's export of fuel for a CANDU nuclear generating plant in Argentina. In order to accomplish its goals, the Planning Committee devised a program to provide unbiased input to the faith groups' deliberations on the ethical and moral issues involved in the nuclear debate. The development of a fair set of questions was aided by obtaining advice from the Canadian Nuclear Association (CNA), and from Energy Probe and others. The work of preparing a suitable agenda was completed early in 1984. Its result was embodied in appendices to the public document promoting the program, which is appended to this report. Invitations were sent to over six hundred individuals and organizations to appear before the panelists as 'presenters'. The resulting invitation list included spokespeople for both 'pro' and 'anti' nuclear positions on each of the three topics, as well as some who were found to be 'in the middle'. The three major topics were domestic nuclear issues, international trade and military uses of nuclear materials and technology. The next task of the Planning Committee is that of embodying the process and its results in an educational program for the supplementary and parochial school systems. The production of this book is the first step in that task

  2. Factor Analysis and Framework Development for Incorporating Public Trust on Nuclear Safety issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seongkyung; Lee, Gyebong [The Myongji Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gihyung; Lee, Gyehwi; Jeong, Jina [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), a regulatory expert organization in charge of nuclear safety in Korea, realized that a more fundamental and systematic analysis of activities is needed to actively meet the greater variety of concerns people have and increase the reliability of the results of regulation. Nuclear safety, a highly specialized field, has previously been discussed primarily from the viewpoint of the engineers who deal with the technology, but now 'public trust in nuclear safety' has to be viewed from the standpoint of the general public and from the socio-cultural perspective. Specific measures must be taken to examine which factors affect public trust and how we can secure and reproduce those factors to gain it. Also, an efficient system for incorporating public trust in nuclear safety must be established. In this study, various case studies were examined to identify the factors that affect public trust in nuclear safety. First, nuclear safety laws and information disclosure systems of major countries were examined by investigating data and conducting in-depth interviews. To explore a public framework concerning nuclear safety, big data of social media were analyzed. Also, Q methodology was used to analyze the risk schemata of the opinion leaders living in areas near nuclear power plants. Several surveys were conducted to analyze the amount of trust the public had in nuclear safety as well as their awareness of nuclear safety issues. Based on these analyses, factors affecting public trust in nuclear safety were extracted, and measures to build systems incorporating public trust in nuclear safety were proposed. This study addresses the public trust in nuclear safety on condition that the safety is ensured technically and mechanically.

  3. Factor Analysis and Framework Development for Incorporating Public Trust on Nuclear Safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seongkyung; Lee, Gyebong; Lee, Gihyung; Lee, Gyehwi; Jeong, Jina

    2014-01-01

    The Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), a regulatory expert organization in charge of nuclear safety in Korea, realized that a more fundamental and systematic analysis of activities is needed to actively meet the greater variety of concerns people have and increase the reliability of the results of regulation. Nuclear safety, a highly specialized field, has previously been discussed primarily from the viewpoint of the engineers who deal with the technology, but now 'public trust in nuclear safety' has to be viewed from the standpoint of the general public and from the socio-cultural perspective. Specific measures must be taken to examine which factors affect public trust and how we can secure and reproduce those factors to gain it. Also, an efficient system for incorporating public trust in nuclear safety must be established. In this study, various case studies were examined to identify the factors that affect public trust in nuclear safety. First, nuclear safety laws and information disclosure systems of major countries were examined by investigating data and conducting in-depth interviews. To explore a public framework concerning nuclear safety, big data of social media were analyzed. Also, Q methodology was used to analyze the risk schemata of the opinion leaders living in areas near nuclear power plants. Several surveys were conducted to analyze the amount of trust the public had in nuclear safety as well as their awareness of nuclear safety issues. Based on these analyses, factors affecting public trust in nuclear safety were extracted, and measures to build systems incorporating public trust in nuclear safety were proposed. This study addresses the public trust in nuclear safety on condition that the safety is ensured technically and mechanically

  4. Some comments of the parlamentary actions about the province of Cordoba's nuclear policy law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, H.R.; Muller, E.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the actual status of the Cordoba Province's Nuclear Policy Law in Argentine Republic is presented. The different actions made in the parlamentary treatment of the law are described in detail, with mention of the more important subjects from each political force. The contents of the law are described in detail with special emphasis on the historical development of them. (Author) [es

  5. Legal aspects of search and mining of nuclear ores under Brazilian law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godinho, T.M.

    1980-06-01

    The legal aspects of mining in the Brazilian law its general principles, the basic concepts and rules established in the constitution of Brazil, in the mining code and in special laws are analysed. The rules for mining and usage of nuclear ores and other ores of interest to the nuclear field are emphasized. (A.L.) [pt

  6. The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The law intends under the principles of the atomic energy act to regulate the refining, processing and reprocessing businesses of nuclear raw and fuel metarials and the installation and operation of reactors for the peaceful and systematic utilization of such materials and reactors and for securing public safety by preventing disasters, as well as to control internationally regulated things for effecting the international agreements on the research, development and utilization of atomic energy. Basic terms are defined, such as atomic energy; nuclear fuel material; nuclear raw material; nuclear reactor; refining; processing; reprocessing; internationally regulated thing. Any person who is going to engage in refining businesses other than the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation shall get the special designation by the Prime Minister and the Minister of International Trade Industry. Any person who is going to engage in processing businesses shall get the particular admission of the Prime Minister. Any person who is going to establish reactors shall get the particular admission of the Prime Minister, The Minister of International Trade and Industry or the Minister of Transportation according to the kinds of specified reactors, respectively. Any person who is going to engage in reprocessing businesses other than the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation and the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute shall get the special designation by the Prime Minister. The employment of nuclear fuel materials and internationally regulated things is defined in detail. (Okada, K.)

  7. Human Rights and International Labour Law issues concerning Migrant Women Working as Domestic Helpers in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peng, Q.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/375803998

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses the human rights and international labour law issues concerning rural migrant women workers as domestic helpers in China and offers several legislative suggestions to the Chinese government. By describing the current de facto and de jure condition of rural migrant women working

  8. Holdup-related issues in safeguarding of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1988-03-01

    Residual inventories of special nuclear materials (SNM) remaining in processing facilities (holdup) are recognized as an insidious problem for both safety and safeguards. This paper identifies some of the issues that are of concern to the safeguards community at-large that are related to holdup of SNM in large-scale process equipment. These issues range from basic technologies of SNM production to changing regulatory requirements to meet the needs of safeguarding nuclear materials. Although there are no magic formulas to resolve these issues, there are several initiatives that could be taken in areas of facility design, plant operation, personnel training, SNM monitoring, and regulatory guidelines to minimize the problems of holdup and thereby improve both safety and safeguards at nuclear material processing plants. 8 refs

  9. Nuclear Knowledge Management Implementation Issues In Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandara, H.M.N.R.

    2014-01-01

    About Knowledge Management: Process of organizing and distributing an Organization’s collective wisdom so the right information gets to the right people at the right time. NKM Implementation Problems in Sri Lanka: • Difficulty of identifying nuclear knowledge holders; • NKM has not been given considerable importance; • Many nuclear science experts are in retirement age; • No proper mechanism is available to replace young personnel for their positions; • Unawareness of general public about his technology. • Capacity building through training and education and transferring knowledge from centers of knowledge to centers of growth are key issues. • Development of new courses related to nuclear science is a key issue to be highly considered. • The tendency towards the training and educations of nuclear personnel in the country is becoming less and less

  10. Nuclear power in the OECD countries results and current issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.F.

    1989-01-01

    The first use of nuclear power for the generation of electricity on a commercial scale occurred in the United Kingdom in 1956. Today, 13 OECD countries have 318 nuclear units in operation and 66 more in construction or on order. This outstanding achievement is the result of the successful organization, start up, and operation of an industry to design, build, equip, fuel, and maintain these facilites. Nuclear power, however, is currently troubled by a number of issues that may impair its ability to reach its full potential. The industry has acknowledged problems that can be and are being managed. But the industry also has a number of political difficulties that could be beyond its ability to resolve with its own resources. These are issues common to the introduction of new technologies into a complex world. Nevertheless, nuclear power continues to be the means by which we can provide the electric power needed to raise the living standard of everyone on the globe

  11. International Law governing the Safe and Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowitsch-Prevor, O.

    2002-01-01

    1. The International Governmental Institutions. History and mandates: IAEA, OECD/NEA, EURATOM. 2. International Treaties and Conventions: The Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy: Commitment and Verification (the NPT, Safeguards Agreements with the IAEA, The Additional protocol, Regional Non-proliferation Treaties); the Physical protection of Nuclear Material (Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material); Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (Vienna Convention on the Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention, Paris Convention on Civil Liability, Joint Protocol relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention, Convention on Supplementary compensation for Nuclear Damage); In case of Nuclear Accident: Notification and Assistance (Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, Convention on Assistance in the case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency); International Law Governing Nuclear Safety (Nuclear Safety Convention, Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management). 3. Relationship between International and National Law

  12. The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The law aims to perform regulations on enterprises of refining, processing and reprocessing of nuclear source and fuel materials and on establishment and operation of reactors to realize the peaceful and deliberate utilization of atomic energy according to the principle of the atomic energy basic law. Regulations of use of internationally regulated substances are also envisaged to observe international agreements. Basic concepts and terms are defined, such as: atomic energy; nuclear fuel material; nuclear source material; reactor; refining; processing; reprocessing and internationally regulated substance. Any person besides the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Material Developing Corporation who undertakes refining shall be designated by the Prime Minister and the Minister of International Trade and Industry. An application shall be filed to the ministers concerned, listing name and address of the person, name and location of the refining works, equipment and method of refining, etc. The permission of the Prime Minister is necessary for any person who engages in processing. An application shall be filed to the Prime Minister, listing name and address of the person, name and location of the processing works and equipment and method of processing, etc. Permission of the Prime Minister, the Minister of International Trade and Industry or the Minister of Transport is necessary for any person who sets up reactors. An application shall be filed to the minister concerned, listing name and address of the person, purpose of operation, style, thermal output of reactor and number of units, etc. (Okada, K.)

  13. The Norwegian Plan of Action for nuclear safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    The Plan of Action underlies Norwegian activities in the field of international co-operation to enhance nuclear safety and prevent radioactive contamination from activities in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Geographically the highest priority has been given to support for safety measures in north-west Russia. This information brochure outlines the main content of the Plan of Action for nuclear safety issues and lists a number of associated measures and projects

  14. The Norwegian Plan of Action for nuclear safety issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The Plan of Action underlies Norwegian activities in the field of international co-operation to enhance nuclear safety and prevent radioactive contamination from activities in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Geographically the highest priority has been given to support for safety measures in north-west Russia. This information brochure outlines the main content of the Plan of Action for nuclear safety issues and lists a number of associated measures and projects.

  15. Evaluating training and information to teachers on nuclear energy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunnell, B.J.

    1994-01-01

    In England and Wales, school programs are defined by National Curricula; the method of teaching is left for the teacher to determine. This establishes the framework within which nuclear energy issues are taught. Teachers need a good understanding of what they teach and competence in the appropriate and effective learning strategies. A range of training opportunities is available to teachers (conferences from Local Education Authority, etc.), but the attention given to nuclear energy matters and controversial issues varies significantly between them. Many teaching resources are available but alone they cannot satisfy the training needs of all teachers (practical works, visits). 2 refs

  16. Nuclear fuel assurance: origins, trends, and policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, T.L.; Jacoby, H.D.

    1979-02-01

    The economic, technical and political issues which bear on the security of nuclear fuel supply internationally are addressed. The structure of international markets for nuclear fuel is delineated; this includes an analysis of the political constraints on fuel availability, especially the connection to supplier nonproliferation policies. The historical development of nuclear fuel assurance problems is explored and an assessment is made of future trends in supply and demand and in the political context in which fuel trade will take place in the future. Finally, key events and policies which will affect future assurance are identified

  17. Analysis of print media coverage of nuclear power issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.L.; Nealey, S.M.; Montano, D.E.

    1978-04-01

    224 newspaper articles were sampled from four newspapers, extrapolating to about 2850 nuclear power articles from 1972 to 1976. 124 magazine articles were found in four magazines (Time, Business Week, Scientific American, Environment). The newspapers wee found to run close coverage of nuclear power issues. The articles were mainly (45%) focused on reactors and reactor operation. The articles were judged to be antinuclear more often than pronuclear (only Scientific American discussed benefits more than costs). The same general conclusion was reached for articles on nuclear waste management

  18. Development and issues of nuclear industry in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuangchi Liu

    1994-01-01

    Industrial and economic developments in Taiwan have achieved a so-called 'miracle' in the last decades. Endeavors by the private enterprise, prudent planning by the government, and the devoted efforts by the diligent and creative labor forces have been credited jointly with the result. To develop a sustainable nuclear industry in support of an efficient and safe power generation and other applications of nuclear energy in Taiwan, continuing efforts from the private industry, government and each individual of the nuclear industry will be required. In this paper, milestones of the past and major issues for future developments will be discussed

  19. Regulatory issues for nuclear power plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, J.

    2000-01-01

    The workshop of 26-27 june 2000, on nuclear power Plant LIfe Management (PLIM), also included working groups in which major issues facing PLIM activities for nuclear power plants were identified and discussed. The second group was on Regulation. The Regulatory Working Group will attempt to identify some of the more pertinent issues affecting nuclear plant regulation in a changing PLIM environment, to identify some possible actions to be taken to address these issues, and to identify some of the parties responsible for taking these actions. Some preliminary regulatory issues are noted below. This is not intended to be a comprehensive list of such issues but rather is intended to stimulate discussion among the experts attending this Workshop. One of the concerns in the regulatory arena is how the structural integrity of the plants can be assured for an extended lifetime. Technological advances directed toward the following are likely to be important factors in the regulatory process of life extension. - Preventive and corrective maintenance (e.g., water chemistry control, pressure vessel annealing, and replacement of core internals). - Ageing and degradation mechanisms and evaluation (e.g., embrittlement, wear, corrosion/erosion, fatigue, and stress corrosion). - Monitoring, surveillance, and inspection (e.g., fatigue monitoring and non-destructive testing). - Optimisation of maintenance (e.g., using risk-based analysis). On the business side, there is concern about technical support by manufacturers, fuel companies, and construction companies. Maintaining a strong technical base and skilled workers in a potentially declining environment is another concern in the regulatory community. Waste management and decommissioning remain significant issue regarding PLIM. These issues affect all three areas of concern - technology, business, and regulation. It is against this background, that the issues put forth in this paper are presented. The objective of presenting these

  20. The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    General provisions specify the purpose of the Law and definitions of terms used in it. Provisions relating to control of business management for refining cover designation of business operation, requirements for designation, permission and report of alteration, report of commencement of business operation, revocation of designation, recording, and measures for wastes. Provisions relating to control of business management for processing cover permission of operation, requirements for permission, approval of design and construction plan, inspection of facilities, report of commencement of business management, measures for maintenance, suspension of use of facilities, responsible personnel for handling nuclear fuel, and permit, obligations, etc. of responsible personnel for handing nuclear fuel. Provisions relating to control of construction and operation of nuclear reactor cover permission of construction, permission concerning nuclear reactor mounted on foreign nuclear powered ships, requirements for permission, etc. Other articles stipulate provisions relating to control of business management for reprocessing, use of nuclear fuel substances, use of materials and substances covered by international regulations, designation of inspection organizations, and other rules. (Nogami, K.)

  1. Analysis of nuclear issue and development of policy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Byungchool; Lee, Youngjoon; Yun, Sungwon; Yun, Keehwan; Ko, Wonil

    2012-08-01

    ? Promoted amicably passing a resolution on a general meeting of Atomic Energy Promotion Commission through the preliminary review and opinion gathering ? Mutual understanding and forming a social consensus on nuclear related issues through R and D reporting about the SMART, Decommission and Dis, Future Nuclear System etc Ο Promoted strengthening the work related to the nuclear policy through discovering the 8 policy initiatives prioritized Ο Analyzed the policy process as well as previous research results related to spent fuel for establishment of spent-fuel policy and presented the methods for legislation Ο Suggested the establishment and multi-step implementation strategies of 'Nuclear educational hurb center' Ο Germany, Switzerland, Belgium returned to their former phase-out strategies, except for these three countries, did not change nuclear promotion policies Ο Democratic United Party is currently taking the opposite stance on NPP but it is necessary to make an effort to analyze current domestic energy circumstances on objective and rational grounds

  2. The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This law has following two purposes. At first, it exercises necessary controls concerning nuclear source material, nuclear fuel material and reactors in order to: (a) limit their uses to those for the peaceful purpose; (b) ensure planned uses of them; and (c) ensure the public safety by preventing accidents from their uses. Necessary controls are to be made concerning the refining, fabricating and reprocessing businesses, as well as the construction and operation of reactors. The second purpose of the law is to exercise necessary controls concerning internationally controlled material in order to execute the treaties and other international agreements on the research, development and use of atomic energy (the first chapter). In the second and following chapters the law prescribes controls for the persons who wish to carry on the refining and fabricating businesses, to construct and operate reactors, and to conduct the reprocessing business, as well as for those who use the internationally controlled material, respectively in separate chapters by the category of those businesses. For example, the controls to the person who wishes to construct and operate reactors are: (a) the permission of the business after the examination; (b) the examination and approval of the design and methods of construction prior to the construction; (c) the inspection of the facilities prior to their use; (d) periodic inspections of the facilities; (e) the establishment of requirements for safety measures and punishments to their violations. (Matsushima, A.)

  3. Legal analysis at the Law for Civil liabilities by nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez G, A.

    2000-01-01

    The present work has the objective to analyse in specific terms the legal regime of the Civil liability by nuclear damage. It has been the intention of that this compilation is the initiation of a large way which awake the interests of jurists and specialists dedicated to study the aspects as the liability by nuclear damage, compensation guarantee, risk and nuclear damage among others. The peaceful applications of the nuclear energy require the necessity of a legal ordinance that it is updated according to the nuclear technology development that the regulations of the common law do not cover. This work is initiated mentioning some antecedents of the nuclear energy law in Mexico. Also is realized the study of the elemental concepts and definitions about the subject as the evolution of the legal figure in the National law frame where the jurist must do an incursion in the nuclear field and make use of scientific and technical terminology. It was analysed and it was made the reflection of the legal figure of liability, its exoneration cases, about the concepts of risk and nuclear damage overcoming the conceptual error among them. It is talked about the study of nuclear damage and its repairing as financial guarantee to compensate to the people injured by a nuclear accident. Finally, it was treated about the legal analysis and proposals of additions and reforms for updating the Nuclear damage liability Law, concluding with general contributions to the Law resulting products of this work. (Author)

  4. Danger defence and risk provision in nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, R.

    1978-01-01

    Starting from the atomic-law term of danger, which is defined as a product of likeliness and volume of damage, the author comments upon the decisive and, as to date, unsolved question of which degree of likeliness a possible course of events must have in order to be taken into consideration as a danger that must be averted. In doing this, it is stressed that the most important point is to find a rationally practicable standard of likeliness or unlikeliness. This standard is then developed from the deterministical point of view. It corresponds with the postulate that effective precautions must be taken against all known causes for incidents and accidents. A standard of practical ratio results from this: damage does not have to be taken into consideration any longer if, due to the precautions taken and the knowledge level of the leading scientists and technicians, if it is not likely to occur. In addition to this preventive protection from danger, paragraph 7, Sec.2 No.3 Atomic Energy Act stipulates another risk under the reservation of precaution, however the technical possibility of realization and the relativity of expenditure and benefit. With regard to these criteria, the author gives his opinion on the judgements of the administrative courts in Wuerzburg and Freiburg which, starting from the same principles, have different points of view on the question of the so-called rupture safety in nuclear power plants. (UN) [de

  5. The law for Japan Nuclear Ship Development Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The law prescribes in the 1st chapter the establishment of above mentioned agency as a legal person with its principal office in Tokyo and with the investment of 100 million yens by the government as a part of its capital. The 2nd chapter includes the provisions about officers of the agency, according to them: the agency has a president and a executive director, directors within 3 persons, and a auditor; the president and auditor are to be appointed by the competent Minister after consulting with the Atomic Energy Commission and directors including the executive director should be appointed by the president after receiving the approval of the competent Minister; and terms of their offices are 2 (auditor) to 4 years (others). In the 3rd chapter the business of the agency is defined as to include: the design, construction and operation of nuclear ships; education and training of the crew of those ships; research and studies concerning above listed activities; and others. The 4th chapter prescribes the procedures of finance and accounting of the agency, according to them: the agency's business plan, budget and finance plan should each year be sanctioned by the competent Minister before the beginning of the year; and the financial documents should each year be approved by the Minister after the end of the year. (Matsushima, A.)

  6. International nuclear third party liability law: The response to Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    In terms of liability and compensation issues, the response of the international community to the accident at Chernobyl has been comprehensive, aimed at modernising two outdated international regimes, linking them together and adopting a brand, new global one - all this in the hope of bettering the situation of victims of a nuclear accident, wherever they may be found. That improvement will be brought about in a number of ways once all of the relevant international instruments have entered into force. Much more money will be available to compensate victims of a nuclear accident and that money will be more readily and easily accessible. More victims will be entitled to compensation, both in terms of the type of damage that they have suffered and where those victims were physically located at the time they suffered it; in some cases, such as under the Supplementary Compensation Convention, victims in states other than that of the liable operator will be in a privileged position as regards a portion of the available compensation. In addition, the period in which claims for compensation can be made in respect of personal injury and loss of life has been extended, in recognition of the fact that some such injuries may not manifest themselves for many years after the accident has occurred. Yet despite the lessons learned from Chernobyl, despite the attempts to make these new or amended instruments as attractive as possible to encourage the broadest possible adherence, their acceptance by individual states has not been overwhelming. This is particularly true in the case of the VC Protocol and the CSC where the required liability amounts and financial security limits were intentionally established at levels deemed to be acceptable to the vast majority of potential parties. It is equally discouraging to see that Ukraine has not ratified either the VC Protocol or the CSC, even though it signed both shortly after their adoption in 1997. Similarly, the Russian Federation has

  7. Nuclear power systems: Their safety. Current issue review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, L.C.

    1994-04-01

    Human beings utilize energy in many forms and from a variety of sources. A number of countries have chosen nuclear-electric generation as a component of their energy system. At the end of 1992, there were 419 power reactors operating in 29 countries, accounting for more than 15% of the world's production of electricity. In 1992, 13 countries derived at least 25% of their electricity from nuclear units, with Lithuania leading at just over 78%, followed closely by France at 72%. In the same year, Canada produced about 16% of its electricity from nuclear units. Some 53 power reactors are under construction in 14 countries outside the former USSR. Within the ex-USSR countries, six new reactors are currently under construction. No human endeavour carries the guarantee of perfect safety and the question of whether of not nuclear-electric generation represents an 'acceptable' risk to society has long been vigorously debated. Until the events of late April 1986 in the then Soviet Union, nuclear safety had indeed been an issue for discussion, for some concern, but not for alarm. The accident at the Chernobyl reactor irrevocably changed all that. This disaster brought the matter of nuclear safety into the public mind in a dramatic fashion. Subsequent opening of the ex-Soviet nuclear power program to outside scrutiny has done little to calm people's concerns about the safety of nuclear power in that part of the world. This paper discusses the issue of safety in complex energy systems and provides brief accounts of some of the most serious reactor accidents that have occurred to date, as well as more recent, less dramatic events touching on the safety issue. (author). 7 refs

  8. Adolescents' knowledge of nuclear issues and the effects of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roscoe, B.; Goodwin, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    Three hundred fifty-seven college students were surveyed to assess later adolescents' awareness of the status of nuclear arms development and possible effects of a nuclear war on people and the environment. Chi-square analyses were performed to determine whether the frequency of correct responses differed with regard to participants' sex, political orientation, and position toward the United States' possession of nuclear weapons. Results suggest that later adolescents are extremely uninformed regarding the current status of nuclear issues and the consequences of a nuclear war. These data, coupled with findings from previous studies reporting children's and adolescents' concerns and fears about nuclear war, indicate that there is a strong need to educate young people concerning nuclear issues

  9. International conference on topical issues in nuclear safety. Contributed papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The objective of the Conference was to foster the exchange of information on topical issues in nuclear safety, with the aim of consolidating an international consensus on the present status of these issues, priorities for future work, and needs for strengthening international cooperation, including the IAEA recommendations for future activities. This book contains concise contributed papers submitted on issues falling within the thematic scope of the Conference: risk informed decision making, influence of external factors on safety, safety of fuel cycle facilities, safety of research reactors, and safety performance indicators.

  10. Policy issues of transporting spent nuclear fuel by rail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spraggins, H.B.

    1994-01-01

    The topic of this paper is safe and economical transportation of spent nuclear fuel by rail. The cost of safe movement given the liability consequences in the event of a rail accident involving such material is the core issue. Underlying this issue is the ability to access the risk probability of such an accident. The paper delineates how the rail industry and certain governmental agencies perceive and assess such important operational, safety, and economic issues. It also covers benefits and drawbacks of dedicated and regular train movement of such materials

  11. International conference on topical issues in nuclear safety. Contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the Conference was to foster the exchange of information on topical issues in nuclear safety, with the aim of consolidating an international consensus on the present status of these issues, priorities for future work, and needs for strengthening international cooperation, including the IAEA recommendations for future activities. This book contains concise contributed papers submitted on issues falling within the thematic scope of the Conference: risk informed decision making, influence of external factors on safety, safety of fuel cycle facilities, safety of research reactors, and safety performance indicators

  12. Issues and scenarios for nuclear waste management systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, J.E.

    1980-11-01

    The Planning and Analysis Branch of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Waste Management Programs is developing a new systems integration program. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory was requested to perform a brief scoping analysis of what scenarios, questions, and issues should be addressed by the systems integration program. This document reports on that scoping analysis

  13. The Superpowers: Nuclear Weapons and National Security. National Issues Forums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Greg; Melville, Keith

    Designed to stimulate thinking about United States-Soviet relationships in terms of nuclear weapons and national security, this document presents ideas and issues that represent differing viewpoints and positions. Chapter 1, "Rethinking the U.S.-Soviet Relationship," considers attempts to achieve true national security, and chapter 2,…

  14. Nuclear waste management in Canada: critical issues, critical perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Genevieve Fuji; Durant, Darrin

    2009-01-01

    ... on FSC-certified ancient-forest-free paper (100 percent post-consumer recycled) that is processed chlorineand acid-free. Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication Nuclear waste management in Canada : critical issues, critical perspectives / edited by Darrin Durant and Genevieve Fuji Johnson. Includes bibliographical references an...

  15. Some power uprate issues in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipping, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Issues and themes concerned with nuclear power plant uprating are examined. Attention is brought to the fact that many candidate nuclear power plants for uprating have anyway been operated below their rated power for a significant part of their operating life. The key issues remain safety and reliability in operation at all times, irrespective of the nuclear power plant's chronological or design age or power rating. The effects of power uprates are discussed in terms of material aspects and expected demands on the systems, structures and components. The impact on operation and maintenance methods is indicated in terms of changes to the ageing surveillance programmes. Attention is brought to the necessity checking or revising operator actions after power up-rating has been implemented

  16. State and supplementary civil liability insurance: the example of swiss nuclear liability law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehlmann, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes State guarantee and nuclear liability insurance which has been established, in Switzerland, after the vote of the law of 18 march 1983: Civil liability of nuclear operator has no limitations for nuclear damages compensations. The coverage is given by private insurance and State guarantee. 1 tab

  17. Private International Law Issues in Opt-out and Opt-in Instruments of Harmonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogt, Morten Midtgaard

    2013-01-01

    of Goods from 1980 (CISG) and the European Commission Proposal for a common European Sales Law from 2011 (CESL). Although the two instruments of substantial harmonization regulate the same area of civil law, they differ with respect to the type of formal instrument of harmonization, the material, personal......This article deals with opt-in and opt-out instruments of harmonization, how they apply and compete. It analyses the Private International Law (PIL) issues which arise and bases the analysis on the two instruments of harmonization – the Vienna Convention on Contract for the International Sale...... into these questions and argues, inter alia, that the CISG as a global international convention should have priority over the regional CESL, that the choice of the CESL should be based on a PIL choice of binding European ‘Community rules of law’, that both instruments cannot possible overrule the established PIL...

  18. Nuclear power and the non-proliferation issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    This leaflet, issued by the British Nuclear Forum on behalf of the industry, seeks first to place the problem of reconciling the need for nuclear power with its possible weapon uses in a historical perspective. Secondly, it describes the technical and political measures which are now taken, and others which could be introduced in order to ensure that nuclear power, which offers the cheapest and safest large-scale energy source for the future, can be made available without contributing to the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Headings are: introduction; the early years; the IAEA; uranium enrichment; plutonium; secrecy has failed; the Non-Proliferation Treaty; the London Suppliers Group; the situation today; the British position; conclusions. (U.K.)

  19. Sharea Issues in the Application of Takaful: Review on Islamic Law Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharto Suharto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Insurance is still debated between scholars when viewed in the light of Islamic law. Contemporary Muslim jurists are fully aware that the legal status of Insurance not been determined by Islamic law thinkers in advance (jurists. The application of Takāful today is the result of a struggle between the understanding of Islami law with the reality of what happened. Thus, the problem needs to be reviewed in the light of Islamic law in depth. This paper attempts to offer Shariah Issues in the Application of Takāful From Islamic Law Perspective, including The Concepts of Takāful (Sharia Insurance, Legal Basis of Takāful (Sharia Insurance, History of Takāful (Shariah Insurance Development, Scholars' Views on Takāful (Sharia Insurance, The Principles of Takāful (Sharia Insurance, Establishment of Contract in Takāful (Sharia Insurance, and To Compare The Characteristics Between Takāful (Shariah Insurance and  Commercial Insurance.

  20. Nuclear waste management in Canada : critical issues, critical perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durant, D.; Fuji Johnson, G.

    2009-01-01

    As oil reserves decline and the environment takes centre stage in public policy discussions, the merits and dangers of nuclear power and nuclear waste management continue to be debated. Canada is intent on building more reactors to increase energy production without destroying the planet, but it and other nuclear energy-producing countries face not only technical problems but also social and ethical issues. This book provides a critical antidote to the favourable position of government and industry. The contributors build their case by exploring key issues and developments. What do frequently used terms such as safety, risk, and acceptability really mean? How and why did the public consultation process in Canada fail to address ethical and social issues? What is the significance and potential of a public consultation process that involves diverse interests, epistemologies, and actors, including Aboriginal peoples? And how do we ensure that our frameworks for discussion are inclusive and ethical? This timely collection defuses the uncertainty, ambiguity, and ignorance that surrounds nuclear energy. It will appeal to academics, students, and stakeholders in public policy or environmental studies who want to think critically and more broadly about how we approach energy generation and waste management.

  1. Some internationl law elements of national nuclear regulations from the Polish point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadkowski, T.

    1992-01-01

    The essential contents of the Polish Nuclear Act from 1986 reflects on one hand needs and possibilities of the industrial use of nuclear energy and, on the other, international obligations of Poland. Poland is a State with a limited activity regarding to industrial use of nuclear energy; the main international-law elements of national nuclear regulations can be described as follows: 1. The good-neighborliness principle concerning the siting of nuclear installations in border areas. 2. An adequate concept of nuclear damage. 3. An adequate concept of liability for nuclear damage. (orig./HSCH)

  2. The security system of nuclear installations and its impact on labour law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daeubler, W.

    1984-01-01

    'Hazardous technologies', in particular nuclear technology, are a challenge to labour law because in these branches of industry, selection of personnel and employment conditions are completely governed by government regulations, and codetermination rights often are neutralized due to security regulations. The author investigates ways and means of reconciling the interests of security provisions on the one hand, and of codetermination rights on the other. The crucial points in this context are inevitable measures such as security screening of personnel, surveillance and physical protection measures, secrecy protection. The author discusses the difficult issue of whether there are possibilities to off-set the curtailments of the right of codetermination by new ways and means of participation by employees which ought to be offered on a higher level, i.e. on the authorities level rather than on the level of industrial plants. (HSCH) [de

  3. Nuclear energy: liability for damage to the environment according to the National Environmental Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiras, Sergio Alves; Couto, Roberto Toscano

    1995-01-01

    Liability for damage of the environment is the kind of subject which arouses heated debates in the nuclear energy field among the jurists. Brazil lacks a specific environmental law upon which settlement on questions of nuclear damage could be based. In spite of such lackness, considerable progress has been achieved with the obligatory elaboration of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), the constitutional rules establishing competence and responsibilities on this matter, and some scattered laws. The objective of this work is to focus the responsibility of the Union that exercised the monopoly of nuclear activities, its agents and the team of experts which elaborate the EIA as well as the damage to the environment from a nuclear accident. This study is based on the legal definitions of nuclear reactor, radioactive waste and product, radioisotope, among others. It also focuses some proposed amendments of the law regulating both the civil and criminal liabilities for nuclear damage. (author). 7 refs

  4. Advanced nuclear reactor safety issues and research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    On 18-20 February 2002, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) organised, with the co-sponsorship of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and in collaboration with the European Commission (EC), a Workshop on Advanced Nuclear Reactor Safety Issues and Research Needs. Currently, advanced nuclear reactor projects range from the development of evolutionary and advanced light water reactor (LWR) designs to initial work to develop even further advanced designs which go beyond LWR technology (e.g. high-temperature gas-cooled reactors and liquid metal-cooled reactors). These advanced designs include a greater use of advanced technology and safety features than those employed in currently operating plants or approved designs. The objectives of the workshop were to: - facilitate early identification and resolution of safety issues by developing a consensus among participating countries on the identification of safety issues, the scope of research needed to address these issues and a potential approach to their resolution; - promote the preservation of knowledge and expertise on advanced reactor technology; - provide input to the Generation IV International Forum Technology Road-map. In addition, the workshop tried to link advancement of knowledge and understanding of advanced designs to the regulatory process, with emphasis on building public confidence. It also helped to document current views on advanced reactor safety and technology, thereby contributing to preserving knowledge and expertise before it is lost. (author)

  5. Nuclear power plant alarm systems: Problems and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Despite the incorporation of advanced technology into nuclear power plant alarm systems, human factors problems remain. This paper identifies to be addressed in order to allow advanced technology to be used effectively in the design of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The operator's use and processing of alarm system information will be considered. Based upon a review of alarm system research, issues related to general system design, alarm processing, display and control are discussed. It is concluded that the design of effective alarm systems depends on an understanding of the information processing capabilities and limitations of the operator. 39 refs

  6. Nuclear power plant alarm systems: Problems and issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Despite the incorporation of advanced technology into nuclear power plant alarm systems, human factors problems remain. This paper identifies to be addressed in order to allow advanced technology to be used effectively in the design of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The operator's use and processing of alarm system information will be considered. Based upon a review of alarm system research, issues related to general system design, alarm processing, display and control are discussed. It is concluded that the design of effective alarm systems depends on an understanding of the information processing capabilities and limitations of the operator. 39 refs.

  7. Careers and workforce issues in nuclear science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonah, S.A.; Osaisai, F.E.

    2010-01-01

    In order to realize Nigeria's aspiration to harness nuclear science and technology for socio-economic development of the society, the federal government of Nigeria charged the Nigeria Atomic Energy Commission (NAEC) with the responsibility of promotion and development of peaceful uses of nuclear energy in all its ramifications. In realization of this laudable objective, two University-based nuclear research centres at Ile-Ife (i.e. Centre for Energy Research and Development, CERD, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife) and Zaria (i.e. Centre for Energy Research and Training, CERT, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria) under the supervision of NAEC are already running R and D programmes in nuclear science and technology for over three decades. A third centre, also under the supervision of the Commission in Abuja namely the Nuclear Technology Centre (NTC) located within the Sheda Science and Technology Complex (SHESTCO) was established in 1991 and operates a Gamma Irradiation Faci lity (GIF). Furthermore, NAEC has instituted a number of programmes including a road map aimed at the introduction of nuclear option into the energy mix of the country with projected targets of 1000MWe and 4000MWe by 2017 and 2027 respectively. However, with the number of nuclear scientists, engineers and technicians required to run a 1000MWe power plant put at 1000, there is the need to grow human capital for the industry in Nigeria. In this presentation, exciting opportunities in nuclear science for young graduates are enumerated. The importance of nuclear science and technology education vis-a-vis national economy and security for improved living standard is discussed. Specific workforce issues and sample career choices in medical science, the environment and energy applications are highlighted. Progress made so far by NAEC in the area of human resources development and capacity building is presented.

  8. Medical inspection according to the new nuclear power law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligteringen, J.

    1982-01-01

    Industrial medicine is an underdeveloped discipline in the Netherlands. The author surveys the discrepancies between the laws regulating health protection by medical inspection, reporting and evaluation, and the laws concerning these points when work with radioactive materials or apparatuses producing ionising radiations is involved. Points to be cleared up are presented. (Auth.)

  9. The amendment of the law on compensation for nuclear damage in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanikawa, H.

    2000-01-01

    The legal regime relating to the compensation for nuclear damage in Japan is governed by 'the Law on Compensation for Nuclear Damage' and the 'Law on indemnity Agreement for Compensation of Nuclear Damage'. The basic liability scheme on compensation for nuclear damage in the Compensation law is constituted on the basis of strict and unlimited liability, and such liability is channeled to a nuclear undertaker who is engaged on the operation of the reactor, etc.Furthermore, in order to operate a reactor a nuclear undertaker has to have provided financial security for compensation of nuclear damage by means of contracts, for liability insurance in respect of potential nuclear damage and an indemnity agreement for compensation of nuclear damage or the deposit. In addition to this financial security, in the event that nuclear damage occurs, and if necessary, the Government shall give to a nuclear undertaker such aid as required for him to compensate the nuclear damage. The financial security amount specified in the compensation Law has been increased to JPY (Japan yen) 60 billion. The necessity for special requirements in relation to financial security and/or the level of its amount in case of decommissioning of reactors, storage of nuclear spent fuel outside the power plant, radioisotopes other than nuclear fuel materials, or high level waste of nuclear fuel material, or the operation of experimental reactors for nuclear fusion, etc. shall be examined in the near future according to developments made in this field and the corresponding necessity for financial security for each case. (N.C.)

  10. Topical questions of nuclear energy law from an international point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, E.

    1984-01-01

    Apart from the national legal problems, national regulations and developments were discussed with a view to their consequences on an international scale and compared with the regulations of other countries. Subjects: International cooperation, non-proliferation policy, national licensing procedures compared, problems of nuclear power acceptance, liabilities and commercial law in the nuclear fuel cycle, legal and financial problems in nuclear waste management and decommissioning, recent problems of nuclear liability. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Lessons learned in communicating nuclear transportation issues - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, B.; Austin, P.

    1992-01-01

    Successful communication requires several key elements. They include a non-intimidating forum for exchanging information, two-way communication, advance preparation to identify what each party wants to learn, and feedback. There is no single approach that guarantees success. Factors such as technical complexity of the issue, level of support by the public, and trust and confidence among the parties all play a role in determining the most workable approach for any particular situation. This paper illustrates lessons learned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in communicating nuclear waste disposal and transportation issues to the public

  12. Modeling issues in nuclear plant fire risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siu, N.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses various issues associated with current models for analyzing the risk due to fires in nuclear power plants. Particular emphasis is placed on the fire growth and suppression models, these being unique to the fire portion of the overall risk analysis. Potentially significant modeling improvements are identified; also discussed are a variety of modeling issues where improvements will help the credibility of the analysis, without necessarily changing the computed risk significantly. The mechanistic modeling of fire initiation is identified as a particularly promising improvement for reducing the uncertainties in the predicted risk. 17 refs., 5 figs. 2 tabs

  13. Nuclear energy policy issues after the 3.11 Fukushima nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Tatsujiro [Japan Atomic Energy Commission (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident has become one of the worst accidents in nuclear history and it is not completely over yet. It will take at least 30 years or more to decontaminate and decommission the crippled nuclear reactors on site. Still, more than 140,000 people are away from home and restoring and assuring the life and welfare of those evacuated people is the top priority of Japanese government's nuclear energy policy. The government will release its new energy policy soon which will state that nuclear power is considered as an important base load electricity source, while committing to reduce its dependence as much as possible. For nuclear energy policy, there are certain important issues to be overcome regardless of future of nuclear power in Japan. They are: (1) spent fuel management and radioactive waste disposal, (2) restoring public trust (3) securing human resources and (4) plutonium stockpile management.

  14. The development of nuclear law-making or the art of legal 'evasion'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boustany, K.

    1998-01-01

    The intention of this paper is to elucidate nuclear law by analysing the scope of the instruments underlying it through the prism of normative pluralism and the function of law as well as from the perspective of the relationship between international and domestic law. Its purpose is to examine the steps taken by governments and competent governmental agencies to fulfill their obligations as regards both their own citizens and their inter-State relations. (K.A.)

  15. Overview of nuclear power plant equipment qualification issues and practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torr, K.G.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents a view of and commentary on the current status of equipment qualification (EQ) in nuclear industries of the major western nations. The introductory chapters discuss the concepts of EQ, the elements of EQ process and highlight some of the key issues in EQ. A brief review of industry practices and some of the prevalent industrial standards is presented, followed by an overview of current regulatory positions in the USA, France, Germany and Sweden. A summary and commentary on the latest research findings on issues relating to accident simulation, to aging simulation and some special topics related to EQ, has been contributed by Franklin Research Centre of Philadelphia. The last part of the report deals with equipment qualification in Canada and gives recommendations on EQ for new plants as well as currently operational CANDU nuclear power plants

  16. Nuclear law and new legal concepts; Droit nucleaire et concepts juridiques nouveaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atias, Ch.; Warusfel, B. [Paris-5 Univ., 75 (France); Byk, Ch. [Association Internationale droit, ethique et science, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-02-01

    The articles on this topic have been written from three of the papers of the Conference organized on January 14, in Paris by the 'Law and Insurance' Section of the French Nuclear Energy Society together with the French Section of the International Nuclear Law Association. The first two articles deal with transparency, its justifications and limits. The third article analyses the rights of the future generations and our duties towards them. (authors)

  17. Aspects of the Brazilian law on civil liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, L.M.G. da

    1980-06-01

    The civil liability for nuclear damage in the Brazilian law is analysed. The innovations introduced by the 6.453 act of October 17 th, 1977 are emphasized. The influence of international conventions on the Brazilian law are also mentioned. (A.L.) [pt

  18. Uniformity measure for power-law mass spectrum in nuclear fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wislicki, W.

    1992-11-01

    Description is given in terms of the Renyi entropy and the uniformity for the canonical ensemble, the grand canonical ensemble and the power-law probability measures. The study is presented of the power-law spectra of cluster masses observed in nuclear interactions in the vicinity of the liquid-gas transition point. 6 figs., 1 tab., 15 refs. (author)

  19. Actual issues concerning nuclear power plants and interconnected grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medjimorec, D.; Brkic, S.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear power plants and transmission grid have always been mutually of special relevance. In countries and/or regions where nuclear power plants are located they are almost as a rule counted among strongest nodes of the grid. Hence, they are treated as such from grid point of view in various aspects (operational, planning). In interconnected high-voltage transmission grid of European mainland, usually called UCTE interconnected system, this importance could be shown in a range of issues and several cases, particularly under present situation in which there are numerous demanding and challenging tasks put on transmission system operators, largely due to the opening of electricity markets in the most of European countries. Among these issues definitely worth of mentioning is relevant influence to both commercial paths and physical power flows, and also to exchange programmes between control areas and blocks. In this context there is also relation to cross-border transactions and mechanism applied to them. In respect to security of supply issues and future of nuclear power generation under present regulative framework of most European countries it is needed to comply with connecting conditions (and other stipulations) from national grid codes where different approaches could be observed. Furthermore, nuclear issues significantly influence approach to extension of UCTE system. In certain extent this also applies to pending re-connection of present two synchronous zones of UCTE, particularly to area of broader region directly affected with this complex process. Some of these also reflect to Croatian high-voltage transmission grid as a part of UCTE interconnected system with certain peculiarities.(author)

  20. Major issues on establishing an emergency plan in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhu-zhou

    1988-03-01

    Several major issues on emergency planning and preparation in nuclear facilities were discussed -- such as the importance of emergency planning and preparation, basic principles of intervention and implementation of emergency plan and emergency training and drills to insure the effectiveness of the emergency plan. It is emphasized that the major key point of emergency planning and response is to avoid the occurrence of serious nonrandom effect. 12 refs., 3 tabs

  1. Regulatory issues in the maintenance of Argentine nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, E.; Caruso, G.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of maintenance activities upon nuclear safety and their relevance as means to detect and prevent aging make them play an outstanding role among the fields of interest of the Argentine nuclear regulatory body (ENREN). Such interest is reinforced by the fact that the data obtained during maintenance are used - among other - as inputs in the Probabilistic Safety Analyses required for those nuclear power plants. This paper provides a brief description of the original requirements by the regulatory body concerning maintenance, of the factors that led to review the criteria involved in such requirements and of the key items identified during the reviewing process. The latter shall be taken into account in the maintenance regulatory policy, for the consequent issue of new requirements from the utilities and for the eventual publication of a specific regulatory standard. (author)

  2. Current issues in nuclear power projects decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanev, Y.; Rogner, H.

    2011-01-01

    Concluding Comments: Firm government commitment and support - imminent; New financing approaches/models are emerging, repackaging existing methods and combination of project finance/co-operative mode; Global financial crisis will make financing for investors very challenging, especially for large scale infrastructure projects like NNP –financial regulators to impose tougher rules (Basel III, UK bank levy, US Financial Regulatory Bill, etc; Pure project finance is still challenging for nuclear projects - the availability of finance for new NPPs will depend on the initial government support. This presentation presents a “free market” view on investment in nuclear power projects; If the public sector (governments) wishes to invest in nuclear power as part of its socioeconomic development priorities, finance is not a real obstacle; It becomes an issue in the presence of other equally important development needs and private sector participation is sought

  3. Problems and legislative remedies of the parallel law systems in Japan for nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Kazutomo

    2011-01-01

    There are two established laws governing nuclear power reactors in Japan. One is the Electricity Utilities Industry Law, which regulates the nuclear power reactors, and the other is the so-called 'Reactor Regulation Law', which dually regulates the reactors in some phases. When a graded approach on the regulation of nuclear reactors was adopted, it extended over these two laws and was legislatively imperfect. Such imperfection created problems from the beginning. Also, the original regulatory structures presented by these laws had become obscure during the operation process of the graded regulation. The situation becomes further complicated by the revision of these laws in recent years. It appears that the trait of the regulatory procedural structure of the Electricity Utilities Industry Law has been weakened. As there is a pressing need to review the entire regulatory structure and to propose a unified regulatory system by combining these laws, this paper examines the merits and demerits of combining these laws under a unified regulation. (author)

  4. Public acceptance of nuclear power. Some ethical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrecht, P.; Arungu-Olende, S.; Francis, J.M.; Nashed, W.; Nwosu, B.C.E.; Rose, D.J.; Shinn, R.L.; de Gaspar, D.

    1977-01-01

    Through a careful process of investigation and inquiry, the World Council of Churches (WCC) has become aware of a decline of public confidence in existing social institutions responsible for maintaining and securing the nuclear fuel cycle. In addressing this concern, the World Council of Churches seeks a direct assurance from the IAEA and other responsible government bodies that new initiatives will be taken to resolve this anxiety and to place the acknowledged risks of an expanding nuclear power industry in a more realistic long-term perspective. The provision of energy resources for all peoples is an essential part of the struggle for a more just, participatory and sustainable society. In the light of current uncertainties over the maintenance of energy supplies, particularly to large urban communities, the WCC appreciates the necessity of retaining nuclear power as a viable option for the future in many countries. However, the credibility of the option can be achieved only through the resolution of the major questions that are inherent in the use of nuclear technology. The paper discusses the following questions, which must be tackled without further delay and certainly before a large and irreversible world-wide commitment is made: (1) The need for an open public debate. Without full public consultation on the social and ethical implications of long-term energy choices, decisions will be taken largely in terms of commercial and consequently short-term economic interest. (2) Facing the long-term risks of adopting nuclear technology. (3) Access versus security. Concern for the security of sensitive nuclear technologies has produced the secretive nuclear club. A just global society implies not merely equal opportunity to aspire and to achieve, but affirmative action to redress imbalances. (4) Military implications. (5) Social implications of nuclear energy. (6) Ethical and religious issues. (author)

  5. A survey on new nuclear legislative documents issued in the period 1 October, 2005 - 30 April, 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiripus, Vlad

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a number of 46 legal documents concerning nuclear problems. issued in the period 1 October, 2005 - 30 April, 2006 in the 'Official Gazette' of Romania (Monitorul Oficial al Romaniei). These documents appear to be decisions of the Romanian Government, decisions of the Dentist Medical College, Ordinances of the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control, CNCAN, Ordinances of the Ministry of Transports Buildings and Tourism, Ministry of Economy and Trade, Ministry of Public Finances, Ministry of Administration and Internal Affairs, Ministry of Public Health, a presidential decree, laws and regulations. The documents are related to items concerning protection of environment in the neighborhood of nuclear facilities, radioactive sources handling, nuclear licensing, nuclear safeguards, emergency measures in case of nuclear events, financing the construction of Cernavoda NPP Unit 3, radioactive waste management, fast shutdown of CANDU type reactors, etc. Each document mentioned is shortly presented and commented

  6. The rise and fall of nuclear energy in Germany: Processes, Explanations and the Role of Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    After the disaster of Fukushima in March 2011, some countries, especially Germany, dramatically changed their energy policy in order to end the use of nuclear fission in the energy production. The article retraces the historical and legal background of Germany nuclear policies. Firstly, it lists the different phases in the use of nuclear energy. Then, it tries to find an explanation for why the nuclear exit occurred. Thirdly, it analyses the role of regulatory and constitutional law in the introduction and phasing out of nuclear energy use. Finally, general conclusions are drawn on the advantages and drawbacks of nuclear energy, and also on lessons to be learned for socio-legal theory

  7. Nuclear and global warming issues at a deregulated electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesarovic, M.

    2001-01-01

    'Cerna voda' plant is being constructed. And, in Slovakia unit one of the 'Mohovce' plant was recently completed, and unit two should be on line soon. Renewable energies would also take a more important role in Europe, but they need to be complemented by nuclear power due to their variations, and nuclear share would thus remain stable (or fall slightly if phasing out proceeds), but it would continue its growth in Far East and elsewhere. The European Commission is conducting a review of energy policy this year to take account of two key factors-the Kyoto commitments to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and the future enlargement of the Community. So, extreme care has to be taken in finding the right energy mix. Public acceptance is not in favor of nuclear power due to concerns such as nuclear risks, waste disposal, non-proliferation and many other issues. While nuclear risk aversion in 1995 was less in the countries with larger share of nuclear electricity as presented below from a Eurobarometer investigation (the two exceptions, Italy and Netherlands, are both importing nuclear electricity), general public might become more in favor of nuclear now, if all issues would be properly taken into account. (author)

  8. International nuclear law in the 25 years between Chernobyl and Fukushima and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selma Kus

    2011-01-01

    This paper is dedicated both to legal developments since the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant 25 years ago and possible legal implications of the accidents at Fukushima Daiichi which occurred after Japan was struck by a devastating earthquake on 11 March 2011. Following the accident at Three Mile Island in 1979 and at Chernobyl in 1986, Fukushima will be remembered as the third major accident in the history of civilian nuclear power reactors. Yet Chernobyl was and remains the worst trauma in this history as a result of which nuclear developments slowed down significantly. Eventually, the industry emerged as a safer and stronger technology, particularly because the 25 years between Chernobyl and Fukushima were marked by an exceptional national and international commitment to nuclear safety and emergency preparedness so as to prevent accidents and minimise potential damages, if such occur. From a legal point of view it is safe to say that the nuclear industry is one of the most strictly regulated. However, it is equally safe to say that there is no zero risk technology and that accidents can happen. For several weeks after the tragic events in Japan the world's focus turned - justifiably so - to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power units. It was nevertheless astonishing to observe that the real tragedy, the terrible loss of lives, swept away villages, and the chaos following the breakdown of all kinds of infrastructure were treated as a sideshow compared with the dramatic images of explosions at the Fukushima Daiichi units and helicopters trying to drop seawater into the spent fuel pools. The live broadcasting of accidents might present one of the first lessons to be learnt in our Internet and 24-hour news channel era which did not exist at the time of Chernobyl. The international legal community will also face challenges as the accident has put 25 years of international co-operation and international nuclear law-making to its first serious test. The

  9. The order for enforcing the law on indemnity agreement for compensation of nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The states to be specified by the cabinet order stipulated in Item 2, Article 3 to the Law on Indemmity Agreement for Compensation of Nuclear Damage (hereinafter referred to as the Law) are the states meeting the following requirements. There are no violation of the stipulations according to the specified articles of the Law for the Regulation of Nuclear Source Materials, Nuclear Fuel Materials and Reactors, no damage of the facilities provided for the operation of reactors and others, and no natural calamity or no action of third parties which become the causes for the occurrence of nuclear damage. The nuclear damage to be specified according to the cabinet order stipulated in No. 5, Article 3 of the Law is the one caused by tidal waves. The indemnification rate stipulated in Article 6 of the Law to be decided by the cabinet order is 5/10000 (and 2.5/10000 regarding the indemnification contract with universities or colleges). Atomic energy entrepreneurs should notify the specified items to the Government with reference to the indemnification contracts concerning the operation of reactors, fabrication, reprocessing, use and transportation of nuclear fuel materials or matters contaminated by nuclear fuel materials

  10. New law on extension of liability for nuclear obligations unconstitutional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posser, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    The provisions of the draft law are highly relevant with regard to fundamental rights and do not stand up to the required proportionality scrutiny. The following fundamental rights are affected: Article 14 (1), (2) GG (German Basic Law): guaranteed right to property; Article 12 (1) GG: freedom of occupation; Article 9 (1) GG: freedom of association; Article 2 (1) GG: general freedom of action; Article 3 (1) GG: equality before the law. In view of the German system of contingency reserves, which is tried and tested in practice and which has been working for 40 years without objections or failure, the envisaged provisions are not necessary, to begin with. If the draft law such as it is today became actual legislation, this would evidently be contrary to the constitution.

  11. Nuclear power use backed by EURATOM law. European Court of Justice ruling points the way ahead in cross-border litigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Horst

    2010-01-01

    The Europeanization of nuclear safety has become highly evident with the adoption of the EURATOM Safety Directive of June 25, 2009. It will remain in the focus of public attention because its transposition into national law is to be completed by July 22, 2011. The subject of nuclear safety is treated also by the European Court of Justice (ECJ). The Court's rulings may even set the courses of events. It is not only EURATOM rules and regulations and secondary European law in the format of directives which are up for review, but also more extensive principles of European law. The main sources of dispute are the different nuclear energy policies and non-uniform safety regulations of member states. Cross-border events again and again trigger such disputes. One such constellation constitutes the background to the latest ECJ ruling of October 27, 2009 about nuclear safety and radiation protection. Action before an Austrian court was brought against a nuclear power plant situated in the Czech Republic and licensed by Czech authorities. Cessation of emissions of hazardous ionizing radiation by that plant and, thus, ultimately shutdown of that plant were demanded. The special feature of the case is the fact that the action was filed with an Austrian (civil) court and heard there. As the ECJ had commented in 2006 on a procedural question before legal proceedings were started, the issue at stake now was the right to bring action out of Austria against the nuclear power plant licensed in the Czech Republic. In Austrian law, there is no such right of cessation with respect to plants licensed in Austria, but only a right to claim damages. Against this background some thoughts are expressed about, and forecasts attempted of, European nuclear and radiation protection law. In this assessment, the difficult, multifaceted issues of European law rank second to the explanations of practical consequences for the development of nuclear power in EU member states. (orig.)

  12. Issues related to EM management of DOE spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, D.G.; Abashian, M.S.; Chakraborti, S.; Roberson, K.; Meloin, J.M.

    1993-07-01

    This document is a summary of the important issues involved in managing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) owned by the Department of Energy (DOE). Issues related to civilian SNF activities are not discussed. DOE-owned SNF is stored primarily at the Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Savannah River Site (SRS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and West Valley Demonstration Project. Smaller quantities of SNF are stored at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). There is a wide variety of fuel types, including both low and high enrichment fuels from weapons production, DOE reactors, research and development programs, naval programs, and universities. Most fuel is stored in pools associated with reactor or reprocessing facilities. Smaller quantities are in dry storage. Physical conditions of the fuel range from excellent to poor or severely damaged. An issue is defined as an important question that must be answered or decision that must be made on a topic or subject relevant to achieving the complimentary objectives of (a) storing SNF in compliance with applicable regulations and orders until it can be disposed, and (b) safely disposing of DOE's SNF. The purpose of this document is to define the issues; no recommendations are made on resolutions. As DOE's national SNF management program is implemented, a system of issues identification, documentation, tracking, and resolution will be implemented. This document is an initial effort at issues identification. The first section of this document is an overview of issues that are common to several or all DOE facilities that manage SNF. The common issues are organized according to specific aspects of spent fuel management. This is followed by discussions of management issues that apply specifically to individual DOE facilities. The last section provides literature references

  13. Quantifying the perceived risks associated with nuclear energy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandquist, G.M.

    2004-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented for quantifying and assessing perceived risks in an empirical manner. The analytical model provides for the identification and assignment of any number of quantifiable risk perception factors that can be incorporated within standard risk methodology. The set of risk perception factors used to demonstrate the model are those that have been identified by social and behavioural scientists as principal factors influencing people in their perception of risks associated with major technical issues. These same risk factors are commonly associated with nuclear energy issues. A rational means is proposed for determining and quantifying these risk factors for a given application. The model should contribute to improved understanding of the basis and logic of public risk perception and provide practical and effective means for addressing perceived risks when they arise over important technical issues and projects. (author)

  14. MODERNIZING THE PRIVATE LAW. SOME KEY ISSUES IN THE RECENT DRAFT OF THE SPANISH COMMERCIAL CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan VELICU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The last decades were dominated by the idea that an authentic process to modernize the private law means generally the unification of it by renouncing the distinction between civil and commercial law. A few European countries and some American states or provinces followed this path of the unification. However, beyond the will to change and improve the system one may reflect if this kind of modernization is actually really proper. Of course, there are lots of reasons for unification and reasons against it. Is there a possible and real alternative to this wave of unification? The draft of the Spanish commercial code could be a beginning point in order to settle this controversy. For the first time, the lawmakers are trying to replace the actual code with a new modernized one without renouncing the above mentioned distinction. Without claiming that we have entirely analyzed the topic, we propose a brief critical presentation of the major key issue of the draft.

  15. Public acceptance of nuclear power. Some ethical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arungu-Olende, S.; Francis, J.M.; Nashed, W.; Nwosu, B.C.E.; Rose, D.J.; Shinn, R.L.; Gaspar, D. de; Abrecht, P.

    1977-01-01

    The World Council of Churches is aware of a decline of public confidence in existing social institutions responsible for maintaining and securing the nuclear fuel cycle. In addressing this concern, the World Council of Churches seeks a direct assurance from the IAEA and other responsible governmental bodies that new initiatives will be taken to resolve this anxiety and to place the acknowledged risks of an expanding nuclear power industry in a more realistic long-term perspective. The provision of energy resources for all peoples is an essential part of the struggle for a more just, participatory and sustainable society. The W.C.C. appreciates the necessity of retaining nuclear power as a viable option for the future in many countries. However, the credibility of the option can be achieved only through the resolution of the major questions that are inherent in the use of nuclear technology. These questions must be tackled before a large and irreversible world-wide commitment is made. At present, the public debate is confused. Advocates of nuclear energy plead the achievements of unproven technology, minimizing the unsolved problems, while critics ignore the societal costs of other major energy options, and demand an unrealistic absolute perfection in the design and construction of nuclear power systems. The churches seek to encourage an informed public examination of these issues. The W.C.C. stresses the necessity of resolving the problems of secure waste disposal and those posed by the drift into a dependency on the plutonium fuel economy. A just global society implies not merely equal opportunity to aspire and to achieve, but affirmative action to redress imbalances. This is incompatible with the pseudo-secrecy and patronage practiced by developed nuclear countries. The W.C.C. is concerned how the ''access'' versus ''security'' issue is to be resolved. The development of nuclear energy for civilian purposes is linked with the development of nuclear weapons. The

  16. Man--machine interface issues for space nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, W.R.; Haugset, K.

    1991-01-01

    The deployment of nuclear reactors in space necessitates an entirely new set of guidelines for the design of the man--machine interface (MMI) when compared to earth-based applications such as commerical nuclear power plants. Although the design objectives of earth- and space-based nuclear power systems are the same, that is, to produce electrical power, the differences in the application environments mean that the operator's role will be significantly different for space-based systems. This paper explores the issues associated with establishing the necessary MMI guidelines for space nuclear power systems. The generic human performance requirements for space-based systems are described, and the operator roles that are utilized for the operation of current and advanced earth-based reactors are briefly summarized. The development of a prototype advanced control room, the Integrated Surveillance and Control System (ISACS) at the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Halden Reactor Project is introduced. Finally, preliminary ideas for the use of the ISACS system as a test bed for establishing MMI guidelines for space nuclear systems are presented

  17. German law on circumcision and its debate: how an ethical and legal issue turned political.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurenque, Diana; Wiesing, Urban

    2015-03-01

    The article aims to illuminate the recent debate in Germany about the legitimacy of circumcision for religious reasons. The aim is both to evaluate the new German law allowing religious circumcision, and to outline the resulting conflict between the surrounding ethical and legal issues. We first elucidate the diversity of legal and medical views on religious circumcision in Germany. Next we examine to what extent invasive and irreversible physical interventions on infant boys unable to given their consent should be carried out for non-medical reasons. To this end, the potential benefits and harms of circumcision for non-medical reasons are compared. We argue that circumcision does not provide any benefits for the 'child as a child' and poses only risks to boys. We then set out to clarify and analyse political (rather than ethical) justifications of the new circumcision law. We demonstrate through this analysis how the circumcision debate in Germany has been transformed from a legal and ethical problem into a political issue, due at least in part to Germany's unique historical context. Although such a particular political sensibility is entirely comprehensible, it raises particular problems when it comes to framing and responding to medical ethical issues - as in the case of religious circumcision. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The operation of nuclear power plants in the conflict between administrative law and criminal law. Betrieb kerntechnischer Anlagen im Spannungsfeld zwischen Verwaltungs- und Strafrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbe, C. (Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany, F.R.). Rechtsabteilung)

    The conflicting interests of administrative law and criminal law give rise to a number of burdensome conditions to be met by the operators of nuclear plants. Of course, it is one of the peculiarities of criminal law that nobody can decide for himself whether he wants to become involved in it. There is probably no other choice than meeting, with a good blend of composure and cleverness, the criteria now surrounding the operation of a nuclear facility. (orig.).

  19. IAEA activities on communication of nuclear safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieland, P.

    2001-01-01

    The regulatory authorities in several countries have taken the initiative to overcome the renowned difficulties of communicating nuclear safety issues. They communicate with segments of the public specially in case of nuclear/radiological accidents, waste disposal, transport of radioactive material or food irradiation. This reflects the full recognition of the importance of the topic. However it is also recognized that there is hitherto a need of international assistance in order to develop a regulatory communication strategy that could be harmonized and at the same time customized to the different needs. Communications on nuclear, radiation, transport and radioactive waste safety are needed to: disseminate information on safety to the public in both routine and emergency situations ; be attentive to public concerns, and address them; maintain social trust and confidence by keeping society informed on the established safety standards and how they are enforced; facilitate the decision-making process on nuclear matters by promptly presenting factual information in a clear manner; integrate and maintain an information network at both the national and international levels; improve co-operation with other countries and international organizations; encourage the dissemination of factual information on nuclear issues in schools. A major factor in addressing all of these questions is understanding the audience(s). A two way communication process is needed to establish what particular audiences want to know and in what form they prefer to receive information. This will differ depending on the audience and circumstances. For example, the information on a routine day-to-day basis will be different from what might be needed at the time of an accident. Communication with the news media is a matter of particular importance, as they are both an audience in themselves and a channel for communicating with wider audiences. (author)

  20. Special feature article. Nuclear new age. Towards reform of laws and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madarame, Haruki; Morokuzu, Muneo; Shiroyama, Hideaki; Nishiwaki, Yoshihiro; Marumo, Syunji; Suzuki, Takahiro; Hariyama, Hideo

    2007-01-01

    Since about half a century passes after the peaceful use of nuclear energy began in Japan, the safety laws and regulations of the nuclear energy becomes difficult to cope enough with the current situation without regulation structure changing. In March 2007, Tokyo University set up nuclear energy legislation study meeting' consisting of members from regulatory bodies, electric utilities, nuclear industries and others. The special feature introduces five opinions obtained through the argument in the meeting. As an example, Law for the Regulations of Nuclear Sources Material, Nuclear Fuel Material and Reactors is applied to basic design about the commercial reactors, but Electric Utilities Industry Law is applied to a detailed design, and different licensing standard is applied in each. Taking the adjustment of licensing standard with unifying these is necessary for efficiency. In addition, current law for the Regulations of Nuclear Sources Material, Nuclear Fuel Material and Reactors regulates according to the businesses such as reactor facilities, fuel fabrication plants and radioactive waste disposal. As for plural businesses, a low procedure and safety measures are demanded every each business. It is also necessary to include structure of the comprehensive licensing that assumed an enterprise running plural businesses. (T. Tanaka)

  1. The pondering on the law of development of nuclear agriculture sciences in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhidong

    2003-01-01

    The present and history of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences in China were studied in order to explore its law of development. The conclusion is that the human resource was one of the key factors and the system of market economy or plan economy was not an important factor for restricting the development of nuclear agricultural sciences in China

  2. The pondering on law of the development of nuclear agriculture sciences in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhidong

    2004-01-01

    The present and history of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences in China were studied in order to explore its law of development. The conclusion is that the human resource was one of the key factors and the system of market economy or plan economy was not an important factor for restricting the development of nuclear agricultural sciences in China. (authors)

  3. Public participation in nuclear licensing procedures from the viewpoint of constitutional law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutschler, Ulrich

    1981-10-01

    This paper reviews public participation in the licensing procedure for nuclear installations, in particular in the Federal Republic of Germany. Examples are given of practical experience acquired to date, also in the field of case-law. Finally, the paper stresses the importance of public information in nuclear procedures in view of the growing concerns for the environment. (NEA) [fr

  4. Improvement and rationalization of nuclear energy laws and regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Byung Sun; Lee, Mo Sung; Chung, Gum Chum; Kim, Hak Man; Oh, Ho Chul [Chongju Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    Since the present legal system on nuclear safety regulation has some problems that refer to contents of regulatory provisions, this mid-report has preformed research on the legal basic theory of nuclear safety regulation. And then secondly this report analyzed the problems of each provisions and suggested the revision drafts on the basis of analyzing problems and the undergoing theory of nuclear safety regulation. In order to interpret easily this report finally took the cases of judicial precedents on nuclear safety regulation in USA, Germany, Japan and Korea.

  5. Improvement and rationalization of nuclear energy laws and regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mo Sung; Chung, Gum Chun; Kim, Hak Man; Oh, Ho Chul [Cheongju Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    Since the present legal system on nuclear safety regulation has some problems that refer to contents of regulatory provisions, this mid-report has preformed research on the legal basic theory of nuclear safety regulation. And then secondly this report analyzed the problems of each provisions and suggested the revision drafts on the basis of analyzing problems and the undergoing theory of nuclear safety regulation. In order to interpret easily this report finally took the cases of judicial precedents on nuclear safety regulation in USA, Germany, Japan and Korea.

  6. Improvement and rationalization of nuclear energy laws and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Byung Sun; Lee, Mo Sung; Chung, Gum Chum; Kim, Hak Man; Oh, Ho Chul

    2002-03-01

    Since the present legal system on nuclear safety regulation has some problems that refer to contents of regulatory provisions, this mid-report has preformed research on the legal basic theory of nuclear safety regulation. And then secondly this report analyzed the problems of each provisions and suggested the revision drafts on the basis of analyzing problems and the undergoing theory of nuclear safety regulation. In order to interpret easily this report finally took the cases of judicial precedents on nuclear safety regulation in USA, Germany, Japan and Korea

  7. Third party liability in the field of nuclear law an irish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Higgins, P.; McGrath, P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper will first set out in summary form the main provisions of the Paris Convention, the instrument under which issues of third party liability between the majority of NEA member states affected by any such incident would be resolved, and will then set out some of the perceived advantages and disadvantages which would result from an application of the provisions of the Convention to a non-nuclear state such as Ireland. This paper will then consider how Irish victims of a nuclear incident might re.cover compensation for loss and damage caused by such an incident. For reasons set out below, it is the view of the authors that Irish victims of such an incident could first bring their claim in Ireland or in France, that it is likely that Irish law would apply to any such claim and that any judgement, including any interlocutory judgement in such proceedings, could be enforced in the courts of any other European Union state, including France. (authors)

  8. The nuclear law and the protection to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Gozalez, I.; Duran Delgado, M.

    1998-01-01

    The development the technical nuclear and its applications in the medicine, agriculture, the industry and other branches to the economy, they are demand the existence to the appropriate juridical mark that foresees that the use the nuclear energy carried out under security conditions. In Cuba to the working in the approval the news juridical standards to moderate these standards to national and international practices

  9. Ukraine. Law on civil liability for nuclear damage and its financial security (13 december 2001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this law is to regulate civil liability for the compensation of damage resulting from activities involving the utilisation of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. It governs relations in respect of civil liability for nuclear damage, establishes the rules and procedures for compensation for damage caused by a nuclear incident, defines the methods of ensuring financial security of civil liability and establishes its limits. (N.C.)

  10. No 2943. Project of law relative to nuclear transparency and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-03-01

    This project of law comprises 5 titles dealing with: 1 - general dispositions: definition and scope of nuclear safety, security, radiation protection, operators liability, facilities in concern; 2 - the high nuclear safety authority: role and duties; 3 - public information in the domain of nuclear safety and radiation protection: information right of the public, local information commissions, high committee for nuclear safety transparency and information; 4 - basic nuclear facilities and transport of radioactive materials: applicable rules, police controls and measures, penal dispositions (investigations, sanctions); 5 - miscellaneous dispositions: changes made with respect to previous legislative texts. (J.S.)

  11. Virtual reality at nuclear issues : a review study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Marcio Henrique da; Legey, Ana Paula; Mol, Antonio Carlos de A.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, several applications using concepts related to virtual reality has been proposed to help on solving issues of great interest in Nuclear Engineering. Among them are power plant's control rooms simulators; measurement of the estimated radiation dose in a nuclear power plant; use of game engines to create virtual environments to support evacuation planning of buildings and circulation in areas subjected to radiation; development of a man - machine interface based on speech recognition; virtual control tables for simulation of nuclear power plants; evacuation plans support; security teams training and evaluation of physical protection barriers; ergonomic evaluation of control rooms, and other ones. Many of these applications are developed at Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), having their results published in form of articles in periodicals and conferences. This article presents a review of some of these studies showing the evolution in the use of these concepts, describing some of its results and showing prospects for future applications that can make use of virtual reality technology. (author)

  12. The human factors issue in the next generation nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noviello, L.; Bolognini, G.; Nobile, M.

    1992-01-01

    The national Energy Plan approved by the Italian Government in 1988, soon after the public referendum on nuclear issues held in the wake of the Chernobyl accident, requested the start of a research program to study next generation nuclear plants. These new reactors should feature some important and innovative characteristics to have a chance to be considered for future constructions, should the politicians decide the conditions for such a step are again re-established in Italy. The most important of these characteristics is certainly the fact that no evaluation nor land set a-side shall be required even in case of the most severe conceivable accident. This challenging objective should be reached through: a) the simplification of the nuclear plant as a whole b) the extensive use of passive components and/or inherent safety features in the design of the engineering safeguard systems c) a containment designed to cope with any conceivable accident sequence without releasing any major quantity of radioactive products into the environment. d) the upgrading of the man-machine interface and the introduction of computerized aids both for operational and maintenance activities. This paper deals in particular with the improvements, described in point d), that aim at greatly reducing the probability of human errors, widely recognized as one of the most important aspects to be pursued to increase nuclear plant safety. (author)

  13. Virtual reality at nuclear issues : a review study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcio Henrique da; Legey, Ana Paula; Mol, Antonio Carlos de A., E-mail: marciohenrique@lmp.ufrj.br, E-mail: ana.legey@pq.cnpq.br, E-mail: mol@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Recently, several applications using concepts related to virtual reality has been proposed to help on solving issues of great interest in Nuclear Engineering. Among them are power plant's control rooms simulators; measurement of the estimated radiation dose in a nuclear power plant; use of game engines to create virtual environments to support evacuation planning of buildings and circulation in areas subjected to radiation; development of a man - machine interface based on speech recognition; virtual control tables for simulation of nuclear power plants; evacuation plans support; security teams training and evaluation of physical protection barriers; ergonomic evaluation of control rooms, and other ones. Many of these applications are developed at Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), having their results published in form of articles in periodicals and conferences. This article presents a review of some of these studies showing the evolution in the use of these concepts, describing some of its results and showing prospects for future applications that can make use of virtual reality technology. (author)

  14. Nuclear weapons modernization: Plans, programs, and issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Amy F.

    2017-11-01

    The United States is currently recapitalizing each delivery system in its "nuclear triad" and refurbishing many of the warheads carried by those systems. The plans for these modernization programs have raised a number of questions, both within Congress and among analysts in the nuclear weapons and arms control communities, about the costs associated with the programs and the need to recapitalize each leg of the triad at the same time. This paper covers four distinct issues. It begins with a brief review of the planned modernization programs, then addresses questions about why the United States is pursuing all of these modernization programs at this time. It then reviews the debate about how much these modernization programs are likely to cost in the next decade and considers possible changes that might reduce the cost. It concludes with some comments about congressional views on the modernization programs and prospects for continuing congressional support in the coming years.

  15. Scaling laws in high energy electron-nuclear processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemtob, M.

    1980-11-01

    We survey the parton model description of high momentum transfer electron scattering processes with nuclei. We discuss both nucleon and quark parton models and confront the patterns of scaling laws violations, induced by binding effects, in the former, and perturbative QCD effects, in the latter

  16. Concerning major items in government ordinance requiring modification of part of enforcement regulation for law relating to control of nuclear material, nuclear fuel and nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The report describes major items planned to be incorporated into the enforcement regulations for laws relating to control of nuclear material, nuclear fuel and nuclear reactor. The modifications have become necessary for the nation to conclude a nuclear material protection treaty with other countries. The modification include the definitions of 'special nuclear fuel substances' and 'special nuclear fuel substances' and 'special nuclear fuel substances subject to protection'. The modifications require that protective measures be taken when handling and transporting special nuclear fuel substances subject to protection. Transport of special nuclear fuel substances requires approval from the Prime Minister or Transport Minister. Transport of special nuclear fuel substances subject to protection should be conducted after notifying the prefectural Public Safety Commission. Transport of special nuclear fuel substances subject to protection requires the conclusion of arrangements among responsible persons and approval of them from the Prime Minister. (N.K.)

  17. Nuclear energy in Lithuania: Its role, efficiency and safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskinis, V.; Galinis, A.; Streimikiene, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the present status of the Lithuanian economy and the power sector as well as problems related to further operation of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (Ignalina NPP) which plays a crucial role in the Lithuanian energy sector. Recent studies have validated that it is economical to keep the Ignalina NPP in operation as long as it is possible and the necessary licenses can be obtained. However, its safe operation remains a very important issue determining its lifetime. Development of an infrastructure and activities necessary for safe and reliable operation of the plant are also very important. (author)

  18. Propositions of nuclear issue education for teachers and students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turlo, J.; Przegietka, K.; Sluzewski, K.; Turlo, Z.

    2004-01-01

    It is well documented in the literature that the project method is the most effective among other active methods of teaching science. In this paper we described our experience, which we got during planning and execution of four projects aimed at the increase of nuclear issue knowledge and awareness among students and teachers: Computer aided investigations of radioactivity with the use of GM detector; Project RADONET - radon in our homes - is the risk acceptable?; Competition on interdisciplinary educational project 'Radioactive World'; Distance lecture on 'Radioactivity Around Us'. We hope that they may serve as an inspiration for others planning similar projects in their countries. (author)

  19. Plutonium: key issue in nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshisaki, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    The technical report is a 1993 update on weapons-grade plutonium, a key issue in nuclear disarmament. Its vital significance would again be discussed during the fifth and the last Review Conference on the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) for Nuclear Weapons which would end in 1995. Member States shall decide whether an indefinite or conditional extension of NPT is necessary for world peace and international security. Two Non-NPT States, Russia and U.S.A. are in the forefront working for the reduction of nuclear weapons through nuclear disarmament. Their major effort is focused on the implementation of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty I and II or START I and II for world peace. The eventual implementation of START I and II would lead to the dismantling of plutonium from nuclear warheads proposed to be eliminated by both countries. This report gives three technical options to be derived from nuclear disarmament issues for the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons: (a) indefinite storage - there is no guarantee that these will not be used in the future (b) disposal as wastes - possible only in principle, because of lack of experience in mixing plutonium with high level wastes, and (c) source of energy - best option in managing stored weapons materials, because it satisfies non-proliferation objectives. It means fuel for energy in Light Water Reactors (LWR) or Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR). (author). 8 refs

  20. Issues to improve the prospects of financing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    A changing global environment with increasing energy consumption and a need for international energy security is influencing nuclear power projects and the means of obtaining financial backing for such projects. The development of a national nuclear infrastructure can provide significant benefits that influence financial resources. The effects of other factors - such as financing arrangements for capital intensive plants, international design acceptance, harmonization of codes and standards, and assurances of fuel cycle services - need to be considered. An improvement in international cooperation may lower investment risks and contribute to reducing costs. The effects of all these issues need to be assessed and means for supporting the application of nuclear power in the current changing social and commercial environment need to be developed. A key question addressed in this publication is whether financing is the real barrier to nuclear power development or if financing difficulties are simply a consequence of other barriers. It recognizes that there is no single solution and that circumstances in different countries, with different starting points, ambitions and drivers, inevitably affect the balance of approaches followed. The importance of credible, practical, costed and substantiated plans is emphasized. Risks have to be mitigated through an effective strategy and the allocation of risks between parties must be logical. A project has to be demonstrably viable to attract financing. There are three broad areas which must be addressed to improve prospects of investment in nuclear power reactor construction. The first area, and probably the most important, is government and utility commitment and preparedness to adopt and implement a nuclear power programme using internationally recognized standards of safety. The second area is the application of lessons learned from technological and project developments. The third area is financing itself. The conclusions

  1. EuGH: Innocuousness of the nuclear fuel tax according to the European community law; EuGH: Europarechtliche Unbedenklichkeit der Kernbrennstoffsteuer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2015-08-14

    The tax levied on nuclear fuel in Germany does not contravene European law. This was the conclusion of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) on 4 June. The ECJ has now, for the first time, made a clear decision on the admissibility of preliminary ruling proceedings referred to the ECJ and to the domestic constitutional court in parallel: Article 267 TFEU not only entitles the domestic court but even obliges it to submit issues that are decisive for the dispute to the European Court of Justice for interpretation or a decision on the applicability of European law. Such an obligation and the issue of incompatibility with European law did not depend on whether the same provision had been submitted to the domestic court for review or not. After all, even if a provision has been declared unconstitutional under domestic law it will still remain applicable for a certain period of time.

  2. Analysis on Domestic Law and Management Trend Related to Small-Quantity Nuclear Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Beom; Lee, Kyong Woo; Shim, Hye Won; Min, Gyung Sik [National Nuclear Management and Control Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has requested Korea to establish and manage the law ruling all nuclear materials through the INFCIRC/153. Now, it has been 30 years since Korea made the agreement, INFCIRC/153, with IAEA. Korea has tried their best to accomplish the international standard in nuclear control field and it is a fact that Korea finally produced some results in the nuclear control field. Related to nuclear material control, Korea is above the common level appropriately ranked 6th in the world in terms of nuclear power. Before 2000, Korea was making the foundation secure in the nuclear control. IAEA did not urge to establish the law supervising the small-quantity nuclear material and depleted uranium (DU). In a turnaround from early IAEA moderate line to Korea, the situation was changed. Since IAEA brought up the agenda to 2000 Joint Review Meeting between Korea-IAEA, IAEA has asked Korea to establish the control system for smallquantity nuclear material and DU. In 2003, the Korean government set up a project establishing the control system about all nuclear material including small-quantity nuclear material and DU. National Nuclear Management and Control Agency (NNCA), delegating the business relating to international controlling materials from government, developed some modules in nuclear material control system and operated it. The system includes a controlling system for small-quantity nuclear material. NNCA on behalf of government has collected the information and Korea Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) has reported the information to the IAEA. This paper introduces you the background of controlling the small-quantity nuclear material and the system of controlling nuclear material in Korea. And it will suggest the improvement of the management method in the system for small-quantity nuclear material.

  3. Analysis on Domestic Law and Management Trend Related to Small-Quantity Nuclear Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Beom; Lee, Kyong Woo; Shim, Hye Won; Min, Gyung Sik

    2005-01-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has requested Korea to establish and manage the law ruling all nuclear materials through the INFCIRC/153. Now, it has been 30 years since Korea made the agreement, INFCIRC/153, with IAEA. Korea has tried their best to accomplish the international standard in nuclear control field and it is a fact that Korea finally produced some results in the nuclear control field. Related to nuclear material control, Korea is above the common level appropriately ranked 6th in the world in terms of nuclear power. Before 2000, Korea was making the foundation secure in the nuclear control. IAEA did not urge to establish the law supervising the small-quantity nuclear material and depleted uranium (DU). In a turnaround from early IAEA moderate line to Korea, the situation was changed. Since IAEA brought up the agenda to 2000 Joint Review Meeting between Korea-IAEA, IAEA has asked Korea to establish the control system for smallquantity nuclear material and DU. In 2003, the Korean government set up a project establishing the control system about all nuclear material including small-quantity nuclear material and DU. National Nuclear Management and Control Agency (NNCA), delegating the business relating to international controlling materials from government, developed some modules in nuclear material control system and operated it. The system includes a controlling system for small-quantity nuclear material. NNCA on behalf of government has collected the information and Korea Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) has reported the information to the IAEA. This paper introduces you the background of controlling the small-quantity nuclear material and the system of controlling nuclear material in Korea. And it will suggest the improvement of the management method in the system for small-quantity nuclear material

  4. The approach of nuclear related issues by the press

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manetti, Cristiane Teixeira; Tanimoto, Katia Suemi; Hiromoto, Goro

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear energy has always been a polemic issue, and it is usually more intensely associated, by the general public, to the risks than to the benefits from its use; in this sense, the mass media have clearly had its share of responsibility for public opinion formation. This paper presents a report on the coverage of the nuclear issue in the press, identifying the amount of negative and positive views on the subject, as well as the people involved in the process. The analysis comprises the period from February 2007 to February 2008, right after the edition of the 4th IPCC Report. From that sample, 172 texts published in widely known newspapers and magazines, most of them from Sao Paulo State, were identified. The analyzed speeches were classified according to five information sources: specialists, users, authorities, protagonists and entrepreneurs. It was noted the predominance of positive articles, mainly due to the weight of the favorable speeches by authorities, cited as the most frequent in this paper. (author)

  5. Spent nuclear fuel transportation: public issues and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, W.D.

    1986-01-01

    The court-ordered shipping of 750 spent nuclear fuel assemblies from West Valley, New York back to their utility owners has generated considerable public and media interest. This paper discusses the specific concerns of the general public over the West Valley shipments, the issues raised by opposition groups, the interest of public officials and emergency preparedness teams as well as the media coverage generated. An analysis is performed on the effectiveness of the West Valley and utility public information programs utilized in addressing these issues, concerns and interests. Emphasis is placed on communications which work to facilitate the shipments and generate fuel transport acceptance. Information programs are discussed which increase preparedness for nuclear shipments by emergency response teams and build public confidence in their safety. The paper also examines communications which could have further enhanced the shipping campaign to date. Finally, plans are discussed for media preparation with interview training and press conferences. Emphasis is placed on materials provided for the media which have served to generate more favorable print and air time

  6. Spent nuclear fuel transportation: Public issues and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, W.D.

    1986-01-01

    The court-ordered shipping of 750 spent nuclear fuel assemblies from West Valley, New York back to their utility owners has generated considerable public and media interest. This paper discusses the specific concerns of the general public over the West Valley shipments, the issues raised by opposition groups, the interests of public officials and emergency preparedness teams as well as the media coverage generated. An analysis is performed on the effectiveness of the West Valley and utility public information programs utilized in addressing these issues, concerns and interests. Emphasis is placed on communications which work to facilitate the shipments and generate fuel transport acceptance. Information programs are discussed which increase preparedness for nuclear shipments by emergency response teams and build public confidence in their safety. The paper also examines communications which could have further enhanced the shipping campaigns to date. Finally, plans are discussed for media preparation with interview training and press conferences. Emphasis is placed on materials provided for the media which has served to generate more favorable print and air time

  7. The approach of nuclear related issues by the press

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manetti, Cristiane Teixeira; Tanimoto, Katia Suemi; Hiromoto, Goro [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: cristianemanetti@hotmail.com, e-mail: katia_tanimoto@hotmail.com, e-mail: hiromoto@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Nuclear energy has always been a polemic issue, and it is usually more intensely associated, by the general public, to the risks than to the benefits from its use; in this sense, the mass media have clearly had its share of responsibility for public opinion formation. This paper presents a report on the coverage of the nuclear issue in the press, identifying the amount of negative and positive views on the subject, as well as the people involved in the process. The analysis comprises the period from February 2007 to February 2008, right after the edition of the 4th IPCC Report. From that sample, 172 texts published in widely known newspapers and magazines, most of them from Sao Paulo State, were identified. The analyzed speeches were classified according to five information sources: specialists, users, authorities, protagonists and entrepreneurs. It was noted the predominance of positive articles, mainly due to the weight of the favorable speeches by authorities, cited as the most frequent in this paper. (author)

  8. The order for enforcing the law concerning indemnification of nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The cabinet ordinance is established under the law concerning the indemnification for atomic energy damages. The matters stipulated by the ordinance in the law include the following matters: the operation of reactors; the processing of nuclear fuel materials, such as uranium 235, specified uranium and its compounds, plutonium and its compounds, etc.; reprocessing; the employment of such nuclear fuel materials; the transportation, storage and disposal of such materials, particular spent fuels and the things contaminated by nuclear fuel materials, which occur according to the operation of reactors and other practices above mentioned. The amounts of indemnification are respectively 10 billion yen for the operation of reactors whose thermal outputs are more than 10,000 kilowatts and reprocessing, 2 billion yen for the operation of reactors whose thermal outputs are more than 100 kilowatts and less than 10,000 kilowatts and the transportation of spent fuel accompanying the operation of reactors or reprocessing, 200 million yen for the operation of reactors whose thermal outputs are less than 100 kilowatts, and the processing and employment of nuclear fuel materials, the transportation of nuclear fuel materials accompanying the operation of reactors, and the processing, reprocessing and employment of nuclear fuel materials. The payment of casualty indemnification includes that according to the provisions of the government official casualty indemnification law and that due to official causes under the provisions of the seamen insurance law. (Okada, K.)

  9. Law on protection against ionising radiation and nuclear safety in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breznik, B.; Krizman, M.; Skrk, D.; Tavzes, R.

    2003-01-01

    The existing legislation related to nuclear and radiation safety in Slovenia was introduced in 80's. The necessity for the new law is based on the new radiation safety standards (ICRP 60) and the intention of Slovenia to harmonize the legislation with the European Union. The harmonization means adoption of the basic safety standards and other relevant directives and regulations of Euratom. The nuclear safety section of this law is based on the legally binding international conventions ratified by Slovenia. The general approach is similar to that of some members of Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD). The guidelines of the law were set by the Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning, Nuclear Safety Administration, and Ministry of Health. The expert group of the Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning and the Ministry of Health together with the representatives of the users of the ionising sources and representatives of the nuclear sector, prepared the draft of the subject law. The emphasis in this paper is given to main topics and solutions related to the control of the occupationally exposed workers, radiation safety, licensing, nuclear and waste safety, and radiation protection of people and patients. (authors)

  10. Nuclear and energy. Special issue on the Fukushima power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This issue analyses the first consequences of the Fukushima accident at the world level, i.e. impacts which are either already noticeable or predictable. A first article proposes a portrait of Japan (its historical relationship with nature, the cultural education, the role of its bureaucracy, the Japanese business and political worlds) and evokes the nuclear safety organization at the institutional level. It also evokes the different companies involved in nuclear energy production. The second article discusses and comments the environmental and radiological impact of the accident (protection of the inhabitants, environment monitoring, comparison with Chernobyl, main steps of degradation of the reactors, releases in the sea, total release assessment, soil contamination, food contamination, radiation protection). A third article discusses the international impact, notably for the existing or projected power plants in different countries, in terms of public opinion, and with respect to negotiations on climate. The fourth article discusses the reactions of different countries possessing nuclear reactors. The last article questions the replacement of the lost production (that of Fukushima and maybe another power plant) by renewable energies

  11. Nuclear law in motion. Report on the 15th regional meeting of the German section of AIDN/INLA e.V; Atomrecht in Bewegung. Bericht ueber die 15. Regionaltagung der Deutschen Landesgruppe der AIDN/INLA e.V.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldmann, Ulrike

    2017-11-15

    For the 15th time the German National Group of the Association Internationale du Droit Nucleaire/International Nuclear Law Association (AIDN/IN-LA) e.V. organised a regional conference. 90 participants from 15 countries, including representatives of Euratom and OECD/NEA, met in Bonn on 28 and 29 September to exchange views on current issues of nuclear law. The Rhine, which was in sight of the conference centre and connects countries, provided an excellent backdrop not only for the conference that connects nations, but also for the title of the conference ''Atomic Energy Law in Motion'' and for various lectures on nuclear transport.

  12. Issues - I. Renewable energies and urban planning law - Urban planning law and renewable energies: I love you, neither I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory Kalfleche

    2012-01-01

    After having noticed that fossil energies must still be used beside renewable energies, and that renewable energies have some negative impacts on landscape and on the environment, the author highlights the fact that the French urban planning law gives a strong support to small renewable energy production units. In a second part, he shows that despite a commitment for the development of renewable energies, urban planning law mostly remains a constraint as far as the development of large units is concerned

  13. Nuclear Forensics: Scientific Analysis Supporting Law Enforcement and Nuclear Security Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Elizabeth; Kristo, Michael J; Toole, Kaitlyn; Kips, Ruth; Young, Emma

    2016-02-02

    Nuclear forensic science, or "nuclear forensic", aims to answer questions about nuclear material found outside of regulatory control. In this Feature, we provide a general overview of nuclear forensics, selecting examples of key "nuclear forensic signatures" which have allowed investigators to determine the identity of unknown nuclear material in real investigations.

  14. Nuclear Power for Electricity Generation in Ghana: Issues and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyarko, B.J.B.; Akaho, E.H.K.; Ennison, I.

    2011-01-01

    Ghana's electricity demand has been estimated to be growing at a high rate of about 7% per annum over the last ten years. This is due to the relatively high population growth, economic aspiration of the country and the extension of electricity to rural areas. Electricity supply, on the contrary, has been unable to meet the demand due to high dependency on rain-fed hydropower plants, which started operating in 1965 and currently account for about 68% of the total installed capacity. Within the last 28 years, climatic changes and draughts have caused the nation to experience three major power crises. These climate changes resulted in low inflows and thus reduced power generation from hydropower systems. To complement the hydropower systems, the Government in 1997 installed thermal plants based on light crude oil. However, due to the high crude oil prices on the international market in recent times have made the operation of these plants very expensive. Ghana's crude oil find can boost its energy supply when the oil exploration begins somewhere in 2010. For rural cooking, domestic biomass is employed. Ghana has no domestic coal resources. The Government of Ghana is concerned with: limited further growth potential of domestic hydro; high cost of imported oil and gas and environmental issues associated with use of imported coal. Small Solar and wind generation exist in some sectors, but potential large-scale development is not envisioned for the near future. With these in mind, the President of Ghana set up a Committee involving Stakeholder Institutions to formulate the Nuclear Power Policy and develop the basic elements of Nuclear Infrastructure and to assess the viability of introducing the nuclear power option in Ghana's energy mix. Cabinet took a decision to include the nuclear power for electricity generation after the Committee submitted his report to the President in 2008. (author)

  15. Environmental law issues: Offshore oil and gas activities and tanker transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    The environmental law issues that arise from offshore oil/gas activities and petroleum transport are reviewed, focusing on marine oil pollution and especially on the issues surrounding accidental spills. Some observations are offered on the context of these issues, namely on the risks of oil spills, the difficulty of spill response in the ocean and on shorelines, and the possible environmental damage. Environmental control of petroleum operations is discussed with reference to Canadian regulation, the primary source of which is the Oil and Gas Production and Conservation Act. These regulations require developmental approval for offshore operations, formulation of plans for foreseeable spill emergencies, and compensation to those affected by spills, notably those in the fishing industry. Ship-source oil pollution and spill compensation is discussed with reference to international agreements and the Canada Shipping Act. Some problems and trends with oil spill compensation and recovery for environmental damage are noted in such areas as tanker ship standards, cleanup capabilities, and inadequacy of spill penalties and compensation. 18 refs., 1 fig

  16. Ethical issues is psychological screening of nuclear power personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowman, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Ethical issues of mandatory psychological screening of nuclear power plant personnel have not been explored adequately. This paper examines several ethical issues in this area that need more attention. (1) Informed Consent: psychologists' ethics (like those of virtually all science and practice-oriented disciplines) require subjects participating in research or practice to be informed of procedures applied to them, the purposes, and possible consequences. (2) Feedback: psychologists' ethical guidelines require feedback to assesses when it is requested. (3) Validity: psychologists' ethics require that they use instrumentation only for the purposes intended and only for uses for which there is a preponderance of validity data available. In short, there is no question that psychological tests can significantly improve the effectiveness of a work force when they are properly (i.e., validly) used by well-trained and qualified professional psychologists. However, with the abundance of clinicians who are providing such services and with the complexity of the ethical issues involved in conducting these screenings, employers in psychologically high-risk settings should proceed with great caution to assure that assesses are treated in a fair and ethical manner

  17. Nuclear law within the field of tension between engineering and law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukes, R.

    1978-01-01

    Technical safety laws - legal regulations concerned with requirements made on the state and the behaviour of industrial production facilities, production and production - is getting more voluminous. However, as in a lot of cases undefined legal terms are used, the intensity of regulation decreases. The concretization of undefined legal terms by courts leads to requirements becoming unpredictable, as the Voerde and Wyhl decisions have shown. To a limited extent, legal standards which are to regulate technical matters can be formulated more clearly. However, other forms of concretization have to be looked for. (orig.) [de

  18. Nuclear safety and renewals of authorisations for operation of plants nuclear in the law of sustainable economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bello Paredes, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    Depending on the nature of the activity to develop, the legislation establishes a different typology of administrative authorizations that must ensure the adaptation to law for all activity relating to nuclear facilities, from the planning stage of activity, to its closing and dismantling.

  19. Managing pediatric dental patients: issues raised by the law and changing views of proper child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bross, Donald C

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine legal issues regarding the management of pediatric dental patients and changing views of proper child care. Standards of care in pediatric dentistry are not static. They change in response to research, patterns of reimbursement, patient and parental expectations of reasonable care, and consensus among practitioners. The law pertaining to accountability for pediatric dental patient treatment largely reflects standards of care established by the pediatric dentistry profession. However, the law can also reflect changes in public expectations of reasonable care that can effectively outrun the discipline's efforts to reflect new knowledge or changing public concerns. A major impetus for considering the care of children in all settings has been the increasing recognition of suboptimal children's care, as well as concerns that children have either been abused or neglected in a number of settings. Too often, practices towards children have been untested and based only on the assumption that what is done is "for the child's own good." Pediatric dentists can respond to changing standards of reasonable care for pediatric dental patients, as expressed in legal decisions. They can also usefully consider how attention to child maltreatment has sensitized parents to be better consumers of services on their children's behalf. Rather than reacting only to public pressures for better means of behavior management, the challenge is to exceed expectations via new research and thoughtful anticipation of improvements that can be made.

  20. [Neuroscience in the Courtroom: From responsibility to dangerousness, ethical issues raised by the new French law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkotsi, G-M; Moulin, V; Gasser, J

    2015-10-01

    In the past few years, spectacular progress in neuroscience has led to the emergence of a new interdisciplinary field, the so-called "neurolaw" whose goal is to explore the effects of neuroscientific discoveries on legal proceedings and legal rules and standards. In the United States, a number of neuroscientific researches are designed specifically to explore legally relevant topics and a case-law has already been developed. In Europe, neuroscientific evidence is increasingly being used in criminal courtrooms, as part of psychiatric testimony, nourishing the debate about the legal implications of brain research in psychiatric-legal settings. Though largely debated, up to now the use of neuroscience in legal contexts had not specifically been regulated by any legislation. In 2011, with the new bioethics law, France has become the first country to admit by law the use of brain imaging in judicial expertise. According to the new law, brain imaging techniques can be used only for medical purposes, or scientific research, or in the context of judicial expertise. This study aims to give an overview of the current state of the neurolaw in the US and Europe, and to investigate the ethical issues raised by this new law and its potential impact on the rights and civil liberties of the offenders. An overview of the emergence and development of "neurolaw" in the United States and Europe is given. Then, the new French law is examined in the light of the relevant debates in the French parliament. Consequently, we outline the current tendencies in Neurolaw literature to focus on assessments of responsibility, rather than dangerousness. This tendency is analysed notably in relation to the legal context relevant to criminal policies in France, where recent changes in the legislation and practice of forensic psychiatry show that dangerousness assessments have become paramount in the process of judicial decision. Finally, the potential interpretations of neuroscientific data

  1. Order for execution of the law concerning regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This ordinance is stipulated under the law concerning the regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors. The designation for refining and processing businesses under the law shall be obtained for each works or enterprise where these operations are to be practiced. Persons who intend to accept the designation shall file applications attaching business plans and the other documents specified by the ordinances of the Prime Minister's Office and other ministry orders. The permission for the installation of nuclear reactors under the law shall be received for each works or enterprise where reactors are to be set up. Persons who intend to get the permission shall file applications attaching the financing plans required for the installation of reactors and the other documents designated by the orders of the competent ministry. The permission concerning the reactors installed on foreign ships shall be obtained for each ship which is going to enter into the Japanese waters. Persons who ask for the permission shall file applications attaching the documents which explain the safety of reactor facilities and the other documents defined by the orders of the Ministry of Transportation. The designation for reprocessing business and the application for it are provided for, respectively. The usage of nuclear fuel materials, nuclear raw materials and internationally regulated goods is ruled in detail.(Okada, K.)

  2. Order for execution of the law concerning regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This ordinance is stipulated under the law concerning the regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors. The designation for refining and processing businesses under the law shall be obtained for each works or enterprise where these operations are to be practiced. Persons who intend to accept the designation shall file applications attaching business plans and the other documents specified by the ordinances of the Prime Minister's Office and other ministry orders. The permission for the installation of nuclear reactors under the law shall be received for each works or enterprise where reactors are to be set up. Persons who intend to get the permission shall file applications attaching the financing plans required for the installation of reactors and the other documents designated by the orders of the competent ministry. The permission concerning the reactors installed on foreign ships shall be obtained for each ship which is going to enter into the Japanese waters. Persons who ask for the permission shall file applications attaching the documents which explain the safety of reactor facilities and the other documents defined by the orders of the Ministry of Transportation. The designation for reprocessing business and the application for it are provided for, respectively. The usage of nuclear fuel materials, nuclear raw materials and internationally regulated goods is ruled in detail. (Kubozone, M.)

  3. Maintenance Issues in Long Term Operation of Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contri, P.; Bieth, M.; Rieg, C.

    2006-01-01

    Due to current social and economical framework, in last years many nuclear power plant owners started a program for the Long Term Operation (LTO)/PLEX (Plant Life Extension) of their older nuclear facilities. This process has many nuclear safety implications, other than strategic and political ones. The need for tailoring the available safety assessment tools to such applications has become urgent in recent years and triggered many research actions. The review of regular maintenance and ageing management programs are tools widely used in LTO/PLEX context in many Countries. However, most of these tools are rather general and in many cases they need reshaping in an LTO/PLEX framework before application, with focus to the safety implications of the LTO/PLEX. Many Countries and plants radically modified their maintenance rules towards a condition based approach as a precondition for the implementation of LTO/PLEX programs. In 2004 a network of European Organisations operating Nuclear Power Plants, SENUF, under the coordination of the JRC-IE, carried out an extensive questionnaire on maintenance practice in their facilities aiming at capturing the aspects of the maintenance programs where research is mostly needed. This paper uses some results of the questionnaire, which was not oriented to LTO/PLEX, to draw some conclusions on how the current maintenance programs could support a potential LTO/PLEX, among the other programs running at NPPs. In this sense, it is spin-off of the SENUF WG on maintenance. The paper aims at identifying the technical attributes of the maintenance programs more directly affecting the decision for a long-term safe operation of a nuclear facility, the issues related to their implementation and safety review. The paper includes an analysis of the questionnaire circulated among the SENUF participants and a discussion on the implications of optimised maintenance programs in existing plants. Some examples at WWER plants taken by sources other than

  4. Procurement activities required by the nuclear program developed by nuclearelectrica national company- technical issues versus public acquisitions legal issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatamanu, Mariana

    2007-01-01

    Public procurement is one of the areas of the single market where the results of the liberalization drive have not yet measured up to expectations. This communication presents some technical issues versus public acquisition legal issues and suggests ways and means of improving contract award procedures. Procurement area includes the acquisition of goods, services and works, thus assumption not only for purchasing equipment, components, spare-parts or materials, but also hiring of the contractors or consultants to carry out services and works. Procurement is related to the function of management of supply, which encompasses aside range of planning function, coding and classification, stockholding policies, store-keeping, stores accounting, etc. but it is also related to the hiring of contractors or consultants for work or services. As an answer to the challenge of the increasing market globalization it has been developed the ISO quality system, within 9000 family of standards. The very intensive competition for all market clients, either locally or globally, encouraged development of a new concept of quality management systems. Due to its specificity of activity and with respect to the rules and legislation requirements imposed either by the internal Romanian Laws and Regulations or/and by international market rules and constrains, the development, construction and operation of a Nuclear Power Plant shall be performed in a controlled condition and based on specific authorizations obtained by the Owner of the NPP from the Romanian Regulatory Authorities. The experience, accumulated by over 10 years of operation of Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 by our company, demonstrates the high importance of the Quality Management System that imposes the quality of the components installed on the plant, the services and the works developed to assure a safety operation of the nuclear unit, with a strongly dependence by the procurement system established for purchasing of goods, services and

  5. Resolving community conflict in the nuclear power issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burt, R.S.

    1978-05-01

    This is the second of a two-part discussion the purpose of which is to demonstrate that a frankly structural, or network, approach to the analysis of community decision-making allows an observer to anticipate and manage community response to specific policies. Using the siting of nuclear facilities as an illustrative policy, Part One (Burt, 1978) derived hypotheses predicting what types of communities could be expected to become embroiled in conflict over a proposed facility and the process that conflict escalation would follow. The purpose here is to extend the argument to include conflict resolution. Available research is analyzed in order to outline a structural approach to the resolution of community conflict over specific policies. The conflict-resolution techniques proposed are intended to reverse the social parameters of conflict escalation and compensate for deficiencies in a community structure so as to transform a community high in potential for conflict into a community with low conflict potential. The discussion concludes with general principles for the resolution of community conflict in the nuclear power issue.

  6. Resolving community conflict in the nuclear power issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burt, R.S.

    1978-05-01

    This is the second of a two-part discussion the purpose of which is to demonstrate that a frankly structural, or network, approach to the analysis of community decision-making allows an observer to anticipate and manage community response to specific policies. Using the siting of nuclear facilities as an illustrative policy, Part One (Burt, 1978) derived hypotheses predicting what types of communities could be expected to become embroiled in conflict over a proposed facility and the process that conflict escalation would follow. The purpose here is to extend the argument to include conflict resolution. Available research is analyzed in order to outline a structural approach to the resolution of community conflict over specific policies. The conflict-resolution techniques proposed are intended to reverse the social parameters of conflict escalation and compensate for deficiencies in a community structure so as to transform a community high in potential for conflict into a community with low conflict potential. The discussion concludes with general principles for the resolution of community conflict in the nuclear power issue

  7. The law for Japan Nuclear Ship Research and Development Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The agency intends to develop and research nuclear ships according to the principles of the atomic energy act and contribute to advance the utilization of atomic energy and the development of ship building and marine transportation. It shall be a juridical person, and its main office shall be in Tokyo Metropolis. Its capital shall be the sum of 100 million yen paid in by the government and the amounts invested by persons other than the government at the time of establishment. The agency may increase, if necessary, its capital with the approval of the competent minister. It shall define the following matters by its articles: object, name, the place of the office, the matters concerning capital, investments and assets, executives, advisers and meeting, business and its execution, finance and accounting, public announcement and the change of the articles. Its executives consist of a chief director, a representative director, directors not more than 3 and an auditor. The chief director and the auditor are appointed by the competent minister after hearing opinions of the Atomic Energy Commission. The representative and other directors are determined by the chief director with approval of the competent minister. The term of office is four years for the chief director, the representative director and other directors, and two years for the auditor. The agency performs business, such as study and research necessary for the development of nuclear ships, design, building and operation of these ships and the training of crew for these nuclear ships, etc. It is under the superintendence of the competent minister. (Okada, K.)

  8. Special nuclear materials cutoff exercise: Issues and lessons learned. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libby, R.A.; Segal, J.E.; Stanbro, W.D.; Davis, C.

    1995-08-01

    This document is appendices D-J for the Special Nuclear Materials Cutoff Exercise: Issues and Lessons Learned. Included are discussions of the US IAEA Treaty, safeguard regulations for nuclear materials, issue sheets for the PUREX process, and the LANL follow up activity for reprocessing nuclear materials.

  9. Special nuclear materials cutoff exercise: Issues and lessons learned. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libby, R.A.; Segal, J.E.; Stanbro, W.D.; Davis, C.

    1995-08-01

    This document is appendices D-J for the Special Nuclear Materials Cutoff Exercise: Issues and Lessons Learned. Included are discussions of the US IAEA Treaty, safeguard regulations for nuclear materials, issue sheets for the PUREX process, and the LANL follow up activity for reprocessing nuclear materials

  10. The law on indemnity agreement for compensation of nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The Government can conclude the contract with atomic energy entrepreneurs promising that it would indemnify the loss caused by the payment of indemnity by the latter for the nuclear damage which cannot be covered with responsibility insurance contract and other measures for indemnifying the damages upon the occurrence of responsibility of said entrepreneurs, who promises to pay the rate for indeminty. The loss to be indemnified by the Government with said contract should be limited to the loss caused by the payment of indemnity by said entrepreneurs for the damage caused by earthquakes or volcanic activities, normal operation of reactors (to be specified by the cabinet order) or the damage which can be covered with the responsibility insurance contract so long as the fact becoming its cause is concerned and the indemnification for which was not demanded by the sufferer in 10 years elapsed since the outbreak of such fact, and the damage caused by the entry of nuclear ships in foreign territorial waters, which cannot be covered with the measures for indemnifying the damage. The sum of the rate for indemnity is specified

  11. 5 CFR 842.405 - Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air traffic controllers, firefighters, law enforcement officers, and nuclear materials couriers. 842.405 Section 842.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Computations ...

  12. Liability according to civil law regarding border-crossing nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, Caroline

    1987-12-01

    The problem of the liability in border-crossing damage caused by a nuclear-reactor accident is divided into two different areas: the liability according to international law of the state, and liability according to civil right of the licensee of a nuclear power plant. In this study attention is paid to the question of the liability according to civil right: is it possible that an aggrieved obtains compensation for damage? This is investigated on the basis of three standard questions of international private law: which judge is qualified, which law is to be applied, and is acknowledgement and execution of foreign sentences possible? First a historical survey is given of international agreements and national legislations regarding third-party liability. (author). 112 refs

  13. Proposition of law relative to the admission and compensation of nuclear weapons tests victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The present proposition of law has for object to come up to the expectations of persons having participated to nuclear weapons test made by France between the 13. february 1960 and the 27 january 1996, in Sahara or French polynesia. The consequences on health can not be ignored even after several decades of years. Decades of veterans have for several years, have got involve in justice procedures to be entitled to obtain compensation in damage repair they assign to the nuclear tests. Some courts of justice have, for years, recognized the legitimacy of these claims and the judgements cite irradiation consequences able to be revealed late even several decades after the radiation exposure. Other states have adopted laws of compensation for the victims of their populations, civil or military ones. That is why this proposition of law comes today to be adopted. (N.C.)

  14. Mine and land ownership in operation planning procedures. On the framing of issues of conflicting civil rights under administrative law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Assmann, E.; Schoch, F.

    1994-01-01

    On the framing of issues of conflicting civil rights under administrative law. The available arsenal of legal instruments for solving conflicts between proprietary titles to land surfaces and mines is more extensive and differentiated and, if properly deployed, more effective than one might at first expect. The control mechanisms become effective either immediately through laws or through administrative or private acts and are based on public or on private law. They range from the sphere of mining rights, operation planning law, the law on the prevention of damage to private persons over to the regulations under mining law on the payment of damages. The constitutionality of the mining regulations examined here is beyond dispute. They comply with the constitutional requirement to frame the issue concerned and afford protection while at the same time providing the required measure of openness and flexibility for conforming to the peculiarities of the mining business and permitting the necessary sensitivity of administrative control for managing this multipolar legal relationship. At the statutory level the regulatory purpose of the mining law in force is thus fulfilled. (orig./HSCH) [de

  15. Building a stronger framework of nuclear law. The IAEA's legislative assistance services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoiber, C.

    2003-01-01

    The IAEA is publishing a Handbook on Nuclear Law which will provide IAEA Member States with a new resource for assessing the adequacy of their national legal frameworks governing the peaceful uses of nuclear energy; and practical guidance for governments in efforts to enhance their laws and regulations, in harmonizing them with internationally recognized standards, and in meeting their obligations under relevant international instruments. The Handbook responds to the growing demand from many national governments for assistance in the development of nuclear legislation and the need to harmonize their own legal and institutional arrangements with international standards. It also presents concise and authoritative instructional materials for teaching professionals (lawyers, scientists, engineers, health and radiation protection workers, government administrators) on the basic elements of a sound framework for managing and regulating nuclear energy. The Handbook is organized into five general parts: Part I provides a general overview of key concepts in the field: nuclear energy law and the legislative process; the regulatory authority; and the fundamental regulatory activities of licensing, inspection and enforcement. Part II deals with radiation protection. Part Ill covers various subjects arising from nuclear and radiation safety: radiation sources, nuclear installations, emergency preparedness and response, mining and milling, transportation, and waste and spent fuel. Part IV addresses the topic of nuclear liability and coverage. Part V moves to non-proliferation and security related subjects: safeguards, export and import controls, and physical protection. The Handbook also reflects and refers to the extensive range of IAEA Safety Standards covering all fields relevant to peaceful nuclear technology

  16. Coulomb and Nuclear Breakup at Low Energies: Scaling Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein M. S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on a recent work on the low-energy behavior of the breakup cross section in so far as it has important role in the fusion of weakly bound and halo nuclei at near-barrier energies. We assess the way the nuclear component of this cross section scales with the target mass. In complete accord with previous finding at higher energies we verify that the low energy behavior of the breakup cross section for a given projectile and relative center of mass energy with respect to the Coulomb barrier height scales as the cubic root of the mass number of the target. Surprisingly we find that the Coulomb component of the breakup cross section at these low energies also obeys scaling, but with a linear dependence on the target charge. Our findings are important when planning for experiments involving these exotic nuclei.

  17. Simulated ICJ Judgment : Revisiting the Lawfulness of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston P. Nagan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The author prepared this simulated judgment at the request of Cadmus editors to demonstrate that there is ample ground for revisiting and revising the landmark 1996 advisory opinion of the ICJ on the legality of nuclear weapons. The ICJ failed to anticipate the proliferation of nuclear weapons, which expands the evolution of the concept of sovereignty, the potential cataclysmic impact of nuclear war on climate change, the multiplication of nuclear-weapon-free zones as evidence of a widespread rejection, mounting evidence regarding the physical and psychological harm, and unwillingness of the nuclear weapons states to fulfill their obligations under the NPT. This article challenges the notion that a few sovereign states should be the sole arbiters of international law and affirms the legitimate claim of the global community of protection from the existential threat posed by nuclear weapons. The use or threat of use undermines foundational values of the international legal system and the specific rules of self-defense and humanitarian law. The contribution seeks to give an accentuated role for the explicit use of the fundamental values of international legal order, in crafting an innovative methodology for the formulation of the judgment. The very existence of these weapons undermines the rights of all of humanity. The ICJ should be moved to categorically declare the use and possession of nuclear weapons a crime against humanity.

  18. New Developments of the Law of the Sea in the Nuclear Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampe, W.H.

    1977-01-01

    Following the 6th Session (July 1977) of the Conference on the Law of the Sea an Informal Composite Negotiating Text was released which has a direct bearing on several aspects of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. These are, in particular, navigation of nuclear-powered merchant ships and their right of passage in territorial waters, their safety and the sea disposal of radioactive waste. It seems from the present status of the work of the Conference that the amendments likely to be made to the Law of the Sea will not impede the development of nuclear-powered navigation and the discussions stress the importance of the role international organisations should continue to play in this field. (NEA) [fr

  19. Licensing issues in the context of terrorist attacks on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danwitz, T. von

    2002-01-01

    The terrorist attack on the World Trade Center in September 2001 has prompted enhanced nuclear risk awareness among the German population. But in the current public debate about the safety of nuclear power plants in Germany in times of new dimensions of danger, aspects such as the role of the constitutional law, the German Atomic Energy Act, and the regulatory system governing nuclear power plant licensing in the context of protection and safety have not been addressed. The author therefore discusses the German nuclear power plant licensing law and administrative regime, elaborating on the significance attributed in those bodies of law to risks like terrorist attacks on nuclear power plants. (orig./CB) [de

  20. Safeguards Issues at Nuclear Reactors and Enrichment Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Brian D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-15

    The Agency's safeguards technical objective is the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful nuclear activities to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or of other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown, and deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection.

  1. Some political issues related to future special nuclear materials production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peaslee, A.T. Jr.

    1981-08-01

    The Federal Government must take action to assure the future adequate supply of special nuclear materials for nuclear weapons. Existing statutes permit the construction of advanced defense production reactors and the reprocessing of commercial spent fuel for the production of special materials. Such actions would not only benefit the US nuclear reactor manufacturers, but also the US electric utilities that use nuclear reactors

  2. Understanding and education of nuclear power development issues in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jing

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the introduction of nuclear power to China; the understanding of nuclear power in China, education of nuclear power among chinese people. Through such efforts of The Chinese Nuclear Association the Chinese people already have the basic knowledge and support the nuclear power in general. But there are about fifty percent of people who do not know the nuclear power stations in China and thirty-six percent who do not know the benefit of nuclear power because of the vast and different education level in some undeveloped rural areas where the education can not reach

  3. Final disposal of nuclear waste. An investigated issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmu, J.; Nikula, A.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1978, the nuclear power companies have co-ordinated joint studies of nuclear waste disposal through the Nuclear Waste Commission of Finnish Power Companies. The studies are done primarily to gather basic data, with a view to implementing nuclear waste management in a safe, economical and timely way. The power companies' research, development and design work with regard to nuclear waste has been progressing according to the schedule set by the Government, and Finland has received international recognition for its advanced nuclear waste management programme. Last year, the nuclear power companies set up a joint company, Posiva Oy, to manage the final disposal of spent uranium fuel. (orig.)

  4. Nuclear power as a public issue. Protection of the public interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doederlein, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    In evaluating the future role of nuclear power, it should be necessary to perform a rational and quantitative comparison of power production alternatives on at least the following four parameters: health effects, environmental effects, economy, and resource availability. The evaluations should cover all steps from fuel production through waste disposal. Less detailed knowledge is available on health effects from air pollution than from radioactivity. However, the present body of knowledge clearly indicates that large-scale use of nuclear power instead of fossil fuels will save thousands of human lives annually. This is probably one of the most compelling arguments for nuclear power. A number of irrational political, ethical and emotional factors may be of decisive importance in a large-scale choice of power plant types. However, an evaluation of rational and quantifiable factors may serve one important function in telling how many lives, which environmental improvements and what economic advantages must be sacrificed in order to satisfy such irrational demands. In any case it should be recognized that the public interest is best served by maximum use of the broad knowledge available on costs and benefits of alternative electric power generation forms. Obviously, energy policy is not an area where all questions can be tackled in an absolutely rational and objective way. However, a number of absolute restrictions are set by the laws of nature, others by present technological abilities. Such restrictions cannot be changed by wishful thinking, political or otherwise. On one hand, this may serve to define the role of the technological community in making both the nuclear and other more important decisions. On the other hand, these are facts which are not fully appreciated by those making a controversial issue of nuclear power. When defining the role of the professional in the nuclear issue the following point should be considered. A scientist or technologist using his

  5. Communicating with the public on nuclear materials disposition issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, G.B.; Wherley, P.

    1995-01-01

    The storage and disposition of weapons grade fissile materials involves complex technical issues. The goal of reaching consensus on the best method or methods for storing and ultimately disposing of these materials can only be achieved after an open public discussion of all reasonable alternatives. The US Department of Energy considered a number of factors in developing a program for public involvement. These factors included defining the affected public, public knowledge about the proposed action, decision to be made, availability of pertinent information, current public perceptions, and responding to public input. Based upon an analysis of these factors, three primary techniques were selected for communicating with the public. The techniques are distribution of a quarterly newsletter, establishment of an electronic bulletin board, and holding periodic conference calls and public meetings. The newsletter is designed to reach the widest segment of the public and to be meaningful regardless of the reader's level of familiarity with the project. Periodic conference calls and meeting are used to reach the members of the public who have a real but periodic interest in the issues. The electronic bulletin board is used to communicate with a core group of stakeholders who have a continuing high interest in the total storage and disposition program. Initial indications are that these techniques are effective in reaching a wide segment of the public on highly technical and complex questions related to weapons grade nuclear materials. The effectiveness is not the result of these being new techniques but rather using each technique, to the maximum extent possible, to provide open, on-going, two way communications

  6. Judgement of the Court of Justice of the EU in respect to the law on excise duty on nuclear fuel. Only the first act of the drama?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leidinger, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The tax levied on nuclear fuel in Germany does not contravene European law. This was the conclusion of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) on 4 June 2015. The German Hamburg Finance Court had doubted whether the country's Nuclear Fuel Tax Act was compatible with European law. In the context of an action lodged by a nuclear power plant operator against this tax, the court had suspended the legal action and submitted various legal questions to the ECJ. The decision now taken by the ECJ is not really surprising considering that in his opinion, in February, the Advocate General had already argued that the tax was compatible. The Federal Constitutional Court must now decide whether the German concept of excise duty is to be interpreted in accordance with the EU directive issued to harmonise these very taxes or whether there is some flexibility allowing a different decision.

  7. Order for execution of the law concerning regulation of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The designations according to Item 1, Article 3 and Item 1, Article 13 of the Law must be obtained for each factory or business place where refining and fabrication of nuclear material are to be performed. One who wants to obtain such designation should file an application attached with a business plan and other documents via the director of a regional bureau of international trade and industry having jurisdiction over such factory or business place. When nuclear material refiners and nuclear material fabricators wish to obtain the approval for change stipulated in Item 1, Article 6 and Item 1, Article 16 of the Law, they must file applications to the Prime Minister and the Minister of International Trade and Industry via said directors. Chief handlers of nuclear fuel materials shall be approved among those meeting the strict requirements. One who wishes to install reactors must obtain the approval for each factory or business place where the reactors are to be installed. The permission must be obtained for each nuclear ship entering Japanese waters. The reactors proper and several facilities are subject to periodic inspection. (Rikitake, Y.)

  8. Revision of by-laws about effluents of EdF's nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In France, in application of the clean water law from January 3, 1992 and since the decree 95-540 from May 4, 1995, each basic nuclear facility receives a single permission which covers both its water takes and its radioactive and non-radioactive effluents. This decree, initially dedicated to new facilities has been enlarged to all existing installations for which the prefectorial by-laws have reached their date-line. Thus, up to now, five inter-ministerial by-laws have renewed the permissions of water takes and effluents evacuation of the power plants of Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux (Loir-et-Cher), Flamanville (Manche), Paluel (Seine-Maritime), Belleville (Cher) and Saint-Alban (Isere). These by-laws foresee an important abatement of the effluents and concern more particularly the tritium, 14 C, the iodine isotopes and also some other non-radioactive chemical compounds. This document is a compilation of all revised by-laws about effluents and concerning the nuclear power plants listed above. (J.S.)

  9. The protection against nuclear risks under the international nuclear liability law: the geographical and technical scope of the international conventions on third party liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kissich, S.J.

    2001-10-01

    This Ph.D.-research deals with the International Conventions on Third Party Liability for Nuclear Damage. In 1960, the Paris Convention was established with the aim of providing a special uniform nuclear third party liability regime for Western Europe. This Convention was supplemented in 1963 by the Brussels Supplementary Convention. Also in 1963, the Vienna Convention, which aimed to establish a world-wide system based on the same principles as the Paris Convention, was adopted. A further Convention was adopted in 1971 to ensure that nuclear third party liability law and not maritime law would apply to carriage of nuclear materials by sea. In 1988, the Paris and Vienna Conventions have been linked by the adoption of a Joint Protocol. In 1997, the process of amending the 1963 Vienna Convention was successfully concluded and a Convention on Supplementary Compensation was adopted. This Ph.D.-research consists of seven chapters: following an introduction, the second chapter gives a general view of the existing international legal sources. The third chapter describes the international civil nuclear liability law concept and its leading principles. The main element of this work is the question of the technical and geographical scope of the international nuclear liability conventions (chapter IV and V). The conventions are only applicable to nuclear incidents, which occur in a nuclear installation or incidental to the carriage or storage of nuclear material. The nuclear damage must arise out of the radioactive properties of nuclear substances which are also defined by legal terms. In addition, the scope of the conventions is limited by the nature of the installations. The geographical scope of application is established by the provisions on geographical coverage. Only the 1963 Vienna Convention does not contain any specific provision dealing with the territorial scope of its application. The geographical scope determines where the nuclear incident or the nuclear damage

  10. Proceedings of the CISDEN meeting on present problems in Community and international law in the nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    These proceedings of the meeting of the Italian Nuclear Law Study Centre reproduce in full the three papers presented, together with the ensuing discussions. The papers respectively deal with the recent Constitutional Court Decision opposing a referendum on nuclear power plant site selection; international contracts -private autonomy and State law- and the incidence of recent trends on nuclear contracts; problems in relation to the entry into force of the 1980 Euratom radiation protection directive and the revision of relevant Italian regulations. (NEA) [fr

  11. National law of the nuclear activity of the Argentine Republic. (Sanctioned on April 2, 1997 and partially promulgated on April 23, 1997; B.O. 25-Apr-1997)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Argentine National State, will establish the nuclear policy and perform the functions of research, development, regulation and supervision through two organisations, the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN). The National Atomic Energy Commission will continue to function as an autonomous entity, depending from the Ministry of Culture and Education of the Nation. Among the activities under its responsibility it will have to advise the National Executive Power on nuclear policy issues, promote the training of highly-specialised human resources, scientific and technological developments, execute development programs, promote programs for technological innovation, perform the responsibility for radiation waste management, etc. The Nuclear Regulatory Authority will act as an aunotomous entity in the jurisdiction of the Presidency of the Nation and will be responsible for the functions of regulation and control of the nuclear activity in everything which is related to radiological and nuclear safety, physical protection and control of the use of nuclear materials, nuclear facilities, licensing and international safeguards and give advise to the National Executive Power. Both institutions will depend from a Board of Directors composed by six members, one of which will be the Chairman and they will be responsible for the actions to comply with the objectives and functions mentioned above. In its last chapter, the law declares as subject to the privatisation the activities of nuclear energy generation presently developed by Nucleoelectrica Argentina Sociedad Anonima (NASA), as well as the Nuyclear Fuel Cycle used for the nuclear energy generation for industry or research and the Production of Radioisotopes developed by CNEA. This law revokes the articles numbers 2, 5, 9, 11, 16 and 17 of the Decree-Law N' 22.498/56 (B.O. 28-Dec-1956)

  12. The United Kingdom Law on the authorisation of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savinson, R.

    1977-01-01

    This paper explains the requirements of the law of the United Kingdom as to the authorisations needed to construct and operate nuclear power plants in Great Britain. For simplicity, the texts referred to apply to England and Wales, Scottish law differing in detail but not in principle. Implementation of this legal system is studied in particular from the viewpoint of the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) which is at present the body exclusively responsible for generating and supplying electricity in England and Wales. (NEA) [fr

  13. Analysis of the Current Technical Issues on ASME Code and Standard for Nuclear Mechanical Design(2009)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Lee, B. S.; Yoo, S. H.

    2009-11-01

    This report describes the analysis on the current revision movement related to the mechanical design issues of the U.S ASME nuclear code and standard. ASME nuclear mechanical design in this report is composed of the nuclear material, primary system, secondary system and high temperature reactor. This report includes the countermeasures based on the ASME Code meeting for current issues of each major field. KAMC(ASME Mirror Committee) of this project is willing to reflect a standpoint of the domestic nuclear industry on ASME nuclear mechanical design and play a technical bridge role for the domestic nuclear industry in ASME Codes application

  14. Report on the Current Technical Issues on ASME Nuclear Code and Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Lee, B. S.; Yoo, S. H.

    2008-11-01

    This report describes the analysis on the current revision movement related to the mechanical design issues of the U.S ASME nuclear code and standard. ASME nuclear mechanical design in this report is composed of the nuclear material, primary system, secondary system and high temperature reactor. This report includes the countermeasures based on the ASME Code meeting for current issues of each major field. KAMC(ASME Mirror Committee) of this project is willing to reflect a standpoint of the domestic nuclear industry on ASME nuclear mechanical design and play a technical bridge role for the domestic nuclear industry in ASME Codes application

  15. Analysis of the Current Technical Issues on ASME Code and Standard for Nuclear Mechanical Design(2009)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Lee, B. S.; Yoo, S. H.

    2009-11-15

    This report describes the analysis on the current revision movement related to the mechanical design issues of the U.S ASME nuclear code and standard. ASME nuclear mechanical design in this report is composed of the nuclear material, primary system, secondary system and high temperature reactor. This report includes the countermeasures based on the ASME Code meeting for current issues of each major field. KAMC(ASME Mirror Committee) of this project is willing to reflect a standpoint of the domestic nuclear industry on ASME nuclear mechanical design and play a technical bridge role for the domestic nuclear industry in ASME Codes application

  16. The German Final Repository Konrad for Low and Intermediate Level Waste with Negligible Heat Generation - Water Law Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boetsch, W.; Grundler, D.; Kugel, K.; Brennecke, P.; Steyer, S.

    2009-01-01

    A survey on the conceptual realization of the requirements due to water law aspects within the license the KONRAD repository for radioactive waste with negligible heat generation in Germany is given [1]. The regulatory decision for the implementation and operation of the repository KONRAD includes, among other things, water law issues. In particular, the KONRAD license includes waste requirements concerning non-radioactive hazardous material (waste package constituents) which have to be considered producing KONRAD waste packages. The intended philosophy of waste acceptance and waste package quality assurance measures to be considered by the KONRAD site operator as well as by the waste producer will be presented. It will demonstrate the selected procedure of the waste declaration and acceptance and describe the structure and logic of tools and aids to comply with the legal requirements of the license and its collateral clause issued under water law. (authors)

  17. The order for enforcing the law on indemnity agreement for compensation of nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The cabinet ordinance is established under the provisions of the law concerning atomic energy damage indemnification contract. The damage indemnifications in this law cover the occasions when there is not the cause for atomic energy damages due to the violation of the specified provisions of the law concerning the regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors, the failures of operation facilities for reactors and natural calamity or the deed of a third party. The rate of indemnification fees is stipulated at 5/10,000. An enterpriser of atomic energy business shall inform the following matters to the government concerning the indemnification contracts. The objects of operation of reactors; the types, thermal output and number of reactors; the names and addresses of works or places of business where reactors are set up; the locations, structures and equipments of reactor facilities; beginning dates and expected ending dates of the operation on reactors; the kinds and estimated quantities of use in a year of nuclear fuel materials employed for reactors; the methods of disposal of spent fuels and the matters concerning liability insurance contracts. The matters to be reported to the government are specified respectively for the indemnification contracts for the processing, reprocessing, use, transport and disposal of nuclear fuel materials. The payment of indemnification fees and indemnities, the cancellation of indemnification contracts and the fines for default are particularly defined. (Okada, K.)

  18. Legal analysis at the Law for Civil liabilities by nuclear damage; Analisis juridico a la Ley de responsabilidad civil por danos nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez G, A

    2000-07-01

    The present work has the objective to analyse in specific terms the legal regime of the Civil liability by nuclear damage. It has been the intention of that this compilation is the initiation of a large way which awake the interests of jurists and specialists dedicated to study the aspects as the liability by nuclear damage, compensation guarantee, risk and nuclear damage among others. The peaceful applications of the nuclear energy require the necessity of a legal ordinance that it is updated according to the nuclear technology development that the regulations of the common law do not cover. This work is initiated mentioning some antecedents of the nuclear energy law in Mexico. Also is realized the study of the elemental concepts and definitions about the subject as the evolution of the legal figure in the National law frame where the jurist must do an incursion in the nuclear field and make use of scientific and technical terminology. It was analysed and it was made the reflection of the legal figure of liability, its exoneration cases, about the concepts of risk and nuclear damage overcoming the conceptual error among them. It is talked about the study of nuclear damage and its repairing as financial guarantee to compensate to the people injured by a nuclear accident. Finally, it was treated about the legal analysis and proposals of additions and reforms for updating the Nuclear damage liability Law, concluding with general contributions to the Law resulting products of this work. (Author)

  19. Nuclear Arms and National Security. 1983 National Issues Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Keith, Ed.

    Appropriate for secondary school social studies, this booklet outlines approaches for dealing with the threat of nuclear warfare in six sections. The first section, "Learning to Live with Nuclear Weapons," introduces the topic and considers what can be done to decrease the risk of nuclear warfare without jeopardizing the nation's security. "Arms…

  20. Nuclear power for developing countries. Key issue paper no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, H.-H.; Khan, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Is there a rationale for developing countries to adopt nuclear power? This paper explores this rationale and the suitability of nuclear power for developing countries by surveying the prerequisites for and implications of developing a nuclear power program: infrastructure availability, economics and finance, environment, the needs for technology transfer, the regulatory and institutional frameworks required and the awareness of public concerns. (author)

  1. Addressing public concerns about ethical and environmental issues in the discussion on nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luthi, A.

    1996-01-01

    According to Swiss Federal Law, the producers of radioactive waste are responsible for its safe disposal. The government, therefore, plays a relatively modest role in the public debate on nuclear waste management. Whenever asked to express an opinion, it tries to inform openly. Active public relations campaigns are led by the National Co-operative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA). The operators of nuclear power plants are ready to compensate the siting community and its Canton for services rendered in the public interest. An important way to deal with ethical and environmental issues is the inclusion of opponents in every step of the time-consuming licensing procedure. This paper discusses the upcoming vote on a concession for a low and intermediate-level waste repository for which NAGRA is actively preparing. NAGRA's public relations work is based on recognition of the fact that the only way to diminish fear and gain credibility is to inform openly and regularly over many years, and to show that results achieved are based on serious, careful and transparent scientific work. Another aspect of radioactive waste management communication lies in the explanation of the ethics of 'inter-generational' and 'intra-generational' equity. Compensation will never make up for lack of safety. The ways in which the public voices its views are discussed, as well as the concept of seeking the co-operation of opponents in working groups. (author)

  2. Law and Popular Culture: Current Legal Issues Volume 7 edited by Michael Freeman

    OpenAIRE

    Bradney, Professor Anthony

    2006-01-01

    As Fiss has put it, academics are in law schools, ‘to study law and teach their students what they happen to discover’ (‘‘Of Law and the River,’ and Nihilism and Academic Freedom’ (1985) 35 Journal of Legal Education 1 at p 26). The idea that all questions about legal phenomena that can be asked should be asked, that nothing should remain unexplored, is slowly being accepted in modern university law schools. Institutions that were once the repositories of ephemeral case-notes and palimpsest t...

  3. The law for the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fule Development Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The Corporation is designated to engage in the independent development of fast breeder and advanced thermal reactors, the production, reprocessing and holding of nuclear fuel materials, and the exploration, mining and ore dressing of nuclear source materials to promoting the development and utilization of atomic energy. These activities are based on the Atomic Energy Basic Law, and limited to the peaceful uses. The basic concepts of a fast breeder reactor and an advanced thermal reactor are defined. A chapter is dedicated to the number, constitution, duties, competence, appointment and dismissal of the officers. The score of business is specified, beginning from the development and research of the reactors and ending with the import, export, purchase and selling of nuclear fuel materials and nuclear source materials. (Okada, K.)

  4. The order for enforcing the law on indemnity agreement for compensation of nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report shows the Cabinet Order No.46 of March 6, 1962. The Order consists of eleven Articles. The provisions under Article 1 and Article 2 specify requirements for conforming to the Law concerning Contract for Compensation and Indemnity for Nuclear Energy Loss. The provisions under Article 3 provide for the compensation premium rate (5/10,000). Data to be reported to the government are given under Article 4. Such data include purpose, type and thermal output of the reactor; location and structure of the nuclear reactor facilities; arrangements in the nuclear reactor facilities; plan for operation of the nuclear reactor; type and yearly amount of nuclear fuel substances used; method for disposal of spent fuel; matters concerning contract for liability insurance; location, structure, etc. of processing facilities, reprocessing facilities and waste disposal facilities; route and method for transporting materials contaminated with nuclear source materials or nuclear fuel substances; etc. Managers of nuclear energy business should pay the security money every year, which goes to the national treasury. (Nogami, K.)

  5. Thermal-work strain in law enforcement personnel during chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, M; Karis, A J; Tharion, W J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thermal safety standards for the use of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) ensembles have been established for various US occupations, but not for law enforcement personnel. Objectives: We examined thermal strain levels of 30 male US law enforcement personnel who participated in CBRN field training in Arizona, Florida, and Massachusetts. Methods: Physiological responses were examined using unobtrusive heart rate (HR) monitors and a simple thermoregulatory model to predict core temperature (Tc) using HR and environment. Results: Thermal strain levels varied by environments, activity levels, and type of CBRN ensemble. Arizona and Florida volunteers working in hot-dry and hot-humid environment indicated high heat strain (predicted max Tc>38.5°C). The cool environment of Massachusetts reduced thermal strain although thermal strains were occasionally moderate. Conclusions: The non-invasive method of using physiological monitoring and thermoregulatory modeling could improve law enforcement mission to reduce the risk of heat illness or injury. PMID:24999847

  6. Project of law relative to the sanitary consequences of French nuclear weapons tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-05-01

    In order to make easy the indemnifications and to include the persons having participate to nuclear weapons tests (Sahara and French Polynesia) and populations leaving in the concerned areas, the project of law relative to the repair of sanitary consequences of nuclear weapons tests proposes to create a right to integral repair of prejudices for the persons suffering of a radioinduced disease coming from these tests. The American example and the British example are given for comparison. The modalities of financing are detailed as well as the social economic and administrative impacts. (N.C.)

  7. Determination of internationally controlled materials according to provisions of the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    According to the provisions of The Law, those stipulated as internationally controlled materials are nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials, moderating materials, reactors and facilities, transferred from such as the U.S.A., the U.K. and Canada on the agreements of peaceful uses of atomic energy, and nuclear fuel materials accruing therefrom. (Mori, K.)

  8. The Superpowers: Nuclear Weapons and National Security. Teacher's Guide. National Issues Forums in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Tedd

    This teacher's guide is designed to accompany the National Issues Forums'"The Superpowers: Nuclear Weapons and National Security." Activities and ideas are provided to challenge students to debate and discuss the United States-Soviet related issues of nuclear weapons and national security. The guide is divided into sections that…

  9. Chernobyl: law and communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sands, P.

    1988-01-01

    A book has been written containing the up-to-date texts of the most important materials necessary for a comprehensive examination of the international law and communication issues arising from nuclear accidents with transboundary effects. Twelve of the twenty four texts are treaties of which nine are specifically related to nuclear matters. The twelve remaining texts include five guidelines and recommendations of international organizations relating to nuclear accidents. (U.K.)

  10. Nuclear power as a public issue protection of the public interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doederlein, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    In evaluating the future role of nuclear power, it should be required to perform a rational and quantitative comparison of power production alternatives on at least the following four parameters: health effects, environmental effects, economy and resource availability. The evaluations should cover all steps from fuel production through waste disposal. We have less detailed knowledge on health effects from air pollution than from radioactivity. However our present body of knowledge clearly indicates that large scale use of nuclear power instead of fossil fuels will save thousands of human lives annually. This is probably one of the most compelling arguments for nuclear power. Clearly a number of irrational political, ethical and emotional factors may be of decisive importance in a large scale choice of power plant types. However an evaluation of rational and quantifiable factors may serve one important function in telling us how many lives, which environmental improvements and what economical advantages we have to sacrifice in order to satisfy such irrational demands. In any case it should be recognized that the public interest is best served by maximum use of the broad knowledge we have on costs and benefits of alternative electric power generation forms. Obviously energy policy is not an area where all questions can be tackled in an absolutely rational and objective way. However a number of absolute restrictions are set by the laws of nature, others by our present technological abilities. Such restrictions can not be changed by wishful thinking, political or otherwise. On the one hand this may serve to define the role of the technological community in making both the nuclear and other more important decisions. On the other hand these are facts which are not fully appreciated by those making a controversial issue of nuclear power. One disturbing aspect of the discussions in many countries, is the plethora of manifestos for or against nuclear power. These are issued

  11. Japan's regulatory and safety issues regarding nuclear materials transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T. [Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, Government of Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Yamanaka, T. [Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization, Government of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    This paper focuses on the regulatory and safety issues on nuclear materials transport which the Government of Japan (GOJ) faces and needs to well handle. Background information about the status of nuclear power plants (NPP) and nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) facilities in Japan will promote a better understanding of what this paper addresses.

  12. Nuclear installations in Belarus: Implications of political and technical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaitsev, S.I.

    2001-01-01

    The report deals with some aspects of past and present supervisory activities at nuclear installations in Belarus. It briefly describes an existing supervisory system for nuclear installations in the Republic of Belarus, its legislative basis and functions of the supervisory body. Consideration is given to further development and improvement of the supervision in such fields as revision and elaboration of normative documents on nuclear safety, training of inspectors, co-operation with other governmental bodies while examining the nuclear option in the Republic of Belarus. (author)

  13. Proceedings of the meeting on nuclear law held by the Centro Italiano di Studi di Diritto dell'Energia Nucleare in Rome, Italy, 24 November 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    In accordance with usual practice the Italian Centre for Study of Nuclear Law (CISDEN) organised a meeting on nuclear law in Rome. A series of papers were presented dealing in particular with the respective legal positions of operators and constructors of nuclear power plants in Italy, the requirements and standards, national and international, imposed on users of radioactive materials and equipments. In addition, a series of conclusions are drawn from the Inter Jura' 75 Congress organised by the International Nuclear Law Association, as well as from the 1974 London Conference on Nuclear Insurance and Indemnity which dealt in detail with nuclear insurance problems for nuclear equipment and materials and their transport, in Europe and the United States. Finally, it is made clear from the III Symposium on German Nuclear Law organised in Goettingen in 1974 that the Federal Republic of Germany is concentrating on further developing its nuclear legislation in step with nuclear developments, in particular regarding compensation for possible victims of a nuclear incident. (NEA)

  14. Need for consent of a law extending the operating life of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degenhart, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with the question whether a law extending nuclear power plant life beyond the residual periods of time laid down in the law of April 22, 2002 requires consent of the Federal Council. The Atomic Energy Act needed the consent of the Federal Council pursuant to Article 87c, Basic Law, as its Section 24 determines that central functions of licensing and supervision be exercised by the federal states on behalf of the Federal Government. This has not changed after the current version of the norm. Increasing the residual quotas of electricity by amending Annex 3 of Sec.7, Para.1a, Atomic Energy Act, per se does not require consent. This is a substantive provision. Sec.24, Atomic Energy Act, does not need to be amended. The Federal Council, which consented to the original legislation, thus does not bear continued responsibility for the law. Every law must be treated as a separate entity in terms of legislative method. The Federal Council, with its first consent to the piece of legislation, ''approves'' this systemic shift. Renewed consent is required only in case of another systemic shift. This is the case when the provision about administrative responsibility takes on a very different meaning and impact no longer supported by the earlier consent. According to decisions by the Federal Constitutional Court, this expressly applies also to administration by commission. What is required is a comparison of administrative duties before and after entry into force of the amending law; mere quantitative shifts of administrative burdens do not cause a systemic shift. Whether the inclusion of backfitting obligations would be associated with regulations in administrative procedures has not been decided. In its ruling of May 4, 2010, the Federal Constitutional Court confirms that these do not require consent within the framework of Art.85 Para.1, Basic Law. (orig.)

  15. Recent Movement, Issues and Some Counter plans in Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. K.; Lee, J. K.; Cho, C. S.; Lee, C. C.; Park, C. O.

    2007-01-01

    There is no doubt 'Nuclear Energy' is the only source that can ensure the world's steady development in the foreseeable future. Nowadays is definitely what is called 'renaissance of nuclear.' As energy demand and economy increase, and global climate warms, the trend of nuclear dependency will be accelerated further. With 30 reactors being built around the world today, another 35 or more planned to come online during the next 10 years, and over two hundred further back in the pipeline, the global nuclear industry is clearly going forward strongly. Countries are seeking to replace old reactors as well as expand capacity, and an additional 25 countries are either considering or have already decided to make nuclear energy part of their power generation capacity. On the other hand, as current movement of world nuclear field, Korea has faced to one of the most important times since introducing nuclear power. Twenty nuclear power plants are run in Korea i.e. sixteen PWRs and four PHWRs now, and the capability of nuclear power production has been ranked world number six. In spite of this grand appearance, however, the influencing power on world nuclear society is not well matched to its status since it does not have a special hidden card which can appeal and impact on international community. In the era of nuclear renaissance, paradoxically, Korea is not in the situations of optimistic or pessimistic view. Now let's As energy demand and economy increase, and global climate warms, the trend of nuclear dependency will be accelerated further. With 30 reactors being built around the world today, another 35 or more planned to come online during the next 10 years, and over two hundred further back in the pipeline, the global nuclear industry is clearly going forward strongly. Countries are seeking to replace old reactors as well as expand capacity, and an additional 25 countries are either considering or have already decided to make nuclear energy part of their power generation

  16. Original theatrical production will explore issues surrounding nuclear power

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Jean

    2007-01-01

    A new, original theatrical production entitled "Nuclear Power Play" will explore the personal and public politics of nuclear power. Uniquely developed by a team of experts in science and technology working alongside theatre arts practitioners, the play will debut on Wednesday, Nov. 7 at 7:30 p.m. in the Haymarket Theatre at the Squires Student Center on the Virginia Tech campus.

  17. Nuclear versus fossil weighing up the safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gittus, Dzh.

    1992-01-01

    The problems of nuclear power plant safety are discussed as compared with those for the plants based on fossil fuel utilization. The conclusion is made that merits of nuclear power are much greater than its disadvantages as far as the environmental impacts are concerned

  18. U.S. Strategic Nuclear Forces: Background, Developments, and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-10

    abandon the strategy of nuclear deterrence that has served as a core concept in U.S. national security strategy for more than 60 years. In a speech in......stated that “the continuous at-sea deterrence provided by a robust and modern fleet of nuclear -powered ballistic missile submarines is critical to

  19. Nuclear power and related issues: the US outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burstein, S.

    1989-01-01

    The author notes there are now 108 nuclear units licensed to operate in the US and another 18 under construction or completed but not licensed; nuclear power provided 19.5% of US total electrical energy as of May 1988. One of the most disturbing items is the increase in operating and maintenance costs of US nuclear plants which, in some cases, exceed costs of coal-fired plants. US leadership in nuclear power has lost much momentum due primarily to institutional rather than technological problems. There are some indications, however, that the anti-nuclear fever of the past is receding, namely: (1) President Reagan recently endorsing the need for nuclear power by signing legislation extending Price-Anderson nuclear insurance protection; (2) a more favorable regulatory climate; (3) some progress on the nuclear waste problem; (4) more supportive public acceptance; (5) decommissioning activities; (6) increased attention of plant aging and 40-yr. license requirement; (7) radon concerns, ironically, because of conservation practices; and (8) substantial progress in advanced reactor technology

  20. The nuclear issue as seen by a banker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    The function of the banker in financing nuclear power is summarized and the criteria for financing are stated. The financial requirements and the availability of finance are discussed. The UK nuclear power programme is considered from a banker's point of view. (U.K.)

  1. The nuclear issue as seen by a businessman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, H.G.

    1976-01-01

    The subject is discussed under two heads: the market demand for electricity; and the supply of products to meet that demand by nuclear means. Consideration of the nuclear programme involves a discussion of the constraints under which the business should operate, including safety, strategic and economic. (U.K.)

  2. The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Concerning refining, fabrication and reprocessing operations of such materials as well as the installation and operation of reactors, necessary regulations are carried out. Namely, in case of establishing the business of refining, fabricating and reprocessing nuclear materials as well as installing nuclear reactors, applications for the permission of the Prime Minister and the Minister of International Trade and Industry should be filed. Change of such operations should be permitted after filing applications. These permissions are retractable. As regards the reactors installed aboard foreign ships, it must be reported to enter Japanese waters and the permission by the Prime Minister must be obtained. In case of nuclear fuel fabricators, a chief technician of nuclear fuel materials (qualified) must be appointed per each fabricator. In case of installing nuclear reactors, the design and methods of construction should be permitted by the Prime Minister. The standard for such permission is specified, and a chief engineer for operating reactors (qualified) must be appointed. Successors inherit the positions of ones who have operated nuclear material refining, fabrication and reprocessing businesses or operated nuclear reactors. (Rikitake, Y.)

  3. Energy issues, destabilization challenge? The nuclear power example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castel, Viviane du

    2010-01-01

    The depletion of oil, geopolitical uncertainties resulting, fluctuation and price volatility leads, since the 2000's, a development in which the economy favors nuclear energy for civilian use. Thus, the development of the international market for nuclear industry is linked to the competitiveness of nuclear deal with their competitors using fossil fuels (oil, gas, coal). Nuclear power is both an energy benefit to the countries that we use (low emissions of greenhouse gas emissions, low pollution, stable prices and competitive supply without major obstacles) and worrying (no real solution for waste, transfer risk from civilian to nuclear weapons). The Business Intelligence (BI) appears to be essential for companies in this industry and is based on technical and urgent challenges. BI has become an imperative for companies in the energy sector

  4. Energy law '90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The International Bar Association's Section on Energy and Natural Resources Law selected eight key topics for discussion at their ninth seminar in the Netherlands in 1990. Only two papers specifically related to nuclear power and these were within the topic of environmental issues facing the energy industries. Both papers dealt with the legal aspects of nuclear plants sited near national borders and covered international law and the need for standardized regulations and agreements on issues such as environmental impacts, safety, radiological protection, public information and emergency plans in case of accidents. (UK)

  5. The law governing the nuclear licensing procedure in Brazil and in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade Da Costa Lima, W.

    1984-01-01

    The two first parts of this thesis separately describe the framework of the legal system of the two countries in the field of nuclear energy, whereas the third part goes into details which are explained in order to prepare the subsequent comparative analysis. The comparison covers the structural set-up of the bodies of the national atomic energy provisions, the structure of the various nuclear licensing procedures, the role and competences of experts and their opinions, and the role and competence of jurisdiction. The most profound difference is found in the fact that Brazilian administrative law does not include jurisdiction of an administrative court, and this for constitutional reasons. The civil courts only have competence to examine acts of administration with regard to their legality. The procedure for licensing nuclear installations or equipment is determined by the central licensing authority within the framework of its competency. So far, there have been no attempts in Brazil to seek judicial remedy or to start an action to set aside decisions taken in the nuclear licensing procedure. Furthermore, there are no means in Brazilian law to stop licensing whenever the requirements of Art. 7, section 1, no. I-IV of Lei 6189 are met. The licensing authority has no scope of discretion. Applicants for a licence in Brazil will have no problems in finding out which regulations are applicable to their particular case. The concrete definition of details, however, always is a time-consuming and expensive process. (orig./HSCH) [de

  6. The regulation for enforcing the law concerning indemnification of nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    These provisions are established on the basis of and to enforce the ''Law concerning the indemnification of nuclear damage''. Atomic energy enterprises who want to get the approval in connection with the Law shall file the applications to the Director General of Science and Technology Agency, in which the name and the address of the applicant, kinds of the operation of nuclear reactors, the name and the address of the factory or the establishment concerning the operation of nuclear reactors, the thermal output of the reactors, the kinds and quantities of nuclear fuel materials or the things contaminated by such materials to be transported, and the time of starting and the expected time of ending the operation of the reactors, etc. To such applications, shall be attached actually surveyed maps indicating the area of the factory or the establishment concerning the operation of the reactors and the documents certifying the conclusion of obligatory insurances and indemnification contracts, etc. The securities which can be deposited and recovering of such securities are prescribed. (Okada, K.)

  7. An analysis on the issues of the rights of spouses in the Islamic Family Law in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zawawi Bin Abu Bakar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to analyze problems regarding mutual rights of Muslims married couple in Malaysia. It has drawn the attention of many researchers to carry out studies on this issue since there have been accusations and complaints on the implementation of the Islamic Family Law (IFL by the Syariah Court, which is said to have discriminated the wife/women of their rights. The qualitative approach research employed interviews and content analysis as method of study on the Islamic Family Law as well as on the documented cases. The results of the research showed that among the most disputable cases were matters related to polygamy, fasakh, jointly acquired property and children custodian. Conversely, all data were analyzed by using the qualitative data analysis, concluded that the Islamic Family Law in Malaysia has infact implemented the concept of equality.

  8. The end of nuclear power? The conflict of politics, ecology and law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strassburg, W.

    1999-01-01

    The German federal government's demand to opt out of the peaceful use of nuclear power is examined under aspects of constitutional law. Constitutional barriers allow the peaceful use of nuclear power to be discontinued without any compensation only in the distant future. A general restriction of the useful life of plants does not constitute a modification of ownership rights but deprivation, i.e., expropriation. In this politically desired opt-out, the government also must bear in mind that the constitution protects not only the property but also the freedom to exercise their profession (Article 12, para. 1, German Basic Law) of all those who have been committed to this industry for decades. Also a national ban on reprocessing with transborder effects violates existing law, counteracting the requirement of a free exchange of goods and services within the single European market. Moreover, the existing reprocessing contracts with foreign companies may be terminated unilaterally only subject to indemnification, as they constitute obligations under international law, unless German customers were to exercise their contractual right to cancel. In addition, it is to be feared that discontinuation of the peaceful uses of nuclear power manifests itself in the absence of provisions for the back end of the fuel cycle. Prolonging the exploration of repositories and, consequently, relying more and more heavily on interim stores, is bound to raise the question of the evidence of spent fuel and waste management in these latter facilities. In the absence of sufficient proof of waste management provisions in interim stores, the accusation could be leveled that it was not certain whether these interim stores were not turning into final stores. (orig.) [de

  9. Federal securities law and the need to disclose the risk of canceling nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sponseller, D.

    1984-01-01

    Almost every electric utility company involved in nuclear plant construction has experienced difficulty as a result of the deteriorating condition of the nuclear industry as a whole. The thrust of a growing number of lawsuits brought against electric companies for alleged violations of federal securities laws is that the companies failed to reveal cost overruns, delays, and the risk of cancellation and write-off of nuclear plants in their annual reports and registration statements. A review of several suits and the disclosure requirements of securities statutes concludes that, although investors have known about utility problems, they have just become aware this year that the entire financial viability of the electric companies is threatened

  10. Competence of the Higher Administrative Court over an administrative lawsuit concerning orders issued by the supervisory authority instituted under atomic energy law. Hess. VGH, decision of December 22, 1993 - 14 Q 2724/93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doering, H.

    1994-01-01

    The competence of the state over the storage of nuclear fuel, exercised by the Federal Radiation Protection Office, is not limited to the storage alone but extends to the acceptance and delivery of the material including all transport operations involved. Interactions between the operation of a fuel element plant and external processes can lead to the issue of orders under Article 19 Section 3 of the Atomic Energy Law, provided such interactions fall within the jurisdiction in rem of the supervisory authority instituted under atomic energy law. (orig./HSCH) [de

  11. Theoretical and Practical Significance of the Issue of Maritime Delimitation in the Law of the Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Lakićević-Đuranović, Bojana

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to show the significance of maritime delimitation in the Law of the Sea, as well as the contribution of international jurisprudence to the creation of the rules of maritime delimitation. The decisions of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) and the awards of arbitration tribunals are especially significant in the part of the Law of the Sea dealing with maritime delimitation. Based on the analysis of the principle of equity and the method of equidistance, the jurisprudence ...

  12. Women and nuclear issues: Comments in a Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionne-Marsolais, Rita

    1989-01-01

    When the Canadian Nuclear industry launched its information program, it was found that women were less supportive of nuclear power. Reasons were difficult to pin-point and hovered around individual perceptions and misunderstandings. The basis of the Canadian Nuclear Association Public Information program lies with its target: men and women equally. The Program Takes Into Consideration The major characteristics and nuances of these two groups. Female Characteristics from Canadian Perspective are: Strong sense of generation continuity; Detail and task oriented; Nontechnical training; Strong sense of individuality (local). Patterns of behavoiur in relation to nuclear industry for women in Canada are: not prone to take risks; micro-economic approach to decisions (local); little confidence in technology; pragmatic and balanced in their choices (local). Major concerns of Canadian women are: Safety of power plants; disposal of waste; peace and environment versus growth and energy need; trustworthiness of the industry. Canadian nuclear association public information program communirations -approach covers: the right message, down to earth language, factual and real information for real choices, effective reach: spokespeople and media buy. Results of polls: show thtt women are less in favour of Nuclear energy in Canada today than men, consider NPPs less important in Meeting Canada's energy need in the years ahead; and think that Nuclear Energy is not a choice for Canada of all sources of energy available for large scale use

  13. Controversy over Issue Preclusion in Russia’s Criminal Procedure: Can Common Law Offer a Solution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Rovnov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though Russia’s new Code of Criminal Procedure of 2001 had from the very beginning contained the article titled ‘Preclusive Effects,’ it was not until a decision by the Constitutional Court of 2008 that the doctrine of issue preclusion was, in its proper sense, reinstated in Russian criminal law, barring facts definitively established in a civil trial from relitigation in criminal proceedings. Despite heavy criticism that came down on the Constitutional Court for what was seen by law enforcement agents as unwarranted judicial activism, the Russian Parliament soon amended the article in line with the interpretation offered by the Court. This, however, did not end the controversy as critics raised a valid point: an automatic transfer of facts from civil proceedings with a priori more lenient requirements of proof is likely to distort outcomes, harming defendants, the prosecution, and, ultimately, societal interests. This article will turn for apotential solution to common law, which has been able to avoid this problem by clearly distinguishing between different standards of proof applicable in civil v. criminal litigations. It will be shown, using the United States as an example, how courts can effectively use issue preclusion to pursue a number of legitimate objectives, such as consistency of judgments and judicial economy, with due account for the interests of parties in proceedings. At the same time, issue preclusion appears an inappropriate and ineffective means to combat arbitrariness of the judiciary – the end which Russia’s Constitutional Court and law makers arguably had in mind when introducing the doctrine into Russian law.

  14. Draft report on compilation of generic safety issues for light water reactor nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    A generally accepted approach to characterizing the safety concerns in nuclear power plants is to express them as safety issues which need to be resolved. When such safety issues are applicable to a generation of plants of a particular design or to a family of plants of similar design, they are termed generic safety issues. Examples of generic safety issues are those related to reactor vessel embrittlement, control rod insertion reliability or strainer clogging. The safety issues compiled in this document are based on broad international experience. This compilation is one element in the framework of IAEA activities to assist Member States in reassessing the safety of operating nuclear power plants. Refs.

  15. Draft report on compilation of generic safety issues for light water reactor nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    A generally accepted approach to characterizing the safety concerns in nuclear power plants is to express them as safety issues which need to be resolved. When such safety issues are applicable to a generation of plants of a particular design or to a family of plants of similar design, they are termed generic safety issues. Examples of generic safety issues are those related to reactor vessel embrittlement, control rod insertion reliability or strainer clogging. The safety issues compiled in this document are based on broad international experience. This compilation is one element in the framework of IAEA activities to assist Member States in reassessing the safety of operating nuclear power plants. Refs

  16. Issues in networking and research funding for the European Association of Health Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townend, David; Duguet, Anne-Marie

    2008-09-01

    All academics, perhaps with the exception of those who are hermits with independent private means, are concerned with questions of networking and research funding. The nature of academic life is to search out new ideas and revisit old ones, and to discuss these ideas with others. This requires networks of colleagues and funding to provide the basic resources of time and literature. This may be at the local level, but increasingly the expectation is that these activities should become more and more elaborate; our networks are now international, and our time and resources cost ever increasing amounts which, for many if not most academics, must be found outside the general budget of the home University. Our success as academics is measured, in increasing part, on our ability to show our networking and external funding credentials. There is a more resounding reason to pursue both networking and externally funded research: through such projects the experience of each individual can be increased such that the result is far greater than one could achieve alone. Networking and external funding are not ends in themselves, but they can and should be a great enhancement to academic life and contribution. None of this is news or a novel claim; it is simply today's environment. This paper considers some opportunities for how networking and externally funded research might help the EAHL to realise its aims in developing the discipline of health law. We, as authors, do not claim any special expertise in the area, and readers are quite justified in thinking "who are they to talk to us about what we clearly know much more about?" However, we were asked to start a discussion at the inaugural conference of the Association, and the thoughts that we present now were designed to do that. It is a discussion which will form one of the early activities of the Association. Here the paper is divided first issues concerning networking, and second those concerning research funding from sources

  17. Public Acceptance, a Key Issue of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritar, A.

    1996-01-01

    A brief history of public acceptance of nuclear energy in Slovenia is given. While in former Yugoslavia a problem of public acceptance virtually did not exist because of undemocratic social system, it grew larger and larger with the process of democratization in late eighties. The first democratic government in Slovenia had to abandon its original idea for an early closure of the nuclear power plant Krsko. In 1995 and 1996 there were two attempts to organize the national referendum about the future of the plant. The lessons learned from the public debates in recent years could help other countries entering the nuclear program to prepare and implement efficient public information strategy. (author)

  18. Krsko: A case study for western nuclear power issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizal, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    This article is a review of issues surrounding the operation of the Krsko reactor in the former Yugoslav state of Slovenia. This reactor, a Westinghouse-supplied 632-MWe PWR, supplies 25% of Slovenia's electrical energy and is therefore a major element in the country's energy mix. There are environmental issues and political issues noted, and the project is currently evaluating the need for costly steam generator replacement

  19. Law on the Decommissioning of unit 1 at the state enterprise of the Republic of Lithuania Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This law regulates the legal principles for the decommissioning of unit 1 at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant. The main deadlines for the government in the preparation for the decommissioning are set in the law. All preparatory works should be finished before the year 2005

  20. Proposition of law aiming to the recognition and indemnification of persons victims of nuclear tests or nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    The present proposition of law has for object to establish the presumption of a relationship between on the one hand the nuclear weapons tests and on the other hand the pathologies developed by the civil or military personnel having worked on the concerned sites as well as the populations present in the contaminated areas. the present proposition aims to establish equality between the victims and to create the legal framework that will allow the state to proceed to the just compensations of damages imposed by actions then considered as national interest. (N.C.)