WorldWideScience

Sample records for nuclear importation properties

  1. Role and properties of the gel formed during nuclear glass alteration: importance of gel formation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gin, S.; Ribet, I.; Couillard, M.

    2001-09-01

    A French SON 68 nuclear glass sample was experimentally altered to assess the mechanisms limiting the glass alteration kinetics, especially during the transition phase between the initial rate r0 and the final rate under silicon saturation conditions. A glass specimen was altered at the initial rate for one week to form a silicon-depleted non-protective gel; the specimen was then leached under static conditions at a glass-surface-to-solution-volume ( S/ V) ratio of 500 m-1 and the alteration kinetics were compared with those of a pristine glass specimen altered under the same conditions. Unexpectedly, after static leaching the previously leached glass was 2.7 times as altered as the pristine specimen, and the steady-state silicon concentration was twice as high for the previously leached specimen. STEM characterization of the alteration films showed that the initial non-protective gel constituted a silicon pump with respect to the glass, and that the glass alteration kinetics were limited only when a fraction of the gel became saturated with silicon, and exhibited protective properties. This work also shows that silicon recondensation was uniform at micrometer scale: the silicon hydrolyzed at the reaction interface then diffused before recondensing over a length comparable to the gel thickness. In addition to these findings, this investigation suggests a reinterpretation of the effect of the S/ V ratio on the glass alteration kinetics and on the steady-state dissolved silicon concentration.

  2. Import and nuclear size

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen-Fix, Orna

    2010-01-01

    The size of a cell’s nucleus is usually proportional to the size of the cell itself. How are the two linked? The answer lies, at least in part, in the import of one or more cytoplasmic cargoes into the nucleus.

  3. Reconstitution of nuclear import in permeabilized cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassany, Aurelia; Gerace, Larry

    2009-01-01

    The trafficking of protein and RNA cargoes between the cytoplasm and the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, which is a major pathway involved in cell regulation, is mediated by nuclear transport sequences in the cargoes and by shuttling transport factors. The latter include receptors (karyopherins) that recognize the cargoes and carry them across the nuclear pore complex (NPC), and the small GTPase Ran, which modulates karyopherin-cargo binding. Nuclear import can be studied in vitro using digitonin-permeabilized cells, which are depleted of shuttling transport factors. Nuclear import can be reconstituted in the permeabilized cells with exogenous cytosol or with purified recombinant transport factors, and can be quantified by light microscopy of fluorescently labeled cargoes or by immunofluorescence staining. Here we describe procedures for in vitro nuclear import in permeabilized mammalian cells, and for the preparation of recombinant transport factors (importin alpha, importin beta, importin 7, transportin, Ran, NTF2) and other reagents commonly used in the assay. This assay provides means to characterize the molecular mechanisms of nuclear import and to study the import requirements of specific cargoes.

  4. Isospin dependent properties of asymmetric nuclear matter

    CERN Document Server

    Chowdhury, P Roy; Samanta, C

    2009-01-01

    The density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy is determined from a systematic study of the isospin dependent bulk properties of asymmetric nuclear matter using the isoscalar and the isovector components of density dependent M3Y interaction. The incompressibility $K_\\infty$ for the symmetric nuclear matter, the isospin dependent part $K_{asy}$ of the isobaric incompressibility and the slope $L$ are all in excellent agreement with the constraints recently extracted from measured isotopic dependence of the giant monopole resonances in even-A Sn isotopes, from the neutron skin thickness of nuclei and from analyses of experimental data on isospin diffusion and isotopic scaling in intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions. This work provides a fundamental basis for the understanding of nuclear matter under extreme conditions, and validates the important empirical constraints obtained from recent experimental data.

  5. The importance of HIFAR to nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, N.R. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    Since its official opening on 26 January 1960, the HIFAR research reactor operated by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) at Lucas Heights near Sydney has been used to support an expanding nuclear medicine market. HIFAR has characteristics which make it very suitable for this role and the effect has been to make ANSTO the dominant supplier of reactor-based radiopharmaceuticals in Australia and a significant exporter. While HIFAR has capacity to support limited increased production, its future requires government decisions. The author concluded that the absence of an operational research reactor in Australia and the lack of another local source of neutrons could directly affect the practice of nuclear medicine in the country and the level of presently increasing exports. 1 fig.

  6. Cellular penetration and nuclear importation properties of {sup 111}In-labeled and {sup 123}I-labeled HIV-1 tat peptide immunoconjugates in BT-474 human breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelissen, Bart [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, M5S 3M2 (Canada); Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3M2 (Canada); Hu, Meiduo [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, M5S 3M2 (Canada); Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3M2 (Canada); McLarty, Kristin [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, M5S 3M2 (Canada); Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3M2 (Canada); Costantini, Dan [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, M5S 3M2 (Canada); Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3M2 (Canada); Reilly, Raymond M. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, M5S 3M2 (Canada) and Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3M2 (Canada) and Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3M2 (Canada) and Toronto General Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, M5S 3M2 (Canada)]. E-mail: raymond.reilly@utoronto.ca

    2007-01-15

    Introduction: Our objective was to compare the cell penetration and nuclear importation properties of {sup 111}In-labeled and {sup 123}I-labeled immunoconjugates (ICs) composed of 16-mer peptides (GRKKRRQRRRPPQGYG) derived from HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (tat) protein and anti-mouse IgG (mIgG) in BT-474 breast cancer (BC) cells. Methods: [{sup 111}In]tat ICs were constructed by site-specific conjugation of tat peptides to NaIO{sub 4} {sup -}-oxidized carbohydrates in the Fc domain of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic-acid-modified anti-mIgG antibodies. Immunoreactivity against mIgG was assessed in a competition assay. The kinetics of the accumulation of [{sup 111}In]anti-mIgG-tat IC and [{sup 123}I]anti-mIgG-tat ICs in BT-474 cells and the elimination of radioactivity from cells, cytoplasm or nuclei were determined. The effects of excess tat peptides or NH{sub 4}Cl (an inhibitor of endosomal acidification) on cellular uptake and nuclear importation of [{sup 111}In]anti-mIgG-tat were measured. Results: [{sup 111}In]anti-mIgG-tat was >97% radiochemically pure and exhibited preserved immunoreactivity with mIgG epitopes. [{sup 123}I]Anti-mIgG-tat penetrated BT-474 cells more rapidly than [{sup 111}In]anti-mIgG-tat ICs and achieved a 1.5-fold to a 2-fold higher uptake in cells and nuclei. Cell penetration and nuclear uptake of [{sup 111}In]anti-mIgG-tat were inhibited by excess tat peptides and NH{sub 4}Cl. Elimination of radioactivity from BT-474 cells and nuclei was more rapid and complete for {sup 123}I-labeled than for {sup 111}In-labeled anti-mIgG-tat ICs. Conclusion: Tat peptides derived from HIV-1 tat protein promoted the penetration and nuclear uptake of radioactivity following the incubation of {sup 111}In-labeled and {sup 123}I-labeled anti-mIgG antibodies with BT-474 human BC cells. {sup 111}In-labeled tat ICs are feasible for inserting radionuclides into cancer cells with potential for targeting intracellular and, particularly, nuclear epitopes for

  7. Intracellular calcium levels can regulate Importin-dependent nuclear import

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Ly-Huynh, Jennifer D.; Jans, David A., E-mail: David.Jans@monash.edu

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • High intracellular calcium inhibits Impα/β1- or Impβ1-dependent nuclear protein import. • The effect of Ca{sup 2+} on nuclear import does not relate to changes in the nuclear pore. • High intracellular calcium can result in mislocalisation of Impβ1, Ran and RCC1. - Abstract: We previously showed that increased intracellular calcium can modulate Importin (Imp)β1-dependent nuclear import of SRY-related chromatin remodeling proteins. Here we extend this work to show for the first time that high intracellular calcium inhibits Impα/β1- or Impβ1-dependent nuclear protein import generally. The basis of this relates to the mislocalisation of the transport factors Impβ1 and Ran, which show significantly higher nuclear localization in contrast to various other factors, and RCC1, which shows altered subnuclear localisation. The results here establish for the first time that intracellular calcium modulates conventional nuclear import through direct effects on the nuclear transport machinery.

  8. Nuclear protein import is reduced in cells expressing nuclear envelopathy-causing lamin A mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, Albert; Kiel, Tilman; Heupel, Wolfgang-M. [University of Wuerzburg, Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Koellikerstrasse 6, 97070 Wuerzburg (Germany); Wehnert, Manfred [Institute of Human Genetics, University of Greifswald, Greifswald (Germany); Huebner, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.huebner@mail.uni-wuerzburg.de [University of Wuerzburg, Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Koellikerstrasse 6, 97070 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    Lamins, which form the nuclear lamina, not only constitute an important determinant of nuclear architecture, but additionally play essential roles in many nuclear functions. Mutations in A-type lamins cause a wide range of human genetic disorders (laminopathies). The importance of lamin A (LaA) in the spatial arrangement of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) prompted us to study the role of LaA mutants in nuclear protein transport. Two mutants, causing prenatal skin disease restrictive dermopathy (RD) and the premature aging disease Hutchinson Gilford progeria syndrome, were used for expression in HeLa cells to investigate their impact on the subcellular localization of NPC-associated proteins and nuclear protein import. Furthermore, dynamics of the LaA mutants within the nuclear lamina were studied. We observed affected localization of NPC-associated proteins, diminished lamina dynamics for both LaA mutants and reduced nuclear import of representative cargo molecules. Intriguingly, both LaA mutants displayed similar effects on nuclear morphology and functions, despite their differences in disease severity. Reduced nuclear protein import was also seen in RD fibroblasts and impaired lamina dynamics for the nucleoporin Nup153. Our data thus represent the first study of a direct link between LaA mutant expression and reduced nuclear protein import.

  9. Importance of Advanced Planning of Manufacturing for Nuclear Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shykinov Nick

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of energy demands by growing economies, climate changes, fossil fuel pricing volatility, and improved safety and performance of nuclear power plants, many countries express interest in expanding or acquiring nuclear power capacity. In the light of the increased interest in expanding nuclear power the supply chain for nuclear power projects has received more attention in recent years. The importance of the advanced planning of procurement and manufacturing of components of nuclear facilities is critical for these projects. Many of these components are often referred to as long-lead items. They may be equipment, products and systems that are identified to have a delivery time long enough to affect directly the overall timing of a project. In order to avoid negatively affecting the project schedule, these items may need to be sourced out or manufactured years before the beginning of the project. For nuclear facilities, long-lead items include physical components such as large pressure vessels, instrumentation and controls. They may also mean programs and management systems important to the safety of the facility. Authorized nuclear operator training, site evaluation programs, and procurement are some of the examples. The nuclear power industry must often meet very demanding construction and commissioning timelines, and proper advanced planning of the long-lead items helps manage risks to project completion time. For nuclear components there are regulatory and licensing considerations that need to be considered. A national nuclear regulator must be involved early to ensure the components will meet the national legal regulatory requirements. This paper will discuss timing considerations to address the regulatory compliance of nuclear long-lead items.

  10. Dynamics and regulation of nuclear import and nuclear movements of HIV-1 complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Ryan C.; Chen, Jianbo; Sastri, Jaya; Hu, Wei-Shau

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics and regulation of HIV-1 nuclear import and its intranuclear movements after import have not been studied. To elucidate these essential HIV-1 post-entry events, we labeled viral complexes with two fluorescently tagged virion-incorporated proteins (APOBEC3F or integrase), and analyzed the HIV-1 dynamics of nuclear envelope (NE) docking, nuclear import, and intranuclear movements in living cells. We observed that HIV-1 complexes exhibit unusually long NE residence times (1.5±1.6 hrs) compared to most cellular cargos, which are imported into the nuclei within milliseconds. Furthermore, nuclear import requires HIV-1 capsid (CA) and nuclear pore protein Nup358, and results in significant loss of CA, indicating that one of the viral core uncoating steps occurs during nuclear import. Our results showed that the CA-Cyclophilin A interaction regulates the dynamics of nuclear import by delaying the time of NE docking as well as transport through the nuclear pore, but blocking reverse transcription has no effect on the kinetics of nuclear import. We also visualized the translocation of viral complexes docked at the NE into the nucleus and analyzed their nuclear movements and determined that viral complexes exhibited a brief fast phase (HIV-1 complexes quickly tether to chromatin at or near their sites of integration in both wild-type cells and cells in which LEDGF/p75 was deleted using CRISPR/cas9, indicating that the tethering interactions do not require LEDGF/p75. These studies provide novel insights into the dynamics of viral complex-NE association, regulation of nuclear import, viral core uncoating, and intranuclear movements that precede integration site selection. PMID:28827840

  11. Calmodulin-dependent nuclear import of HMG-box family nuclear factors: importance of the role of SRY in sex reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Delluc-Clavieres, Aurelie; Poon, Ivan K H; Forwood, Jade K; Glover, Dominic J; Jans, David A

    2010-08-15

    The HMG (high-mobility group)-box-containing chromatin-remodelling factor SRY (sex-determining region on the Y chromosome) plays a key role in sex determination. Its role in the nucleus is critically dependent on two NLSs (nuclear localization signals) that flank its HMG domain: the C-terminally located 'beta-NLS' that mediates nuclear transport through Impbeta1 (importin beta1) and the N-terminally located 'CaM-NLS' which is known to recognize the calcium-binding protein CaM (calmodulin). In the present study, we examined a number of missense mutations in the SRY CaM-NLS from human XY sex-reversed females for the first time, showing that they result in significantly reduced nuclear localization of GFP (green fluorescent protein)-SRY fusion proteins in transfected cells compared with wild-type. The CaM antagonist CDZ (calmidazolium chloride) was found to significantly reduce wild-type SRY nuclear accumulation, indicating dependence of SRY nuclear import on CaM. Intriguingly, the CaM-NLS mutants were all resistant to CDZ's effects, implying a loss of interaction with CaM, which was confirmed by direct binding experiments. CaM-binding/resultant nuclear accumulation was the only property of SRY found to be impaired by two of the CaM-NLS mutations, implying that inhibition of CaM-dependent nuclear import is the basis of sex reversal in these cases. Importantly, the CaM-NLS is conserved in other HMG-box-domain-containing proteins such as SOX-2, -9, -10 and HMGN1, all of which were found for the first time to rely on CaM for optimal nuclear localization. CaM-dependent nuclear translocation is thus a common mechanism for this family of important transcription factors.

  12. Importance of risk communication during and after a nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perko, Tanja

    2011-07-01

    Past nuclear accidents highlight communication as one of the most important challenges in emergency management. In the early phase, communication increases awareness and understanding of protective actions and improves the population response. In the medium and long term, risk communication can facilitate the remediation process and the return to normal life. Mass media play a central role in risk communication. The recent nuclear accident in Japan, as expected, induced massive media coverage. Media were employed to communicate with the public during the contamination phase, and they will play the same important role in the clean-up and recovery phases. However, media also have to fulfill the economic aspects of publishing or broadcasting, with the "bad news is good news" slogan that is a well-known phenomenon in journalism. This article addresses the main communication challenges and suggests possible risk communication approaches to adopt in the case of a nuclear accident.

  13. Histone chaperones link histone nuclear import and chromatin assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, Kristin M; Pemberton, Lucy F

    2013-01-01

    Histone chaperones are proteins that shield histones from nonspecific interactions until they are assembled into chromatin. After their synthesis in the cytoplasm, histones are bound by different histone chaperones, subjected to a series of posttranslational modifications and imported into the nucleus. These evolutionarily conserved modifications, including acetylation and methylation, can occur in the cytoplasm, but their role in regulating import is not well understood. As part of histone import complexes, histone chaperones may serve to protect the histones during transport, or they may be using histones to promote their own nuclear localization. In addition, there is evidence that histone chaperones can play an active role in the import of histones. Histone chaperones have also been shown to regulate the localization of important chromatin modifying enzymes. This review is focused on the role histone chaperones play in the early biogenesis of histones, the distinct cytoplasmic subcomplexes in which histone chaperones have been found in both yeast and mammalian cells and the importins/karyopherins and nuclear localization signals that mediate the nuclear import of histones. We also address the role that histone chaperone localization plays in human disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Histone chaperones and chromatin assembly.

  14. The NUBASE2016 evaluation of nuclear properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audi, G.; Kondev, F. G.; Wang, Meng; Huang, W. J.; Naimi, S.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the NUBASE2016 evaluation that contains the recommended values for nuclear and decay properties of 3437 nuclides in their ground and excited isomeric (T1/2 >= 100 ns) states. All nuclides for which any experimental information is known were considered. NUBASE2016 covers all data published by October 2016 in primary (journal articles) and secondary (mainly laboratory reports and conference proceedings) references, together with the corresponding bibliographical information. During the development of NUBASE2016, the data available in the 'Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File' (ENSDF) database were consulted and critically assessed for their validity and completeness. Furthermore, a large amount of new data and some older experimental results that were missing from ENSDF were compiled, evaluated and included in NUBASE2016. The atomic mass values were taken from the 'Atomic Mass Evaluation' (AME2016, second and third parts of the present issue). In cases where no experimental data were available for a particular nuclide, trends in the behavior of specific properties in neighboring nuclides (TNN) were examined. This approach allowed to estimate values for a range of properties that are labeled in NUBASE2016 as 'non-experimental' (flagged '#'). Evaluation procedures and policies used during the development of this database are presented, together with a detailed table of recommended values and their uncertainties. AMDC: http://amdc.impcas.ac.cn/ Contents The NUBASE2016 evaluation of nuclear propertiesAcrobat PDF (1.1 MB) Table I. The NUBASE2016 table of nuclear and decay propertiesAcrobat PDF (706 KB)

  15. Thorium dioxide: properties and nuclear applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belle, J.; Berman, R.M. (eds.)

    1984-01-01

    This is the sixth book on reactor materials published under sponsorship of the Naval Reactors Office of the United States Department of Energy, formerly the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This book presents a comprehensive compilation of the most significant properties of thorium dioxide, much like the book Uranium Dioxide: Properties and Nuclear Applications presented information on the fuel material used in the Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor core.

  16. Nuclearity Related Properties in Operator Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kavruk, Ali Samil

    2011-01-01

    Some recent research on the tensor products of operator systems and ensuing nuclearity properties in this setting raised many stability problems. In this paper we examine the preservation of these nuclearity properties including exactness, local liftibility and double commutant expectation property under basic algebraic operations such as quotient, duality, coproducts and tensor products. We show that, in the ?finite dimensional case, exactness and lifting property are dual pairs, that is, an operator system $S$ is exact if and only if the dual operator system $S^d$ has the lifting property. Moreover, the lifting property is preserved under quotients by null subspaces. Again in the finite dimensional case we prove that every operator system has k-lifting property in the sense that whenever $f:S -> A/I$ is a ucp map, where A is a C*-algebra and I is an ideal, then $f$ possess a unital k-positive lift on A, for every k. This property provides a novel proof of a classical result of Smith and Ward on the preserva...

  17. Human nucleoporins promote HIV-1 docking at the nuclear pore, nuclear import and integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Di Nunzio

    Full Text Available The nuclear pore complex (NPC mediates nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of macromolecules and is an obligatory point of passage and functional bottleneck in the replication of some viruses. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV has evolved the required mechanisms for active nuclear import of its genome through the NPC. However the mechanisms by which the NPC allows or even assists HIV translocation are still unknown. We investigated the involvement of four key nucleoporins in HIV-1 docking, translocation, and integration: Nup358/RanBP2, Nup214/CAN, Nup98 and Nup153. Although all induce defects in infectivity when depleted, only Nup153 actually showed any evidence of participating in HIV-1 translocation through the nuclear pore. We show that Nup358/RanBP2 mediates docking of HIV-1 cores on NPC cytoplasmic filaments by interacting with the cores and that the C-terminus of Nup358/RanBP2 comprising a cyclophilin-homology domain contributes to binding. We also show that Nup214/CAN and Nup98 play no role in HIV-1 nuclear import per se: Nup214/CAN plays an indirect role in infectivity read-outs through its effect on mRNA export, while the reduction of expression of Nup98 shows a slight reduction in proviral integration. Our work shows the involvement of nucleoporins in diverse and functionally separable steps of HIV infection and nuclear import.

  18. NUBASE2012 Evaluation of Nuclear Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M., E-mail: wangm@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou 730000 (China); CSNSM-Orsay, MPI-K, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Audi, G. [CSNSM, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay Campus (France); Kondev, F.G. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Pfeiffer, B. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Blachot, J.; Sun, X. [CSNSM, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay Campus (France); MacCormick, M. [IPN, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud, 91406 Orsay cedex (France)

    2014-06-15

    NUBASE is a database containing the recommended values for the main properties of all known nuclides in their ground and excited isomeric states. Since the publication of the first version in 1997, NUBASE has been widely used in the nuclear science community. The latest version (NUBASE2012) was published in December 2012. Two specific examples are given to illustrate the evaluation policy of NUBASE2012.

  19. Femtotechnology: Nuclear Matter with Fantastic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bolonkin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: At present the term 'nanotechnology' is well known-in its' ideal form, the flawless and completely controlled design of conventional molecular matter from molecules or atoms. Such a power over nature would offer routine achievement of remarkable properties in conventional matter and creation of metamaterials where the structure not the composition brings forth new powers of matter. But even this yet unachieved goal is not the end of material science possibilities. The author herein offers the idea of design of new forms of nuclear matter from nucleons (neutrons, protons, electrons and other nuclear particles. Approach: The researcher researches the nuclear forces. He shows these force may be used for design the new nuclear matter from protons, neutrons, electrons and other nuclear particles. Results: Author shows this new 'AB-Matter' has extraordinary properties (for example, tensile strength, stiffness, hardness, critical temperature, superconductivity, supertransparency and zero friction., which are up to millions of times better than corresponding properties of conventional molecular matter. He shows concepts of design for aircraft, ships, transportation, thermonuclear reactors, constructions and so on from nuclear matter. These vehicles will have unbelievable possibilities (e.g., invisibility, ghost-like penetration through any walls and armor, protection from nuclear bomb explosions and any radiation flux. Conclusion: People may think this fantasy. But fifteen years ago most people and many scientists thought-nanotechnology is fantasy. Now many groups and industrial labs, even startups, spend hundreds of millions of dollars for development of nanotechnological-range products (precise chemistry, patterned atoms, catalysts and meta-materials and we have nanotubes (a new material which does not exist in Nature! and other achievements beginning to come out of the pipeline in prospect. Nanotubes are stronger than steel by a

  20. Important geological properties of unconventional resource shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatt, Roger

    2011-12-01

    The revelation of vast global quantities of potentially productive gas and oil-prone shales has led to advancements in understanding important geological properties which impact reservoir performance. Based upon research on a variety of shales, several geological properties have been recognized as being common and important to hydrocarbon production. (1) transport/depositional processes include hemipelagic `rain', hyperpycnal flows, turbidity current flows, tempestites, wave-reworking, and contour currents in both shallow and deep water settings. (2) Common shale minerals include clays, quartz, calcite, dolomite, apatite, and pyrite; organic constituents include spores (Tasmanites), plant remains, biogenic quartz and calcite, and arenaceous foraminifera. (3) Porosity and permeability are characteristically low with pore sizes ranging down to the nanoscale. Main pore types include intergranular (including pores within clay floccules), porous organic matter, porous fecal pellets, and microfractures. (4) Important geochemical characteristics include organic richness (>3%), maturity (>1.1%Ro for shale gas and 0.6-0.9% for shale oil) and type (I-IV), in addition to certain biomarkers which are indicators of bottom water oxicity during deposition. Remaining hydrocarbon potential [RHP = (S1 + S2)/TOC] also reflects temporal environmental changes. `Isotopic reversals' can be used to detect best producing areas in shale-gas plays. (5) Lithofacies stacking patterns and sequence stratigraphy are the result of eustatic depositional history. A general sequence stratigraphic model is presented here that highlights this commonality. (6) Geomechanical properties are key to drilling, fracturing and production of hydrocarbons. Brittle-ductile couplets at several scales occur in shale sequences. (7) Geophysical properties, when calibrated to rock properties, provide a means of regionally to locally mapping the aforementioned properties. (8) Economic and societal considerations in the

  1. The NUBASE2016 evaluation of nuclear properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audi, G.; Kondev, F. G.; Wang, Meng; Huang, W. J.; Naimi, S.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the NUBASE2016 evaluation that contains the recommended values for nuclear and decay properties of 3437 nuclides in their ground and excited isomeric (T1/2≥100 ns) states. All nuclides for which any experimental information is known were considered. NUBASE2016 covers all data published by October 2016 in primary (journal articles) and secondary (mainly laboratory reports and conference proceedings) references, together with the corresponding bibliographical information. During the development of NUBASE2016, the data available in the “Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File” (ENSDF) database were consulted and critically assessed for their validity and completeness. Furthermore, a large amount of new data and some older experimental results that were missing from ENSDF were compiled, evaluated and included in NUBASE2016. The atomic mass values were taken from the “Atomic Mass Evaluation” (AME2016, second and third parts of the present issue). In cases where no experimental data were available for a particular nuclide, trends in the behavior of specific properties in neighboring nuclides (TNN) were examined. This approach allowed to estimate values for a range of properties that are labeled in NUBASE2016 as “non-experimental” (flagged “#”). Evaluation procedures and policies used during the development of this database are presented, together with a detailed table of recommended values and their uncertainties. AMDC: http://amdc.impcas.ac.cn/

  2. The NUBASE2012 evaluation of nuclear properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.Audi; F.G.Kondev; M.Wang; B.Pfeiffer; X.Sun; J.Blachot; M.MacCormick

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the NUBASE2012 evaluation that contains the recommended values for nuclear and decay properties of nuclides in their ground and excited isomeric (T1/2≥ 100 ns) states.All nuclides for which some experimental information is known are considered.NUBASE2012 covers all up to date experimental data published in primary (journal articles) and secondary (mainly laboratory reports and conference proceedings) references,together with the corresponding bibliographical information.During the development of NUBASE2012,the data available in the "Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File" (ENSDF) database were consulted,and critically assessed of their validity and completeness.Furthermore,a large amount of new and somewhat older experimental results that were missing in ENSDF were compiled,evaluated and included in NUBASE2012.The atomic mass values were taken from the "Atomic Mass Evaluation" (AME2012,second and third parts of the present issue).In cases where no experimental data were available for a particular nuclide,trends in the behavior of specific properties in neighboring nuclei (TNN) were examined.This approach allowed to estimate,whenever possible,values for a range of properties,and are labeled in NUBASE2012 as "non-experimental" (flagged "#").Evaluation procedures and policies that were used during the development of this database are presented,together with a detailed table of recommended values and their uncertainties.

  3. Nuclear Power Important for China’s Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Will China change its nuclear power development goal after the nuclear crisis in Japan? Yu Zhouping, former Head othe Chinese Delegation to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA),and Tian jiashu, Director of the Nuclea Safety Center under the Ministry of Environmental Protection believe thatChina’s nuclear power

  4. Nuclear exportin receptor CAS regulates the NPI-1-mediated nuclear import of HIV-1 Vpr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Takeda

    Full Text Available Vpr, an accessory protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, is a multifunctional protein that plays an important role in viral replication. We have previously shown that the region between residues 17 and 74 of Vpr (Vpr(N17C74 contained a bona fide nuclear localization signal and it is targeted Vpr(N17C74 to the nuclear envelope and then imported into the nucleus by importin α (Impα alone. The interaction between Impα and Vpr is important not only for the nuclear import of Vpr but also for HIV-1 replication in macrophages; however, it was unclear whether full-length Vpr enters the nucleus in a manner similar to Vpr(N17C74. This study investigated the nuclear import of full-length Vpr using the three typical Impα isoforms, Rch1, Qip1 and NPI-1, and revealed that full-length Vpr is selectively imported by NPI-1, but not Rch1 and Qip1, after it makes contact with the perinuclear region in digitonin-permeabilized cells. A binding assay using the three Impα isoforms showed that Vpr bound preferentially to the ninth armadillo repeat (ARM region (which is also essential for the binding of CAS, the export receptor for Impα in all three isoforms. Comparison of biochemical binding affinities between Vpr and the Impα isoforms using surface plasmon resonance analysis demonstrated almost identical values for the binding of Vpr to the full-length isoforms and to their C-terminal domains. By contrast, the data showed that, in the presence of CAS, Vpr was released from the Vpr/NPI-1 complex but was not released from Rch1 or Qip1. Finally, the NPI-1-mediated nuclear import of Vpr was greatly reduced in semi-intact CAS knocked-down cells and was recovered by the addition of exogenous CAS. This report is the first to show the requirement for and the regulation of CAS in the functioning of the Vpr-Impα complex.

  5. Importance of Bladder Radioactivity for Radiation Safety in Nuclear Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Sinan Gültekin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Most of the radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine are excreted via the urinary system. This study evaluated the importance of a reduction in bladder radioactivity for radiation safety. Methods: The study group of 135 patients underwent several organ scintigraphies [40/135; thyroid scintigraphy (TS, 30/135; whole body bone scintigraphy (WBS, 35/135; myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS and 30/135; renal scintigraphy (RS] by a technologist within 1 month. In full and empty conditions, static bladder images and external dose rate measurements at 0.25, 0.50, 1, 1.5 and 2 m distances were obtained and decline ratios were calculated from these two data sets. Results: External radiation dose rates were highest in patients undergoing MPS. External dose rates at 0.25 m distance for TS, TKS, MPS and BS were measured to be 56, 106, 191 and 72 μSv h-1 for full bladder and 29, 55, 103 and 37 μSv h-1 for empty bladder, respectively. For TS, WBS, MPS and RS, respectively, average decline ratios were calculated to be 52%, 55%, 53% and 54% in the scintigraphic assessment and 49%, 51%, 49%, 50% and 50% in the assessment with Geiger counter. Conclusion: Decline in bladder radioactivity is important in terms of radiation safety. Patients should be encouraged for micturition after each scintigraphic test. Spending time together with radioactive patients at distances less than 1 m should be kept to a minimum where possible.

  6. PROPERTIES IMPORTANT TO MIXING FOR WTP LARGE SCALE INTEGRATED TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D.; Martino, C.; Poirier, M.

    2012-04-26

    Large Scale Integrated Testing (LSIT) is being planned by Bechtel National, Inc. to address uncertainties in the full scale mixing performance of the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Testing will use simulated waste rather than actual Hanford waste. Therefore, the use of suitable simulants is critical to achieving the goals of the test program. External review boards have raised questions regarding the overall representativeness of simulants used in previous mixing tests. Accordingly, WTP requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to assist with development of simulants for use in LSIT. Among the first tasks assigned to SRNL was to develop a list of waste properties that matter to pulse-jet mixer (PJM) mixing of WTP tanks. This report satisfies Commitment 5.2.3.1 of the Department of Energy Implementation Plan for Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 2010-2: physical properties important to mixing and scaling. In support of waste simulant development, the following two objectives are the focus of this report: (1) Assess physical and chemical properties important to the testing and development of mixing scaling relationships; (2) Identify the governing properties and associated ranges for LSIT to achieve the Newtonian and non-Newtonian test objectives. This includes the properties to support testing of sampling and heel management systems. The test objectives for LSIT relate to transfer and pump out of solid particles, prototypic integrated operations, sparger operation, PJM controllability, vessel level/density measurement accuracy, sampling, heel management, PJM restart, design and safety margin, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Verification and Validation (V and V) and comparison, performance testing and scaling, and high temperature operation. The slurry properties that are most important to Performance Testing and Scaling depend on the test objective and rheological classification of the slurry (i

  7. Filter's importance in nuclear cardiology imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Maria Celeste de; Lima, Ana Luiza S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mails: celeste.fismed@gmail.com; analuslima@gmail.com; Santos, Joyra A. dos [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: joyra@cnen.gov.br; Megueriam, Berdj A. [Hospital Sao Vicente de Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: meguerian@hotmail.com

    2007-07-01

    Nuclear Medicine is a medical speciality that employs tomography procedures for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases. One of the most commonly used apparatus is the Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT). To perform exams, a very small amount of a radiopharmaceutical must be given to the patient. Then, a gamma camera is placed in convenient positions to perform the photon counting, which is used to reconstruct a full 3 dimensional distribution of the radionuclide inside the body or organ. This reconstruction provides a 3-dimensional image in spatial coordinates, of the body or organ under study, allowing the physician to give the diagnostic. Image reconstruction is usually worked in the frequency domain, due to a great simplification introduced by the Fourier decomposition of image spectra. After the reconstruction, an inverse Fourier transform must be applied to trace back the image into spatial coordinates. To optimize this reconstruction procedure, digital filters are used to remove undesirable components of frequency, which can 'shadow' relevant physical signatures of diseases. Unfortunately, the efficiency of the applied filter are strongly dependent on its own mathematical parameters. Particularly in this work we demonstrate how filters interfere on image quality in cardiology examinations with SPECT, concerning perfusion and myocardial viability and the importance of the medical physicist in the choice of the right filters avoiding some serious problems that could occur in the inadequate processing of an image damaging the medical diagnosis. (author)

  8. Thermodynamic Properties of Magnesium Chloride Hydroxide Hydrate (Mg3Cl(OH)5:4H2O, Phase 5), and Its importance to Nuclear Waste Isolation in Geological Repositories in Salt Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Y.; Deng, H.; Nemer, M. B.; Johnsen, S.

    2009-12-01

    MgO (bulk, pure MgO corresponding to the mineral periclase) is the only engineered barrier certified by the Environmental Protection Agency for emplacement in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the US, and an Mg(OH)2-based engineered barrier (bulk, pure Mg(OH)2 corresponding to brucite) is to be employed in the Asse repository in Germany. Both the WIPP and the Asse are located in salt formations. The WIPP is a U.S. Department of Energy geological repository being used for the permanent disposal of defense-related transuranic waste (TRU waste). The repository is 655 m below the surface, and is situated in the Salado Formation, a Permian salt bed mainly composed of halite, and of lesser amounts of polyhalite, anhydrite, gypsum, magnesite, clays and quartz. The WIPP Generic Weep Brine (GWB), a Na-Mg-Cl dominated brine, is associated with the Salado Formation. The previous vendor for MgO for the WIPP was Premier Chemicals and the current vendor is Martin Marietta Materials. Experimental studies of both Premier MgO and Martin Marietta MgO with the GWB at SNL indicate the formation of magnesium chloride hydroxide hydrate, Mg3Cl(OH)5:4H2O, termed as phase 5. However, this important phase is lacking in the existing thermodynamic database. In this study, the solubility constant of phase 5 is determined from a series of solubility experiments in MgCl2-NaCl solutions. The solubility constant at 25 oC for the following reaction, Mg3Cl(OH)5:4H2O + 5H+ = 3Mg2+ + 9H2O(l) + Cl- is recommended as 43.21±0.33 (2σ) based on the Specific Interaction Theory (SIT) model for extrapolation to infinite dilution. The log K obtained via the Pitzer equations is identical to the above value within the quoted uncertainty. The Gibbs free energy and enthalpy of formation for phase 5 at 25 oC are derived as -3384±2 (2σ) kJ mol-1 and -3896±6 (2σ) kJ mol-1, respectively. The standard entropy and heat capacity of phase 5 at 25 oC are estimated as 393±20 J mol-1 K-1 and 374±19 J mol-1 K

  9. Thorium and its future importance for nuclear energy generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lainetti, Paulo E.O., E-mail: lainetti@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Thorium was discovered in 1828 by the Swedish chemist Jons J. Berzelius. Despite some advantages over uranium for use in nuclear reactors, its main use, in the almost two centuries since its discovery, the use of thorium was restricted to use for gas mantles, especially in the early twentieth century. In the beginning of the Nuclear Era, many countries had interested on thorium, particularly during the 1950-1970 period. There are about 435 nuclear reactors in the world nowadays. They need more than 65.000 tons of uranium yearly. The future world energy needs will increase and, even if we assumed a conservative contribution of nuclear generation, it will be occur a significant increasing in the uranium prices, taking into account that uranium, as used in the present thermal reactors, is a finite resource. Thorium is nearly three times more abundant than uranium in the Earth's crust. Despite thorium is not a fissile material, {sup 232}Th can be converted to {sup 233}U (fissile) more efficiently than {sup 238}U to {sup 239}Pu. Besides this, since it is possible to convert thorium waste into nonradioactive elements, thorium is an environment-friendly alternative energy source. Thorium fuel cycle is also inherently resistant to proliferation. Some papers evaluate the thorium resources in Brazil over 1.200.000 metric t. Then, the thorium alternative must be seriously considered in Brazil for strategic reasons. In this paper a brief history of thorium is presented, besides a review of the world thorium utilization and a discussion about advantages and restrictions of thorium use. (author)

  10. An Important Issue: Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Doc

    2001-03-01

    Historic Facts and Philosophy: In August, 1947, I participated in a secret meeting concerning the validity and use of a hydrogen bomb. I vigorously supported a ``Super Manhattan Project" to build an ``H" bomb. My philosophy at the time was `bigger and better,' to ensure that no nation attacked the U.S. Our retaliation with ``H" bombs vs. ``A" bombs would be too overwhelming for any nation to risk attacking us should they obtain their own ``A" bombs. Thus, all nations would be forced to use diplomacy. I am older and wiser, and am now convinced that World Test Ban Treaties, non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, and space free of any military weapons is the best policy for all nations and humanity. With current nuclear testing at nearby Yucca Flats, Nevada, Vandenberg AF/Missile site, Cal Tech, etc., I therefore propose that our new APS California Division form a three-person committee to tabulate all pertinent data and submit it to a qualified expert for review and further action. Comments and suggestions are invited.

  11. Importin α1 Mediates Yorkie Nuclear Import via an N-terminal Non-canonical Nuclear Localization Signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shimin; Lu, Yi; Yin, Meng-Xin; Wang, Chao; Wu, Wei; Li, Jinhui; Wu, Wenqing; Ge, Ling; Hu, Lianxin; Zhao, Yun; Zhang, Lei

    2016-04-08

    The Hippo signaling pathway controls organ size by orchestrating cell proliferation and apoptosis. When the Hippo pathway was inactivated, the transcriptional co-activator Yorkie translocates into the nucleus and forms a complex with transcription factor Scalloped to promote the expression of Hippo pathway target genes. Therefore, the nuclear translocation of Yorkie is a critical step in Hippo signaling. Here, we provide evidence that the N-terminal 1-55 amino acids of Yorkie, especially Arg-15, were essential for its nuclear localization. By mass spectrometry and biochemical analyses, we found that Importin α1 can directly interact with the Yorkie N terminus and drive Yorkie into the nucleus. Further experiments show that the upstream component Hippo can inhibit Importin α1-mediated Yorkie nuclear import. Taken together, we identified a potential nuclear localization signal at the N-terminal end of Yorkie as well as a critical role for Importin α1 in Yorkie nuclear import.

  12. Identification of the nuclear localisation signal of O-GlcNAc transferase and its nuclear import regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyeon Gyu; Kim, Han Byeol; Kang, Min Jueng; Ryum, Joo Hwan; Yi, Eugene C.; Cho, Jin Won

    2016-01-01

    Nucleocytoplasmic O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) attaches a single GlcNAc to hydroxyl groups of serine and threonine residues. Although the cellular localisation of OGT is important to regulate a variety of cellular processes, the molecular mechanisms regulating the nuclear localisation of OGT is unclear. Here, we characterised three amino acids (DFP; residues 451–453) as the nuclear localisation signal of OGT and demonstrated that this motif mediated the nuclear import of non-diffusible β-galactosidase. OGT bound the importin α5 protein, and this association was abolished when the DFP motif of OGT was mutated or deleted. We also revealed that O-GlcNAcylation of Ser389, which resides in the tetratricopeptide repeats, plays an important role in the nuclear localisation of OGT. Our findings may explain how OGT, which possesses a NLS, exists in the nucleus and cytosol simultaneously. PMID:27713473

  13. Nucleon properties inside compressed nuclear matter

    CERN Document Server

    Rozynek, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Our model calculations performed in the frame of the Bag Model (BM) approach show the modifications of nucleon mass, nucleon radius and a Parton Distribution Function (PDF) in Nuclear Matter (NM) above the saturation point. They originated from the pressure correction to the nucleon rest energy. Similar correction leads to conservation of a nuclear longitudinal momenta - essential in the explanation of the EMC effect at the saturation point of NM. Presented finite pressure corrections are generalization of the Hugenholtz-van Hove theorem valid for finite nucleon sizes inside NM.

  14. Nuclear import of glucokinase in pancreatic beta-cells is mediated by a nuclear localization signal and modulated by SUMOylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Bente Berg; Fjeld, Karianne; Solheim, Marie Holm; Shirakawa, Jun; Zhang, Enming; Keindl, Magdalena; Hu, Jiang; Lindqvist, Andreas; Døskeland, Anne; Mellgren, Gunnar; Flatmark, Torgeir; Njølstad, Pål Rasmus; Kulkarni, Rohit N; Wierup, Nils; Aukrust, Ingvild; Bjørkhaug, Lise

    2017-10-15

    The localization of glucokinase in pancreatic beta-cell nuclei is a controversial issue. Although previous reports suggest such a localization, the mechanism for its import has so far not been identified. Using immunofluorescence, subcellular fractionation and mass spectrometry, we present evidence in support of glucokinase localization in beta-cell nuclei of human and mouse pancreatic sections, as well as in human and mouse isolated islets, and murine MIN6 cells. We have identified a conserved, seven-residue nuclear localization signal ((30)LKKVMRR(36)) in the human enzyme. Substituting the residues KK(31,32) and RR(35,36) with AA led to a loss of its nuclear localization in transfected cells. Furthermore, our data indicates that SUMOylation of glucokinase modulates its nuclear import, while high glucose concentrations do not significantly alter the enzyme nuclear/cytosolic ratio. Thus, for the first time, we provide data in support of a nuclear import of glucokinase mediated by a redundant mechanism, involving a nuclear localization signal, and which is modulated by its SUMOylation. These findings add new knowledge to the functional role of glucokinase in the pancreatic beta-cell. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Defective nuclear import of Tpr in Progeria reflects the Ran sensitivity of large cargo transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Chelsi J; Dar, Ashraf; Dutta, Anindya; Kehlenbach, Ralph H; Paschal, Bryce M

    2013-05-13

    The RanGTPase acts as a master regulator of nucleocytoplasmic transport by controlling assembly and disassembly of nuclear transport complexes. RanGTP is required in the nucleus to release nuclear localization signal (NLS)-containing cargo from import receptors, and, under steady-state conditions, Ran is highly concentrated in the nucleus. We previously showed the nuclear/cytoplasmic Ran distribution is disrupted in Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria syndrome (HGPS) fibroblasts that express the Progerin form of lamin A, causing a major defect in nuclear import of the protein, translocated promoter region (Tpr). In this paper, we show that Tpr import was mediated by the most abundant import receptor, KPNA2, which binds the bipartite NLS in Tpr with nanomolar affinity. Analyses including NLS swapping revealed Progerin did not cause global inhibition of nuclear import. Rather, Progerin inhibited Tpr import because transport of large protein cargoes was sensitive to changes in the Ran nuclear/cytoplasmic distribution that occurred in HGPS. We propose that defective import of large protein complexes with important roles in nuclear function may contribute to disease-associated phenotypes in Progeria.

  16. Multiple Novel Signals Mediate Thyroid Hormone Receptor Nuclear Import and Export*

    OpenAIRE

    Mavinakere, Manohara S.; Powers, Jeremy M.; Subramanian, Kelly S.; Roggero, Vincent R.; Allison, Lizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid hormone receptor (TR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that shuttles between the cytosol and nucleus. The fine balance between nuclear import and export of TR has emerged as a critical control point for modulating thyroid hormone-responsive gene expression; however, sequence motifs of TR that mediate shuttling are not fully defined. Here, we characterized multiple signals that direct TR shuttling. Along with the known nuclear localization signal in the hinge domain, we ...

  17. Sensitivity analysis of parameters important to nuclear criticality safety of Castor X/28F spent nuclear fuel cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leotlela, Mosebetsi J. [Witwatersrand Univ., Johannesburg (South Africa). School of Physics; Koeberg Operating Unit, Johannesburg (South Africa). Regulations and Licensing; Malgas, Isaac [Koeberg Nuclear Power Station, Duinefontein (South Africa). Nuclear Engineering Analysis; Taviv, Eugene [ASARA consultants (PTY) LTD, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2015-11-15

    In nuclear criticality safety analysis it is essential to ascertain how various components of the nuclear system will perform under certain conditions they may be subjected to, particularly if the components of the system are likely to be affected by environmental factors such as temperature, radiation or material composition. It is therefore prudent that a sensitivity analysis is performed to determine and quantify the response of the output to variation in any of the input parameters. In a fissile system, the output parameter of importance is the k{sub eff}. Therefore, in attempting to prevent reactivity-induced accidents, it is important for the criticality safety analyst to have a quantified degree of response for the neutron multiplication factor to perturbation in a given input parameter. This article will present the results of the perturbation of the parameters that are important to nuclear criticality safety analysis and their respective correlation equations for deriving the sensitivity coefficients.

  18. Endothelial nuclear lamina is not required for glucocorticoid receptor nuclear import but does affect receptor-mediated transcription activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayebosadri, Arman; Ji, Julie Y

    2013-08-01

    The lamina serves to maintain the nuclear structure and stiffness while acting as a scaffold for heterochromatin and many transcriptional proteins. Its role in endothelial mechanotransduction, specifically how nuclear mechanics impact gene regulation under shear stress, is not fully understood. In this study, we successfully silenced lamin A/C in bovine aortic endothelial cells to determine its role in both glucocorticoid receptor (GR) nuclear translocation and glucocorticoid response element (GRE) transcriptional activation in response to dexamethasone and shear stress. Nuclear translocation of GR, an anti-inflammatory nuclear receptor, in response to dexamethasone or shear stress (5, 10, and 25 dyn/cm(2)) was observed via time-lapse cell imaging and quantified using a Bayesian image analysis algorithm. Transcriptional activity of the GRE promoter was assessed using a dual-luciferase reporter plasmid. We found no dependence on nuclear lamina for GR translocation from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. However, the absence of lamin A/C led to significantly increased expression of luciferase under dexamethasone and shear stress induction as well as changes in histone protein function. PCR results for NF-κB inhibitor alpha (NF-κBIA) and dual specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1) genes further supported our luciferase data with increased expression in the absence of lamin. Our results suggest that absence of lamin A/C does not hinder passage of GR into the nucleus, but nuclear lamina is important to properly regulate GRE transcription. Nuclear lamina, rather than histone deacetylase (HDAC), is a more significant mediator of shear stress-induced transcriptional activity, while dexamethasone-initiated transcription is more HDAC dependent. Our findings provide more insights into the molecular pathways involved in nuclear mechanotransduction.

  19. HIV-1 exploits importin 7 to maximize nuclear import of its DNA genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyens Lada

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nuclear import of the HIV-1 reverse transcription complex (RTC is critical for infection of non dividing cells, and importin 7 (imp7 has been implicated in this process. To further characterize the function of imp7 in HIV-1 replication we generated cell lines stably depleted for imp7 and used them in conjunction with infection, cellular fractionation and pull-down assays. Results Imp7 depletion impaired HIV-1 infection but did not significantly affect HIV-2, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac, or equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV. The lentiviral dependence on imp7 closely correlated with binding of the respective integrase proteins to imp7. HIV-1 RTC associated with nuclei of infected cells with remarkable speed and knock down of imp7 reduced HIV-1 DNA nuclear accumulation, delaying infection. Using an HIV-1 mutant deficient for reverse transcription, we found that viral RNA accumulated within nuclei of infected cells, indicating that reverse transcription is not absolutely required for nuclear import. Depletion of imp7 impacted on HIV-1 DNA but not RNA nuclear import and also inhibited DNA transfection efficiency. Conclusion Although imp7 may not be essential for HIV-1 infection, our results suggest that imp7 facilitates nuclear trafficking of DNA and that HIV-1 exploits imp7 to maximize nuclear import of its DNA genome. Lentiviruses other than HIV-1 may have evolved to use alternative nuclear import receptors to the same end.

  20. Medium modifications of baryon properties in nuclear matter and hypernuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, J. S.; Shen, H.

    2013-09-01

    We study the medium modifications of baryon properties in nuclear many-body systems, especially in Λ hypernuclei. The nucleon and the Λ hyperon are described in the Friedberg-Lee model as nontopological solitons which interact through the self-consistent exchange of scalar and vector mesons. The quark degrees of freedom are explicitly considered in the model, so that the medium effects on baryons could be investigated. It is found that the model can provide reasonable descriptions for nuclear matter, finite nuclei, and Λ hypernuclei. The present model predicts a significant increase of the baryon radius in nuclear medium.

  1. Medium modifications of baryon properties in nuclear matter and hypernuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, J S

    2013-01-01

    We study the medium modifications of baryon properties in nuclear many-body systems, especially in $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei. The nucleon and the $\\Lambda$ hyperon are described in the Friedberg-Lee model as nontopological solitons which interact through the self-consistent exchange of scalar and vector mesons. The quark degrees of freedom are explicitly considered in the model, so that the medium effects on baryons could be investigated. It is found that the model can provide reasonable descriptions for nuclear matter, finite nuclei, and $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei. The present model predicts a significant increase of the baryon radius in nuclear medium.

  2. Extraction of Nuclear Matter Properties from Nuclear Masses by a Model of Equation of State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.C.Chung; C.S.Wang; A.J.Santiago

    2001-01-01

    The extraction of nuclear matter properties from measured nuclear masses is investigated in the energy density functional formalism of nuclei.It is shown that the volume energy a1 and the nuclear incompressibility Ko depend essentially on μnN -+- pZ - 2EN,whereas the symmetry energy J and the density symmetry coefficient L as well as symmetry incompressibility Ks depend essentially on μn - μp,where μp =μp - Ec/ Z,μn and μp are the neutron and proton chemical potentials respectively,EN the nuclear energy,and Ec the Coulomb energy.The obtained symmetry energy is J = 28.5 MeV,while other coefficients are uncertain within ranges depending on the model of nuclear equation of state.``

  3. Atomic, Crystal, Elastic, Thermal, Nuclear, and Other Properties of Beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, A

    2006-02-01

    This report is part of a series of documents that provide a background to those involved in the construction of beryllium components and their applications. This report is divided into five sub-sections: Atomic/Crystal Structure, Elastic Properties, Thermal Properties, Nuclear Properties, and Miscellaneous Properties. In searching through different sources for the various properties to be included in this report, inconsistencies were at times observed between these sources. In such cases, the values reported by the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics was usually used. In equations, except where indicated otherwise, temperature (T) is in degrees Kelvin.

  4. Sumoylation of Human Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein Is Important for Its Nuclear Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Gnanasekar Munirathinam; Kalyanasundaram Ramaswamy

    2012-01-01

    Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) lacks nuclear bipartite localization signal sequence; yet TCTP is present abundantly in the nucleus. At present it is not known how TCTP gets transported to the nucleus. Sequence analyses showed that all TCTPs described to date have putative small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) motifs. Since SUMO modification plays an important role in the nuclear transport of proteins, we evaluated whether SUMO motifs are important for transport of TCTP into th...

  5. 41 CFR 109-45.309-53 - Nuclear-related or proliferation sensitive property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Personal Property § 109-45.309-53 Nuclear-related or proliferation sensitive property. Nuclear-related or... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nuclear-related or proliferation sensitive property. 109-45.309-53 Section 109-45.309-53 Public Contracts and Property...

  6. Karyopherin Alpha 1 Regulates Satellite Cell Proliferation and Survival by Modulating Nuclear Import.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Hyo-Jung; Cutler, Alicia; Pavlath, Grace K

    2016-07-19

    Satellite cells are stem cells with an essential role in skeletal muscle repair. Precise regulation of gene expression is critical for proper satellite cell quiescence, proliferation, differentiation and self-renewal. Nuclear proteins required for gene expression are dependent on the nucleocytoplasmic transport machinery to access to nucleus, however little is known about regulation of nuclear transport in satellite cells. The best characterized nuclear import pathway is classical nuclear import which depends on a classical nuclear localization signal (cNLS) in a cargo protein and the heterodimeric import receptors, karyopherin alpha (KPNA) and beta (KPNB). Multiple KPNA1 paralogs exist and can differ in importing specific cNLS proteins required for cell differentiation and function. We show that transcripts for six Kpna paralogs underwent distinct changes in mouse satellite cells during muscle regeneration accompanied by changes in cNLS proteins in nuclei. Depletion of KPNA1, the most dramatically altered KPNA, caused satellite cells in uninjured muscle to prematurely activate, proliferate and undergo apoptosis leading to satellite cell exhaustion with age. Increased proliferation of satellite cells led to enhanced muscle regeneration at early stages of regeneration. In addition, we observed impaired nuclear localization of two key KPNA1 cargo proteins: p27, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor associated with cell cycle control and lymphoid enhancer factor 1, a critical cotranscription factor for β-catenin. These results indicate that regulated nuclear import of proteins by KPNA1 is critical for satellite cell proliferation and survival and establish classical nuclear import as a novel regulatory mechanism for controlling satellite cell fate. Stem Cells 2016.

  7. Reverse engineering nuclear properties from rare earth abundances in the r process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumpower, M. R.; McLaughlin, G. C.; Surman, R.; Steiner, A. W.

    2017-03-01

    The bulk of the rare earth elements are believed to be synthesized in the rapid neutron capture process or r process of nucleosynthesis. The solar r-process residuals show a small peak in the rare earths around A∼ 160, which is proposed to be formed dynamically during the end phase of the r process by a pileup of material. This abundance feature is of particular importance as it is sensitive to both the nuclear physics inputs and the astrophysical conditions of the main r process. We explore the formation of the rare earth peak from the perspective of an inverse problem, using Monte Carlo studies of nuclear masses to investigate the unknown nuclear properties required to best match rare earth abundance sector of the solar isotopic residuals. When nuclear masses are changed, we recalculate the relevant β-decay properties and neutron capture rates in the rare earth region. The feedback provided by this observational constraint allows for the reverse engineering of nuclear properties far from stability where no experimental information exists. We investigate a range of astrophysical conditions with this method and show how these lead to different predictions in the nuclear properties influential to the formation of the rare earth peak. We conclude that targeted experimental campaigns in this region will help to resolve the type of conditions responsible for the production of the rare earth nuclei, and will provide new insights into the longstanding problem of the astrophysical site(s) of the r process.

  8. Spectral nuclear properties of NLS1 galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Eduardo O; Vega, Luis; Oio, Gabriel A

    2016-01-01

    It is not well known yet if Narrow Line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies follow the M$_{BH}$-$\\sigma$ relation found for normal galaxies. Emission lines like [SII] or [OIII]5007 have been used as surrogate of the stellar velocity dispersion and different results have been obtained. On the other hand, some AGN have shown Balmer emission with an additional intermediate component (IC), besides the well known narrow and broad ones. The properties of this IC have not been well studied yet. In order to re-examine the location of NLS1 in the M$_{BH}$-$\\sigma$ relation, we test some emission lines like the narrow component (NC) of H$\\alpha$ and the forbidden [NII]6548,6584 and [SII]6716,6731 lines as replacement of $\\sigma$. On the other hand, we study the properties of the IC of H$\\alpha$ found in 14 galaxies of the sample to find a link between it and the central engine and the remaining lines. We also compare the emission among the broad component (BC) of H$\\alpha$ and those emitted at the narrow line region (NLR) in ord...

  9. The nuclear exosome is active and important during budding yeast meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Frenk

    Full Text Available Nuclear RNA degradation pathways are highly conserved across eukaryotes and play important roles in RNA quality control. Key substrates for exosomal degradation include aberrant functional RNAs and cryptic unstable transcripts (CUTs. It has recently been reported that the nuclear exosome is inactivated during meiosis in budding yeast through degradation of the subunit Rrp6, leading to the stabilisation of a subset of meiotic unannotated transcripts (MUTs of unknown function. We have analysed the activity of the nuclear exosome during meiosis by deletion of TRF4, which encodes a key component of the exosome targeting complex TRAMP. We find that TRAMP mutants produce high levels of CUTs during meiosis that are undetectable in wild-type cells, showing that the nuclear exosome remains functional for CUT degradation, and we further report that the meiotic exosome complex contains Rrp6. Indeed Rrp6 over-expression is insufficient to suppress MUT transcripts, showing that the reduced amount of Rrp6 in meiotic cells does not directly cause MUT accumulation. Lack of TRAMP activity stabilises ∼ 1600 CUTs in meiotic cells, which occupy 40% of the binding capacity of the nuclear cap binding complex (CBC. CBC mutants display defects in the formation of meiotic double strand breaks (DSBs, and we see similar defects in TRAMP mutants, suggesting that a key function of the nuclear exosome is to prevent saturation of the CBC complex by CUTs. Together, our results show that the nuclear exosome remains active in meiosis and has an important role in facilitating meiotic recombination.

  10. The nuclear exosome is active and important during budding yeast meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenk, Stephen; Oxley, David; Houseley, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear RNA degradation pathways are highly conserved across eukaryotes and play important roles in RNA quality control. Key substrates for exosomal degradation include aberrant functional RNAs and cryptic unstable transcripts (CUTs). It has recently been reported that the nuclear exosome is inactivated during meiosis in budding yeast through degradation of the subunit Rrp6, leading to the stabilisation of a subset of meiotic unannotated transcripts (MUTs) of unknown function. We have analysed the activity of the nuclear exosome during meiosis by deletion of TRF4, which encodes a key component of the exosome targeting complex TRAMP. We find that TRAMP mutants produce high levels of CUTs during meiosis that are undetectable in wild-type cells, showing that the nuclear exosome remains functional for CUT degradation, and we further report that the meiotic exosome complex contains Rrp6. Indeed Rrp6 over-expression is insufficient to suppress MUT transcripts, showing that the reduced amount of Rrp6 in meiotic cells does not directly cause MUT accumulation. Lack of TRAMP activity stabilises ∼ 1600 CUTs in meiotic cells, which occupy 40% of the binding capacity of the nuclear cap binding complex (CBC). CBC mutants display defects in the formation of meiotic double strand breaks (DSBs), and we see similar defects in TRAMP mutants, suggesting that a key function of the nuclear exosome is to prevent saturation of the CBC complex by CUTs. Together, our results show that the nuclear exosome remains active in meiosis and has an important role in facilitating meiotic recombination.

  11. The impact of individual nuclear properties on $r$-process nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Mumpower, M R; McLaughlin, G C; Aprahamian, A

    2015-01-01

    The astrophysical rapid neutron capture process or `$r$ process' of nucleosynthesis is believed to be responsible for the production of approximately half the heavy element abundances found in nature. This multifaceted problem remains one of the greatest open challenges in all of physics. Knowledge of nuclear physics properties such as masses, $\\beta$-decay and neutron capture rates, as well as $\\beta$-delayed neutron emission probabilities are critical inputs that go into calculations of $r$-process nucleosynthesis. While properties of nuclei near stability have been established, much still remains unknown regarding neutron-rich nuclei far from stability that may participate in the $r$ process. Sensitivity studies gauge the astrophysical response of a change in nuclear physics input(s) which allows for the isolation of the most important nuclear properties that shape the final abundances observed in nature. This review summarizes the extent of recent sensitivity studies and highlights how these studies play ...

  12. The nuclear import of the constitutive androstane receptor by importin/Ran-GTP systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Yuichiro; Miyazaki, Yukari; Inouye, Yoshio

    2010-08-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. The CAR is normally located in the cytoplasmic compartment of untreated liver cells and translocates to the nucleus after exposure to phenobarbital (PB) or PB-like chemicals. Previously, we identified two nuclear localization signals (NLS) in the rat constitutive androstane/active receptor (CAR), NLS1, which is located in the hinge region, and NLS2, which overlaps with the ligand-binding domain. However, the nuclear import mechanism of CAR is unclear. In this study, we show that nuclear import of CAR is regulated by importin/Ran-GTP systems. The regulation of CAR nuclear import by a Ran-GTP concentration gradient was confirmed using the dominant negative, GTPase-deficient form of Ran (RanQ69L), suggesting the involvement of transport receptors of the importinbeta family. IPO13 was shown to be involved in the PB-mediated nuclear translocation of CAR, which was found to be susceptible to inhibition by a dominant negative mutant of IPO13 in primary hepatocytes. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Nuclear importation of Mariner transposases among eukaryotes: motif requirements and homo-protein interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Véronique Demattei

    Full Text Available Mariner-like elements (MLEs are widespread transposable elements in animal genomes. They have been divided into at least five sub-families with differing host ranges. We investigated whether the ability of transposases encoded by Mos1, Himar1 and Mcmar1 to be actively imported into nuclei varies between host belonging to different eukaryotic taxa. Our findings demonstrate that nuclear importation could restrict the host range of some MLEs in certain eukaryotic lineages, depending on their expression level. We then focused on the nuclear localization signal (NLS in these proteins, and showed that the first 175 N-terminal residues in the three transposases were required for nuclear importation. We found that two components are involved in the nuclear importation of the Mos1 transposase: an SV40 NLS-like motif (position: aa 168 to 174, and a dimerization sub-domain located within the first 80 residues. Sequence analyses revealed that the dimerization moiety is conserved among MLE transposases, but the Himar1 and Mcmar1 transposases do not contain any conserved NLS motif. This suggests that other NLS-like motifs must intervene in these proteins. Finally, we showed that the over-expression of the Mos1 transposase prevents its nuclear importation in HeLa cells, due to the assembly of transposase aggregates in the cytoplasm.

  14. Spectral nuclear properties of NLS1 galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, E. O.; Ferreiro, D.; Vega Neme, L.; Oio, G. A.

    2016-12-01

    Context. It is not yet well known whether narrow line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies follow the MBH - σ⋆ relation found for normal galaxies. Emission lines, such as [SII] or [OIII]λ5007, have been used as a surrogate of the stellar velocity dispersion and various results have been obtained. On the other hand, some active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have shown Balmer emission with an additional intermediate component (IC) besides the well-known narrow and broad lines. The properties of this IC have not yet been fully studied. Aims: In order to re-examine the location of NLS1 in the MBH - σ⋆ relation, we test some emission lines, such as the narrow component (NC) of Hα and the forbidden [NII]λλ6548,6584 and [SII]λλ6716,6731 lines, as replacements for σ⋆. On the other hand, we study the properties of the IC of Hα found in 14 galaxies of the sample to find a link between this component, the central engine, and the remaining lines. We also compare the emission among the broad component (BC) of Hα and those emitted at the narrow line region (NLR) to detect differences in the ionizing source in each emitting region. Methods: We have obtained and studied medium-resolution spectra (170 km s-1 FWHM at Hα) of 36 NLS1 galaxies in the optical range 5800-6800 Å. We performed a Gaussian decomposition of the Hα +[NII]λλ6548,6584 profile to study the distinct components of Hα and [NII] lines. We also measured the [SII] lines. Results: We obtained black hole (BH) masses in the range log (MBH/M⊙) = 5.4-7.5 for our sample. We found that, in general, most of the galaxies lie below the MBH - σ⋆ relation when the NC of Hα and [NII] lines are used as a surrogate of σ⋆. The objects are closer to the relation when [SII] lines are used. Nevertheless, the galaxies are still below this relation and we do not see a clear correlation between the BH masses and FWHM[SII]. Besides this, we found that 13 galaxies show an IC, most of which are in the velocity range 700-1500 km s

  15. 41 CFR 109-43.307-52 - Nuclear-related or proliferation-sensitive personal property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Excess § 109-43.307-52 Nuclear-related or proliferation-sensitive personal property. (a) Recognizing that... cards on file in the property office. (b) Nuclear-related and proliferation-sensitive personal property... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nuclear-related...

  16. 10 CFR 50.49 - Environmental qualification of electric equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... important to safety for nuclear power plants. 50.49 Section 50.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... nuclear power plants. (a) Each holder of or an applicant for an operating license issued under this part... nuclear power plant for which the certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1) or § 52.110(a)(1) of...

  17. Structural basis for the regulation of nuclear import of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) by phosphorylation of the nuclear localization signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Ryohei; Hirano, Hidemi; Matsuura, Yoshiyuki

    2017-02-26

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is expressed in every EBV-positive tumor and is essential for the maintenance, replication, and transcription of the EBV genome in the nucleus of host cells. EBNA1 is a serine phosphoprotein, and it has been shown that phosphorylation of S385 in the nuclear localization signal (NLS) of EBNA1 increases the binding affinity to the nuclear import adaptor importin-α1 as well as importin-α5, and stimulates nuclear import of EBNA1. To gain insights into how phosphorylation of the EBNA1 NLS regulates nuclear import, we have determined the crystal structures of two peptide complexes of importin-α1: one with S385-phosphorylated EBNA1 NLS peptide, determined at 2.0 Å resolution, and one with non-phosphorylated EBNA1 NLS peptide, determined at 2.2 Å resolution. The structures show that EBNA1 NLS binds to the major and minor NLS-binding sites of importin-α1, and indicate that the binding affinity of the EBNA1 NLS to the minor NLS-binding site could be enhanced by phosphorylation of S385 through electrostatic interaction between the phosphate group of phospho-S385 and K392 of importin-α1 (corresponding to R395 of importin-α5) on armadillo repeat 8.

  18. Nuclear Quantum Effects on Aqueous Electron Attachment and Redox Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybkin, Vladimir V; VandeVondele, Joost

    2017-03-17

    Nuclear quantum effects (NQEs) on the reduction and oxidation properties of small aqueous species (CO2, HO2, and O2) are quantified and rationalized by first-principles molecular dynamics and thermodynamic integration. Vertical electron attachment, or electron affinity, and detachment energies (VEA and VDE) are strongly affected by NQEs, decreasing in absolute value by 0.3 eV going from a classical to a quantum description of the nuclei. The effect is attributed to NQEs that lessen the solvent response upon oxidation/reduction. The reduction of solvent reorganization energy is expected to be general for small solutes in water. In the thermodynamic integral that yields the free energy of oxidation/reduction, these large changes enter with opposite sign, and only a small net effect (0.1 eV) remains. This is not obvious for CO2, where the integrand is strongly influenced by NQEs due to the onset of interaction of the reduced orbital with the conduction band of the liquid during thermodynamic integration. We conclude that NQEs might not have to be included in the computation of redox potentials, unless high accuracy is needed, but are important for VEA and VDE calculations.

  19. Nuclear import mechanism for myocardin family members and their correlation with vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Seiji; Hayashi, Ken'ichiro; Iwasaki, Kazuhiro; Fujioka, Tomoaki; Egusa, Hiroshi; Yatani, Hirofumi; Sobue, Kenji

    2010-11-26

    Myocardin (Mycd), which is essential for the differentiation of the smooth muscle cell lineage, is constitutively located in the nucleus, although its family members, myocardin-related transcription factors A and B (MRTF-A/B), mostly reside in the cytoplasm and translocate to the nucleus in response to Rho signaling. The mechanism for their nuclear import is unclear. Here we investigated the mechanism for the nuclear import of Mycd family members and demonstrated any correlation between such mechanism and the phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In cultured VSMCs, the knockdown of importin β1 inhibited the nuclear import of Mycd and MRTF-A/B. Their NH(2)-terminal basic domain was identified as a binding site for importin α/β1 by in vitro analyses. However, Mycd had a higher affinity for importin α/β1 than did MRTF-A/B, even in the absence of G-actin, and Mycd affinity for importin α1/β1 was stronger than for any other importin α/β1 heterodimers. The binding of Mycd to importin α/β1 was insensitive to G-actin, whereas that of MRTF-A/B was differently inhibited by G-actin. In dedifferentiated VSMCs, the levels of importins α1 and β1 were reduced concomitant with down-regulation of Mycd, serum response factor, and smooth muscle cell markers. By contrast, in differentiated VSMCs, their expressions were up-regulated. Thus, the nuclear import of Mycd family members in VSMCs depends on importin α/β1, and their relative affinities for importin α/β1 heterodimers determine Mycd nuclear import. The expression of Mycd nuclear import machineries is related to the expression levels of VSMC phenotype-dependent smooth muscle cell markers.

  20. Synthesis, Properties and Mineralogy of Important Inorganic Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Warner, Terence E

    2010-01-01

    Intended as a textbook for courses involving preparative solid-state chemistry, this book offers clear and detailed descriptions on how to prepare a selection of inorganic materials that exhibit important optical, magnetic and electrical properties, on a laboratory scale. The text covers a wide range of preparative methods and can be read as separate, independent chapters or as a unified coherent body of work. Discussions of various chemical systems reveal how the properties of a material can often be influenced by modifications to the preparative procedure, and vice versa. References to miner

  1. 41 CFR 109-43.305-50 - Nuclear-related and proliferation-sensitive personal property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Excess § 109-43.305-50 Nuclear-related and proliferation-sensitive personal property. Nuclear-related and... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nuclear-related and proliferation-sensitive personal property. 109-43.305-50 Section 109-43.305-50 Public Contracts and...

  2. Reverse engineering nuclear properties from rare earth abundances in the $r$ process

    CERN Document Server

    Mumpower, M R; Surman, R; Steiner, A W

    2016-01-01

    The bulk of the rare earth elements are believed to be synthesized in the rapid neutron capture process or $r$ process of nucleosynthesis. The solar $r$-process residuals show a small peak in the rare earths around $A\\sim 160$, which is proposed to be formed dynamically during the end phase of the $r$ process by a pileup of material. This abundance feature is of particular importance as it is sensitive to both the nuclear physics inputs and the astrophysical conditions of the main $r$ process. We explore the formation of the rare earth peak from the perspective of an inverse problem, using Monte Carlo studies of nuclear masses to investigate the unknown nuclear properties required to best match rare earth abundance sector of the solar isotopic residuals. When nuclear masses are changed, we recalculate the relevant $\\beta$-decay properties and neutron capture rates in the rare earth region. The feedback provided by this observational constraint allows for the reverse engineering of nuclear properties far from ...

  3. Karyopherin alpha7 (KPNA7), a divergent member of the importin alpha family of nuclear import receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Joshua B; Talley, Ashley M; Spencer, Adam; Gioeli, Daniel; Paschal, Bryce M

    2010-08-11

    Classical nuclear localization signal (NLS) dependent nuclear import is carried out by a heterodimer of importin alpha and importin beta. NLS cargo is recognized by importin alpha, which is bound by importin beta. Importin beta mediates translocation of the complex through the central channel of the nuclear pore, and upon reaching the nucleus, RanGTP binding to importin beta triggers disassembly of the complex. To date, six importin alpha family members, encoded by separate genes, have been described in humans. We sequenced and characterized a seventh member of the importin alpha family of transport factors, karyopherin alpha 7 (KPNA7), which is most closely related to KPNA2. The domain of KPNA7 that binds Importin beta (IBB) is divergent, and shows stronger binding to importin beta than the IBB domains from of other importin alpha family members. With regard to NLS recognition, KPNA7 binds to the retinoblastoma (RB) NLS to a similar degree as KPNA2, but it fails to bind the SV40-NLS and the human nucleoplasmin (NPM) NLS. KPNA7 shows a predominantly nuclear distribution under steady state conditions, which contrasts with KPNA2 which is primarily cytoplasmic. KPNA7 is a novel importin alpha family member in humans that belongs to the importin alpha2 subfamily. KPNA7 shows different subcellular localization and NLS binding characteristics compared to other members of the importin alpha family. These properties suggest that KPNA7 could be specialized for interactions with select NLS-containing proteins, potentially impacting developmental regulation.

  4. Sumoylation of Human Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein Is Important for Its Nuclear Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnanasekar Munirathinam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP lacks nuclear bipartite localization signal sequence; yet TCTP is present abundantly in the nucleus. At present it is not known how TCTP gets transported to the nucleus. Sequence analyses showed that all TCTPs described to date have putative small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO motifs. Since SUMO modification plays an important role in the nuclear transport of proteins, we evaluated whether SUMO motifs are important for transport of TCTP into the nucleus. We show that TCTP exists in sumoylated form in cytoplasm and nucleus of mammalian cells. Point mutation of lysine residue in the SUMO motif compromised the ability of TCTP to get sumoylated in vitro. When cells were transfected with FLAG-tagged mutated TCTP, nuclear transport of TCTP was inhibited confirming that sumoylation is critical for the nuclear transport of TCTP. Our previous studies demonstrated that TCTP can function as an antioxidant protein in the nucleus. When we mutated TCTP at the SUMO motif the antioxidant function of TCTP was compromised. Results presented in this study thus show that sumoylation plays an important role in the transport of TCTP into the nucleus where they function as antioxidant protein.

  5. The nucleotide-binding domain of NLRC5 is critical for nuclear import and transactivation activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meissner, Torsten B. [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Li, Amy; Liu, Yuen-Joyce [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Gagnon, Etienne [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Institut de Recherche en Immunologie et Cancerologie, Departement de Microbiologie et Immunologie, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Canada H3T1J4 (Canada); Kobayashi, Koichi S., E-mail: Koichi_Kobayashi@dfci.harvard.edu [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NLRC5 requires an intact NLS for its function as MHC class I transactivator. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nuclear presence of NLRC5 is required for MHC class I induction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nucleotide-binding controls nuclear import and transactivation activity of NLRC5. -- Abstract: Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II are crucial for the function of the human adaptive immune system. A member of the NLR (nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat) protein family, NLRC5, has recently been identified as a transcriptional regulator of MHC class I and related genes. While a 'master regulator' of MHC class II genes, CIITA, has long been known, NLRC5 specifically associates with and transactivates the proximal promoters of MHC class I genes. In this study, we analyzed the molecular requirements of NLRC5 nuclear import and transactivation activity. We show that NLRC5-mediated MHC class I gene induction requires an intact nuclear localization signal and nuclear distribution of NLRC5. In addition, we find that the nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) of NLRC5 is critical not only for nuclear translocation but also for the transactivation of MHC class I genes. Changing the cellular localization of NLRC5 is likely to immediately impact MHC class I expression as well as MHC class I-mediated antigen presentation. NLRC5 may thus provide a promising target for the modulation of MHC class I antigen presentation, especially in the setting of transplant medicine.

  6. The Thermal Properties of Asymmetric Nuclear Matter within the Extended Brueckner-Hartree-Fock Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassaneen, Khaled; Mansour, Hesham

    2017-02-01

    The single-particle potentials and other properties at absolute zero temperature in isospin asymmetric nuclear matter are investigated in the frame of an extended Brueckner theory. Also thermal quantities are calculated in asymmetric nuclear matter using CD-Bonn potential and the Urbana three-body forces (3BF). Also, the effects of the hole-hole contributions are investigated within the self-consistent Greens function approach. The inclusion of 3BF or the hole-hole contributions improves the predicted saturation property of symmetric nuclear matter within the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach and it leads to a significant stiffening of the density dependence of symmetry energy at high densities but the exact saturation point is not reproduced. This is of great importance in astrophysical calculation. A phenomenological term simulating the three-body interaction is introduced to assure the empirical saturation property. The hot properties of asymmetric nuclear matter such as the internal energy and the pressure are analyzed using T2-approximation method at low temperatures.

  7. KIF5B and Nup358 Cooperatively Mediate the Nuclear Import of HIV-1 during Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adarsh Dharan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Following envelope mediated fusion, the HIV-1 core is released into the cytoplasm of the target cell and undergoes a series of trafficking and replicative steps that result in the nuclear import of the viral genome, which ultimately leads to the integration of the proviral DNA into the host cell genome. Previous studies have found that disruption of microtubules, or depletion of dynein or kinesin motors, perturb the normal uncoating and trafficking of the viral genome. Here, we show that the Kinesin-1 motor, KIF5B, induces a relocalization of the nuclear pore component Nup358 into the cytoplasm during HIV-1 infection. This relocalization of NUP358 is dependent on HIV-1 capsid, and NUP358 directly associates with viral cores following cytoplasmic translocation. This interaction between NUP358 and the HIV-1 core is dependent on multiple capsid binding surfaces, as this association is not observed following infection with capsid mutants in which a conserved hydrophobic binding pocket (N74D or the cyclophilin A binding loop (P90A is disrupted. KIF5B knockdown also prevents the nuclear entry and infection by HIV-1, but does not exert a similar effect on the N74D or P90A capsid mutants which do not rely on Nup358 for nuclear import. Finally, we observe that the relocalization of Nup358 in response to CA is dependent on cleavage protein and polyadenylation factor 6 (CPSF6, but independent of cyclophilin A. Collectively, these observations identify a previously unappreciated role for KIF5B in mediating the Nup358 dependent nuclear import of the viral genome during infection.

  8. The increasing importance of Intellectual Property in Transfusion Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardie, Ian D; Rooney, Catherine

    2011-08-01

    The Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service (SNBTS) originated in Edinburgh in the 1920's by dentist Jack Copland. Since that time the scope of Transfusion Medicine has broadened significantly to accommodate advances in technologies such as cell isolation, culture and manipulation. Many transfusion services, including SNBTS, now provide expertise both in the traditional field of blood transfusion and the newer, wider field of human cell (including 'adult' and embryonic stem cells) and tissue procurement and culture - in all the new science of "regenerative medicine". This paper describes the importance of Intellectual Property in the provision of Transfusion Medicine today and provides guidance on the management of Intellectual Property so that advances in the field have the best chance of successful translation into clinical practice.

  9. 77 FR 27113 - Export and Import of Nuclear Equipment and Material; Export of International Atomic Energy Agency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... / Wednesday, May 9, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 110 RIN 3150-AJ04 Export and Import of Nuclear Equipment and Material; Export of International Atomic Energy Agency Safeguards Samples AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The U.S...

  10. Ranking the importance of nuclear reactions for activation and transmutation events

    CERN Document Server

    Arter, Wayne; Relton, Samuel D; Higham, Nicholas J

    2015-01-01

    Pathways-reduced analysis is one of the techniques used by the Fispact-II nuclear activation and transmutation software to study the sensitivity of the computed inventories to uncertainties in reaction cross-sections. Although deciding which pathways are most important is very helpful in for example determining which nuclear data would benefit from further refinement, pathways-reduced analysis need not necessarily define the most critical reaction, since one reaction may contribute to several different pathways. This work examines three different techniques for ranking reactions in their order of importance in determining the final inventory, viz. a pathways based metric (PBM), the direct method and one based on the Pearson correlation coefficient. Reasons why the PBM is to be preferred are presented.

  11. Properties of nuclear matter from macroscopic-microscopic mass formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Liu, Min; Ou, Li; Zhang, Yingxun

    2015-12-01

    Based on the standard Skyrme energy density functionals together with the extended Thomas-Fermi approach, the properties of symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter represented in two macroscopic-microscopic mass formulas: Lublin-Strasbourg nuclear drop energy (LSD) formula and Weizsäcker-Skyrme (WS*) formula, are extracted through matching the energy per particle of finite nuclei. For LSD and WS*, the obtained incompressibility coefficients of symmetric nuclear matter are K∞ = 230 ± 11 MeV and 235 ± 11 MeV, respectively. The slope parameter of symmetry energy at saturation density is L = 41.6 ± 7.6 MeV for LSD and 51.5 ± 9.6 MeV for WS*, respectively, which is compatible with the liquid-drop analysis of Lattimer and Lim [4]. The density dependence of the mean-field isoscalar and isovector effective mass, and the neutron-proton effective masses splitting for neutron matter are simultaneously investigated. The results are generally consistent with those from the Skyrme Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations and nucleon optical potentials, and the standard deviations are large and increase rapidly with density. A better constraint for the effective mass is helpful to reduce uncertainties of the depth of the mean-field potential.

  12. Properties of nuclear matter from macroscopic-microscopic mass formulas

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ning; Ou, Li; Zhang, Yingxun

    2015-01-01

    Based on the standard Skyrme energy density functionals together with the extended Thomas-Fermi approach, the properties of symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter represented in two macroscopic-microscopic mass formulas: Lublin-Strasbourg nuclear drop energy (LSD) formula and Weizs\\"acker-Skyrme (WS*) formula, are extracted through matching the energy per particle of finite nuclei. For LSD and WS*, the obtained incompressibility coefficients of symmetric nuclear matter are $K_\\infty=230 \\pm 11$ MeV and $235\\pm 11$ MeV, respectively. The slope parameter of symmetry energy at saturation density is $L=41.6\\pm 7.6$ MeV for LSD and $51.5\\pm 9.6$ MeV for WS*, respectively, which is compatible with the liquid-drop analysis of Lattimer and Lim [ApJ. \\textbf{771}, 51 (2013)]. The density dependence of the mean-field isoscalar and isovector effective mass, and the neutron-proton effective masses splitting for neutron matter are simultaneously investigated. The results are generally consistent with those from the Skyrm...

  13. Bending-Twisting Motions and Main Interactions in Nucleoplasmin Nuclear Import.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Tadeu Geraldo

    Full Text Available Alpha solenoid proteins play a key role in regulating the classical nuclear import pathway, recognizing a target protein and transporting it into the nucleus. Importin-α (Impα is the solenoid responsible for cargo protein recognition, and it has been extensively studied by X-ray crystallography to understand the binding specificity. To comprehend the main motions of Impα and to extend the information about the critical interactions during carrier-cargo recognition, we surveyed different conformational states based on molecular dynamics (MD and normal mode (NM analyses. Our model of study was a crystallographic structure of Impα complexed with the classical nuclear localization sequence (cNLS from nucleoplasmin (Npl, which was submitted to multiple 100 ns of MD simulations. Representative conformations were selected for calculating the 87 lowest frequencies NMs of vibration, and a displacement approach was applied along each NM. Based on geometric criteria, using the radius of curvature and inter-repeat angles as the reference metrics, the main motions of Impα were described. Moreover, we determined the salt bridges, hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions in the Impα-NplNLS interface. Our results show the bending and twisting motions participating in the recognition of nuclear proteins, allowing the accommodation and adjustment of a classical bipartite NLS sequence. The essential contacts for the nuclear import were also described and were mostly in agreement with previous studies, suggesting that the residues in the cNLS linker region establish important contacts with Impα adjusting the cNLS backbone. The MD simulations combined with NM analysis can be applied to the Impα-NLS system to help understand interactions between Impα and cNLSs and the analysis of non-classic NLSs.

  14. Bending-Twisting Motions and Main Interactions in Nucleoplasmin Nuclear Import.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraldo, Marcos Tadeu; Takeda, Agnes Alessandra Sekijima; Braz, Antônio Sérgio Kimus; Lemke, Ney

    2016-01-01

    Alpha solenoid proteins play a key role in regulating the classical nuclear import pathway, recognizing a target protein and transporting it into the nucleus. Importin-α (Impα) is the solenoid responsible for cargo protein recognition, and it has been extensively studied by X-ray crystallography to understand the binding specificity. To comprehend the main motions of Impα and to extend the information about the critical interactions during carrier-cargo recognition, we surveyed different conformational states based on molecular dynamics (MD) and normal mode (NM) analyses. Our model of study was a crystallographic structure of Impα complexed with the classical nuclear localization sequence (cNLS) from nucleoplasmin (Npl), which was submitted to multiple 100 ns of MD simulations. Representative conformations were selected for calculating the 87 lowest frequencies NMs of vibration, and a displacement approach was applied along each NM. Based on geometric criteria, using the radius of curvature and inter-repeat angles as the reference metrics, the main motions of Impα were described. Moreover, we determined the salt bridges, hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions in the Impα-NplNLS interface. Our results show the bending and twisting motions participating in the recognition of nuclear proteins, allowing the accommodation and adjustment of a classical bipartite NLS sequence. The essential contacts for the nuclear import were also described and were mostly in agreement with previous studies, suggesting that the residues in the cNLS linker region establish important contacts with Impα adjusting the cNLS backbone. The MD simulations combined with NM analysis can be applied to the Impα-NLS system to help understand interactions between Impα and cNLSs and the analysis of non-classic NLSs.

  15. ICT security- aspects important for nuclear facilities; Information and Communication Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thunem, Atoosa P-J.

    2005-09-15

    Rapid application growth of complex Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in every society and state infrastructure as well as industry has revealed vulnerabilities that eventually have given rise to serious security breaches. These vulnerabilities together with the course of the breaches from cause to consequence are gradually about to convince the field experts that ensuring the security of ICT-driven systems is no longer possible by only relying on the fundaments of computer science, IT, or telecommunications. Appropriating knowledge from other disciplines is not only beneficial, but indeed very necessary. At the same time, it is a common observation today that ICT-driven systems are used everywhere, from the nuclear, aviation, commerce and healthcare domains to camera-equipped web-enabled cellular phones. The increasing interdisciplinary and inter-sectoral aspects of ICT security worldwide have been providing updated and useful information to the nuclear domain, as one of the emerging users of ICT-driven systems. Nevertheless, such aspects have also contributed to new and complicated challenges, as ICT security for the nuclear domain is in a much more delicate manner than for any other domains related to the concept of safety, at least from the public standpoint. This report addresses some important aspects of ICT security that need to be considered at nuclear facilities. It deals with ICT security and the relationship between security and safety from a rather different perspective than usually observed and applied. The report especially highlights the influence on the security of ICT-driven systems by all other dependability factors, and on that basis suggests a framework for ICT security profiling, where several security profiles are assumed to be valid and used in parallel for each ICT-driven system, sub-system or unit at nuclear facilities. The report also covers a related research topic of the Halden Project with focus on cyber threats and

  16. Survey of creep properties of copper intended for nuclear waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson-Oestling, Henrik C.M. (Swerea KIMAB AB, Stockholm (Sweden)); Sandstroem, Rolf (Materials Science and Engineering, School of Industrial Engineering and Management, Royal Inst. of Technology (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-12-15

    Creep in copper for application in canisters for nuclear waste disposal is surveyed. The importance of phosphorus doping to obtain adequate properties is demonstrated experimentally as well as explained theoretically. Creep tests results for electron beam and friction stir welds are compared. The latter type of welds has properties that are close to those of parent metal. The relation between slow strain rate tensile and creep is described. Fundamental constitutive equations are presented that are suitable for finite element modelling. These equations are used to simulate creep deformation in canisters

  17. The Hypoxic Regulator of Sterol Synthesis Nro1 Is a Nuclear Import Adaptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T Yeh; C Lee; L Amzel; P Espenshade; M Bianchet

    2011-12-31

    Fission yeast protein Sre1, the homolog of the mammalian sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP), is a hypoxic transcription factor required for sterol homeostasis and low-oxygen growth. Nro1 regulates the stability of the N-terminal transcription factor domain of Sre1 (Sre1N) by inhibiting the action of the prolyl 4-hydroxylase-like Ofd1 in an oxygen-dependent manner. The crystal structure of Nro1 determined at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution shows an all-{alpha}-helical fold that can be divided into two domains: a small N-terminal domain, and a larger C-terminal HEAT-repeat domain. Follow-up studies showed that Nro1 defines a new class of nuclear import adaptor that functions both in Ofd1 nuclear localization and in the oxygen-dependent inhibition of Ofd1 to control the hypoxic response.

  18. Sensing actin dynamics: Structural basis for G-actin-sensitive nuclear import of MAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, Hidemi; Matsuura, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: matsuura.yoshiyuki@d.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    2011-10-22

    Highlights: {yields} MAL has a bipartite NLS that binds to Imp{alpha} in an extended conformation. {yields} Mutational analyses verified the functional significance of MAL-Imp{alpha} interactions. {yields} Induced folding and NLS-masking by G-actins inhibit nuclear import of MAL. -- Abstract: The coordination of cytoskeletal actin dynamics with gene expression reprogramming is emerging as a crucial mechanism to control diverse cellular processes, including cell migration, differentiation and neuronal circuit assembly. The actin-binding transcriptional coactivator MAL (also known as MRTF-A/MKL1/BSAC) senses G-actin concentration and transduces Rho GTPase signals to serum response factor (SRF). MAL rapidly shuttles between the cytoplasm and the nucleus in unstimulated cells but Rho-induced depletion of G-actin leads to MAL nuclear accumulation and activation of transcription of SRF:MAL-target genes. Although the molecular and structural basis of actin-regulated nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of MAL is not understood fully, it is proposed that nuclear import of MAL is mediated by importin {alpha}/{beta} heterodimer, and that G-actin competes with importin {alpha}/{beta} for the binding to MAL. Here we present structural, biochemical and cell biological evidence that MAL has a classical bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) in the N-terminal 'RPEL' domain containing Arg-Pro-X-X-X-Glu-Leu (RPEL) motifs. The NLS residues of MAL adopt an extended conformation and bind along the surface groove of importin-{alpha}, interacting with the major- and minor-NLS binding sites. We also present a crystal structure of wild-type MAL RPEL domain in complex with five G-actins. Comparison of the importin-{alpha}- and actin-complexes revealed that the binding of G-actins to MAL is associated with folding of NLS residues into a helical conformation that is inappropriate for importin-{alpha} recognition.

  19. Important bioactive properties of omega-3 fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Xu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Good health has been linked with healthy diet. N-3 fatty acids are required for proper functioning of many physiological systems. There is a large body of evidence documenting the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids with the first double bond at the third position from methyl-terminal on health benefits. Scientific evidence is accumulating to substantiate the role omega-3 fatty acids play in conditions such as cardiovascular disease, certain cancers and other diseases. The availability of n-3 fatty acids to various tissues is of major importance to health and depends on dietary intake for both normal development and in the prevention and management of chronic diseases.In this review we will summarize the biological properties of omega-3 fatty acids.

  20. The effect of nanoparticle size and NLS density on nuclear targeting in cancer and normal cells; impaired nuclear import and aberrant nanoparticle intracellular trafficking in glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammam, Salma N; Azzazy, Hassan M E; Lamprecht, Alf

    2017-02-27

    The cell nucleus is an interesting target in many diseases with particular interest in cancer. Previously, nuclear targeted small and large chitosan nanoparticles (S-NPs≈25nm, and L-NPs≈150nm respectively), modified with low, intermediate and high densities of NLS (L-NLS, I-NLS and H-NLS) were developed and assessed in L929 fibroblasts. However, to evade apoptosis and stimulate tumor growth cancer cells are capable of manipulating the nuclear-cytoplasmic transport on many levels, making NPs that are capable of nuclear targeting in normal cells incapable of doing so in cancer. For such reason, here, the nuclear delivery efficiency of S-NPs and L-NPs was assessed as a function of their NLS density in cancer and non-cancer cells. For S-NPs, in all cells tested, NLS was unnecessary for nuclear delivery; unmodified S-NPs showed higher nuclear delivery than NLS-S-NPs due to their ability to gain nuclear entry in a passive manner. For L-NPs, L-NLS-L-NPs showed ≈ 8.5, 33, 1.8 and 7.2 fold higher nuclear deliveries than H-NLS-L-NPs in L929 fibroblasts, primary human fibroblasts, HEK 293 and lung cancer cells, respectively. In glioma however, unmodified L-NPs showed highest nuclear delivery, whereas NLS-L-NPs were retained in the cytoplasm. Experiments conducted in the presence of inhibitors of the classical nuclear import pathway indicated that due to overexpression of importin α, classical nuclear import in glioma is impaired leading to aberrant NP intracellular trafficking and nuclear import.

  1. Karyopherin α7 (KPNA7, a divergent member of the importin α family of nuclear import receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley Joshua B

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classical nuclear localization signal (NLS dependent nuclear import is carried out by a heterodimer of importin α and importin β. NLS cargo is recognized by importin α, which is bound by importin β. Importin β mediates translocation of the complex through the central channel of the nuclear pore, and upon reaching the nucleus, RanGTP binding to importin β triggers disassembly of the complex. To date, six importin α family members, encoded by separate genes, have been described in humans. Results We sequenced and characterized a seventh member of the importin α family of transport factors, karyopherin α 7 (KPNA7, which is most closely related to KPNA2. The domain of KPNA7 that binds Importin β (IBB is divergent, and shows stronger binding to importin β than the IBB domains from of other importin α family members. With regard to NLS recognition, KPNA7 binds to the retinoblastoma (RB NLS to a similar degree as KPNA2, but it fails to bind the SV40-NLS and the human nucleoplasmin (NPM NLS. KPNA7 shows a predominantly nuclear distribution under steady state conditions, which contrasts with KPNA2 which is primarily cytoplasmic. Conclusion KPNA7 is a novel importin α family member in humans that belongs to the importin α2 subfamily. KPNA7 shows different subcellular localization and NLS binding characteristics compared to other members of the importin α family. These properties suggest that KPNA7 could be specialized for interactions with select NLS-containing proteins, potentially impacting developmental regulation.

  2. Nuclear Well Log Properties of Natural Gas Hydrate Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchwell, A.; Cook, A.

    2015-12-01

    Characterizing gas hydrate in a reservoir typically involves a full suite of geophysical well logs. The most common method involves using resistivity measurements to quantify the decrease in electrically conductive water when replaced with gas hydrate. Compressional velocity measurements are also used because the gas hydrate significantly strengthens the moduli of the sediment. At many gas hydrate sites, nuclear well logs, which include the photoelectric effect, formation sigma, carbon/oxygen ratio and neutron porosity, are also collected but often not used. In fact, the nuclear response of a gas hydrate reservoir is not known. In this research we will focus on the nuclear log response in gas hydrate reservoirs at the Mallik Field at the Mackenzie Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada, and the Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg 2 sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Nuclear logs may add increased robustness to the investigation into the properties of gas hydrates and some types of logs may offer an opportunity to distinguish between gas hydrate and permafrost. For example, a true formation sigma log measures the thermal neutron capture cross section of a formation and pore constituents; it is especially sensitive to hydrogen and chlorine in the pore space. Chlorine has a high absorption potential, and is used to determine the amount of saline water within pore spaces. Gas hydrate offers a difference in elemental composition compared to water-saturated intervals. Thus, in permafrost areas, the carbon/oxygen ratio may vary between gas hydrate and permafrost, due to the increase of carbon in gas hydrate accumulations. At the Mallik site, we observe a hydrate-bearing sand (1085-1107 m) above a water-bearing sand (1107-1140 m), which was confirmed through core samples and mud gas analysis. We observe a decrease in the photoelectric absorption of ~0.5 barnes/e-, as well as an increase in the formation sigma readings of ~5 capture units in the water-bearing sand as

  3. Nuclear import of transcription factor BR-C is mediated by its interaction with RACK1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daojun Cheng

    Full Text Available The transcription factor Broad Complex (BR-C is an early ecdysone response gene in insects and contains two types of domains: two zinc finger domains for the activation of gene transcription and a Bric-a-brac/Tramtrack/Broad complex (BTB domain for protein-protein interaction. Although the mechanism of zinc finger-mediated gene transcription is well studied, the partners interacting with the BTB domain of BR-C has not been elucidated until now. Here, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen using the BTB domain of silkworm BR-C as bait and identified the receptor for activated C-kinase 1 (RACK1, a scaffolding/anchoring protein, as the novel partner capable of interacting with BR-C. The interaction between BR-C and RACK1 was further confirmed by far-western blotting and pull-down assays. Importantly, the disruption of this interaction, via RNAi against the endogenous RACK1 gene or deletion of the BTB domain, abolished the nuclear import of BR-C in BmN4 cells. In addition, RNAi against the endogenous PKC gene as well as phosphorylation-deficient mutation of the predicted PKC phosphorylation sites at either Ser373 or Thr406 in BR-C phenocopied RACK1 RNAi and altered the nuclear localization of BR-C. However, when BTB domain was deleted, phosphorylation mimics of either Ser373 or Thr406 had no effect on the nuclear import of BR-C. Moreover, mutating the PKC phosphorylation sites at Ser373 and Thr406 or deleting the BTB domain significantly decreased the transcriptional activation of a BR-C target gene. Given that RACK1 is necessary for recruiting PKC to close and phosphorylate target proteins, we suggest that the PKC-mediated phosphorylation and nuclear import of BR-C is determined by its interaction with RACK1. This novel finding will be helpful for further deciphering the mechanism underlying the role of BR-C proteins during insect development.

  4. Time-of-Flight Mass Measurements and Their Importance for Nuclear Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoš, M.; Estrade, A.; Amthor, A. M.; Bazin, D.; Becerril, A.; Elliot, T.; Famiano, M.; Gade, A.; Galaviz, D.; Lorusso, G.; Pereira, J.; Portillo, M.; Rogers, A.; Schatz, H.; Shapira, D.; Smith, E.; Stolz, A.; Wallace, M.

    2009-03-01

    Atomic masses play an important role in nuclear astrophysics. The lack of experimental values for nuclides of interest has triggered a rapid development of new mass measurement devices around the world, including Time-of-Flight (TOF) mass measurements offering an access to the most exotic nuclides. Recently, the TOF-Brho technique that includes a position measurement for magnetic rigidity correction has been implemented at the NSCL. An experiment with a similar TOF-Brho technique is approved and planned at the next generation radioactive beam facility (RIBF) at RIKEN.

  5. Neighborhood properties are important determinants of temperature sensitive mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Lockwood

    Full Text Available Temperature-sensitive (TS mutants are powerful tools to study gene function in vivo. These mutants exhibit wild-type activity at permissive temperatures and reduced activity at restrictive temperatures. Although random mutagenesis can be used to generate TS mutants, the procedure is laborious and unfeasible in multicellular organisms. Further, the underlying molecular mechanisms of the TS phenotype are poorly understood. To elucidate TS mechanisms, we used a machine learning method-logistic regression-to investigate a large number of sequence and structure features. We developed and tested 133 features, describing properties of either the mutation site or the mutation site neighborhood. We defined three types of neighborhood using sequence distance, Euclidean distance, and topological distance. We discovered that neighborhood features outperformed mutation site features in predicting TS mutations. The most predictive features suggest that TS mutations tend to occur at buried and rigid residues, and are located at conserved protein domains. The environment of a buried residue often determines the overall structural stability of a protein, thus may lead to reversible activity change upon temperature switch. We developed TS prediction models based on logistic regression and the Lasso regularized procedure. Through a ten-fold cross-validation, we obtained the area under the curve of 0.91 for the model using both sequence and structure features. Testing on independent datasets suggested that the model predicted TS mutations with a 50% precision. In summary, our study elucidated the molecular basis of TS mutants and suggested the importance of neighborhood properties in determining TS mutations. We further developed models to predict TS mutations derived from single amino acid substitutions. In this way, TS mutants can be efficiently obtained through experimentally introducing the predicted mutations.

  6. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 15: Metallurgy and Metals Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  7. Spectroscopic properties of nuclear skyrme energy density functionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpanov, D; Dobaczewski, J; Toivanen, J; Carlsson, B G

    2014-12-19

    We address the question of how to improve the agreement between theoretical nuclear single-particle energies (SPEs) and observations. Empirically, in doubly magic nuclei, the SPEs can be deduced from spectroscopic properties of odd nuclei that have one more or one less neutron or proton. Theoretically, bare SPEs, before being confronted with observations, must be corrected for the effects of the particle vibration coupling (PVC). In the present work, we determine the PVC corrections in a fully self-consistent way. Then, we adjust the SPEs, with PVC corrections included, to empirical data. In this way, the agreement with observations, on average, improves; nevertheless, large discrepancies still remain. We conclude that the main source of disagreement is still in the underlying mean fields, and not in including or neglecting the PVC corrections.

  8. Human GTPases associate with RNA polymerase II to mediate its nuclear import.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, Clément; Shiekhattar, Ramin

    2011-10-01

    Small GTPases share a biochemical mechanism and act as binary molecular switches. One important function of small GTPases in the cell is nucleocytoplasmic transport of both proteins and RNA. Here, we show the stable association of human GPN1 and GPN3, small GTPases related to Ran, with RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) isolated from either the cytoplasmic or nuclear fraction. GPN1 and GPN3 directly interact with RNAPII subunit 7 (RPB7)/RPB4 and the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNAPII. Depletion of GPN1 or GPN3 using small interfering RNAs led to decreased RNAPII levels in the nucleus and an accumulation of this enzyme in the cytoplasm of human cells. Furthermore, isolation of a GPN1/GPN3/RNAPII complex from stable cell lines expressing a dominant negative GPN1 harboring mutations in the GTP-binding pocket demonstrated a role for these proteins in nuclear import of RNAPII. Thus, GPN1/GPN3 define a new family of small GTPases that are specialized for the transport of RNA polymerase II into the nucleus.

  9. An apicoplast localized ubiquitylation system is required for the import of nuclear-encoded plastid proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Agrawal

    Full Text Available Apicomplexan parasites are responsible for numerous important human diseases including toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, and most importantly malaria. There is a constant need for new antimalarials, and one of most keenly pursued drug targets is an ancient algal endosymbiont, the apicoplast. The apicoplast is essential for parasite survival, and several aspects of its metabolism and maintenance have been validated as targets of anti-parasitic drug treatment. Most apicoplast proteins are nuclear encoded and have to be imported into the organelle. Recently, a protein translocon typically required for endoplasmic reticulum associated protein degradation (ERAD has been proposed to act in apicoplast protein import. Here, we show ubiquitylation to be a conserved and essential component of this process. We identify apicoplast localized ubiquitin activating, conjugating and ligating enzymes in Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum and observe biochemical activity by in vitro reconstitution. Using conditional gene ablation and complementation analysis we link this activity to apicoplast protein import and parasite survival. Our studies suggest ubiquitylation to be a mechanistic requirement of apicoplast protein import independent to the proteasomal degradation pathway.

  10. Importance of mammalian nuclear-envelope nucleoside triphosphatase in nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of ribonucleoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agutter, P S; McCaldin, B; McArdle, H J

    1979-09-15

    The nucleoside triphosphate-stimulated efflux of RNA from isolated nuclei was studied under a range of conditions, and the effects of these conditions on the process were compared with the properties of the nucleoside triphosphatase located in the pore complex. A marked similarity between the rate of efflux and the rate of nucleoside triphosphate hydrolysis was apparent, in terms of substrate specificity, sensitivity to treatment with insolubilized trypsin, kinetics and the effects of increased ionic strength and of many inhibitors. These results are taken, in view of earlier evidence, to suggest that the activity of the nucleoside triphosphatase is a prerequisite for nucleo-cytoplasmic RNA transport in vivo. There are some indications that the nuclear-envelope lipid is also involved in regulating the efflux process.

  11. Probing anharmonic properties of nuclear surface vibration by heavy-ion fusion reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Takigawa, N; Kuyucak, S

    1997-01-01

    Describing fusion reactions between ^{16}O and ^{154}Dy and, between ^{16}O and ^{144}Sm by the $sd-$ and $sdf-$ interacting boson model, we show that heavy-ion fusion reactions are strongly affected by anharmonic properties of nuclear surface vibrations and nuclear shape, and thus provide a powerful method to study details of nuclear structure and dynamics.

  12. Properties of mammalian nuclear-envelope nucleoside triphosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agutter, P S; Cockrill, J B; Lavine, J E; McCaldin, B; Sim, R B

    1979-09-01

    The nucleoside triphosphatase activities of the nuclear envelopes from rat liver, pig liver and simian-virus-40-transformed mouse-embryo 3T3 cells were shown to exhibit similar parperties. All three preparations hydrolyse ATP, 2'-dATP, 3'-dATP, GTP, CTP and UTP in the presence of Mg2+, Ca2+, Mn2+ and Co2+ with a pH optimum of 8.0, are sensitive to inhibition by mercurials, arsenicals, quercetin, proflavin and adenosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate and are partially inactivated by exposure to high ionic strength. The kinetic behaviour is similar for all substrates irrespective of the source of material. The typical Eadie-Hofstee plot, which is concave upwards at pH 8.0 when the ionic strength is 20mM, becomes linear when the pH is increased to 8.5 or the ionic strength to 160mM. The overall evidence, particularly the labelling of only one polypeptide by [gamma-32P]ATP, suggests that under the conditions of preparation and assay used only one class of nucleoside triphosphatase active sites is detectable in nuclear envelopes. The importance of these results for an understanding of the role of the enzyme in vivo is discussed.

  13. Yes-Associated Protein (YAP) Promotes the Nuclear Import of p73

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Heng; Wu Shengnan, E-mail: wushn@scnu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China)

    2011-01-01

    p73 has been identified as a structural and functional homolog of the tumor suppressor p53. However, mechanisms that regulate the localization of p73 have not been fully clarified. The Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a transcriptional coactivator. As a transcriptional coactivator, YAP needs to bind transcription factors to stimulate gene expression. p73 is a reported YAP target transcription factors and YAP has been shown to positively regulate p73 in promoting apoptosis. Previous studies show that p73 interacts with YAP through its PPPY motif, and increases p73 transactivation of apoptotic genes. In this study, we focused on YAP's regulation of the localization of p73. After transient transfection into Rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells and Human embryonic kidney 293T cells with GFP-YAP and/or YFP-p73, and incubated for 24 hours expression. p73 was fused to YFP to allow the examination of its subcellular localization. When expressed alone, YFP-p73 was distributed throughout the cell. When coexpressed with YAP, nuclear accumulation of YFP-p73 became evident. We quantitated the effect of YAP on the redistribution of YFP-p73 by counting cells with nuclear-only YFP signal. We found that YAP can influence the subcellular distribution of p73. Altogether, coexpression with YAP affected the subcellular distribution of the p73 protein. Our studies attribute a central role to YAP in regulating p73 accumulation and YAP, at least in part, might promote the nuclear import of p73.

  14. Yes-Associated Protein (YAP) Promotes the Nuclear Import of p73

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Wu, Shengnan

    2011-01-01

    p73 has been identified as a structural and functional homolog of the tumor suppressor p53. However, mechanisms that regulate the localization of p73 have not been fully clarified. The Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a transcriptional coactivator. As a transcriptional coactivator, YAP needs to bind transcription factors to stimulate gene expression. p73 is a reported YAP target transcription factors and YAP has been shown to positively regulate p73 in promoting apoptosis. Previous studies show that p73 interacts with YAP through its PPPY motif, and increases p73 transactivation of apoptotic genes. In this study, we focused on YAP's regulation of the localization of p73. After transient transfection into Rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells and Human embryonic kidney 293T cells with GFP-YAP and/or YFP-p73, and incubated for 24 hours expression. p73 was fused to YFP to allow the examination of its subcellular localization. When expressed alone, YFP-p73 was distributed throughout the cell. When coexpressed with YAP, nuclear accumulation of YFP-p73 became evident. We quantitated the effect of YAP on the redistribution of YFP-p73 by counting cells with nuclear-only YFP signal. We found that YAP can influence the subcellular distribution of p73. Altogether, coexpression with YAP affected the subcellular distribution of the p73 protein. Our studies attribute a central role to YAP in regulating p73 accumulation and YAP, at least in part, might promote the nuclear import of p73.

  15. [Structural properties and functional importance of metzincin metalloproteinases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, N P; Rudakova, N L; Sharipova, M R

    2013-01-01

    Here wediscuss known properties of metzincin metalloproteinases, their structure, physiological roles in the cell and potential medical uses. We also present results describing a novel extracellular metzincin metalloproteinase from Bacillus pumilus with a unique combination of properties typical for both astacins and adamalysins.

  16. Nuclear export and import of human hepatitis B virus capsid protein and particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Cheng Li

    Full Text Available It remains unclear what determines the subcellular localization of hepatitis B virus (HBV core protein (HBc and particles. To address this fundamental issue, we have identified four distinct HBc localization signals in the arginine rich domain (ARD of HBc, using immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and fractionation/Western blot analysis. ARD consists of four tight clustering arginine-rich subdomains. ARD-I and ARD-III are associated with two co-dependent nuclear localization signals (NLS, while ARD-II and ARD-IV behave like two independent nuclear export signals (NES. This conclusion is based on five independent lines of experimental evidence: i Using an HBV replication system in hepatoma cells, we demonstrated in a double-blind manner that only the HBc of mutant ARD-II+IV, among a total of 15 ARD mutants, can predominantly localize to the nucleus. ii These results were confirmed using a chimera reporter system by placing mutant or wild type HBc trafficking signals in the heterologous context of SV40 large T antigen (LT. iii By a heterokaryon or homokaryon analysis, the fusion protein of SV40 LT-HBc ARD appeared to transport from nuclei of transfected donor cells to nuclei of recipient cells, suggesting the existence of an NES in HBc ARD. This putative NES is leptomycin B resistant. iv We demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation that HBc ARD can physically interact with a cellular factor TAP/NXF1 (Tip-associated protein/nuclear export factor-1, which is known to be important for nuclear export of mRNA and proteins. Treatment with a TAP-specific siRNA strikingly shifted cytoplasmic HBc to nucleus, and led to a near 7-fold reduction of viral replication, and a near 10-fold reduction in HBsAg secretion. v HBc of mutant ARD-II+IV was accumulated predominantly in the nucleus in a mouse model by hydrodynamic delivery. In addition to the revised map of NLS, our results suggest that HBc could shuttle rapidly between nucleus and cytoplasm via a novel

  17. Diffusion, Thermal Properties and Chemical Compatibilities of Select MAX Phases with Materials For Advanced Nuclear Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsoum, Michel [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bentzel, Grady [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Tallman, Darin J. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Sindelar, Robert [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Garcia-Diaz, Brenda [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hoffman, Elizabeth [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-04-04

    The demands of Gen IV nuclear power plants for long service life under neutron irradiation at high temperature are severe. Advanced materials that would withstand high temperatures (up to 1000+ ºC) to high doses in a neutron field would be ideal for reactor internal structures and would add to the long service life and reliability of the reactors. The objective of this work is to investigate the chemical compatibility of select MAX with potential materials that are important for nuclear energy, as well as to measure the thermal transport properties as a function of neutron irradiation. The chemical counterparts chosen for this work are: pyrolytic carbon, SiC, U, Pd, FLiBe, Pb-Bi and Na, the latter 3 in the molten state. The thermal conductivities and heat capacities of non-irradiated MAX phases will be measured.

  18. Conservation of complex nuclear localization signals utilizing classical and non-classical nuclear import pathways in LANA homologs of KSHV and RFHV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Cherezova

    Full Text Available ORF73 latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV is targeted to the nucleus of infected cells where it binds to chromatin and mediates viral episome persistence, interacts with cellular proteins and plays a role in latency and tumorigenesis. A structurally related LANA homolog has been identified in the retroperitoneal fibromatosis herpesvirus (RFHV, the macaque homolog of KSHV. Here, we report the evolutionary and functional conservation of a novel bi-functional nuclear localization signal (NLS in KSHV and RFHV LANA. N-terminal peptides from both proteins were fused to EGFP or double EGFP fusions to examine their ability to induce nuclear transport of a heterologous protein. In addition, GST-pull down experiments were used to analyze the ability of LANA peptides to interact with members of the karyopherin family of nuclear transport receptors. Our studies revealed that both LANA proteins contain an N-terminal arginine/glycine (RG-rich domain spanning a conserved chromatin-binding motif, which binds directly to importin β1 in a RanGTP-sensitive manner and serves as an NLS in the importin β1-mediated non-classical nuclear import pathway. Embedded within this domain is a conserved lysine/arginine-(KR-rich bipartite motif that binds directly to multiple members of the importin α family of nuclear import adaptors in a RanGTP-insensitive manner and serves as an NLS in the classical importin α/β-mediated nuclear import pathway. The positioning of a classical bipartite kr-NLS embedded within a non-classical rg-NLS is a unique arrangement in these viral proteins, whose nuclear localization is critical to their functionality and to the virus life cycle. The ability to interact with multiple import receptors provides alternate pathways for nuclear localization of LANA. Since different import receptors can import cargo to distinct subnuclear compartments, a multifunctional NLS may provide LANA with an

  19. Intermolecular masking of the HIV-1 Rev NLS by the cellular protein HIC: novel insights into the regulation of Rev nuclear import.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gu, Lili

    2011-01-01

    The HIV-1 regulatory protein Rev, which is essential for viral replication, mediates the nuclear export of unspliced viral transcripts. Rev nuclear function requires active nucleocytoplasmic shuttling, and Rev nuclear import is mediated by the recognition of its Nuclear Localisation Signal (NLS) by multiple import factors, which include transportin and importin β. However, it remains unclear which nuclear import pathway(s) predominate in vivo, and the cellular environment that modulates Rev nucleocytoplasmic shuttling remains to be characterised.

  20. Property enhancement of cast iron used for nuclear casks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, R. K.; Mahto, B. P.; Dubey, J. S.; Mishra, S. C.; Sen, S.

    2016-01-01

    Ductile iron (DI) is a preferred material for use in various structural, automotive, and engineering fields because of its excellent combination of strength, toughness, and ductility. In the current investigation, we elucidate the relationship between the morphological and mechanical properties of DI intended for use in safety applications in the nuclear industry. DI specimens with various alloying elements were subjected to annealing and austempering heat treatment processes. A faster cooling rate appeared to increase the nodule count in austempered specimens, compensating for their nodularity value and subsequently decreasing their ductility and impact strength. The ductility and impact energy values of annealed specimens increased with increasing ferrite area fraction and nodularity, whereas an increase in the amounts of Ni and Cr resulted in an increase of hardness via solid solution strengthening. Austempered specimens were observed to be stronger than annealed specimens and failed in a somewhat brittle manner characterized by a river pattern, whereas the ductile failure mode was characterized by the presence of dimples.

  1. Property enhancement of cast iron used for nuclear casks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RK Behera; BP Mahto; JS Dubey; SC Mishra; S Sen

    2016-01-01

    Ductile iron (DI) is a preferred material for use in various structural, automotive, and engineering fields because of its excellent combination of strength, toughness, and ductility. In the current investigation, we elucidate the relationship between the morphological and mechanical properties of DI intended for use in safety applications in the nuclear industry. DI specimens with various alloying elements were subjected to annealing and austempering heat treatment processes. A faster cooling rate appeared to increase the nodule count in austempered specimens, compensating for their nodularity value and subsequently decreasing their ductility and impact strength. The ductility and impact energy values of annealed specimens increased with increasing ferrite area fraction and nodularity, whereas an increase in the amounts of Ni and Cr resulted in an increase of hardness via solid solution strengthening. Austempered specimens were observed to be stronger than an-nealed specimens and failed in a somewhat brittle manner characterized by a river pattern, whereas the ductile failure mode was character-ized by the presence of dimples.

  2. A review: applications of the phase field method in predicting microstructure and property evolution of irradiated nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang; Sun, Xin; Stan, Marius

    2017-04-14

    Complex microstructure changes occur in nuclear fuel and structural materials due to the extreme environments of intense irradiation and high temperature. This paper evaluates the role of the phase field (PF) method in predicting the microstructure evolution of irradiated nuclear materials and the impact on their mechanical, thermal, and magnetic properties. The paper starts with an overview of the important physical mechanisms of defect evolution and the significant gaps in simulating microstructure evolution in irradiated nuclear materials. Then, the PF method is introduced as a powerful and predictive tool and its applications to microstructure and property evolution in irradiated nuclear materials are reviewed. The review shows that 1) FP models can correctly describe important phenomena such as spatial dependent generation, migration, and recombination of defects, radiation-induced dissolution, the Soret effect, strong interfacial energy anisotropy, and elastic interaction; 2) The PF method can qualitatively and quantitatively simulate 2-D and 3-D microstructure evolution, including radiation-induced segregation, second phase nucleation, void migration, void and gas bubble superlattice formation, interstitial loop evolution, hydrate formation, and grain growth, and 3) The FP method correctly predicts the relationships between microstructures and properties. The final section is dedicated to a discussion of the strengths and limitations of the PF method, as applied to irradiation effects in nuclear materials.

  3. Reconsidering the importance of interfacial properties in foam stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierenga, P.A.; Norel, van L.; Basheva, E.S.

    2009-01-01

    In food industry, protein isolates are often used to help in the formation and stabilisation of food foams. Subsequently there is great interest in (1) understanding the effect of processing parameters on the functional properties of the isolate, and (2) methods and techniques that can help to predi

  4. Lipopolysaccharide triggers nuclear import of Lpcat1 to regulate inducible gene expression in lung epithelia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bryon; Ellis; Leah; Kaercher; Courtney; Snavely

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To report that Lpcat1 plays an important role in regulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inducible gene tran-scription. METHODS:Gene expression in Murine Lung Epithelial MLE-12 cells with LPS treatment or Haemophilus influenza and Escherichia coli infection was analyzed by employing quantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction techniques. Nucleofection was used to deliver Lenti-viral system to express or knock down Lpcat1 in MLE cells. Subcellular protein fractionation and Western blotting were utilized to study Lpcat1 nuclear relocation. RESULTS:Lpcat1 translocates into the nucleus from thecytoplasm in murine lung epithelia (MLE) after LPS treatment. Haemophilus influenza and Escherichia coli , two LPS-containing pathogens that cause pneumonia, triggered Lpcat1 nuclear translocation from the cytoplasm. The LPS inducible gene expression profile was determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction after silencing Lpcat1 or overexpression of the enzyme in MLE cells. We detected that 17 out of a total 38 screened genes were upregulated, 14 genes were suppressed, and 7 genes remained unchanged in LPS treated cells in comparison to controls. Knockdown of Lpcat1 by shRNA dramatically changed the spectrum of the LPS inducible gene transcription, as 18 genes out of 38 genes were upregulated, of which 20 genes were suppressed or unchanged. Notably, in Lpcat1 overex-pressed cells, 25 genes out of 38 genes were reduced in the setting of LPS treatment.CONCLUSION:These observations suggest that Lpcat1 relocates into the nucleus in response to bacterial infection to differentially regulate gene transcriptional repression.

  5. Sinopec Attaches Great Importance to Intellectual Property Right Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Hongyan

    2007-01-01

    @@ Based on developing and improving the intellectual property rights protection system, Sinopec has been leading the domestic enterprises for IPR protection.China Petrochemical Corporation (Sinopec Group) and China Petroleum and Chemical Corporation (Sinopec Corp.) have together made application for the Chinese patent for 1007 items in 2006, of which 948 were patented, while they have made application for foreign patents for 97 items, of which 61 were patented.

  6. Synthesis, Properties and Mineralogy of Important Inorganic Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warner, Terence Edwin

    , ferroelectric, thermoelectric, luminescent, photochromic and magnetic materials; are technologically important classes of material, that are represented by numerous inorganic phases. Yet how many of us are aware of their precise chemical compositions, and have sufficient knowledge to actually make them...

  7. Investigations regarding the importance of acknowledging the impact of specific intellectual property risks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramona Pakocs; Nouras Barbu Lupulescu

    2016-01-01

      The research is dedicated to a study regarding the level of importance given to specific intellectual property risks by Romanian managers and the levels of importance of different intellectual property protection forms...

  8. Some Properties of π Meson in Nuclear Matter with Finite Density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGLan-Fei; LUXiao-Fu

    2002-01-01

    In the GCM we study some properties of π meson as the Goldstone bosons in a nuclear matter with finite density.Using the effective action in a nuclear matter,we calculate the decay constant and π mass as functions of the chemical potential.The relation between the chemical potential and the density of a nuclear matter is firstly given here.We find that fπ and mπ monotonously decrease as nuclear matter density increases.The result is consistent with the usual assumption that the chiral symmetry is gradually restored as the density of a nuclear matter increases.

  9. Mapping of nuclear import signal and importin {alpha}3 binding regions of 52K protein of bovine adenovirus-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, Carolyn P.; Ayalew, Lisanework E. [Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization-International Vaccine Center (VIDO-InterVac), University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E3 Canada (Canada); Veterinary Microbiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E3 S7N 5B4 Canada (Canada); Tikoo, Suresh K., E-mail: suresh.tik@usask.ca [Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization-International Vaccine Center (VIDO-InterVac), University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E3 Canada (Canada); Veterinary Microbiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E3 S7N 5B4 Canada (Canada); School of Public Health, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E5 Canada (Canada)

    2012-10-10

    The L1 region of bovine adenovirus (BAdV)-3 encodes a non-structural protein designated 52K. Anti-52K serum detected a protein of 40 kDa, which localized to the nucleus but not to the nucleolus in BAdV-3-infected or transfected cells. Analysis of mutant 52K proteins suggested that three basic residues ({sup 105}RKR{sup 107}) of the identified domain (amino acids {sup 102}GMPRKRVLT{sup 110}) are essential for nuclear localization of 52K. The nuclear import of a GST-52K fusion protein utilizes the classical importin {alpha}/{beta}-dependent nuclear transport pathway. The 52K protein is preferentially bound to the cellular nuclear import receptor importin {alpha}3. Although deletion of amino acid 102-110 is sufficient to abrogate the nuclear localization of 52K, amino acid 90-133 are required for interaction with importin-{alpha}3 and localizing a cytoplasmic protein to the nucleus. These results suggest that 52K contains a bipartite NLS, which preferentially utilize an importin {alpha}3 nuclear import receptor-mediated pathway to transport 52K to the nucleus.

  10. Interaction with LC8 is required for Pak1 nuclear import and is indispensable for zebrafish development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M Lightcap

    Full Text Available Pak1 (p21 activated kinase 1 is a serine/threonine kinase implicated in regulation of cell motility and survival and in malignant transformation of mammary epithelial cells. In addition, the dynein light chain, LC8, has been described to cooperate with Pak1 in malignant transformation of breast cancer cells. Pak1 itself may aid breast cancer development by phosphorylating nuclear proteins, including estrogen receptor alpha. Recently, we showed that the LC8 binding site on Pak1 is adjacent to the nuclear localization sequence (NLS required for Pak1 nuclear import. Here, we demonstrate that the LC8-Pak1 interaction is necessary for epidermal growth factor (EGF-induced nuclear import of Pak1 in MCF-7 cells, and that this event is contingent upon LC8-mediated Pak1 dimerization. In contrast, Pak2, which lacks an LC8 binding site but contains a nuclear localization sequence identical to that in Pak1, remains cytoplasmic upon EGF stimulation of MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, we show that severe developmental defects in zebrafish embryos caused by morpholino injections targeting Pak are partially rescued by co-injection of wild-type human Pak1, but not by co-injection of mutant Pak1 mRNA disrupting either the LC8 binding or the NLS site. Collectively, these results suggest that LC8 facilitates nuclear import of Pak1 and that this function is indispensable during vertebrate development.

  11. Karyopherin α 3 and karyopherin α 4 proteins mediate the nuclear import of methyl-CpG binding protein 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Steven Andrew; Lombardi, Laura Marie; Zoghbi, Huda Yahya

    2015-09-11

    Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) is a nuclear protein with important roles in regulating chromatin structure and gene expression, and mutations in MECP2 cause Rett syndrome (RTT). Within the MeCP2 protein sequence, the nuclear localization signal (NLS) is reported to reside between amino acids 255-271, and certain RTT-causing mutations overlap with the MeCP2 NLS, suggesting that they may alter nuclear localization. One such mutation, R270X, is predicted to interfere with the localization of MeCP2, but recent in vivo studies have demonstrated that this mutant remains entirely nuclear. To clarify the mechanism of MeCP2 nuclear import, we isolated proteins that interact with the NLS and identified karyopherin α 3 (KPNA3 or Kap-α3) and karyopherin α 4 (KPNA4 or Kap-α4) as key binding partners of MeCP2. MeCP2-R270X did not interact with KPNA4, consistent with a requirement for an intact NLS in this interaction. However, this mutant retains binding to KPNA3, accounting for the normal localization of MeCP2-R270X to the nucleus. These data provide a mechanism for MeCP2 nuclear import and have implications for the design of therapeutics aimed at modulating the function of MeCP2 in RTT patients.

  12. Liquid water from first principles: The importance of exact exchange, dispersion interactions, and nuclear quantum effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distasio, Robert; Li, Zhaofeng; Santra, Biswajit; Wu, Xifan; Car, Roberto

    2013-03-01

    Quantitative agreement between theory and experiment on the structure of liquid water at ambient conditions has been quite difficult to achieve to date. In this work, we report that highly accurate ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of liquid water that account for exact exchange (via the hybrid PBE0 functional [PRB 79, 085102 (2009)]), dispersion interactions [PRL 102, 073005 (2009)], and nuclear quantum effects (presently approximated by a 30K increase in the simulation temperature) result in excellent agreement with experiments [PRL 101, 065502 (2008)]. The importance of each of these effects in the theoretical prediction of the structure of liquid water will be demonstrated by a detailed comparative analysis of the predicted and experimental oxygen-oxygen radial distribution functions. In addition, we will discuss the connection between the experimentally observed scattering intensity, I(k), and the final radial distribution function, g(r), via the structure and form factors. This work was supported by NSF CHE-0956500, DOE-DE- SC0005180, and DOE: DE-SC0008626.

  13. IMPORTANT FINDINGS ON PLANTS HAVING ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTY: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purkayastha Sanhita

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Plants have certain biologically active molecules and many of the present drug discoveries are based on these molecules found in the plants used in traditional system of medicine. In this review paper 20 plants (Emblica officinalis Linn., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.Nees, Curcuma domestica Valet, Trigonella foenumgraecum Linn., Camellia sinensis assamica (Masters Kitomura, Centella asiatica (L.Urban, Mangifera indica Linn., Hypericum perforatum L., Cymbopogon citratus(DCStaf, Vitex negundo Linn., Hemidesmus indicus R.Br., Catharanthus roseus(Linn.G.Don, Euphorbia hirta Linn., Prunus persica (Linn.Stokes, Oxalis corniculata Linn., Withania somnifera, Tinospora cordifolia (Willd. Miers ex Hook. F. & Thoms, Amaranthus spinosus L.,Alternanthera sessilis (L. R. Br. ex. DC., Garcinia cowa Roxb. are viewed which have antioxidant property. Studies on these plants may throw light on various therapeutic potential and uses of these herbs and plants.

  14. Study on fatigue property and microstructure characteristics of welded nuclear power rotor with heavy section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Peng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Lu, Fenggui, E-mail: lfg119@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Liu, Xia [Shanghai Turbine Plant, Shanghai 200240 (China); Ji, Huijun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Gao, Yulai, E-mail: ylgao@shu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China)

    2014-01-25

    Highlights: • NiCrMoV nuclear power rotor with heavy section was successfully welded by NG-SAW. • The fatigue properties of WM and HAZ were approximately equivalent to that of BM. • Granular bainite in WM and tempered martensite in HAZ contributed to properties. • NG-SAW exhibited a promising application in manufacture large size rotor. -- Abstract: The fatigue property and microstructure characteristics of the welded joint for nuclear power rotor with heavy section, were systematically reported in this paper. The welded joint microstructure is inhomogeneous for NiCrMoV rotor made by narrow gap submerged arc welding (NG-SAW), which could affect the properties in different zones of welded joint. As one of the important indicator to evaluate the running performance of welded rotor, the fatigue crack propagation behavior of the base metal (BM), weld metal (WM) and heat affected zone (HAZ) was comparatively studied. It was found that the fatigue crack propagation threshold (ΔK{sub th}) of BM was higher than that of WM and HAZ as stress ratio (R) was 0.1, but ΔK{sub th} was very close to each other as R increased. The microstructure, revealed by an optimized corrosive process, was granular bainite in WM and tempered martensite in HAZ, leading to their approximately equivalent resistance of fatigue crack propagation with BM. The experimental results showed that fatigue properties of welded joint for NiCrMoV rotor with heavy section could meet the design requirement, and also push NG-SAW into manufacturing large size rotor.

  15. Intellectual Property Rights, Parallel Imports and Strategic Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Keith E. Maskus; Ganslandt, Mattias

    2007-01-01

    The existence of parallel imports (PI) raises a number of interesting policy and strategic questions, which are the subject of this survey article. For example, parallel trade is essentially arbitrage within policy-integrated markets of IPR-protected goods, which may have different prices across countries. Thus, we analyze fully two types of price differences that give rise to such arbitrage. First is simple retail-level trade in horizontal markets because consumer prices may differ. Second i...

  16. Inhibition properties of propolis extracts to some clinically important enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltas, Nimet; Yildiz, Oktay; Kolayli, Sevgi

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to envisage inhibition effects of propolis on the crucial enzymes, urease, xanthine oxidase (XO) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Some of the antioxidant properties of the propolis samples were determined using the total phenolic content (TPE) and total flavonoids in the eight different ethanolic propolis extracts (EPE) samples. Inhibition values of the enzymes were expressed as inhibition concentration (IC50; mg/mL or μg/mL) causing 50% inhibition of the enzymes with donepezil, acetohydroxamic acid and allopurinol as reference inhibitors. All the propolis extracts exhibited variable inhibition effects on these enzymes, but the higher the phenolic contents the lower the inhibitions values (IC50 = 0.074 to 1.560 mg/mL). IC50 values of the P5 propolis sample having the highest TPE, obtained from Zonguldak, for AChE, urease and XO were 0.081 ± 0.009, 0.080 ± 0.006 and 0.074 ± 0.011 μg/mL, respectively. The EPE proved to be a good source of inhibitor agents that can be used as natural inhibitors to serve human health.

  17. Commercially important properties of plants of the genus Plantago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The centuries-old experience of folk medicine, nutritional traditions, and the results of numerous research studies show that plants of the genus Plantago can be used for medicinal, cosmetic, dietetic, and ritual purposes. In the phytochemical composition of Plantago, there is an abundance of biologically active substances (among others, glycosides, flavonoids, polysaccharides, and vitamins exhibiting beneficial effects and, simultaneously, there is a low content of compounds that may exert a toxic effect. Scientific research has confirmed that Plantago plants have antioxidative, apoptosis-inhibiting, protective, healing-enhancing, spasmolytic, anthelmintic, and antimicrobial properties; they inhibit the development of some tumours, reduce the level of lipids in blood and inhibit tissue glycation. In phytotherapy, leaves, stems, and/or seeds of different plantain species are used. Plantago leaves and seeds are also used to manufacture creams, lotions, and face masks. Different parts of these plants (fresh plant material, extracts, or isolated substances are also used in human and animal nutrition. Plantain leaves can be eaten like lettuce or added to salads, fried in pastry, used to prepare a tea, juice, or wine. Its seeds are added to cakes, bread, breakfast cereals, ice cream, and drinks, or they are cooked like groats. Animals fed with plantain can live longer and are healthier, while meat derived from such animals is tastier and healthier to humans. Plantago seeds are readily eaten by cage birds. Plantain pollen, produced in large amounts (up to 20,000 pollen grains per 1 stamen of P. lancolata, can cause allergies in sensitive people. Due to a long flowering period of plants of the genus Plantago, the effect of the allergenic factor persists for many weeks. In Poland days with the maximum concentration of airborne plantain pollen most often occur in July.

  18. Integration of renewable energies and nuclear power into North African Energy Systems: An analysis of energy import and export effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supersberger, Nikolaus, E-mail: nikolaus.supersberger@giz.de [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment, Energy, P.O. Box 10 04 80, 42004 Wuppertal (Germany); Fuehrer, Laura, E-mail: laura.fuhrer@sciences-po.org [Sciences Po Paris, College Universitaire, Campus de Menton, du College Chemin du College, 06500 Menton (France)

    2011-08-15

    The North African countries Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt have been and are currently experiencing rapid growth in energy demand. This development confronts their political leaders with the question of how to expand or diversify their countries' generation capacities. In this context, renewable energies and nuclear power constitute options that have rarely been exploited so far in the region. This article analyzes the drawbacks and benefits of both alternatives, with a special focus on import and export dynamics. When attempting to make the strategic decision between renewables and atomic power, North African regional specifics and circumstances have to be taken into account. Hence, in a first step, the article characterizes the energy systems of the North African countries and presents scenarios for their future development. In a second step, it scrutinizes the energy challenges these states face in terms of domestic concerns and foreign affairs. Finally, a case study of Algeria is used to demonstrate how renewable energies, but not nuclear power, are able to respond to North African energy challenges. - Research Highlights: > Using nuclear power would require fuel imports over the entire operation time. > Hence, energy exporters (Algeria, Libya) would become dependent on fuel imports. > Renewable energies can make North African countries less fuel import dependent. > Nuclear technologies would have to be imported over the whole life cycle of plants. > Domestic production for renewables technologies could be established after a first phase of technology imports.

  19. Science Is Important, but Politics Drives the Siting of Nuclear Waste Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, George H.

    2014-02-01

    In 1982, I worked on the Nuclear Waste Policy Act as an AGU Congressional Science Fellow tasked with assisting a member of the House Energy and Commerce Committee. When I recently read the suggestion that clay-rich strata (shales) could be a viable medium for high-level nuclear waste (HLW) disposal [Neuzil, 2013], I could not help but remember the insights I gained more than 30 years ago from my time on the Hill.

  20. Is knowledge important? Empirical research on nuclear risk communication in two countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perko, Tanja; Zeleznik, Nadja; Turcanu, Catrinel; Thijssen, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Increasing audience knowledge is often set as a primary objective of risk communication efforts. But is it worthwhile focusing risk communication strategies solely on enhancing specific knowledge? The main research questions tackled in this paper were: (1) if prior audience knowledge related to specific radiation risks is influential for the perception of these risks and the acceptance of communicated messages and (2) if gender, attitudes, risk perception of other radiation risks, confidence in authorities, and living in the vicinity of nuclear/radiological installations may also play an important role in this matter. The goal of this study was to test empirically the mentioned predictors in two independent case studies in different countries. The first case study was an information campaign for iodine pre-distribution in Belgium (N = 1035). The second was the information campaign on long-term radioactive waste disposal in Slovenia (N = 1,200). In both cases, recurrent and intensive communication campaigns were carried out by the authorities aiming, among other things, at increasing specific audience knowledge. Results show that higher prior audience knowledge leads to more willingness to accept communicated messages, but it does not affect people’s perception of the specific risk communicated. In addition, the influence of prior audience knowledge on the acceptance of communicated messages is shown to be no stronger than that of general radiation risk perception. The results in both case studies suggest that effective risk communication has to focus not only on knowledge but also on other more heuristic predictors, such as risk perception or attitudes toward communicated risks.

  1. 7 CFR 767.201 - Real estate inventory property with important resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Real estate inventory property with important... SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INVENTORY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Real Estate Property With Important Resources or Located in Special Hazard Areas § 767.201 Real estate inventory...

  2. Modelling and modal properties of nuclear fuel assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeman V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the modelling and modal analysis of the hexagonal type nuclear fuel assembly. This very complicated mechanical system is created from the many beam type components shaped into spacer grids. The cyclic and central symmetry of the fuel rod package and load-bearing skeleton is advantageous for the fuel assembly decomposition into six identical revolved fuel rod segments, centre tube and skeleton linked by several spacer grids in horizontal planes. The derived mathematical model is used for the modal analysis of the Russian TVSA-T fuel assembly and validated in terms of experimentally determined natural frequencies, modes and static deformations caused by lateral force and torsional couple of forces. The presented model is the first necessary step for modelling of the nuclear fuel assembly vibration caused by different sources of excitation during the nuclear reactor VVER type operation.

  3. Properties of nuclear and Coulomb breakup of 8B

    CERN Document Server

    Ogata, K; Iseri, Y; Yahiro, M

    2008-01-01

    Dependence of breakup cross sections of 8B at 65 MeV/nucleon on target mass number A_T is investigated by means of the continuum-discretized coupled-channels method (CDCC) with more reliable distorting potentials than in preceding study. The scaling law of the nuclear breakup cross section as A_T^(1/3) is found to be satisfied only in the middle A_T region of 40 < A_T < 150. Interference between nuclear and Coulomb breakup amplitudes turns out to vanish at very forward angles with respect to the center-of-mass of 8B, independent of target nucleus. Truncation of the relative energy between the p and 7Be fragments slightly reduces contribution from nuclear breakup at very forward angles, while the angular region in which the first-order perturbation theory works well does not change essentially.

  4. Fhit Nuclear Import Following EGF Stimulation Sustains Proliferation of Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Francesca; Sasso, Marianna; Turdo, Federica; Beretta, Giovanni L; Casalini, Patrizia; Ghirelli, Cristina; Sfondrini, Lucia; Ménard, Sylvie; Tagliabue, Elda; Campiglio, Manuela

    2015-11-01

    The tumor-suppressor protein fragile histidine triad (Fhit) exerts its functions in the cytoplasm, although some reports suggest that it may also act in the nucleus. We previously showed that cytosolic Fhit protein levels in cancer cell lines stimulated to proliferate were reduced by proteasomal degradation. Here, we demonstrate that Fhit is physiologically present in the nucleus of breast cancer cell lines and tissues at a low level and that proliferative stimulation increases nuclear levels. Breast cancer cells expressing the FhitY114F mutant, which do not undergo proteasomal degradation, contained mutated Fhit in the nucleus, while cells treated with a proteasome inhibitor accumulated nuclear Fhit during proliferation. Thus, Fhit nuclear shuttling and proteasome degradation phenomena occur independently. When Fhit was coupled to a nuclear localization sequence, the proliferation rate of the transfected cells increased together with levels of proliferation pathway mediators cyclin D1, phospho-MAPK, and phospho-STAT3. Fhit nuclear translocation upon mitogenic stimulation may represent a new regulatory mechanism that allows rapid restoration of Fhit cytoplasmic levels and promotes the proliferation cascade activated by mitogenic stimulation.

  5. Nucleoporin Nup358 facilitates nuclear import of Methoprene-tolerant (Met) in an importin β- and Hsp83-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qianyu; Zhang, Yuanxi; Zhang, Xu; Xu, DanDan; Dong, Wentao; Li, Sheng; Wu, Rui

    2017-02-01

    The bHLH-PAS transcription factor, Methoprene-tolerant (Met)(1), functions as a juvenile hormone (JH) receptor and transduces JH signals by directly binding to E-box like motifs in the regulatory regions of JH response genes. Nuclear localization of Met is crucial for its transcriptional activity. Our previous studies have shown that the chaperone protein Hsp83 facilitates JH-induced Met nuclear import in Drosophila melanogaster. However, the exact molecular mechanisms of Met nuclear transport are not fully elucidated. Using DNA affinity chromatography, we have previously detected binding of the nucleoporin Nup358, in the presence of JH, to the JH response region (JHRR) sequences isolated from the Krüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1) promoter. Here, we have demonstrated that Nup358 regulates JH-Hsp83-induced Met nuclear localization. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Nup358 expression in Drosophila fat body perturbs Met nuclear transport during the 3 h after initiation of wandering, when the JH titer is high. The accompanying reduced expression of the transport receptor importin β in Nup358 RNAi flies could be one of the reasons accounting for Met mislocalization. Furthermore, a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain at the N-terminal end of Nup358 interacts with Hsp83 and is indispensable for Met nuclear localization. Overexpression of the TPR domain in Drosophila fat body prevents Met nuclear localization resulting in a decrease in JHRR-driven reporter activity and Kr-h1 expression. These data show that Nup358 facilitates JH-induced Met nuclear transport in a manner dependent on importin β and Hsp83.

  6. Proteasome nuclear import mediated by Arc3 can influence efficient DNA damage repair and mitosis in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabrera, Rodrigo; Sha, Zhe; Vadakkan, Tegy J.

    2010-01-01

    . Proteasome nuclear import is reduced when Arc3 is inactivated, leading to hypersensitivity to DNA damage and inefficient cyclin-B degradation, two events occurring in the nucleus. These data suggest that proteasomes display Arc3-dependent mobility in the cell, and mobile proteasomes can efficiently access...

  7. Rad52 multimerization is important for its nuclear localization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plate, Iben; Albertsen, Line; Lisby, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Rad52 is essential for all homologous recombination and DNA double strand break repair events in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This protein is multifunctional and contains several domains that allow it to interact with DNA as well as with different repair proteins. However, it has been unclear how Rad......52 enters the nucleus. In the present study, we have used a combination of mutagenesis and sequence analysis to show that Rad52 from S. cerevisiae contains a single functional pat7 type NLS essential for its nuclear localization. The region containing the NLS seems only to be involved in nuclear...

  8. Nuclear Fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denschlag, J. O.

    This chapter first gives a survey on the history of the discovery of nuclear fission. It briefly presents the liquid-drop and shell models and their application to the fission process. The most important quantities accessible to experimental determination such as mass yields, nuclear charge distribution, prompt neutron emission, kinetic energy distribution, ternary fragment yields, angular distributions, and properties of fission isomers are presented as well as the instrumentation and techniques used for their measurement. The contribution concentrates on the fundamental aspects of nuclear fission. The practical aspects of nuclear fission are discussed in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0720-2_57 of Vol. 6.

  9. Large size austenitic stainless steel forgings for nuclear and cryogenic application - development, manufacturing and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, Keizo; Suzuki, Komei; Sato, Ikuo; Murai, Etuso (Japan Steel Works Ltd., Muroran Plant, Hokkaido (Japan))

    1992-01-01

    The high quality one-piece large austenetic stainless steel forgings are required in the several components such as nuclear reactors and run tanks for rocket engine test stand in order to assure the structural integrity and to make it easy to fabricate and inspect the components. When the austenitic stainless steel forgings are increased in size, various problems must be overcome to assure the high quality forgings. The ingot making and hot working play an important role in determining the quality of the products. In such points, the lastest manufacturing techniques such as steel making of large size ingot and hot working to get uniform and fine grains are discussed together with the fundamental data of the material properties. (orig.).

  10. Structural Characteristics and Mechanical Properties of Rock Mass in the Field of Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The structural characteristics and mechanical properties of the rock mass are important parts of the feasibility study on the nuclear power engineering field. In this study, by means of in situ investigation and statistics,the structural plane and joint fissure features of the rock mass were analyzed and discussed at different plots and different depth scopes in the Tianwan Nuclear Power engineering field, the rock mass integrality and its weathered degree were evaluated respectively, and especially, the unfavorable geological phenomena of strongly-weathered cystid existing in the field were studied. According to the results of indoor rock mechanical tests, in combination with drilling, the shallow seismic prospecting, sonic logging and point load tests, the statistical results of physical and mechanical indices of rocks at key plots of the field were analyzed, and the design parameters of the field were calculated. It provided scientific basis for the foundation design of the nuclear power plant.

  11. Thermal and nuclear hyperfine properties of Ho(OH)3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, S.

    1985-05-01

    A reasonable explanation for the findings of Catanese and Meissner [Phys. Rev. B 8, 2071 (1973)] regarding the (hyperfine) heat capacity in the low-temperature region of Ho(OH)3 is given. The Schottky specific heat in the high-temperature region observed calorimetrically by Chirico et al. [J. Chem. Thermodyn. 13, 1092 (1981)] explained satisfactorily. Nuclear hyperfine constants for Ho3+ ions in Ho(OH)3 are determined.

  12. Importance of nuclear triaxiality for electromagnetic strength, level density and neutron capture cross sections in heavy nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Grosse, Eckart; Massarczyk, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Cross sections for neutron capture in the range of unresolved resonances are predicted simultaneously to level distances at the neutron threshold for more than 100 spin-0 target nuclei with A >70. Assuming triaxiality in nearly all these nuclei a combined parameterization for both, level density and photon strength is presented. The strength functions used are based on a global fit to IVGDR shapes by the sum of three Lorentzians adding up to the TRK sum rule and theory-based predictions for the A-dependence of pole energies and spreading widths. For the small spins reached by capture level densities are well described by only one free global parameter; a significant collective enhancement due to the deviation from axial symmetry is observed. Reliable predictions for compound nuclear reactions also outside the valley of stability as expected from the derived global parameterization are important for nuclear astrophysics and for the transmutation of nuclear waste.

  13. Nuclear import of cutaneous beta genus HPV8 E7 oncoprotein is mediated by hydrophobic interactions between its zinc-binding domain and FG nucleoporins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onder, Zeynep; Moroianu, Junona, E-mail: moroianu@bc.edu

    2014-01-20

    We have previously discovered and characterized the nuclear import pathways for the E7 oncoproteins of mucosal alpha genus HPVs, type 16 and 11. Here we investigated the nuclear import of cutaneous beta genus HPV8 E7 protein using confocal microscopy after transfections of HeLa cells with EGFP-8E7 and mutant plasmids and nuclear import assays in digitonin-permeabilized HeLa cells. We determined that HPV8 E7 contains a nuclear localization signal (NLS) within its zinc-binding domain that mediates its nuclear import. Furthermore, we discovered that a mostly hydrophobic patch {sub 65}LRLFV{sub 69} within the zinc-binding domain is essential for the nuclear import and localization of HPV8 E7 via hydrophobic interactions with the FG nucleoporins Nup62 and Nup153. Substitution of the hydrophobic residues within the {sub 65}LRLFV{sub 69} patch to alanines, and not R66A mutation, disrupt the interactions between the 8E7 zinc-binding domain and Nup62 and Nup153 and consequently inhibit nuclear import of HPV8 E7. - Highlights: • HPV8 E7 has a cNLS within its zinc-binding domain that mediates its nuclear import. • Discovery of a hydrophobic patch that is critical for the nuclear import of HPV8 E7. • HPV8 E7 nuclear import is mediated by hydrophobic interactions with FG-Nups, Nup62 and Nup153.

  14. Modeling of Some Physical Properties of Zirconium Alloys for Nuclear Applications in Support of UFD Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael V. Glazoff

    2013-08-01

    Zirconium-based alloys Zircaloy-2 and Zircaloy-4 are widely used in the nuclear industry as cladding materials for light water reactor (LWR) fuels. These materials display a very good combination of properties such as low neutron absorption, creep behavior, stress-corrosion cracking resistance, reduced hydrogen uptake, corrosion and/or oxidation, especially in the case of Zircaloy-4. However, over the last couple of years, in the post-Fukushima Daiichi world, energetic efforts have been undertaken to improve fuel clad oxidation resistance during off-normal temperature excursions. Efforts have also been made to improve upon the already achieved levels of mechanical behavior and reduce hydrogen uptake. In order to facilitate the development of such novel materials, it is very important to achieve not only engineering control, but also a scientific understanding of the underlying material degradation mechanisms, both in working conditions and in storage of used nuclear fuel. This report strives to contribute to these efforts by constructing the thermodynamic models of both alloys; constructing of the respective phase diagrams, and oxidation mechanisms. A special emphasis was placed upon the role of zirconium suboxides in hydrogen uptake reduction and the atomic mechanisms of oxidation. To that end, computational thermodynamics calculations were conducted concurrently with first-principles atomistic modeling.

  15. KPNA7, a nuclear transport receptor, promotes malignant properties of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurila, Eeva; Vuorinen, Elisa [Institute of Biomedical Technology, FIN-33014 University of Tampere and BioMediTech, Biokatu 6, 33520 Tampere (Finland); Fimlab Laboratories, Biokatu 4, 33520 Tampere (Finland); Savinainen, Kimmo; Rauhala, Hanna [Institute of Biomedical Technology, FIN-33014 University of Tampere and BioMediTech, Biokatu 6, 33520 Tampere (Finland); Kallioniemi, Anne, E-mail: anne.kallioniemi@uta.fi [Institute of Biomedical Technology, FIN-33014 University of Tampere and BioMediTech, Biokatu 6, 33520 Tampere (Finland); Fimlab Laboratories, Biokatu 4, 33520 Tampere (Finland)

    2014-03-10

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignancy and one of the leading causes of cancer deaths. The high mortality rate is mostly due to the lack of appropriate tools for early detection of the disease and a shortage of effective therapies. We have previously shown that karyopherin alpha 7 (KPNA7), the newest member of the alpha karyopherin family of nuclear import receptors, is frequently amplified and overexpressed in pancreatic cancer. Here, we report that KPNA7 expression is absent in practically all normal human adult tissues but elevated in several pancreatic cancer cell lines. Inhibition of KPNA7 expression in AsPC-1 and Hs700T pancreatic cancer cells led to a reduction in cell growth and decreased anchorage independent growth, as well as increased autophagy. The cell growth effects were accompanied by an induction of the cell cycle regulator p21 and a G1 arrest of the cell cycle. Interestingly, the p21 induction was caused by increased mRNA synthesis and not defective nuclear transport. These data strongly demonstrate that KPNA7 silencing inhibits the malignant properties of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and thereby provide the first evidence on the functional role for KPNA7 in human cancer. - Highlights: • KPNA7 expression is elevated in several pancreatic cancer cell lines. • KPNA7 silencing in high expressing cancer cells leads to growth inhibition. • The cell growth reduction is associated with p21 induction and G1 arrest. • KPNA7 silencing is also accompanied with increased autophagy.

  16. Contribution of the C-terminal tri-lysine regions of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase for efficient reverse transcription and viral DNA nuclear import

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fowke Keith R

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to mediating the integration process, HIV-1 integrase (IN has also been implicated in different steps during viral life cycle including reverse transcription and viral DNA nuclear import. Although the karyophilic property of HIV-1 IN has been well demonstrated using a variety of experimental approaches, the definition of domain(s and/or motif(s within the protein that mediate viral DNA nuclear import and its mechanism are still disputed and controversial. In this study, we performed mutagenic analyses to investigate the contribution of different regions in the C-terminal domain of HIV-1 IN to protein nuclear localization as well as their effects on virus infection. Results Our analysis showed that replacing lysine residues in two highly conserved tri-lysine regions, which are located within previously described Region C (235WKGPAKLLWKGEGAVV and sequence Q (211KELQKQITK in the C-terminal domain of HIV-1 IN, impaired protein nuclear accumulation, while mutations for RK263,4 had no significant effect. Analysis of their effects on viral infection in a VSV-G pseudotyped RT/IN trans-complemented HIV-1 single cycle replication system revealed that all three C-terminal mutant viruses (KK215,9AA, KK240,4AE and RK263,4AA exhibited more severe defect of induction of β-Gal positive cells and luciferase activity than an IN class 1 mutant D64E in HeLa-CD4-CCR5-β-Gal cells, and in dividing as well as non-dividing C8166 T cells, suggesting that some viral defects are occurring prior to viral integration. Furthermore, by analyzing viral DNA synthesis and the nucleus-associated viral DNA level, the results clearly showed that, although all three C-terminal mutants inhibited viral reverse transcription to different extents, the KK240,4AE mutant exhibited most profound effect on this step, whereas KK215,9AA significantly impaired viral DNA nuclear import. In addition, our analysis could not detect viral DNA integration in each C

  17. Importin-beta is a GDP-to-GTP exchange factor of Ran: implications for the mechanism of nuclear import.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonhienne, Thierry G; Forwood, Jade K; Marfori, Mary; Robin, Gautier; Kobe, Bostjan; Carroll, Bernard J

    2009-08-21

    Ran-GTP interacts strongly with importin-beta, and this interaction promotes the release of the importin-alpha-nuclear localization signal cargo from importin-beta. Ran-GDP also interacts with importin-beta, but this interaction is 4 orders of magnitude weaker than the Ran-GTP.importin-beta interaction. Here we use the yeast complement of nuclear import proteins to show that the interaction between Ran-GDP and importin-beta promotes the dissociation of GDP from Ran. The release of GDP from the Ran-GDP-importin-beta complex stabilizes the complex, which cannot be dissociated by importin-alpha. Although Ran has a higher affinity for GDP compared with GTP, Ran in complex with importin-beta has a higher affinity for GTP. This feature is responsible for the generation of Ran-GTP from Ran-GDP by importin-beta. Ran-binding protein-1 (RanBP1) activates this reaction by forming a trimeric complex with Ran-GDP and importin-beta. Importin-alpha inhibits the GDP exchange reaction by sequestering importin-beta, whereas RanBP1 restores the GDP nucleotide exchange by importin-beta by forming a tetrameric complex with importin-beta, Ran, and importin-alpha. The exchange is also inhibited by nuclear-transport factor-2 (NTF2). We suggest a mechanism for nuclear import, additional to the established RCC1 (Ran-guanine exchange factor)-dependent pathway that incorporates these results.

  18. Important Property of GRB Pulse: Power-Law Indices of Time Properties on Energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhao-Yang Peng

    2014-09-01

    The dependence of pulse temporal properties (pulse width, pulse rise width and pulse decay width) on energy is power-law function. Some correlated relationships between the power-law indices of the pulse time properties on energy and the spectral lags, relative spectral lags, spectral parameters of band function, and photon flux using a well-separated long-duration -ray burst (GRB) pulse sample is demonstrated here. We argue that the curvature effect can explain the correlated properties.

  19. Intellectual property enforcement at the EU border: the challenge of private imports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Clement Salung; Riis, Thomas; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2012-01-01

    commercial importers of counterfeit and pirated goods, a consumer who imports such goods for his or her private use does not infringe any intellectual property rights (IPR). This article discusses how and to what extent right holders may nonetheless use the Customs Regulation to enforce their IPR against...... controversial results and distort traditional intellectual property law thinking....

  20. Models and simulations of nuclear fuel materials properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stan, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, PO Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)], E-mail: mastan@lanl.gov; Ramirez, J.C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, PO Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Cristea, P. [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, Bucuresti-Magurele (Romania); Hu, S.Y.; Deo, C.; Uberuaga, B.P.; Srivilliputhur, S.; Rudin, S.P.; Wills, J.M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, PO Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2007-10-11

    To address the complexity of the phenomena that occur in a nuclear fuel element, a multi-scale method was developed. The method incorporates theory-based atomistic and continuum models into finite element simulations to predict heat transport phenomena. By relating micro and nano-scale models to the macroscopic equilibrium and non-equilibrium simulations, the predictive character of the method is improved. The multi-scale approach was applied to calculations of point defect concentration, helium bubbles formation, oxygen diffusivity, and simulations of heat and mass transport in UO{sub 2+x}.

  1. Elevated temperature properties of ferritic/martensitic steels for application to future nuclear reators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Ji Hyun; Kim, Sung Ho; Ryu, Woo Seog; Chang, Jong Hwa

    2005-12-15

    The future nuclear systems such as nuclear hydrogen production reactors and fusion reactor require low activation and radiation embrittlement resistance in addition to excellent high temperature properties because their operating temperature are even higher than those of the light water reactors. The R and D of ferritic-martensitic steels in nuclear leading centuries like USA, Japan and EU has been continued for decades of years nuclear and they commercialized several steels. Korea consider modified 9Cr-1Mo steel as a candidate materials for reactor pressure vessel of very high temperature reactor. This state-of-the art report aimed to provide informations about the applicabilities of high Cr steels and low Cr steels through the analyses of their microstructures, mechanical properties and radiation characteristics. The metallurgical understanding of background of alloy evolutions might be helpful for the establishment of research orientation.

  2. NPP financial and regulatory risks-Importance of a balanced and comprehensive nuclear law for a newcomer country considering nuclear power programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manan, J. A. N. Abd; Mostafa, N. A.; Salim, M. F.

    2015-04-01

    understanding of various requirements of public, regulators, investors, financial institutions, international community, operator and other important stakeholders. Ambiguities and uncertainties, especially with regards to certain conditions and requirements should be minimised by emulating good practices of experienced nuclear regulators. The imposition of various financial requirements such as funds for decommissioning, radioactive waste management, financial security, nuclear liabilities and licensing fees are necessary, but at the same time the quantum needs to be clearly defined. Concerns on absolute liability of the operators need to be addressed through a creation of necessary and proper nuclear insurance legislations to mitigate operator S nuclear liability obligations and other financial risks. Another major risk to investors is the possibility of public resistance which will not only can hinder the construction but can also stop operation of the nuclear power plant which will contribute to huge losses to investors and countries. This may require a provision in the legislation that provide proper compensation for these situations and at the same time to allow operators to engage in nuclear promotional activities, such as community benefit and public consultation as voluntary initiatives. Through proper planning, research, consultation and execution, the proposed nuclear law shall be able to promote good regulatory practices for public and investors' confidence and benefit. Early involvement of various stakeholders is essential as a platform for regular communications between regulators and interested parties. Stakeholders' participation in the NPP programme and law developments will also promote transparency of the projects while upholding the independency of the regulators.

  3. NPP financial and regulatory risks-Importance of a balanced and comprehensive nuclear law for a newcomer country considering nuclear power programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manan, J. A. N. Abd, E-mail: jamalan@tnb.com.my; Mostafa, N. A.; Salim, M. F. [Nuclear Energy Department, Planning Division, Tenaga Nasional Berhad Level 32, Dua Sentral, No. 8 Jalan Tun Sambanthan, 50470 Brickfields, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    understanding of various requirements of public, regulators, investors, financial institutions, international community, operator and other important stakeholders. Ambiguities and uncertainties, especially with regards to certain conditions and requirements should be minimised by emulating good practices of experienced nuclear regulators. The imposition of various financial requirements such as funds for decommissioning, radioactive waste management, financial security, nuclear liabilities and licensing fees are necessary, but at the same time the quantum needs to be clearly defined. Concerns on absolute liability of the operators need to be addressed through a creation of necessary and proper nuclear insurance legislations to mitigate operator S nuclear liability obligations and other financial risks. Another major risk to investors is the possibility of public resistance which will not only can hinder the construction but can also stop operation of the nuclear power plant which will contribute to huge losses to investors and countries. This may require a provision in the legislation that provide proper compensation for these situations and at the same time to allow operators to engage in nuclear promotional activities, such as community benefit and public consultation as voluntary initiatives. Through proper planning, research, consultation and execution, the proposed nuclear law shall be able to promote good regulatory practices for public and investors’ confidence and benefit. Early involvement of various stakeholders is essential as a platform for regular communications between regulators and interested parties. Stakeholders’ participation in the NPP programme and law developments will also promote transparency of the projects while upholding the independency of the regulators.

  4. Characterization of nuclear graphite elastic properties using laser ultrasonic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fan W.; Han, Karen; Olasov, Lauren R.; Gallego, Nidia C.; Contescu, Cristian I.; Spicer, James B.

    2015-05-01

    Laser ultrasonic methods have been used to characterize the elastic behaviors of commercially-available and legacy nuclear graphites. Since ultrasonic techniques are sensitive to various aspects of graphite microstructure including preferred grain orientation, microcrack orientation and porosity, laser ultrasonics is a candidate technique for monitoring graphite degradation and structural integrity in environments expected in high-temperature, gas-cooled nuclear reactors. Aspects of materials texture can be assessed by studying ultrasonic wavespeeds as a function of propagation direction and polarization. Shear wave birefringence measurements, in particular, can be used to evaluate elastic anisotropy. In this work, laser ultrasonic measurements of graphite moduli have been made to provide insight into the relationship between the microstructures and the macroscopic stiffnesses of these materials. In particular, laser ultrasonic measurements have been made using laser line sources to produce shear waves with specific polarizations. By varying the line orientation relative to the sample, shear wave birefringence measurements have been recorded. Results from shear wave birefringence measurements show that an isostatically molded graphite, such as PCIB, behaves isotropically, while an extruded graphite, such as H-451, displays significant ultrasonic texture. Graphites have complicated microstructures that depend on the manufacturing processes used, and ultrasonic texture in these materials could originate from grain orientation and preferred microcrack alignment. Effects on material isotropy due to service related microstructural changes are possible and the ultimate aim of this work is to determine the degree to which these changes can be assessed nondestructively using laser ultrasonics measurements.

  5. The Nuclear Near-Infrared Spectral Properties of Nearby Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, R E; Martins, L; Riffel, R; Martin, O Gonzalez; Almeida, C Ramos; Dutra, D Ruschel; Ho, L C; Thanjavur, K; Flohic, H; Alonso-Herrero, A; Lira, P; McDermid, R; Riffel, R A; Schiavon, R P; Winge, C; Hoenig, M D; Perlman, E

    2015-01-01

    We present spectra of the nuclear regions of 50 nearby (D = 1 - 92 Mpc, median = 20 Mpc) galaxies of morphological types E to Sm. The spectra, obtained with the Gemini Near-IR Spectrograph on the Gemini North telescope, cover a wavelength range of approximately 0.85-2.5 microns at R~1300--1800. There is evidence that most of the galaxies host an active galactic nucleus (AGN), but the range of AGN luminosities (log (L2-10 keV [erg/s]) = 37.0-43.2) in the sample means that the spectra display a wide variety of features. Some nuclei, especially the Seyferts, exhibit a rich emission-line spectrum. Other objects, in particular the type 2 Low Ionisation Nuclear Emission Region galaxies, show just a few, weak emission lines, allowing a detailed view of the underlying stellar population. These spectra display numerous absorption features sensitive to the stellar initial mass function, as well as molecular bands arising in cool stars, and many other atomic absorption lines. We compare the spectra of subsets of galaxie...

  6. Suppression of GATA-3 nuclear import and phosphorylation: a novel mechanism of corticosteroid action in allergic disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittipong Maneechotesuwan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: GATA-3 plays a critical role in regulating the expression of the cytokines interleukin (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 from T helper-2 (Th2 cells and therefore is a key mediator of allergic diseases. Corticosteroids are highly effective in suppressing allergic inflammation, but their effects on GATA-3 are unknown. We investigated the effect of the corticosteroid fluticasone propionate on GATA-3 regulation in human T-lymphocytes in vitro and in vivo. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a T lymphocyte cell line (HuT-78 and peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated by anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 in vitro we demonstrated that fluticasone inhibits nuclear translocation of GATA-3 and expression of Th2 cytokines via a mechanism independent of nuclear factor-kappaB and is due, in part, to competition between GATA-3 and the ligand-activated glucocorticoid receptor for nuclear transport through the nuclear importer importin-alpha. In addition, fluticasone induces the expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1, the endogenous inhibitor of p38 MAPK, which is necessary for GATA-3 nuclear translocation. These inhibitory effects of fluticasone are rapid, potent, and prolonged. We also demonstrated that inhaled fluticasone inhibits GATA-3 nuclear translocation in peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients with asthma in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: Corticosteroids have a potent inhibitory effect on GATA-3 via two interacting mechanisms that potently suppress Th2 cytokine expression. This novel mechanism of action of corticosteroids may account for the striking clinical efficacy of corticosteroids in the treatment of allergic diseases.

  7. Importance of dimer formation of myocardin family members in the regulation of their nuclear export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ken'ichiro; Morita, Tsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Myocardin (Mycd) family members function as a transcriptional cofactor for serum response factor (SRF). Dimer formation is necessary to exhibit their function, and the coiled-coil domain (CC) plays a critical role in their dimerization. We have recently revealed a detailed molecular mechanism for their Crm1 (exportin1)-mediated nuclear export. Here, we found other unique significances of the dimerization of Mycd family members. Introduction of mutations in the CC of myocardin-related transcription factor A (MRTF-A) and truncated Mycd resulted in significant decreases in their cytoplasmic localization and increases in their nuclear localization. In accordance with such subcellular localization changes, their binding to Crm1 were reduced. These results indicate that the dimerization of Mycd family members is necessary for their Crm1-mediated nuclear export. We have recently found that the N-terminal region of Mycd consisting of 128 amino acids (Mycd N128) self-associates to Mycd via the central basic domain (CB), resulting in masking the Crm1-binding site. Such self-association of MRTF-A would be unlikely. In this study, we also revealed that the dimerization of Mycd was also necessary for this self-association. Wild-type Mycd activated SRF-mediated transcription more potently than Mycd lacking the Mycd N128 (Mycd ΔN128) did. These results suggest two possible functions of the Mycd N128: 1) stabilization of Mycd dimer to enhance SRF-mediated transcription and 2) positive regulation of the transactivation ability of Mycd. These findings provide a new insight into the functional regulation of Mycd family members.

  8. Importance of the nutritional status for the interpretation of nuclear medicine examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Egberto Gaspar de [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Ciencias Fisiologicas; E-mail: egmoura@uerj.br; Passos, Magna Cottini Fonseca [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Nutricao. Dept. de Nutricao Aplicada

    2002-09-01

    Malnutrition is very prevalent in the Third World, but still in developing countries and is found in certain communities in developed countries. Several laboratories examinations are affected by malnutrition. Recently, gestational or neonatal malnutrition were considered to contribute to the development of chronic diseases in adulthood, this phenomena was named programming or metabolic imprinting. Similar consideration were suggested for Nuclear Medicine examinations. Here we review the literature bout this aspect and present our own data showing changes in biodistribution of a radiopharmaceutical compound in different animal models of adult malnutrition or cause by maternal malnutrition programming. (author)

  9. In vivo islet protection by a nuclear import inhibitor in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Moore

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insulin-dependent Type 1 diabetes (T1D is a devastating autoimmune disease that destroys beta cells within the pancreatic islets and afflicts over 10 million people worldwide. These patients face life-long risks for blindness, cardiovascular and renal diseases, and complications of insulin treatment. New therapies that protect islets from autoimmune destruction and allow continuing insulin production are needed. Increasing evidence regarding the pathomechanism of T1D indicates that islets are destroyed by the relentless attack by autoreactive immune cells evolving from an aberrant action of the innate, in addition to adaptive, immune system that produces islet-toxic cytokines, chemokines, and other effectors of islet inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that targeting nuclear import of stress-responsive transcription factors evoked by agonist-stimulated innate and adaptive immunity receptors would protect islets from autoimmune destruction. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that a first-in-class inhibitor of nuclear import, cSN50 peptide, affords in vivo islet protection following a 2-day course of intense treatment in NOD mice, which resulted in a diabetes-free state for one year without apparent toxicity. This nuclear import inhibitor precipitously reduces the accumulation of islet-destructive autoreactive lymphocytes while enhancing activation-induced cell death of T and B lymphocytes derived from autoimmune diabetes-prone, non-obese diabetic (NOD mice that develop T1D. Moreover, in this widely used model of human T1D we noted attenuation of pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in immune cells. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that a novel form of immunotherapy that targets nuclear import can arrest inflammation-driven destruction of insulin-producing beta cells at the site of autoimmune attack within pancreatic islets during the progression of T1D.

  10. A nuclear import inhibitory peptide ameliorates the severity of Cholecystokinin-induced acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tamás Letoha; István Krizbai; Imre Boros; Ern(o) Duda; Erzsébet Kusz; Botond Penke; Csaba Somlai; Tamás Takács; Annamária Szabolcs; Katalin Jármay; Zoltán Rakonczay Jr; Péter Hegyi; Ilona Varga; József Kaszaki

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effect of our novel cell-permeable nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) inhibitor peptide PN50 in an experimental model of acute pancreatitis. PN50 was produced by conjugating the cell-penetrating penetratin peptide with the nuclear localization signal of the NF-κB p50 subunit.METHODS: Pancreatitis was induced in male Wistar rats by administering 2×100 μg/kg body weight of cholecystokininoctapeptide (CCK) intraperitoneally (IP) at an interval of 1 h. PN50-treated animals received 1 mg/kg of PN50 IP 30 min before or after the CCK injections. The animals were sacrificed 4 h after the first injection of CCK.RESULTS: All the examined laboratory (the pancreatic weight/body weight ratio, serum amylase activity,pancreatic levels of TNF-α and IL-6, degree of lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione levels, NF-κB binding activity, pancreatic and lung myeloperoxidase activity) and morphological parameters of the disease were improved before and after treatment with the PN50 peptide.According to the histological findings, PN50 protected the animals against acute pancreatitis by favoring the induction of apoptotic, as opposed to necrotic acinar cell death associated with severe acute pancreatitis.CONCLUSION: Our study implies that reversible inhibitors of stress-responsive transcription factors like NF-κB might be clinically useful for the suppression of the severity of acute pancreatitis.

  11. Piperlongumine selectively suppresses ABC-DLBCL through inhibition of NF-κB p65 subunit nuclear import

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Mingshan [Blood Diseases Institute, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Bone Marrow Stem Cell, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Department of Hematology, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Shen, Yangling; Xu, Xiaoyu [Blood Diseases Institute, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Bone Marrow Stem Cell, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Yao, Yao; Fu, Chunling [Blood Diseases Institute, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Bone Marrow Stem Cell, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Department of Hematology, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Yan, Zhiling [Department of Hematology, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Wu, Qingyun [Blood Diseases Institute, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Bone Marrow Stem Cell, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Department of Hematology, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Cao, Jiang; Sang, Wei [Department of Hematology, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Zeng, Lingyu [Blood Diseases Institute, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Bone Marrow Stem Cell, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Department of Hematology, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Li, Zhenyu [Department of Hematology, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Liu, Xuejiao, E-mail: liuxuejiao0923@126.com [Insititute of Nervous System Diseases, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); and others

    2015-07-10

    Constitutive NF-κB activation is required for survival of activated B cell-like subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL). However, current NF-κB targeting strategies lack cancer cell specificity. Here, we identified a novel inhibitor, piperlongumine, features direct binding to NF-κB p65 subunit and suppression of p65 nuclear import. This was accompanied by NF-κB reporter activity suppression and NF-κB target gene downregulation. Moreover, mutation of Cys{sup 38} to Ser in p65 abolished this effect of piperlongumine on inhibition of p65 nuclear import. Furthermore, we show that piperlongumine selectively inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of ABC-DLBCL cells. Most notably, it has been reported that piperlongumine did not affect normal cells even at high doses and was nontoxic to animals. Hence, our current study provides new insight into piperlongumine's mechanism of action and novel approach to ABC-DLBCL target therapy. - Highlights: • Current NF-κB targeting strategies lack cancer cell specificity. • Piperlongumine inhibits NF-κB p65 subunit nuclear import via directly binding to p65. • Piperlongumine selectively inhibits proliferation of ABC-DLBCL cells. • This study provides a novel approach to ABC-DLBCL target therapy.

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectral analysis and molecular properties of berberine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Ju; Lee, Ken S.; Hurley, Sharon J.

    An extensive theoretical study of berberine has been performed at the ab initio HF/6-31G**, HF/6-311G**, and B3LYP/6-311G** levels with and without solvent effects. The optimized structures are compared with X-ray data. We found that the optimized structures with solvent effects are in slightly better agreement with X-ray data than those without solvent effects. The 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of berberine were calculated by using the gauge-independent atomic orbital (GIAO) (with and without solvent effects), CSGT, and IGAIM methods. The calculated chemical shifts were compared with the two-dimensional NMR experimental data. Overall, the calculated chemical shifts show very good agreement with the experimental results. The harmonic vibrational frequencies for berberine were calculated at the B3LYP/6-311G** level.

  13. Thermodynamic properties of nuclear matter with three-body forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somà, V.; Bożek, P.

    2009-08-01

    We calculate thermodynamic quantities in symmetric nuclear matter within the self-consistent Green's functions method including three-body forces. The thermodynamic potential is computed directly from a diagrammatic expansion, implemented with the CD-Bonn and Nijmegen nucleon-nucleon potentials and the Urbana three-body forces. We present results for entropy and pressure up to temperatures of 20 MeV and densities of 0.32fm-3. While the pressure is sensitive to the inclusion of three-body forces, the entropy is not. The unstable spinodal region is identified and the critical temperature associated to the liquid-gas phase transition is determined. When three-body forces are added we find a strong reduction of the critical temperature, obtaining Tc≃12MeV.

  14. Thermodynamic properties of nuclear matter with three-body forces

    CERN Document Server

    Soma, V

    2009-01-01

    We calculate thermodynamic quantities in symmetric nuclear matter within the self-consistent Green's functions method including three-body forces. The thermodynamic potential is computed directly from a diagrammatic expansion, implemented with the CD-Bonn and Nijmegen nucleon-nucleon potentials and the Urbana three-body forces. We present results for entropy and pressure up to temperatures of 20 MeV and densities of 0.32 fm^-3. While the pressure is sensitive to the inclusion of three-body forces, the entropy is not. The unstable spinodal region is identified and the critical temperature associated to the liquid-gas phase transition is determined. When three-body forces are added we find a strong reduction of the critical temperature, obtaining T_c ~ 12 MeV.

  15. Modeling the interaction of electric current and tissue: importance of accounting for time varying electric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Daniel J; Manwaring, Mark L

    2007-01-01

    Time varying computer models of the interaction of electric current and tissue are very valuable in helping to understand the complexity of the human body and biological tissue. The electrical properties of tissue, permittivity and conductivity, are vital to accurately modeling the interaction of the human tissue with electric current. Past models have represented the electric properties of the tissue as constant or temperature dependent. This paper presents time dependent electric properties that change as a result of tissue damage, temperature, blood flow, blood vessels, and tissue property. Six models are compared to emphasize the importance of accounting for these different tissue properties in the computer model. In particular, incorporating the time varying nature of the electric properties of human tissue into the model leads to a significant increase in tissue damage. An important feature of the model is the feedback loop created between the electric properties, tissue damage, and temperature.

  16. 22 CFR 72.27 - Export of cultural property; handling other property when export, possession, or import may be...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export of cultural property; handling other property when export, possession, or import may be illegal. 72.27 Section 72.27 Foreign Relations... Personal Estates of Deceased United States Citizens and Nationals § 72.27 Export of cultural...

  17. Comparison of Different Internal Dosimetry Systems for Selected Radionuclides Important to Nuclear Power Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; Manger, Ryan P [ORNL

    2013-08-01

    This report compares three different radiation dosimetry systems currently applied by various U.S. Federal agencies and dose estimates based on these three dosimetry systems for a set of radionuclides often identified in power reactor effluents. These dosimetry systems were developed and applied by the International Commission on Radiological Protection at different times over the past six decades. Two primary modes of intake of radionuclides are addressed: ingestion in drinking water and inhalation. Estimated doses to individual organs and to the whole body based on each dosimetry system are compared for each of four age groups: infant, child, teenager, and adult. Substantial differences between dosimetry systems in estimated dose per unit intake are found for some individual radionuclides, but differences in estimated dose per unit intake generally are modest for mixtures of radionuclides typically found in nuclear power plant effluents.

  18. 70-kDa Heat Shock Cognate Protein hsc70 Mediates Calmodulin-dependent Nuclear Import of the Sex-determining Factor SRY*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Lieu, Kim G.; Jans, David A.

    2013-01-01

    We recently showed that the developmentally important family of SOX (SRY (sex determining region on the Y chromosome)-related high mobility group (HMG) box) proteins require the calcium-binding protein calmodulin (CaM) for optimal nuclear accumulation, with clinical mutations in SRY that specifically impair nuclear accumulation via this pathway resulting in XY sex reversal. However, the mechanism by which CaM facilitates nuclear accumulation is unknown. Here, we show, for the first time, that the 70-kDa heat shock cognate protein hsc70 plays a key role in CaM-dependent nuclear import of SRY. Using a reconstituted nuclear import assay, we show that antibodies to hsc70 significantly reduce nuclear accumulation of wild type SRY and mutant derivatives thereof that retain CaM-dependent nuclear import, with an increased rate of nuclear accumulation upon addition of both CaM and hsc70, in contrast to an SRY mutant derivative with impaired CaM binding. siRNA knockdown of hsc70 in intact cells showed similar results, indicating clear dependence upon hsc70 for CaM-dependent nuclear import. Analysis using the technique of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching indicated that hsc70 is required for the maximal rate of SRY nuclear import in living cells but has no impact upon SRY nuclear retention/nuclear dynamics. Finally, we demonstrate direct binding of hsc70 to the SRY·CaM complex, with immunoprecipitation experiments from cell extracts showing association of hsc70 with wild type SRY, but not with a mutant derivative with impaired CaM binding, dependent on Ca2+. Our novel findings strongly implicate hsc70 in CaM-dependent nuclear import of SRY. PMID:23235156

  19. Importance of the nutritional status for the interpretation of nuclear medicine examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egberto Gaspar de Moura

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition is very prevalent in the Third World, but still in developing Countries and is found in certain communities in developed Countries. Several laboratories examinations are affected by malnutrition. Recently, gestational or neonatal malnutrition were considered to contribute to the development of chronic diseases in adulthood, this phenomena was named programming or metabolic imprinting. Similar consideration were suggested for Nuclear Medicine examinations. Here we review the literature about this aspect and present our own data showing changes in biodistribution of a radiopharmaceutical compound in different animal models of adult malnutrition or caused by maternal malnutrition programming.A desnutrição é muito prevalente em países do Terceiro Mundo, mas ainda o é em países em desenvolvimento e em certas comunidades de países desenvolvidos. Diversos exames laboratoriais são afetados pela desnutrição. Recentemente, demonstrou-se que a desnutrição no período gestacional ou neonatal contribui para o surgimento de doenças crônicas na idade adulta. Este fenômeno foi denominado de programação ou impressão metabólica. Considera-se, de forma similar, que os exames de Medicina Nuclear poderiam ser afetados pela desnutrição ou programação. Neste artigo revisamos a literatura a este respeito, incluindo nossos próprios dados que mostram modificações na biodistribuição de um radiofarmaco em diferentes modelos animais de desnutrição em adultos ou causada por programação.

  20. Structural characterisation of the nuclear import receptor importin alpha in complex with the bipartite NLS of Prp20.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Roman

    Full Text Available The translocation of macromolecules into the nucleus is a fundamental eukaryotic process, regulating gene expression, cell division and differentiation, but which is impaired in a range of significant diseases including cancer and viral infection. The import of proteins into the nucleus is generally initiated by a specific, high affinity interaction between nuclear localisation signals (NLSs and nuclear import receptors in the cytoplasm, and terminated through the disassembly of these complexes in the nucleus. For classical NLSs (cNLSs, this import is mediated by the importin-α (IMPα adaptor protein, which in turn binds to IMPβ to mediate translocation of nuclear cargo across the nuclear envelope. The interaction and disassembly of import receptor:cargo complexes is reliant on the differential localisation of nucleotide bound Ran across the envelope, maintained in its low affinity, GDP-bound form in the cytoplasm, and its high affinity, GTP-bound form in the nucleus. This in turn is maintained by the differential localisation of Ran regulating proteins, with RanGAP in the cytoplasm maintaining Ran in its GDP-bound form, and RanGEF (Prp20 in yeast in the nucleus maintaining Ran in its GTP-bound form. Here, we describe the 2.1 Å resolution x-ray crystal structure of IMPα in complex with the NLS of Prp20. We observe 1,091 Å(2 of buried surface area mediated by an extensive array of contacts involving residues on armadillo repeats 2-7, utilising both the major and minor NLS binding sites of IMPα to contact bipartite NLS clusters (17RAKKMSK(23 and (3KR(4, respectively. One notable feature of the major site is the insertion of Prp20NLS Ala(18 between the P0 and P1 NLS sites, noted in only a few classical bipartite NLSs. This study provides a detailed account of the binding mechanism enabling Prp20 interaction with the nuclear import receptor, and additional new information for the interaction between IMPα and cargo.

  1. Correlations between critical parameters and bulk properties of nuclear matter

    CERN Document Server

    Lourenço, O; Dutra, M; Delfino, A

    2016-01-01

    The present work starts by providing a clear identification of correlations between critical parameters ($T_c$, $P_c$, $\\rho_c$) and bulk quantities at zero temperature of relativistic mean-field models (RMF) presenting third and fourth order self-interactions in the scalar field $\\sigma$. Motivated by the nonrelativistic version of this RMF model, we show that effective nucleon mass ($M^*$) and incompressibility ($K_o$), at the saturation density, are correlated with $T_c$, $P_c$, and $\\rho_c$, as well as, binding energy and saturation density itself. We verify agreement of results with previous theoretical ones regarding different hadronic models. Concerning recent experimental data of the symmetric nuclear matter critical parameters, our study allows a prediction of $T_c$, $P_c$ and $\\rho_c$ compatible with such values, by combining them, through the correlations found, with previous constraints related to $M^*$ and $K_o$. An improved RMF parametrization, that better agrees with experimental values for $T_...

  2. Effect of changes in meson properties in a nuclear medium $J/\\psi$ dissociation in nuclear matter, and meson-nucleus bound states

    CERN Document Server

    Tsushima, K; Saitô, K; Thomas, A W; Lu, D H

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the effect of changes in meson properties in a nuclear medium on physical observables, notably, $J/\\Psi$ dissociation on pion and $\\rho$ meson comovers in relativistic heavy ion collisions, and the prediction of the $\\omega$-, $\\eta$- and $\\eta'$-nuclear bound states.

  3. About the importance of the nuclear recoil in \\alpha emission near the DNA

    CERN Document Server

    Rizzini, E Lodi; Corradini, M; Leali, M; Mascagna, V; Venturelli, L; Zurlo, N

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the energy deposition inside the human body made by radioactive substances is discussed. For the first time, we stress the importance of the recoiling nucleus in such reactions, particularly concerning the damage caused on the DNA structure.

  4. Intermolecular masking of the HIV-1 Rev NLS by the cellular protein HIC: Novel insights into the regulation of Rev nuclear import.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gu, Lili

    2011-03-14

    Abstract Background The HIV-1 regulatory protein Rev, which is essential for viral replication, mediates the nuclear export of unspliced viral transcripts. Rev nuclear function requires active nucleocytoplasmic shuttling, and Rev nuclear import is mediated by the recognition of its Nuclear Localisation Signal (NLS) by multiple import factors, which include transportin and importin β. However, it remains unclear which nuclear import pathway(s) predominate in vivo, and the cellular environment that modulates Rev nucleocytoplasmic shuttling remains to be characterised. Results In our study, we have identified the cellular protein HIC (Human I-mfa domain-Containing protein) as a novel interactor of HIV-1 Rev. We demonstrate that HIC selectively interferes with Rev NLS interaction with importin β and impedes its nuclear import and function, but does not affect Rev nuclear import mediated by transportin. Hence, the molecular determinants mediating Rev-NLS recognition by importin β and transportin appear to be distinct. Furthermore, we have employed HIC and M9 M, a peptide specifically designed to inhibit the transportin-mediated nuclear import pathway, to characterise Rev nuclear import pathways within different cellular environments. Remarkably, we could show that in 293T, HeLa, COS7, Jurkat, U937, THP-1 and CEM cells, Rev nuclear import is cell type specific and alternatively mediated by transportin or importin β, in a mutually exclusive fashion. Conclusions Rev cytoplasmic sequestration by HIC may represent a novel mechanism for the control of Rev function. These studies highlight that the multivalent nature of the Rev NLS for different import receptors enables Rev to adapt its nuclear trafficking strategy.

  5. Intermolecular masking of the HIV-1 Rev NLS by the cellular protein HIC: Novel insights into the regulation of Rev nuclear import

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheehy Noreen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV-1 regulatory protein Rev, which is essential for viral replication, mediates the nuclear export of unspliced viral transcripts. Rev nuclear function requires active nucleocytoplasmic shuttling, and Rev nuclear import is mediated by the recognition of its Nuclear Localisation Signal (NLS by multiple import factors, which include transportin and importin β. However, it remains unclear which nuclear import pathway(s predominate in vivo, and the cellular environment that modulates Rev nucleocytoplasmic shuttling remains to be characterised. Results In our study, we have identified the cellular protein HIC (Human I-mfa domain-Containing protein as a novel interactor of HIV-1 Rev. We demonstrate that HIC selectively interferes with Rev NLS interaction with importin β and impedes its nuclear import and function, but does not affect Rev nuclear import mediated by transportin. Hence, the molecular determinants mediating Rev-NLS recognition by importin β and transportin appear to be distinct. Furthermore, we have employed HIC and M9 M, a peptide specifically designed to inhibit the transportin-mediated nuclear import pathway, to characterise Rev nuclear import pathways within different cellular environments. Remarkably, we could show that in 293T, HeLa, COS7, Jurkat, U937, THP-1 and CEM cells, Rev nuclear import is cell type specific and alternatively mediated by transportin or importin β, in a mutually exclusive fashion. Conclusions Rev cytoplasmic sequestration by HIC may represent a novel mechanism for the control of Rev function. These studies highlight that the multivalent nature of the Rev NLS for different import receptors enables Rev to adapt its nuclear trafficking strategy.

  6. Digital Inventory and Documentation of Korea's Important Cultural Properties Using 3D Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongseok, K.; Gyesoo, K.; Siro, K.; Eunhwa, K.

    2015-08-01

    As a country with 11 properties included on the World Heritage List and approximately 12,000 important cultural properties, Korea has been continuously carrying out the inventory and documentation of cultural properties to conserve and manage them since the 1960s. The inventory of cultural properties had been carried out by making and managing a register which recorded basic information mainly on state-designated cultural properties such as their size, quantity, and location. The documentation of cultural properties was also carried out by making measured drawings. However, the inventory and documentation done under the previous analog method had a limit to the information it could provide for the effective conservation and management of cultural properties. Moreover, in recent times important cultural properties have frequently been damaged by man-made and natural disasters such as arson, forest fires, and floods, so an alternative was required. Accordingly, Korea actively introduced digital techniques led by the government for the inventory and documentation of important cultural properties. In this process, the government established the concept of a digital set, built a more efficie nt integrated data management system, and created standardized guidelines to maximize the effectiveness of data acquisition, management, and utilization that greatly increased the level of digital inventory, documentation, and archiving.

  7. Sycamore amyloplasts can import and process precursors of nuclear encoded chloroplast proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzalka, K; Ngernprasirtsiri, J; Watanabe, A; Akazawa, T

    1987-12-16

    Amyloplasts isolated from white-wild suspension-cultured cells of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) are found to import and process the precursor of the small subunit (pS) of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase of spinach, but they lack the ability to form its holoenzyme due to the absence of both the large subunit and its binding-protein. They also import the precursor of the 33-kDa extrinsic protein (p33-kDa) of the O2-evolving complex of Photosystem II from spinach, but process is only to an intermediate form (i33-kDa). Chloroplasts from green-mutant cells of sycamore process p33-kDa to its mature form in this heterologous system. These results suggest that the thylakoid-associated protease responsible for the second processing step of p33-kDa is missing in amyloplasts, possibly due to the absence of thylakoid-membranes. In contrast, the apparent import of the precursor of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding apoprotein (pLHCP) from spinach was not detected. Sycamore amyloplasts may lack the ability to import this particular thylakoid-protein, or rapidly degrade the imported molecules in the absence of thylakoid-membranes for their proper insertion.

  8. Evaluation of High Energy Nuclear Data of Importance for Use in Accelerator and Space Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Ouk

    2005-10-15

    New evaluation were performed for neutron- and proton-induced reactions for energies up to 250 400 MeV on C-12, N-14, O-16, Al-27, Si-28, Ca-40, Ar-40, Fe-54,58, Ni-64, Cu-63,65, Zr-90, Pb-208, Th-232, U-233,234,236, and Cm-243246. The evaluated results are then applied to the accelerator and space technology. A set of optical model parameters were optimized by searching a number of adjustable coefficients with the Simulated Annealing(SA) method for the spherical nuclei. A parameterization of the empirical formula was proposed to describe the proton-nucleus non-elastic cross sections of high-priority elements for space shielding purpose for proton energies from reaction threshold up to 400 MeV, which was then implemented into the fast scoping space shielding code CHARGE, based on the results of the optical model analysis utilizing up-to-date measurements. For proton energies up to 400 MeV covering most of the incident spectrum for trapped protons and solar energetic particle events, energy-angle spectra of secondary neutrons produced from the proton-induced neutron production reaction were prepared. The evaluated cross section set was applied to the thick target yield (TTY) and promp radiation benchmarks for the accelerator shielding. As for the assessment of the radiological impact of the accelerator to the environment, relevant nuclear reaction cross sections for the activation of the air were recommended among the author's evaluations and existing library based on the available measurements.

  9. Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Savage, Martin J

    2016-01-01

    Lattice QCD is making good progress toward calculating the structure and properties of light nuclei and the forces between nucleons. These calculations will ultimately refine the nuclear forces, particularly in the three- and four-nucleon sector and the short-distance interactions of nucleons with electroweak currents, and allow for a reduction of uncertainties in nuclear many-body calculations of nuclei and their reactions. After highlighting their importance, particularly to the Nuclear Physics and High-Energy Physics experimental programs, I discuss the progress that has been made toward achieving these goals and the challenges that remain.

  10. Correlation of macroscopic material properties with microscopic nuclear data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simons, R.L.

    1981-12-18

    Two primary irradiation-induced changes occur during neutron irradiation: the displacement of atoms forming crystal defects and the transmutation of atoms into either gaseous or solid products. The material scientist studying irradiation damage to material by fusion-produced neutrons is faced with several questions: Is the nature of high-energy (14-MeV) displacement damage the same as or different from that caused by fission neutrons (< 2 MeV). How do the high helium concentrations expected in a fusion environment affect the material properties. What effects do solid transmutation products have on the behavior of the irradiated materials. In the past few years, much work has been done to answer these questions. This paper reviews recent work in this area.

  11. Influenza A viruses escape from MxA restriction at the expense of efficient nuclear vRNP import

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, Veronika; Magar, Linda; Dornfeld, Dominik; Giese, Sebastian; Pohlmann, Anne; Höper, Dirk; Kong, Byung-Whi; Jans, David A.; Beer, Martin; Haller, Otto; Schwemmle, Martin

    2016-01-01

    To establish a new lineage in the human population, avian influenza A viruses (AIV) must overcome the intracellular restriction factor MxA. Partial escape from MxA restriction can be achieved when the viral nucleoprotein (NP) acquires the critical human-adaptive amino acid residues 100I/V, 283P, and 313Y. Here, we show that introduction of these three residues into the NP of an avian H5N1 virus renders it genetically unstable, resulting in viruses harboring additional single mutations, including G16D. These substitutions restored genetic stability yet again yielded viruses with varying degrees of attenuation in mammalian and avian cells. Additionally, most of the mutant viruses lost the capacity to escape MxA restriction, with the exception of the G16D virus. We show that MxA escape is linked to attenuation by demonstrating that the three substitutions promoting MxA escape disturbed intracellular trafficking of incoming viral ribonucleoprotein complexes (vRNPs), thereby resulting in impaired nuclear import, and that the additional acquired mutations only partially compensate for this import block. We conclude that for adaptation to the human host, AIV must not only overcome MxA restriction but also an associated block in nuclear vRNP import. This inherent difficulty may partially explain the frequent failure of AIV to become pandemic. PMID:26988202

  12. Actin polymerization negatively regulates p53 function by impairing its nuclear import in response to DNA damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Wang

    Full Text Available Actin, one of the most evolutionarily conservative proteins in eukaryotes, is distributed both in the cytoplasm and the nucleus, and its dynamics plays important roles in numerous cellular processes. Previous evidence has shown that actin interacts with p53 and this interaction increases in the process of p53 responding to DNA damage, but the physiological significance of their interaction remains elusive. Here, we show that DNA damage induces both actin polymerization and p53 accumulation. To further understand the implication of actin polymerization in p53 function, cells were treated with actin aggregation agent. We find that the protein level of p53 decrease. The change in p53 is a consequence of the polymeric actin anchoring p53 in the cytoplasm, thus impairing p53 nuclear import. Analysis of phosphorylation and ubiquitination of p53 reveals that actin polymerization promotes the p53 phosphorylation at Ser315 and reduces the stabilization of p53 by recruiting Aurora kinase A. Taken together, our results suggest that the actin polymerization serves as a negative modulator leading to the impairment of nuclear import and destabilization of p53. On the basis of our results, we propose that actin polymerization might be a factor participating in the process of orchestrating p53 function in response to DNA damage.

  13. Chemical and nuclear properties of Rutherfordium (Element 104)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kacher, C.D.

    1995-10-30

    The chemical-properties of rutherfordium (Rf) and its group 4 homologs were studied by sorption on glass support surfaces coated with cobalt(II)ferrocyanide and by solvent extraction with tributylphosphate (TBP) and triisooctylamine (TIOA). The surface studies showed that the hydrolysis trend in the group 4 elements and the pseudogroup 4 element, lb, decreases in the order Rf>Zr{approx}Hf>Th. This trend was attributed to relativistic effects which predicted that Rf would be more prone to having a coordination number of 6 than 8 in most aqueous solutions due to a destabilization of the 6d{sub 5/2} shell and a stabilization of the 7p{sub l/2} shell. This hydrolysis trend was confirmed in the TBP/HBr solvent extraction studies which showed that the extraction trend decreased in the order Zr>Hf>Rf?Ti for HBr, showing that Rf and Ti did not extract as well because they hydrolyzed more easily than Zr and Hf. The TIOA/HF solvent extraction studies showed that the extraction trend for the group 4 elements decreased in the order Ti>Zr{approx}Hf>Rf, in inverse order from the trend of ionic radii Rf>Zr{approx}Hf>Ti. An attempt was made to produce {sup 263}Rf (a) via the {sup 248}Cm({sup 22}Ne, {alpha}3n) reaction employing thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) solvent extraction chemistry and (b) via the {sup 249}Bk({sup 18}O,4n) reaction employing the Automated Rapid Chemistry Apparatus (ARCA). In the TTA studies, 16 fissions were observed but were all attributed to {sup 256}Fm. No alpha events were observed in the Rf chemical fraction. A 0.2 nb upper limit production cross section for the {sup 248}Cm({sup 22}Ne, {alpha}3n){sup 263}Rf reaction was calculated assuming the 500-sec half-life reported previously by Czerwinski et al. [CZE92A].

  14. Saturation properties of nuclear matter in the presence of strong magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezaei, Z. [Shiraz University, Department of Physics and Biruni Observatory, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bordbar, G.H. [Shiraz University, Department of Physics and Biruni Observatory, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center for Excellence in Astronomy and Astrophysics (CEAA-RIAAM)-Maragha, P.O. Box 55134-441, Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Different saturation properties of cold symmetric nuclear matter in strong magnetic field have been considered. We have seen that for magnetic fields about B>3 x 10{sup 17} G, for both cases with and without nucleon anomalous magnetic moments, the saturation density and saturation energy grow by increasing the magnetic field. It is indicated that the magnetic susceptibility of symmetric nuclear matter becomes negative showing the diamagnetic response especially at B<3 x 10{sup 17} G. We have found that for the nuclear matter, the magnitude of orbital magnetization reaches higher values comparing to the spin magnetization. Our results for the incompressibility show that at high enough magnetic fields, i.e. B>3 x 10{sup 17} G, the softening of the equation of state caused by Landau quantization is overwhelmed by stiffening due to the magnetization of nuclear matter. We have shown that the effects of strong magnetic field on nuclear matter may affect the constraints on the equation of state of symmetric nuclear matter obtained by applying the experimental observables. (orig.)

  15. Nuclear power plant containment metallic pressure boundary materials and plans for collecting and presenting their properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oland, C.B.

    1995-04-01

    A program is being conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL to assist the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)) in their assessment of the effects of degradation (primarily corrosion) on the structural capacity and leaktight integrity of metal containments and steel liners of reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants. One of the program objectives is to characterize and quantify manifestations of corrosion on the properties of steels used to construct containment pressure boundary components. This report describes a plan for use in collecting and presenting data and information on ferrous alloys permitted for use in construction of pressure retaining components in concrete and metal containments. Discussions about various degradation mechanisms that could potentially affect the mechanical properties of these materials are also included. Conclusions and recommendations presented in this report will be used to guide the collection of data and information that will be used to prepare a material properties data base for containment steels.

  16. The importance of nuclear masses in the astrophysical rp-process

    CERN Document Server

    Schatz, H

    2006-01-01

    The importance of mass measurements for astrophysical capture processes in general, and for the rp-process in X-ray bursts in particular is discussed. A review of the current uncertainties in the effective lifetimes of the major waiting points 64Ge, 68Se, and 72Kr demonstrates that despite of recent measurements uncertainties are still significant. It is found that mass measurements with an accuracy of the order of 10 keV or better are desirable, and that reaction rate uncertainties play a critical role as well.

  17. Electromagnetic properties of inner double walled carbon nanotubes investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance

    KAUST Repository

    Bouhrara, M.

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analytical technique was used to investigate the double walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) electromagnetic properties of inner walls. The local magnetic and electronic properties of inner nanotubes in DWNTs were analyzed using 25% 13C enriched C 60 by which the effect of dipolar coupling could be minimized. The diamagnetic shielding was determined due to the ring currents on outer nanotubes in DWNTs. The NMR chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) spectra and spin-lattice relaxation studies reveal the metallic properties of the inner nanotubes with a signature of the spin-gap opening below 70 K.

  18. The effect of chromium oxide on the properties of simulated nuclear waste glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vojtech, O.; Sussmilch, J.; Urbanec, Z. [and others

    1996-02-01

    A study of the effect of chromium on the properties of selected glasses was performed in the frame of a Contract between Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories and Nuclear Research Institute, ReZ. In the period from July 1994 to June 1995 two borosilicate glasses of special composition were prepared according to the PNL procedure and their physical and structural characteristics of glasses were studied. This Final Report contains a vast documentation on the properties of all glasses studied. For the preparation of the respective technology more detailed study of physico-chemical properties and crystallinity of investigated systems would be desirable.

  19. Review of important rock mechanics studies required for underground high level nuclear waste repository program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, S.; Cho, W. J

    2007-01-15

    Disposal concept adapting room and pillar method, which is a confirmed technique in mining and tunnel construction for long time, has advantages at cost, safety, technical feasibility, flexibility, and international cooperation point of views. Then the important rock mechanics principals and in situ and laboratory tests for understanding the behavior of rock, buffer, and backfill as well as their interactions will be reviewed. The accurate understanding of them is important for developing a safe disposal concept and successful operation of underground repository for permanent disposal of radioactive wastes. First of all, In this study, current status of rock mechanics studies for HLW disposal in foreign countries such as Sweden, USA, Canada, Finland, Japan, and France were reviewed. After then the in situ and laboratory tests for site characterization were summarized. Furthermore, rock mechanics studies required during the whole procedure for the disposal project from repository design to the final closure will be reviewed systematically. This study will help for developing a disposal system including site selection, repository design, operation, maintenance, and closure of a repository in deep underground rock. By introducing the required rock mechanics tests at different stages, it would be helpful from the planning stage to the operation stage of a radioactive waste disposal project.

  20. Mutations affecting interaction of integrase with TNPO3 do not prevent HIV-1 cDNA nuclear import

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cribier Alexandra

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integration of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 into a host cell chromosome is an essential step under the control of the viral integrase (IN. Although this enzyme is necessary and sufficient to catalyze the integration reaction in vitro, cellular cofactors are involved in the process in vivo. The chromatin-associated factor LEDGF/p75 interacts with IN and promotes integration to transcription units of the host genome. HIV-1 IN also binds the karyopherin TNPO3, however the significance of this interaction during viral replication remains to be explored. Results Here we present a functional analysis of IN mutants impaired for LEDGF/p75 and TNPO3 interaction. Among them, IN W131A and IN Q168L, that were previously identified to be deficient for LEDGF/p75 interaction, were also partially impaired for TNPO3 binding. We observed that mutations abolishing IN ability to form tetramers resulted in a severe reduction in LEDGF/p75 binding. In sharp contrast, no correlation could be found between the ability of IN to multimerize and TNPO3 interaction. Most of the mutant viruses were essentially impaired for the integration step whereas the amount of 2-LTR circles, reflecting the nuclear import of the viral DNA, was not significantly affected. Conclusion Our functional analysis of HIV-1 IN mutants reveals distinct structural basis for TNPO3 interaction and suggests that the interaction between IN and TNPO3 is not a major determinant of nuclear import but could take place at a nuclear step prior to integration.

  1. Sterol-dependent nuclear import of ORP1S promotes LXR regulated trans-activation of apoE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sungsoo, E-mail: sungsoo.lee@utsouthwestern.edu [Departments of Cell Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9039 (United States); Wang, Ping-Yuan [Departments of Cell Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9039 (United States); Jeong, Yangsik; Mangelsdorf, David J. [Departments of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9041 (United States); Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9041 (United States); Anderson, Richard G.W. [Departments of Cell Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9039 (United States); Michaely, Peter, E-mail: peter.michaely@utsouthwestern.edu [Departments of Cell Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9039 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Oxysterol binding protein related protein 1S (ORP1S) is a member of a family of sterol transport proteins. Here we present evidence that ORP1S translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in response to sterol binding. The sterols that best promote nuclear import of ORP1S also activate the liver X receptor (LXR) transcription factors and we show that ORP1S binds to LXRs, promotes binding of LXRs to LXR response elements (LXREs) and specifically enhances LXR-dependent transcription via the ME.1 and ME.2 enhancer elements of the apoE gene. We propose that ORP1S is a cytoplasmic sterol sensor, which transports sterols to the nucleus and promotes LXR-dependent gene transcription through select enhancer elements. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ORP1S translocates to the nucleus in response to sterol binding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sterols that best promote nuclear import of ORP1S are LXR agonists. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ORP1S binds to LXRs, enhances binding of LXRs to LXREs and promotes LXR-dependent transcription of apoE.

  2. International Nuclear Safety Center database on thermophysical properties of reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, J.K.; Sofu, T.; Ley, H.

    1997-08-01

    The International Nuclear Safety Center (INSC) database has been established at Argonne National Laboratory to provide easily accessible data and information necessary to perform nuclear safety analyses and to promote international collaboration through the exchange of nuclear safety information. The INSC database, located on the World Wide Web at http://www.insc.anl.gov, contains critically assessed recommendations for reactor material properties for normal operating conditions, transients, and severe accidents. The initial focus of the database is on thermodynamic and transport properties of materials for water reactors. Materials that are being included in the database are fuel, absorbers, cladding, structural materials, coolant, and liquid mixtures of combinations of UO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, Zr, stainless steel, absorber materials, and concrete. For each property, the database includes: (1) a summary of recommended equations with uncertainties; (2) a detailed data assessment giving the basis for the recommendations, comparisons with experimental data and previous recommendations, and uncertainties; (3) graphs showing recommendations, uncertainties, and comparisons with data and other equations; and (4) property values tabulated as a function of temperature.

  3. Thoria-based nuclear fuels thermophysical and thermodynamic properties, fabrication, reprocessing, and waste management

    CERN Document Server

    Bharadwaj, S R

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the state of the art on thermophysical and thermochemical properties, fabrication methodologies, irradiation behaviours, fuel reprocessing procedures, and aspects of waste management for oxide fuels in general and for thoria-based fuels in particular. The book covers all the essential features involved in the development of and working with nuclear technology. With the help of key databases, many of which were created by the authors, information is presented in the form of tables, figures, schematic diagrams and flow sheets, and photographs. This information will be useful for scientists and engineers working in the nuclear field, particularly for design and simulation, and for establishing the technology. One special feature is the inclusion of the latest information on thoria-based fuels, especially on the use of thorium in power generation, as it has less proliferation potential for nuclear weapons. Given its natural abundance, thorium offers a future alternative to uranium fuels in nuc...

  4. Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs in Japan following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumo, Yoshiro [Institute of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs executed by Minstry of Health and Welfare following the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident were reviewed as follows; (1) background of socio-psychological effects and environmental radioactivity leading to the regulation (to may 3, 1986); (2) intial intervention for imported foodstuffs in Japan (may 8, `86), and (3) in european countries (to may 31, `86), immediately after the Accident, respectively; (4) determination of the interim driven intervention level for radionuclides in imported foodstuffs (({sup 134}Cs + {sup 137}Cs): 370 Bq/Kg) and activation of the monitoring, (5) outline of the monitoring with elapsed time, number of foodstuffs monitored, number of foodstuffs exceeded radioactivity of the intervention level and re-exported; (6) guideline in international trade of radioactive contaminated foodstuffs adopted by CODEX Alimentarius Commission (FAO/WHO) and the intervention level recommended by ICRP following the Accident; (7) discussion for problems and scopes in future based on the results of monitoring. As the results, a number of imported foodstuffs (about 75,000 samples at present) has been monitored, 55 samples exceeding the interim intervention level were re-exported to each export`s country, and socio-psychological doubts for radioactive contamination of imported foodstuffs have been dispersed. In addition, problems for several factors based on calculation of the interim intervention level, radioactivity level of foodstuffs exceeding about 50 Bq/Kg as radiocesiums and necessity of monitoring for the other radionuclides in foods except radiocesiums were also discussed. (author)

  5. Modification of hadron properties in compressed nuclear matter: Recent results from the FOPI collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinyuk, Victoria [Universitaet Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: FOPI-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    In compressed baryonic matter the properties of hadrons are believed to alter as a result of various non-trivial in -medium effects such as the partial restoration of the spontaneously broken chiral symmetry, the modified baryon-meson couplings and the nuclear potential. Possible modification of properties like mass, width and dispersion relation can be experimentally observed for strange particles produced sub- or close-to-production threshold energies. The FOPI detector at SIS18 provides a possibility to investigate the production and propagation of charged and neutral strange particles in a wide range of phase space. This presentation gives an overview of FOPI's recent results on collective behavior and modification of phase space distribution for strange mesons at densities up to 2-3 ρ{sub 0}, investigated in heavy-ion collisions, and at normal nuclear matter density as observed in pion-induced reactions.

  6. Standard Reference Development of nuclear material for Tensile and Hardness Test Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Y. S.; Kim, D. S.; Yoo, B. O.; Ahn, S. B.; Baik, S. J.; Chun, Y. B.; Kim, K. H.; Hong, K. P.; Ryu, W. S

    2007-12-15

    Standard reference is a official approved data such a coefficient of physics, approved material properties, and etc., which should be analyzed and evaluated by scientific method to acquire official approval for accuracy and credibility of measured data and information. So it could be used broadly and continuously by various fields of nation and society. It is classified to effective standard reference, verified standard reference, and certified standard reference. There are sixteen fields in designated standard references such a physical chemistry field, material field, metal field, and the others. The standard reference of neutron irradiated nuclear structural material is classified to metal field. This report summarized the whole processes about data collection, data production, data evaluation and the suggestion of details evaluation technical standard for tensile and hardness properties, which were achieved by carry out the project 'nuclear material standard reference development' as a result.

  7. Delayed Gamma Measurements in Different Nuclear Research Reactors Bringing Out the Importance of the Delayed Contribution in Gamma Flux Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fourmentel, D.; Radulovic, V.; Barbot, L.; Villard, J-F. [Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission, CEA, DEN, DER, Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache, 13108 Saint- Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Zerovnik, G.; Snoj, L. [Reactor Physics Department, Jozef Stefan Institute, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Tarchalski, M.; Pytel, K. [National Centre for Nuclear Research A. Soltana 7, 05-400 Swierk (Poland); Malouch, F. [Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission - CEA, DEN, DM2S, Saclay, 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2015-07-01

    Neutron and gamma flux levels are key parameters in nuclear research reactors. In Material Testing Reactors, such as the future Jules Horowitz Reactor, under construction at the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA Cadarache, France), the expected gamma flux levels are very high (nuclear heating is of the order of 20 W/g at 100 MWth). As gamma rays deposit their energy in the reactor structures and structural materials it is important to take them into account when designing irradiation devices. There are only a few sensors which allow measurements of the nuclear heating ; a recent development at the CEA Cadarache allows measurements of the gamma flux using a miniature ionization chamber (MIC). The measured MIC response is often compared with calculation using modern Monte Carlo (MC) neutron and photon transport codes, such as TRIPOLI-4 and MCNP6. In these calculations only the production of prompt gamma rays in the reactor is usually modelled thus neglecting the delayed gamma rays. Hence calculations and measurements are usually in better accordance for the neutron flux than for the gamma flux. In this paper we study the contribution of delayed gamma rays to the total MIC signal in order to estimate the systematic error in gamma flux MC calculations. In order to experimentally determine the delayed gamma flux contributions to the MIC response, we performed gamma flux measurements with CEA developed MIC at three different research reactors: the OSIRIS reactor (MTR - 70 MWth at CEA Saclay, France), the TRIGA MARK II reactor (TRIGA - 250 kWth at the Jozef Stefan Institute, Slovenia) and the MARIA reactor (MTR - 30 MWth at the National Center for Nuclear Research, Poland). In order to experimentally assess the delayed gamma flux contribution to the total gamma flux, several reactor shut down (scram) experiments were performed specifically for the purpose of the measurements. Results show that on average about 30 % of the MIC signal is due to

  8. Covariant energy density functionals: nuclear matter constraints and global ground state properties

    CERN Document Server

    Afanasjev, A V

    2016-01-01

    The correlations between global description of the ground state properties (binding energies, charge radii) and nuclear matter properties of the state-of-the-art covariant energy density functionals have been studied. It was concluded that the strict enforcement of the constraints on the nuclear matter properties (NMP) defined in Ref.\\ \\cite{RMF-nm} will not necessary lead to the functionals with good description of the binding energies and other ground and excited state properties. In addition, it will not substantially reduce the uncertainties in the predictions of the binding energies in neutron-rich systems. It turns out that the functionals, which come close to satisfying these NMP constraints, have some problems in the description of existing data. On the other hand, these problems are either absent or much smaller in the functionals which are carefully fitted to finite nuclei but which violate some NMP constraints. This is a consequence of the fact that the properties of finite nuclei are defined not o...

  9. Bacterial composition of activated sludge - importance for floc and sludge properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Per H.; Thomsen, Trine R.; Nielsen, Jeppe L.

    2003-07-01

    Activated sludge flocs consist of numerous constituents which, together with other factors, are responsible for floc structure and floc properties. These properties largely determine the sludge properties such as flocculation, settling and dewaterability. In this paper we briefly review the present knowledge about the role of bacteria in relation to floc and sludge properties, and we present a new approach to investigate the identity and function of the bacteria in the activated sludge flocs. The approach includes identification of the important bacteria and a characterization of their physiological and functional properties. It is carried out by use of culture-independent molecular biological methods linked with other methods to study the physiology and function maintaining a single cell resolution. Using this approach it was found that floc-forming properties differed among the various bacterial groups, e.g. that different microcolony-forming bacteria had very different sensitivities to shear and that some of them deflocculated under anaerobic conditions. in our opinion, the approach to combine identity with functional analysis of the dominant bacteria in activated sludge by in situ methods is a very promising way to investigate correlations between presence of specific bacteria, and floc and sludge properties that are of interest. (author)

  10. The importance of 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for reference standard validation in analytical sciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovi Kelman

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the importance of recording at least a (1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectrum to verify identity of standards used in analyses of organic materials irrespective of source. We show the importance of this approach with an example of a quantitative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC study undertaken with green tea extracts that required the use of several polyphenols as standards. In the course of the study one of these standards [(--epigallocatechin, EGC], although having the physical appearance and appropriate HPLC chromatographic behavior of EGC, proved by (1H-NMR to be a completely different class of molecule. For us, this raised significant questions concerning validity of many published pieces of research that used quantitative HPLC methods without first performing rigorous validation of the employed standards prior to their use. This paper clearly illustrates the importance of validation of all standards used in analysis of organic materials by recording at least a (1H-NMR spectrum of them prior to their use.

  11. Inhibition of the nuclear import of cubitus interruptus by roadkill in the presence of strong hedgehog signal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Hyeon Seong

    Full Text Available Hedgehog (Hh signalling plays an important role in various developmental processes by activating the Cubitus interruptus (Ci/Glioblastoma (Gli family of transcription factors. In the process of proper pattern formation, Ci activity is regulated by multiple mechanisms, including processing, trafficking, and degradation. However, it remains elusive how Ci distinctly recognizes the strong and moderate Hh signals. Roadkill (Rdx induces Ci degradation in the anterior region of the Drosophila wing disc. Here, we report that Rdx inhibited Ci activity by two different mechanisms. In the region abutting the anterior/posterior boundary, which receives strong Hh signal, Rdx inhibited the nuclear import of Ci by releasing importin α3 from Ci. In this region, Rdx negatively regulated the expression of transcription factor Knot/Collier. In farther anterior regions receiving moderate levels of Hh signal, Rdx induced Ci degradation, as reported previously. Thus, two different mechanisms by which Rdx negatively regulates Ci may play an important role in the fine-tuning of Hh responses.

  12. The Importance of Thermophysical Properties of Steels for the Numerical Simulation of a Concasting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantisek KAVICKA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermophysical properties of steels have significant influence on the actual concasting process, and on the accuracy of its numerical simulation and optimization. The determination of these properties (heat conductivity, specific heat capacity and density in the solid and liquid states often requires more time than the actual numerical calculation of the temperature fields of a continuously cast steel billet, cylinder or slab (generally a concasting. The influence of individual properties should be neither under- nor over-estimated. Therefore, an analysis/parametric study of these thermophysical properties was conducted. The order of importance within the actual process and the accuracy of simulation and optimization were also determined. Individual properties, which, in some cases, were obtained from tables, and in others experimentally, were substituted by an approximation using orthogonal polynomials. The accuracy of each polynomial is dependent on the precision of individual values. The order of significance of individual thermophysical properties was determined with respect to the metallurgical length. The analysis was performed by means of a so-called calculation experiment, i.e. by means of the original and universal numerical concasting model developed by the authors of this paper. It is convenient to conduct such an analysis in order to facilitate the simulation of each individual case of concasting, thus enhancing the process of optimization.

  13. Radiation shielding properties of a novel cement–basalt mixture for nuclear energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ipbüker, Cagatay; Nulk, Helena; Gulik, Volodymyr [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics (Estonia); Biland, Alex [HHK Technologies, Houston (United States); Tkaczyk, Alan Henry, E-mail: alan@ut.ee [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics (Estonia)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • Basalt fiber is a relatively cheap material that can be used as reinforcement. • Gamma-ray attenuation remains relatively stable with addition of basalt fiber. • Neutron attenuation remains relatively stable with addition of basalt fiber. • Cement–basalt mixture has a good potential for use in nuclear energy applications. - Abstract: The radiation shielding properties of a new proposed building material, a novel cement–basalt fiber mixture (CBM), are investigated. The authors analyze the possibility of this material to be a viable substitute to outgoing materials in nuclear energy applications, which will lead to a further sustained development of nuclear energy in the future. This computational study involves four types of concrete with various amounts of basalt fiber in them. The gamma-ray shielding characteristics of proposed CBM material are investigated with the help of WinXCom program, whereas the neutron shielding characteristics are computed by the Serpent code. For gamma-ray shielding, we find that the attenuation coefficients of concretes with basalt fibers are not notably influenced by the addition of fibers. For neutron shielding, additional basalt fiber in mixture presents negligible effect on neutron radiation shielding. With respect to radiation shielding, it can be concluded that basalt fibers have good potential as an addition to heavyweight concrete for nuclear energy applications.

  14. CHANGE IN DEFORMATION PROPERTIES MODELING OF CONCRETE IN PROTECTIVE STRUCTURES OF NUCLEAR REACTOR BY IONIZING RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. K. Agakhanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of studying the effect impact of elementary particles impact on the strength and deformation materials properties used in protective constructions nuclear reactors and reactor technology has been stipulated. A nuclear reactor pressure vessel from prestressed concrete, combining the functions of biological protection is to be considered. The neutron flux problem distribution in the pressure vessel of a nuclear reactor has been solved. The solution is made in axisymmetric with the finite element method using a flat triangular finite element. Computing has been conducted in Matlab package. The comparison with the results has been obtained using the finite difference method, as well as the graphs of changes under the influence of radiation exposure and the elastic modulus of concrete radiation deformations have been constructed. The proposed method allows to simulate changes in the deformation properties of concrete under the influence of neutron irradiation. Results of the study can be used in the calculation of stress-strain state of structures, taking into account indirect heterogeneity caused by the physical fields influence.

  15. Importance of Promocat in nuclear emergency management in ANAV; Impacto del Promocat en la gestion de emergencias en ANAV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil Cortiella, R.; Torres Gurdel, C.

    2016-08-01

    The nuclear power plant emergency management tool PROMOCAT, has been developed for supporting and facilitating the nuclear emergency management in the Spanish NPPs of Asco and Vandellos II. PROMOCAT is a computerized tool that comprises all the activities made by the Technical Support Centre (TSC) and Offsite facilities. In order to ease the management and decision-making during a nuclear emergency. In addition, the drill mode helps to improve and strengthen emergency personnel training. (Author)

  16. Study of polonium isotopes ground state properties by simultaneous atomic- and nuclear-spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    Koester, U H; Kalaninova, Z; Imai, N

    2007-01-01

    We propose to systematically study the ground state properties of neutron deficient $^{192-200}$Po isotopes by means of in-source laser spectroscopy using the ISOLDE laser ion source coupled with nuclear spectroscopy at the detection setup as successfully done before by this collaboration with neutron deficient lead isotopes. The study of the change in mean square charge radii along the polonium isotope chain will give an insight into shape coexistence above the mid-shell N = 104 and above the closed shell Z = 82. The hyperfine structure of the odd isotopes will also allow determination of the nuclear spin and the magnetic moment of the ground state and of any identifiable isomer state. For this study, a standard UC$_{x}$ target with the ISOLDE RILIS is required for 38 shifts.

  17. Antimicrobial properties of nest volatiles in red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta (hymenoptera: formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Elliott, Brad; Jin, Xixuan; Zeng, Ling; Chen, Jian

    2015-12-01

    The antimicrobial property of volatiles produced by red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta, against Beauveria bassiana, a common entomopathogenic fungus, was demonstrated. The germination rate of B. bassiana spores was significantly reduced after they were exposed to volatiles within an artificial ant nest. Since the air that contained the same level of O2 and CO2 as that in artificial fire ant nests did not suppress the germination rate of B. bassiana, the observed reduction of germination rate must be caused by the toxicity of nest volatiles. Nest fumigation may be an important component of the social immune system in S. invicta.

  18. Physical and Chemical Properties of Some Imported Woods and their Degradation by Termites

    OpenAIRE

    Shanbhag, Rashmi R.; Sundararaj, R.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of physical and chemical properties of 20 species of imported wood on degradation of the wood by termites under field conditions was studied. The wood species studied were: Sycamore maple, Acer pseudoplatanus L. (Sapindales: Sapindaceae) (from two countries), Camphor, Dryobalanops aromatic C.F.Gaertner (Malvales: Dipterocarpaceae), Beech, Fagus grandifolia Ehrhart (Fagales: Fagaceae), F. sylvatica L. (from two countries), Oak, Quercus robur L., Ash, Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl (L...

  19. Determining the Most Important Soil Properties Affecting the Yield of Saffron in the Ghayenat Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    amir ranjbar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Saffron is one of the most important economic plants in the Khorasan province. Awareness of soil quality in agricultural lands is essential for the best management of lands and for obtaining maximum economic benefit. In general, plant growth is a function of environmental factors especially chemical and physical properties of soil (20. It has been demonstrated that there was a positive and high correlation between soil organic matter and saffron yield. Increasing the yield of saffron due to organic matter is probably due to soil nutrient, especially phosphorous and nitrogen and also improvement of soil physical quality (6, 28, 29. The yield of saffron in soils with high nitrogen as a result of vegetative growth is high (8. Shahandeh (6 found that most of the variation of saffron yield depends on soil properties. Due to the economic importance of saffron and the role of soil properties on saffron yield, this research was conducted to find the relationship between saffron yield and some soil physical and chemical properties, and to determine the contribution of soil properties that have the greatest impact on saffron yield in the Ghayenat area. Materials and Methods: This research was performed in 30 saffron fields (30 soil samples of the Ghayenat area (longitude 59° 10΄ 10.37˝ - 59° 11΄ 38.41˝ and latitude 33° 43΄ 35.08˝ - 33΄ 44΄ 02.78˝, which is located in the Khrasan province of Iran. In this research, 21 soil properties were regarded as the total data set (TDS. Then the principal component analysis (PCA was used to determine the most important soil properties affecting saffron yield as a minimum data set (MDS and the stepwise regression to estimate saffron yield. To estimate the yield of saffron in stepwise regression method, saffron yield was considered as a dependent variable and soil physical and chemical properties were considered to be independent variables. Results and Discussion: According to the PCA method

  20. Recent trends in precision measurements of atomic and nuclear properties with lasers and ion traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, Michael, E-mail: m.block@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    The X. international workshop on “Application of Lasers and Storage Devices in Atomic Nuclei Research” took place in Poznan in May 2016. It addressed the latest experimental and theoretical achievements in laser and ion trap-based investigations of radionuclides, highly charged ions and antiprotons. The precise determination of atomic and nuclear properties provides a stringent benchmark for theoretical models and eventually leads to a better understanding of the underlying fundamental interactions and symmetries. This article addresses some general trends in this field and highlights select recent achievements presented at the workshop. Many of these are covered in more detail within the individual contributions to this special issue of Hyperfine Interactions.

  1. A nuclear fraction of turnip crinkle virus capsid protein is important for elicitation of the host resistance response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung-Hwan; Qu, Feng; Morris, T Jack

    2015-12-01

    The N-terminal 25 amino acids (AAs) of turnip crinkle virus (TCV) capsid protein (CP) are recognized by the resistance protein HRT to trigger a hypersensitive response (HR) and systemic resistance to TCV infection. This same region of TCV CP also contains a motif that interacts with the transcription factor TIP, as well as a nuclear localization signal (NLS). However, it is not yet known whether nuclear localization of TCV CP is needed for the induction of HRT-mediated HR and resistance. Here we present new evidence suggesting a tight correlation between nuclear inclusions formed by CP and the manifestation of HR. We show that a fraction of TCV CP localized to cell nuclei to form discrete inclusion-like structures, and a mutated CP (R6A) known to abolish HR failed to form nuclear inclusions. Notably, TIP-CP interaction augments the inclusion-forming activity of CP by tethering inclusions to the nuclear membrane. This TIP-mediated augmentation is also critical for HR resistance, as another CP mutant (R8A) known to elicit a less restrictive HR, though still self-associated into nuclear inclusions, failed to direct inclusions to the nuclear membrane due to its inability to interact with TIP. Finally, exclusion of CP from cell nuclei abolished induction of HR. Together, these results uncovered a strong correlation between nuclear localization and nuclear inclusion formation by TCV CP and induction of HR, and suggest that CP nuclear inclusions could be the key trigger of the HRT-dependent, yet TIP-reinforced, resistance to TCV.

  2. The importance of water for the mechanical properties of insect cuticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocke, D.; Schmitz, H.

    2011-04-01

    Insect cuticle has a broad range of mechanical properties. As it has to provide a very efficient and lightweight skeleton, cuticle is a highly interesting composite-material and may serve as a natural model for new biomimetic materials. However, the water content of insect cuticle is of great importance for its material properties. Here, we present a new method to perform nano-indentation experiments in cuticle which has its full water content. Parts of the exoskeleton of Locusta migratoria were investigated to determine the elastic modulus (Er) and hardness (H) of the cuticle. Cuticle sections were measured in air and then submerged and measured in water. As insect cuticle is an anisotropic material, we performed nano-indentation in the normal as well as in the transverse direction and also tested different cuticle layers within each sample (exo-, meso- and endo-cuticle). It turned out that a change of the water content has a dramatic impact on the material properties of the cuticle. For example, the Er of submerged endo-cuticle turned out to be 75% lower than of endo-cuticle samples measured in air. Further, the proportion of material property values between different cuticle layers within a sample change dramatically after addition of water.

  3. Properties important to mixing and simulant recommendations for WTP full-scale vessel testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Martino, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-12-01

    Full Scale Vessel Testing (FSVT) is being planned by Bechtel National, Inc., to demonstrate the ability of the standard high solids vessel design (SHSVD) to meet mixing requirements over the range of fluid properties planned for processing in the Pretreatment Facility (PTF) of the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Testing will use simulated waste rather than actual Hanford waste. Therefore, the use of suitable simulants is critical to achieving the goals of the test program. WTP personnel requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to assist with development of simulants for use in FSVT. Among the tasks assigned to SRNL was to develop a list of waste properties that are important to pulse-jet mixer (PJM) performance in WTP vessels with elevated concentrations of solids.

  4. Theory for cross effect dynamic nuclear polarization under magic-angle spinning in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance: the importance of level crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Kent R; Tycko, Robert

    2012-08-28

    We present theoretical calculations of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) due to the cross effect in nuclear magnetic resonance under magic-angle spinning (MAS). Using a three-spin model (two electrons and one nucleus), cross effect DNP with MAS for electron spins with a large g-anisotropy can be seen as a series of spin transitions at avoided crossings of the energy levels, with varying degrees of adiabaticity. If the electron spin-lattice relaxation time T(1e) is large relative to the MAS rotation period, the cross effect can happen as two separate events: (i) partial saturation of one electron spin by the applied microwaves as one electron spin resonance (ESR) frequency crosses the microwave frequency and (ii) flip of all three spins, when the difference of the two ESR frequencies crosses the nuclear frequency, which transfers polarization to the nuclear spin if the two electron spins have different polarizations. In addition, adiabatic level crossings at which the two ESR frequencies become equal serve to maintain non-uniform saturation across the ESR line. We present analytical results based on the Landau-Zener theory of adiabatic transitions, as well as numerical quantum mechanical calculations for the evolution of the time-dependent three-spin system. These calculations provide insight into the dependence of cross effect DNP on various experimental parameters, including MAS frequency, microwave field strength, spin relaxation rates, hyperfine and electron-electron dipole coupling strengths, and the nature of the biradical dopants.

  5. Multifragmentation of a very heavy nuclear system (II): bulk properties and spinodal decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankland, J.D.; Rivet, M.F.; Borderie, B. [Paris-11 Univ., Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, 91 - Orsay (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    The properties of fragments and light charged particles emitted in multifragmentation of single sources formed in central 36 A.MeV Gd+U collisions are reviewed. Most of the products are isotropically distributed in the reaction c.m. Fragment kinetic energies reveal the onset of radial collective energy. A bulk effect is experimentally evidenced from the similarity of the charge distribution with that from the lighter 32 A.MeV Xe+Sn system. Spinodal decomposition of finite nuclear matter exhibits the same property in simulated central collisions for the two systems, and appears therefore as a possible mechanism at the origin of multifragmentation in this incident energy domain. (authors)

  6. Nuclear import of the thyroid hormone receptor α1 is mediated by importin 7, importin β1, and adaptor importin α1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggero, Vincent R; Zhang, Jibo; Parente, Laura E; Doshi, Yazdi; Dziedzic, Rose C; McGregor, Emma L; Varjabedian, Arev D; Schad, Sara E; Bondzi, Cornelius; Allison, Lizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    The thyroid hormone receptor α1 (TRα1) is a nuclear receptor for thyroid hormone that shuttles rapidly between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Our prior studies showed that nuclear import of TRα1 is directed by two nuclear localization signals, one in the N-terminal A/B domain and the other in the hinge domain. Here, we showed using in vitro nuclear import assays that TRα1 nuclear localization is temperature and energy-dependent and can be reconstituted by the addition of cytosol. In HeLa cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged TRα1, knockdown of importin 7, importin β1 and importin α1 by RNA interference, or treatment with an importin β1-specific inhibitor, significantly reduced nuclear localization of TRα1, while knockdown of other importins had no effect. Coimmunoprecipitation assays confirmed that TRα1 interacts with importin 7, as well as importin β1 and the adapter importin α1, suggesting that TRα1 trafficking into the nucleus is mediated by two distinct pathways.

  7. Warm unstable asymmetric nuclear matter: Critical properties and the density dependence of the symmetry energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, N.; Pais, H.; Providência, C.; Agrawal, B. K.

    2017-05-01

    The spinodal instabilities in hot asymmetric nuclear matter and some important critical parameters derived thereof are studied by using six different families of relativistic mean-field models. The slopes of the symmetry energy coefficient vary over a wide range within each family. The critical densities and proton fractions are more sensitive to the symmetry energy slope parameter at temperatures much below its critical value (Tc˜14 -16 MeV ). The spread in the critical proton fraction at a given symmetry energy slope parameter is noticeably larger near Tc, indicating that the equation of state of warm asymmetric nuclear matter at subsaturation densities is not sufficiently constrained. The distillation effects are sensitive to the density dependence of the symmetry energy at low temperatures which tend to wash out with increasing temperature.

  8. General aspects of the nucleon-nucleon interaction and nuclear matter properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plohl, Oliver

    2008-07-25

    The subject of the present thesis is at first the investigation of model independent properties of the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction in the vacuum concerning the relativistic structure and the implications for nuclear matter properties. Relativistic and non-relativistic meson-exchange potentials, phenomenological potentials s well as potentials based on effective field theory (EFT) are therefore mapped on a relativistic operator basis given by the Clifford Algebra. This allows to compare the various approaches at the level of covariant amplitudes where a remarkable agreement is found. Furthermore, the relativistic self-energy is determined in the Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation. The appearance of a scalar and vector field of several hundred MeV magnitude is a general feature of relativistic descriptions of nuclear matter. Within QCD sum rules these fields arise due to the density dependence of chiral condensates. We find that independent of the applied NN interaction large scalar and vector fields are generated when the symmetries of the Lorentz group are restored. In the framework of chiral EFT (chEFT) it is shown, that these fields are generated by short-range next-to-leading order (NLO) contact terms, which are connected to the spin-orbit interaction. To estimate the effect arising from NN correlations the equation of state of nuclear and neutron matter is calculated in the Brueckner-HF (BHF) approximation applying chEFT. Although, as expected, a clear over-binding is found (at NLO a saturating behavior is observed), the symmetry energy shows realistic properties when compared to phenomenological potentials (within the same approximation) and other approaches. The investigation of the pion mass dependence within chEFT at NLO shows that the magnitude of the scalar and vector fields persists in the chiral limit - nuclear matter is still bound. In contrast to the case of a pion mass larger than the physical one the binding energy and saturation density are

  9. On the importance of nuclear quantum motions in near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy of molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Craig P.; Uejio, Janel S.; Saykally, Richard J.; Prendergast, David

    2009-02-26

    We report the effects of sampling nuclear quantum motion with path integral molecular dynamics (PIMD) on calculations of the nitrogen K-edge spectra of two isolated organic molecules. S-triazine, a prototypical aromatic molecule occupying primarily its vibrational ground state at room temperature, exhibits substantially improved spectral agreement when nuclear quantum effects are included via PIMD, as compared to the spectra obtained from either a single fixed-nuclei based calculation or from a series of configurations extracted from a classical molecular dynamics trajectory. Nuclear quantum dynamics can accurately explain the intrinsic broadening of certain features. Glycine, the simplest amino acid, is problematic due to large spectral variations associated with multiple energetically accessible conformations at the experimental temperature. This work highlights the sensitivity of NEXAFS to quantum nuclear motions in molecules, and the necessity of accurately sampling such quantum motion when simulating their NEXAFS spectra.

  10. Experimental approaches for determining in-medium properties of hadrons from photo-nuclear reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Metag, Volker; Berghäuser, Henning; Friedrich, Stefan; Lemmer, Boris; Mosel, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Properties of hadrons and their modification within strongly interacting matter provide a link between experimental observables and Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) in the non-perturbative sector. The sensitivity of various observables to in-medium modifications of mesons is discussed. The transparency ratio, comparing the meson yield per nucleon within a nucleus relative to that on a free nucleon, is related to the in-medium width of the meson. While the transparency ratio can be determined for any meson lifetime the meson line shape only contains information on in-medium properties if the meson is so short-lived that it decays in the medium after production in a nuclear reaction. Light vector mesons are thus particularly suited for these investigations. The momentum distribution of mesons produced in a photo-nuclear reaction as well as the excitation function also show some sensitivity to different in-medium modification scenarios. As an example, high statistics data taken at MAMI-C on the photoproduction of \\o...

  11. The properties of nuclear matter with lattice $NN$ potential in relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Jinniu; Shen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    We study the properties of nuclear matter with lattice nucleon-nucleon ($NN$) potential in the relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (RBHF) theory. To use this potential in such a microscopic many-body theory, we firstly have to construct a one-boson-exchange potential (OBEP) based on the latest lattice $NN$ potential. Three mesons, pion, $\\sigma$ meson, and $\\omega$ meson, are considered. Their coupling constants and cut-off momenta are determined by fitting the on-shell behaviors and phase shifts of the lattice force, respectively. Therefore, we obtain two parameter sets of the OBEP potential (named as LOBEP1 and LOBEP2) with these two fitting ways. We calculate the properties of symmetric and pure neutron matter with LOBEP1 and LOBEP2. In non-relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock case, the binding energies of symmetric nuclear matter are around $-3$ and $-5$ MeV at saturation densities, while it becomes $-8$ and $-12$ MeV in relativistic framework with $^1S_0,~^3S_1,$ and $^3D_1$ channels using our two paramet...

  12. Nuclear Import and Dimerization of Tomato ASR1, a Water Stress-Inducible Protein Exclusive to Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardi, Martiniano M.; Guaimas, Francisco F.; González, Rodrigo M.; Burrieza, Hernán P.; López-Fernández, María P.; Estévez, José M.; Iusem, Norberto D.

    2012-01-01

    The ASR (for ABA/water stress/ripening) protein family, first described in tomato as nuclear and involved in adaptation to dry climates, is widespread in the plant kingdom, including crops of high agronomic relevance. We show both nuclear and cytosolic localization for ASR1 (the most studied member of the family) in histological plant samples by immunodetection, typically found in small proteins readily diffusing through nuclear pores. Indeed, a nuclear localization was expected based on sorting prediction software, which also highlight a monopartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) in the primary sequence. However, here we prove that such an “NLS” of ASR1 from tomato is dispensable and non-functional, being the transport of the protein to the nucleus due to simple diffusion across nuclear pores. We attribute such a targeting deficiency to the misplacing in that cryptic NLS of two conserved contiguous lysine residues. Based on previous in vitro experiments regarding quaternary structure, we also carried out live cell imaging assays through confocal microscopy to explore dimer formation in planta. We found homodimers in both the cytosol and the nucleus and demonstrated that assembly of both subunits together can occur in the cytosol, giving rise to translocation of preformed dimers. The presence of dimers was further corroborated by means of in vivo crosslinking of nuclei followed by SDS-PAGE. PMID:22899993

  13. Nuclear import and dimerization of tomato ASR1, a water stress-inducible protein exclusive to plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martiniano M Ricardi

    Full Text Available The ASR (for ABA/water stress/ripening protein family, first described in tomato as nuclear and involved in adaptation to dry climates, is widespread in the plant kingdom, including crops of high agronomic relevance. We show both nuclear and cytosolic localization for ASR1 (the most studied member of the family in histological plant samples by immunodetection, typically found in small proteins readily diffusing through nuclear pores. Indeed, a nuclear localization was expected based on sorting prediction software, which also highlight a monopartite nuclear localization signal (NLS in the primary sequence. However, here we prove that such an "NLS" of ASR1 from tomato is dispensable and non-functional, being the transport of the protein to the nucleus due to simple diffusion across nuclear pores. We attribute such a targeting deficiency to the misplacing in that cryptic NLS of two conserved contiguous lysine residues. Based on previous in vitro experiments regarding quaternary structure, we also carried out live cell imaging assays through confocal microscopy to explore dimer formation in planta. We found homodimers in both the cytosol and the nucleus and demonstrated that assembly of both subunits together can occur in the cytosol, giving rise to translocation of preformed dimers. The presence of dimers was further corroborated by means of in vivo crosslinking of nuclei followed by SDS-PAGE.

  14. Nuclear import and dimerization of tomato ASR1, a water stress-inducible protein exclusive to plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardi, Martiniano M; Guaimas, Francisco F; González, Rodrigo M; Burrieza, Hernán P; López-Fernández, María P; Jares-Erijman, Elizabeth A; Estévez, José M; Iusem, Norberto D

    2012-01-01

    The ASR (for ABA/water stress/ripening) protein family, first described in tomato as nuclear and involved in adaptation to dry climates, is widespread in the plant kingdom, including crops of high agronomic relevance. We show both nuclear and cytosolic localization for ASR1 (the most studied member of the family) in histological plant samples by immunodetection, typically found in small proteins readily diffusing through nuclear pores. Indeed, a nuclear localization was expected based on sorting prediction software, which also highlight a monopartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) in the primary sequence. However, here we prove that such an "NLS" of ASR1 from tomato is dispensable and non-functional, being the transport of the protein to the nucleus due to simple diffusion across nuclear pores. We attribute such a targeting deficiency to the misplacing in that cryptic NLS of two conserved contiguous lysine residues. Based on previous in vitro experiments regarding quaternary structure, we also carried out live cell imaging assays through confocal microscopy to explore dimer formation in planta. We found homodimers in both the cytosol and the nucleus and demonstrated that assembly of both subunits together can occur in the cytosol, giving rise to translocation of preformed dimers. The presence of dimers was further corroborated by means of in vivo crosslinking of nuclei followed by SDS-PAGE.

  15. Deforestation effects on biological and other important soil properties in an upland watershed of Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.M. Sirajul Haque; Sanatan Das Gupta; Sohag Miah

    2014-01-01

    Deforestation occurs at an alarming rate in upland watersheds of Bangladesh and has many detrimental effects on the environment. This study reports the effects of deforestation on soil biological proper-ties along with some important physicochemical parameters of a southern upland watershed in Bangladesh. Soils were sampled at 4 paired sites, each pair representing a deforested site and a forested site, and having similar topographical characteristics. Significantly fewer (p≤0.001) fungi and bacteria, and lower microbial respiration, active microbial biomass, metabolic and microbial quotients were found in soils of the deforested sites. Soil physical properties such as moisture content, water holding capacity, and chemical properties such as organic matter, total N, avail-able P and EC were also lower in deforested soils. Bulk density and pH were significantly higher in deforested soils. Available Ca and Mg were inconsistent between the two land uses at all the paired sites. Re-duced abundance and biomass of soil mesofauna were recorded in defor-ested soils. However, soil anecic species were more abundant in defor-ested soils than epigeic and endogeic species, which were more abundant in forested soils than on deforested sites.

  16. Local fracture properties and dissimilar weld integrity in nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guozhen; Wang, Haitao; Xuan, Fuzhen; Tu, Shantung; Liu, Changjun

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, the local fracture properties in a Alloy52M dissimilar metal welded joint (DMWJ) between A508 ferritic steel and 316 L stainless steel in nuclear power plants were investigated by using the single-edge notched bend (SENB) specimens, and their use in integrity assessment of DMWJ structures was analyzed. The results show that the local fracture resistance in the DMWJ is determined by local fracture mechanism, and which is mainly related to the microstructures and local strength mismatches of materials at the crack locations. The initial cracks always grow towards the materials with lower strength, and the crack path deviation is mainly controlled by the local strength mismatch. If the local fracture properties could not be used for cracks in the heat affected zones (HAZs), interface and near interface zones, the use of the fracture properties ( J-resistance curves) of base metals or weld metals following present codes will unavoidably produce non-conservative (unsafe) or excessive conservative assessment results. In most cases, the assessment results will be potentially unsafe. Therefore, it is recommended to obtain and use local mechanical and fracture properties in the integrity assessment of DMWJs.

  17. Ciliary Entry of the Hedgehog Transcriptional Activator Gli2 Is Mediated by the Nuclear Import Machinery but Differs from Nuclear Transport in Being Imp-α/β1-Independent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrado, Belén; Graña, Martín; Badano, José L.; Irigoín, Florencia

    2016-01-01

    Gli2 is the primary transcriptional activator of Hedgehog signalling in mammals. Upon stimulation of the pathway, Gli2 moves into the cilium before reaching the nucleus. However, the mechanisms underlying its entry into the cilium are not completely understood. Since several similarities have been reported between nuclear and ciliary import, we investigated if the nuclear import machinery participates in Gli2 ciliary entry. Here we show that while two conserved classical nuclear localization signals mediate Gli2 nuclear localization via importin (Imp)-α/β1, these sequences are not required for Gli2 ciliary import. However, blocking Imp-mediated transport through overexpression of GTP-locked Ran reduced the percentage of Gli2 positive cilia, an effect that was not explained by increased CRM1-dependent export of Gli2 from the cilium. We explored the participation of Imp-β2 in Gli2 ciliary traffic and observed that this transporter is involved in moving Gli2 into the cilium, as has been described for other ciliary proteins. In addition, our data indicate that Imp-β2 might also collaborate in Gli2 nuclear entry. How does Imp-β2 determine the final destination of a protein that can localize to two distinct subcellular compartments remains an open question. Therefore, our data shows that the nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling machinery plays a critical role mediating the subcellular distribution of Gli2 and the activation of the pathway, but distinct importins likely play a differential role mediating its ciliary and nuclear translocation. PMID:27579771

  18. Recent progress in EDF-based methods applied to nuclear properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan E.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent results obtained with energy density functional (EDF based methods are presented, focused on the nuclear phenomenology. EDF approaches aim for an universal description of the nuclear phenomena over the nuclear chart. Achievements from large to small nuclear systems are depicted: equation of state of nuclear matter, heavy and light nuclei. Dynamical aspects such as nuclear excitations, decay and reactions are also presented. EDF methods are progressing towards an unified and systematic description of the rich variety of the nuclear phenomena such as quantum liquid and cluster states, or nuclear structure and reactions.

  19. Effects of carbon and nitrogen on the properties of austenitic stainless steel for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y. S. [Andong National Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S. H.; Park, Y. S. [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, W. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    LMFBR uses Na as a cooling material not water. Na has a property to react with water and air promptly and its corrosivity is very high. Then the thickness of steam generator tubing should be designed more than 4 mm. Like these, the properties of steam generator tubing are very important for the safety of LMFBR. Therefore, the systematic and long-term research about the materials for LMFBR should be proceeded. To simulate the selective removal of alloying elements in LMFBR, we made some stainless steels varying carbon and nitrogen contents and did evaluate the microstructure, mechanical properties, and corrosion resistance.

  20. Nucleon Finite Volume Effect and Nuclear Matter Properties in a Relativistic Mean-Field Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. Costa; A.J. Santiago; H. Rodrigues; J. Sa Borges

    2006-01-01

    Effects of excluded volume of nucleons on nuclear matter are studied, and the nuclear properties that follow from different relativistic mean-field model parametrizations are compared. We show that, for all tested parametrizations,the resulting volume energy a1 and the symmetry energy J are around the acceptable values of 16 MeV and 30 MeV,and the density symmetry L is around 100 Me V. On the other hand, models that consider only linear terms lead to incompressibility K0 much higher than expected. For most parameter sets there exists a critical point (ρc,δc), where the minimum and the maximum of the equation of state are coincident and the incompressibility equals zero. This critical point depends on the excluded volume parameter r. If this parameter is larger than 0.5 fm, there is no critical point and the pure neutron matter is predicted to be bound. The maximum value for neutron star mass is 1.85M⊙, which is in agreement with the mass of the heaviest observed neutron star 4U0900-40 and corresponds to r = 0.72 fm. We also show that the light neutron star mass (1.2M⊙) is obtained for r (≌) 0.9 fm.

  1. Residual HIV-1 DNA Flap-independent nuclear import of cPPT/CTS double mutant viruses does not support spreading infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iglesias Candela

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 central DNA Flap is generated during reverse transcription as a result of (+ strand initiation at the central polypurine tract (cPPT and termination after a ca. 100 bp strand displacement at the central termination sequence (CTS. The central DNA Flap is a determinant of HIV-1 nuclear import, however, neither cPPT nor CTS mutations entirely abolish nuclear import and infection. Therefore, to determine whether or not the DNA Flap is essential for HIV-1 nuclear import, we generated double mutant (DM viruses, combining cPPT and CTS mutations to abolish DNA Flap formation. Results The combination of cPPT and CTS mutations reduced the proportion of viruses forming the central DNA Flap at the end of reverse transcription and further decreased virus infectivity in one-cycle titration assays. The most affected DM viruses were unable to establish a spreading infection in the highly permissive MT4 cell line, nor in human primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, indicating that the DNA Flap is required for virus replication. Surprisingly, we found that DM viruses still maintained residual nuclear import levels, amounting to 5-15% of wild-type virus, as assessed by viral DNA circle quantification. Alu-PCR quantification of integrated viral genome also indicated 5-10% residual integration levels compared to wild-type virus. Conclusion This work establishes that the central DNA Flap is required for HIV-1 spreading infection but points to a residual DNA Flap independent nuclear import, whose functional significance remains unclear since it is not sufficient to support viral replication.

  2. Decorin expression is important for age-related changes in tendon structure and mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkman, Andrew A.; Buckley, Mark R.; Mienaltowski, Michael J.; Adams, Sheila M.; Thomas, Stephen J.; Satchell, Lauren; Kumar, Akash; Pathmanathan, Lydia; Beason, David P.; Iozzo, Renato V.; Birk, David E.; Soslowsky, Louis J.

    2013-01-01

    The aging population is at an increased risk of tendon injury and tendinopathy. Elucidating the molecular basis of tendon aging is crucial to understanding the age-related changes in structure and function in this vulnerable tissue. In this study, the structural and functional features of tendon aging are investigated. In addition, the roles of decorin and biglycan in the aging process were analyzed using transgenic mice at both mature and aged time points. Our hypothesis is that the increase in tendon injuries in the aging population is the result of altered structural properties that reduce the biomechanical function of the tendon and consequently increase susceptibility to injury. Decorin and biglycan are important regulators of tendon structure and therefore, we further hypothesized that decreased function in aged tendons is partly the result of altered decorin and biglycan expression. Biomechanical analyses of mature (day 150) and aged (day 570) patellar tendons revealed deteriorating viscoelastic properties with age. Histology and polarized light microscopy demonstrated decreased cellularity, alterations in tenocyte shape, and reduced collagen fiber alignment in the aged tendons. Ultrastructural analysis of fibril diameter distributions indicated an altered distribution in aged tendons with an increase of large diameter fibrils. Aged wild type tendons maintained expression of decorin which was associated with the structural and functional changes seen in aged tendons. Aged patellar tendons exhibited altered and generally inferior properties across multiple assays. However, decorin-null tendons exhibited significantly decreased effects of aging compared to the other genotypes. The amelioration of the functional deficits seen in the absence of decorin in aged tendons was associated with altered tendon fibril structure. Fibril diameter distributions in the decorin-null aged tendons were comparable to those observed in the mature wild type tendon with the absence

  3. Investigations on Important Properties of the 10 cm x 10 cm GEM Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Saenboonruang, Kiadtisak; Kulasri, Kittipong; Ritthirong, Anawat

    2015-01-01

    The Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector is one of promising particle and radiation detectors that has been improved greatly from previous gas detectors. The improvement includes better spatial resolutions, higher detection rate capabilities, and flexibilities in designs. In particular, the 10 cm x 10 cm GEM prototype is designed and provided by the Gas Detectors Development group (GDD) at CERN, Switzerland. With its simplicity in operations and designs, while still maintaining high qualities, the GEM prototype is suitable for both start-up and advanced researches. This article aims to report the investigations on some important properties of the 10 cm x 10 cm GEM detector using current measurement and signal counting. Results have shown that gains of the GEM prototype exponentially increase as voltage supplied to the detector increases, while the detector reaches full efficiency (plateau region) when the voltage is greater than 4100 V. In terms of signal sharing between X and Y strips of the readout, X str...

  4. SOME IMPORTANT STATISTICAL PROPERTIES, INFORMATION MEASURES AND ESTIMATIONS OF SIZE BIASED GENERALIZED GAMMA DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Reshi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new class of Size-biased Generalized Gamma (SBGG distribution is defined. A Size-biased Generalized Gamma (SBGG distribution, a particular case of weighted Generalized Gamma distribution, taking the weights as the variate values has been defined. The important statistical properties including hazard functions, reverse hazard functions, mode, moment generating function, characteristic function, Shannon’s entropy, generalized entropy and Fisher’s information matrix of the new model have been derived and studied. Here, we also study SBGG entropy estimation, Akaike and Bayesian information criterion. A likelihood ratio test for size-biasedness is conducted. The estimation of parameters is obtained by employing the classical methods of estimation especially method of moments and maximum likelihood estimator.

  5. Synchrony in Parkinson’s disease: Importance of intrinsic properties of the external globus pallidus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina C. Schwab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms for the emergence and transmission of synchronized oscillations in Parkinson’s disease, which are potentially causal to motor deficits, remain debated. Aside from the motor cortex and the subthalamic nucleus, the external globus pallidus (GPe has been shown to be essential for the maintenance of these oscillations and plays a major role in sculpting neural network activity in the basal ganglia (BG. While neural activity of the healthy GPe shows almost no correlations between pairs of neurons, prominent synchronization in the β frequency band arises after dopamine depletion. Several studies have proposed that this shift is due to network interactions between the different BG nuclei, including the GPe. However, recent studies demonstrate an important role for the properties of neurons within the GPe.In this review, we will discuss these intrinsic GPe properties and review proposed mechanisms for activity decorrelation within the dopamine-intact GPe. Failure of the GPe to desynchronize correlated inputs can be a possible explanation for synchronization in the whole BG. Potential triggers of synchronization involve the enhancement of GPe-GPe inhibition and changes in ion channel function in GPe neurons.

  6. The importance of temperature dependent energy gap in the understanding of high temperature thermoelectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Saurabh; Pandey, Sudhir K.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we show the importance of temperature dependent energy band gap, E g (T), in understanding the high temperature thermoelectric (TE) properties of material by considering LaCoO3 (LCO) and ZnV2O4 (ZVO) compounds as a case study. For the fix value of band gap, E g , deviation in the values of α has been observed above 360 K and 400 K for LCO and ZVO compounds, respectively. These deviation can be overcomed by consideration of temperature dependent band gap. The change in used value of E g with respect to temperature is ∼4 times larger than that of In As. This large temperature dependence variation in E g can be attributed to decrement in the effective on-site Coulomb interaction due to lattice expansion. At 600 K, the value of ZT for n and p-doped, LCO is ∼0.35 which suggest that it can be used as a potential material for TE device. This work clearly suggest that one should consider the temperature dependent band gap in predicting the high temperature TE properties of insulating materials.

  7. Analytic nuclear forces and molecular properties from full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Robert E; Overy, Catherine; Knowles, Peter J; Alavi, Ali; Booth, George H

    2015-01-01

    Unbiased stochastic sampling of the one- and two-body reduced density matrices is achieved in full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo with the introduction of a second, "replica" ensemble of walkers, whose population evolves in imaginary time independently from the first, and which entails only modest additional computational overheads. The matrices obtained from this approach are shown to be representative of full configuration-interaction quality, and hence provide a realistic opportunity to achieve high-quality results for a range of properties whose operators do not necessarily commute with the hamiltonian. A density-matrix formulated quasi-variational energy estimator having been already proposed and investigated, the present work extends the scope of the theory to take in studies of analytic nuclear forces, molecular dipole moments and polarisabilities, with extensive comparison to exact results where possible. These new results confirm the suitability of the sampling technique and, where suf...

  8. Oscillator strengths, first-order properties, and nuclear gradients for local ADC(2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schütz, Martin, E-mail: martin.schuetz@chemie.uni-regensburg.de [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, University of Regensburg, Universitätsstraße 31, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2015-06-07

    We describe theory and implementation of oscillator strengths, orbital-relaxed first-order properties, and nuclear gradients for the local algebraic diagrammatic construction scheme through second order. The formalism is derived via time-dependent linear response theory based on a second-order unitary coupled cluster model. The implementation presented here is a modification of our previously developed algorithms for Laplace transform based local time-dependent coupled cluster linear response (CC2LR); the local approximations thus are state specific and adaptive. The symmetry of the Jacobian leads to considerable simplifications relative to the local CC2LR method; as a result, a gradient evaluation is about four times less expensive. Test calculations show that in geometry optimizations, usually very similar geometries are obtained as with the local CC2LR method (provided that a second-order method is applicable). As an exemplary application, we performed geometry optimizations on the low-lying singlet states of chlorophyllide a.

  9. Nuclear Structure and Reaction Properties of Ne, Mg and Si Isotopes with RMF Densities

    CERN Document Server

    Panda, R N; Patra, S K

    2013-01-01

    We have studied nuclear structure and reaction properties of Ne, Mg and Si isotopes, using relativistic mean field densities, in the frame work of Glauber model. Total reaction cross section $\\sigma_R$ for Ne isotopes on 12C target have been calculated at incident energy 240 MeV. The results are compared with the experimental data and with the recent theoretical study [W. Horiuchi et al., Phys. Rev. C, 86, 024614 (2012)]. Study of $\\sigma_R$ using deformed densities have shown a good agreement with the data. We have also predicted total reaction cross section $\\sigma_R$ for Ne, Mg and Si isotopes as projectiles and 12C as target at different incident energies.

  10. Heavy-flavor production and medium properties in high-energy nuclear collisions. What next?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarts, G.; Allton, C. [Swansea University, Swansea (United Kingdom); Aichelin, J.; Gossiaux, P.B.; Nahrgang, M. [Universite de Nantes, SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Nantes (France); Arnaldi, R.; Scomparin, E. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Bass, S.A. [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Bedda, C.; Grelli, A.; Trzeciak, B.; Doremalen, L. van; Vermunt, L.; Vigolo, S. [Utrecht University, Institute for Subatomic Physics, Utrecht (Netherlands); Brambilla, N. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Garching (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institute for Advanced Study, Munich (Germany); Bratkovskaya, E. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Research Division and ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, Darmstadt (Germany); Frankfurt University, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Braun-Munzinger, P. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Research Division and ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, Darmstadt (Germany); Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, Physikalisches Institut, Heidelberg (Germany); Bruno, G.E. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Bari (Italy); European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Dahms, T. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Garching (Germany); Das, S.K. [University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Dembinski, H.; Schmelling, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Djordjevic, M. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Physics, Belgrade (Serbia); Ferreiro, E. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Frawley, A. [Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Jo, M.; Nguyen, M. [Ecole Polytechnique, Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Palaiseau (France); He, M. [Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics, Nanjing (China); Horowitz, W.A. [University of Cape Town, Department of Physics, Rondebosch (South Africa); Innocenti, G.M. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Kaczmarek, O. [Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan (China); University of Bielefeld, Bielefeld (Germany); Kuijer, P.G. [National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Laine, M. [University of Bern, AEC, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Bern (Switzerland); Lombardo, M.P. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Mischke, A. [Utrecht University, Institute for Subatomic Physics, Utrecht (Netherlands); National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Munhoz, M.G.; Suaide, A.A.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Oliveira da Silva, A.C.; Zanoli, H.J.C. [Utrecht University, Institute for Subatomic Physics, Utrecht (Netherlands); Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Petreczky, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Rothkopf, A. [Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Heidelberg (Germany); Song, T. [Frankfurt University, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Stachel, J. [Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, Physikalisches Institut, Heidelberg (Germany); Tolos, L. [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Frankfurt (Germany); Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (IEEC-CSIC), Bellaterra (Spain); Uras, A. [Domaine Scientifique de la Doua, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Xu, N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Ye, Z. [University of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Zhuang, P. [Tsinghua University, Beijng Shi (China)

    2017-05-15

    Open and hidden heavy-flavor physics in high-energy nuclear collisions are entering a new and exciting stage towards reaching a clearer understanding of the new experimental results with the possibility to link them directly to the advancement in lattice Quantum Chromo-Dynamics (QCD). Recent results from experiments and theoretical developments regarding open and hidden heavy-flavor dynamics have been debated at the Lorentz Workshop Tomography of the Quark-Gluon Plasma with Heavy Quarks, which was held in October 2016 in Leiden, The Netherlands. In this contribution, we summarize identified common understandings and developed strategies for the upcoming five years, which aim at achieving a profound knowledge of the dynamical properties of the quark-gluon plasma. (orig.)

  11. Inhibition of nuclear import and cell-cycle progression by mutated forms of the dynamin-like GTPase MxB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Megan C; Raposo, Graça; Lemmon, Mark A

    2004-06-15

    Mx proteins form a subfamily of the dynamin-like GTPases, which have well established roles in cellular trafficking. Some Mx proteins (e.g., human MxA) have antiviral activity and are tightly regulated by type I IFNs. Others (e.g., human MxB) lack antiviral activity and are thought to have normal cellular functions that remain undefined. Consistent with this hypothesis, we report that MxB is expressed without IFN treatment. MxB seems to be exclusively extranuclear and is concentrated at the cytoplasmic face of nuclear pores, suggesting a role in their regulation. We find that expression of dominant negative (GTPase-defective) MxB mutants efficiently blocks nuclear import and causes a delay in G(1)/S cell-cycle progression. MxB depletion using RNA interference (RNAi) leads to a similar cell-cycle defect but does not block nuclear import. MxB therefore seems not to be required for nuclear import per se but may instead regulate its efficiency and/or kinetics. These studies indicate an unexpected role for a dynamin-like protein in nucleocytoplasmic trafficking and suggest that a related function might be usurped by its antiviral relatives.

  12. Asymmetric nuclear matter and neutron star properties within the extended Brueckner theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassaneen, Khaled S.A. [Sohag University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Sohag (Egypt); Taif University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Taif (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-01-15

    Microscopically, the equation of state (EOS) and other properties of asymmetric nuclear matter at zero temperature have been investigated extensively by adopting the non-relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) and the extended BHF approaches by using the self-consistent Green's function approach or by including a phenomenological three-body force. Once three-body forces are introduced, the phenomenological saturation point is reproduced and the theory is applied to the study of neutron star properties. We can calculate the total mass and radius for neutron stars using various equations of state at high densities in β-equilibrium without hyperons. A comparison with other microscopic predictions based on non-relativistic and density-dependent relativistic mean-field calculations has been done. It is found that relativistic EOS yields however larger mass and radius for neutron star than predictions based on non-relativistic approaches. Also the three-body force plays a crucial role to deduce the theoretical value of the maximum mass of neutron stars in agreement with recent measurements of the neutron star mass. (orig.)

  13. Two lanthanide-hydroxo clusters with different nuclearity: Synthesis, structures, luminescent and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi-Li; Zhu, Cancan; Zhang, Xue-Li; Hu, Ming; Wang, Ai-Ling; Xiao, Hong-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Under the identical reaction conditions, two new TbIII and SmIII-hydroxo clusters with different nuclearity have been prepared and characterized by X-ray crystallography, spectroscopic methods and magnetic measurements. Solid-state structure analyses reveal that the TbIII cluster shows a pentanuclear square pyramidal shape of the composition [Tb5(μ3-OH)4(μ4-OH)(dbm)10]·2H2O (1, dbm- = dibenzoylmethanate) with the dbm ligands presenting two types of coordination modes [η2-and (μ-O)-η2-]. The SmIII species presents a tetranuclear parallelogram structure formulated as [Sm4(μ3-OH)2(dbm)10]·12H2O (2), and three types of coordination modes [η2-, (μ-O)-η2- and (μ-O)2-η2-] for dbm ligands are observed. The measurements of magnetic properties indicate that the direct-current (dc) magnetic behaviors of two clusters mainly result from the thermal depopulation of the Stark sublevels of the TbIII and SmIII ions, respectively. Meanwhile, alternating current (ac) magnetic susceptibility of 1 is also assessed. Investigations on luminescence properties show that 2 displays characteristic emission of the SmIII ion in visible range, while 1 does not exhibit any detectable emission. The interpretations of different emission behaviors for 1 and 2 are also presented in detail.

  14. Geochemical properties and nuclear chemical characteristics of Oklo natural fission reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidaka, Hiroshi [Hiroshima Univ., Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1997-07-01

    There are six uranium deposits in the Gabonese Republic in the cnetral Africa. `Fission reactor zone`, the fission chain reactions generated about 200 billion years ago, was existed in a part of them. CEA begun geochemical researches of Oklo deposits etc. in 1991. The geochemical and nuclear chemical properties of Oklo were reviewed from the results of researches. Oklo deposits is consisted of main five sedimentary faces such as sandstone (FA), Black Shale formation (FB), mudstone (FC), tuff (FD) and volcaniclastic sandstone (FE) from the bottom on the base rock of granite in the Precambrian era. Uranium is enriched in the upper part of FA layer and the under part of FB layer. {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U, U content, fission proportion, duration time, neutron fluence, temperature, restitution factor of {sup 235}U and epithermal index ({gamma}) were investigated and compared. The geochemical properties of Oklo are as followed: large enrich of uranium, the abundance ratio of {sup 235}U as same as that of enriched uranium, interaction of natural water and small rear earth elements. These factors made casually Oklo fission reactor. (S.Y.)

  15. INFLUENCE OF THE DELTA-DELTA-MESON COUPLING ON NUCLEON AND DELTA PROPERTIES IN NUCLEAR-MATTER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEJONG, F; MALFLIET, R

    1994-01-01

    We introduce a scalar and a vector DELTADELTA-meson vertex in the relativistic Dirac-Brueckner model for nuclear matter and investigate the consequences. We find small effects on the effective nucleon properties. The effects in the DELTA sector are more profound, although the DELTA is still effectiv

  16. Inulin and Oligofructosis: a review about functional properties, prebiotic effects and importance for food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Celia de Oliveira Hauly

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays consumers are more conscious about the relation between food and health. Therefore food industry has been looking for food that has a lot of benefits besides good flavor and appearance. Inulin and oligofructose are fructose polimers, vastly found in plants as storage carbohydrates. They present important functional for the food industry. Both inulin and oligofructose have been used as fiber bulk in food products. Differently from other fibers, they do not add flavor, allowing the food to be improved without changing its viscosity. Inulin and oligofructose have similar nutritional properties. Inulin is more indicated for obtaining products with a low fat content such as ice cream, cake and soup, while oligofructose is indicated for yogurt with a low caloric value and in order to mask the residual flavor from high intensity sweeteners used in food preparation. Research has shown that inulin and oligofructose have prebiotic effects because they are not digestible and they can develop bifidogenic effects, improving the intestinal microflora. The simultaneous use of inulin and oligofructose with probiotic agents in food is recommended for symbiotic effects.

  17. Physical and chemical properties of some imported woods and their degradation by termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanbhag, Rashmi R; Sundararaj, R

    2013-01-01

    The influence of physical and chemical properties of 20 species of imported wood on degradation of the wood by termites under field conditions was studied. The wood species studied were: Sycamore maple, Acer pseudoplatanus L. (Sapindales: Sapindaceae) (from two countries), Camphor, Dryobalanops aromatic C.F.Gaertner (Malvales: Dipterocarpaceae), Beech, Fagus grandifolia Ehrhart (Fagales: Fagaceae), F. sylvatica L. (from two countries), Oak, Quercus robur L., Ash, Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl (Lamiales: Oleaceae), F. excelsior L., Padauk, Pterocarpus soyauxii Taubert (Fabales: Fabaceae), (from two countries), Jamba, Xylia dolabrifiormis Roxburgh, Shorea laevis Ridley (Malvales: Dipterocarpaceae), S. macoptera Dyer, S. robusta Roth, Teak, Tectona grandis L.f. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) (from five countries), and rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis Müller Argoviensis (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) from India. The termites present were: Odontotermes horni (Wasmann) (Isoptera: Termitidae), O. feae, O. wallonensis, and O. obeus (Rambur). A significant conelation was found between density, cellulose, lignin, and total phenolic contents of the wood and degradation by termites. The higher the density of the wood, the lower the degradation. Similarly, higher amount of lignin and total phenolic contents ensured higher resistance, whereas cellulose drives the termites towards the wood.

  18. Physical and Chemical Properties of Some Imported Woods and their Degradation by Termites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanbhag, Rashmi R.; Sundararaj, R.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of physical and chemical properties of 20 species of imported wood on degradation of the wood by termites under field conditions was studied. The wood species studied were: Sycamore maple, Acer pseudoplatanus L. (Sapindales: Sapindaceae) (from two countries), Camphor, Dryobalanops aromatic C.F.Gaertner (Malvales: Dipterocarpaceae), Beech, Fagus grandifolia Ehrhart (Fagales: Fagaceae), F. sylvatica L. (from two countries), Oak, Quercus robur L., Ash, Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl (Lamiales: Oleaceae), F. excelsior L., Padauk, Pterocarpus soyauxii Taubert (Fabales: Fabaceae), (from two countries), Jamba, Xylia dolabrifiormis Roxburgh, Shorea laevis Ridley (Malvales: Dipterocarpaceae), S. macoptera Dyer, S. robusta Roth, Teak, Tectona grandis L.f. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) (from five countries), and rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis Müller Argoviensis (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) from India. The termites present were: Odontotermes horni (Wasmann) (Isoptera: Termitidae), O. feae, O. wallonensis, and O. obeus (Rambur). A significant conelation was found between density, cellulose, lignin, and total phenolic contents of the wood and degradation by termites. The higher the density of the wood, the lower the degradation. Similarly, higher amount of lignin and total phenolic contents ensured higher resistance, whereas cellulose drives the termites towards the wood. PMID:23906349

  19. Importance of introns in the growth regulation of mRNA levels of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen gene.

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    The steady-state mRNA levels of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) gene are growth regulated. We have begun to identify the elements in the human PCNA gene that participate in its growth regulation by transfecting appropriate constructs in BALB/c3T3 cells. The results can be summarized as follows. (i) The 400 base pairs of the 5'-flanking sequence of the human PCNA gene upstream of the preferred cap site are sufficient for directing expression of a heterologous cDNA (S. Travali, D....

  20. The importance of input variables to a neural network fault-diagnostic system for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanc, T.L.

    1992-12-31

    This thesis explores safety enhancement for nuclear power plants. Emergency response systems currently in use depend mainly on automatic systems engaging when certain parameters go beyond a pre-specified safety limit. Often times the operator has little or no opportunity to react since a fast scram signal shuts down the reactor smoothly and efficiently. These accidents are of interest to technical support personnel since examining the conditions that gave rise to these situations help determine causality. In many other cases an automated fault-diagnostic advisor would be a valuable tool in assisting the technicians and operators to determine what just happened and why.

  1. The importance of input variables to a neural network fault-diagnostic system for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanc, T.L.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis explores safety enhancement for nuclear power plants. Emergency response systems currently in use depend mainly on automatic systems engaging when certain parameters go beyond a pre-specified safety limit. Often times the operator has little or no opportunity to react since a fast scram signal shuts down the reactor smoothly and efficiently. These accidents are of interest to technical support personnel since examining the conditions that gave rise to these situations help determine causality. In many other cases an automated fault-diagnostic advisor would be a valuable tool in assisting the technicians and operators to determine what just happened and why.

  2. Chiral thermodynamics of nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorilla, Salvatore

    2012-10-23

    The equation of state of nuclear matter is calculated at finite temperature in the framework of in-medium chiral perturbation theory up to three-loop order. The dependence of its thermodynamic properties on the isospin-asymmetry is investigated. The chiral quark condensate is evaluated for symmetric nuclear matter. Its behaviour as a function of density and temperature sets important nuclear physics constraints for the QCD phase diagram.

  3. 24th WRSM panel discussion: {open_quotes}The role of research in nuclear regulation: The case of qualified importers{close_quotes}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, A. [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-01-01

    Scientific knowledge and technological maturity are needed to establish regulatory requirements, what also needs talent and skills. Scientists are rarely interested in regulation and regulators not always are closely connected to scientific research. This has created gaps in regulations, mainly within qualified importers. A qualified importer, in the sense of this presentation, is a country who has acquired nuclear power plants from more technologically advanced exporters but with an increasing participation of its own industry and institutions in the design, construction, component manufacture and assembly of such nuclear power plants and is fully responsible for the operation of the nuclear units and the corresponding fuel cycle. These countries have also a long standing and independent nuclear regulatory organization and the corresponding technical body. Spain is a qualified importer. In the case of Spain, it originally adopted the codes and regulations of the UE which it was a member of, as well as the codes and standards of the country from which their reactors were produced. Since Spain added KWU plants they even went to German regulations. Plant operation rested with Spain. As problems began to appear in operating plants, local research projects were funded to study the problems, aimed at immediate solutions, but also providing training for local personnel in addition to information of use for regulators. Spain has participated in many joint research projects, which have trained people, and given confidence to Spaniards involved in science and regulations. Qualified importers, like Spain, participate in research, even though it may not translate itself into regulation. Such participation will always serve to give self-confidence and independence to regulators and licensees, to better understand the adopted regulations of the most advanced countries and to solve specific problems.

  4. Cyclophilin A potentiates TRIM5α inhibition of HIV-1 nuclear import without promoting TRIM5α binding to the viral capsid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burse, Mallori; Shi, Jiong; Aiken, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    The host immunophilin cyclophilin A (CypA) binds to the capsid protein (CA) of HIV-1 and regulates its infectivity. Depending on the target cell type, CypA can either promote or inhibit HIV-1 infection. The ability of CypA to promote HIV-1 infection has been extensively studied and linked to several steps in early replication including uncoating, reverse transcription and nuclear import. By contrast, the mechanism by which CypA inhibits infection is less well understood. We investigated the mechanism by which CypA potentiates restriction of HIV-1 by the tripartite motif-containing protein 5 (TRIM5α). Depletion of TRIM5α in the African green monkey cell line Vero, resulted in a loss of inhibition of infection by CypA, demonstrating that inhibition by CypA is mediated by TRIM5α. Complementary genetic and biochemical assays failed to demonstrate an ability of CypA to promote binding of TRIM5α to the viral capsid. TRIM5α inhibits HIV-1 reverse transcription in a proteasome-dependent manner; however, we observed that inhibition of proteasome activity did not reduce the ability of CypA to inhibit infection, suggesting that CypA acts at a step after reverse transcription. Accordingly, we observed a CypA-dependent reduction in the accumulation of nuclear HIV-1 DNA, indicating that CypA specifically promotes TRIM5α inhibition of HIV-1 nuclear import. We also observed that the ability of CypA to inhibit HIV-1 infection is abolished by amino acid substitutions within the conserved CPSF6-binding surface in CA. Our results indicate that CypA inhibits HIV-1 infection in Vero cells not by promoting TRIM5α binding to the capsid but by blocking nuclear import of the HIV-1 preintegration complex.

  5. Analytic nuclear forces and molecular properties from full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Robert E; Opalka, Daniel; Overy, Catherine; Knowles, Peter J; Alavi, Ali; Booth, George H

    2015-08-07

    Unbiased stochastic sampling of the one- and two-body reduced density matrices is achieved in full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo with the introduction of a second, "replica" ensemble of walkers, whose population evolves in imaginary time independently from the first and which entails only modest additional computational overheads. The matrices obtained from this approach are shown to be representative of full configuration-interaction quality and hence provide a realistic opportunity to achieve high-quality results for a range of properties whose operators do not necessarily commute with the Hamiltonian. A density-matrix formulated quasi-variational energy estimator having been already proposed and investigated, the present work extends the scope of the theory to take in studies of analytic nuclear forces, molecular dipole moments, and polarisabilities, with extensive comparison to exact results where possible. These new results confirm the suitability of the sampling technique and, where sufficiently large basis sets are available, achieve close agreement with experimental values, expanding the scope of the method to new areas of investigation.

  6. Electronic properties of Cs-intercalated single-walled carbon nanotubes derived from nuclear magnetic resonance

    KAUST Repository

    Abou-Hamad, E

    2011-05-24

    We report on the electronic properties of Cs-intercalated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). A detailed analysis of the 13C and 133Cs nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra reveals an increased metallization of the pristine SWNTs under Cs intercalation. The \\'metallization\\' of CsxC materials where x=0–0.144 is evidenced from the increased local electronic density of states (DOS) n(EF) at the Fermi level of the SWNTs as determined from spin–lattice relaxation measurements. In particular, there are two distinct electronic phases called α and β and the transition between these occurs around x=0.05. The electronic DOS at the Fermi level increases monotonically at low intercalation levels x<0.05 (α-phase), whereas it reaches a plateau in the range 0.05≤x≤0.143 at high intercalation levels (β-phase). The new β-phase is accompanied by a hybridization of Cs(6s) orbitals with C(sp2) orbitals of the SWNTs. In both phases, two types of metallic nanotubes are found with a low and a high local n(EF), corresponding to different local electronic band structures of the SWNTs.

  7. Nuclear mid-infrared properties of nearby low-luminosity AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Asmus, D; Gandhi, P; Smette, A; Duschl, W J

    2011-01-01

    We present ground-based high-spatial resolution mid-infrared (MIR) observations of 20 nearby low-luminosity AGN (LLAGN) with VLT/VISIR and the preliminary analysis of a new sample of 10 low-luminosity Seyferts observed with Gemini/Michelle. LLAGN are of great interest because these objects are the most common among active galaxies, especially in the nearby universe. Studying them in great detail makes it possible to investigate the AGN evolution over cosmic timescale. Indeed, many LLAGN likely represent the final stage of an AGN's lifetime. We show that even at low luminosities and accretion rates nuclear unresolved MIR emission is present in most objects. Compared to lower spatial resolution Spitzer/IRS spectra, the high-resolution MIR photometry exhibits significantly lower fluxes and different PAH emission feature properties in many cases. By using scaled Spitzer/IRS spectra of typical starburst galaxies, we show that the star formation contribution to the 12 micron emission is minor in the central parsecs...

  8. Nuclear control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Wan Kee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    International cooperation in nuclear industries requires nuclear control as prerequisites. The concept of nuclear control is based on the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapon (NPT). The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) plays central role in implementing nuclear control. Nuclear control consists of nuclear safeguards, physical protection, and export/import control. Each member state of NPT is subject to the IAEA`s safeguards by concluding safeguards agreements with the IAEA. IAEA recommends member states to implement physical protection on nuclear materials by `The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material` and `The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material` of IAEA. Export/Import Control is to deter development of nuclear weapons by controlling international trade on nuclear materials, nuclear equipments and technology. Current status of domestic and foreign nuclear control implementation including recent induction of national inspection system in Korea is described and functions of recently set-up Technology Center for Nuclear Control (TCNC) under the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) are also explained. 6 tabs., 11 refs. (Author).

  9. The Importance of Establishing and Maintaining Continuity of Knowledge during 21st Century Nuclear Fuel Cycle Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, Chris A [ORNL; Rowe, Nathan C [ORNL; Younkin, James R [ORNL; Wishard, Bernard [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Bean, Robert [U.S. Department of Energy, NNSA; Blair, Dianna [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Lawson, Ray [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); Weeks, George [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); Tolk, Keith [Milagro Consulting

    2012-01-01

    During this century, the entire nuclear fuel cycle will expand and become increasingly more global, taxing both the resources and capabilities of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to maintain an effective Continuity of Knowledge (CoK) and its ability to provide timely detection of diversion. Uranium that currently is mined and milled in one country will be converted, enriched, and fabricated into fuel for reactors in an expanding set of new countries. This expansion will make it harder to guarantee that regional activities stay regional and that diversion detection is timely unless new and sustainable tools are developed to improve inspector effectiveness. To deal with this emerging reality, the IAEA must increase its use of unattended monitoring and employ new tools and methods that enhance CoK during all phases of the fuel cycle. This approach will help provide useful information to aid in detecting undeclared activities and create opportunities for timely and appropriate responses to events well before they enter phases of greater concern (e.g., enrichment). The systems that maintain CoK of safeguarded assets rely on containment and surveillance (C/S) technologies. The 21st century fuel cycle will require increased use of these technologies and systems, plus greater implementation of unattended systems that can securely collect data when inspectors are not present.

  10. Physicochemical properties of copper important for its antibacterial activity and development of a unified model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans, Michael; Mathews, Salima; Mücklich, Frank; Solioz, Marc

    2015-03-16

    Contact killing is a novel term describing the killing of bacteria when they come in contact with metallic copper or copper-containing alloys. In recent years, the mechanism of contact killing has received much attention and many mechanistic details are available. The authors here review some of these mechanistic aspects with a focus on the critical physicochemical properties of copper which make it antibacterial. Known mechanisms of contact killing are set in context to ionic, corrosive, and physical properties of copper. The analysis reveals that the oxidation behavior of copper, paired with the solubility properties of copper oxides, are the key factors which make metallic copper antibacterial. The concept advanced here explains the unique position of copper as an antibacterial metal. Based on our model, novel design criteria for metallic antibacterial materials may be derived.

  11. Properties and solubility of chrome in iron alumina phosphate glasses containing high level nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, W. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji Univ., Shanghai, SH (China); Day, D.E.; Ray, C.S.; Kim, C.W.; Reis, S.T.D. [Univ. of Missouri-Rolla (United States). Graduate Center for Materials Research

    2004-10-01

    Chemical durability, glass formation tendency, and other properties of iron alumina phosphate glasses containing 70 wt% of a simulated high level nuclear waste (HLW), doped with different amounts of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, have been investigated. All of the iron alumina phosphate glasses had an outstanding chemical durability as measured by their small dissolution rate (1 . 10{sup -9} g/(cm{sup 2} . min)) in deionized water at 90 C for 128 d, their low normalized mass release as determined by the product consistency test (PCT) and a barely measurable corrosion rate of <0.1 g/(m{sup 2} . d) after 7 d at 200 C by the vapor hydration test (VHT). The solubility limit for Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the iron phosphate melts was estimated at 4.1 wt%, but all of the as-annealed melts contained a few percent of crystalline Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} that had no apparent effect on the chemical durability. The chemical durability was unchanged after deliberate crystallization, 48 h at 650 C. These iron phosphate waste forms, with a waste loading of at least 70 wt%, can be readily melted in commercial refractory crucibles at 1250 C for 2 to 4 h, are resistant to crystallization, meet all current US Department of Energy requirements for chemical durability, and have a solubility limit for Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} which is at least three times larger than that for borosilicate glasses. (orig.)

  12. Surface Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SNMR - A new method for exploration of ground water and aquifer properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Yaramanci

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The Surface Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SNMR method is a fairly new technique in geophysics to assess ground water, i.e. existence, amount and productibility by measurements at the surface. The NMR technique used in medicine, physics and lately in borehole geophysics was adopted for surface measurements in the early eighties, and commercial equipment for measurements has been available since the mid nineties. The SNMR method has been tested at sites in Northern Germany with Quaternary sand and clay layers, to examine the suitability of this new method for groundwater exploration and environmental investigations. More information is obtained by SNMR, particularly with respect to aquifer parameters, than with other geophysical techniques. SNMR measurements were carried out at three borehole locations, together with 2D and 1D direct current geoelectrics and well logging (induction log, gamma-ray log and pulsed neutron-gamma log. Permeabilities were calculated from the grain-size distributions of core material determined in the laboratory. It is demonstrated that the SNMR method is able to detect groundwater and the results are in good agreement with other geophysical and hydrogeological data. Using the SNMR method, the water content of the unsaturated and saturated zones (i.e. porosity of an aquifer can be reliably determined. This information and resistivity data permit in-situ determination of other aquifer parameters. Comparison of the SNMR results with borehole data clearly shows that the water content determined by SNMR is the free or mobile water in the pores. The permeabilities estimated from the SNMR decay times are similar to those derived from sieve analysis of core material. Thus, the combination of SNMR with geoelectric methods promises to be a powerful tool for studying aquifer properties.

  13. Nuclear structure properties and stellar weak rates for 76Se: Unblocking of the Gamow Teller strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Jameel-Un; Ishfaq, Mavra; Böyükata, Mahmut; Riaz, Muhammad

    2017-10-01

    At finite temperatures (≥ 107K), 76Se is abundant in the core of massive stars and electron capture on 76Se has a consequential role to play in the dynamics of core-collapse. The present work may be classified into two main categories. In the first phase we study the nuclear structure properties of 76Se using the interacting boson model-1 (IBM-1). The IBM-1 investigations include the energy levels, B (E 2) values and the prediction of the geometry. We performed the extended consistent-Q formalism (ECQF) calculation and later the triaxial formalism calculation (constructed by adding the cubic term to the ECQF). The geometry of 76Se can be envisioned within the formalism of the potential energy surface based on the classical limit of IBM-1 model. In the second phase, we reconfirm the unblocking of the Gamow-Teller (GT) strength in 76Se (a test case for nuclei having N > 40 and Z < 40). Using the deformed pn-QRPA model we calculate GT transitions, stellar electron capture cross section (within the limit of low momentum transfer) and stellar weak rates for 76Se. The distinguishing feature of our calculation is a state-by-state evaluation of stellar weak rates in a fully microscopic fashion. Results are compared with experimental data and previous calculations. The calculated GT distribution fulfills the Ikeda sum rule. Rates for β-delayed neutrons and emission probabilities are also calculated. Our study suggests that at high stellar temperatures and low densities, the β+-decay on 76Se should not be neglected and needs to be taken into consideration along with electron capture rates for simulation of presupernova evolution of massive stars.

  14. Auxin responsiveness of the MONOPTEROS-BODENLOS module in primary root initiation critically depends on the nuclear import kinetics of the Aux/IAA inhibitor BODENLOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herud, Ole; Weijers, Dolf; Lau, Steffen; Jürgens, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Primary root formation in early embryogenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana is initiated with the specification of a single cell called hypophysis. This initial step requires the auxin-dependent release of the transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP, also known as ARF5) from its inhibition by the Aux/IAA protein BODENLOS (BDL, also known as IAA12). Auxin-insensitive bdl mutant embryos and mp loss-of-function embryos fail to specify the hypophysis, giving rise to rootless seedlings. A suppressor screen of rootless bdl mutant seedlings yielded a mutation in the nuclear import receptor IMPORTIN-ALPHA 6 (IMPα6) that promoted primary root formation through rescue of the embryonic hypophysis defects, without causing additional phenotypic changes. Aux/IAA proteins are continually synthesized and degraded, which is essential for rapid transcriptional responses to changing auxin concentrations. Nuclear translocation of bdl:3×GFP was slowed down in impα6 mutants as measured by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis, which correlated with the reduced inhibition of MP by bdl in transient expression assays in impα6 knock-down protoplasts. The MP-BDL module acts like an auxin-triggered genetic switch because MP activates its own expression as well as the expression of its inhibitor BDL. Using an established simulation model, we determined that the reduced nuclear translocation rate of BDL in impα6 mutant embryos rendered the auxin-triggered switch unstable, impairing the fast response to changes in auxin concentration. Our results suggest that the instability of the inhibitor BDL necessitates a fast nuclear uptake in order to reach the critical threshold level required for auxin responsiveness of the MP-BDL module in primary root initiation.

  15. The importance of pharmacodynamic properties in treatment of penicillin resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, J D

    2000-11-01

    As a short résumé, the major result according to each objective listed in chapter 1 will be repeated. 1. Adjusting and characterisation of the mouse peritonitis model for studying the treatment of pneumococci. The mouse peritonitis model was adjusted to study pneumococci with serotypes of low virulence to mice, by supplementing the inoculum with 5 (vt/vol)% mucin. This made the infection lethal with inoculi of 10(6) cfu/ml that also made the study of a bacterial growth phase possible (Knudsen et al., I). The immune modelling effect of mucin lasted less than four hours (chapter 2). The experimental infection in the mice was studied during time; The highly reproducible bacterial growth-phase was characterised as exponential growth in approximately 16 h, followed by an stationary phase until approximately 24 h post-challenge. A decline phase, not very reproducible, was found after 24 h, and in this phase the mice were beyond therapeutic range (Knudsen et al., III). The efficacy of treatment as effect on bacterial counts, was as good in the stationary phase as in the exponential phase (Knudsen et al., III). The pharmacokinetic properties of penicillin were studied during the infection, the serum elimination was slower in severely ill, than in newly challenged and in healthy mice (Knudsen et al., III). The survival of mice in this experimental model did not correlate with the decline in bacterial counts in blood or peritoneal cavity (Knudsen et al., III, den Hollander et al., V). 2. To compare the efficacy of antibiotics against pneumococci in vitro and in vivo A highly statistically significant correlation was found between determinations of effect in vitro (MIC's) and in vivo (ED50's) for penicillin and ten pneumococcal strains, and for four cephalosporins and three pneumococcal strains (Knudsen et al., I, II). One cephalosporin, cefepime, was shown better in vivo than expected from the cumulated in vitro data from four other cephalosporins, but no explanation for

  16. Nanoindentation measurements of the mechanical properties of zirconium matrix and hydrides in unirradiated pre-hydrided nuclear fuel cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, A.; Martin-Rengel, M. A.; Ruiz-Hervias, J.; Rodriguez, J.; Gomez-Sanchez, F. J.

    2014-09-01

    It is well known that the mechanical properties of the nuclear fuel cladding may be affected by the presence of hydrides. The average mechanical properties of hydrided cladding have been extensively investigated from a macroscopic point of view. In addition, the mechanical and fracture properties of bulk hydride samples fabricated from zirconium plates have also been reported. In this paper, Young's modulus, hardness and yield stress are measured for each phase, namely zirconium hydrides and matrix, of pre-hydrided nuclear fuel cladding. To this end, nanoindentation tests were performed on ZIRLO samples in as-received state, on a hydride blister and in samples with 150 and 1200 ppm of hydrogen homogeneously distributed along the hoop direction of the cladding. The results show that the measured mechanical properties of the zirconium hydrides and ZIRLO matrix (Young's modulus, hardness and yield stress) are rather similar. From the experimental data, the hydride volume fraction in the cladding samples with 150 and 1200 ppm was estimated and the average mechanical properties were calculated by means of the rule of mixtures. These values were compared with those obtained from ring compression tests. Good agreement between the results obtained by both methods was found.

  17. Nanoindentation measurements of the mechanical properties of zirconium matrix and hydrides in unirradiated pre-hydrided nuclear fuel cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rico, A., E-mail: alvaro.rico@urjc.es [DIMME, Departamento de Tecnología Mecánica, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, c/Tulipán s/n, E-28933 Móstoles, Madrid (Spain); Martin-Rengel, M.A., E-mail: mamartin@mater.upm.es [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales, UPM, E.T.S.I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Profesor Aranguren SN, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Ruiz-Hervias, J., E-mail: jesus.ruiz@upm.es [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales, UPM, E.T.S.I. Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Profesor Aranguren SN, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Rodriguez, J. [DIMME, Departamento de Tecnología Mecánica, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, c/Tulipán s/n, E-28933 Móstoles, Madrid (Spain); Gomez-Sanchez, F.J., E-mail: javier.gomez@amsimulation.com [Advanced Material Simulation, S.L, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-15

    It is well known that the mechanical properties of the nuclear fuel cladding may be affected by the presence of hydrides. The average mechanical properties of hydrided cladding have been extensively investigated from a macroscopic point of view. In addition, the mechanical and fracture properties of bulk hydride samples fabricated from zirconium plates have also been reported. In this paper, Young’s modulus, hardness and yield stress are measured for each phase, namely zirconium hydrides and matrix, of pre-hydrided nuclear fuel cladding. To this end, nanoindentation tests were performed on ZIRLO samples in as-received state, on a hydride blister and in samples with 150 and 1200 ppm of hydrogen homogeneously distributed along the hoop direction of the cladding. The results show that the measured mechanical properties of the zirconium hydrides and ZIRLO matrix (Young’s modulus, hardness and yield stress) are rather similar. From the experimental data, the hydride volume fraction in the cladding samples with 150 and 1200 ppm was estimated and the average mechanical properties were calculated by means of the rule of mixtures. These values were compared with those obtained from ring compression tests. Good agreement between the results obtained by both methods was found.

  18. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Properties of Gymnema sylvestre: An Important Medicinal Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Pragya Tiwari; Mishra, B N; Sangwan, Neelam S.

    2014-01-01

    Gymnema sylvestre (Asclepiadaceae), popularly known as “gurmar” for its distinct property as sugar destroyer, is a reputed herb in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. The phytoconstituents responsible for sweet suppression activity includes triterpene saponins known as gymnemic acids, gymnemasaponins, and a polypeptide, gurmarin. The herb exhibits a broad range of therapeutic effects as an effective natural remedy for diabetes, besides being used for arthritis, diuretic, anemia, osteoporosis, h...

  19. TECHNOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA: THE IMPORTANCE OF THESE MICROORGANISMS FOR FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda de Souza Motta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eacters of coccus or rods Gram-positive, catalase negative, non-sporulating, which produce lactic acid as the major end product during the fermentation of carbohydrates. When applied on food, provides beneficial effects to consumers through its functional and technological properties. With this the present review article, explore the potential application of lactic acid bacteria in food. The following genera are considered the principal lactic acid bacteria: Aerococcus, Carnobacterium, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Oenococcus, Pediococcus, Streptococcus, Tetragenococcus, Vagococcus and Weissella. These cultures have been used as starter or adjunct cultures for the fermentation of foods and beverages due to their contributions to the sensorial characteristics of these products and by microbiological stability. Their probiotic properties have also been investigated. More recent studies by indigenous cultures have received increased attention in light of the search for isolated cultures of a given raw material and a certain region. These microorganisms are being investigated for its functional and technological potential that may be applied in product development with its own characteristics and designation of origin. Those properties will be discussed in the present review in order to highlight the performance of these bacteria and the high degree of control over the fermentation process and standardization of the final product. The use of autochthonous cultures will be considered due the increase of studies of new cultures of lactic acid bacteria isolated of milk and meat of distinct products.

  20. Capturing optically important constituents and properties in a marine biogeochemical and ecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, S.; Hickman, A. E.; Jahn, O.; Gregg, W. W.; Mouw, C. B.; Follows, M. J.

    2015-02-01

    We present a numerical model of the ocean that couples a three-stream radiative transfer component with a marine biogeochemical-ecosystem in a dynamic three-dimensional physical framework. The radiative transfer component resolves spectral irradiance as it is absorbed and scattered within the water column. We explicitly include the effect of several optically important water constituents (the phytoplankton community, detrital particles, and coloured dissolved organic matter, CDOM). The model is evaluated against in situ observed and satellite derived products. In particular we compare to concurrently measured biogeochemical, ecosystem and optical data along a north-south transect of the Atlantic Ocean. The simulation captures the patterns and magnitudes of these data, and estimates surface upwelling irradiance analogous to that observed by ocean colour satellite instruments. We conduct a series of sensitivity experiments to demonstrate, globally, the relative importance of each of the water constituents, and the crucial feedbacks between the light field and the relative fitness of phytoplankton types, and the biogeochemistry of the ocean. CDOM has proportionally more importance at short wavelengths and in more productive waters, phytoplankton absorption is especially important at the deep chlorophyll a (Chl a) maximum, and absorption by water molecules is relatively most important in the highly oligotrophic gyres. Sensitivity experiments in which absorption by any of the optical constituents was increased led to a decrease in the size of the oligotrophic regions of the subtropical gyres: lateral nutrient supplies were enhanced as a result of decreasing high latitude productivity. Scattering does not as strongly affect the ecosystem and biogeochemistry fields within the water column but is important for setting the surface upwelling irradiance, and hence sea surface reflectance. Having a model capable of capturing bio-optical feedbacks will be important for

  1. A protein interaction atlas for the nuclear receptors: properties and quality of a hub-based dimerisation network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Graaf David

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nuclear receptors are a large family of eukaryotic transcription factors that constitute major pharmacological targets. They exert their combinatorial control through homotypic heterodimerisation. Elucidation of this dimerisation network is vital in order to understand the complex dynamics and potential cross-talk involved. Results Phylogeny, protein-protein interactions, protein-DNA interactions and gene expression data have been integrated to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date description of the topology and properties of the nuclear receptor interaction network in humans. We discriminate between DNA-binding and non-DNA-binding dimers, and provide a comprehensive interaction map, that identifies potential cross-talk between the various pathways of nuclear receptors. Conclusion We infer that the topology of this network is hub-based, and much more connected than previously thought. The hub-based topology of the network and the wide tissue expression pattern of NRs create a highly competitive environment for the common heterodimerising partners. Furthermore, a significant number of negative feedback loops is present, with the hub protein SHP [NR0B2] playing a major role. We also compare the evolution, topology and properties of the nuclear receptor network with the hub-based dimerisation network of the bHLH transcription factors in order to identify both unique themes and ubiquitous properties in gene regulation. In terms of methodology, we conclude that such a comprehensive picture can only be assembled by semi-automated text-mining, manual curation and integration of data from various sources.

  2. A nuclear localization signal and the C-terminal omega sequence in the Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirD2 endonuclease are important for tumor formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurvinton, C E; Hodges, L; Ream, W

    1992-12-15

    The T-DNA portion of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid integrates into plant nuclear DNA. Direct repeats define the T-DNA ends; transfer begins when the VirD2 endonuclease produces a site-specific nick in the right-hand border repeat and attaches to the 5' end of the nicked strand. Subsequent events generate linear single-stranded VirD2-bound DNA molecules that include the entire T-DNA (T-strands). VirD2 protein contains a nuclear localization signal (NLS) near the C terminus and may direct bound T-strands to plant nuclei. We constructed mutations in virD2 and showed that the NLS was important for tumorigenesis, although T-strand production occurred normally in its absence. A tobacco etch virus NLS, substituted for the VirD2 NLS, restored tumor-inducing activity. Amino acids (the omega sequence) at the C terminus of VirD2, outside the NLS and the endonuclease domain, contributed significantly to tumorigenesis, suggesting that VirD2 may serve a third important function in T-DNA transfer.

  3. Importance of non-parabolic band effects in the thermoelectric properties of semiconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Xin Chen; David Parker; Singh, David J.

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of the thermoelectric properties of of $n$-type GeTe and SnTe in relation to the lead chalcogenides PbTe and PbSe. We find that the singly degenerate conduction bands of semiconducting GeTe and SnTe are highly non-ellipsoidal, even very close to the band edges. This leads to isoenergy surfaces with a strongly corrugated shape that is clearly evident at carrier concentrations well below 0.005 $e$ per formula unit (7 - 9 $\\times$ 10$^{19}$cm$^{-3}$ depending on material) ...

  4. Study of material properties important for an optical property modulation-based radiation detection method for positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Li; Daghighian, Henry M; Levin, Craig S

    2017-01-01

    We compare the performance of two detector materials, cadmium telluride (CdTe) and bismuth silicon oxide (BSO), for optical property modulation-based radiation detection method for positron emission tomography (PET), which is a potential new direction to dramatically improve the annihilation photon pair coincidence time resolution. We have shown that the induced current flow in the detector crystal resulting from ionizing radiation determines the strength of optical modulation signal. A larger resistivity is favorable for reducing the dark current (noise) in the detector crystal, and thus the higher resistivity BSO crystal has a lower (50% lower on average) noise level than CdTe. The CdTe and BSO crystals can achieve the same sensitivity under laser diode illumination at the same crystal bias voltage condition while the BSO crystal is not as sensitive to 511-keV photons as the CdTe crystal under the same crystal bias voltage. The amplitude of the modulation signal induced by 511-keV photons in BSO crystal is around 30% of that induced in CdTe crystal under the same bias condition. In addition, we have found that the optical modulation strength increases linearly with crystal bias voltage before saturation. The modulation signal with CdTe tends to saturate at bias voltages higher than 1500 V due to its lower resistivity (thus larger dark current) while the modulation signal strength with BSO still increases after 3500 V. Further increasing the bias voltage for BSO could potentially further enhance the modulation strength and thus, the sensitivity.

  5. THE IMPORTANCE OF INTERNAL DIRECTIVES OF THE UNIVERSITY FOR THE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Čorejová

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the management system for intellectual property (IP within the Center for Technology Transfer (CTT currently operating in the University Science Park–organizational unit of the University of Žilina. The CTT deals with procedural issues: acquisition of intellectual property rights, IP protection, and IP commercialization. In solving selected issues involving the Internal Directive´s content regulating the IP protection and commercialization in CTT of the University of Žilina, we are using available information and knowledge of the directives from both domestic and international universities.This investigation helps the CTT in formulating more effective directive contents for University Science Park in Žilina. The entire system of research and development funding through projects requires accurate and complex monitoring of the use of allocated funds for various activities and persons.  For internal usage, it is necessary to obtain discreet evidence that would allow accurate identification of funding received directly from IP creation-related projects.

  6. Conflict between constitutional norms: monopoly of nuclear ore and the social function of property in Brazil; Conflito entre normas constitucionais: monopolio do minerio nuclear e a funcao social da propriedade no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa-de-Moura, Jorge

    2014-07-01

    This monograph broaches about the conflict existing between the social Constitution of 1988, in relation to what is disposed in the Article 5, XXIII and XXIV, entrenchment clause of immediate application that determines the social function of property in Brazil, and articles 21, XXIII, and 177, V, that stipulate the monopoly of ores containing nuclear elements, i.e., those containing the chemical elements uranium, thorium, and plutonium in economically exploitable amounts. Initially, the work deals with legal definitions for nuclear ore, nuclear policy of some countries, the economical concepts of the social function of property and the negative aspects related to the maintenance of the nuclear ore in the state monopole regime in confrontation with the economic and social interest also expressed in the Constitutional Valance of 1988. Finally, it is presented an actualized compilation of nuclear laws related to the Brazilian nuclear policy and a glossary of terms used in the nuclear policy conducted by the Brazilian Nuclear Regulatory Agency (CNEN). (author)

  7. Capturing optically important constituents and properties in a marine biogeochemical and ecosystem model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dutkiewicz

    2015-07-01

    This new model that captures bio-optical feedbacks will be important for improving our understanding of the role of light and optical constituents on ocean biogeochemistry, especially in a changing environment. Further, resolving surface upwelling irradiance will make it easier to connect to satellite-derived products in the future.

  8. Capturing optically important constituents and properties in a marine biogeochemical and ecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, S.; Hickman, A. E.; Jahn, O.; Gregg, W. W.; Mouw, C. B.; Follows, M. J.

    2015-07-01

    We present a numerical model of the ocean that couples a three-stream radiative transfer component with a marine biogeochemical-ecosystem component in a dynamic three-dimensional physical framework. The radiative transfer component resolves the penetration of spectral irradiance as it is absorbed and scattered within the water column. We explicitly include the effect of several optically important water constituents (different phytoplankton functional types; detrital particles; and coloured dissolved organic matter, CDOM). The model is evaluated against in situ-observed and satellite-derived products. In particular we compare to concurrently measured biogeochemical, ecosystem, and optical data along a meridional transect of the Atlantic Ocean. The simulation captures the patterns and magnitudes of these data, and estimates surface upwelling irradiance analogous to that observed by ocean colour satellite instruments. We find that incorporating the different optically important constituents explicitly and including spectral irradiance was crucial to capture the variability in the depth of the subsurface chlorophyll a (Chl a) maximum. We conduct a series of sensitivity experiments to demonstrate, globally, the relative importance of each of the water constituents, as well as the crucial feedbacks between the light field, the relative fitness of phytoplankton types, and the biogeochemistry of the ocean. CDOM has proportionally more importance at attenuating light at short wavelengths and in more productive waters, phytoplankton absorption is relatively more important at the subsurface Chl a maximum, and water molecules have the greatest contribution when concentrations of other constituents are low, such as in the oligotrophic gyres. Scattering had less effect on attenuation, but since it is important for the amount and type of upwelling irradiance, it is crucial for setting sea surface reflectance. Strikingly, sensitivity experiments in which absorption by any of the

  9. Spent nuclear fuel. A review of properties of possible relevance to corrosion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, R. [Caledon Consult AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1995-04-01

    The report reviews the properties of spent fuel which are considered to be of most importance in determining the corrosion behaviour in groundwaters. Pellet cracking and fragment size distribution are discussed, together with the available results of specific surface area measurements on spent fuel. With respect to the importance of fuel microstructure, emphasis is placed on recent work on the so called structural rim effect, which consists of the formation of a zone of high porosity, and the polygonization of fuel grains to form many sub-grains, at the pellet rim, and appears to be initiated when the average pellet burnup exceeds a threshold of about 40 MWd/kgU. Due to neutron spectrum effects, the pellet rim is also associated with the buildup of plutonium and other actinides, which results in an enhanced local burnup and specific activity of both beta-gamma and alpha radiation, thus representing a greater potential for radiolysis effects in ingressed groundwater. The report presents and discusses the results of quantitative determination of the radial profiles of burnup and alpha activity on spent fuel with average burnups from 21.2 to 49 MWd/kgU. In addition to the radial variation of fission product and actinide inventories due to the effects mentioned above, migration, redistribution and release of some fission products can occur during reactor irradiation and the report concludes with a short review of these processes.

  10. Nuclear exoticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.

    2016-07-01

    Extreme states of nuclearmatter (such that feature high spins, large deformations, high density and temperature, or a large excess of neutrons and protons) play an important role in studying fundamental properties of nuclei and are helpful in solving the problem of constructing the equation of state for nuclear matter. The synthesis of neutron-rich nuclei near the nucleon drip lines and investigation of their properties permit drawing conclusions about the positions of these boundaries and deducing information about unusual states of such nuclei and about their decays. At the present time, experimental investigations along these lines can only be performed via the cooperation of leading research centers that possess powerful heavy-ion accelerators, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and the heavy-ion cyclotrons at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Dubna), where respective experiments are being conducted by physicists from about 20 JINR member countries. The present article gives a survey of the most recent results in the realms of super neutron-rich nuclei. Implications of the change in the structure of such nuclei near the nucleon drip lines are discussed. Information about the results obtained by measuring the masses (binding energies) of exotic nuclei, the nucleon-distribution radii (neutron halo) and momentum distributions in them, and their deformations and quantum properties is presented. It is shown that the properties of nuclei lying near the stability boundaries differ strongly from the properties of other nuclei. The problem of the stability of nuclei that is associated with the magic numbers of 20 and 28 is discussed along with the effect of new magic numbers.

  11. [Coenzyme Q10--its importance, properties and use in nutrition and cosmetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojerová, J

    2000-05-01

    Coenzyme Q10, or ubiquinone, is a nutrient--a vitamin-like substance which plays a crucial role in the generation of cellular energy an in free radical scavenging in the human body. After the age of 35 to 40, the organism begins to lose its ability to synthesize Co Q10 from food and its deficiency develops. Ageing, poor eating habits, stress and infection--they all affect our ability to provide adequate amounts of Co Q10. Therefore Co Q10 supplementation may be very helpful for the organism. The present summarizing study reports the history of the discovery and research, properties, biochemical effects, dosage of Co Q10 deficiency in the human body. A possible use of Co Q10 as a dietary supplement and an ingredient for topical cosmetic products is described.

  12. On the importance of observational data properties when assessing regional climate model performance of extreme precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia; Sørup, Hjalte Jomo Danielsen; Christensen, Ole Bøssing

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of climate studies addressing changes in extreme precipitation. A common step in these studies involves the assessment of the climate model performance. This is often measured by comparing climate model output with observational data....... In the majority of such studies the characteristics and uncertainties of the observational data are neglected. This study addresses the influence of using different observational datasets to assess the climate model performance. Four different datasets covering Denmark using different gauge systems and comprising...... both networks of point measurements and gridded datasets are considered. Additionally, the influence of using different performance indices and metrics is addressed. A set of indices ranging from mean to extreme precipitation properties is calculated for all the datasets. For each of the observational...

  13. Phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Gymnema sylvestre: an important medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Pragya; Mishra, B N; Sangwan, Neelam S

    2014-01-01

    Gymnema sylvestre (Asclepiadaceae), popularly known as "gurmar" for its distinct property as sugar destroyer, is a reputed herb in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. The phytoconstituents responsible for sweet suppression activity includes triterpene saponins known as gymnemic acids, gymnemasaponins, and a polypeptide, gurmarin. The herb exhibits a broad range of therapeutic effects as an effective natural remedy for diabetes, besides being used for arthritis, diuretic, anemia, osteoporosis, hypercholesterolemia, cardiopathy, asthma, constipation, microbial infections, indigestion, and anti-inflammatory. G. sylvestre has good prospects in the treatment of diabetes as it shows positive effects on blood sugar homeostasis, controls sugar cravings, and promotes regeneration of pancreas. The herbal extract is used in dietary supplements since it reduces body weight, blood cholesterol, and triglyceride levels and holds great prospects in dietary as well as pharmacological applications. This review explores the transition of a traditional therapeutic to a modern contemporary medication with an overview of phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of the herb and its phytoconstituents.

  14. Dosimetric properties of a scanned beam microtron at low monitor unit settings: importance for conformal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humm, J L; Larsson, A; Lief, E P

    1996-03-01

    The dosimetric stability, linearity, dose rate dependence, and flatness of both photon and electron beams have been evaluated for a racetrack microtron at low monitor unit settings. For photons, the variation in dosimetric output about the mean is 3% at 20 cm, even at only 3 MU, in contrast with other scanned beam accelerators. Broad electron beams on the microtron are created by the superposition of the elementary beam pulses either directly from the scan magnets, or after their broadening through a scattering foil. The dosimetric instability both with and without the foil was less than 0.6% for both the 25- and 50-MeV electrons. Dose nonlinearity was microtron exhibits dosimetric properties which fulfill the recommendations of Task Groups 21 and 25. Based on the stability of the scanned beam at low monitor unit settings, the microtron can be used for 3-D conformal therapy with both photons and electrons.

  15. Importance of non-parabolic band effects in the thermoelectric properties of semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Parker, David; Singh, David J

    2013-11-07

    We present an analysis of the thermoelectric properties of of n-type GeTe and SnTe in relation to the lead chalcogenides PbTe and PbSe. We find that the singly degenerate conduction bands of semiconducting GeTe and SnTe are highly non-ellipsoidal, even very close to the band edges. This leads to isoenergy surfaces with a strongly corrugated shape that is clearly evident at carrier concentrations well below 0.005 e per formula unit (7-9 × 10(19) cm(-3) depending on material). Analysis within Boltzmann theory suggests that this corrugation may be favorable for the thermoelectric transport. Our calculations also indicate that values of the power factor for these two materials may well exceed those of PbTe and PbSe. As a result these materials may exhibit n-type performance exceeding that of the lead chalcogenides.

  16. IMPORTANCE OF SOCIAL LAND PROPERTY IN THE EXPANSION OF CITIES IN MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Bojórquez-Luque

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the role of social ownership of land in the expansion of cities in Mexico, authorities and after the Article 27 constitutional reforms implemented in 1992. A review of the concept of city and urban sprawl, and the problem of the land market. Similarly examines the particularities of Latin American and Mexican cities that are characterized by traits of marginality and settlements in a large mass of citizens who lack the resources to acquire a piece of land to build a home. In addition to this, we analyze the complex process of socially owned land including the growth of cities and from the existence of different types of property in the urban process that fosters the involvement of various agents to strengthen the overall process.

  17. Complete mitochondrial genomes and nuclear ribosomal RNA operons of two species of Diplostomum (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda): a molecular resource for taxonomy and molecular epidemiology of important fish pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabec, Jan; Kostadinova, Aneta; Scholz, Tomáš; Littlewood, D Timothy J

    2015-06-19

    The genus Diplostomum (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda: Diplostomidae) is a diverse group of freshwater parasites with complex life-cycles and global distribution. The larval stages are important pathogens causing eye fluke disease implicated in substantial impacts on natural fish populations and losses in aquaculture. However, the problematic species delimitation and difficulties in the identification of larval stages hamper the assessment of the distributional and host ranges of Diplostomum spp. and their transmission ecology. Total genomic DNA was isolated from adult worms and shotgun sequenced using Illumina MiSeq technology. Mitochondrial (mt) genomes and nuclear ribosomal RNA (rRNA) operons were assembled using established bioinformatic tools and fully annotated. Mt protein-coding genes and nuclear rRNA genes were subjected to phylogenetic analysis by maximum likelihood and the resulting topologies compared. We characterised novel complete mt genomes and nuclear rRNA operons of two closely related species, Diplostomum spathaceum and D. pseudospathaceum. Comparative mt genome assessment revealed that the cox1 gene and its 'barcode' region used for molecular identification are the most conserved regions; instead, nad4 and nad5 genes were identified as most promising molecular diagnostic markers. Using the novel data, we provide the first genome wide estimation of the phylogenetic relationships of the order Diplostomida, one of the two fundamental lineages of the Digenea. Analyses of the mitogenomic data invariably recovered the Diplostomidae as a sister lineage of the order Plagiorchiida rather than as a basal lineage of the Diplostomida as inferred in rDNA phylogenies; this was concordant with the mt gene order of Diplostomum spp. exhibiting closer match to the conserved gene order of the Plagiorchiida. Complete sequences of the mt genome and rRNA operon of two species of Diplostomum provide a valuable resource for novel genetic markers for species delineation and

  18. Real-world face recognition: the importance of surface reflectance properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Richard; Sinha, Pawan

    2007-01-01

    The face recognition task we perform [corrected] most often in everyday experience is the identification of people with whom we are familiar. However, because of logistical challenges, most studies focus on unfamiliar-face recognition, wherein subjects are asked to match or remember images of unfamiliar people's faces. Here we explore the importance of two facial attributes -shape and surface reflectance-in the context of a familiar-face recognition task. In our experiment, subjects were asked to recognise color images of the faces of their friends. The images were manipulated such that only reflectance or only shape information was useful for recognizing any particular face. Subjects were actually better at recognizing their friends' faces from reflectance information than from shape information. This provides evidence that reflectance information is important for face recognition in ecologically relevant contexts.

  19. An important property of entanglement: pairwise entanglement that can only be transferred by an entangled pair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Xiao-Qiang; Liu Wu-Ming

    2007-01-01

    Based on the calculation of all the pairwise entanglements in the n(n≤6)-qubit Heisenberg ⅩⅩ open chain with system impurity, we find an important result: pairwise entanglement can only be transferred by an entangled pair. The non-nearest pairwise entanglements will have the possibility to exist as long as there has been even number of qubits in their middle. This point indicates that we can obtain longer distance entanglement in a solid system.

  20. Inulin and Oligofructosis: a review about functional properties, prebiotic effects and importance for food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Celia de Oliveira Hauly; Janaína Andréa Moscatto

    2002-01-01

    Nowadays consumers are more conscious about the relation between food and health. Therefore food industry has been looking for food that has a lot of benefits besides good flavor and appearance. Inulin and oligofructose are fructose polimers, vastly found in plants as storage carbohydrates. They present important functional for the food industry. Both inulin and oligofructose have been used as fiber bulk in food products. Differently from other fibers, they do not add flavor, allowing the foo...

  1. Probing the nuclear equation of state by heavy-ion reactions and neutron star properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, P.K.; Cassing, W.; Thoma, M.H. [Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik, Univ. Giessen (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    We discuss the nuclear equation of state (EOS) using a non-linear relativistic transport model. From the baryon flow for Ni + Ni as well as Au + Au systems we find that the strength of the vector potential has to be reduced at high density or at high relative momenta to describe the experimental flow data at 1-2 A GeV. We use the same dynamical model to calculate the nuclear EOS and then employ this EOS to neutron star structure calculations. We consider the core of the neutron star to be composed of neutrons with an admixture of protons, electrons, muons, sigmas and lambdas at zero temperature. We find that the nuclear equation of state is softer at high densities and hence the maximum mass and the radius of the neutron star are in the observable range of M {proportional_to} 1.7 M{sub s}un and R = 8 km, respectively. (orig.)

  2. Nuclear matter properties from local chiral interactions with Δ isobar intermediate states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logoteta, Domenico; Bombaci, Ignazio; Kievsky, Alejandro

    2016-12-01

    Using two-nucleon and three-nucleon interactions derived in the framework of chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) with and without the explicit Δ isobar contributions, we calculate the energy per particle of symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter in the framework of the microscopic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach. In particular, we present for the first time nuclear matter calculations using the new fully local in coordinate-space two-nucleon interaction at the next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-order (N3LO) of ChPT with Δ isobar intermediate states (N 3 LO Δ ) recently developed by Piarulli et al. [arXiv:1606.06335]. We find that using this N 3 LO Δ potential, supplemented with a local N2LO three-nucleon interaction with explicit Δ isobar degrees of freedom, it is possible to obtain a satisfactory saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter. For this combination of two- and three-nucleon interactions we also calculate the nuclear symmetry energy and we compare our results with the empirical constraints on this quantity obtained using the excitation energies to isobaric analog states in nuclei and using experimental data on the neutron skin thickness of heavy nuclei, finding a very good agreement in all the considered nucleonic density range. In addition, we find that the explicit inclusion of Δ isobars diminishes the strength of the three-nucleon interactions needed to get a good saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter. We also compare the results of our calculations with those obtained by other research groups using chiral nuclear interactions with different many-body methods, finding in many cases a very satisfactory agreement.

  3. Nuclear physics and particle therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistoni, G.

    2016-05-01

    The use of charged particles and nuclei in cancer therapy is one of the most successful cases of application of nuclear physics to medicine. The physical advantages in terms of precision and selectivity, combined with the biological properties of densely ionizing radiation, make charged particle approach an elective choice in a number of cases. Hadron therapy is in continuous development and nuclear physicists can give important contributions to this discipline. In this work some of the relevant aspects in nuclear physics will be reviewed, summarizing the most important directions of research and development.

  4. Nuclear physics and particle therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Battistoni G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of charged particles and nuclei in cancer therapy is one of the most successful cases of application of nuclear physics to medicine. The physical advantages in terms of precision and selectivity, combined with the biological properties of densely ionizing radiation, make charged particle approach an elective choice in a number of cases. Hadron therapy is in continuous development and nuclear physicists can give important contributions to this discipline. In this work some of the relevant aspects in nuclear physics will be reviewed, summarizing the most important directions of research and development.

  5. The glycaemic index: importance of dietary fibre and other food properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björck, Inger; Elmståhl, Helena Liljeberg

    2003-02-01

    An increasing body of evidence suggests that a low-glycaemic-index (GI) diet has a therapeutic as well as a preventive potential in relation to the insulin resistance syndrome. The implementation of a low-GI diet, however, will require an extended list of low-GI foods to be available on the market. The tailoring of low-GI bread products offers a particular challenge due to their generally high GI and abundance in the diet. Low-GI bread products can be tailored by, for example,enclosure of cereal kernels, sour dough fermentation and/or addition of organic acids, or use of cereal genotypes with elevated contents of amylose or f-glucans. Low-GI cereal foods appear to vary in effect on 'second-meal' glucose tolerance in healthy subjects. In addition to the slow-release properties of such foods, the content of dietary fibre appears to play a role. The low glycaemia to starch in a pasta breakfast (GI 54) promoted a higher glucose tolerance and lowered triacylglycerol levels at a standardized lunch ingested 4 h later, compared with a white-wheat-bread breakfast (GI 100). The metabolic benefits of the low GI properties per se have been demonstrated also in the longer term. Thus, a reduction in dietary GI improved glucose and lipid metabolism and normalized fibrinolytic activity in type 2 diabetics, while maintaining a similar amount and composition of dietary fibre. However, the higher dietary fibre content frequently associated with low-GI foods may add to the metabolic merits of a low-GI diet. Consequently, a low-GI barley meal rich in dietary fibre (GI 53) improved glucose tolerance from evening meal to breakfast, whereas an evening meal with pasta had no effect (GI 54). The exchange of common high-GI bread for low-GI high-fibre bread, as the only dietary modification, improved insulin economy in women at risk of type 2 diabetes. These results are in accordance with epidemiological evidence of a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes with a low-GI diet rich in cereal fibre. It

  6. [Contractile Tone and Contraction as Important Physiological Properties of Terminals on the Processes of Living Neurons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotnikov, O S; Vasyagina, N Yu; Podol'skaya, L A

    2015-01-01

    An attempt to summarize some static morphological renderings of reversible structural alterations of nervous processes, as well as receptor and synaptic terminals, to compare them with the mechanisms of actual transformation of living neurons and to find a common kinetic characteristic for these phenomena has been made. The contractile tone and contraction of processes of living isolated neurons are reported. The dependence of the direction of retraction on the localization of the adhesion site of the isolated cell has been detected. The retraction bulb has been identified as an indicator of all contractions of motor and sensory terminals, both alive and fixed. The process of transformation of growth cones into retraction bulbs has been investigated. The presence of mechanical tension in preterminals and interneuronal contacts has been demonstrated in vitro. Similarity of the kinetics of tissue receptor sensory terminals and growth cones has been detected during in vivo experiments. The kinetics of asynaptic dendrite contraction has been compared to the well-characterized structural variability of dendritic spines. The hypothesis of a common origin of the contractile tone of all nervous elements as one of the principal nonelectrophysiological properties of a neuron has been put forward.

  7. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Properties of Gymnema sylvestre: An Important Medicinal Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragya Tiwari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gymnema sylvestre (Asclepiadaceae, popularly known as “gurmar” for its distinct property as sugar destroyer, is a reputed herb in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. The phytoconstituents responsible for sweet suppression activity includes triterpene saponins known as gymnemic acids, gymnemasaponins, and a polypeptide, gurmarin. The herb exhibits a broad range of therapeutic effects as an effective natural remedy for diabetes, besides being used for arthritis, diuretic, anemia, osteoporosis, hypercholesterolemia, cardiopathy, asthma, constipation, microbial infections, indigestion, and anti-inflammatory. G. sylvestre has good prospects in the treatment of diabetes as it shows positive effects on blood sugar homeostasis, controls sugar cravings, and promotes regeneration of pancreas. The herbal extract is used in dietary supplements since it reduces body weight, blood cholesterol, and triglyceride levels and holds great prospects in dietary as well as pharmacological applications. This review explores the transition of a traditional therapeutic to a modern contemporary medication with an overview of phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of the herb and its phytoconstituents.

  8. Importance of onset properties on spectral contrast for speech and other complex spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coady, Jeffry A.; Kluender, Keith R.

    2002-05-01

    Previous studies using speech and nonspeech analogs have shown that auditory mechanisms that enhance spectral contrast serve to compensate for assimilation of spectral composition caused by coarticulated production. In the present studies, series of CV syllables varying acoustically in F2-onset frequency and perceptually from /ba/ to /da/ were identified either following [e] (higher F2) and [o] (lower F2) or following spectral complements of these vowels. Spectral complements had troughs replacing peaks corresponding to formants in the vowels. Both preceding vowels and spectral complements altered perception of the following stop, with complementary spectra providing results complementary to those for vowel spectra. However, effects for preceding spectral complements differed from those for preceding vowels by being dependent upon the precursor duration or inter-stimulus interval (ISI). Additional experiments using short spectral samples revealed that the single most important predictor of effects of vowel complements was the interval between the onset of the preceding sound and the onset of the following CV. This finding appears to implicate spectral characteristics of onsets (in addition to or instead of simple adaptation or masking) as being important for spectral contrast. The significance of these findings for the perception of connected speech will be described. [Work supported by NIDCD.

  9. WW domain-mediated interaction with Wbp2 is important for the oncogenic property of TAZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S W; Lim, C J; Huang, C; Chong, Y F; Gunaratne, H J; Hogue, K A; Blackstock, W P; Harvey, K F; Hong, W

    2011-02-03

    The transcriptional co-activators YAP and TAZ are downstream targets inhibited by the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway. YAP and TAZ both possess WW domains, which are important protein-protein interaction modules that mediate interaction with proline-rich motifs, most commonly PPXY. The WW domains of YAP have complex regulatory roles as exemplified by recent reports showing that they can positively or negatively influence YAP activity in a cell and context-specific manner. In this study, we show that the WW domain of TAZ is important for it to transform both MCF10A and NIH3T3 cells and to activate transcription of ITGB2 but not CTGF, as introducing point mutations into the WW domain of TAZ (WWm) abolished its transforming and transcription-promoting ability. Using a proteomic approach, we discovered potential regulatory proteins that interact with TAZ WW domain and identified Wbp2. The interaction of Wbp2 with TAZ is dependent on the WW domain of TAZ and the PPXY-containing C-terminal region of Wbp2. Knockdown of endogenous Wbp2 suppresses, whereas overexpression of Wbp2 enhances, TAZ-driven transformation. Forced interaction of WWm with Wbp2 by direct C-terminal fusion of full-length Wbp2 or its TAZ-interacting C-terminal domain restored the transforming and transcription-promoting ability of TAZ. These results suggest that the WW domain-mediated interaction with Wbp2 promotes the transforming ability of TAZ.

  10. The survey of Neutron moderating properties of zirconium hydride nanoparticles (ZrH2 in the reactors of nuclear powerhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Nozad Golikand

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal hydrides as a Neutron Moderator (NMs have effective and impressive application in nuclear reactors. Unquestionably, Retarder should be close to the atomic mass of the neutron to be able to reduce its energy with no interaction with the neutrons. The hydrogen atom nucleons have the atomic Mass close to the Neutron. Surprisingly, Metal hydrides can absorb a high percentage of hydrogen. Metal Hydrides have very good properties at high temperatures and can also maintain it even at higher temperatures. Due to the high volume of hydrogen stored in the metal hydrides, they blurt their good mechanical properties and Moderating Effect out on the incidence of the various reactors. Since they have ultrahigh functionality of Hydrogen storage, and likewise, they reveal their unique neutron moderating and thermal properties, in the present research, it was scrutinized the feasibility and circumstance of using them in the nuclear reactors of atomic energy powerhouse. Hence, in order to sonochemical reaction synthesis of zirconium hydride noparticles (ZrH2, the precursor of zirconium tetrachloride (ZrCl4 and potassium hydroxide (KOH were utilized as neutralizing acidic environment, exposure to the ultrasound waves. Eventually, some diverse metal salts were come on competitive comparison with zirconium hydride salt that the zirconium hydride nanoparticles had the best performance as compared to all of them.

  11. Therapy against organophosphate poisoning: the importance of anticholinergic drugs with antiglutamatergic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Ben Avi; Raveh, Lily

    2008-10-15

    Potent cholinesterase inhibitors (e.g., soman, sarin), induce a wide range of deleterious effects including convulsions, behavioral impairments and ultimately, death. Due to the likelihood of various scenarios of military or terrorist attacks by these and other chemical weapons, research has to be aimed at finding optimal therapies. Early accumulation of acetylcholine in synaptic clefts was suggested to trigger an array of toxic events including an excessive release of glutamate, culminating in the activation of its receptors. Stimulation of the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) subtype of these receptors was associated with the neuronal injury that initiates organophosphate-induced brain damage. The notion of a stepwise mechanism yielded treatments based on a combination of an immediate administration of enzyme reactivators and anticholinergic drugs. This strategy dramatically increased survival rates but did not abolish convulsions and failed to prevent the ensuing cognitive dysfunction. Efforts to improve this paradigm by adding anticonvulsants or antiglutamatergic drugs with anti-epileptic characteristics produced dubious results. Under these conditions, benactyzine and caramiphen, agents with anticholinergic and antiglutamatergic properties, provided improved protection when introduced as adjunct agents to oximes, reversible cholinesterase inhibitors and/or specific antimuscarinic drugs such as atropine. In contrast, the specific antimuscarinic drug scopolamine failed to block soman-induced changes in glutamatergic and behavioral parameters even when given prophylactically. These findings along with a large number of additional reports led towards the conclusion that the therapeutic advantage of drugs such as benactyzine and caramiphen could derive from their ability to modulate central cholinergic and glutamate neurotransmission.

  12. Nuclear matter saturation with chiral three-nucleon interactions fitted to light nuclei properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logoteta, Domenico [INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bombaci, Ignazio, E-mail: ignazio.bombaci@unipi.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); European Gravitational Observatory, Via E. Amaldi, I-56021 S. Stefano a Macerata, Cascina (Italy); Kievsky, Alejandro [INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2016-07-10

    The energy per particle of symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter is calculated using the many-body Brueckner–Hartree–Fock approach and employing the Chiral Next-to-next-to-next-to leading order (N3LO) nucleon–nucleon (NN) potential, supplemented with various parametrizations of the Chiral Next-to-next-to leading order (N2LO) three-nucleon interaction. Such combination is able to reproduce several observables of the physics of light nuclei for suitable choices of the parameters entering in the three-nucleon interaction. We find that some of these parametrizations provide a satisfactory saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter and values of the symmetry energy and its slope parameter L in very good agreement with those extracted from various nuclear experimental data. Thus, our results represent a significant step toward a unified description of few- and many-body nuclear systems starting from two- and three-nucleon interactions based on the symmetries of QCD.

  13. Nuclear matter properties from local chiral interactions with $\\Delta$ isobar intermediate states

    CERN Document Server

    Logoteta, Domenico; Kievsky, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Using two-nucleon and three-nucleon interactions derived in the framework of chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) with and without the explicit $\\Delta$ isobar contributions, we calculate the energy per particle of symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter in the framework of the microscopic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach. In particular, we present for the first time nuclear matter calculations using the new fully local in coordinate-space two-nucleon interaction at the next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-order (N3LO) of ChPT with $\\Delta$ isobar intermediate states (N3LO$\\Delta$) recently developed by Piarulli et al. [arXiv:1606:06335]. We find that using this N3LO$\\Delta$ potential, supplemented with a local N2LO three-nucleon interaction with explicit $\\Delta$ isobar degrees of freedom, it is possible to obtain a satisfactory saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter. For this combination of two- and three-nucleon interactions we also calculate the nuclear symmetry energy and we compare our results wit...

  14. Nuclear matter saturation with chiral three-nucleon interactions fitted to light nuclei properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logoteta, Domenico; Bombaci, Ignazio; Kievsky, Alejandro

    2016-07-01

    The energy per particle of symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter is calculated using the many-body Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach and employing the Chiral Next-to-next-to-next-to leading order (N3LO) nucleon-nucleon (NN) potential, supplemented with various parametrizations of the Chiral Next-to-next-to leading order (N2LO) three-nucleon interaction. Such combination is able to reproduce several observables of the physics of light nuclei for suitable choices of the parameters entering in the three-nucleon interaction. We find that some of these parametrizations provide a satisfactory saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter and values of the symmetry energy and its slope parameter L in very good agreement with those extracted from various nuclear experimental data. Thus, our results represent a significant step toward a unified description of few- and many-body nuclear systems starting from two- and three-nucleon interactions based on the symmetries of QCD.

  15. Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bing, G.F.

    1991-08-20

    This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

  16. Expression Analysis and Nuclear Import Study of Full-length Isoforms Importin α as 6x Histidin-tagged Fusion Protein on the Intracellular Localization of Recombinant HBV Core Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Haryanto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Isoform importin α molecules play a central role in the classical nuclear import pathway, that occurs throughthe nuclear pore complex (NPC and typically requires a specific nuclear localization signal (NLS. In this study,it was investigated the role of isoforms importin α in the nuclear import of wild type recombinant hepatitis B viruscore protein (WT rHBc, phosphorylated recombinant HBV core (rHBc and recombinant HBV core without NLSby co-immunoprecipitation. Four recombinant full-length isoforms importin α as 6x histidin-tagged fusion proteinwere expressed and analysed from expression plasmid vectors Rch1, pHM 1969, pHM 1967 and pHM 1965. Theresults indicated that importin α-1, importin α-3, importin α-4 and importin α-5 can be expressed and isolatedfrom E. coli transformed recombinant DNA plasmid as protein in size around 58-60 kDa. By the nuclear transportstudy shown that isoforms importin α are involved in the nuclear import of WT rHBc, phosphorylated rHBc andrHBc without NLS. It also indicated that they have an important role for nuclear transport of from cytoplasm intothe nucleus.Keywords: NPC, NLS, importin α, importin β, isoforms importin α as 6x histidin-tagged fusion protein, WTrHBc, SV40 Tag, co-immunoprecipitation, westernblotting.

  17. 地下核燃烧假说的重要证据%Important Evidences for the Hypothesis of Nuclear Combustion in the Earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞震东

    2012-01-01

    本文提供了多方面证据论证地下核燃烧假说是符合客观实际的.第一,氡增多和汞增多是确定无疑的地震前兆,对这两种地震前兆的唯一合理的解释是地内存在着铀、钍元素的核裂变燃烧.第二,通过对五种现象的分析,因为它们都要用氢聚变才能得到合理的解释,所以地球内部也存在着核聚变燃烧.第三,地震前地表及浅层热异常是被大量观测结果证实的地震前兆,这种地震前兆也只有用地下核燃烧才能得到合理的解释.第四,地震前兆成带性、大区域前兆场、映震灵敏区和映震灵敏井、震源附近流体、地壳中高导低速层控制强震、地热带和地震带密切相关、地震引起地面沉降等地震研究中发现的七种对于目前占主导地位的地震理论来说都无法解释的现象用地下核燃烧假说都得到了合理的解释.第五,活断层表面现象和板块运动表面现象的成因用地下核燃烧也都得到了清楚的解释.本文提出,用“地壳视运动”来代替“地壳运动”才是对这种现象的科学表述.此外,还要加上我们以前已经提供的证据.第六,在非洲加蓬的奥克洛铀矿发生过公认的地下核裂变燃烧.第七,通过对1995年日本神户大地震观测资料的分析,证明了该地区地下是一个天然的聚变裂变混合反应堆.第八,通过对我国2008年汶川大地震观测资料的分析,证明了在汶川大地震震源的下面存在着一个异常高温区.这么多的证据足以证明,地下核燃烧假说是能够成立的.从而,建立在地下核燃烧假说基础上、由中国人提出的地质学的宇宙线环境学说和地震学的宇宙线环境学说就有了稳固的基础.%The paper has provided important evidences to prove that the hypothesis of nuclear combustion in the Earth is in conformity with objective reality. Firstly, increases of radon contents and mercury contents in underground water are two

  18. Nuclear spin coherence properties of 151Eu3+ and 153Eu3+ in a Y2O3 transparent ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, J.; Kunkel, N.; Ikesue, A.; Ferrier, A.; Goldner, P.

    2017-03-01

    We have measured inhomogeneous linewidths and coherence times (T 2) of nuclear spin transitions in a Eu3+ :Y2O3 transparent ceramic by an all-optical spin echo technique. The nuclear spin echo decay curves showed a strong modulation which was attributed to interaction with Y nuclei in the host. The coherence time of the 29 MHz spin transition in 151Eu3+ was 16 ms in a small applied magnetic field. Temperature dependent measurements showed that the coherence time was constant up to 18 K and was limited by spin-lattice relaxation for higher temperatures. Nuclear spin echoes in 153Eu3+ gave much weaker signals than for the case of 151Eu3+ . The spin coherence time for the 73 MHz spin transition in 153Eu3+ was estimated to 14 ms in a small magnetic field. The study shows that the spin transitions of ceramic Eu3+ :Y2O3 have coherence properties comparable to the best rare-earth-doped materials available.

  19. Source attribution of climatically important aerosol properties measured at Paposo (Chile during VOCALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Chand

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of submicron aerosol composition, light scattering, and size distribution were made from 17 October to 15 November 2008 at the elevated Paposo site (25° 0.4' S, 70° 27.01' W, 690 m a.s.l. on the Chilean coast as part of the VOCALS* Regional Experiment (REx. Based on the chemical composition measurements, a receptor modeling analysis using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF was carried out, yielding four broad source categories of the aerosol mass, light scattering coefficient, and a proxy for cloud condensation nucleus (CCN concentration at 0.4% supersaturation derived from the size distribution measurements assuming an observed soluble mass fraction of 0.53. The sources resolved were biomass burning, marine, an urban-biofuels mix and a somewhat ambiguous mix of smelter emissions and mineral dust. The urban-biofuels mix is the most dominant aerosol mass component (52% followed by biomass burning (25%, smelter/soil dust (12% and marine (9% sources. The average (mean±std submicron aerosol mass concentration, aerosol light scattering coefficient and proxy CCN concentration were, 8.77±5.40 μg m−3, 21.9±11.0 Mm−1 and 548±210 cm−3, respectively. Sulfate is the dominant identified submicron species constituting roughly 40% of the dry mass (3.64±2.30 μg m−3, although the indentified soluble species constitute only 53% of the mass. Much of the unidentified mass is likely organic in nature. The relative importance of each aerosol source category is different depending upon whether mass, light scattering, or CCN concentration is being considered, indicating that the mean size of aerosols associated with each source are different. Marine aerosols do not appear to contribute to more than 10% to either mass, light scattering, or CCN concentration at this site. Back trajectory cluster analysis proved consistent with the PMF source attribution.

    *VOCALS: VAMOS** Ocean

  20. Source attribution of climatically important aerosol properties measured at Paposo (Chile during VOCALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Chand

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of submicron aerosol composition, light scattering, and size distribution were made from 17 October to 15 November 2008 at the elevated Paposo site (25° 0.4' S, 70°27.01' W, 690 m a.s.l. on the Chilean coast as part of the VOCALS1 Regional Experiment (REx. Based on the chemical composition measurements, a receptor modeling analysis using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF was carried out, yielding four broad source categories of the aerosol mass, light scattering coefficient, and a proxy for cloud condensation nucleus (CCN concentration at 0.4% supersaturation derived from the size distribution measurements assuming an observed soluble mass fraction of 0.53. The sources resolved were biomass burning, marine, an urban-biofuels mix and a somewhat ambiguous mix of smelter emissions and mineral dust. The urban-biofuels mix is the most dominant aerosol mass component (52% followed by biomass burning (25%, smelter/soil dust (12% and marine (9% sources. The average (mean±std submicron aerosol mass concentration, aerosol light scattering coefficient and proxy CCN concentration were, 8.77±5.40 μg m−3, 21.9±11.0 Mm−1 and 548±210 cm−3, respectively. Sulfate is the dominant identified submicron species constituting roughly 40% of the dry mass (3.64±2.30 μg m−3, although the indentified soluble species constitute only 53% of the mass. Much of the unidentified mass is likely organic in nature. The relative importance of each aerosol source category is different depending upon whether mass, light scattering, or CCN concentration is being considered, indicating that the mean size of aerosols associated with each source are different. Marine aerosols do not appear to contribute to more than 10% to either mass, light scattering, or CCN concentration at this site. Back trajectory cluster analysis proved consistent with the PMF source attribution.


    1 VOCALS

  1. Continuous SiC fiber, CVI SiC matrix composites for nuclear applications: Properties and irradiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, Yutai, E-mail: katohy@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ozawa, Kazumi; Shih, Chunghao; Nozawa, Takashi [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shinavski, Robert J. [Hyper-Therm High Temperature Composites, Inc., Huntington Beach, CA (United States); Hasegawa, Akira [Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi-ken (Japan); Snead, Lance L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) continuous fiber-reinforced, SiC-matrix composites (SiC/SiC composites) are industrially available materials that are promising for applications in nuclear environments. The SiC/SiC composites consisting of near-stoichiometric SiC fibers, stoichiometric and fully crystalline SiC matrices, and the pyrocarbon (PyC) or multilayered PyC/SiC interphase between the fiber and the matrix are considered particularly resistant to very high radiation environments. This paper provides a summary compilation of the properties of these composites, specifically those with the chemically vapor-infiltrated (CVI) SiC matrices, including newly obtained results. The properties discussed are both in unirradiated condition and after neutron irradiation to intermediate fluence levels (most data are for <∼10 displacement per atom) at 300–1300 °C.

  2. Mycalamide A Shows Cytotoxic Properties and Prevents EGF-Induced Neoplastic Transformation through Inhibition of Nuclear Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyshlovoy, Sergey A.; Fedorov, Sergey N.; Kalinovsky, Anatoly I.; Shubina, Larisa K.; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Stonik, Valentin A.; Honecker, Friedemann

    2012-01-01

    Mycalamide A, a marine natural compound previously isolated from sponges, is known as a protein synthesis inhibitor with potent antitumor activity. However, the ability of this compound to prevent malignant transformation of cells has never been examined before. Here, for the first time, we report the isolation of mycalamide A from ascidian Polysincraton sp. as well as investigation of its cancer preventive properties. In murine JB6 Cl41 P+ cells, mycalamide A inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced neoplastic transformation, and induced apoptosis at subnanomolar or nanomolar concentrations. The compound inhibited transcriptional activity of the oncogenic nuclear factors AP-1 and NF-κB, a potential mechanism of its cancer preventive properties. Induction of phosphorylation of the kinases MAPK p38, JNK, and ERK was also observed at high concentrations of mycalamide A. The drug shows promising potential for both cancer-prevention and cytotoxic therapy and should be further developed. PMID:22822368

  3. Effects of nuclear radiation on the optical properties of cerium-doped glass (accelerator applications)

    CERN Document Server

    McGrath, B; Van de Voorde, M H

    1976-01-01

    Some twenty types of glass containing 0.5-4% CeO/sub 2/ have been irradiated in a /sup 60/Co gamma cell and in the mixed neutron-gamma field of a nuclear reactor, at total integrated doses of up to 5*10 /sup 9/ rad (CH). The resulting colouration has been assessed quantitatively by measuring the light transmission with reference to air, in the range 360-510 nm. From the results, certain types of glass suitable for applications in nuclear engineering can be selected. Specifically, it was found that 1-2% CeO/sub 2/ content is usually sufficient to obtain radiation-resistant optical glass: the reduction in light transmission above 450 nm is nil at 10/sup 8/ rad (CH), below 10% at 10/sup 9/ rad (CH), and below 20% at 5*10/sup 9/ rad (CH); the post-irradiation fading is negligible.

  4. Improving mechanical properties and microstructure development of fiber reinforced ceramic nuclear fuel.

    OpenAIRE

    SACRAMENTO SANTANA, HESDRAS HENRIQUE

    2014-01-01

    At the present work the UO2 fuel production process was extensively studied and analyzed. The objectives of such investigation were to understand and analyze the influence of different additives and the variation of the production process steps on the microstructure and consequently in the mechanical strength of the nuclear fuel pellet. Moreover, an improvement of the qualitative characteristics of the ceramic fuel pellets was also aimed. For this purpose UO2 pellets without ad...

  5. Nuclear matter properties in the relativistic mean field model with $\\sigma-\\omega$ coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, K C; Santiago, A J; Zhang, J W

    2001-01-01

    The possibility of extending the linear sigma-omega model by introducing a sigma-omega coupling phenomenologically is explored. It is shown that, in contrast to the usual Walecka model, not only the effective nucleon mass M* but also the effective sigma meson mass m*_sigma and the effective omega meson mass m*_omega are nucleon density dependent. When the model parameters are fitted to the nuclear saturation point (the nuclear radius constant r_0=1.14fm and volume energy a_1=16.0MeV) as well as to the effective nucleon mass M*=0.85M, the model yields m*_sigma=1.09m_sigma and m*_omega=0.90m_omega at the saturation point, and the nuclear incompressibility K_0=501MeV. The lowest value of K_0 given by this model by adjusting the model parameters is around 227MeV.

  6. Mineralogy and thermodynamic properties of magnesium phyllosilicates formed during the alteration of a simplified nuclear glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debure, Mathieu; De Windt, Laurent; Frugier, Pierre; Gin, Stéphane; Vieillard, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    The precipitation of crystallized magnesium phyllosilicates generally sustains the alteration rate of nuclear waste containment glass. However, glass alteration slows down to a residual rate as soon as Mg disappears from the solution. The identification of the phyllosilicates formed is therefore crucial for modeling the long-term behavior of nuclear glass. This study deals with batch alteration of the simplified nuclear glass ISG in presence of magnesium, and the characterization of the secondary phases. Morphological, chemical and structural analyses (MET, EDX, XRD) were performed to determine the nature and structure of the precipitated phases identified as trioctahedral smectites. Analyses conducted on the secondary phases proved the presence of Al, Na and Ca in the Mg-phyllosilicate phases. Such elements had been suspected but never quantitatively measured. The experimental results were then used to determine the thermodynamic solubility constants for each precipitated secondary phase at various temperatures. The calculated values were consistent with those available for sodium and magnesium saponites in the existing thermodynamic databases.

  7. Thermal Properties of LiCl-KCl Molten Salt for Nuclear Waste Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, Kumar [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Allen, Todd [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Anderson, Mark [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Simpson, Mike [Idaho National Lab., (United States)

    2012-11-30

    This project addresses both practical and fundamental scientific issues of direct relevance to operational challenges of the molten LiCl-KCl salt pyrochemical process, while providing avenues for improvements in the process. In order to understand the effects of the continually changing composition of the molten salt bath during the process, the project team will systematically vary the concentrations of rare earth surrogate elements, lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, and neodymium, which will be added to the molten LiCl-KCl salt. They will also perform a limited number of focused experiments by the dissolution of depleted uranium. All experiments will be performed at 500 deg C. The project consists of the following tasks. Researchers will measure density of the molten salts using an instrument specifically designed for this purpose, and will determine the melting points with a differential scanning calorimeter. Knowledge of these properties is essential for salt mass accounting and taking the necessary steps to prevent melt freezing. The team will use cyclic voltammetry studies to determine redox potentials of the rare earth cations, as well as their diffusion coefficients and activities in the molten LiCl-KCl salt. In addition, the team will perform anodic stripping voltammetry to determine the concentration of the rare earth elements and their solubilities, and to develop the scientific basis for an on-line diagnostic system for in situ monitoring of the cation species concentration (rare earths in this case). Solubility and activity of the cation species are critically important for the prediction of the salt's useful lifetime and disposal.

  8. 78 FR 67925 - Transfer of Real Property at Defense Nuclear Facilities for Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... of Property Management, MA-65, 1000 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20585; Carmelo.Melendez... property. We revised the definitions in 770.4 to be consistent with terminology used in current DOE... Regulatory Affairs of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). B. Review Under the Regulatory...

  9. Elucidation of inorganic reaction mechanisms in ionic liquids: the important role of solvent donor and acceptor properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeisser, Matthias; van Eldik, Rudi

    2014-11-14

    In this article, we focus on the important role of solvent donor and acceptor properties of ionic liquids in the elucidation of inorganic reaction mechanisms. For this purpose, mechanistic and structural studies on typical inorganic reactions, performed in ionic liquids, have been conducted. The presented systems range from simple complex-formation and ligand-substitution reactions to the activation of small molecules by catalytically active complexes. The data obtained for the reactions in ionic liquids are compared with those for the same reactions carried out in conventional solvents, and are discussed with respect to the donor and acceptor properties of the applied ionic liquids. The intention of this perspective is to gain more insight into the role of ILs as solvents and their interaction with metal ions and complexes in solution.

  10. Investigation of the properties of aluminium alloys used in the construction of nuclear research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajewska, E. [Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1993-11-01

    In the paper there are described the results of the studies of the properties of aluminium alloys using in the construction of research reactors, especially of the Polish alloy PAR-1 which belongs to the group of Al-Mg-Si alloys. The influence of the heat treatment on structure of the alloy as well as on the mechanical and corrosion properties was studying. In the paper the results of some properties of PAR-1 alloy after irradiation were done. (author). 27 refs, 43 figs, 9 tabs.

  11. Effect of the EGFR density of breast cancer cells on nuclear importation, in vitro cytotoxicity, and tumor and normal-tissue uptake of [111In]DTPA-hEGF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Meiduo; Scollard, Deborah; Chan, Conrad; Chen, Paul; Vallis, Katherine; Reilly, Raymond M

    2007-11-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effect of epidermal growth factor receptor(s) (EGFR) density on the importation and nuclear localization of 111In-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid human epidermal growth factor ([111In]DTPA-hEGF) in breast cancer (BC) cells in vitro and in tumor xenografts and normal tissues in vivo in athymic mice, as well as on its cytotoxicity and tumor and normal-tissue distribution. The internalization and nuclear importation of [111In]DTPA-hEGF were measured in MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, BT-474 and MDA-MB-468 BC cells (10(4), 2 x 10(5), 6 x 10(5) and 10(6) EGFR/cell, respectively). The molecular size (Mr) distribution and immunoreactivity of nuclear radioactivity were characterized. Tumor and normal-tissue uptake of [111In]DTPA-hEGF in athymic mice implanted subcutaneously with BC xenografts were compared. Nuclear radioactivity in the tumor, lungs, liver, kidneys, spleen and colon was measured. There was a direct association between EGFR density and the nuclear localization of [111In]DTPA-hEGF in BC cells; nuclear importation approached saturation at 6 x 10(5) EGFR/cell. Almost all nuclear radioactivities exhibited an Mr of >100 kDa; immunoreactivity with anti-hEGF, anti-EGFR and anti-importin beta 1 antibodies was detected. The efflux of nuclear radioactivity was slowest for MDA-MB-468 cells. Cytotoxicity was correlated with EGFR expression. Uptake was greater in MDA-MB-468 than in MCF-7 xenografts and improved with preinjection of a 100-fold excess of unlabeled DTPA-hEGF. Nuclear importation was higher in liver, kidney and spleen cells than in tumor cells. [111In]DTPA-hEGF is translocated to the nucleus of BC cells complexed with EGFR and importin beta1. Nuclear importation and cytotoxicity are effected by EGFR density. The absence of hepatic and renal toxicities in [111In]DTPA-hEGF cannot be explained by a low efficiency of nuclear importation.

  12. The importance of object geometric properties for trajectory modeling of functional reach-to-grasp robotic therapy tasks - biomed 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Dominic; Jeutter, Dean C

    2009-01-01

    Reaching-to-grasp is essential for the performance of activities of daily living. Pathologies such as stroke, spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy, etc. limit individuals from being able to perform meaningful upper extremity movements, leading to a reduced quality of life. Robotic aided therapy is gaining prevalence as a rehabilitation tool because it can provide consistent and quantitative therapy. Such systems are dependent upon models to generate trajectories that dictate their movements. Time scaled polynomial techniques have been extensively used for robotic model development and trajectory generation. However, this approach is limited because it cannot support functional therapy tasks. This is largely due to the influence of cognitive complexity not completely considered with regards to the activity performed. We examine the influence of task cognitive complexity as manifested through the geometric properties of each object on the movement trajectories and kinematic dependent variables tasks through a motion analysis study using healthy subjects (N=8). We then compare the predicted results from several robotic trajectory models with the actual motion analysis data. Our results show that there are differences present, between the trajectory data and kinematic properties for each task, that are specific to the geometric properties of each object. In addition, the predicted results from the robotic trajectory models do not fully correlate with the actual movement information. This study is important as it will help provide some insight with regards to factors that need to be considered during the development of future robotic trajectory models and controllers for upper extremity functional rehabilitation tasks.

  13. Importance of a Fully Anharmonic Treatment of Equilibrium Isotope Fractionation Properties of Dissolved Ionic Species As Evidenced by Li(+)(aq).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Romain; Benoit, Magali; Tuckerman, Mark E; Méheut, Merlin

    2017-07-18

    Equilibrium fractionation of stable isotopes is critically important in fields ranging from chemistry, including medicinal chemistry, electrochemistry, geochemistry, and nuclear chemistry, to environmental science. The dearth of reliable estimates of equilibrium fractionation factors, from experiment or from natural observations, has created a need for accurate computational approaches. Because isotope fractionation is a purely quantum mechanical phenomenon, exact calculation of fractionation factors is nontrivial. Consequently, a severe approximation is often made, in which it is assumed that the system can be decomposed into a set of independent harmonic oscillators. Reliance on this often crude approximation is one of the primary reasons that theoretical prediction of isotope fractionation has lagged behind experiment. A class of problems for which one might expect the harmonic approximation to perform most poorly is the isotopic fractionation between solid and solution phases. In order to illustrate the errors associated with the harmonic approximation, we have considered the fractionation of Li isotopes between aqueous solution and phyllosilicate minerals, where we find that the harmonic approximation overestimates isotope fractionation factors by as much as 30% at 25 °C. Lithium is a particularly interesting species to examine, as natural lithium isotope signatures provide information about hydrothermal processes, carbon cycle, and regulation of the Earth's climate by continental alteration. Further, separation of lithium isotopes is of growing interest in the nuclear industry due to a need for pure (6)Li and (7)Li isotopes. Moving beyond the harmonic approximation entails performing exact quantum calculations, which can be achieved using the Feynman path integral formulation of quantum statistical mechanics. In the path integral approach, a system of quantum particles is represented as a set of classical-like ring-polymer chains, whose interparticle

  14. Sturdy on Orbital TIG Welding Properties for Nuclear Fuel Test Rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joung, Changyoung; Hong, Jintae; Kim, Kahye; Huh, Sungho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    We developed a precision TIG welding system that is able to weld the seam between end-caps and a fuel cladding tube for the nuclear fuel test rod and rig. This system can be mainly classified into an orbital TIG welder (AMI, M-207A) and a pressure chamber. The orbital TIG welder can be independently used, and it consists of a power supply unit, a microprocessor, water cooling unit, a gas supply unit and an orbital weld head. In this welder, the power supply unit mainly supplies GTAW power for a welding specimen and controls an arc starting of high frequency, supping of purge gas, arc rotation through the orbital TIG welding head, and automatic timing functions. In addition, the pressure chamber is used to make the welded surface of the cladding specimen clean with the inert gas filled inside the chamber. To precisely weld the cladding tube, a welding process needs to establish a schedule program for an orbital TIG welding. Therefore, the weld tests were performed on a cladding tube and dummy rods under various conditions. This paper describes not only test results on parameters of the purge gas flow rates and the chamber gas pressures for the orbital TIG welding, but also test results on the program establishment of an orbital TIG welding system to weld the fuel test rods. Various welding tests were performed to develop the orbital TIG welding techniques for the nuclear fuel test rod. The width of HAZ of a cladding specimen welded with the identical power during an orbital TIG welding cycle was continuously increased from a welded start-point to a weld end-point because of heat accumulation. The welding effect of the PGFR and CGP shows a relatively large difference for FSS and LSS. Each hole on the cladding specimens was formed in the 1bar CGP with the 20L/min PGFR but not made in the case of the PGFR of 10L/min in the CGP of 2bar. The optimum schedule program of the orbital TIG welding system to weld the nuclear fuel test rod was established through the program

  15. A probabilistic approach to rock mechanical property characterization for nuclear waste repository design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kunsoo; Gao, Hang [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    A probabilistic approach is proposed for the characterization of host rock mechanical properties at the Yucca Mountain site. This approach helps define the probability distribution of rock properties by utilizing extreme value statistics and Monte Carlo simulation. We analyze mechanical property data of tuff obtained by the NNWSI Project to assess the utility of the methodology. The analysis indicates that laboratory measured strength and deformation data of Calico Hills and Bullfrog tuffs follow an extremal. probability distribution (the third type asymptotic distribution of the smallest values). Monte Carlo simulation is carried out to estimate rock mass deformation moduli using a one-dimensional tuff model proposed by Zimmermann and Finley. We suggest that the results of these analyses be incorporated into the repository design.

  16. Measurement of Sedimentary Interbed Hydraulic Properties and Their Hydrologic Influence near the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kim S.

    2003-01-01

    Disposal of wastewater to unlined infiltration ponds near the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), formerly known as the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has resulted in the formation of perched water bodies in the unsaturated zone (Cecil and others, 1991). The unsaturated zone at INEEL comprises numerous basalt flows interbedded with thinner layers of coarse- to fine-grained sediments and perched ground-water zones exist at various depths associated with massive basalts, basalt-flow contacts, sedimentary interbeds, and sediment-basalt contacts. Perched ground water is believed to result from large infiltration events such as seasonal flow in the Big Lost River and wastewater discharge to infiltration ponds. Evidence from a large-scale tracer experiment conducted in 1999 near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC), approximately 13 km from the INTEC, indicates that rapid lateral flow of perched water in the unsaturated zone may be an important factor in contaminant transport at the INEEL (Nimmo and others, 2002b). Because sedimentary interbeds, and possibly baked-zone alterations at sediment-basalt contacts (Cecil and other, 1991) play an important role in the generation of perched water it is important to assess the hydraulic properties of these units.

  17. Bulk nuclear properties from dynamical description of heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun

    Mapping out the equation of state (EOS) of nuclear matter is a long standing problem in nuclear physics. Both experimentalists and theoretical physicists spare no effort in improving understanding of the EOS. In this thesis, we examine observables sensitive to the EOS within the pBUU transport model based on the Boltzmann equation. By comparing theoretical predictions with experimental data, we arrive at new constraints for the EOS. Further we propose novel promising observables for analysis of future experimental data. One set of observables that we examine within the pBUU model are pion yields. First, we find that net pion yields in central heavy-ion collisions (HIC) are strongly sensitive to the momentum dependence of the isoscalar nuclear mean field. We reexamine the momentum dependence that is assumed in the Boltzmann equation model for the collisions and optimize that dependence to describe the FOPI measurements of pion yields from the Au+Au collisions at different beam energies. Alas such optimized dependence yields a somewhat weaker baryonic elliptic flow than seen in measurements. Subsequently, we use the same pBUU model to generate predictions for baryonic elliptic flow observable in HIC, while varying the incompressibility of nuclear matter. In parallel, we test the sensitivity of pion multiplicity to the density dependence of EOS, and in particular to incompressibility, and optimize that dependence to describe both the elliptic flow and pion yields. Upon arriving at acceptable regions of density dependence of pressure and energy, we compare our constraints on EOS with those recently arrived at by the joint experiment and theory effort FOPI-IQMD. We should mention that, for the more advanced observables from HIC, there remain discrepancies of up to 30%, depending on energy, between the theory and experiment, indicating the limitations of the transport theory. Next, we explore the impact of the density dependence of the symmetry energy on observables

  18. The Use of Polyacrylamide Hydrogels to Study the Effects of Matrix Stiffness on Nuclear Envelope Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaisah, Rose-Marie; Cox, Susan; Warren, Derek T

    2016-01-01

    Matrix-derived mechanical cues influence cell proliferation, motility, and differentiation. Recent findings clearly demonstrate that the nuclear envelope (NE) adapts and remodels in response to mechanical signals, including matrix stiffness, yet a plethora of studies have been performed on tissue culture plastic or glass that have a similar stiffness to cortical bone. Using methods that allow modulation of matrix stiffness will provide further insight into the role of the NE in physiological conditions and the impact of changes in stiffness observed during ageing and disease on cellular function. In this chapter, we describe the polyacrylamide hydrogel system, which allows fabrication of hydrogels with variable stiffness to better mimic the environment experienced by cells in most tissues of the body.

  19. Computing Properties of Hadrons, Nuclei and Nuclear Matter from Quantum Chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, Martin J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-03-24

    This project was part of a coordinated software development effort which the nuclear physics lattice QCD community pursues in order to ensure that lattice calculations can make optimal use of present, and forthcoming leadership-class and dedicated hardware, including those of the national laboratories, and prepares for the exploitation of future computational resources in the exascale era. The UW team improved and extended software libraries used in lattice QCD calculations related to multi-nucleon systems, enhanced production running codes related to load balancing multi-nucleon production on large-scale computing platforms, and developed SQLite (addressable database) interfaces to efficiently archive and analyze multi-nucleon data and developed a Mathematica interface for the SQLite databases.

  20. Development and property evaluation of nuclear grade wrought FeCrAl fuel cladding for light water reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Pint, B. A.; Terrani, K. A.; Field, K. G.; Yang, Y.; Snead, L. L.

    2015-12-01

    Development of nuclear grade, iron-based wrought FeCrAl alloys has been initiated for light water reactor (LWR) fuel cladding to serve as a substitute for zirconium-based alloys with enhanced accident tolerance. Ferritic alloys with sufficient chromium and aluminum additions can exhibit significantly improved oxidation kinetics in high-temperature steam environments when compared to zirconium-based alloys. In the first phase, a set of model FeCrAl alloys containing 10-20Cr, 3-5Al, and 0-0.12Y in weight percent, were prepared by conventional arc-melting and hot-working processes to explore the effect of composition on the properties of FeCrAlY alloys. It was found that the tensile properties were insensitive to the alloy compositions studied; however, the steam oxidation resistance strongly depended on both the chromium and the aluminum contents. The second phase development focused on strengthening Fe-13Cr-5Al with minor alloying additions of molybdenum, niobium, and silicon. Combined with an optimized thermo-mechanical treatment, a thermally stable microstructure was produced with improved tensile properties at temperatures up to 741 °C.

  1. Masses, Deformations and Charge Radii--Nuclear Ground-State Properties in the Relativistic Mean Field Model

    CERN Document Server

    Geng, L S; Meng, J

    2005-01-01

    We perform a systematic study of the ground-state properties of all the nuclei from the proton drip line to the neutron drip line throughout the periodic table employing the relativistic mean field model. The TMA parameter set is used for the mean-field Lagrangian density, and a state-dependent BCS method is adopted to describe the pairing correlation. The ground-state properties of a total of 6969 nuclei with $Z,N\\ge 8$ and $Z\\le 100$ from the proton drip line to the neutron drip line, including the binding energies, the separation energies, the deformations, and the rms charge radii, are calculated and compared with existing experimental data and those of the FRDM and HFB-2 mass formulae. This study provides the first complete picture of the current status of the descriptions of nuclear ground-state properties in the relativistic mean field model. The deviations from existing experimental data indicate either that new degrees of freedom are needed, such as triaxial deformations, or that serious effort is ne...

  2. 41 CFR 102-75.75 - What is the most important consideration in evaluating a proposed transfer of excess real property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the most... Guidelines § 102-75.75 What is the most important consideration in evaluating a proposed transfer of excess real property? In every case of a proposed transfer of excess real property, the most...

  3. A nuclear magnetic resonance approach to the comparison of mucoadhesive properties of polysaccharides for ophthalmic uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uccello-Barretta, Gloria; Nazzi, Samuele; Balzano, Federica; Sansò, Marco

    2011-03-15

    Mucoadhesive properties of tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP) and larch arabinogalactan (AG), which are developed for ophthalmic applications, were investigated by NMR spectroscopy. Polysaccharide to mucin affinities were compared by using ketotifen fumarate as low molecular weight interaction probe. Proton selective relaxation rate measurements revealed enhanced affinity of TSP to mucin with respect to AG.

  4. Nuclear forces and the properties of matter at high temperature and density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayet, M.; Arnould, M.; Paulus, G.; Tondeur, F.

    1982-12-01

    We present two Skyrme-type forces which are particularly well suited for the description of presupernova core or matter in nascent neutron star. They are compared to other forces currently used in this field, with regard to finite nuclei and infinite matter properties, and to the coexistence of nuclei in a hot and dense nucleon gas.

  5. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of the solution properties of the polypeptide neurotoxin I from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, R.S.; Cossins, A.I.; Kem, W.R. (Univ. of New South Wales, Kensington (Australia))

    1989-02-21

    The solution properties of the polypeptide neurotoxin I from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus (Sh I) have been investigated by high-resolution H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy at 300 MHz. The pH dependence of the spectra has been examined over the range 1.1-12.2 at 27{degree}C. Individual pK{sub a} values have been obtained for the {alpha}-ammonium group of Ala-1 (8.6) and the side chains of Glu-8 (3.7), Tyr-36 (10.9), and Tyr-37 (10.8). For the remaining seven carboxyl groups in the molecule, four pK{sub a} values can be clearly identified. The five Lys residues titrate in the range 10.5-11, but individual pK{sub a} values could not be obtained because of peak overlap. Conformational changes associated with the protonation of carboxylates occur below pH 4, while in the alkaline pH range major unfolding occurs above pH 10. The molecule also unfolds at elevated temperatures. Exchange of the backbone amide protons has been monitored at various values of pH and temperature in the ranges pH 4-5 and 12-27{degree}C. Comparison of these properties of Sh I in solution with those of the related polypeptides anthopleurin A and Anemonia sulcata toxins I and II indicates that Sh I is less stable thermally and that there are some significant differences in the ionic interactions that maintain the tertiary structure. The solvent accessibility of aromatic residues has been probed with photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization NMR at 360 MHz.

  6. Synthesis, characterization and optical properties of low nuclearity liganded silver clusters: Ag31(SG)19 and Ag15(SG)11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertorelle, Franck; Hamouda, Ramzi; Rayane, Driss; Broyer, Michel; Antoine, Rodolphe; Dugourd, Philippe; Gell, Lars; Kulesza, Alexander; MitrićPresent Address: Institut Für Physikalische Und Theoretische Chemie, Julius-Maximilians Universität Würzburg, Emil-Fischer-Straße 42, 97074 Würzburg, Germany, Roland; Bonačić-Koutecký, Vlasta

    2013-05-01

    We report a simple synthesis of silver:glutathione (Ag:SG) clusters using a cyclic reduction under oxidative conditions. Two syntheses are described which lead to solutions containing well-defined Ag31(SG)19 and Ag15(SG)11 clusters that have been characterized by mass spectrometry. The optical properties of silver:glutathione (Ag:SG) cluster solutions have been investigated experimentally. In particular, the solution containing Ag15(SG)11 clusters shows a bright and photostable emission. For Ag31(SG)19 and Ag15(SG)11 clusters, the comparison of experimental findings with DFT and TDDFT calculations allowed us to reveal the structural and electronic properties of such low nuclearity liganded silver clusters.We report a simple synthesis of silver:glutathione (Ag:SG) clusters using a cyclic reduction under oxidative conditions. Two syntheses are described which lead to solutions containing well-defined Ag31(SG)19 and Ag15(SG)11 clusters that have been characterized by mass spectrometry. The optical properties of silver:glutathione (Ag:SG) cluster solutions have been investigated experimentally. In particular, the solution containing Ag15(SG)11 clusters shows a bright and photostable emission. For Ag31(SG)19 and Ag15(SG)11 clusters, the comparison of experimental findings with DFT and TDDFT calculations allowed us to reveal the structural and electronic properties of such low nuclearity liganded silver clusters. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Optimal settings for the MS instrument; schematic diagrams for syntheses A and B; ESI mass spectra of silver clusters from ``synthesis A'' in different solvent mixtures, at different pH values and with different synthesis protocols; excitation and emission spectra of clusters from ``synthesis B'' in water and of the separated band after PAGE separation; lifetime measurements of silver clusters from a solution of ``synthesis B'' in water; the structure and absorption spectrum of the two lowest-energy isomers

  7. Nuclear Theory - Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenne, J. P.; Canton, L.; Kozier, K. S.

    2008-01-01

    The results from modern nuclear theory are accurate and reliable enough to be used for practical applications, in particular for scattering that involves few-nucleon systems of importance to nuclear power. Using well-established nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions that fit well the NN scattering data, and the AGS form of the three-body theory, we have performed precise calculations of low-energy neutron-deuteron (n+d) scattering. We show that three-nucleon force effects that have impact on the low-energy vector analyzing powers have no practical effects on the angular distribution of the n+d cross-section. There appear to be problems for this scattering in the evaluated nuclear data file (ENDF) libraries, at the incident neutron energies less than 3.2 MeV. Supporting experimental data in this energy region are rather old (>25 years), sparse and often inconsistent. Our three-body results at low energies, 50 keV to 10.0 MeV, are compared to the ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL (Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library) -3.3 evaluated angular distributions. The impact of these results on the calculated reactivity for various critical systems involving heavy water is shown.

  8. Properties of Cs-intercalated single wall carbon nanotubes investigated by 133Cs Nuclear Magnetic resonance

    KAUST Repository

    Schmid, Marc R.

    2012-11-01

    In the present study, we investigated Cs-intercalated single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) using 133Cs Nuclear Magnetic resonance. We show that there are two types of Cs cations depending on the insertion level. Indeed, at low concentrations, Static spectra analysis shows that the Cs (α)+ species are fully ionized, i.e. α equal ca.1, while at higher concentrations a second paramagnetically shifted line appears, indicating the formation of Cs (β)+ ions with β < α ∼ +1. At low concentrations and low temperatures the Cs (α)+ ions exhibit a weak hyperfine coupling to the SWCNT conduction electrons, whereas, at higher temperatures, a thermally activated slow-motion diffusion process of the Cs (α)+ ions occurs along the interstitial channels present within the carbon nanotube bundles. At high concentrations, the Cs (β)+ ions seem to occupy well defined positions relative to the carbon lattice. As a matter of fact, the Korringa relaxation behavior suggests a strong hyperfine coupling between Cs nuclei and conduction electrons in the carbon nanotubes and a partial charge transfer, which suggest a plausible Cs(6s)-C(2p) hybridization. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nuclear Ground State Properties in Strontium by Fast Beam Laser Spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Hyperfine structures and isotope shifts of strontium isotopes with A=78 to A=100 were measured by collinear fast beam laser spectroscopy. Nuclear spins, moments and changes in mean square charge radii are extracted from the data. The spins and moments of most of the odd isotopes are explained in the framework of the single particle model. The changes in mean square charge radii show a decrease with increasing neutron number below the N=50 shell closure. Above N=50 the charge radii increase regularly up to N=59 before revealing a strong discontinuity, indicating the onset of strong ground state deformation. A comparison of the droplet model shows that for the transitional isotopes below and above N=50, the zero point quadrupole motion describes part of the observed shell effect. Calculations carried out in the Hartree-Fock plus BCS model suggest an additional change in the surface region of the charge distribution at spherical shape. From these calculations it is furthermore proposed, that the isotopes $^7

  10. Adenovirus replication is coupled with the dynamic properties of the PML nuclear structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucas, V; Ishov, A M; Romo, A; Juguilon, H; Weitzman, M D; Evans, R M; Maul, G G

    1996-01-15

    Wild-type PML and at least four other novel proteins are localized within discrete nuclear structures known as PODs. We demonstrate here that during adenovirus infection, immediate early viral proteins from the E1 and E4 transcription units associate with the POD, which in turn undergoes a dramatic morphological change. During this process, the auto-antigen Sp-100 and NDP55 but not PML, relocate from the POD to the viral inclusion bodies, the sites of adenovirus DNA replication and late RNA transcription. The E4-ORF3 11-kD protein alone will induce this reorganization and reciprocally, viruses carrying mutations in the E4-domain fail to do so. These same viral mutants are defective in viral replication as well as the accumulation of late viral mRNAs and host cell transcription shutoff. We show that interferon (INF) treatment enhances the expression of PML, reduces or blocks PODs reorganization, and inhibits BrdU incorporation into viral inclusion bodies. In addition, cell lines engineered to overexpress PML prevent PODs from viral-induced reorganization and block or severely delay adenovirus replication. These results suggest that viral replication relies on components of the POD and that the structure is a target of early viral proteins.

  11. A Study on the Properties and Chloride Resistance of Modified Sulfur Concrete for Nuclear Power Plant and Marine Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Soon Myun; Chang, Hyun Young; Park, Heung Bae [KEPCO EnC, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The mechanical, physical and chemical properties of concrete with modified sulfur have been compared and assessed against ordinary concrete. As its excellent chloride resistance and extended service life have been verified, the technology to apply modified sulfur to the construction of nuclear power plant and marine structures has been developed and secured. Recently, modified sulfur concrete has been applied for road pavement and repair works in more than 20 sites including highway and airport in Korea. Also, in the U.S., Federal Highway Administration and Virginia Department of Transportation are implementing tests to apply modified sulfur to bridge road pavement, and the modified sulfur concrete has been recognized for its good performance. Based on these cases, this study carried out tests on physical, mechanical and chemical properties of concrete after adding modified sulfur by building concrete specimens based on the concrete mix design employed to construct the Shin-Kori Units 3 and 4 containment building. Multiple tests were performed particularly for chemical resistance, a factor directly related to concrete service life. As a result, it has been verified that concrete with 5% modified sulfur content relative to cement weight has equal mechanical properties (compressive strength, tensile strength, etc.) and much better workability (slump change) and chemical resistance (resistance to chloride ion penetration, concrete carbonation) compared with ordinary concrete. Based on this, it has been concluded that an addition of modified sulfur can double the service life of concrete. In general, studies demonstrate that a significant amount of slag should be mixed into concrete to raise chemical resistance (but with decreasing mechanical properties). Considering this, this study is unparalleled.

  12. Rheological properties of concentrated skim milk: importance of soluble minerals in the changes in viscosity during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienvenue, A; Jiménez-Flores, R; Singh, H

    2003-12-01

    Properties of condensed milks prior to spray drying dictate to a large extent the functionality of the resulting milk powder. Rheological properties of concentrated skim milk, with total solids content of 45% but different mineral content, were studied as a function of shear rate and storage time at 50 degrees C. These milks are proposed as a model to study the effects of minerals on rheology and age gellation of condensed milk prior to drying. During storage of the concentrated milk, the apparent viscosity, particularly after 4 h, increased markedly at all shear rates studied. The yield stress also increased steeply after 4 h of storage at 50 degrees C. The changes in apparent viscosity of concentrated milk stored for up to 4 h were largely reversible under high shear, but irreversible in samples stored for longer time. The appearance of yield stress suggested the presence of reversible flocculation arising from weak attraction between casein micelles, with a transition from reversible to irreversible aggregation during storage. Particle size analysis confirmed irreversible aggregation and fusion of casein micelles during storage. Gradual reduction of mineral content of concentrated milks resulted in a marked decrease in the apparent viscosity and casein micelle aggregation during storage, while addition of minerals to milk had the opposite effect. The results demonstrated that the soluble mineral content is very important in controlling the storage-induced changes in the rheology of concentrated milks.

  13. Handbook for tensile properties of austenitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. W.; Ryu, W. S.; Jang, J. S.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, W. G.; Chung, M. K.; Han, C. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    Database system of nuclear materials has not been developed and the physical and mechanical properties of materials used in nuclear power plant are not summarized systematically in Korea. Although Korea designs nuclear power plant, many materials used in nuclear power plant are imported because we do not have database system of nuclear material yet and it was hard to select a proper material for the structural materials of nuclear power plant. To develop database system of nuclear materials, data of mechanical, corrosion, irradiation properties are needed. Of theses properties, tensile properties are tested and summarized in this report. Tensile properties of stainless steel used in nuclear reactor internal were investigated. Data between Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute and foreign laboratory were compared to determine the precision of the result. To develope database system, materials, chemical composition, heat treatment, manufacturing process, and grain size were classified. Tensile properties were tested and summarized to use input data of database system. 9 figs., 9 tabs. (Author)

  14. Shell-model-like Approach (SLAP) for the Nuclear Properties in Relativistic Mean field Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Jie; GUO Jian-you; LIU Lang; ZHANG Shuang-quan

    2006-01-01

    A Shell-model-like approach suggested to treat the pairing correlations in relativistic mean field theory is introduced,in which the occupancies thus obtained have been iterated back into the densities.The formalism and numerical techniques are given in detail.As examples,the ground state properties and low-lying excited states for Ne isotopes are studied.The results thus obtained are compared with the data available.The binding energies,the odd-even staggering,as well as the tendency for the change of the shapes in Ne isotopes are correctly reproduced.

  15. Thermodynamic properties and shear viscosity over entropy density ratio of nuclear fireball in a quantum-molecular dynamics model

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, C L; Fang, D Q; Zhang, G Q

    2013-01-01

    Thermodynamic and transport properties of nuclear fireball created in the central region of heavy-ion collisions below 200 MeV/nucleon are investigated within the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamic (IQMD) model. These properties include time evolutions of the density, temperature, chemical potential, entropy density ($s$) and shear viscosity ($\\eta$) as well as density and temperature dependencies of the ratio of shear viscosity over entropy density ($\\eta/s$) etc. Based on the shear viscosity parametrization developed by Danilewicz and entropy density which is obtained by a generalized hot Thomas Fermi formalism, the ratio of shear viscosity over entropy density is calculated in the whole collision process as well as in the freeze-out stage. With the collision goes on, a transient minimal $\\eta/s$ with the value around 5/$4\\pi$ occurs in the largest compression stage. While, the relationship of $\\eta/s$ to tempertaure ($T$) in the freeze-out stage displays a local minimum which is about 9-10 times $...

  16. Thermophysical property and pore structure evolution in stressed and non-stressed neutron irradiated IG-110 nuclear graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, Lance; Contescu, Christian I.; Byun, Thak Sang; Porter, Wallace D.

    2016-08-01

    The nuclear graphite, IG-110, was irradiated with and without a compressive load of 5 MPa at ~400 *C up to 9.3E25 n/m2 (E > 0.1 MeV). Following irradiation physical properties were studied to compare the effect of graphite irradiation on microstructure developed under compression and in stress-free conditions. Properties included: dimensional change, thermal conductivity, dynamic modulus, and CTE. The effect of stress on open internal porosity was determined through nitrogen adsorption. The IG-110 graphite experienced irradiation-induced creep that is differentiated from irradiation-induced swelling. Irradiation under stress resulted in somewhat greater thermal conductivity and coefficient of thermal expansion. While a significant increase in dynamic modulus occurs, no differentiation between materials irradiated with and without compressive stress was observed. Nitrogen adsorption analysis suggests a difference in pore evolution in the 0.3e40 nm range for graphite irradiated with and without stress, but this evolution is seen to be a small contributor to the overall dimensional change.

  17. ZERO-FIELD NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE FOR STUDY OF ANTIFERROMAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF FeF3 MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. F. Suwandi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR has been used as a research tool in many fields. In this study, the magnetic properties, especially anti-ferromagnetic properties of FeF3 materials were investigated. Zero-field custom-built NMR method was used to investigate the anti-ferromagnetic properties in the materials. Experiments have been carried out by varying the sample temperatures from 8 K to 220 K. Ordinary spin echo pulse sequence 90⁰RF–τ–180⁰RF were used. Using Fast Fourier Transform, the signals in NMR spectrum were analyzed and the peak showed the resonance frequency. The result showed that resonance frequencies decrease with increasing in temperature. The frequency of the spectrum was around 85.41 MHz in the zero-temperature limit, and this corresponds with Fe hyperfine field at zero-temperature limit was 2.14 T. The temperature dependence of the local magnetization does not fit T2 Bloch’s Law very well. Instead, it fits the exponential form having an energy gap in the dispersion relation of the spin wave. It is obtained from the result that FeF3 is antiferromagnetic materials with energy gap of 11.466 meV and anisotropy energy of 1.045 meV.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR telah banyak digunakan sebagai “research tool” pada berbagai bidang kajian di fisika. Pada studi ini, akan dilakukan eksperimen untuk menguji sifat magnetik, khususnya antiferromagnetik pada material FeF3. Telah dilakukan eksperimen dengan memvariasikan temperatur pada sampel dari 8 K hingga 220 K. Pulse sequence yang digunakan adalah 90⁰RF–τ–180⁰RF. Dengan memanfaatkan Fast Fourier Transform, sinyal echo ini dapat dianalisis dalam bentuk spektrum NMR dengan puncak spektrum menunjukkan frekuensi resonansinya. Diperoleh bahwa frekuensi resonansi akan menurun seiring dengan kenaikan temperatur. Posisi frekuensi pada temperatur 0 K adalah sebesar 85,41 MHz, hal ini memperlihatkan bahwa medan hyperfine dari Fe sebesar 2,14 T pada temperatur 0 K. Kurva

  18. Theoretical Aspects of Science with Radioactive Nuclear Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Dobaczewski, J; Dobaczewski, Jacek; Nazarewicz, Witold

    1997-01-01

    Physics of radioactive nuclear beams is one of the main frontiers of nuclear science today. Experimentally, thanks to technological developments, we are on the verge of invading the territory of extreme N/Z ratios in an unprecedented way. Theoretically, nuclear exotica represent a formidable challenge for the nuclear many-body theories and their power to predict nuclear properties in nuclear terra incognita. It is important to remember that the lesson learned by going to the limits of the nuclear binding is also important for normal nuclei from the neighborhood of the beta stability valley. And, of course, radioactive nuclei are crucial astrophysically; they pave the highway along which the nuclear material is transported up in the proton and neutron numbers during the complicated synthesis process in stars.

  19. Nonaqueous magnetic nanoparticle suspensions with controlled particle size and nuclear magnetic resonance properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meledandri, Carla J; Stolarczyk, Jacek K; Ghosh, Swapankumar; Brougham, Dermot F

    2008-12-16

    We report the preparation of monodisperse maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) nanoparticle suspensions in heptane, by thermal decomposition of iron(III) acetylacetonate in the presence of oleic acid and oleylamine surfactants. By varying the surfactant/Fe precursor mole ratio during synthesis, control was exerted both over the nanocrystal core size, in the range from 3 to 6 nm, and over the magnetic properties of the resulting nanoparticle dispersions. We report field-cycling 1H NMR relaxation analysis of the superparamagnetic relaxation rate enhancement of nonaqueous suspensions for the first time. This approach permits measurement of the relaxivity and provides information on the saturation magnetization and magnetic anisotropy energy of the suspended particles. The saturation magnetization was found to be in the expected range for maghemite particles of this size. The anisotropy energy was found to increase significantly with decreasing particle size, which we attribute to increased shape anisotropy. This study can be used as a guide for the synthesis of maghemite nanoparticles with selected magnetic properties for a given application.

  20. Theory of nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakyan, R.M.; Sarkisyan, A.V.

    1987-07-01

    The properties of degenerate stellar matter in the region of nuclear densities are considered. The threshold of the transition of the electron-nucleus phase to the state of continuous nuclear matter is found.

  1. Nuclear "waffles"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A. S.; Berry, D. K.; Briggs, C. M.; Caplan, M. E.; Horowitz, C. J.

    2014-11-01

    Background: The dense neutron-rich matter found in supernovae and inside neutron stars is expected to form complex nonuniform phases, often referred to as nuclear pasta. The pasta shapes depend on density, temperature and proton fraction and determine many transport properties in supernovae and neutron star crusts. Purpose: To characterize the topology and compute two observables, the radial distribution function (RDF) g (r ) and the structure factor S (q ) , for systems with proton fractions Yp=0.10 ,0.20 ,0.30 , and 0.40 at about one-third of nuclear saturation density, n =0.050 fm-3 , and temperatures near k T =1 MeV . Methods: We use two recently developed hybrid CPU/GPU codes to perform large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with 51 200 and 409 600 nucleons. From the output of the MD simulations we obtain the two desired observables. Results: We compute and discuss the differences in topology and observables for each simulation. We observe that the two lowest proton fraction systems simulated, Yp=0.10 and 0.20 , equilibrate quickly and form liquidlike structures. Meanwhile, the two higher proton fraction systems, Yp=0.30 and 0.40 , take a longer time to equilibrate and organize themselves in solidlike periodic structures. Furthermore, the Yp=0.40 system is made up of slabs, lasagna phase, interconnected by defects while the Yp=0.30 systems consist of a stack of perforated plates, the nuclear waffle phase. Conclusions: The periodic configurations observed in our MD simulations for proton fractions Yp≥0.30 have important consequences for the structure factors S (q ) of protons and neutrons, which relate to many transport properties of supernovae and neutron star crust. A detailed study of the waffle phase and how its structure depends on temperature, size of the simulation, and the screening length showed that finite-size effects appear to be under control and, also, that the plates in the waffle phase merge at temperatures slightly above 1.0 MeV and

  2. Photoelectronic properties of HgI2 crystals for nuclear radiation detection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S L Sharma; H N Acharya

    2002-04-01

    Photoelectronic properties of red mercuric iodide single crystals, grown from its saturated solution in tetrahydrofuran, have been studied for the wavelength range 450-700 nm at temperatures 80, 110, 175, 235 and 300 K. Various aspects of the optical generation of charge carriers have been discussed. The computer simulation of the room temperature photoconductivity has generated the optimized values of the mobility-lifetime products (ee = 5.67 × 10-5 cm2/V, hh = 0.18 × 10-5 cm2/V), and surface recombination velocities (e = 3.2 × 105 cm/s, h = 4.5 × 105 cm/s) of the charge carriers in these crystals. The estimated values of the electron and hole drift lengths for typical electric fields suggest that, under the negative electrode illumination, THF -HgI2 crystals have high potential as regards to their use as phptodetectors in most of the scintillation spectrometers.

  3. Homometallic and Heterometallic Antiferromagnetic Rings: Magnetic Properties Studied by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casadei, Cecilia [Univ. of Pavia (Italy)

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present thesis is to investigate the local magnetic properties of homometallic Cr8 antiferromagnetic (AFM) ring and the changes occurring by replacing one Cr3+ ion with diamagnetic Cd2+ (Cr7Cd) and with Ni2+ (Cr7Ni). In the heterometallic ring a redistribution of the local magnetic moment is expected in the low temperature ground state. We have investigated those changes by both 53Cr-NMR and 19F-NMR. We have determined the order of magnitude of the transferred hyperfine coupling constant 19F - M+ where M+ = Cr3+, Ni2+ in the different rings. This latter result gives useful information about the overlapping of the electronic wavefunctions involved in the coordinative bond.

  4. Constraining nuclear photon strength functions by the decay properties of photo-excited states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaak, J., E-mail: j.isaak@gsi.de [ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI and Research Division, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies FIAS, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Savran, D. [ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI and Research Division, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies FIAS, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Krtička, M. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Ahmed, M.W. [Department of Mathematics and Physics, North Carolina Central University, Durham, NC 27707 (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Beller, J. [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Fiori, E. [ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI and Research Division, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies FIAS, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Glorius, J. [Institut für Angewandte Physik, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Kelley, J.H. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Löher, B. [ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI and Research Division, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies FIAS, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany); and others

    2013-12-18

    A new approach for constraining the low-energy part of the electric dipole Photon Strength Function (E1-PSF) is presented. Experiments at the Darmstadt High-Intensity Photon Setup and the High Intensity γ{sup →}-Ray Source have been performed to investigate the decay properties of {sup 130}Te between 5.50 and 8.15 MeV excitation energy. In particular, the average γ-ray branching ratio to the ground state and the population intensity of low-lying excited states have been studied. A comparison to the statistical model shows that the latter is sensitive to the low-energy behavior of the E1-PSF, while the average ground state branching ratio cannot be described by the statistical model in the energy range between 5.5 and 6.5 MeV.

  5. Structural integrity of materials in nuclear service: a bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heddleson, F.A.

    1977-06-07

    This report contains 679 abstracts from the Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) computer file dated 1973 through 1976 covering material properties with respect to structural integrity. All materials important to the nuclear industry (except concrete) are covered for mechanical properties, chemical properties, corrosion, fracture or failure, radiation damage, creep, cracking, and swelling. Keyword, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for the convenience of the user.

  6. Protactinium-231 as a new fissionable material for nuclear reactors that can produce nuclear fuel with stable neutron-multiplying properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmelev, Anatoly N.; Kulikov, Gennady G.; Kulikov, Evgeny G.; Apse, Vladimir A. [National Research Nuclear Univ. MEPHI, Moscow (Russian Federation). Moscow Engineering Physics Inst.

    2016-03-15

    Main purpose of the study is justifying doping of protactinium-231 into fuel compositions of advanced nuclear reactors with the ultimate aim to improve their operation safety and economic efficiency. Protactinium-231 could be generated in thorium blankets of hybrid thermonuclear facilities. The following results were obtained: 1. Protactinium-231 has some favorable features for its doping into nuclear fuel; 2. Protactinium containing fuel compositions can be characterized by the higher values of fuel burn-up, the longer values of fuel lifetime and the better proliferation resistance; 3. as protactinium-231 is the stronger neutron absorber than uranium-238, remarkably lower amounts of protactinium-231 may be doped into fuel compositions. The free space could be occupied by materials which are able to improve heat conductivity and refractoriness of fuel. As a consequence, operation safety of nuclear reactors could be upgraded.

  7. Signal transduction triggered by iron to induce the nuclear importation of a Myb3 transcription factor in the parasitic protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hong-Ming; Lee, Yu; Hsu, Pang-Hung; Liu, Hsing-Wei; Chu, Chien-Hsin; Chou, Ya-Wen; Chen, Yet-Ran; Chen, Shu-Hui; Tai, Jung-Hsiang

    2014-10-17

    Iron was previously shown to induce rapid nuclear translocation of a Myb3 transcription factor in the protozoan parasite, Trichomonas vaginalis. In the present study, iron was found to induce a transient increase in cellular cAMP, followed by the nuclear influx of Myb3, whereas the latter was also induced by 8-bromo-cyclic AMP. Iron-inducible cAMP production and nuclear influx of Myb3 were inhibited by suramin and SQ22536, respective inhibitors of the Gα subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins and adenylyl cyclases. In contrast, the nuclear influx of Myb3 induced by iron or 8-bromo-cAMP was delayed or inhibited, respectively, by H89, the inhibitor of protein kinase A. Using liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry, Thr(156) and Lys(143) in Myb3 were found to be phosphorylated and ubiquitinated, respectively. These modifications were induced by iron and inhibited by H89, as shown by immunoprecipitation-coupled Western blotting. Iron-inducible ubiquitination and nuclear influx were aborted in T156A and K143R, but T156D was constitutively ubiquitinated and persistently localized to the nucleus. Myb3 was phosphorylated in vitro by the catalytic subunit of a T. vaginalis protein kinase A, TvPKAc. A transient interaction between TvPKAc and Myb3 and the phosphorylation of both proteins were induced in the parasite shortly after iron or 8-bromo-cAMP treatment. Together, these observations suggest that iron may induce production of cAMP and activation of TvPKAc, which then induces the phosphorylation of Myb3 and subsequent ubiquitination for accelerated nuclear influx. It is conceivable that iron probably exerts a much broader impact on the physiology of the parasite than previously thought to encounter environmental changes.

  8. A nuclear localization signal and the C-terminal omega sequence in the Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirD2 endonuclease are important for tumor formation.

    OpenAIRE

    Shurvinton, C. E.; Hodges, L; Ream, W

    1992-01-01

    The T-DNA portion of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid integrates into plant nuclear DNA. Direct repeats define the T-DNA ends; transfer begins when the VirD2 endonuclease produces a site-specific nick in the right-hand border repeat and attaches to the 5' end of the nicked strand. Subsequent events generate linear single-stranded VirD2-bound DNA molecules that include the entire T-DNA (T-strands). VirD2 protein contains a nuclear localization signal (NLS) near the C t...

  9. Heavy hadrons in nuclear matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, Atsushi; Hyodo, Tetsuo; Sudoh, Kazutaka; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Yasui, Shigehiro

    2017-09-01

    Current studies on heavy hadrons in nuclear medium are reviewed with a summary of the basic theoretical concepts of QCD, namely chiral symmetry, heavy quark spin symmetry, and the effective Lagrangian approach. The nuclear matter is an interesting place to study the properties of heavy hadrons from many different points of view. We emphasize the importance of the following topics: (i) charm/bottom hadron-nucleon interaction, (ii) structure of charm/bottom nuclei, and (iii) QCD vacuum properties and hadron modifications in nuclear medium. We pick up three different groups of heavy hadrons, quarkonia (J / ψ, ϒ), heavy-light mesons (D/ D ¯ , B ¯ / B) and heavy baryons (Λc, Λb). The modifications of those hadrons in nuclear matter provide us with important information to investigate the essential properties of heavy hadrons. We also give the discussions about the heavy hadrons, not only in infinite nuclear matter, but also in finite-size atomic nuclei with finite baryon numbers, to serve future experiments.

  10. Heavy Hadrons in Nuclear Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Hosaka, Atsushi; Sudoh, Kazutaka; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Yasui, Shigehiro

    2016-01-01

    Current studies on heavy hadrons in nuclear medium are reviewed with a summary of the basic theoretical concepts of QCD, namely chiral symmetry, heavy quark spin symmetry, and the effective Lagrangian approach. The nuclear matter is an interesting place to study the properties of heavy hadrons from many different points of view. We emphasize the importance of the following topics: (i) charm/bottom hadron-nucleon interaction, (ii) structure of charm/bottom nuclei, and (iii) QCD vacuum properties and hadron modifications in nuclear medium. We pick up three different groups of heavy hadrons, quarkonia ($J/\\psi$, $\\Upsilon$), heavy-light mesons ($D$/$\\bar{D}$, $\\bar{B}$/$B$) and heavy baryons ($\\Lambda_{c}$, $\\Lambda_{b}$). The modifications of those hadrons in nuclear matter provide us with important information to investigate the essential properties of heavy hadrons. We also give the discussions about the heavy hadrons, not only in nuclear matter with infinite volume, but also in atomic nuclei with finite bary...

  11. Structure and mechanical properties of improved cast stainless steels for nuclear applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenik, E. A.; Busby, J. T.; Gussev, M. N.; Maziasz, P. J.; Hoelzer, D. T.; Rowcliffe, A. F.; Vitek, J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Casting of stainless steels is a promising and cost saving way of directly producing large and complex structures, such a shield modules or divertors for the ITER. In the present work, a series of modified high-nitrogen cast stainless steels has been developed and characterized. The steels, based on the cast equivalent of the composition of 316 stainless steel, have increased N (0.14-0.36%) and Mn (2-5.1%) content; copper was added to one of the heats. Mechanical tests were conducted with non-irradiated and 0.7 dpa neutron irradiated specimens. It was established that alloying by nitrogen significantly improves the yield stress of non-irradiated steels and the deformation hardening rate. Manganese tended to decrease yield stress but increased radiation hardening. The role of copper on mechanical properties was negligibly small. Analysis of structure was conducted using SEM-EDS and the nature and compositions of the second phases and inclusions were analyzed in detail. No ferrite formation or significant precipitation were observed in the modified steels. It was shown that the modified steels, compared to reference material (commercial cast 316L steel), had better strength level, exhibit significantly reduced elemental inhomogeneity and only minor second phase formation.

  12. Nuclear graphite wear properties and estimation of graphite dust production in HTR-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Xiaowei, E-mail: xwluo@tsinghua.edu.cn; Wang, Xiaoxin; Shi, Li; Yu, Xiaoyu; Yu, Suyuan

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Graphite dust. • The wear properties of graphite. • Pebble bed. • High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor. • Fuel element. - Abstract: The issue of the graphite dust has been a research focus for the safety of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs), especially for the pebble bed reactors. Most of the graphite dust is produced from the wear of fuel elements during cycling of fuel elements. However, due to the complexity of the motion of the fuel elements in the pebble bed, there is no systematic method developed to predict the amount the graphite dust in a pebble bed reactor. In this paper, the study of the flow of the fuel elements in the pebble bed was carried out. Both theoretical calculation and numerical analysis by Discrete Element Method (DEM) software PFC3D were conducted to obtain the normal forces and sliding distances of the fuel elements in pebble bed. The wearing theory was then integrated with PFC3D to estimate the amount of the graphite dust in a pebble bed reactor, 10 MW High Temperature gas-cooled test Reactor (HTR-10).

  13. Influence of the octupole mode on nuclear high-K isomeric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkov, Nikolay; Walker, Phil

    2014-05-01

    The influence of quadrupole-octupole deformations on the energy and magnetic properties of high-K isomeric states in even-even actinide (U, Pu, Cm, Fm, No), rare-earth (Nd, Sm and Gd), and superheavy (^{270}\\text{Ds}) nuclei is examined within a deformed shell model with pairing interaction. The neutron two-quasiparticle (2qp) isomeric energies and magnetic dipole moments are calculated over a wide range in the plane of quadrupole and octupole deformations. In most cases the magnetic moments exhibit a pronounced sensitivity to the octupole deformation. At the same time, the calculations outline three different groups of nuclei: with pronounced, shallow, and missing minima in the 2qp energy surfaces with respect to the octupole deformation. The result indicates regions of nuclei with octupole softness as well as with possible octupole deformation in the high-K isomeric states. These findings show the need for further theoretical analysis as well as of detailed experimental measurements of magnetic moments in heavy deformed nuclei.

  14. Progress on Standardization of Radioanalytical Methods for determination of important radionu-clides for environmental assessment and waste management in Nordic nuclear industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Olsson, Mattias; Vaaramaa, Kaisa;

    . A review article on this topic was prepared to be published in a peer review journal, and an intercomparison exercise was implemented for determination of 63Ni and 55Fe in three types of water samples: spiked water, reactor coolant water and an acid digested filter from a nuclear reactor. Seven labs...

  15. Effect of Nuclear Reactions on the Properties of Al-Mg-Si Alloys after Long-Time Exploitation in Research Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, A; Szteke, W; Hajewska, E; Wagner, T; Semina, V K

    2004-01-01

    Effect of fast neutron ($E>$ 0.1~?eV) irradiation on the mechanical properties and fracture morphology of the Al-Mg-Si alloys (PAR-1 and ???-1) after 40 years of exploitation in research nuclear reactors has been studied. Tested specimens were cut from structural elements of reactor EWA ($\\acute{\\rm S}$wierk, Poland). Irradiation induces degradation in mechanical properties, namely yield strength and ultimate strength increase, but elongation reduces. The mechanical property changes are caused by ageing of Al--Mg--Si alloy. During irradiation Si is formed from Al by the Al($n, \\gamma $)Si reaction. The presence of Si might cause strengthening of the Al--Mg--Si alloys by increasing precipitation of Mg$_{2}$Si or pure Si in the Al matrix. Post-irradiation activity studies of EWA reactor structural elements show that the high-activity $^{60}$Co and $^{65}$Zn isotopes have been formed by the nuclear reactions.

  16. Gordon Conference on Nuclear Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, S.M.

    1983-09-01

    Session topics were: quarks and nuclear physics; anomalons and anti-protons; the independent particle structure of nuclei; relativistic descriptions of nuclear structure and scattering; nuclear structure at high excitation; advances in nuclear astrophysics; properties of nuclear material; the earliest moments of the universe; and pions and spin excitations in nuclei.

  17. Importance of the radioactive or nuclear component and its conjunction with conventional risks in social phenomena resulting from terrorist acts; Importancia da componente radioactiva e ou nuclear e sua conjuncao com riscos convencionais, em fenomenos sociais decorrentes de accoes terroristas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Francisco Miguel da Rocha Grave [Coronel, Portuguese Army, Ministerio da Defesa Nacional (Portugal)

    2009-05-15

    The current strategic environment has attenuated the traditional threats of military nature. However, several instability factors result on new risks and potential threats. A review is made on the current threats and risk scenarios and the capacities for intervention of the Portuguese Army in scenarios involving the use of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons.

  18. 新约简模型中两个重要性质%Two important properties in the new reduction model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋思宇; 卢炎生

    2007-01-01

    Mean decision power (MDP) is an important criterion of a new reduction model, and relative decision power (RDP) and amount of rules (AR) are key parameters of MDP. This paper presents two important properties: relationship between RDP and AR, and relationship between MDP rule set of parent decision table and MDP rule set of child decision table. These properties can help better understanding of the new reduction model and are useful tools by which one can rapidly derive an MDP rule set.

  19. IFU spectroscopy of 10 early type galactic nuclei: II - Nuclear emission line properties

    CERN Document Server

    Ricci, T V; Menezes, R B

    2014-01-01

    Although it is well known that massive galaxies have central black holes, most of them accreting at low Eddington ratios, many important questions still remain open. Among them, are the nature of the ionizing source, the characteristics and frequencies of the broad line region and of the dusty torus. We report observations of 10 early-type galactic nuclei, observed with the IFU/GMOS spectrograph on the Gemini South telescope, analysed with standard techniques for spectral treatment and compared with results obtained with principal component analysis Tomography (Paper I). We performed spectral synthesis of each spaxel of the data cubes and subtracted the stellar component from the original cube, leaving a data cube with emission lines only. The emission lines were decomposed in multi-Gaussian components. We show here that, for eight galaxies previously known to have emission lines, the narrow line region can be decomposed in two components with distinct line widths. In addition to this, broad H$\\alpha$ emissio...

  20. SOD mimetic activity and antiproliferative properties of a novel tetra nuclear copper (II) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Sagiv; Moskovitz, Yoni; Fleker, Ohad; Levy, Ariel R; Meir, Aviv; Ruthstein, Sharon; Benisvy, Laurent; Gruzman, Arie

    2015-12-01

    The search for novel anticancer therapeutic agents is an urgent and important issue in medicinal chemistry. Here, we report on the biological activity of the copper-based bioinorganic complex Cu4 (2,4-di-tert-butyl-6-(1H-imidazo- [1, 10] phenanthrolin-2-yl)phenol)4]·10 CH3CN (2), which was tested in rat L6 myotubes, mouse NSC-34 motor neurone-like cells, and HepG-2 human liver carcinoma. Upon 96 h incubation, 2 exhibited a significant cytotoxic effect on all three types of cells via activation of two cell death mechanisms (apoptosis and necrosis). Complex 2 exhibited better potency and efficacy than the canonical cytotoxic drug cisplatin. Moreover, during shorter incubations, complex 2 demonstrated a significant SOD mimetic activity, and it was more effective and more potent than the well-known SOD mimetic TEMPOL. In addition, complex 2 was able to interact with DNA and, cleave DNA in the presence of sodium ascorbate. This study shows the potential of using polynuclear redox active compounds for developing novel anticancer drugs through SOD-mimetic redox pathways.

  1. Fabrication and Magnetic Properties of Co-Doped TiO2 Powders Studied by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Shi-Hui; WANG Xin-Wei; KOU Xiao-Ming; ZHOU Xue-Yun; XI Li; ZUO Ya-Lu; YANG Xiao-Lin; ZHAO Yu-Xuan

    2005-01-01

    @@ Co0.04 Ti0.96 O2 powders are fabricated by sol-gel method. The structure and magnetic properties are investigated under different annealing conditions systematically with emphasis on the influence of oxygen pressure. Pure anatase structure was acquired for all the samples annealed at 450 ℃ for one hour. The samples annealed in air exhibit evident room-temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) with a small magnetic moment of 0.029μB per Co atom and coercivity Hc of 26 Oe, while the samples annealed in vacuum have strong RTFM with a larger magnetic moment of 1.18 μB per Co atom and Hc of 430 Oe. The zero-field spin echo nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of 59 Co is obtained to prove the existence of Co clusters in the latter samples, implying that the Co clusters are responsible for the strong RTFM in the samples annealed in vacuum. No Co cluster could be observed using both XPS and NMR techniques in the samples annealed in air, implying that the RTFM found in these samples is intrinsic.

  2. Structures and Metal-Binding Properties of Helicobacter pylori Neutrophil-Activating Protein with a Di-Nuclear Ferroxidase Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideshi Yokoyama

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori causes severe diseases, such as chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, and stomach cancers. H. pylori neutrophil-activating protein (HP-NAP is an iron storage protein that forms a dodecameric shell, promotes the adhesion of neutrophils to endothelial cells, and induces the production of reactive oxygen radicals. HP-NAP belongs to the DNA-protecting proteins under starved conditions (Dps family, which has significant structural similarities to the dodecameric ferritin family. The crystal structures of the apo form and metal-ion bound forms, such as iron, zinc, and cadmium, of HP-NAP have been determined. This review focused on the structures and metal-binding properties of HP-NAP. These metal ions bind at the di-nuclear ferroxidase center (FOC by different coordinating patterns. In comparison with the apo structure, metal loading causes a series of conformational changes in conserved residues among HP-NAP and Dps proteins (Trp26, Asp52, and Glu56 at the FOC. HP-NAP forms a spherical dodecamer with 23 symmetry including two kinds of pores. Metal ions have been identified around one of the pores; therefore, the negatively-charged pore is suitable for the passage of metal ions.

  3. Properties of K,Rb-intercalated C60 encapsulated inside carbon nanotubes called peapods derived from nuclear magnetic resonance

    KAUST Repository

    Mahfouz, R.

    2015-09-18

    We present a detailed experimental study on how magnetic and electronic properties of Rb,K-intercalated C60 encapsulated inside carbon nanotubes called peapods can be derived from 13C nuclear magnetic resonance investigations. Ring currents do play a basic role in those systems; in particular, the inner cavities of nanotubes offer an ideal environment to investigate the magnetism at the nanoscale. We report the largest diamagnetic shifts down to −68.3 ppm ever observed in carbon allotropes, which is connected to the enhancement of the aromaticity of the nanotube envelope upon intercalation. The metallization of intercalated peapods is evidenced from the chemical shift anisotropy and spin-lattice relaxation (T1) measurements. The observed relaxation curves signal a three-component model with two slow and one fast relaxing components. We assigned the fast component to the unpaired electrons charged C60 that show a phase transition near 100 K. The two slow components can be rationalized by the two types of charged C60 at two different positions with a linear regime following Korringa behavior, which is typical for metallic system and allow us to estimate the density of sate at Fermi level n(EF).

  4. Monitoring and Pre-warning Technology of Important Devices of Nuclear Power Plant%核电厂重要设备的监视与预警技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾海霞; 王婷; 刘高俊; 谭珂

    2014-01-01

    针对核电厂运行过程中出现的重要设备的异常变化,利用数据挖掘技术,建立重要设备的动态规则库,在核电厂实时信息监控系统的实时数据和历史数据基础上,分析核电厂重要设备的变化趋势和规律,对重要设备的异常情况进行实时在线监视和预警。为操纵员提供判断依据,降低核事故发生的几率,从而有效地提高了核电厂运行的安全性。%Aiming to find out abnormal changes of important devices in nuclear power plant operation process ,combined with data mining technology ,dynamic regular library of important devices was set up .Based on the real‐time data and the history data of real‐time information monitoring system in nuclear power plant , trend and regularity of important devices of nuclear power plant were obtained and analyzed ,so the important devices can be monitored and pre‐warn online .The basis can be provided for the opera‐tors ,so the probability of nuclear accidents would be reduced and the safety of operation for nuclear power plant can be effectively improved .

  5. Panel report: nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Joseph A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hartouni, Edward P [LLNL

    2010-01-01

    supports the project Building a Universal Nuclear Energy Density Fuctional whose goals are to provide the unified approach to calculating the properties of nuclei. The successful outcome of this, and similar projects is a first steps toward a predictive nuclear theory based on fundamental interactions between constituent nucleons. The application of this theory to the domain of nuclei important for national security missions will require computational resources at the extreme scale, beyond what will be available in the near term future.

  6. Nuclear questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrani, M. [Physics World (United Kingdom)

    2006-01-01

    The future of nuclear power has returned to centre stage. Freezing weather on both sides of the Atlantic and last month's climate-change talks in Montreal have helped to put energy and the future of nuclear power right back on the political agenda. The issue is particularly pressing for those countries where existing nuclear stations are reaching the end of their lives. In the UK, prime minister Tony Blair has commissioned a review of energy, with a view to deciding later this year whether to build new nuclear power plants. The review comes just four years after the Labour government published a White Paper on energy that said the country should keep the nuclear option open but did not follow this up with any concrete action. In Germany, new chancellor and former physicist Angela Merkel is a fan of nuclear energy and had said she would extend the lifetime of its nuclear plants beyond 2020, when they are due to close. However, that commitment has had to be abandoned, at least for the time being, following negotiations with her left-wing coalition partners. The arguments in favour of nuclear power will be familiar to all physicists - it emits almost no carbon dioxide and can play a vital role in maintaining a diverse energy supply. To over-rely on imported supplies of oil and gas can leave a nation hostage to fortune. The arguments against are equally easy to list - the public is scared of nuclear power, it generates dangerous waste with potentially huge clean-up costs, and it is not necessarily cheap. Nuclear plants could also be a target for terrorist attacks. Given political will, many of these problems can be resolved, or at least tackled. China certainly sees the benefits of nuclear power, as does Finland, which is building a new 1600 MW station - the world's most powerful - that is set to open in 2009. Physicists, of course, are essential to such developments. They play a vital role in ensuring the safety of such plants and developing new types of

  7. NUCLEAR PHYSICS: Δ-Resonances in Ground State Properties of 2040Ca Spherical Cold Finite Nucleus at Equilibrium and under Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Sei'leek, Mohammed H. E.; Hasan, Mahmoud A.

    2010-08-01

    The ground state properties of the spherical nucleus 40Ca have been investigated by using constrained spherical Hartree-Fock (CSHF) approximation at equilibrium and under high radial compression in a six major shells. The effective baryon-baryon interaction that includes the Δ(1236) resonance freedom degrees to calculate nuclear properties is used. The nucleon-nucleon (N-N) interaction is based on Reid soft core (RSC) potential. The results of calculations show that much of increase in the nuclear energy generated under compression is used to create the massive Δ particles. The number of Δ's can be increased to about 2.1% of constituents of nucleus when nuclear density reaches about 1.34 times of normal density. The single particle energy levels are calculated and their behavior under compression is also examined. A good agreement has been found between current calculations and phenomenological shell model for low lying single-particle spectra. The gap between shells is very clear and L-S coupling become stronger as increasing the static load on the nucleus. The results show a considerable reduction in compressibility when freedom degrees of Δ's are taken into account. It has been found that the total nuclear radial density becomes denser in the interior and less dense in the exterior region of nucleus. The surface of nucleus becomes more and more responsive to compression than outer region.

  8. Nuclear astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnould, M. [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles (Belgium); Takahashi, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Garching (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    Nuclear astrophysics is that branch of astrophysics which helps understanding of the Universe, or at least some of its many faces, through the knowledge of the microcosm of the atomic nucleus. It attempts to find as many nuclear physics imprints as possible in the macrocosm, and to decipher what those messages are telling us about the varied constituent objects in the Universe at present and in the past. In the last decades much advance has been made in nuclear astrophysics thanks to the sometimes spectacular progress made in the modelling of the structure and evolution of the stars, in the quality and diversity of the astronomical observations, as well as in the experimental and theoretical understanding of the atomic nucleus and of its spontaneous or induced transformations. Developments in other subfields of physics and chemistry have also contributed to that advance. Notwithstanding the accomplishment, many long-standing problems remain to be solved, and the theoretical understanding of a large variety of observational facts needs to be put on safer grounds. In addition, new questions are continuously emerging, and new facts endangering old ideas. This review shows that astrophysics has been, and still is, highly demanding to nuclear physics in both its experimental and theoretical components. On top of the fact that large varieties of nuclei have to be dealt with, these nuclei are immersed in highly unusual environments which may have a significant impact on their static properties, the diversity of their transmutation modes, and on the probabilities of these modes. In order to have a chance of solving some of the problems nuclear astrophysics is facing, the astrophysicists and nuclear physicists are obviously bound to put their competence in common, and have sometimes to benefit from the help of other fields of physics, like particle physics, plasma physics or solid-state physics. Given the highly varied and complex aspects, we pick here some specific nuclear

  9. Nuclear astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, M.; Takahashi, K.

    1999-03-01

    Nuclear astrophysics is that branch of astrophysics which helps understanding of the Universe, or at least some of its many faces, through the knowledge of the microcosm of the atomic nucleus. It attempts to find as many nuclear physics imprints as possible in the macrocosm, and to decipher what those messages are telling us about the varied constituent objects in the Universe at present and in the past. In the last decades much advance has been made in nuclear astrophysics thanks to the sometimes spectacular progress made in the modelling of the structure and evolution of the stars, in the quality and diversity of the astronomical observations, as well as in the experimental and theoretical understanding of the atomic nucleus and of its spontaneous or induced transformations. Developments in other subfields of physics and chemistry have also contributed to that advance. Notwithstanding the accomplishment, many long-standing problems remain to be solved, and the theoretical understanding of a large variety of observational facts needs to be put on safer grounds. In addition, new questions are continuously emerging, and new facts endangering old ideas. This review shows that astrophysics has been, and still is, highly demanding to nuclear physics in both its experimental and theoretical components. On top of the fact that large varieties of nuclei have to be dealt with, these nuclei are immersed in highly unusual environments which may have a significant impact on their static properties, the diversity of their transmutation modes, and on the probabilities of these modes. In order to have a chance of solving some of the problems nuclear astrophysics is facing, the astrophysicists and nuclear physicists are obviously bound to put their competence in common, and have sometimes to benefit from the help of other fields of physics, like particle physics, plasma physics or solid-state physics. Given the highly varied and complex aspects, we pick here some specific nuclear

  10. Structural and dynamic properties of amorphous solid dispersions: the role of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and relaxometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Amrit; Geppi, Marco; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2014-09-01

    Amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) are one of the frontier strategies to improve solubility and dissolution rate of poorly soluble drugs and hence tackling the growing challenges in oral bioavailability. Pharmaceutical performance, physicochemical stability, and downstream processability of ASD largely rely on the physical structure of the product. This necessitates in-depth characterization of ASD microstructure. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SS-NMR) techniques bear the ultimate analytical capabilities to provide the molecular level information on the dynamics and phase compositions of amorphous dispersions. SS-NMR spectroscopy/relaxometry, as a single and nondestructive technique, can reveal diverse and critical structural information of complex ASD formulations that are barely amenable from any other existing technique. The purpose of the current article is to review the recent most important studies on various sophisticated and information-rich one-dimensional and two-dimensional SS-NMR spectroscopy/relaxometry for the analysis of molecular mobility, miscibility, drug-carrier interactions, crystallinity, and crystallization in ASD. Some specific examples on microstructural elucidations of challenging ASD using multidimensional and multinuclear SS-NMR are presented. Additionally, some relevant examples on the utility of solution-NMR and NMR-imaging techniques for the investigation of the dissolution behavior of ASD are gathered.

  11. Nuclear spectroscopic studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, C.R.; Guidry, M.W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1994-02-18

    The Nuclear Physics group at UTK is involved in heavy-ion physics including both nuclear structure and reaction mechanisms. During the last year experimental work has been in 3 broad areas: structure of nuclei at high angular momentum, structure of nuclei far from stability, and ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. Results in these areas are described in this document under: properties of high-spin states, study of low-energy levels of nuclei far from stability, and high-energy heavy-ion physics (PHENIX, etc.). Another important component of the work is theoretical interpretation of experimental results (Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research).

  12. Energy from nuclear fission(*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ripani M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main features of nuclear fission as physical phenomenon will be revisited, emphasizing its peculiarities with respect to other nuclear reactions. Some basic concepts underlying the operation of nuclear reactors and the main types of reactors will be illustrated, including fast reactors, showing the most important differences among them. The nuclear cycle and radioactive-nuclear-waste production will be also discussed, along with the perspectives offered by next generation nuclear assemblies being proposed. The current situation of nuclear power in the world, its role in reducing carbon emission and the available resources will be briefly illustrated.

  13. Measurements of miniature ionization chamber currents in the JSI TRIGA Mark II reactor demonstrate the importance of the delayed contribution to the photon field in nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulović, Vladimir; Fourmentel, Damien; Barbot, Loïc; Villard, Jean-François; Kaiba, Tanja; Gašper, Žerovnik; Snoj, Luka

    2015-12-01

    The characterization of experimental locations of a research nuclear reactor implies the determination of neutron and photon flux levels within, with the best achievable accuracy. In nuclear reactors, photon fluxes are commonly calculated by Monte Carlo simulations but rarely measured on-line. In this context, experiments were conducted with a miniature gas ionization chamber (MIC) based on miniature fission chamber mechanical parts, recently developed by the CEA (French Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission) irradiated in the core of the Jožef Stefan Institute TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana, Slovenia. The aim of the study was to compare the measured MIC currents with calculated currents based on simulations with the MCNP6 code. A discrepancy of around 50% was observed between the measured and the calculated currents; in the latter taking into consideration only the prompt photon field. Further experimental measurements of MIC currents following reactor SCRAMs (reactor shutdown with rapid insertions of control rods) provide evidence that over 30% of the total measured signal is due to the delayed photon field, originating from fission and activation products, which are untreated in the calculations. In the comparison between the measured and calculated values, these findings imply an overall discrepancy of less than 20% of the total signal which is still unexplained.

  14. Measurements of miniature ionization chamber currents in the JSI TRIGA Mark II reactor demonstrate the importance of the delayed contribution to the photon field in nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radulović, Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir.radulovic@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DER, Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Fourmentel, Damien; Barbot, Loïc; Villard, Jean-François [CEA, DEN, DER, Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Kaiba, Tanja; Gašper, Žerovnik; Snoj, Luka [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2015-12-21

    The characterization of experimental locations of a research nuclear reactor implies the determination of neutron and photon flux levels within, with the best achievable accuracy. In nuclear reactors, photon fluxes are commonly calculated by Monte Carlo simulations but rarely measured on-line. In this context, experiments were conducted with a miniature gas ionization chamber (MIC) based on miniature fission chamber mechanical parts, recently developed by the CEA (French Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission) irradiated in the core of the Jožef Stefan Institute TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana, Slovenia. The aim of the study was to compare the measured MIC currents with calculated currents based on simulations with the MCNP6 code. A discrepancy of around 50% was observed between the measured and the calculated currents; in the latter taking into consideration only the prompt photon field. Further experimental measurements of MIC currents following reactor SCRAMs (reactor shutdown with rapid insertions of control rods) provide evidence that over 30% of the total measured signal is due to the delayed photon field, originating from fission and activation products, which are untreated in the calculations. In the comparison between the measured and calculated values, these findings imply an overall discrepancy of less than 20% of the total signal which is still unexplained.

  15. The importance of the protection of industrial property, how and to defend it; La importancia de la tutela de la propiedad industrial como y por que defenderla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrandis, S.; Miazzetto, F.; Gracia, J. L.; Rodriguez, F.; Ortiz, A.; Bosh, A.

    2011-07-01

    The global economy has strengthened the importance that Intellectual Property rights have in our society, converting the investments done in intangible assets and their following enforcement in key factors of the entrepreneurial success and of the economy as a whole. The article offers a comprehensive vision of the reasons pushing the entrepreneurs to enforce their intellectual property and, at the same time, it tries to describe the means and corresponding proceedings that the Spanish system offers them with this aim. (Author)

  16. Advances in nuclear science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Henley, Ernest J

    1973-01-01

    Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 7 provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of nuclear science and technology. This book discusses the safe and beneficial development of land-based nuclear power plants.Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of irradiation-induced void swelling in austenitic stainless steels. This text then examines the importance of various transport processes for fission product redistribution, which depends on the diffusion data, the vaporization properties, and the solubility in the fuel matrix. Other chapters co

  17. Spatial variability of sedimentary interbed properties near the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfield, Kari A.

    2003-01-01

    The subsurface at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is complex, comprised primarily of thick, fractured basalt flows interbedded with thinner sedimentary intervals. The unsaturated zone can be as thick as 200 m in the southwestern part of the INEEL. The Vadose Zone Research Park (VZRP), located approximately 10 km southwest of the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), was established in 2001 to study the subsurface of a relatively undisturbed part of the INEEL. Waste percolation ponds for the INTEC were relocated to the VZRP due to concerns that perched water within the vadose zone under the original infiltration ponds (located immediately south of the INTEC) could contribute to migration of contaminants to the Snake River Plain aquifer. Knowledge of the spatial distribution of texture and hydraulic properties is important for developing a better understanding of subsurface flow processes within the interbeds, for example, by identifying low permeability layers that could lead to the formation of perched ground-water zones. Because particle-size distributions are easier to measure than hydraulic properties, particle size serves as an analog for determining how the unsaturated hydraulic properties vary both vertically within particular interbeds and laterally within the VZRP. As part of the characterization program for the subsurface at the VZRP, unsaturated and saturated hydraulic properties were measured on 10 core samples from six boreholes. Bulk properties, including particle size, bulk density, particle density, and specific surface area, were determined on material from the same depth intervals as the core samples, with an additional 66 particle- size distributions measured on bulk samples from the same boreholes. From lithologic logs of the 32 boreholes at the VZRP, three relatively thick interbeds (in places up to 10 m thick) were identified at depths of 35, 45, and 55 m below land surface. The 35-m

  18. Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive ... NIBIB-funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that ...

  19. Differentially expressed nuclear proteins in human CCRF-CEM, HL-60, MEC-1 and Raji cells correlate with cellular properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Silke; Crossett, Ben; Christopherson, Richard I

    2007-10-01

    The human cell lines CCRF-CEM (T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia), HL-60 (acute myeloid leukemia), MEC-1 (B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia) and Raji (Burkitt's B-cell lymphoma) have been analysed for differences in their nuclear proteomes. Using 2-D DIGE, 55 nuclear proteins have been identified that are differentially expressed (p<0.025) between the four cell lines, including proteins associated with transcription, proliferation, DNA repair and apoptosis. Of these 55 proteins, 22 were over-expressed in just one cell line, and four were down-regulated in one cell line. Proteins uniquely over-expressed between myeloid and lymphoid cell lines include those that may have use as markers for diagnosis, disease progression and B-cell maturation and differentiation. Expression of various proliferation-associated nuclear proteins correlated with relative growth rates of the cell lines, giving these proteins potential diagnostic applications for distinction of chronic versus acute subtypes of haematological malignancies. Identification of these differentially expressed nuclear proteins should facilitate elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying leukocyte differentiation and transformation to leukemias and lymphomas. The nuclear expression profiles should enable classification of subtypes of leukemia, and identify potential nuclear protein targets for development of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

  20. Nuclear charge and neutron radii and nuclear matter: trend analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhard, P -G

    2016-01-01

    Radii of charge and neutron distributions are fundamental nuclear properties. They depend on both nuclear interaction parameters related to the equation of state of infinite nuclear matter and on quantal shell effects, which are strongly impacted by the presence of nuclear surface. In this work, by studying the dependence of charge and neutron radii, and neutron skin, on nuclear matter parameters, we assess different mechanisms that drive nuclear sizes. We apply nuclear density functional theory using a family of Skyrme functionals obtained by means of different optimization protocols targeting specific nuclear properties. By performing the Monte-Carlo sampling of reasonable functionals around the optimal parametrization, we study correlations between nuclear matter paramaters and observables characterizing charge and neutron distributions. We demonstrate the existence of the strong converse relation between the nuclear charge radii and the saturation density of symmetric nuclear matter and also between the n...

  1. Transparent conductors from layer-by-layer assembled SWNT films: importance of mechanical properties and a new figure of merit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Bong Sup; Zhu, Jian; Jan, Edward; Critchley, Kevin; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2010-07-27

    New transparent conductors (TCs) capable of replacing traditional indium tin oxide (ITO) are much needed for displays, sensors, solar cells, smart energy-saving windows, and flexible electronics. Technical requirements of TCs include not only high electrical conductivity and transparency but also environmental stability and mechanical property which are often overlooked in the research environment. Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) coatings have been suggested as alternative TC materials but typically lack sufficient wear resistance compared to ITO. Balancing conductance, transparency, durability, and flexibility is a formidable challenge, which leads us to the introduction of a new TC figure of merit, PiTC, incorporating all these qualities. Maximization of PiTC to that of ITO or better can be suggested as an initial research goal. Fine tuning of SWNT layer-by-layer (LBL) polymeric nanocomposite structures makes possible integration of all the necessary properties. The produced TC demonstrated resistivity of 86 Omega/sq with 80.2% optical transmittance combined with tensile modulus, strength, and toughness of the film of 12.3+/-3.4 GPa, 218+/-13 MPa, and 8+/-1.7 J/g, respectively. A new transparent capping layer to conserve these properties in the hostile environment with matching or better strength, toughness, and transparency parameters was also demonstrated. Due to application demands, bending performance of TC made by LBL was of special interest and exceeded that of ITO by at least 100 times. Cumulative figure of merit PiTC for the produced coatings was 0.15 Omega(-1), whereas the conventional ITO showed PiTC<0.07 Omega(-1). With overall electrical and optical performance comparable to ITO and exceptional mechanical properties, the described coatings can provide an excellent alternative to ITO or other nanowire- and nanotube-based TC specifically in flexible electronics, displays, and sensors.

  2. Complete genome sequence and integrated protein localization and interaction map for alfalfa dwarf virus, which combines properties of both cytoplasmic and nuclear plant rhabdoviruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejerman, Nicolás, E-mail: n.bejerman@uq.edu.au [Instituto de Patología Vegetal (IPAVE), Centro de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (CIAP), Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria INTA, Camino a 60 Cuadras k 5,5, Córdoba X5020ICA (Argentina); Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Giolitti, Fabián; Breuil, Soledad de; Trucco, Verónica; Nome, Claudia; Lenardon, Sergio [Instituto de Patología Vegetal (IPAVE), Centro de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (CIAP), Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria INTA, Camino a 60 Cuadras k 5,5, Córdoba X5020ICA (Argentina); Dietzgen, Ralf G. [Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    Summary: We have determined the full-length 14,491-nucleotide genome sequence of a new plant rhabdovirus, alfalfa dwarf virus (ADV). Seven open reading frames (ORFs) were identified in the antigenomic orientation of the negative-sense, single-stranded viral RNA, in the order 3′-N-P-P3-M-G-P6-L-5′. The ORFs are separated by conserved intergenic regions and the genome coding region is flanked by complementary 3′ leader and 5′ trailer sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleoprotein amino acid sequence indicated that this alfalfa-infecting rhabdovirus is related to viruses in the genus Cytorhabdovirus. When transiently expressed as GFP fusions in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, most ADV proteins accumulated in the cell periphery, but unexpectedly P protein was localized exclusively in the nucleus. ADV P protein was shown to have a homotypic, and heterotypic nuclear interactions with N, P3 and M proteins by bimolecular fluorescence complementation. ADV appears unique in that it combines properties of both cytoplasmic and nuclear plant rhabdoviruses. - Highlights: • The complete genome of alfalfa dwarf virus is obtained. • An integrated localization and interaction map for ADV is determined. • ADV has a genome sequence similarity and evolutionary links with cytorhabdoviruses. • ADV protein localization and interaction data show an association with the nucleus. • ADV combines properties of both cytoplasmic and nuclear plant rhabdoviruses.

  3. Most water in the tomato truss is imported through the xylem, not the phloem: a nuclear magnetic resonance flow imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windt, Carel W; Gerkema, Edo; Van As, Henk

    2009-10-01

    In this study, we demonstrate nuclear magnetic resonance flow imaging of xylem and phloem transport toward a developing tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) truss. During an 8-week period of growth, we measured phloem and xylem fluxes in the truss stalk, aiming to distinguish the contributions of the two transport tissues and draw up a balance between influx and efflux. It is commonly estimated that about 90% of the water reaches the fruit by the phloem and the remaining 10% by the xylem. The xylem is thought to become dysfunctional at an early stage of fruit development. However, our results do not corroborate these findings. On the contrary, we found that xylem transport into the truss remained functional throughout the 8 weeks of growth. During that time, at least 75% of the net influx into the fruit occurred through the external xylem and about 25% via the perimedullary region, which contains both phloem and xylem. About one-half of the net influx was lost due to evaporation. Halfway through truss development, a xylem backflow appeared. As the truss matured, the percentage of xylem water that circulated into the truss and out again increased in comparison with the net uptake, but no net loss of water from the truss was observed. The circulation of xylem water continued even after the fruits and pedicels were removed. This indicates that neither of them was involved in generating or conducting the circulation of sap. Only when the main axis of the peduncle was cut back did the circulation stop.

  4. Nuclear charge and neutron radii and nuclear matter: Trend analysis in Skyrme density-functional-theory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, P.-G.; Nazarewicz, W.

    2016-05-01

    Background: Radii of charge and neutron distributions are fundamental nuclear properties. They depend on both nuclear interaction parameters related to the equation of state of infinite nuclear matter and on quantal shell effects, which are strongly impacted by the presence of nuclear surface. Purpose: In this work, by studying the correlation of charge and neutron radii, and neutron skin, with nuclear matter parameters, we assess different mechanisms that drive nuclear sizes. Method: We apply nuclear density functional theory using a family of Skyrme functionals obtained by means of optimization protocols, which do not include any radius information. By performing the Monte Carlo sampling of reasonable functionals around the optimal parametrization, we scan all correlations between nuclear matter properties and observables characterizing charge and neutron distributions of spherical closed-shell nuclei 48Ca,208Pb, and 298Fl. Results: By considering the influence of various nuclear matter properties on charge and neutron radii in a multidimensional parameter space of Skyrme functionals, we demonstrate the existence of two strong relationships: (i) between the nuclear charge radii and the saturation density of symmetric nuclear matter ρ0, and (ii) between the neutron skins and the slope of the symmetry energy L . The impact of other nuclear matter properties on nuclear radii is weak or nonexistent. For functionals optimized to experimental binding energies only, proton and neutron radii are found to be weakly correlated due to canceling trends from different nuclear matter characteristics. Conclusion: The existence of only two strong relations connecting nuclear radii with nuclear matter properties has important consequences. First, by requiring that the nuclear functional reproduces the empirical saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter practically fixes the charge (or proton) radii, and vice versa. This explains the recent results of ab initio calculations

  5. Analysis and prediction of leucine-rich nuclear export signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Cour, T.; Kiemer, Lars; Mølgaard, Anne;

    2004-01-01

    We present a thorough analysis of nuclear export signals and a prediction server, which we have made publicly available. The machine learning prediction method is a significant improvement over the generally used consensus patterns. Nuclear export signals (NESs) are extremely important regulators...... this analysis is that the most important properties of NESs are accessibility and flexibility allowing relevant proteins to interact with the signal. Furthermore, we show that not only the known hydrophobic residues are important in defining a nuclear export signals. We employ both neural networks and hidden...

  6. Direct observation of an isomeric state in {sup 98}Rb and nuclear properties of exotic rubidium isotopes measured by laser spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Procter, T.J.; Garnsworthy, A.B.; Levy, C.D.P.; Pearson, M.R. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Behr, J.A.; Dilling, J. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); University of British Columbia, Department of Physics, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Billowes, J. [The University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy, Manchester (United Kingdom); Buchinger, F.; Crawford, J.E.; Leary, A.; Shelbaya, O.; Al Tamimi, W. [McGill University, Physics Department, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Cheal, B. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Mane, E. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Ministry of External Relations, Rio Bianco Institute, Brasilia (Brazil); Stolz, M. [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Voss, A. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2015-02-01

    Fast-beam collinear laser spectroscopy experiments on rubidium have been performed at the ISAC radioactive ion beam facility at TRIUMF. Most recently, the neutron-rich {sup 98}Rb isotope has been studied for the investigation of shape coexistence. Two long-lived nuclear states in {sup 98}Rb have been clearly observed for the first time: a low-spin state, assigned a spin of I = 0, and a high-spin state. The high-spin state is tentatively assigned a spin of I = 3 based on this analysis in combination with gamma decay results. The measured nuclear properties of the two states are presented, alongside unpublished values of the neutron-deficient isotopes investigated previously. The mean-square charge radii of both states in {sup 98}Rb are observed to continue along the isodeformation line present after the N = 60 onset of deformation. (orig.)

  7. Shedding Light on Structure-Property Relationships for Conjugated Microporous Polymers: The Importance of Rings and Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwijnenburg, Martijn A; Cheng, Ge; McDonald, Tom O; Jelfs, Kim E; Jiang, Jia-Xing; Ren, Shijie; Hasell, Tom; Blanc, Frédéric; Cooper, Andrew I; Adams, Dave J

    2013-10-08

    The photophysical properties of insoluble porous pyrene networks, which are central to their function, differ strongly from those of analogous soluble linear and branched polymers and dendrimers. This can be rationalized by the presence of strained closed rings in the networks. A combined experimental and computational approach was used to obtain atomic scale insight into the structure of amorphous conjugated microporous polymers. The optical absorption and fluorescence spectra of a series of pyrene-based materials were compared with theoretical time-dependent density functional theory predictions for model clusters. Comparison of computation and experiment sheds light on the probable structural chromophores in the various materials.

  8. Nuclear Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossión, Rubén

    2010-09-01

    The atomic nucleus is a typical example of a many-body problem. On the one hand, the number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) that constitute the nucleus is too large to allow for exact calculations. On the other hand, the number of constituent particles is too small for the individual nuclear excitation states to be explained by statistical methods. Another problem, particular for the atomic nucleus, is that the nucleon-nucleon (n-n) interaction is not one of the fundamental forces of Nature, and is hard to put in a single closed equation. The nucleon-nucleon interaction also behaves differently between two free nucleons (bare interaction) and between two nucleons in the nuclear medium (dressed interaction). Because of the above reasons, specific nuclear many-body models have been devised of which each one sheds light on some selected aspects of nuclear structure. Only combining the viewpoints of different models, a global insight of the atomic nucleus can be gained. In this chapter, we revise the the Nuclear Shell Model as an example of the microscopic approach, and the Collective Model as an example of the geometric approach. Finally, we study the statistical properties of nuclear spectra, basing on symmetry principles, to find out whether there is quantum chaos in the atomic nucleus. All three major approaches have been rewarded with the Nobel Prize of Physics. In the text, we will stress how each approach introduces its own series of approximations to reduce the prohibitingly large number of degrees of freedom of the full many-body problem to a smaller manageable number of effective degrees of freedom.

  9. Importance of thiol-functionalized molecules for the structure and properties of compression-molded glassy wheat gluten bioplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansens, Koen J A; Lagrain, Bert; Brijs, Kristof; Goderis, Bart; Smet, Mario; Delcour, Jan A

    2013-11-06

    High-temperature compression molding of wheat gluten at low water levels yields a rigid plastic-like material. We performed a systematic study to determine the effect of additives with multiple thiol (SH) groups on gluten network formation during processing and investigate the impact of the resulting gluten network on the mechanical properties of the glassy end product. To this end, a fraction of the hydroxyl groups of different polyols was converted into SH functionalities by esterifying with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA). The monofunctional additive MPA was evaluated as well. During low-temperature mixing SH-containing additives decreased the gluten molecular weight, whereas protein cross-linking occurred during high-temperature compression molding. The extent of both processes depended on the molecular architecture of the additives and their concentration. After molding, the material strength and failure strain increased without affecting the modulus, provided the additive concentration was low. The strength decreased again at too high concentrations for polyols with low SH functionalization. Attributing these effects solely to the interplay of plasticization and the SH-facilitated introduction of cross-links is inadequate, since an improvement in both strength and failure strain was also observed in the presence of high levels of MPA. It is hypothesized that, regardless of the molecular structure of the additive, the presence of SH-containing groups induces conformational changes which contribute to the mechanical properties of glassy gluten materials.

  10. The MCEF code for nuclear evaporation and fission calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deppman, A.; Pina, S.R. de; Likhachev, V.P.; Mesa, J. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Tavares, O.A.P.; Duarte, S.B.; Oliveira, E.C. de [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Arruda-Neto, J.D.T. [Universidade Santo Amaro (UNISA), SP (Brazil); Rodriguez, O. [Instituto Superior de Ciencias y Tecnologia Nucleares, La Habana (Cuba); Goncalves, M. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2001-11-01

    We present an object oriented algorithm, written in the Java programming language, which performs a Monte Carlo calculation of the evaporation-fission process taking place inside an excited nucleus. We show that this nuclear physics problem is very suited for the object oriented programming by constructing two simple objects: one that handles all nuclear properties and another that takes care of the nuclear reaction. The MCEF code was used to calculate important results for nuclear reactions, and here we show examples of possible uses for this code. (author)

  11. FACTOR NUCLEAR κB (NF-κB: SIGNALOSOMA Y SU IMPORTANCIA EN ENFERMEDADES INFLAMATORIAS Y CÁNCER Nuclear factor kB (NF-KB: signalosoma and its importance in cancer and inflammatories diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy P Echeverri R

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El factor nuclear κB (NF-κB es un dímero constituido por proteínas de la familia Rel. El NF-κB se encuentra en el citoplasma unido a proteínas inhibidoras (IkB. Las IkB son fosforiladas por diferentes cinasas que hacen parte del signalosoma como las cinasas de IKKα e IKKP y el modulador esencial de NF-κB (NEMO, la proteína cinasa activadora de mitosis (MAPK o p38 y la cinasa inductora de NF-κB (NIK. Estas cinasas al ser activadas por señales dependientes de citocinas y luz ultravioleta, fosforilan las IkB provocando su ubiquitinación, su degradación por proteosoma y la subsecuente liberación y translocación al núcleo de NF-κB. Recientemente se le ha dado una gran importancia al NF- k B en la vía de señalización desencadenada por estrés oxidativo, estrés genotóxico y daño en el DNA. A diferencia de la vía denominada clásica, en esta ruta ocurre una SUMOilación de NEMO y translocación al núcleo. En el núcleo NEMO interactúa con la proteína de la ataxia telangiectasia mutada (ATM activada en respuesta a modificaciones en la cromatina y daño en el DNA. El complejo ATM/NEMO es translocado al citoplasma donde la ATM fosforila a las IKK llevando a la ubiquitinación y posterior liberación de NF-κB que es translocado al núcleo. NF-κB desencadena procesos de supervivencia incluyendo el aumento de la transcripción de enzimas antioxidantes como la superóxido dismutasa, catalasa y glutatión. Estas enzimas participan en el control de los niveles de especies reactivas de oxígeno en la célula. La sobreactivación de NF-κB se relaciona con inflamación y cáncer. En la actualidad se desarrolla una búsqueda de fármacos que actúen sobre moléculas del signalosoma de NF-κB, no sólo para el manejo de enfermedades inflamatorias sino también para el uso durante el tratamiento de tumores resistentes a radio y quimioterapia.The nuclear factor κB (NF-κB is a dimer conformed by Reí family. NF-κB is found in cytoplasm

  12. Comparative genomic studies suggest that the cyanobacterial endosymbionts of the amoeba Paulinella chromatophora possess an import apparatus for nuclear-encoded proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodył, A; Mackiewicz, P; Stiller, J W

    2010-07-01

    Plastids evolved from free-living cyanobacteria through a process of primary endosymbiosis. The most widely accepted hypothesis derives three ancient lineages of primary plastids, i.e. those of glaucophytes, red algae and green plants, from a single cyanobacterial endosymbiosis. This hypothesis was originally predicated on the assumption that transformations of endosymbionts into organelles must be exceptionally rare because of the difficulty in establishing efficient protein trafficking between a host cell and incipient organelle. It turns out, however, that highly integrated endosymbiotic associations are more common than once thought. Among them is the amoeba Paulinella chromatophora, which harbours independently acquired cyanobacterial endosymbionts functioning as plastids. Sequencing of the Paulinella endosymbiont genome revealed an absence of essential genes for protein trafficking, suggesting their residence in the host nucleus and import of protein products back into the endosymbiont. To investigate this hypothesis, we searched the Paulinella endosymbiont genome for homologues of higher plant translocon proteins that form the import apparatus in two-membrane envelopes of primary plastids. We found homologues of Toc12, Tic21 and Tic32, but genes for other key translocon proteins (e.g. Omp85/Toc75 and Tic20) were missing. We propose that these missing genes were transferred to the Paulinella nucleus and their products are imported and integrated into the endosymbiont envelope membranes, thereby creating an effective protein import apparatus. We further suggest that other bacterial/cyanobacterial endosymbionts found in protists, plants and animals could have evolved efficient protein import systems independently and, therefore, reached the status of true cellular organelles.

  13. Mosquitocidal properties of Solanum trilobatum L. (Solanaceae) leaf extracts against three important human vector mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premalatha, Selvaraj; Elumalai, Kuppusamy; Jeyasankar, Alagarmalai

    2013-11-01

    To determine the larvicidal and pupicidal activites of Solanum trilobatum (S. trilobatum) leaf extracts against Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti), Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) and Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi). The larvicidal and pupucidal was determined at five different concentrations of 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 ppm. Percentage of larval mortality was assessed after 48 h. Methanol extracts of S. trilobatum was found to be more susceptible against the larvae of Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. stephensi at 250 ppm with a LC50 value of 125.43, 127.77 and 116.64 ppm respectively. Leaf methanol extracts of S. trilobatum also exhibited pupicidal and adult emergence properties. These results suggested that the leaf extracts of S. trilobatum showed potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of the Ae. Aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. stephensi. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of excipients on the tensile strength, surface properties and free volume of Klucel® free films of pharmaceutical importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottnek, Mihály; Süvegh, Károly; Pintye-Hódi, Klára; Regdon, Géza

    2013-08-01

    The physicochemical properties of polymers planned to be applied as mucoadhesive films were studied. Two types of Klucel® hydroxypropylcellulose (LF and MF) were used as film-forming polymers. Hydroxypropylcellulose was incorporated in 2 w/w% with glycerol and xylitol as excipients and lidocaine base as an active ingredient at 5, 10 or 15 w/w% of the mass of the film-forming polymer. The free volume changes of the films were investigated by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy, the mechanical properties of the samples were measured with a tensile strength tester and contact angles were determined to assess the surface properties of the films. It was found that the Klucel® MF films had better physicochemical properties than those of the LF films. Klucel® MF as a film-forming polymer with lidocaine base and both excipients at 5 w/w% exhibited physicochemical properties and good workability. The excipients proved to exert strong effects on the physicochemical properties of the tested systems and it is very important to study them intensively in preformulation studies in the pharmaceutical technology in order to utilise their benefits and to avoid any disadvantageous effects.

  15. Information system of corrosion and mechanical properties for steels used in nuclear power plants with PWR reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahodova, M.; Novotny, R.; Sajdl, P. [Inst. of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Power Engineering

    1998-11-01

    This paper gives information about a new developed database system which contains information about chemical constitution of steels used in nuclear power plants. It enables to hold data from corrosion tests and allows to insert graphs and pictures into the form. This system is an application of MS Access. (orig.)

  16. Nuclear chiral dynamics and thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Jeremy W.; Kaiser, Norbert; Weise, Wolfram

    2013-11-01

    This presentation reviews an approach to nuclear many-body systems based on the spontaneously broken chiral symmetry of low-energy QCD. In the low-energy limit, for energies and momenta small compared to a characteristic symmetry breaking scale of order 1 GeV, QCD is realized as an effective field theory of Goldstone bosons (pions) coupled to heavy fermionic sources (nucleons). Nuclear forces at long and intermediate distance scales result from a systematic hierarchy of one- and two-pion exchange processes in combination with Pauli blocking effects in the nuclear medium. Short distance dynamics, not resolved at the wavelengths corresponding to typical nuclear Fermi momenta, are introduced as contact interactions between nucleons. Apart from a set of low-energy constants associated with these contact terms, the parameters of this theory are entirely determined by pion properties and low-energy pion-nucleon scattering observables. This framework (in-medium chiral perturbation theory) can provide a realistic description of both isospin-symmetric nuclear matter and neutron matter, with emphasis on the isospin-dependence determined by the underlying chiral NN interaction. The importance of three-body forces is emphasized, and the role of explicit Δ(1232)-isobar degrees of freedom is investigated in detail. Nuclear chiral thermodynamics is developed and a calculation of the nuclear phase diagram is performed. This includes a successful description of the first-order phase transition from a nuclear Fermi liquid to an interacting Fermi gas and the coexistence of these phases below a critical temperature Tc. Density functional methods for finite nuclei based on this approach are also discussed. Effective interactions, their density dependence and connections to Landau Fermi liquid theory are outlined. Finally, the density and temperature dependences of the chiral (quark) condensate are investigated.

  17. Spectroscopic and computational studies of a Ru(II) terpyridine complex: the importance of weak intermolecular forces to photophysical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garino, Claudio; Gobetto, Roberto; Nervi, Carlo; Salassa, Luca; Rosenberg, Edward; Ross, J B Alexander; Chu, Xi; Hardcastle, Kenneth I; Sabatini, Cristiana

    2007-10-15

    The complex [Ru(tpy)(CO)(2)TFA]+[PF(6)]- (where tpy = 2,2':6',2' '-terpyridine and TFA = CF(3)CO(2)-) (1) has been synthesized and fully characterized spectroscopically. The X-ray structure of the complex has been determined. The photopysical properties of the ruthenium complex and the free ligand tpy have been investigated at room temperature and at 77 K in acetonitrile solution and in the solid state. Their electronic spectra are highly influenced by intermolecular stacking interactions, both in solution and in the solid state. Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) calculations have been performed to characterize the electronic structure and the excited states of [Ru(tpy)(CO)(2)TFA]+[PF(6)]- and tpy. TDDFT calculations on three different conformations of free ligand have been performed as well. Absorption and emission spectra of tpy have been studied at different temperatures and concentrations in order to have a better understanding of this ruthenium derivative's properties. The absorption spectrum of 1 is characterized by metal-perturbed ligand-centered (LC) bands in the UV region. No metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) bands are observed in the visible for the complex. Only at high concentrations (10(-4) M) does a very weak band appear at 470 nm. At 77 K and low concentrations, solutions of 1 exhibit a major 3LC emission band centered at 468 nm (21.4 x 10(-3) cm(-1)). When the concentration of the complex is increased, an unstructured narrow emission at 603 nm (16.6 x 10(-3) cm(-1)), with a lifetime of 10 micros, dominates the emission spectrum in glassy acetonitrile. This emission originates from a pi-pi stacked dimeric (or oligomeric) species. TDDFT calculations performed on a tail-to-tail dimer structure, similar to that seen in the solid state, ascribe the transition to a triplet excited state, where intermolecular metal (d) --> ligand (pi*, polypyridine) charge transfer occurs. A good estimate of the transition energy is also

  18. Passive mechanical properties of rat abdominal wall muscles suggest an important role of the extracellular connective tissue matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen H M; Carr, John Austin; Ward, Samuel R; Lieber, Richard L

    2012-08-01

    Abdominal wall muscles have a unique morphology suggesting a complex role in generating and transferring force to the spinal column. Studying passive mechanical properties of these muscles may provide insights into their ability to transfer force among structures. Biopsies from rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and transverse abdominis (TrA) were harvested from male Sprague-Dawley rats, and single muscle fibers and fiber bundles (4-8 fibers ensheathed in their connective tissue matrix) were isolated and mechanically stretched in a passive state. Slack sarcomere lengths were measured and elastic moduli were calculated from stress-strain data. Titin molecular mass was also measured from single muscle fibers. No significant differences were found among the four abdominal wall muscles in terms of slack sarcomere length or elastic modulus. Interestingly, across all four muscles, slack sarcomere lengths were quite long in individual muscle fibers (>2.4 µm), and demonstrated a significantly longer slack length in comparison to fiber bundles (p muscle lengths. Titin molecular mass was significantly less in TrA compared to each of the other three muscles (p < 0.0009), but this difference did not correspond to hypothesized differences in stiffness.

  19. Mosquitocidal properties ofSolanum trilobatum L. (Solanaceae) leaf extracts against three important human vector mosquitoes (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Selvaraj Premalatha; Kuppusamy Elumalai; Alagarmalai Jeyasankar

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To determine the larvicidal and pupicidal activites ofSolanum trilobatum(S. trilobatum) leaf extracts againstAedes aegypti(Ae. aegypti),Culex quinquefasciatus(Cx. quinquefasciatus) andAnopheles stephensi(An. stephensi).Methods:The larvicidal and pupucidal was determined at five different concentrations of50,100,150,200 and250 ppm.Percentage of larval mortality was assessed after48 h.Results:Methanol extracts ofS. trilobatum was found to be more susceptible against the larvae ofAe. aegypti,Cx. quinquefasciatus andAn. stephensi at 250 ppm withaLC50 value of125.43,127.77 and116.64 ppm respectively.Leaf methanol extracts ofS. trilobatum also exhibited pupicidal and adult emergence properties.Conclusions:These results suggested that the leaf extracts ofS. trilobatum showed potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of theAe. Aegypti,Cx. quinquefasciatus andAn. stephensi.

  20. Important Variation in Vibrational Properties of LiFePO4 and FePO4 Induced by Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifitokaldani, Ali; Gheribi, Aïmen E.; Phan, Anh Thu; Chartrand, Patrice; Dollé, Mickaël

    2016-09-01

    A new thermodynamically self-consistent (TSC) method, based on the quasi-harmonic approximation (QHA), is used to obtain the Debye temperatures of LiFePO4 (LFP) and FePO4 (FP) from available experimental specific heat capacities for a wide temperature range. The calculated Debye temperatures show an interesting critical and peculiar behavior so that a steep increase in the Debye temperatures is observed by increasing the temperature. This critical behavior is fitted by the critical function and the adjusted critical temperatures are very close to the magnetic phase transition temperatures in LFP and FP. Hence, the critical behavior of the Debye temperatures is correlated with the magnetic phase transitions in these compounds. Our first-principle calculations support our conjecture that the change in electronic structures, i.e. electron density of state and electron localization function, and consequently the change in thermophysical properties due to the magnetic transition may be the reason for the observation of this peculiar behavior of the Debye temperatures.

  1. Important Variation in Vibrational Properties of LiFePO4 and FePO4 Induced by Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifitokaldani, Ali; Gheribi, Aïmen E.; Phan, Anh Thu; Chartrand, Patrice; Dollé, Mickaël

    2016-01-01

    A new thermodynamically self-consistent (TSC) method, based on the quasi-harmonic approximation (QHA), is used to obtain the Debye temperatures of LiFePO4 (LFP) and FePO4 (FP) from available experimental specific heat capacities for a wide temperature range. The calculated Debye temperatures show an interesting critical and peculiar behavior so that a steep increase in the Debye temperatures is observed by increasing the temperature. This critical behavior is fitted by the critical function and the adjusted critical temperatures are very close to the magnetic phase transition temperatures in LFP and FP. Hence, the critical behavior of the Debye temperatures is correlated with the magnetic phase transitions in these compounds. Our first-principle calculations support our conjecture that the change in electronic structures, i.e. electron density of state and electron localization function, and consequently the change in thermophysical properties due to the magnetic transition may be the reason for the observation of this peculiar behavior of the Debye temperatures. PMID:27604551

  2. A gene delivery system containing nuclear localization signal: Increased nucleus import and transfection efficiency with the assistance of RanGAP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kang; Guo, Lingling; Zhang, Jiulong; Chen, Qing; Wang, Kuanglei; Li, Chenxi; Li, Weinan; Qiao, Mingxi; Zhao, Xiuli; Hu, Haiyang; Chen, Dawei

    2017-01-15

    In the present report, a degradable gene delivery system (PAMS/DNA/10NLS) containing nucleus location signal peptide (NLS) was prepared. The agarose gel electrophoresis, particle size and zeta potential of PAMS/DNA/10NLS were similar to those of PAMS/DNA, which proved that NLS did not affect the interaction between PAMS and DNA. PAMS/DNA/10NLS exhibited marked extracellular and intracellular degradation under acidic conditions. The degradation was believed to allow NLS to come into contact with importins easily, which was able to mediate the nucleus import. With the help of NLS, PAMS/DNA/10NLS exhibited a higher transfection capability than PAMS/DNA. Moreover, the transfection of PAMS/DNA/10NLS was less dependent on the breakdown of the nucleus envelope than PAMS/DNA. Considering that GTPase-activating protein 1 (RanGAP1) was able to activate the endogenous GTPase, which was necessary for NLS-mediated nucleus import, RanGAP1 overexpressed cells (RanGAP1 cells) were produced. This result showed that RanGAP1 cells had higher GTPase activities than normal cells. Both the nucleus import and transfection efficiency of PAMS/DNA/10NLS were markedly higher in RanGAP1 cells than that in normal cells. The in vivo transfection results also showed that the transfection efficiency of PAMS/DNA/10NLS was higher in RanGAP1 pre-treated mice than that in normal mice. These findings showed that PAMS/DNA/10NLS is a promising gene delivery system with the assistance of RanGAP1.

  3. The Managerial Perspective upon the Importance of Intellectual Property in Modern Society in Romania as a Member State of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Cezar Pantea

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Inventiveness and creativity are essential features that made possible the distinction between man, throughout his evolution, and all the other creatures alive. The ability of attributing those features a productive utility continues to be of utmost importance in the social and economic structures of human societies. The survival, of each man, of each enterprise, organization and even of a nation definitely depends on the ability of maintaining permanent contact with the development and progress in all respects. Intellectual property is composed of legal rights which result from the activity of intellectual creation in the following fields: scientific, literary and artistic field. The impossibly of protection through more possession over the object of intellectual property represents the basis of the entire notion of normative regulations regarding this kind of property whose purpose is to defend creators and other goods makers and intellectual services by means of assignment, limited period, the right of usage of these works or services.

  4. NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY ANNUAL REPORT 1970

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various

    1971-05-01

    Papers are presented for the following topics: (1) Nuclear Structure and Nuclear Properties - (a) Nuclear Spectroscopy and Radioactivity; (b) Nuclear Reactions and Scattering; (c) Nuclear Theory; and (d) Fission. (2) Chemical and Atomic Physics - (a) Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy; and (b) Hyperfine Interactions. (3) Physical, Inorganic, and Analytical Chemistry - (a) X-Ray Crystallography; (b) Physical and Inorganic Chemistry; (c) Radiation Chemistry; and (d) Chemical Engineering. (4) Instrumentation and Systems Development.

  5. Differences in rates of decrease of environmental radiation dose rates by ground surface property in Fukushima City after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakamu, Takeyasu; Kanda, Hideyuki; Tsuji, Masayoshi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Miyake, Masao; Hayakawa, Takehito; Katsuda, Shin-ichiro; Mori, Yayoi; Okouchi, Toshiyasu; Hazama, Akihiro; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2013-01-01

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011, the environmental radiation dose in Fukushima City increased. On 11 April, 1 mo after the earthquake, the environmental radiation dose rate at various surfaces in the same area differed greatly by surface property. Environmental radiation measurements continue in order to determine the estimated time to 50% reduction in environmental radiation dose rates by surface property in order to make suggestions for decontamination in Fukushima. The measurements were carried out from 11 April to 11 November 2011. Forty-eight (48) measurement points were selected, including four kinds of ground surface properties: grass (13), soil (5), artificial turf (7), and asphalt (23). Environmental radiation dose rate was measured at heights of 100 cm above the ground surface. Time to 50% reduction of environmental radiation dose rates was estimated for each ground surface property. Radiation dose rates on 11 November had decreased significantly compared with those on 11 April for all surface properties. Artificial turf showed the longest time to 50% reduction (544.32 d, standard error: 96.86), and soil showed the shortest (213.20 d, standard error: 35.88). The authors found the environmental radiation dose rate on artificial materials to have a longer 50% reduction time than that on natural materials. These results contribute to determining an order of priority for decontamination after nuclear disasters.

  6. A stochastic model for neutron simulation considering the spectrum and nuclear properties with continuous dependence of energy; Um modelo estocastico de simulacao neutronica considerando o espectro e propriedades nucleares com dependencia continua de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, Dayana Queiroz de

    2011-01-15

    This thesis has developed a stochastic model to simulate the neutrons transport in a heterogeneous environment, considering continuous neutron spectra and the nuclear properties with its continuous dependence on energy. This model was implemented using Monte Carlo method for the propagation of neutrons in different environment. Due to restrictions with respect to the number of neutrons that can be simulated in reasonable computational processing time introduced the variable control volume along the (pseudo-) periodic boundary conditions in order to overcome this problem. The choice of class physical Monte Carlo is due to the fact that it can decompose into simpler constituents the problem of solve a transport equation. The components may be treated separately, these are the propagation and interaction while respecting the laws of energy conservation and momentum, and the relationships that determine the probability of their interaction. We are aware of the fact that the problem approached in this thesis is far from being comparable to building a nuclear reactor, but this discussion the main target was to develop the Monte Carlo model, implement the code in a computer language that allows extensions of modular way. This study allowed a detailed analysis of the influence of energy on the neutron population and its impact on the life cycle of neutrons. From the results, even for a simple geometrical arrangement, we can conclude the need to consider the energy dependence, i.e. an spectral effective multiplication factor should be introduced each energy group separately. (author)

  7. Universality of nucleon-nucleon short-range correlations: the factorization property of the nuclear wave function, the relative and center-of-mass momentum distributions, and the nuclear contacts

    CERN Document Server

    Alvioli, Massimiliano; Morita, Hiko

    2016-01-01

    The two-nucleon momentum distributions have been calculated for nuclei up to A=40 and various values of the relative and center-of-mass momenta and angle between them. For complex nuclei a parameter-free linked-cluster expansion, based upon a realistic local two-nucleon interaction of the Argonne family and variational wave function featuring central, tensor, spin and iso-spin correlations, has been used. The obtained results show that: 1) independently of the mass number A, at values of the relative momentum k_rel> 2 fm^{-1} the proton-neutron momentum distributions for back-to-back (BB) nucleons (K_cm=0) exhibit the factorization property n_A^{pn}(k_rel,K_cm=0)=C_A^{pn} n_D(k_rel) n_{cm}^{pn}(K_cm=0), where n_D is the deuteron momentum distribution, n_{cm}^{pn}(K_{cm}=0) the momentum distribution of the c.m. motion of the pair and C_A^{pn} the nuclear contact measuring the number of BB pn pairs with deuteron-like momenta; 2) the values of the proton-neutron nuclear contact C_A^{pn} are obtained in a model-i...

  8. Analysis of flashing and swelling phenomena in tanks of nuclear power plants; the importance of bubble growth dynamics and bubble transport models with size tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerezo A, E. [University of Caribe, Department of Basics Sciences and Engineering, Lote 1, Manzana 1, Region 78, esq. Fracc. Tabachines, 77500 Cancun, Quintana Roo (Mexico)]. E-mail: ecerezo@unicaribe.edu.mx; Munoz C, J.L. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera 14, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a non-equilibrium model to describe flashing phenomena in tanks and cooling pools. The present model is based on Watanabe's work that we have extended by developing a realistic model for the growth of bubbles. We have made the corresponding venting model, continuity equation, gas and liquid phase energy conservation equations for the model. This model takes into account both drag and virtual mass force. The dynamics of bubble growth plays an important role in two-phase phenomena such as flashing. In our model the growth rate is assumed to be limited by the heat conduction in the liquid. The results of the analytic model were compared with the experimental data of Watanabe [1]. The results have shown that the present model evaluates fairly accurately the pressure evolution, the void fraction and the swelling level of a tank.

  9. Nuclear Confidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident provides valuable lessons for China national nuclear Corp.as it continues to expand its operations AS Japan’s Fukushima nuclear crisis sparks a global debate over nuclear safety,China National Nuclear Corp. (CNNC),the country’s largest nuclear plant operator, comes under the spotlight.

  10. Relationship between concentration of health important groups of fatty acids and components and technological properties in cow milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oto Hanuš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Groups of fatty acids (FAs in milk fat can have positive and negative impact on consumer health. Profile of FAs could be influenced by dairy cow nutrition, breed, milk yield level et cetera. The question is what relationships the FAs could have to quality of milk products? Relationships between FAs and their groups to selected milk indicators were studied in Czech Fleckvieh and Holstein cows (64 bulk milk samples. There were 8 herds in 2-year investigation during winter and summer season. The relationship of saturated FAs (SAFA; 66.22% was significant only to lactose (L content (0.290; P < 0.05. The relationships of monounsaturated FAs (MUFA; 29.21% to milk indicators (MIs were in­si­gni­fi­cant (P > 0.05. The relationships of polyunsaturated FAs (PUFA, beneficial for consumer health; 4.53% to MIs were narrower: fat (T, 0.321; P < 0.05; lactose (L, 0.458; P < 0.01; milk alcohol stability (AL, 0.447; P < 0.01; titration acidity (SH, 0.342; P < 0.01; cheese curd quality (KV, 0.427; P < 0.01; milk fermentationability (JSH, 0.529; P < 0.001, streptococci count in yoghurt (Strepto, 0.316; P < 0.05; total count of noble bacteria in yoghurt (CPMUK, 0.314; P < 0.05; streptococci/lactobacilly ratio (StreptoLacto, 0.356; P < 0.01. The relationships of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; markedly beneficial for health; 0.68% to MIs were: T (0.379; P < 0.01; L (–0.542; P < 0.001; AL (0.266; P < 0.05; KV (0.411; P < 0.01; Strepto (0.260; P < 0.05; StreptoLacto (0.270; P < 0.05. The higher CLA levels were connected in this way with: higher fat content; lower lactose content; lower alcohol stability; lower streptococci count in yoghurt; lower streptococci/lactobacilly ratio in yoghurt. The PUFA and CLA representation decreased with L increase. Simultaneously some technological milk properties such as alcohol sta­bi­li­ty and fermentationability were slightly improved.

  11. Microscopic properties of the heavy-fermion superconductor PuCoIn5 explored by nuclear quadrupole resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutroulakis, G.; Yasuoka, H.; Chudo, H.; Tobash, P. H.; Mitchell, J. N.; Bauer, E. D.; Thompson, J. D.

    2014-05-01

    We report 115In nuclear quadrupolar resonance (NQR) measurements on the heavy-fermion superconductor PuCoIn5, in the temperature range 0.29K ≤ T ≤ 75K. The NQR parameters for the two crystallographically inequivalent In sites are determined, and their temperature dependence is investigated. A linear shift of the quadrupolar frequency with lowering temperature below the critical value Tc is revealed, in agreement with the prediction for composite pairing. The nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate T1-1(T) clearly signals a superconducting (SC) phase transition at Tc ≃ 2.3 K, with strong spin fluctuations, mostly in-plane, dominating the relaxation process in the normal state near to Tc. Analysis of the T1-1 data in the SC state suggests that PuCoIn5 is a strong-coupling d-wave superconductor.

  12. In vitro antimicrobial properties of plant essential oils thymus vulgaris, cymbopogon citratus and laurus nobilis against five important foodborne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Farias Millezi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Several essential oils of condiment and medicinal plants possess proven antimicrobial activity and are of important interest for the food industry. Therefore, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC of those oils should be determined for various bacteria. MIC varies according to the oil used, the major compounds, and the physiology of the bacterium under study. In the present study, the essential oils of the plants Thymus vulgaris (time, Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass and Laurus nobilis (bay were chemically quantified, and the MIC was determined on the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117, Salmonella enterica Enteritidis S64, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. The essential oil of C. citratus demonstrated bacterial activity at all concentrations tested and against all of the bacteria tested. The majority of essential oil compounds were geranial and neral. The major constituent of T. vulgaris was 1.8-cineol and of L. nobilis was linalool, which presented lower antibacterial activity, followed by 1.8-cineol. The Gram-negative bacteria demonstrated higher resistance to the use of the essential oils tested in this study. E. coli was the least sensitive and was inhibited only by the oils of C. citratus and L. nobilis.

  13. Effects of cholesterol on the properties of the membranes of isolated sheep liver nuclei and nuclear envelopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agutter, P S; Suckling, K E

    1981-04-22

    The exchangeability of cholesterol between sheep liver nuclear membranes and liposomes, and the effect of cholesterol on the fluidity of the membrane lipid were studied. In intact nuclei, the cholesterol/phospholipid ratio increased from 0.102 to 0.145 mol/mol on incubation with cholesterol-rich liposomes, with a time for half-maximal uptake of 4.2 h. In isolated envelopes under the same conditions, the ratio increased from 0.110 to 0.266 mol/mol with a time for half-maximal uptake of about 1.9 h. Moreover, the approximate order parameter of the spin label 5-(N-oxyl-4',4'-dimethyloxazolidino)-stearic acid was 0.677 in intact nuclei and 0.723 in isolated envelopes prior to exchange; after exchange, these values increased to 0.717 and 0.756, respectively. These differences between the preparations could not be attributed to differences in the capacity for cholesterol uptake between the two nuclear membranes, or to a slow rate of exchange between them; the presence of an intact nuclear matrix appeared both to disorder the lipid partially and to inhibit cholesterol uptake. The differences indicate that conclusions based on physical studies of the membrane lipid in isolated envelopes are not necessarily applicable to the intact nucleus.

  14. The effect of simulated inflammatory conditions on the surface properties of titanium and stainless steel and their importance as biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca-García, Abril [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México (Mexico); Posgrado en Ciencia e Ingeniería de Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México (Mexico); Pérez-Alvarez, J. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México (Mexico); Barrera, C.C. [Posgrado en Ciencias Médicas, Odontológicas y de la Salud, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México (Mexico); Medina, J.C. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México (Mexico); Posgrado en Ciencia e Ingeniería de Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México (Mexico); Almaguer-Flores, A. [Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México (Mexico); Sánchez, R. Basurto [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, México (Mexico); and others

    2016-09-01

    observed on the SS. The cpTi surface suffered from a dissolution/oxidation process that allows its integration with the surrounding media, while the SS remained completely passive and this different response might be related to their distinguished clinical outcome. - Highlights: • Comparison of the surface properties of titanium and stainless steel was done. • Titanium was more affected in the inflammatory conditions than stainless steel. • The H{sub 2}O{sub 2} induced the growth of the oxide layer in both metals. • The polar component had an opposite change among both metals. • The immersion in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} induced dissolution–oxidation of Ti.

  15. Magnetic and superconducting properties of a heavy-fermion CeCoIn5 epitaxial film probed by nuclear quadrupole resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Takayoshi; Shimozawa, Masaaki; Shishido, Hiroaki; Kitagawa, Shunsaku; Ikeda, Hiroaki; Shibauchi, Takasada; Terashima, Takahito; Matsuda, Yuji; Ishida, Kenji

    2017-08-01

    Since the progress in the fabrication techniques of thin films of exotic materials such as strongly correlated heavy-fermion compounds, microscopic studies of the magnetic and electronic properties inside the films have been needed. Herein, we report the observation of 115In nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) in an epitaxial film of the heavy-fermion superconductor CeCoIn5, for which the microscopic field gradient within the unit cell as well as magnetic and superconducting properties at zero field are evaluated. We find that the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate in the film is in excellent agreement with that of bulk crystals, whereas the NQR spectra show noticeable shifts and significant broadening indicating a change in the electric-field distribution inside the film. The analysis implies a displacement of In layers in the film, which, however, does not affect the magnetic fluctuations and superconducting pairing. This implies that inhomogeneity of the electronic field gradient in the film sample causes no pair-breaking effect.

  16. Nuclear disarmament verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVolpi, A.

    1993-12-31

    Arms control treaties, unilateral actions, and cooperative activities -- reflecting the defusing of East-West tensions -- are causing nuclear weapons to be disarmed and dismantled worldwide. In order to provide for future reductions and to build confidence in the permanency of this disarmament, verification procedures and technologies would play an important role. This paper outlines arms-control objectives, treaty organization, and actions that could be undertaken. For the purposes of this Workshop on Verification, nuclear disarmament has been divided into five topical subareas: Converting nuclear-weapons production complexes, Eliminating and monitoring nuclear-weapons delivery systems, Disabling and destroying nuclear warheads, Demilitarizing or non-military utilization of special nuclear materials, and Inhibiting nuclear arms in non-nuclear-weapons states. This paper concludes with an overview of potential methods for verification.

  17. Research Progress of Nuclear Astrophysics Physics:Study of Key Scientific Problems in Nuclear Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO; Bing; LIU; Wei-ping; LI; Zhi-hong; WANG; You-bao; HE; Jian-jun; SHI; Jian-rong; TANG; Xiao-dong; YAN; Sheng-quan; SU; Jun; LI; Yun-ju; ZENG; Sheng; LIAN; Gang; BAI; Xi-xiang; CHEN; Yong-shou; PANG; Dan-yang; GU; Jian-zhong; HAN; Zhi-yu; LI; Xin-yue

    2015-01-01

    1 Summary A systematic study of the key scientific problems in nuclear synthesis has been conducted.Significant research achievements from several important subjects such as direct measurement of astrophysical reaction,observation of abundances of elements,studies on decay properties of nuclei and reaction rates of primordial nucleosynthesis have been made utilizing large scientific facilities from China

  18. Economic Analysis of Nuclear Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Man Ki; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Oh, K. B

    2006-12-15

    It has been well recognized that securing economic viabilities along with technologies are very important elements in the successful implementation of nuclear R and D projects. The objective of the Project is to help nuclear energy to be utilized in an efficient way by analyzing major issues related with nuclear economics. The study covers following subjects: the role of nuclear in the future electric supply system, economic analysis of nuclear R and D project, contribution to the regional economy from nuclear power. In addition, the study introduces the international cooperation in the methodological area of efficient use of nuclear energy by surveying the international activities related with nuclear economics.

  19. Study of nuclear level densities for exotic nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nasri Nasrabadi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear level density (NLD is one of the properties of nuclei with widespread applications in astrophysics and nuclear medicine. Since there has been little experimental and theoretical research on the study of nuclei which are far from stability line, studying NLD for these nuclei is of crucial importance. Also, as NLD is an important input for nuclear research codes, hence studying the methods for calculation of this parameter is essential. Besides introducing various methods and models for calculating NLD for practical applications, we used exact spectra distribution (SPDM for determining NLD of two neutron and proton enriched exotic nuclei with the same mass number.

  20. Extraction efficiency, phytochemical profiles and antioxidative properties of different parts of Saptarangi (Salacia chinensis L.) - An important underutilized plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadage, Dhanaji M; Kshirsagar, Parthraj R; Pai, Sandeep R; Chavan, Jaykumar J

    2017-12-01

    The study aimed to evaluate extraction efficiency, detection and quantification of phytochemicals, minerals and antioxidative capacity of different parts of Salacia chinensis L. Continuous shaking extraction, steam bath assisted extraction, ultrasonic extraction and microwave assisted extraction with varied time intervals were employed for extraction of phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidants. Preliminary screening revealed the presence of wide array of metabolites along with carbohydrates and starch. Steam bath assisted extraction for 10 min exposure was found most suitable for extraction phenolics (46.02 ± 2.30 mg of gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight and 48.57 ± 2.42 mg of tannic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight) and flavonoids (35.26 ± 1.61 mg of quercetin equivalent per gram of dry weight and 51.60 ± 2.58 mg of ellagic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight). In support, reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography- diode array detector confirmed the presence of seven pharmaceutically important phenolic acids. Antioxidant capacity was measured by 1, 1- diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) scavenging (ABTS) and N, N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPD) assays and represented as trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (AEAC). Antioxidant capacity ranged from 121.02 ± 6.05 to 1567.28 ± 78.36 µM trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and 56.62 ± 2.83 to 972.48 ± 48.62 µM ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity. Roots showed higher yields of illustrated biochemical parameters, however fresh fruit pulp was found a chief source of minerals. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopic analysis revealed the presence of a vast array of phytoconstituents associated with different plant parts. The present study revealed the amounts of minerals and diverse phytoconstituents in

  1. The Study on Domestic and Foreign Cases for Decommissioning of DPRK Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Ye Ji; Hhu, Joo Youn; Lee, Jung Hyun; Hwang, Yong Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This study was able to analyze domestic and foreign cases, and collect data on the approximate amount of waste and time required time; however, data on applied technology, input manpower, required cost, and waste disposal method was insufficient. DPRK activities such as nuclear weapon development or nuclear testing not only threaten our country's security but also have an adverse effect on nuclear nonproliferation and security in the international society. Therefore, denuclearization of the DPRK is prior task that is essential to peace on the Korean Peninsula. The fundamental purpose of denuclearization of the DPRK is to safely decommission facilities related to developing nuclear weapons and to depose related radioactive waste and nuclear materials. Understanding descriptive references and physical properties of the facility and its purpose important for decommissioning nuclear facilities. Although it was impossible to collect data on DPRK nuclear facilities to perform complete decommissioning, we were able to understand the process used at DPRK nuclear facilities with open source data. This study has been conducted to establish overall measures for decommissioning DPRK nuclear facilities. DPRK nuclear facilities in this study include a IRT- 2000 type nuclear research reactor, a 5 MWe graphite moderated reactor, nuclear fuel fabrication facility, and a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility, which are considered as facilities that produce or manufacture nuclear materials needed for nuclear weapons or related to such activities.

  2. The role of integral experiments and nuclear cross section evaluations in space nuclear reactor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, David L.; McKnight, Richard D.

    The importance of the nuclear and neutronic properties of candidate space reactor materials to the design process has been acknowledged as has been the use of benchmark reactor physics experiments to verify and qualify analytical tools used in design, safety, and performance evaluation. Since June 1966, the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) has acted as an interagency forum for the assessment and evaluation of nuclear reaction data used in the nuclear design process. CSEWG data testing has involved the specification and calculation of benchmark experiments which are used widely for commercial reactor design and safety analysis. These benchmark experiments preceded the issuance of the industry standards for acceptance, but the benchmarks exceed the minimum acceptance criteria for such data. Thus, a starting place has been provided in assuring the accuracy and uncertainty of nuclear data important to space reactor applications.

  3. Dynamics and Thermodynamics with Nuclear Degrees of Freedom

    CERN Document Server

    Chomaz, Philippe; Trautmann, Wolfgang; Yennello, Sherry J

    2006-01-01

    The study of nuclear reaction dynamics and thermodynamics with nuclear degrees of freedom has progressed dramatically in the past 20 years, from inclusive charge distributions to exclusive isotopically resolved fragment observables and from schematic phenomenological break-up models to sophisticated quantum many-body transport theories. A coherent and quantitative understanding of reaction mechanisms and of the underlying nuclear matter equation of state is emerging from the analysis of experimental data and from the theoretical modeling of heavy ion reactions. In addition, the accumulated evidence for phenomena related to the liquid-gas phase transition of nuclear matter has triggered interdisciplinary activities and the transfer of useful methods. In the near future, the availability of radioactive beam facilities is expected to provide unique opportunities for extending our knowledge of the dynamic properties and the nuclear phase diagram towards exotic nuclear systems with important astrophysical implicat...

  4. Nuclear Waffles

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, A S; Briggs, C M; Caplan, M E; Horowitz, C J

    2014-01-01

    The dense neutron-rich matter found in supernovae and neutron stars is expected to form complex nonuniform phases referred to as nuclear pasta. The pasta shapes depend on density, temperature and proton fraction and determine many transport properties in supernovae and neutron star crusts. We use two recently developed hybrid CPU/GPU codes to perform large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with $51200$ and $409600$ nucleons of nuclear pasta. From the output of the MD simulations we characterize the topology and compute two observables, the radial distribution function $g(r)$ and the structure factor $S(q)$, for systems with proton fractions $Y_p=0.10, 0.20, 0.30$ and $0.40$ at about one third of nuclear saturation density and temperatures near $1.0$ MeV. We observe that the two lowest proton fraction systems simulated, $Y_p=0.10$ and $0.20$, equilibrate quickly and form liquid-like structures. Meanwhile, the two higher proton fraction systems, $Y_p=0.30$ and $0.40$, take a longer time to equilibrate a...

  5. Nuclear safeguards; Salvaguardias nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurron, O.

    2015-07-01

    Safeguards control at the Juzbado Plant is implemented through the joint IAEA/EURATOM partnership approach in force within the European Union for all nuclear facilities. this verification agreement is designed to minimize burden on the operators whilst ensuring that both inspectorate achieve the objectives related to their respective safeguards regimes. This paper outlines the safeguards approaches followed by the inspectorate and the particularities of the Juzbado Plants nuclear material accountancy and control system. (Authors)

  6. The hydrophobic environment of Met35 of Alzheimer's Abeta(1-42) is important for the neurotoxic and oxidative properties of the peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, Jaroslaw; Aksenova, Marina; Butterfield, D Allan

    2002-05-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain increased lipid peroxidation is found. Amyloid beta-peptide [Abeta(1-42)] induces oxidative stress (including lipid peroxidation) and neurotoxicity, and the single methionine residue (Met35) is important for these properties. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that removal of Met35 from lipid bilayer would abrogate the oxidative stress and neurotoxic properties of Abeta(1-42), i.e. we tested the hypothesis and found that lipid peroxidation initiated by oxidation of the Met35 is an early event in Abeta(1-42) neurotoxicity. Substitution of negatively charged aspartic acid for glycine residue 37 is not predicted to bring the Met35 residue out of the hydrophobic lipid bilayer. In this study, we showed that G37D substitution in Abeta(1-42) completely abolishes neurotoxic and oxidative processes associated with the parent peptide. This is demonstrated by the lack of cell toxicity and protein oxidation in contrast to the treatment with native Abeta(1-42). Additionally, the G37D peptide does not display the aggregation properties that are associated with native Abeta as seen in the thioflavin T (ThT) assay and fibril morphology. The results presented in this work are thus consistent with the notion of the importance of methionine 35 of Abeta(1-42) in the lipid-initiated oxidative cascade and subsequent neurotoxicity in AD brain.

  7. Universality of nucleon-nucleon short-range correlations: The factorization property of the nuclear wave function, the relative and center-of-mass momentum distributions, and the nuclear contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvioli, M.; Ciofi degli Atti, C.; Morita, H.

    2016-10-01

    Background: The two-nucleon momentum distributions of nucleons N1 and N2 in a nucleus A , nAN1N2(krel,Kc .m .) , is a relevant quantity that determines the probability of finding two nucleons with relative momentum krel and center-of-mass (c.m.) momentum Kc .m .; at high values of the relative momentum and, at the same time, low values of the c.m. momentum, nAN1N2(krel,Kc .m .) provides information on the short-range structure of nuclei. Purpose: Our purpose is to calculate the momentum distributions of proton-neutron and proton-proton pairs in 3He, 4He, 12C, 16O, and 40Ca, in correspondence to various values of krel and Kc .m .. Methods: The momentum distributions for A >4 nuclei are calculated as a function of the relative, krel, and center-of-mass, Kc.m., momenta and relative angle Θ , within a linked cluster many-body expansion approach, based upon realistic local two-nucleon interaction of the Argonne family and variational wave functions featuring central, tensor, and spin-isospin correlations. Results: Independently of the mass number A , at values of the relative momentum krel≳1.5 -2 fm-1 the momentum distributions exhibit the property of factorization, nAN1N2(krel,Kc .m .) ≃nrelN1N2(krel) nc.m . N1N2(Kc .m .) ; in particular, for p n back-to-back pairs one has nAp n(krel,Kc .m .=0 ) ≃CAp nnD(krel) nc.m . p n(Kc .m .=0 ) , where nD is the deuteron momentum distribution, nc.m . p n(Kc .m .=0 ) the c.m. motion momentum distribution of the pair, and CAp n the p n nuclear contact measuring the number of back-to-back p n pairs with deuteron-like momenta (kp≃-kn,Kc .m .=0 ). Conclusions: The values of the p n nuclear contact are extracted from the general properties of the two-nucleon momentum distributions corresponding to Kc .m .=0 . The Kc .m .-integrated p n momentum distributions exhibit the property nAp n(krel) ≃CAp nnD(krel) but only at very high values of krel, ≳3.5 -4 fm-1. The theoretical ratio of the p p /p n momentum distributions of 4He

  8. Analysis and prediction of leucine-rich nuclear export signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Tanja; Kiemer, Lars; Mølgaard, Anne

    2004-01-01

    We present a thorough analysis of nuclear export signals and a prediction server, which we have made publicly available. The machine learning prediction method is a significant improvement over the generally used consensus patterns. Nuclear export signals (NESs) are extremely important regulators...... of the subcellular location of proteins. This regulation has an impact on transcription and other nuclear processes, which are fundamental to the viability of the cell. NESs are studied in relation to cancer, the cell cycle, cell differentiation and other important aspects of molecular biology. Our conclusion from...... this analysis is that the most important properties of NESs are accessibility and flexibility allowing relevant proteins to interact with the signal. Furthermore, we show that not only the known hydrophobic residues are important in defining a nuclear export signals. We employ both neural networks and hidden...

  9. The nuclear matrix: a structural milieu for genomic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezney, R; Mortillaro, M J; Ma, H; Wei, X; Samarabandu, J

    1995-01-01

    While significant progress has been made in elucidating molecular properties of specific genes and their regulation, our understanding of how the whole genome is coordinated has lagged behind. To understand how the genome functions as a coordinated whole, we must understand how the nucleus is put together and functions as a whole. An important step in that direction occurred with the isolation and characterization of the nuclear matrix. Aside from the plethora of functional properties associated with these isolated nuclear structures, they have enabled the first direct examination and molecular cloning of specific nuclear matrix proteins. The isolated nuclear matrix can be used for providing an in vitro model for understanding nuclear matrix organization in whole cells. Recent development of high-resolution and three-dimensional approaches for visualizing domains of genomic organization and function in situ has provided corroborative evidence for the nuclear matrix as the site of organization for replication, transcription, and post-transcriptional processing. As more is learned about these in situ functional sites, appropriate experiments could be designed to test molecular mechanisms with the in vitro nuclear matrix systems. This is illustrated in this chapter by the studies of nuclear matrix-associated DNA replication which have evolved from biochemical studies of in vitro nuclear matrix systems toward three-dimensional computer image analysis of replication sites for individual genes.

  10. Nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sang, David (Bishop Luffa Comprehensive School, Chichester (UK))

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear Physics covers the aspects of radioactivity and nuclear physics dealt with in the syllabuses of all the A-level examination boards; in particular, it provides detailed coverage of the Joint Matriculation Board option in nuclear physics. It deals with the discovery of the atomic nucleus, the physics of nuclear processes, and nuclear technology. (author).

  11. Nuclear wasteform materials: Atomistic simulation case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chroneos, A., E-mail: alex.chroneos@open.ac.uk [Materials Engineering, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Institute of Materials Science, NCSR Demokritos, GR-15310 Athens (Greece); Rushton, M.J.D. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Jiang, C. [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Tsoukalas, L.H. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Ever increasing global energy demand combined with a requirement to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions has rekindled an interest in nuclear power generation. In order that nuclear energy remains publicly acceptable and therefore a sustainable source of power it is important that nuclear waste is dealt with in a responsible manner. To achieve this, improved materials for the long-term immobilisation of waste should be developed. The extreme conditions experienced by nuclear wasteforms necessitate the detailed understanding of their properties and the mechanisms acting within them at the atomic scale. This latter issue is the focus of the present review. Atomic scale simulation techniques can accelerate the development of new materials for nuclear wasteform applications and provide detailed information on their physical properties that cannot be easily accessed by experiment. The present article introduces examples of how atomic scale, computational modelling techniques have led to an improved understanding of current nuclear wasteform materials and also suggest how they may be used in the development of new wasteforms.

  12. Safety concerns on food products imported from Japan following Fukushima nuclear accident%福岛核事故后日本输华食品的安全考虑

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长安

    2011-01-01

    Following Fukushima nuclear accident, some food products sampled at sites both within the Fukushima Prefecture and in adjacent areas have been contaminated by radioactive materials. Safety Concerns on food products imported from Japan following the present emergency, relevant standards and recommendations are discussed.%日本福岛核事故发生后,从福岛县内及其邻近地区的抽样点上获得的某些食品已经受到放射性物质污染.本文讨论了事故后日本输华食品的安全考虑,介绍了相关标准并提出建议.

  13. Effect of buffer-layered buttering on microstructure and mechanical properties of dissimilar metal weld joints for nuclear plant application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathod, Dinesh W., E-mail: dineshvrathod@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Enggineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz-khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Singh, P.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Pandey, Sunil; Aravindan, S. [Department of Mechanical Enggineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz-khas, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we present the metallurgical and mechanical investigation of four dissimilar welds between SA508Gr.3Cl.1 and SS304LN. The welding processes for buttering deposition and fill-pass welding were varied with ERNiCr-3/ENiCrFe-3 consumables. The Ni-Fe alloy buffer layer was introduced as intermediate layer in buttering and then the joints (with and without buffer layer in buttering) were fabricated. The effect of Ni-Fe buffer layered buttering and welding processes on the resulting weld joints properties has been addressed. Metallurgical and mechanical properties, fracture toughness were measured and various examinations were carried out for integrity assessment on all the weld joints. Addition of a Ni-Fe buttering layer leads to the development of more favourable properties than observed in welded joints made using the current practice without a buffer layer. Control of carbon migration and its subsequent effect on metallurgical, mechanical properties due to buffer layer has been justified in the study. Conventional procedure of DMW fabrication has been proven to be the least favourable against the new technique suggested. Modification in current integrity assessment procedure would be possible by considering the properties at interfacial regions, introduction of yield strength ratio mismatch and the plastic instability strength in the integrity assessment.

  14. Importance of Peaceful Utilization of Nuclear Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Frydryšková

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the massive destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in the end of Second World War, the atom was generally taken to be the primary symbol of the new era, the so-called ‘atomic age’, a prototypical modern conjuncture forever oscillating between the agonies of mass death and standardized terror, and the euphoria of tremendous economic transformation through the permanent resolution of the ever increasing need for electrical energy at little or no cost. After Hiroshima the symbolic meaning and presence of the atom crossed and recrossed the lines between popular culture, lived experience, political protest, strategic discourse, modern design, industry, medicine, and agriculture, that it truly became ‘atomic age’ whether one was in the US, France, China or anywhere else. 

  15. Upgrade in the CNSNS of the determination process about the importance for the impact evaluation to the safety of defaults or violations in the national nuclear facilities; Actualizacion en la CNSNS del proceso de determinacion de la importancia para la evaluacion de impacto a la seguridad de incumplimientos o violaciones en las instalaciones nucleares mexicanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa V, J. M.; Jauregui Ch, V., E-mail: jmespinosa@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    Inside the process of Impact Evaluation to the Safety of the Direccion General Adjunta de Seguridad Nuclear of the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS) the Significance Determination Process (SDP) is used, developed by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC), to evaluate the violations or defaults to the regulatory framework and to determine its importance to the risk by means of a fixed color: Green (Very low impact to the safety), White (Low impact to moderate to the safety), Yellow (Substantial impact to the safety) or Red (High impact to the safety). All this inside the seven safety foundations of the Reactor Oversight Process: Initiator Events, Mitigation Systems, Integrity of the Barriers, Preparation for Emergencies, Occupational Radiological Safety, Radiological Safety of the Public and Physical Safety. At present the US NRC has developed a new version of the SDP, which presents changes in its structure and the opportunity of carrying out informed evaluations in risk, with more detail about the violations or defaults that happen in different areas. The CNSNS carries out the adaptation of this last version of the SDP in order to have an updated tool for the violations and defaults characterization to the regulatory framework happened in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. In this article is mentioned the legal framework that confers the CNSNS the attributions to impose urgency measures and administrative sanctions to its licensees, also is established the definition of the different colors that the SDP contemplates in function of the increased risk (ΔCdf), a description of the SDP objectives and the elements that conform it is presented, in the same way some examples to illustrate its application are raised. Finally, the steps to continue for their implementation are mentioned. (Author)

  16. Impacts of the Nuclear Symmetry Energy on Neutron Star Crusts

    CERN Document Server

    Bao, Shishao

    2015-01-01

    Using the relativistic mean-field theory, we adopt two different methods, namely, the coexisting phase method and the self-consistent Thomas-Fermi approximation, to study the impacts of the nuclear symmetry energy on properties of neutron star crusts within a wide range of densities. It is found that the nuclear symmetry energy and its density slope play an important role in determining the pasta phases and the crust-core transition.

  17. Fundamentals of nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Takigawa, Noboru

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces the current understanding of the fundamentals of nuclear physics by referring to key experimental data and by providing a theoretical understanding of principal nuclear properties. It primarily covers the structure of nuclei at low excitation in detail. It also examines nuclear forces and decay properties. In addition to fundamentals, the book treats several new research areas such as non-relativistic as well as relativistic Hartree–Fock calculations, the synthesis of super-heavy elements, the quantum chromodynamics phase diagram, and nucleosynthesis in stars, to convey to readers the flavor of current research frontiers in nuclear physics. The authors explain semi-classical arguments and derivation of its formulae. In these ways an intuitive understanding of complex nuclear phenomena is provided. The book is aimed at graduate school students as well as junior and senior undergraduate students and postdoctoral fellows. It is also useful for researchers to update their knowledge of diver...

  18. Studies of PuF6 and transplutonic materials' critical properties for space high power nuclear pumped lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Albert G.; Miller, Mark S.

    1991-01-01

    All space missions require a reliable, compact source of energy. This paper describes preliminary neutronics studies of ``pocket'' reactor concepts employing PuF6 and transplutonic materials as fuels for space high power/energy Nuclear Pumped Lasers (NPLs). Previous research has studied NPL reactor concepts with thin fuel layers, aerosol fuels and gaseous UF6. The total reactor volumes for compact reactors with these types of fuels typically range from 3 m3 to 50 m3. By employing PuF6 and transplutonic fuels at the same low densities, a calculated value for Keff of 1.2 has been achieved for conditions of 900 K and 5 atm, with total reactor volumes of 1.5 m3 for PuF6, 0.51 m3 for Am-242m, 0.58 m3 for Cm-245 and 0.63 m3 for Cf-249.

  19. Changes in the thermal properties of PADC film-based nuclear track detectors produced by high doses of γ-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saad, A.F., E-mail: abdallahsaad56@hotmail.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, 44519 Zagazig (Egypt); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Benghazi, 9480 Benghazi (Libya); Saad, Noura; Abdalla, Y.K. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Benghazi, 9480 Benghazi (Libya)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Thermal properties of PADC polymer-based NTDs have been investigated. • PADC films based NTDs were exposed to high doses of γ-rays. • The activation energy for thermal decomposition of PADC films was determined. • PADC films may be of use for industrial applications due to its response of γ-rays. • PADC film is a good technique for dose reading. - Abstract: Irradiation effects on the thermal properties of poly allyl diglycol carbonate (PADC) polymer-based nuclear track detectors (in the form of CR-39) have been investigated. PADC films were exposed to γ-rays at high doses ranging from 5.0 × 10{sup 5} to 1.0 × 10{sup 6} Gy. The induced modifications were analyzed by means of thermogravimetric analysis, which indicated that the PADC film decomposed in three main stages. The activation energy for thermal decomposition was determined using a type of Arrhenius equation based on the TGA experimental results. This study presents quantitative results showing that the exposed PADC films do not undergo continual further degradation from high-energy γ-photons with increase in dose. The experimental results also provide insight into the specific property changes induced by γ-rays, which may be of use for industrial applications.

  20. Dynamic nuclear spin polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhrmann, H.B. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Polarized neutron scattering from dynamic polarized targets has been applied to various hydrogenous materials at different laboratories. In situ structures of macromolecular components have been determined by nuclear spin contrast variation with an unprecedented precision. The experiments of selective nuclear spin depolarisation not only opened a new dimension to structural studies but also revealed phenomena related to propagation of nuclear spin polarization and the interplay of nuclear polarisation with the electronic spin system. The observation of electron spin label dependent nuclear spin polarisation domains by NMR and polarized neutron scattering opens a way to generalize the method of nuclear spin contrast variation and most importantly it avoids precontrasting by specific deuteration. It also likely might tell us more about the mechanism of dynamic nuclear spin polarisation. (author) 4 figs., refs.

  1. Cold nuclear fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Zhenqiang Huang Yuxiang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In normal temperature condition, the nuclear force constraint inertial guidance method, realize the combination of deuterium and tritium, helium and lithium... And with a magnetic moment of light nuclei controlled cold nuclear collide fusion, belongs to the nuclear energy research and development in the field of applied technology "cold nuclear collide fusion". According to the similarity of the nuclear force constraint inertial guidance system, the different velocity and energy of the ion beam mixing control, developed ion speed dc transformer, it is cold nuclear fusion collide, issue of motivation and the nuclear power plant start-up fusion and power transfer system of the important equipment, so the merger to apply for a patent

  2. Nuclear ventriculography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ventriculography (RNV); Multiple gate acquisition scan (MUGA); Nuclear cardiology; Cardiomyopathy - nuclear ventriculography ... 56. Udelson JE, Dilsizian V, Bonow RO. Nuclear cardiology. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby ...

  3. Nuclear Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  4. Physical properties, structure, and shape of radioactive Cs from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident derived from soil, bamboo and shiitake mushroom measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimura, Nobuo; Kikuchi, Kenji; Tuyen, Ninh Duc; Komatsuzaki, Masakazu; Motohashi, Yoshinobu

    2015-01-01

    We conducted an elution experiment with contaminated soils using various aqueous reagent solutions and autoradiography measurements of contaminated bamboo shoots and shiitake mushrooms to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of radioactive Cs from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Based on our study results and data in the literature, we conclude that the active Cs emitted by the accident fell to the ground as granular non-ionic materials. Therefore, they were not adsorbed or trapped by minerals in the soil, but instead physically adhere to the rough surfaces of the soil mineral particles. Granular Cs* can be transferred among media, such as soils and plants. The physical properties and dynamic behavior of the granular Cs* is expected to be helpful in considering methods for decontamination of soil, litter, and other media.

  5. Tight Reservoir Properties Derived by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Mercury Porosimetry and Computed Microtomography Laboratory Techniques. Case Study of Palaeozoic Clastic Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowska, Paulina I.; Puskarczyk, Edyta

    2015-06-01

    Results of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) investigations, mercury porosimetry measurements (MP) and computed microtomography (micro-CT), applied to the tight Palaeozoic rocks from the depths lower than 3000 m, were presented to estimate their reservoir potential. NMR signal analysis and interpretation were performed. Based on NMR driven models, permeability and Free Fluid Index were calculated for data sets divided into homogeneous clusters. Computerized mercury porosimetry results visualization and processing provided useful information, as the automatically determined Swanson parameter is correlated with petrophysical properties of rocks. Micro-CT enriched the image of porous space in qualitative and quantitative ways. Homogeneity of pore space structure was discussed using micro-CT approach. Integration of the results in the frame of reservoir parameters from standard laboratory methods and the modern ones resulted in the improvement of methodology for determining the old, deep-seated, hard sedimentary rocks reservoir potential.

  6. Nuclear quadrupole coupling constants in complexes B...X2: Sternheimer-type properties of free X2 from experimental intramolecular charge shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, P. W.

    In complexes belonging to the series B...X2(X = halogen), the measured nuclear quadrupole coupling constants show a consistent trend: after allowing for zero-point angular oscillation of X2, chi(X) for the inner nucleus is larger in magnitude than in free X2 while for the outer nucleus it is smaller by approximately the same amount. These observations are consistent with supermolecule calculations reported here and with two simple models. The Townes-Dailey model gives the (small) fraction delta of an electron shifted from the inner to the outer atom on formation B...X2. The long-range model of intermolecular forces allows deduction of a Sternheimer-like response property gzz,z of free X2 from the observed variation of delta with B. For Cl2, the value deduced for gzz,z is 65 au, in reasonable agreement with a previous ab initio result of 45.3 au.

  7. Pions in the nuclear medium

    CERN Document Server

    de Melo, J P B C; El-Bennich, Bruno; Rojas, E; Frederico, T

    2014-01-01

    Using the light-front pion wave function based on a Bethe-Salpeter amplitude model, we study the properties of the pion in symmetric nuclear matter. The pion model we adopt is well constrained by previous studies to explain the pion properties in vacuum. In order to consistently incorporate the constituent up and down quarks of the pion immersed in symmetric nuclear matter, we use the quark-meson coupling model, which has been widely applied to various hadronic and nuclear phenomena in a nuclear medium with success. We predict the in-medium modifications of the pion lectromagnetic form factor, charge radius and weak decay constant in symmetric nuclear matter.

  8. Nuclear energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandin, Karl; Jagers, Peter; Kullander, Sven

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear energy can play a role in carbon free production of electrical energy, thus making it interesting for tomorrow's energy mix. However, several issues have to be addressed. In fission technology, the design of so-called fourth generation reactors show great promise, in particular in addressing materials efficiency and safety issues. If successfully developed, such reactors may have an important and sustainable part in future energy production. Working fusion reactors may be even more materials efficient and environmental friendly, but also need more development and research. The roadmap for development of fourth generation fission and fusion reactors, therefore, asks for attention and research in these fields must be strengthened.

  9. Nuclear energy efficiency improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; Nonboel, E. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Nutech, Roskilde (Denmark); Kyrki-Rajamaeki, R. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    2012-11-15

    Nuclear energy already today plays an important role in decarbonisation of the electricity sector while providing energy security and being economically competitive. Nuclear energy is characterized by its very high energy density and is well suited for large-scale, baseload electricity supply. Similar to renewable energy sources such as wind, solar or biomass, nuclear power is characterized by an abundant supply of its primary energy source, uranium, but is not limited to the same extent as these renewable energy sources from being an intermittent energy supply or imposing severe restrictions on land-use. Improving energy efficiency of nuclear power plants has contributed to a better utilization of the uranium resources and has helped improving the economic performance of nuclear power plants. This is to a large degree accomplished through optimisation of nuclear fuel assemblies as well as renewing turbines and generators. More importantly however, the overall economy of nuclear power has improved though better plant management leading to higher capacity factors and by extending the lifetimes of existing nuclear power plants. Provided that improved safety, economics and successful waste management can be demonstrated nuclear power is likely to grow in the future. Non-electricity applications may further boost the growth of nuclear energy, especially with the development of new reactor systems allowing for cogeneration of electricity and hydrogen or biofuels for transport. (Author)

  10. Adventures in scientific nuclear diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Siegfried S.

    2014-05-01

    A former director of Los Alamos National Laboratory offers a first-person perspective on the important contributions scientists can make toward improving the safety and security of nuclear materials and reducing the global nuclear dangers in an evolving world.

  11. Adventures in scientific nuclear diplomacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecker, Siegfried S. [Center for International Security and Cooperation, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States)

    2014-05-09

    A former director of Los Alamos National Laboratory offers a first-person perspective on the important contributions scientists can make toward improving the safety and security of nuclear materials and reducing the global nuclear dangers in an evolving world.

  12. The nuclear symmetry energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, M.; Burgio, G. F.

    2016-11-01

    The nuclear symmetry energy characterizes the variation of the binding energy as the neutron to proton ratio of a nuclear system is varied. This is one of the most important features of nuclear physics in general, since it is just related to the two component nature of the nuclear systems. As such it is one of the most relevant physical parameters that affect the physics of many phenomena and nuclear processes. This review paper presents a survey of the role and relevance of the nuclear symmetry energy in different fields of research and of the accuracy of its determination from the phenomenology and from the microscopic many-body theory. In recent years, a great interest was devoted not only to the Nuclear Matter symmetry energy at saturation density but also to its whole density dependence, which is an essential ingredient for our understanding of many phenomena. We analyze the nuclear symmetry energy in different realms of nuclear physics and astrophysics. In particular we consider the nuclear symmetry energy in relation to nuclear structure, astrophysics of Neutron Stars and supernovae, and heavy ion collision experiments, trying to elucidate the connections of these different fields on the basis of the symmetry energy peculiarities. The interplay between experimental and observational data and theoretical developments is stressed. The expected future developments and improvements are schematically addressed, together with most demanded experimental and theoretical advances for the next few years.

  13. Coating Properties of WC-Ni Cold Spray Coating for the Application in Secondary Piping System of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, JeongWon; Kim, Seunghyun; Kim, Ji Hyun [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    As a result of FAC(flow accelerated corrosion), severe accidents, failure of carbon steel like a Mihama Unit-3 occurred. Chemical composition change of carbon steel or coating to inner surface is one of methods to improve corrosion properties. Among them, thermal spray coating is convenient solution to apply at industry. Powder is melted at blast furnace and ejected to substrate. After adhesion, substrate and coating layer is cooled down and coated layer protects steel from corrosion finally. However high thermal energy is transferred to substrate and coating layer so it leads high thermal residual stress in coating procedure. Besides, high temperature for melting powder makes unexpected chemical reaction of powder like an oxidation or carburization. Whereas, cold spray uses low temperature comparing with other thermal spray. Thermal energy is used for not melting powder but high kinetic energy of powder and plastic deformation during collision. Therefore, fuel such as oxygen-acetylene gas is not needed. It needs carrier gas, compressed air, nitrogen or helium, to increase kinetic energy of powder and move powder to substrate. Comparing cold spray with high velocity oxy fuel (HVOF), one of thermal spray, cold spray coating layer contains only WC and Co. One of other problem about WC is brittleness during coating. To improve deformability of WC, binder metal is added. For example, Co, Cr, Ni, Cu, Al, Fe or etc. Additionally, binder metal lowering melting temperature of composite powder increases coating properties. Among them, Co which is widely used as binder metal maintains mechanical properties like a hardness and improves corrosion properties. Therefore Co is not suitable for binder metal of WC coating. In contrast, Ni has better corrosion resistance to alkaline environment and makes lower melting temperature. Moreover, in a view of cold spray, FCC structure has better deformability than BCC or HCP, and BCC has lowest deformability. WC is BCC structure so it

  14. Mucoadhesive properties of tamarind-seed polysaccharide/hyaluronic acid mixtures: A nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uccello-Barretta, Gloria; Balzano, Federica; Vanni, Letizia; Sansò, Marco

    2013-01-16

    Mixtures of tamarind-seed polysaccharide (TSP) and hyaluronic acid (HA), which are employed as artificial tears for ophthalmic applications in the eye dry syndrome, were investigated by NMR spectroscopy by analyzing the effect of TSP/HA ratio and total concentration on their capability to form stable aggregates with enhanced mucoadhesive properties over those of the separate polysaccharides. The effect of TSP, HA or TSP/HA mixtures on the affinity of diclofenac sodium salt (DS) to mucin (BSM) was ascertained by means of proton selective relaxation rate measurements and assumed as the basis to compare polysaccharides mucoadhesive properties. The NMR relaxation parameters of pure DS (2mM), binary DS/BSM (5mg/mL or 10mg/mL) and ternary DS/BSM/polysaccharide systems (polysaccharide=TSP, HA or variable ratios TSP/HA mixtures) were compared in aqueous medium. The experimental data demonstrate that the minimum concentration of 1.5mg/mL of each polysaccharide is needed to have formation of a stable TSP/HA aggregate endowed with NMR detectable mucoadhesive properties and inside which reciprocal synergistic interaction occurs.

  15. Nuclear effects in atomic transitions

    OpenAIRE

    Pálffy, Adriana

    2011-01-01

    Atomic electrons are sensitive to the properties of the nucleus they are bound to, such as nuclear mass, charge distribution, spin, magnetization distribution, or even excited level scheme. These nuclear parameters are reflected in the atomic transition energies. A very precise determination of atomic spectra may thus reveal information about the nucleus, otherwise hardly accessible via nuclear physics experiments. This work reviews theoretical and experimental aspects of the nuclear effects ...

  16. A Fungal Effector With Host Nuclear Localization and DNA-Binding Properties Is Required for Maize Anthracnose Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Walter A; Sanz-Martín, José M; Rech, Gabriel E; Armijos-Jaramillo, Vinicio D; Rivera, Lina P; Echeverria, María Mercedes; Díaz-Mínguez, José M; Thon, Michael R; Sukno, Serenella A

    2016-02-01

    Plant pathogens have the capacity to manipulate the host immune system through the secretion of effectors. We identified 27 putative effector proteins encoded in the genome of the maize anthracnose pathogen Colletotrichum graminicola that are likely to target the host's nucleus, as they simultaneously contain sequence signatures for secretion and nuclear localization. We functionally characterized one protein, identified as CgEP1. This protein is synthesized during the early stages of disease development and is necessary for anthracnose development in maize leaves, stems, and roots. Genetic, molecular, and biochemical studies confirmed that this effector targets the host's nucleus and defines a novel class of double-stranded DNA-binding protein. We show that CgEP1 arose from a gene duplication in an ancestor of a lineage of monocot-infecting Colletotrichum spp. and has undergone an intense evolution process, with evidence for episodes of positive selection. We detected CgEP1 homologs in several species of a grass-infecting lineage of Colletotrichum spp., suggesting that its function may be conserved across a large number of anthracnose pathogens. Our results demonstrate that effectors targeted to the host nucleus may be key elements for disease development and aid in the understanding of the genetic basis of anthracnose development in maize plants.

  17. A importância da contra-imunoeletroforese na detecção de antígenos nucleares extraíveis para o diagnóstico de doenças reumáticas sistêmicas The importance of counterimmunoelectrophoresis in the detection of extractable nuclear antigens for the diagnosis of systemic rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cassia Siqueira Bruder

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Os antígenos nucleares extraíveis (ENAs são encontrados no soro da maioria dos pacientes com doença reumática sistêmica. Os principais ENAs estudados são SS-A/Ro, SS-B/La, RNP, Sm, Scl-70 e Jo-1. Objeti-vou-se neste trabalho: a padronizar a técnica de contra-imunoeletroforese (CIE para a detecção de ENAs; b padronizar o substrato antigênico (ENAs para a CIE a partir de baço de cão; c comparar os resultados da CIE com as técnicas de imunofluorescência indireta (IFI e Elisa para esses antígenos. Para tal foram estudados 40 soros de pacientes com doença reumática sistêmica confirmada por exames clínico e laboratorial (sorológico e biópsia. Como controle negativo foram utilizados dez soros de doadores de sangue normais, e, como controles positivos, seis soros-padrão anti-Ro, anti-La, anti-RNP, anti-Sm, anti-Scl-70, anti-Jo-1, para caracterizar os antígenos presentes no extrato de baço. Neste último foram detectados vários ENAs, exceto RNP e Scl-70. A técnica de CIE apresentou boas sensibilidade (70% e especificidade (100% em relação às outras técnicas (IFI e Elisa. A titulação dos soros pela CIE revelou positividade até diluições de 1:16 em 32,5% dos casos. Concluímos que a CIE e os antígenos extraídos de baço de cão podem ser utilizados na rotina laboratorial para triagem destes ENAs, com a vantagem, em relação à IFI, de poderem ser titulados.Extractable nuclear antigens (ENAs are detected in the sera of the majority of patients with rheumatic systemic disease. The main ENAs studied are SS-A/Ro, SS-B/La, RNP, Sm, Scl-70 and Jo-1. The aim of this work was: a to standardize the counterimmunoelectrophoresis technique (CIE to detect ENAs; b to standardize the extration of ENAs from dog spleen as a substract for CIE test; c to compare the results obtained by CIE with those of indirect immunofluorescence (IFI and Elisa for these antigens. Forty sera from individuals with rheumatic systemic disease confirmed by

  18. Nuclear matter and electron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sick, I. [Dept. fuer Physik und Astronomie, Univ. Basel (Switzerland)

    1998-06-01

    We show that inclusive electron scattering at large momentum transfer allows a measurement of short-range properties of nuclear matter. This provides a very valuable constraint in selecting the calculations appropriate for predicting nuclear matter properties at the densities of astrophysical interest. (orig.)

  19. Power and related statistical properties of conditional likelihood score tests for association studies in nuclear families with parental genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Gastwirth, J L; Gail, M H

    2005-05-01

    Both population based and family based case control studies are used to test whether particular genotypes are associated with disease. While population based studies have more power, cryptic population stratification can produce false-positive results. Family-based methods have been introduced to control for this problem. This paper presents the full likelihood function for family-based association studies for nuclear families ascertained on the basis of their number of affected and unaffected children. The likelihood of a family factors into the probability of parental mating type, conditional on offspring phenotypes, times the probability of offspring genotypes given their phenotypes and the parental mating type. The first factor can be influenced by population stratification, whereas the latter factor, called the conditional likelihood, is not. The conditional likelihood is used to obtain score tests with proper size in the presence of population stratification (see also Clayton (1999) and Whittemore & Tu (2000)). Under either the additive or multiplicative model, the TDT is known to be the optimal score test when the family has only one affected child. Thus, the class of score tests explored can be considered as a general family of TDT-like procedures. The relative informativeness of the various mating types is assessed using the Fisher information, which depends on the number of affected and unaffected offspring and the penetrances. When the additive model is true, families with parental mating type Aa x Aa are most informative. Under the dominant (recessive) model, however, a family with mating type Aa x aa(AA x Aa) is more informative than a family with doubly heterozygous (Aa x Aa) parents. Because we derive explicit formulae for all components of the likelihood, we are able to present tables giving required sample sizes for dominant, additive and recessive inheritance models.

  20. Structural features and ligand binding properties of tandem WW domains from YAP and TAZ, nuclear effectors of the Hippo pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Claire; Upadhyay, Abhishek; Giuntini, Francesca; Eggleston, Ian; Furutani-Seiki, Makoto; Ishima, Rieko; Bagby, Stefan

    2011-04-26

    The paralogous multifunctional adaptor proteins YAP and TAZ are the nuclear effectors of the Hippo pathway, a central mechanism of organ size control and stem cell self-renewal. WW domains, mediators of protein-protein interactions, are essential for YAP and TAZ function, enabling interactions with PPxY motifs of numerous partner proteins. YAP has single and double WW domain isoforms (YAP1 and YAP2) whereas only a single WW domain isoform of TAZ has been described to date. Here we identify the first example of a double WW domain isoform of TAZ. Using NMR, we have characterized conformational features and peptide binding of YAP and TAZ tandem WW domains (WW1-WW2). The solution structure of YAP WW2 confirms that it has a canonical three-stranded antiparallel β-sheet WW domain fold. While chemical shift-based analysis indicates that the WW domains in the tandem WW pairs retain the characteristic WW domain fold, 15N relaxation data show that, within the respective WW pairs, YAP WW1 and both WW1 and WW2 of TAZ undergo conformational exchange. 15N relaxation data also indicate that the linker between the WW domains is flexible in both YAP and TAZ. Within both YAP and TAZ tandem WW pairs, WW1 and WW2 bind single PPxY-containing peptide ligand concurrently and noncooperatively with sub-mM affinity. YAP and TAZ WW1-WW2 bind a dual PPxY-containing peptide with approximately 6-fold higher affinity. Our results indicate that both WW domains in YAP and TAZ are functional and capable of enhanced affinity binding to multi-PPxY partner proteins such as LATS1, ErbB4, and AMOT.

  1. Nuclear photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habs, D.; Günther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2012-07-01

    With the planned new γ-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest (Romania) with 1013 γ/s and a band width of ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-3, a new era of γ beams with energies up to 20MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HIγS facility at Duke University (USA) with 108 γ/s and ΔEγ/Eγ≈3ṡ10-2. In the long run even a seeded quantum FEL for γ beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused γ beams. Here we describe a new experiment at the γ beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for γ beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for γ beams are being developed. Thus, we have to optimize the total system: the γ-beam facility, the γ-beam optics and γ detectors. We can trade γ intensity for band width, going down to ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-6 and address individual nuclear levels. The term "nuclear photonics" stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with γ-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, γ beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to μm resolution using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like the scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of applications. We find many new applications in biomedicine, green energy, radioactive waste management or homeland security. Also more brilliant secondary beams of neutrons and positrons can be produced.

  2. Nuclear matter physics at NICA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senger, P. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    The exploration of the QCD phase diagram is one of the most exciting and challenging projects of modern nuclear physics. In particular, the investigation of nuclear matter at high baryon densities offers the opportunity to find characteristic structures such as a first-order phase transition with a region of phase coexistence and a critical endpoint. The experimental discovery of these prominent landmarks of the QCD phase diagram would be a major breakthrough in our understanding of the properties of nuclear matter. Equally important is the quantitative experimental information on the properties of hadrons in dense matter which may shed light on chiral symmetry restoration and the origin of hadron masses. Worldwide, substantial efforts at the major heavy-ion accelerators are devoted to the clarification of these fundamental questions, and new dedicated experiments are planned at future facilities like CBM at FAIR in Darmstadt and MPD at NICA/JINR in Dubna. In this article the perspectives for MPD at NICA will be discussed. (orig.)

  3. Nuclear medicine physics

    CERN Document Server

    De Lima, Joao Jose

    2011-01-01

    Edited by a renowned international expert in the field, Nuclear Medicine Physics offers an up-to-date, state-of-the-art account of the physics behind the theoretical foundation and applications of nuclear medicine. It covers important physical aspects of the methods and instruments involved in modern nuclear medicine, along with related biological topics. The book first discusses the physics of and machines for producing radioisotopes suitable for use in conventional nuclear medicine and PET. After focusing on positron physics and the applications of positrons in medicine and biology, it descr

  4. Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soils by Fenton's reagent: a multivariate evaluation of the importance of soil characteristics and PAH properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Sofia; Persson, Ylva; Frankki, Sofia; van Bavel, Bert; Lundstedt, Staffan; Haglund, Peter; Tysklind, Mats

    2007-10-01

    In this study, we investigated how the chemical degradability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aged soil samples from various contaminated sites is influenced by soil characteristics and by PAH physico-chemical properties. The results were evaluated using the multivariate statistical tool, partial least squares projections to latent structures (PLS). The PAH-contaminated soil samples were characterised (by pH, conductivity, organic matter content, oxide content, particle size, specific surface area, and the time elapsed since the contamination events, i.e. age), and subjected to relatively mild, slurry-phase Fenton's reaction conditions. In general, low molecular weight PAHs were degraded to a greater extent than large, highly hydrophobic variants. Anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, and pyrene were more susceptible to degradation than other, structurally similar, PAHs; an effect attributed to the known susceptibility of these compounds to reactions with hydroxyl radicals. The presence of organic matter and the specific surface area of the soil were clearly negatively correlated with the degradation of bi- and tri-cyclic PAHs, whereas the amount of degraded organic matter correlated positively with the degradation of PAHs with five or six fused rings. This was explained by enhanced availability of the larger PAHs, which were released from the organic matter as it degraded. Our study shows that sorption of PAHs is influenced by a combination of soil characteristics and physico-chemical properties of individual PAHs. Multivariate statistical tools have great potential for assessing the relative importance of these parameters.

  5. Dynamic nuclear polarization properties of nitroxyl radical in high viscous liquid using Overhauser-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (OMRI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumara Dhas, M; Utsumi, Hideo; Jawahar, A; Milton Franklin Benial, A

    2015-08-01

    The dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) studies were carried out for (15)N labeled carbamoyl-PROXYL in pure water and pure water/glycerol mixtures of different viscosities (1.8cP, 7cP and 14cP). The dependence of DNP parameters was demonstrated over a range of agent concentration, viscosities, RF power levels and ESR irradiation time. DNP spectra were also recorded for 2mM concentration of (15)N labeled carbamoyl-PROXYL in pure water and pure water/glycerol mixtures of different viscosities. The DNP factors were measured as a function of ESR irradiation time, which increases linearly up to 2mM agent concentration in pure water and pure water/glycerol mixtures of different viscosities. The DNP factor started declining in the higher concentration region (∼3mM), which is due to the ESR line width broadening. The water proton spin-lattice relaxation time was measured at very low Zeeman field (14.529mT). The increased DNP factor (35%) was observed for solvent 2 (η=1.8cP) compared with solvent 1 (η=1cP). The increase in the DNP factor was brought about by the shortening of water proton spin-lattice relaxation time of solvent 2. The decreased DNP factors (30% and 53%) were observed for solvent 3 (η=7cP) and solvent 4 (η=14cP) compared with solvent 2, which is mainly due to the low value of coupling parameter in high viscous liquid samples. The longitudinal relaxivity, leakage factor and coupling parameter were estimated. The coupling parameter values reveal that the dipolar interaction as the major mechanism. The longitudinal relaxivity increases with the increasing viscosity of pure water/glycerol mixtures. The leakage factor showed an asymptotic increase with the increasing agent concentration. It is envisaged that the results reported here may provide guidelines for the design of new viscosity prone nitroxyl radicals, suited to the biological applications of DNP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationship between the nuclear resonance of cobalt metal and its ferromagnetic properties; Relations entre la resonance nucleaire du cobalt metallique et ses proprietes ferromagnetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubrun, J.N. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-05-15

    Theoretical study of nuclear magnetic resonance in ferromagnetic metals shows the near dependence of ferromagnetic properties and unusual feature of this nuclear resonance. This results from a strong interaction between nuclei and magnetic electrons. They excite the nuclei, and, in Bloch walls, submit them to a RF field much stronger than those directly applied. The parameters of the resonance are determined from wall movement and depend consequently of ferromagnetic constants. The theory is enable to provide quantitatively some peculiar effects, specially those of a continuous magnetic field and of temperature. Experimental study was made on cobalt powders, and is in good agreement with theory. However one must take the skin-effect into consideration and accordingly adjust, the theory. This can explain some observed divergences, as well as the influence at particles size and magnetic field over the line shape. Original informations have been obtained about some typical ferromagnetic properties of cobalt, when studying magnetic field effect, and it has been able to apply this method to other ferromagnetic materials. In consideration of the peculiar characteristics of this nuclear resonance, which occurs without external magnetic field and whose line width is large, new models of spectrographs have been realized and have permitted accurate measures of the line shape. The weak intensity of the signals obtained in some cases, has induced the elaboration of an original method of extraction whose theory and practical uses are described here. The whole of this experiment reveals the nuclear resonance as a strong way for the study of ferromagnetism, which is able to detect microscopic phenomenons, not easily accessible by classical methods. (author) [French] L'etude theorique de la resonance magnetique nucleaire dans les metaux ferromagnetiques revele l'etroite liaison entre les proprietes ferromagnetiques et l'aspect inhabituel de cette resonance. Ceci

  7. Forging the link between nuclear reactions and nuclear structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickhoff, W. H.

    2016-06-01

    A review of the recent applications of the dispersive optical model (DOM) is presented. Emphasis is on the nonlocal implementation of the DOM that is capable of describing ground-state properties accurately when data like the nuclear charge density are available. The present understanding of the role of short- and long-range physics in determining proton properties near the Fermi energy for stable closed-shell nuclei has relied mostly on data from the (e, e' p) reaction. Hadronic tools to extract such spectroscopic information have been hampered by the lack of a consistent reaction description that provides unambiguous and undisputed results. The DOM, conceived by Claude Mahaux, provides a unified description of both elastic nucleon scattering and structure information related to single-particle properties below the Fermi energy. We have recently introduced a nonlocal dispersive optical potential for both the real and imaginary part. Nonlocal absorptive potentials yield equivalent elastic differential cross sections for 40Ca as compared to local ones but change the l-dependent absorption profile suggesting important consequences for the analysis of nuclear reactions. Below the Fermi energy, nonlocality is essential for an accurate representation of particle number and the nuclear charge density. Spectral properties implied by (e, e' p) and (p, 2p) reactions are correctly described, including the energy distribution of about 10% high-momentum protons obtained at Jefferson Lab. The nonlocal DOM allows a complete description of experimental data both above (up to 200 MeV) and below the Fermi energy in 40Ca. It is further demonstrated that elastic nucleon-nucleus scattering data constrain the spectral strength in the continuum of orbits that are nominally bound in the independent-particle model. Extension of this analysis to 48Ca allows a prediction of the neutron skin of this nucleus that is larger than most predictions made so far.

  8. Forging the link between nuclear reactions and nuclear structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickhoff W. H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the recent applications of the dispersive optical model (DOM is presented. Emphasis is on the nonlocal implementation of the DOM that is capable of describing ground-state properties accurately when data like the nuclear charge density are available. The present understanding of the role of short- and long-range physics in determining proton properties near the Fermi energy for stable closed-shell nuclei has relied mostly on data from the (e, e′ p reaction. Hadronic tools to extract such spectroscopic information have been hampered by the lack of a consistent reaction description that provides unambiguous and undisputed results. The DOM, conceived by Claude Mahaux, provides a unified description of both elastic nucleon scattering and structure information related to single-particle properties below the Fermi energy. We have recently introduced a nonlocal dispersive optical potential for both the real and imaginary part. Nonlocal absorptive potentials yield equivalent elastic differential cross sections for 40Ca as compared to local ones but change the l-dependent absorption profile suggesting important consequences for the analysis of nuclear reactions. Below the Fermi energy, nonlocality is essential for an accurate representation of particle number and the nuclear charge density. Spectral properties implied by (e, e′ p and (p, 2p reactions are correctly described, including the energy distribution of about 10% high-momentum protons obtained at Jefferson Lab. The nonlocal DOM allows a complete description of experimental data both above (up to 200 MeV and below the Fermi energy in 40Ca. It is further demonstrated that elastic nucleon-nucleus scattering data constrain the spectral strength in the continuum of orbits that are nominally bound in the independent-particle model. Extension of this analysis to 48Ca allows a prediction of the neutron skin of this nucleus that is larger than most predictions made so far.

  9. The Nuclear Symmetry Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Baldo, M

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear symmetry energy characterizes the variation of the binding energy as the neutron to proton ratio of a nuclear system is varied. This is one of the most important features of nuclear physics in general, since it is just related to the two component nature of the nuclear systems. As such it is one of the most relevant physical parameters that affect the physics of many phenomena and nuclear processes. This review paper presents a survey of the role and relevance of the nuclear symmetry energy in different fields of research and of the accuracy of its determination from the phenomenology and from the microscopic many-body theory. In recent years, a great interest was devoted not only to the Nuclear Matter symmetry energy at saturation density but also to its whole density dependence, which is an essential ingredient for our understanding of many phenomena. We analyze the nuclear symmetry energy in different realms of nuclear physics and astrophysics. In particular we consider the nuclear symmetry ene...

  10. Nuclear Threats and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents highlights and insights from the International Conference on “Nuclear Threats and Security” organized by the World Academy of Art and Science in association with the European Leadership Network and the Dag Hammarskjöld University College of International Relations and Diplomacy and sponsored by NATO at the Inter-University Centre, Dubrovnik on September 14-16, 2012. The conference examined important issues related to nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament, the legality of nuclear weapons and their use, illicit trade in nuclear materials, the dangers of nuclear terrorism, nuclear- and cyber-security. Papers and video recordings of the major presentations and session summaries can be found here.

  11. Formation and physical properties of uranium hydride under conditions relevant to metallic fuel and nuclear waste storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Robin; Godfrey, Hugh; Broan, Chris; Goddard, Dave; Woodhouse, Guy; Durham, Peter; Diggle, Andrew; Bradshaw, John

    2016-08-01

    The formation of uranium hydride is recognised as a hazard during the storage of uranium metal owing to its potentially pyrophoric properties. This study has assessed the influence of water vapour on the potential for uranium hydride to form at low temperatures and shows that it increases the duration of the induction period but does not necessarily prevent uranium hydride formation and also does not significantly change the reaction rate with hydrogen. It is further shown that the α-UH3 fraction in the uranium hydride gradually increases at decreasing temperatures and is likely to be the dominant phase formed under typical storage conditions. Particle morphology and specific surface area of uranium hydride prepared between 30 °C and 200 °C have also been characterised but show only modest variation compared with the phase composition.

  12. Method and apparatus for studying high-temperature properties of conductive materials in the interests of nuclear power engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savvatimskiy, A. I., E-mail: savva@iht.mpei.ac.ru; Onufriev, S. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    Physical processes during a rapid (microsecond) heating of metals, carbon, and their compounds by a single pulse of electric current are discussed. Effects arising in such short-term heating near the melting point are noted: the electron emission and heat capacity anomalies and the possible occurrence of Frenkel pair (interstitial atom and vacancy). The problem of measuring the temperature using optical methods under pulse heating is considered, including the use of a specimen in the form of a blackbody model. The melting temperature of carbon (4800–4900 K) is measured at increased pulse pressure. The results of studying the properties of metals (by example of zirconium and hafnium) and of zirconium carbide at high temperatures are discussed. The schematics of the pulse setups and the instrumentation, as well as specimens for a pulse experiment, are presented.

  13. Method and apparatus for studying high-temperature properties of conductive materials in the interests of nuclear power engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvatimskiy, A. I.; Onufriev, S. V.

    2016-12-01

    Physical processes during a rapid (microsecond) heating of metals, carbon, and their compounds by a single pulse of electric current are discussed. Effects arising in such short-term heating near the melting point are noted: the electron emission and heat capacity anomalies and the possible occurrence of Frenkel pair (interstitial atom and vacancy). The problem of measuring the temperature using optical methods under pulse heating is considered, including the use of a specimen in the form of a blackbody model. The melting temperature of carbon (4800-4900 K) is measured at increased pulse pressure. The results of studying the properties of metals (by example of zirconium and hafnium) and of zirconium carbide at high temperatures are discussed. The schematics of the pulse setups and the instrumentation, as well as specimens for a pulse experiment, are presented.

  14. The nuclear properties and extended morphologies of powerful radio galaxies: the roles of host galaxy and environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraghaei, H.; Best, P. N.

    2017-01-01

    Powerful radio galaxies exist as either compact or extended sources, with the extended sources traditionally classified by their radio morphologies as Fanaroff-Riley (FR) type I and II sources. FRI/II and compact radio galaxies have also been classified by their optical spectra into two different types: high excitation (HERG; quasar-mode) and low excitation (LERG; jet-mode). We present a catalogue of visual morphologies for a complete sample of >1000 1.4-GHz-selected extended radio sources from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We study the environment and host galaxy properties of FRI/II and compact sources, classified into HERG/LERG types, in order to separate and distinguish the factors that drive the radio morphological variations from those responsible for the spectral properties. Comparing FRI LERGs with FRII LERGs at fixed stellar mass and radio luminosity, we show that FRIs typically reside in richer environments and are hosted by smaller galaxies with higher mass surface density; this is consistent with extrinsic effects of jet disruption driving the FR dichotomy. Using matched samples of HERGs and LERGs, we show that HERG host galaxies are more frequently star-forming, with more evidence for disk-like structure than LERGs, in accordance with currently-favoured models of fundamentally different fuelling mechanisms. Comparing FRI/II LERGs with compact LERGs, we find the primary difference is that compact objects typically harbour less massive black holes. This suggests that lower-mass black holes may be less efficient at launching stable radio jets, or do so for shorter times. Finally, we investigate rarer sub-classes: wide-angle tail, head-tail, FR-hybrid and double-double sources.

  15. Radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang Geon; Kim, Ja Hae; Song, Ho Chun [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Radiation Safety Research Center, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Since the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011, radiation safety has become an important issue in nuclear medicine. Many structured guidelines or recommendations of various academic societies or international campaigns demonstrate important issues of radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures. There are ongoing efforts to fulfill the basic principles of radiation protection in daily nuclear medicine practice. This article reviews important principles of radiation protection in nuclear medicine procedures. Useful references, important issues, future perspectives of the optimization of nuclear medicine procedures, and diagnostic reference level are also discussed.

  16. Radiation Safety in Nuclear Medicine Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sang-Geon; Kim, Jahae; Song, Ho-Chun

    2017-03-01

    Since the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011, radiation safety has become an important issue in nuclear medicine. Many structured guidelines or recommendations of various academic societies or international campaigns demonstrate important issues of radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures. There are ongoing efforts to fulfill the basic principles of radiation protection in daily nuclear medicine practice. This article reviews important principles of radiation protection in nuclear medicine procedures. Useful references, important issues, future perspectives of the optimization of nuclear medicine procedures, and diagnostic reference level are also discussed.

  17. Nuclear Structure Near the Drip Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazarewicz, W.

    1998-08-10

    Experiments with beams of unstable nuclei will make it possible to look closely into many aspects of the nuclear many-body problem. Theoretically, exotic nuclei represent a formidable challenge for the nuclear many-body theories and their power to predict nuclear properties in nuclear terra incognita.

  18. Nuclear-pumped lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Prelas, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on Nuclear-Pumped Laser (NPL) technology and provides the reader with a fundamental understanding of NPLs, a review of research in the field, and exploration of large scale NPL system design and applications. Early chapters look at the fundamental properties of lasers, nuclear-pumping and nuclear reactions that may be used as drivers for nuclear-pumped lasers. The book goes on to explore the efficient transport of energy from the ionizing radiation to the laser medium and then the operational characteristics of existing nuclear-pumped lasers. Models based on Mathematica, explanations and a tutorial all assist the reader’s understanding of this technology. Later chapters consider the integration of the various systems involved in NPLs and the ways in which they can be used, including beyond the military agenda. As readers will discover, there are significant humanitarian applications for high energy/power lasers, such as deflecting asteroids, space propulsion, power transmission and mining....

  19. Research and application of accelerated ageing management for important and susceptible components in nuclear power plants%核电站重要敏感设备加速老化管理研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄立军; 陈世均; 黄卫刚; 陈宇; 瞿勐

    2011-01-01

    介绍了大亚湾核电站和岭澳核电站重要敏感设备加速老化管理技术研究的背景,阐述了加速老化管理的内涵,论述了电站加速老化管理技术路线、工作体系,以及同现有运行和维修体系的接口.通过加速老化管理技术的应用实例论证了相关研究成果的合理性和有效性.最后对核电站重要敏感设备加速老化管理技术的发展前景进行了展望.%This paper introduced the background of research on accelerated ageing management (AAM) technology for important and susceptible components in Daya Bay nuclear power plant (NPP) and Lingao NPP, and expounded the connotation of AAM, demonstrated the AAM technical route, work architecture and interfaces with existing operation and maintenance system in NPPs. Some representative application examples of AAM technology for verifying the rationality and effectiveness of relevant research achievements also were presented. Development prospect of AAM technology was proposed at the last.

  20. 探析核岛重要厂用水系统管道安装问题%Analysis of the Problem of Nuclear Island Important Plant Water Pipe Installation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨裕芳

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear island of nuclear reactor in nuclear power plant containment and reactor systems collectively, the main function to use nuclear fission to produce steam. There are many complicated problems in the construction of the nuclear island plant water pipeline system, and need to related construction personnel to pay attention to and solve.%核岛是核电站安全壳内的核反应堆和与反应堆有关的各个系统的统称,主要功能为利用核裂变产生蒸汽。在核岛重要厂用水系统管道的施工中,存在许多比较复杂的问题,需要相关施工人员予以重视和解决。

  1. Ultraviolet radiation-induced modifications of the optical and registration properties of a CR-39 nuclear track detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saad, A.F., E-mail: abdallahsaad56@hotmail.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Benghazi, Benghazi (Libya); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig (Egypt); Al-Faitory, N.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Benghazi, Benghazi (Libya); Hussein, M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig (Egypt); Mohamed, R.A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Benghazi, Benghazi (Libya)

    2015-09-15

    The UV–VIS (ultraviolet–visible) spectra and etching characteristics of poly allyl diglycol carbonate (PADC, a form of the CR-39 polymer) detector films after exposure to UV radiation for various times have been studied. Etching experiments were carried out on the UV-exposed CR-39 detectors after alpha particle and fission-fragment irradiation using a {sup 252}Cf source. The bulk and track etch rates were measured using the alpha and fission-fragment track diameters, and the sensitivity and the detection efficiency were also determined. The optical band gap for both indirect and direct transitions was calculated based on the absorption edge of the UV spectra of the pristine and variously UV-exposed detectors. The optical band gap evidently indicates a gradual change in the optical properties of the CR-39 detector that is induced by the UV radiation. This study shows that the UV-exposed CR-39 detectors were demonstrated to be highly sensitive to alpha particles, but proved to be somewhat less sensitive to the fission fragments.

  2. Formation and physical properties of uranium hydride under conditions relevant to metallic fuel and nuclear waste storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orr, Robin, E-mail: robin.orr@nnl.co.uk [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Godfrey, Hugh [National Nuclear Laboratory, Workington Laboratory, Havelock Road, Derwent Howe, Workington, Cumbria, CA14 3YQ (United Kingdom); Broan, Chris; Goddard, Dave; Woodhouse, Guy; Durham, Peter [National Nuclear Laboratory, Preston Laboratory, Springfields, Salwick, Preston, Lancashire, PR4 0XJ (United Kingdom); Diggle, Andrew [Sellafield Ltd., Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Bradshaw, John [Sellafield Ltd., Hinton House, Risley, Warrington, WA3 6GR (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-15

    The formation of uranium hydride is recognised as a hazard during the storage of uranium metal owing to its potentially pyrophoric properties. This study has assessed the influence of water vapour on the potential for uranium hydride to form at low temperatures and shows that it increases the duration of the induction period but does not necessarily prevent uranium hydride formation and also does not significantly change the reaction rate with hydrogen. It is further shown that the α-UH{sub 3} fraction in the uranium hydride gradually increases at decreasing temperatures and is likely to be the dominant phase formed under typical storage conditions. Particle morphology and specific surface area of uranium hydride prepared between 30 °C and 200 °C have also been characterised but show only modest variation compared with the phase composition. - Highlights: • The reaction of uranium in dry hydrogen and hydrogen/water vapour has been measured between 30 and 200 °C. • Water vapour extends the induction period but does not necessarily prevent UH{sub 3} formation or affect the reaction rate. • X-ray diffraction analysis shows a gradual increase in α-UH{sub 3} and reduction in β-UH{sub 3} with decreasing preparation temperature. • Particle morphology and specific surface area show only a modest variation with temperature.

  3. Nuclear Entalpies

    CERN Document Server

    Rozynek, J

    2013-01-01

    In a compressed Nuclear Matter (NM) an increasing pressure between the nucleons starts to increase the ratio of a nucleon Fermi to average single particle energy and in accordance with the Hugenholtz-van Hove theorem the longitudinal Momentum Sum Rule (MSR) is broken in a Relativistic Mean Field (RMF) approach. We propose to benefit from the concept of enthalpy in order to show how to fulfill the MSR above a saturation density with pressure corrections. As a result a nucleon mass can decrease with density, making the Equation of State (EoS) softer. The course of the EoS in our modified RMF model is close to a semi-empirical estimate and to results obtained from extensive DBHF calculations with a Bonn A potential, which produce the EoS stiff enough to describe neutron star properties (mass-radius constraint), especially the most massive known neutron star. The presented model has proper saturation properties, including good values of a compressibility and a spin-orbit term.

  4. Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piele, Philip K.

    Chapter 7 of a book on school law, this chapter deals with 1979 cases involving disputes over property. Cases involving taxpayer attempts to prevent the construction of school buildings dominate this year's property chapter, as they did last year's. Yet, paradoxically, there is also a significant increase in cases in which taxpayers tried to…

  5. Asymmetry Dependence of the Nuclear Caloric Curve

    CERN Document Server

    McIntosh, Alan B; Cammarata, Paul; Hagel, Kris; Heilborn, Lauren; Kohley, Zachary; Mabiala, Justin; May, Larry W; Marini, Paola; Raphelt, Andrew; Souliotis, George A; Wuenschel, Sara; Zarrella, Andrew; Yennello, Sherry J

    2012-01-01

    A basic feature of the nuclear equation of state is not yet understood: the dependence of the nuclear caloric curve on the neutron-proton asymmetry. Predictions of theoretical models differ on the magnitude and even the sign of this dependence. In this work, the nuclear caloric curve is examined for fully reconstructed quasi-projectiles around mass A=50. The caloric curve extracted with the momentum quadrupole fluctuation thermometer shows that the temperature varies linearly with quasi-projectile asymmetry (N-Z)/A. An increase in asymmetry of 0.15 units corresponds to a decrease in temperature on the order of 1 MeV. These results also highlight the importance of a full quasi-projectile reconstruction in the study of thermodynamic properties of hot nuclei.

  6. Towards a self-consistent dynamical nuclear model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Maza, X.; Niu, Y. F.; Colò, G.; Bortignon, P. F.

    2017-04-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) is a powerful and accurate tool, exploited in nuclear physics to investigate the ground-state and some of the collective properties of nuclei along the whole nuclear chart. Models based on DFT are not, however, suitable for the description of single-particle dynamics in nuclei. Following the field theoretical approach by A Bohr and B R Mottelson to describe nuclear interactions between single-particle and vibrational degrees of freedom, we have taken important steps towards the building of a microscopic dynamic nuclear model. In connection with this, one important issue that needs to be better understood is the renormalization of the effective interaction in the particle-vibration approach. One possible way to renormalize the interaction is by the so-called subtraction method. In this contribution, we will implement the subtraction method in our model for the first time and study its consequences.

  7. Tree species functional group is a more important driver of soil properties than tree species diversity across major European forest types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterdal, Lars; Muhie Dawud, Seid; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Finér, Leena; Domisch, Timo; Ratcliffe, Sophia

    2017-04-01

    The influence of tree species diversity and functional group on soil properties (carbon stock, pH and C/N ratio) has not been explored across major European forest types. We evaluated the relative importance of tree species diversity and functional group on soil carbon (C) stocks, C/N ratio and pH in major European forest types in the six regions Finland, Poland, Germany, Romania, Italy and Spain. We sampled soils in 209 permanent plots along a species diversity gradient from monocultures to 5-species mixtures in the exploratory platform of the FunDivEurope project. Carbon stocks in the topsoil (forest floor (FF), 0-10 cm, and FF+0-10 cm) were positively, but weakly, related to diversity across the regions. While the C/N ratio in the FF+0-10 cm layer decreased significantly with increasing diversity in the Spanish region, pH was unrelated to species diversity across the regions. Tree species functional group (conifer proportion) explained a larger proportion of the variability in soil properties than species diversity. Conifer admixture increased C stock and C/N ratio, and decreased pH, but the impacts differed between the regions for some soil layers. Differences in mean annual temperature, actual evapotranspiration and soil texture between the regions were possible driving factors behind the different functional group effects in Finland, Spain and Germany. The results suggest that targeted selection of tree species with desired characteristics, e.g. complementary traits for resource use, is a preferred management approach for influencing soil C stock, C/N ratio and pH in mixed forests rather than increasing tree species diversity per se.

  8. Importance of inoculum properties on the structure and growth of bacterial communities during Recolonisation of humus soil with different pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Marie; Bååth, Erland

    2013-08-01

    The relationship between community structure and growth and pH tolerance of a soil bacterial community was studied after liming in a reciprocal inoculum study. An unlimed (UL) humus soil with a pH of 4.0 was fumigated with chloroform for 4 h, after which soil was experimentally limed (EL) to a pH of 7.6. Both the UL and the EL soil were then reciprocally inoculated with UL soil or field limed (FL) soil with a pH of 6.2. The FL soil was from a 15-year-old experiment. The structural changes were measured on both bacteria in soil and on bacteria able to grow on agar plates using phospholipids fatty acid (PLFA) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The developing community pH tolerance and bacterial growth were also monitored over time using thymidine incorporation. The inoculum source had a significant impact on both growth and pH tolerance of the bacterial community in the EL soil. These differences between the EL soil inoculated with UL soil and FL soil were correlated to structural changes, as evidenced by both PLFA and DGGE analyses on the soil. Similar correlations were seen to the fraction of the community growing on agar plates. There were, however, no differences between the soil bacterial communities in the unlimed soils with different inocula. This study showed the connection between the development of function (growth), community properties (pH tolerance) and the structure of the bacterial community. It also highlighted the importance of both the initial properties of the community and the selection pressure after environmental changes in shaping the resulting microbial community.

  9. An introduction to nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Jana, Yatramohan

    2015-01-01

    AN INTRODUCTION TO NUCLEAR PHYSICS explores the nucleus - its size, shape and structure, its static and dynamic properties, its interaction with external system (particles and radiation), and above all the nuclear interaction in the two-nucleon and many-nucleon systems. It covers all aspects of the nucleus, divided into five Parts and nineteen Chapters. Part-1 introduces nuclear binding energy, separation energy and nuclear stability. Part-2 explores the two-nucleon potential through the study of the deuteron problem, nucleon-nucleon scattering, and also presents a meson theoretical description of the nuclear potential. Part-3 deals with the nuclear structure through different models, e.g., liquid-drop model, Fermi gas model, nuclear shell model, collective model. Part-4 develops different theoretical models for nuclear reactions, e.g., compound nucleus, statistical model, continuum model, optical model, direct reaction mechanism.

  10. Safety culture in the nuclear versus non-nuclear organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, S.B.; Shurberg, D.A.

    1996-10-01

    The importance of safety culture in the safe and reliable operation of nuclear organizations is not a new concept. The greatest barriers to this area of research are twofold: (1) the definition and criteria of safety culture for a nuclear organization and (2) the measurement of those attributes in an objective and systematic fashion. This paper will discuss a proposed resolution of those barriers as demonstrated by the collection of data across nuclear and non-nuclear facilities over a two year period.

  11. Energy from nuclear fission an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    De Sanctis, Enzo; Ripani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an overview on nuclear physics and energy production from nuclear fission. It serves as a readable and reliable source of information for anyone who wants to have a well-balanced opinion about exploitation of nuclear fission in power plants. The text is divided into two parts; the first covers the basics of nuclear forces and properties of nuclei, nuclear collisions, nuclear stability, radioactivity, and provides a detailed discussion of nuclear fission and relevant topics in its application to energy production. The second part covers the basic technical aspects of nuclear fission reactors, nuclear fuel cycle and resources, safety, safeguards, and radioactive waste management. The book also contains a discussion of the biological effects of nuclear radiation and of radiation protection, and a summary of the ten most relevant nuclear accidents. The book is suitable for undergraduates in physics, nuclear engineering and other science subjects. However, the mathematics is kept at a level that...

  12. Nuclear chemistry of transactinide elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagame, Yuichiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-07-01

    The current status on the nuclear chemistry studies of transactinide elements is reviewed. The production of transactinides in heavy ion reactions is briefly discussed, and nuclear properties on the stability of transactinides are presented. Chemical properties of the trans-actinide elements 104, 105 and 106, and a typical experimental technique used to study these properties on an atom-at-a-time base are introduced. (author)

  13. Production history matching to determine reservoir properties of important coal groups in the Upper Pottsville formation, Brookwood and Oak Grove fields, Black Warrior Basin, Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacan, C Özgen

    2013-01-01

    The Black Warrior Basin of Alabama is one of the most important coal mining and coalbed methane production areas in the United States. Methane control efforts through degasification that started almost 25 years ago for the sole purpose of ensuring mining safety resulted in more than 5000 coalbed methane wells distributed within various fields throughout the basin. The wells are completed mostly in the Pratt, Mary Lee, and Black Creek coal groups of the Upper Pottsville formation and present a unique opportunity to understand methane reservoir properties of these coals and to improve their degasification performances. The Brookwood and Oak Grove fields in the Black Warrior Basin are probably two of the most important fields in the basin due to current longwall coal mining activities. In this work, methane and water productions of 92 vertical wellbores drilled, some completed 20 years ago, over a current large coal mine district located in these two fields, were analyzed by history matching techniques. The boreholes were completed at the Mary Lee coal group, or at combinations of the Pratt, Mary Lee, and Black Creek groups. History matching models were prepared and performed according to properties of each coal group. Decline curve analyses showed that effective exponential decline rates of the wells were between 2% and 25% per year. Results of production history matching showed, although they varied by coal group, that pressure decreased as much as 80% to nearly 25 psi in some areas and resulted in corresponding decreases in methane content. Water saturation in coals decreased from 100% to between 20 and 80%, improving gas relative permeabilities to as much as 0.8. As a result of primary depletion, permeability of coal seams increased between 10 and 40% compared to their original permeability, which varied between 1 and 10 md depending on depth and coal seam. These results not only can be used for diagnostic and interpretation purposes, but can be used as parameter

  14. Challenges in Nuclear Structure Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Nazarewicz, Witold

    2016-01-01

    The goal of nuclear structure theory is to build a comprehensive microscopic framework in which properties of nuclei and extended nuclear matter, and nuclear reactions and decays can all be consistently described. Due to novel theoretical concepts, breakthroughs in the experimentation with rare isotopes, increased exchange of ideas across different research areas, and the progress in computer technologies and numerical algorithms, nuclear theorists have been quite successful in solving various bits and pieces of the nuclear many-body puzzle and the prospects are exciting. This article contains a brief, personal perspective on the status of the field.

  15. iNR-PhysChem: a sequence-based predictor for identifying nuclear receptors and their subfamilies via physical-chemical property matrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Xiao

    Full Text Available Nuclear receptors (NRs form a family of ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate a wide variety of biological processes, such as homeostasis, reproduction, development, and metabolism. Human genome contains 48 genes encoding NRs. These receptors have become one of the most important targets for therapeutic drug development. According to their different action mechanisms or functions, NRs have been classified into seven subfamilies. With the avalanche of protein sequences generated in the postgenomic age, we are facing the following challenging problems. Given an uncharacterized protein sequence, how can we identify whether it is a nuclear receptor? If it is, what subfamily it belongs to? To address these problems, we developed a predictor called iNR-PhysChem in which the protein samples were expressed by a novel mode of pseudo amino acid composition (PseAAC whose components were derived from a physical-chemical matrix via a series of auto-covariance and cross-covariance transformations. It was observed that the overall success rate achieved by iNR-PhysChem was over 98% in identifying NRs or non-NRs, and over 92% in identifying NRs among the following seven subfamilies: NR1--thyroid hormone like, NR2--HNF4-like, NR3--estrogen like, NR4--nerve growth factor IB-like, NR5--fushi tarazu-F1 like, NR6--germ cell nuclear factor like, and NR0--knirps like. These rates were derived by the jackknife tests on a stringent benchmark dataset in which none of protein sequences included has ≥60% pairwise sequence identity to any other in a same subset. As a user-friendly web-server, iNR-PhysChem is freely accessible to the public at either http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/iNR-PhysChem or http://icpr.jci.edu.cn/bioinfo/iNR-PhysChem. Also a step-by-step guide is provided on how to use the web-server to get the desired results without the need to follow the complicated mathematics involved in developing the predictor. It is anticipated that iNR-PhysChem may

  16. Nuclear Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  17. Nuclear Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    P