WorldWideScience

Sample records for nuclear fusion fuel

  1. Nuclear Fusion Fuel Cycle Research Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hongsuk; Koo, Daeseo; Park, Jongcheol; Kim, Yeanjin; Yun, Sei-Hun

    2015-01-01

    As a part of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Project, we at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and our National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI) colleagues are investigating nuclear fusion fuel cycle hardware including a nuclear fusion fuel Storage and Delivery System (SDS). To have a better knowledge of the nuclear fusion fuel cycle, we present our research efforts not only on SDS but also on the Fuel Supply System (FS), Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP), Isotope Separation System (ISS), and Detritiation System (DS). To have better knowledge of the nuclear fusion fuel cycle, we presented our research efforts not only on SDS but also on the Fuel Supply System (FS), Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP), Isotope Separation System (ISS), and Detritiation System (DS). Our efforts to enhance the tritium confinement will be continued for the development of cleaner nuclear fusion power plants

  2. Advanced fuels for nuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNally, J.R. Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Should magnetic confinement of hot plasma prove satisfactory at high β (16 πnkT//sub B 2 / greater than 0.1), thermonuclear fusion fuels other than D.T may be contemplated for future fusion reactors. The prospect of the advanced fusion fuels D.D and 6 Li.D for fusion reactors is quite promising provided the system is large, well reflected and possesses a high β. The first generation reactions produce the very active, energy-rich fuels t and 3 He which exhibit a high burnup probability in very hot plasmas. Steady state burning of D.D can ensue in a 60 kG field, 5 m reactor for β approximately 0.2 and reflectivity R/sub mu/ = 0.9 provided the confinement time is about 38 sec. The feasibility of steady state burning of 6 Li.D has not yet been demonstrated but many important features of such systems still need to be incorporated in the reactivity code. In particular, there is a need for new and improved nuclear cross section data for over 80 reaction possibilities

  3. Use of nuclear fusion systems for spent nuclear fuel degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto, M.; Ramos, G.; Herrera V, J. J. E.

    2009-10-01

    One of the severe problems of the nuclear industry that should be resolved to facilitate its acceptance like viable energy alternative is of the wastes. In spite of having alternative of fuel reprocessing, many of them have been abandoned by economic or security reasons. In the present work, the alternative is described for using reactors of nuclear fusion as sources of fast neutrons with two important applications in mind: the plutonium burning and the transmutation of the elements that contribute in way more important to their radioactivity, mainly the smaller actinides and the fission products of long half life. (Author)

  4. Reprocessing free nuclear fuel production via fusion fission hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotschenreuther, Mike, E-mail: mtk@mail.utexas.edu [Intitute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin (United States); Valanju, Prashant; Mahajan, Swadesh [Intitute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Fusion fission hybrids, driven by a copious source of fusion neutrons can open qualitatively 'new' cycles for transmuting nuclear fertile material into fissile fuel. A totally reprocessing-free (ReFree) Th{sup 232}-U{sup 233} conversion fuel cycle is presented. Virgin fertile fuel rods are exposed to neutrons in the hybrid, and burned in a traditional light water reactor, without ever violating the integrity of the fuel rods. Throughout this cycle (during breeding in the hybrid, transport, as well as burning of the fissile fuel in a water reactor) the fissile fuel remains a part of a bulky, countable, ThO{sub 2} matrix in cladding, protected by the radiation field of all fission products. This highly proliferation-resistant mode of fuel production, as distinct from a reprocessing dominated path via fast breeder reactors (FBR), can bring great acceptability to the enterprise of nuclear fuel production, and insure that scarcity of naturally available U{sup 235} fuel does not throttle expansion of nuclear energy. It also provides a reprocessing free path to energy security for many countries. Ideas and innovations responsible for the creation of a high intensity neutron source are also presented.

  5. Reprocessing free nuclear fuel production via fusion fission hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotschenreuther, Mike; Valanju, Prashant; Mahajan, Swadesh

    2012-01-01

    Fusion fission hybrids, driven by a copious source of fusion neutrons can open qualitatively “new” cycles for transmuting nuclear fertile material into fissile fuel. A totally reprocessing-free (ReFree) Th 232 –U 233 conversion fuel cycle is presented. Virgin fertile fuel rods are exposed to neutrons in the hybrid, and burned in a traditional light water reactor, without ever violating the integrity of the fuel rods. Throughout this cycle (during breeding in the hybrid, transport, as well as burning of the fissile fuel in a water reactor) the fissile fuel remains a part of a bulky, countable, ThO 2 matrix in cladding, protected by the radiation field of all fission products. This highly proliferation-resistant mode of fuel production, as distinct from a reprocessing dominated path via fast breeder reactors (FBR), can bring great acceptability to the enterprise of nuclear fuel production, and insure that scarcity of naturally available U 235 fuel does not throttle expansion of nuclear energy. It also provides a reprocessing free path to energy security for many countries. Ideas and innovations responsible for the creation of a high intensity neutron source are also presented.

  6. Preliminary design and analysis on nuclear fuel cycle for fission-fusion hybrid spent fuel burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yan; Wang Minghuang; Jiang Jieqiong

    2012-01-01

    A wet-processing-based fuel cycle and a dry-processing were designed for a fission-fusion hybrid spent fuel burner (FDS-SFB). Mass flow of SFB was preliminarily analyzed. The feasibility analysis of initial loaded fuel inventory, recycle fuel fabrication and spent fuel reprocessing were preliminarily evaluated. The results of mass flow of FDS-SFB demonstrated that the initial loaded fuel inventory, recycle fuel fabrication and spent fuel reprocessing of nuclear fuel cycle of FDS-SFB is preliminarily feasible. (authors)

  7. Fusion fuel and renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entler, Slavomir

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that fusion fuel meets all aspects applied when defining renewables. A table of definitions of renewables is presented. The sections of the paper are as follows: An industrial renewable source; Nuclear fusion; Current situation in research; Definitions of renewable sources; Energy concept of nuclear fusion; Fusion fuel; Natural energy flow; Environmental impacts; Fusion fuel assessment; Sustainable power; and Energy mix from renewables. (P.A.)

  8. Nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-zaelic, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear fusion can be relied on to solve the global energy crisis if the process of limiting the heat produced by the fusion reaction (Plasma) is successful. Currently scientists are progressively working on this aspect whereas there are two methods to limit the heat produced by fusion reaction, the two methods are auto-restriction using laser beam and magnetic restriction through the use of magnetic fields and research is carried out to improve these two methods. It is expected that at the end of this century the nuclear fusion energy will play a vital role in overcoming the global energy crisis and for these reasons, acquiring energy through the use of nuclear fusion reactors is one of the most urge nt demands of all mankind at this time. The conclusion given is that the source of fuel for energy production is readily available and inexpensive ( hydrogen atoms) and whole process is free of risks and hazards, especially to general health and the environment . Nuclear fusion importance lies in the fact that energy produced by the process is estimated to be about four to five times the energy produced by nuclear fission. (author)

  9. Nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, H.

    1978-01-01

    A comprehensive survey is presented of the present state of knowledge in nuclear fusion research. In the first part, potential thermonuclear reactions, basic energy balances of the plasma (Lawson criterion), and the main criteria to be observed in the selection of appropriate thermonuclear reactions are dealt with. This is followed by a discussion of the problems encountered in plasma physics (plasma confinement and heating, transport processes, plasma impurities, plasma instabilities and plasma diagnostics) and by a consideration of the materials problems involved, such as material of the first wall, fuel inlet and outlet, magnetic field generation, as well as repair work and in-service inspections. Two main methods have been developed to tackle these problems: reactor concepts using the magnetic pinch (stellarator, Tokamak, High-Beta reactors, mirror machines) on the one hand, and the other concept using the inertial confinement (laser fusion reactor). These two approaches and their specific problems as well as past, present and future fusion experiments are treated in detail. The last part of the work is devoted to safety and environmental aspects of the potential thermonuclear aspects of the potential thermonuclear reactor, discussing such problems as fusion-specific hazards, normal operation and potential hazards, reactor incidents, environmental pollution by thermal effluents, radiological pollution, radioactive wastes and their disposal, and siting problems. (orig./GG) [de

  10. Fusion energy: 'clean' nuclear power with cheap fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, H.

    1976-01-01

    Because of the world energy crisis the possible use of thermonuclear energy is exciting great interest, particularly in the United States. Of primary importance is that the fuel required is cheap and readily available - it is the world's water resources. The basic long standing fundamental problem is to produce a stable plasma; the difficulties and the reasons for them are discussed. Of the machines and methods designed to overcome the problem, to date the Russian-developed Tokamak appears the most likely to succeed. The confidence in this equipment is shown by the number under construction or design in the U.S.; brief descriptions are given of a number of 'tokamaks' being built by Government agencies and universities and by industry. The Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) hopes that some useful energy can be produced by 1985 and a 500MW generator by 1995-97. Of importance also to the understanding of the fusion reaction are fundamental investigations with, for instance, particle accelerators. Work at Oakridge, Livermore, Princeton and Brookhaven is discussed. Other experiments e.g. laser induced fusion, are also considered. (G.P.)

  11. Development of railgun pellet injector for nuclear fusion fueling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuma, Kingo; Oda, Yasushi; Onozuka, Masanori.

    1996-01-01

    Recent fusion plasmas have become larger as fusion research progresses. This requires high-velocity solid-hydrogen pellet injection that is the most efficient fueling method. The application of the electro-magnetic railgun system for pellet injection is one of the most feasible technologies for accelerating a pellet to a high speed. The system consists of a pneumatic pre-accelerator for the first acceleration stage and a railgun for the second stage. The railgun is operated by a low voltage discharged from a pulse-forming-network power supply to accelerate a plasma armature between the rail electrodes. The plasma is induced by high-power laser beam irradiation. The highest velocity of a solid-hydrogen pellet obtained using the railgun was 2.6 km/s. This velocity is higher than the maximum pellet velocity of 2.3 km/s achieved by MHI's pneumatic pellet injector. It was also found that the pellet velocity could be controlled easily using railgun pellet injection. (author)

  12. Development of railgun pellet injector for nuclear fusion fueling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azuma, Kingo [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Takasago, Hyogo Takasago Research and Development Center (Japan); Oda, Yasushi; Onozuka, Masanori

    1996-03-01

    Recent fusion plasmas have become larger as fusion research progresses. This requires high-velocity solid-hydrogen pellet injection that is the most efficient fueling method. The application of the electro-magnetic railgun system for pellet injection is one of the most feasible technologies for accelerating a pellet to a high speed. The system consists of a pneumatic pre-accelerator for the first acceleration stage and a railgun for the second stage. The railgun is operated by a low voltage discharged from a pulse-forming-network power supply to accelerate a plasma armature between the rail electrodes. The plasma is induced by high-power laser beam irradiation. The highest velocity of a solid-hydrogen pellet obtained using the railgun was 2.6 km/s. This velocity is higher than the maximum pellet velocity of 2.3 km/s achieved by MHI`s pneumatic pellet injector. It was also found that the pellet velocity could be controlled easily using railgun pellet injection. (author).

  13. Capabilities of a DT tokamak fusion neutron source for driving a spent nuclear fuel transmutation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M.

    2001-01-01

    The capabilities of a DT fusion neutron source for driving a spent nuclear fuel transmutation reactor are characterized by identifying limits on transmutation rates that would be imposed by tokamak physics and engineering limitations on fusion neutron source performance. The need for spent nuclear fuel transmutation and the need for a neutron source to drive subcritical fission transmutation reactors are reviewed. The likely parameter ranges for tokamak neutron sources that could produce an interesting transmutation rate of 100s to 1000s of kg/FPY (where FPY stands for full power year) are identified (P fus ∼ 10-100 MW, β N ∼ 2-3, Q p ∼ 2-5, R ∼ 3-5 m, I ∼ 6-10 MA). The electrical and thermal power characteristics of transmutation reactors driven by fusion and accelerator spallation neutron sources are compared. The status of fusion development vis-a-vis a neutron source is reviewed. (author)

  14. Fusion option to dispose of spent nuclear fuel and transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.

    2000-01-01

    The fusion option is examined to solve the disposition problems of the spent nuclear fuel and the transuranic elements. The analysis of this report shows that the top rated solution, the elimination of the transuranic elements and the long-lived fission products, can be achieved in a fusion reactor. A 167 MW of fusion power from a D-T plasma for sixty years with an availability factor of 0.75 can transmute all the transuranic elements and the long-lived fission products of the 70,000 tons of the US inventory of spent nuclear fuel generated up to the year 2015. The operating time can be reduced to thirty years with use of 334 MW of fusion power, a system study is needed to define the optimum time. In addition, the fusion solution eliminates the need for a geological repository site, which is a major advantage. Meanwhile, such utilization of the fusion power will provide an excellent opportunity to develop fusion energy for the future. Fusion blankets with a liquid carrier for the transuranic elements can achieve a transmutation rate for the transuranic elements up to 80 kg/MW.y of fusion power with k eff of 0.98. In addition, the liquid blankets have several advantages relative to the other blanket options. The energy from this transmutation is utilized to produce revenue for the system. Molten salt (Flibe) and lithium-lead eutectic are identified as the most promising liquids for this application, both materials are under development for future fusion blanket concepts. The Flibe molten salt with transuranic elements was developed and used successfully as nuclear fuel for the molten salt breeder reactor in the 1960's

  15. High precision measurement of fuel density profiles in nuclear fusion plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svensson, J.; von Hellermann, M.; Konig, R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a method for deducing fuel density profiles of nuclear fusion plasmas in realtime during an experiment. A Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) neural network is used to create a mapping between plasma radiation spectra and indirectly deduced hydrogen isotope densities. By combining

  16. Fusion fuel blanket technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, I.J.; Gierszewski, P.

    1987-05-01

    The fusion blanket surrounds the burning hydrogen core of a fusion reactor. It is in this blanket that most of the energy released by the nuclear fusion of deuterium-tritium is converted into useful product, and where tritium fuel is produced to enable further operation of the reactor. As fusion research turns from present short-pulse physics experiments to long-burn engineering tests in the 1990's, energy removal and tritium production capabilities become important. This technology will involve new materials, conditions and processes with applications both to fusion and beyond. In this paper, we introduce features of proposed blanket designs and update and status of international research. In focusing on the Canadian blanket technology program, we discuss the aqueous lithium salt blanket concept, and the in-reactor tritium recovery test program

  17. Advanced nuclear reactor and nuclear fusion power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-04-01

    This book comprised of two issues. The first one is a advanced nuclear reactor which describes nuclear fuel cycle and advanced nuclear reactor like liquid-metal reactor, advanced converter, HTR and extra advanced nuclear reactors. The second one is nuclear fusion for generation energy, which explains practical conditions for nuclear fusion, principle of multiple magnetic field, current situation of research on nuclear fusion, conception for nuclear fusion reactor and economics on nuclear fusion reactor.

  18. The role of Z-pinch fusion transmutation of waste in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, James Dean; Drennen, Thomas E.; Rochau, Gary Eugene; Martin, William Joseph; Kamery, William; Phruksarojanakun, Phiphat; Grady, Ryan; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Wilson, Paul Philip Hood; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Guild-Bingham, Avery; Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich

    2007-01-01

    The resurgence of interest in reprocessing in the United States with the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership has led to a renewed look at technologies for transmuting nuclear waste. Sandia National Laboratories has been investigating the use of a Z-Pinch fusion driver to burn actinide waste in a sub-critical reactor. The baseline design has been modified to solve some of the engineering issues that were identified in the first year of work, including neutron damage and fuel heating. An on-line control feature was added to the reactor to maintain a constant neutron multiplication with time. The transmutation modeling effort has been optimized to produce more accurate results. In addition, more attention was focused on the integration of this burner option within the fuel cycle including an investigation of overall costs. This report presents the updated reactor design, which is able to burn 1320 kg of actinides per year while producing 3,000 MWth

  19. Advanced nuclear fuel production by using fission-fusion hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kusayer, T.A.; Sahin, S.; Abdulraoof, M.

    1993-01-01

    Efforts are made at the College of Engineering, King Saud University, Riyadh to lay out the main structure of a prototype experimental fusion and fusion-fission (hybrid) reactor blanket in cylindrical geometry. The geometry is consistent with most of the current fusion and hybrid reactor design concepts in respect of the neutronic considerations. Characteristics of the fusion chamber, fusion neutrons and the blanket are provided. The studies have further shown that 1 GWe fission-fusion reactor can produce up to 957 kg/year which is enough to fuel five light water reactors of comparable power. Fuel production can be increased further. 29 refs

  20. 1: the atom. 2: radioactivity. 3: man and radiations. 4: the energy. 5: nuclear energy: fusion and fission. 6: the operation of a nuclear reactor. 7: the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This series of 7 digest booklets present the bases of the nuclear physics and of the nuclear energy: 1 - the atom (structure of matter, chemical elements and isotopes, the four fundamental interactions, nuclear physics); 2 - radioactivity (definition, origins of radioelements, applications of radioactivity); 3 - man and radiations (radiations diversity, biological effects, radioprotection, examples of radiation applications); 4 - energy (energy states, different forms of energy, characteristics); 5 - nuclear energy: fusion and fission (nuclear energy release, thermonuclear fusion, nuclear fission and chain reaction); 6 - operation of a nuclear reactor (nuclear fission, reactor components, reactor types); 7 - nuclear fuel cycle (nuclear fuel preparation, fuel consumption, reprocessing, wastes management). (J.S.)

  1. Synthetic fuels and fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillo, J A; Powell, J; Steinberg, M [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)

    1981-03-01

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and supplement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. equal to 40-60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of approx. equal to 50-70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long-term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion.

  2. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangwani, Saloni; Chakrabortty, Sumita

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear fuel is a material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned for energy. Nuclear fuels are the most dense sources of energy available. Nuclear fuel in a nuclear fuel cycle can refer to the fuel itself, or to physical objects (for example bundles composed of fuel rods) composed of the fuel material, mixed with structural, neutron moderating, or neutron reflecting materials. Long-lived radioactive waste from the back end of the fuel cycle is especially relevant when designing a complete waste management plan for SNF. When looking at long-term radioactive decay, the actinides in the SNF have a significant influence due to their characteristically long half-lives. Depending on what a nuclear reactor is fueled with, the actinide composition in the SNF will be different. The following paper will also include the uses. advancements, advantages, disadvantages, various processes and behavior of nuclear fuels

  3. Understanding fuel magnetization and mix using secondary nuclear reactions in magneto-inertial fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, P F; Knapp, P F; Hansen, S B; Gomez, M R; Hahn, K D; Sinars, D B; Peterson, K J; Slutz, S A; Sefkow, A B; Awe, T J; Harding, E; Jennings, C A; Chandler, G A; Cooper, G W; Cuneo, M E; Geissel, M; Harvey-Thompson, A J; Herrmann, M C; Hess, M H; Johns, O; Lamppa, D C; Martin, M R; McBride, R D; Porter, J L; Robertson, G K; Rochau, G A; Rovang, D C; Ruiz, C L; Savage, M E; Smith, I C; Stygar, W A; Vesey, R A

    2014-10-10

    Magnetizing the fuel in inertial confinement fusion relaxes ignition requirements by reducing thermal conductivity and changing the physics of burn product confinement. Diagnosing the level of fuel magnetization during burn is critical to understanding target performance in magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) implosions. In pure deuterium fusion plasma, 1.01 MeV tritons are emitted during deuterium-deuterium fusion and can undergo secondary deuterium-tritium reactions before exiting the fuel. Increasing the fuel magnetization elongates the path lengths through the fuel of some of the tritons, enhancing their probability of reaction. Based on this feature, a method to diagnose fuel magnetization using the ratio of overall deuterium-tritium to deuterium-deuterium neutron yields is developed. Analysis of anisotropies in the secondary neutron energy spectra further constrain the measurement. Secondary reactions also are shown to provide an upper bound for the volumetric fuel-pusher mix in MIF. The analysis is applied to recent MIF experiments [M. R. Gomez et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 155003 (2014)] on the Z Pulsed Power Facility, indicating that significant magnetic confinement of charged burn products was achieved and suggesting a relatively low-mix environment. Both of these are essential features of future ignition-scale MIF designs.

  4. Nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, C.J.; Silver, J.M.

    1985-09-01

    The report provides data and assessments of the status and prospects of nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle. The report discusses the economic competitiveness of nuclear electricity generation, the extent of world uranium resources, production and requirements, uranium conversion and enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel treatment and radioactive waste management. A review is given of the status of nuclear fusion research

  5. Towards nuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    The results of nuclear fusion researches in JAERI are summarized. In this report, following themes are collected: the concept of fusion reactor (including ITER), fusion reactor safety, plasma confinement, fusion reactor equipment, and so on. Includes glossary. (J.P.N.)

  6. On the energy gain enhancement of DT+D3He fuel configuration in nuclear fusion reactor driven by heavy ion beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Khoshbinfar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is expected that advanced fuels be employed in the second generation of nuclear fusion reactors. Theoretical calculations show that in such a fuel, a high plasma temperature about 100 keV is a requisite for reaction rate improvement of nuclear fusion. However, creating such a temporal condition requires a more powerful driver than we have today. Here, introducing an optimal fuel configuration consisting of DT and D-3He layers, suitable for inertial fusion reactors and driven by heavy ion beams, the optimal energy gain conditions have been simulated and derived for 1.3 MJ system. It was found that, in this new fuel configuration, the ideal energy gain, is 22 percent more comparing with energy gain in corresponding single DT fuel layer. Moreover, the inner DT fuel layer contributed as an ignition trigger, while the outer D3He fuel acts as particle and radiation shielding as well as fuel layer.

  7. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D Hondt, P.

    1998-01-01

    The research and development programme on nuclear fuel at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is described. The objective of this programme is to enhance the quantitative prediction of the operational limits of nuclear fuel and to assess the behaviour of fuel under incidental and accidental conditions. Progress is described in different domains including the modelling of fission gas release in LWR fuel, thermal conductivity, basic physical phenomena, post-irradiation examination for fuel performance assessment, and conceptual studies of incidental and accidental fuel experiments

  8. Nuclear fusion - a strategic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, U.

    1989-01-01

    Aspects of nuclear fusion research with particular reference to Europe are reviewed. The energy scenario with regard to nuclear fusion is considered including economic, political and scientific problems of energy policy in view of the long-term research effort required. Mention is also made of the need to phase out the use of fossil fuels for environmental reasons. Research into magnetic and inertial confinement fusion is considered. It is concluded that the development of thermonuclear reactors will eventually be brought to practical fruition. (UK)

  9. Report of 6th research meeting on basic process of fuel cycle for nuclear fusion reactors, Yayoi Research Group; 3rd expert committee on research of nuclear fusion fuel material correlation basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In this report, the lecture materials of Yayoi Research Group, 6th research meeting on basic process of fuel cycle for nuclear fusion reactors which was held at the University of Tokyo on March 25, 1996, are collected. This workshop was held also as 3rd expert committee on research of nuclear fusion fuel material correlation basis of Atomic Energy Society of Japan. This workshop has the character of the preparatory meeting for the session on `Interface effect in nuclear fusion energy system` of the international workshop `Interface effect in quantum energy system`, and 6 lectures and one comment were given. The topics were deuterium transport in Mo under deuterium ion implantation, the change of the stratum structure of graphite by hydrogen ion irradiation, the tritium behavior in opposing materials, the basic studies of the irradiation effects of solid breeding materials, the research on the behavior of hydroxyl group on the surface of solid breeding materials, the sweep gas effect on the surface of solid breeding materials, and the dynamic behavior of ion-implanted deuterium in proton-conductive oxides. (K.I.)

  10. Nuclear physics for nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xingzhong; Liu Bin; Wei Qingming; Ren Xianzhe

    2004-01-01

    The D-T fusion cross-section is calculated using quantum mechanics with the model of square nuclear potential well and Coulomb potential barrier. The agreement between ENDF data and the theoretically calculated results is well in the range of 0.2-280 keV. It shows that the application of Breit-Wigner formula is not suitable for the case of the light nuclei fusion reaction. When this model is applied to the nuclear reaction between the charged particles confined in a lattice, it explains the 'abnormal phenomena'. It implies a prospect of nuclear fusion energy without strong nuclear radiations

  11. Prospects for alternative Fusion Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glancy, J.

    1986-01-01

    The author has worked on three different magnetic confinement concepts for alternate fusion fueled reactors: tokamaks; tanden mirrors, and reversed field pinches. The focus of this article is on prospects for alternate fusion fuels as the author sees them relative to the other choices: increased numbers of coal plants, fission reactors, renewables, and D-T fusion. Discussion is limited on the consideration of alternate fusion fuels to the catalyzed deuterium-deuterium fuel cycle. Reasons for seeking an alternate energy source are cost, a more secure fuel supply, environmental impact and safety. The technical risks associated with development of fusion are examined briefly

  12. Cold nuclear fusion. Germany 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrescu, Florian Ion

    2012-07-01

    Nuclear fusion is the process by which two or more atomic nuclei join together, or ''fuse'', to form a single heavier nucleus. During this process, matter is not conserved because some of the mass of the fusing nuclei is converted to energy which is released. The binding energy of the resulting nucleus is greater than the binding energy of each of the nuclei that fused to produce it. Fusion is the process that powers active stars. Creating the required conditions for fusion on Earth is very difficult, to the point that it has not been accomplished at any scale for protium, the common light isotope of hydrogen that undergoes natural fusion in stars. In nuclear weapons, some of the energy released by an atomic bomb (fission bomb) is used for compressing and heating a fusion fuel containing heavier isotopes of hydrogen, and also sometimes lithium, to the point of ''ignition''. At this point, the energy released in the fusion reactions is enough to briefly maintain the reaction. Fusion-based nuclear power experiments attempt to create similar conditions using far lesser means, although to date these experiments have failed to maintain conditions needed for ignition long enough for fusion to be a viable commercial power source.

  13. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The nuclear fuel is one of the key component of a nuclear reactor. Inside it, the fission reactions of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium, take place. It is located in the core of the reactor, but also in the core of the whole nuclear system. Its design and properties influence the behaviour, the efficiency and the safety of the reactor. Even if it represents a weak share of the generated electricity cost, its proper use represents an important economic stake. Important improvements remain to be made to increase its residence time inside the reactor, to supply more energy, and to improve its robustness. Beyond the economical and safety considerations, strategical questions have to find an answer, like the use of plutonium, the management of resources and the management of nuclear wastes and real technological challenges have to be taken up. This monograph summarizes the existing knowledge about the nuclear fuel, its behaviour inside the reactor, its limits of use, and its R and D tracks. It illustrates also the researches in progress and presents some key results obtained recently. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - The fuel of water-cooled reactors: aspect, fabrication, behaviour of UO 2 and MOX fuels inside the reactor, behaviour in loss of tightness situation, microscopic morphology of fuel ceramics and evolution under irradiation - migration and localisation of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices, modeling of fuels behaviour - modeling of defects and fission products in the UO 2 ceramics by ab initio calculations, cladding and assembly materials, pellet-cladding interaction, advanced UO 2 and MOX ceramics, mechanical behaviour of the fuel assembly, fuel during a loss of coolant accident, fuel during a reactivity accident, fuel during a serious accident, fuel management inside reactor cores, fuel cycle materials balance, long-term behaviour of the spent fuel, fuel of boiling water reactors; 3 - the fuel of liquid metal fast reactors: fast neutrons radiation

  14. Nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, H [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1976-10-01

    It is expected that nuclear power generation will reach 49 million kW in 1985 and 129 million kW in 1995, and the nuclear fuel having to be supplied and processed will increase in proportion to these values. The technical problems concerning nuclear fuel are presented on the basis of the balance between the benefit for human beings and the burden on the human beings. Recently, especially the downstream of nuclear fuel attracts public attention. Enriched uranium as the raw material for light water reactor fuel is almost monopolized by the U.S., and the technical information has not been published for fear of the diversion to nuclear weapons. In this paper, the present situations of uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, transportation, reprocessing and waste disposal and the future problems are described according to the path of nuclear fuel cycle. The demand and supply of enriched uranium in Japan will be balanced up to about 1988, but afterwards, the supply must rely upon the early establishment of the domestic technology by centrifugal separation method. No problem remains in the fabrication of light water reactor fuel, but for the fabrication of mixed oxide fuel, the mechanization of the production facility and labor saving are necessary. The solution of the capital risk for the construction of the second reprocessing plant is the main problem. Japan must develop waste disposal techniques with all-out efforts.

  15. Nuclear data requirements for fusion reactor nucleonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, M.R.; Abdou, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear data requirements for fusion reactor nucleonics are reviewed and the present status of data are assessed. The discussion is divided into broad categories dealing with data for Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility (FMIT), D-T Fusion Reactors, Alternate Fuel Cycles and the Evaluated Data Files that are available or would be available in the near future

  16. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Guerin, Y.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, Ch.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Sollogoub, P.; Vernaz, E.; Guillet, J.L.; Ballagny, A.; Bechade, J.L.; Bonin, B.; Brachet, J.Ch.; Delpech, M.; Dubois, S.; Ferry, C.; Freyss, M.; Gilbon, D.; Grouiller, J.P.; Iracane, D.; Lansiart, S.; Lemoine, P.; Lenain, R.; Marsault, Ph.; Michel, B.; Noirot, J.; Parrat, D.; Pelletier, M.; Perrais, Ch.; Phelip, M.; Pillon, S.; Poinssot, Ch.; Vallory, J.; Valot, C.; Pradel, Ph.; Bonin, B.; Bouquin, B.; Dozol, M.; Lecomte, M.; Vallee, A.; Bazile, F.; Parisot, J.F.; Finot, P.; Roberts, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Fuel is one of the essential components in a reactor. It is within that fuel that nuclear reactions take place, i.e. fission of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium. Fuel is at the core of the reactor, but equally at the core of the nuclear system as a whole. Fuel design and properties influence reactor behavior, performance, and safety. Even though it only accounts for a small part of the cost per kilowatt-hour of power provided by current nuclear power plants, good utilization of fuel is a major economic issue. Major advances have yet to be achieved, to ensure longer in-reactor dwell-time, thus enabling fuel to yield more energy; and improve ruggedness. Aside from economics, and safety, such strategic issues as use of plutonium, conservation of resources, and nuclear waste management have to be addressed, and true technological challenges arise. This Monograph surveys current knowledge regarding in-reactor behavior, operating limits, and avenues for R and D. It also provides illustrations of ongoing research work, setting out a few noteworthy results recently achieved. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Water reactor fuel: What are the features of water reactor fuel? 9 (What is the purpose of a nuclear fuel?, Ceramic fuel, Fuel rods, PWR fuel assemblies, BWR fuel assemblies); Fabrication of water reactor fuels (Fabrication of UO 2 pellets, Fabrication of MOX (mixed uranium-plutonium oxide) pellets, Fabrication of claddings); In-reactor behavior of UO 2 and MOX fuels (Irradiation conditions during nominal operation, Heat generation, and removal, The processes involved at the start of irradiation, Fission gas behavior, Microstructural changes); Water reactor fuel behavior in loss of tightness conditions (Cladding, the first containment barrier, Causes of failure, Consequences of a failure); Microscopic morphology of fuel ceramic and its evolution under irradiation; Migration and localization of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices (The ceramic under irradiation

  17. Nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Guerin, Y.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, Ch.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Sollogoub, P.; Vernaz, E.; Guillet, J.L.; Ballagny, A.; Bechade, J.L.; Bonin, B.; Brachet, J.Ch.; Delpech, M.; Dubois, S.; Ferry, C.; Freyss, M.; Gilbon, D.; Grouiller, J.P.; Iracane, D.; Lansiart, S.; Lemoine, P.; Lenain, R.; Marsault, Ph.; Michel, B.; Noirot, J.; Parrat, D.; Pelletier, M.; Perrais, Ch.; Phelip, M.; Pillon, S.; Poinssot, Ch.; Vallory, J.; Valot, C.; Pradel, Ph.; Bonin, B.; Bouquin, B.; Dozol, M.; Lecomte, M.; Vallee, A.; Bazile, F.; Parisot, J.F.; Finot, P.; Roberts, J.F

    2009-07-01

    Fuel is one of the essential components in a reactor. It is within that fuel that nuclear reactions take place, i.e. fission of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium. Fuel is at the core of the reactor, but equally at the core of the nuclear system as a whole. Fuel design and properties influence reactor behavior, performance, and safety. Even though it only accounts for a small part of the cost per kilowatt-hour of power provided by current nuclear power plants, good utilization of fuel is a major economic issue. Major advances have yet to be achieved, to ensure longer in-reactor dwell-time, thus enabling fuel to yield more energy; and improve ruggedness. Aside from economics, and safety, such strategic issues as use of plutonium, conservation of resources, and nuclear waste management have to be addressed, and true technological challenges arise. This Monograph surveys current knowledge regarding in-reactor behavior, operating limits, and avenues for R and D. It also provides illustrations of ongoing research work, setting out a few noteworthy results recently achieved. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Water reactor fuel: What are the features of water reactor fuel? 9 (What is the purpose of a nuclear fuel?, Ceramic fuel, Fuel rods, PWR fuel assemblies, BWR fuel assemblies); Fabrication of water reactor fuels (Fabrication of UO{sub 2} pellets, Fabrication of MOX (mixed uranium-plutonium oxide) pellets, Fabrication of claddings); In-reactor behavior of UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels (Irradiation conditions during nominal operation, Heat generation, and removal, The processes involved at the start of irradiation, Fission gas behavior, Microstructural changes); Water reactor fuel behavior in loss of tightness conditions (Cladding, the first containment barrier, Causes of failure, Consequences of a failure); Microscopic morphology of fuel ceramic and its evolution under irradiation; Migration and localization of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices (The ceramic under

  18. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, J.B.L. de.

    1980-01-01

    All stages of nuclear fuel cycle are analysed with respect to the present situation and future perspectives of supply and demand of services; the prices and the unitary cost estimation of these stages for the international fuel market are also mentioned. From the world resources and projections of uranium consumption, medium-and long term analyses are made of fuel availability for several strategies of use of different reactor types. Finally, the cost of nuclear fuel in the generation of electric energy is calculated to be used in the energetic planning of the electric sector. (M.A.) [pt

  19. Controlled Nuclear Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasstone, Samuel

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by The United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Importance of Fusion Energy; Conditions for Nuclear Fusion; Thermonuclear Reactions in Plasmas; Plasma Confinement by Magnetic Fields; Experiments With Plasmas; High-Temperature…

  20. Cold nuclear fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogino, Shinji.

    1991-01-01

    Selection of cathode material is a key to the attainment of cold nuclear fusion. However, there are only few reports on the cathode material at present and an effective development has been demanded. The device comprises an anode and a cathode and an electrolytic bath having metal salts dissolved therein and containing heavy water in a glass container. The anode is made of gold or platinum and the cathode is made of metals of V, Sr, Y, Nb, Hf or Ta, and a voltage of 3-25V is applied by way of a DC power source between them. The metal comprising V, Sr, Y, Nb, Hf or Ta absorbs deuterium formed by electrolysis of heavy water effectively to cause nuclear fusion reaction at substantially the same frequency and energy efficiency as palladium and titanium. Accordingly, a cold nuclear fusion device having high nuclear fusion generation frequency can be obtained. (N.H.)

  1. Fusion reactor fuel processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.F.

    1972-06-01

    For thermonuclear power reactors based on the continuous fusion of deuterium and tritium the principal fuel processing problems occur in maintaining desired compositions in the primary fuel cycled through the reactor, in the recovery of tritium bred in the blanket surrounding the reactor, and in the prevention of tritium loss to the environment. Since all fuel recycled through the reactor must be cooled to cryogenic conditions for reinjection into the reactor, cryogenic fractional distillation is a likely process for controlling the primary fuel stream composition. Another practical possibility is the permeation of the hydrogen isotopes through thin metal membranes. The removal of tritium from the ash discharged from the power system would be accomplished by chemical procedures to assure physiologically safe concentration levels. The recovery process for tritium from the breeder blanket depends on the nature of the blanket fluids. For molten lithium the only practicable possibility appears to be permeation from the liquid phase. For molten salts the process would involve stripping with inert gas followed by chemical recovery. In either case extremely low concentrations of tritium in the melts would be desirable to maintain low tritium inventories, and to minimize escape of tritium through unwanted permeation, and to avoid embrittlement of metal walls. 21 refs

  2. Physics of fusion-fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNally, J.R. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The evaluation of nuclear fusion fuels for a magnetic fusion economy must take into account the various technological impacts of the various fusion fuel cycles as well as the relative reactivity and the required β's and temperatures necessary for economic steady-state burns. This paper will review some of the physics of the various fusion fuel cycles (D-T, catalyzed D-D, D- 3 He, D- 6 Li, and the exotic fuels: 3 He 3 He and the proton-based fuels such as P- 6 Li, P- 9 Be, and P- 11 B) including such items as: (1) tritium inventory, burnup, and recycle, (2) neutrons, (3) condensable fuels and ashes, (4) direct electrical recovery prospects, (5) fissile breeding, etc. The advantages as well as the disadvantages of the different fusion fuel cycles will be discussed. The optimum fuel cycle from an overall standpoint of viability and potential technological considerations appears to be catalyzed D-D, which could also support smaller relatively clean, lean-D, rich- 3 He satellite reactors as well as fission reactors

  3. 1: the atom. 2: radioactivity. 3: man and radiations. 4: the energy. 5: nuclear energy: fusion and fission. 6: the operation of a nuclear reactor. 7: the nuclear fuel cycle; 1: l'atome. 2: la radioactivite. 3: l'homme et les rayonnements. 4: l'energie. 5: l'energie nucleaire: fusion et fission. 6: le fonctionnement d'un reacteur nucleaire. 7: le cycle du combustible nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This series of 7 digest booklets present the bases of the nuclear physics and of the nuclear energy: 1 - the atom (structure of matter, chemical elements and isotopes, the four fundamental interactions, nuclear physics); 2 - radioactivity (definition, origins of radioelements, applications of radioactivity); 3 - man and radiations (radiations diversity, biological effects, radioprotection, examples of radiation applications); 4 - energy (energy states, different forms of energy, characteristics); 5 - nuclear energy: fusion and fission (nuclear energy release, thermonuclear fusion, nuclear fission and chain reaction); 6 - operation of a nuclear reactor (nuclear fission, reactor components, reactor types); 7 - nuclear fuel cycle (nuclear fuel preparation, fuel consumption, reprocessing, wastes management). (J.S.)

  4. Energy by nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buende, R.; Daenner, W.; Herold, H.; Raeder, J.

    1976-12-01

    This report reviews the state of knowledge in a number of fields of fusion research up to autumn 1976. Section 1 gives a very brief presentation of the elementary fusion reactions, the energies delivered by them and the most basic energy balances leading to Lawson-type diagrams. Section 2 outlines the reserves and cost of lithium and deuterium, gives estimates of the total energy available from DT fusion and comments on production technology, availlability and handling of the fuels. In section 3 a survey is given of the different concepts of magnetic confinement (stellarators, tokamaks, toroidal pinches, mirror machines, two-component plasmas), of confinement by walls, gas blankets and imploding liners and, finally, of the concepts of interial confinement (laser fusion, beam fusion). The reactors designed or outlined on the basis of the tokamak, high-β, mirror, and laser fusion concepts are presented in section 4, which is followed in section 5 by a discussion of the key problems of fusion power plants. The present-day knowledge of the cost structure of fusion power plants and the sensitivity of this structure with respect to the physical and technical assumptions made is analysed in section 6. Section 7 and 8 treat the aspects of safety and environment. The problems discussed include the hazard potentials of different designs (radiological, toxicological, and with respect to stored energies), release of radioactivity, possible kinds of malfunctioning, and the environmental impact of waste heat, radiation and radioactive waste (orig.) [de

  5. Plasma nuclear fusion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Shunpei; Miyanaga, Shoji; Wakaizumi, Kazuhiro; Takemura, Yasuhiko.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear fusion reactions are attained by plasma gas phase reactions using magnetic fields and microwaves, and the degree of the reactions is controlled. That is, deuterium (D 2 ) is introduced into a plasma container by utilizing the resonance of microwaves capable of generating plasmas at high density higher by more than 10 - 10 3 times as compared with the high frequency and magnetic fields, and an electric energy is applied to convert gaseous D 2 into plasmas and nuclear fusion is conducted. Further, the deuterium ions in the plasmas are attracted to a surface of a material causing nuclear fusion under a negatively biased electric field from the outside (typically represented by Pd or Ti). Then, deuterium nuclei (d) or deuterium ions collide to the surface of the cathode on the side of palladium to conduct nuclear reaction at the surface or the inside (vicinity) thereof. However, a DC bias is applied as an external bias with the side of the palladium being negative. The cold nuclear fusion was demonstrated by placing a neutron counter in the vicinity of the container and confirming neutrons generated there. (I.S.)

  6. Nuclear Fusion with Polarized Nucleons & PolFusion

    CERN Document Server

    Engels, Ralf; Büscher, Markus; Vasilyev, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This book offers a detailed examination of the latest work on the potential of polarized fuel to realize the vision of energy production by nuclear fusion. It brings together contributions from nuclear physicists and fusion physicists with the aims of fostering exchange of information between the two communities, describing the current status in the field, and examining new ideas and projects under development. It is evident that polarized fuel can offer huge improvements for the first generation of fusion reactors and open new technological possibilities for future generations, including neutron lean reactors, which could be the most popular and sustainable energy production option to avoid environmental problems. Nevertheless, many questions must be resolved before polarized fuel can be used for energy production in the different reactor types. Readers will find this book to be a stimulating source of information on the key issues. It is based on contributions from leading scientists delivered at the meetin...

  7. Challenges of nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunkel, W.B.

    1987-01-01

    After 30 years of research and development in many countries, the magnetic confinement fusion experiments finally seem to be getting close to the original first goal: the point of ''scientific break-even''. Plans are being made for a generation of experiments and tests with actual controlled thermonuclear fusion conditions. Therefore engineers and material scientists are hard at work to develop the required technology. In this paper the principal elements of a generic fusion reactor are described briefly to introduce the reader to the nature of the problems at hand. The main portion of the presentation summarises the recent advances made in this field and discusses the major issues that still need to be addressed in regard to materials and technology for fusion power. Specific examples are the problems of the first wall and other components that come into direct contact with the plasma, where both lifetime and plasma contamination are matters of concern. Equally challenging are the demands on structural materials and on the magnetic-field coils, particularly in connection with the neutron-radiation environment of fusion reactors. Finally, the role of ceramics must be considered, both for insulators and for fuel breeding purposes. It is evident that we still have a formidable task before us, but at this point none of the problems seem to be insoluble. (author)

  8. Nuclear fusion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dow, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    The invention pertains to the method and apparatus for the confining of a stream of fusible positive ions at values of density and high average kinetic energy, primarily of tightly looping motions, to produce nuclear fusion at a useful rate; more or less intimately mixed with the fusible ions will be lowerenergy electrons at about equal density, introduced solely for the purpose of neutralizing the positive space charge of the ions

  9. Canadian fusion fuels technology project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project was launched in 1982 to coordinate Canada's provision of fusion fuels technology to international fusion power development programs. The project has a mandate to extend and adapt existing Canadian tritium technologies for use in international fusion power development programs. 1985-86 represents the fourth year of the first five-year term of the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project (CFFTP). This reporting period coincides with an increasing trend in global fusion R and D to direct more effort towards the management of tritium. This has resulted in an increased linking of CFFTP activities and objectives with those of facilities abroad. In this way there has been a continuing achievement resulting from CFFTP efforts to have cooperative R and D and service activities with organizations abroad. All of this is aided by the cooperative international atmosphere within the fusion community. This report summarizes our past year and provides some highlights of the upcoming year 1986/87, which is the final year of the first five-year phase of the program. AECL (representing the Federal Government), the Ministry of Energy (representing Ontario) and Ontario Hydro, have given formal indication of their intent to continue with a second five-year program. Plans for the second phase will continue to emphasize tritium technology and remote handling

  10. Nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scurr, I.F.; Silver, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization maintains an ongoing assessment of the world's nuclear technology developments, as a core activity of its Strategic Plan. This publication reviews the current status of the nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle in Australia and around the world. Main issues discussed include: performances and economics of various types of nuclear reactors, uranium resources and requirements, fuel fabrication and technology, radioactive waste management. A brief account of the large international effort to demonstrate the feasibility of fusion power is also given. 11 tabs., ills

  11. Fuel cycle for a fusion neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananyev, S. S.; Spitsyn, A. V.; Kuteev, B. V.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of a tokamak-based stationary fusion neutron source (FNS) for scientific research (neutron diffraction, etc.), tests of structural materials for future fusion reactors, nuclear waste transmutation, fission reactor fuel production, and control of subcritical nuclear systems (fusion-fission hybrid reactor) is being developed in Russia. The fuel cycle system is one of the most important systems of FNS that provides circulation and reprocessing of the deuterium-tritium fuel mixture in all fusion reactor systems: the vacuum chamber, neutral injection system, cryogenic pumps, tritium purification system, separation system, storage system, and tritium-breeding blanket. The existing technologies need to be significantly upgraded since the engineering solutions adopted in the ITER project can be only partially used in the FNS (considering the capacity factor higher than 0.3, tritium flow up to 200 m3Pa/s, and temperature of reactor elements up to 650°C). The deuterium-tritium fuel cycle of the stationary FNS is considered. The TC-FNS computer code developed for estimating the tritium distribution in the systems of FNS is described. The code calculates tritium flows and inventory in tokamak systems (vacuum chamber, cryogenic pumps, neutral injection system, fuel mixture purification system, isotope separation system, tritium storage system) and takes into account tritium loss in the fuel cycle due to thermonuclear burnup and β decay. For the two facility versions considered, FNS-ST and DEMO-FNS, the amount of fuel mixture needed for uninterrupted operation of all fuel cycle systems is 0.9 and 1.4 kg, consequently, and the tritium consumption is 0.3 and 1.8 kg per year, including 35 and 55 g/yr, respectively, due to tritium decay.

  12. Muon nuclear fusion and low temperature nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamine, Kanetada

    1990-01-01

    Low temperature (or normal temperature) nuclear fusion is one of the phenomena causing nuclear fusion without requiring high temperature. In thermal nuclear fusion, the Coulomb barrier is overcome with the help of thermal energy, but in the low temperature nuclear fusion, the Coulomb barrier is neutralized by the introduction of the particles having larger mass than electrons and negative charges, at this time, if two nuclei can approach to the distance of 10 -13 cm in the neutral state, the occurrence of nuclear fusion reaction is expected. As the mass of the particles is heavier, the neutral region is smaller, and nuclear fusion is easy to occur. The particles to meet this purpose are the electrons within substances and muons. The research on muon nuclear fusion became suddenly active in the latter half of 1970s, the cause of which was the discovery of the fact that the formation of muons occurs resonantly rapidly in D-T and D-D systems. Muons are the unstable elementary particles having the life of 2.2 μs, and they can have positive and negative charges. In the muon catalyzed fusion, the muons with negative charge take part. The principle of the muon catalyzed fusion, its present status and future perspective, and the present status of low temperature nuclear fusion are reported. (K.I.)

  13. Fuel and nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prunier, C.

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear fuel is studied in detail, the best choice and why in relation with the type of reactor, the properties of the fuel cans, the choice of fuel materials. An important part is granted to the fuel assembly of PWR type reactor and the performances of nuclear fuels are tackled. The different subjects for research and development are discussed and this article ends with the particular situation of mixed oxide fuels ( materials, behavior, efficiency). (N.C.)

  14. On the role of fusion neutron source with thorium blanket in forming the nuclide composition of the nuclear fuel cycle of the Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmelev, A. N.; Kulikov, G. G., E-mail: ggkulikov@mephi.ru [National Research Nuclear University (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The possible role of available thorium resources of the Russian Federation in utilization of thorium in the closed (U–Pu)-fuel cycle of nuclear power is considered. The efficiency of application of fusion neutron sources with thorium blanket for economical use of available thorium resources is demonstrated. The objective of this study is the search for a solution of such major tasks of nuclear power as reduction of the amount of front-end operations in the nuclear fuel cycle and enhancement of its protection against uncontrolled proliferation of fissile materials with the smallest possible alterations in the fuel cycle. The earlier results are analyzed, new information on the amount of thorium resources of the Russian Federation is used, and additional estimates are made. The following basic results obtained on the basis of the assumption of involving fusion reactors with Th-blanket in future nuclear power for generation of the light uranium fraction {sup 232+233+234}U and {sup 231}Pa are formulated. (1) The fuel cycle would shift from fissile {sup 235}U to {sup 233}U, which is more attractive for thermal power reactors. (2) The light uranium fraction is the most “protected” in the uranium fuel component, and being mixed with regenerated uranium, it would become reduced-enrichment uranium fuel, which would relieve the problem of nonproliferation of the fissile material. (3) The addition of {sup 231}Pa into the fuel would stabilize its neutron-multiplying properties, thus making it possible to implement a long fuel residence time and, as a consequence, increase the export potential of the whole nuclear power technology. (4) The available thorium resource in the vicinity of Krasnoufimsk is sufficient for operation of the large-scale nuclear power industry of the Russian Federation with an electric power of 70 GW for more than one quarter of a century. The general conclusion is that involvement of a small number of fusion reactors with Th-blanket in the future

  15. Prospect of realizing nuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This Report describes the results of the research work on nuclear fusion, which CRIEPI has carried out for about ten years from the standpoint of electric power utilities, potential user of its energy. The principal points are; (a) economic analysis (calculation of costs) based on Japanese analysis procedures and database of commercial fusion reactors, including fusion-fission hybrid reactors, and (b) conceptual design of two types of hybrid reactors, that is, fission-fuel producing DMHR (Demonstration Molten-Salt Hybrid Reactor) and electric-power producing THPR (Tokamak Hybrid Power Reactor). The Report consists of the following chapters: 1. Introduction. 2. Conceptual Design of Hybrid Reactors. 3. Economic Analysis of Commercial Fusion Reactors. 4. Basic Studies Applicable Also to Nuclear Fusion Technology. 5. List of Published Reports and Papers; 6. Conclusion. Appendices. (author)

  16. Cell fusion and nuclear fusion in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Daisuke; Ohtsu, Mina; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2016-12-01

    Eukaryotic cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane and have a large nucleus containing the genomic DNA, which is enclosed by a nuclear envelope consisting of the outer and inner nuclear membranes. Although these membranes maintain the identity of cells, they sometimes fuse to each other, such as to produce a zygote during sexual reproduction or to give rise to other characteristically polyploid tissues. Recent studies have demonstrated that the mechanisms of plasma membrane or nuclear membrane fusion in plants are shared to some extent with those of yeasts and animals, despite the unique features of plant cells including thick cell walls and intercellular connections. Here, we summarize the key factors in the fusion of these membranes during plant reproduction, and also focus on "non-gametic cell fusion," which was thought to be rare in plant tissue, in which each cell is separated by a cell wall. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fuel cycle for a fusion neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananyev, S. S., E-mail: Ananyev-SS@nrcki.ru; Spitsyn, A. V., E-mail: spitsyn-av@nrcki.ru; Kuteev, B. V., E-mail: Kuteev-BV@nrcki.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The concept of a tokamak-based stationary fusion neutron source (FNS) for scientific research (neutron diffraction, etc.), tests of structural materials for future fusion reactors, nuclear waste transmutation, fission reactor fuel production, and control of subcritical nuclear systems (fusion–fission hybrid reactor) is being developed in Russia. The fuel cycle system is one of the most important systems of FNS that provides circulation and reprocessing of the deuterium–tritium fuel mixture in all fusion reactor systems: the vacuum chamber, neutral injection system, cryogenic pumps, tritium purification system, separation system, storage system, and tritium-breeding blanket. The existing technologies need to be significantly upgraded since the engineering solutions adopted in the ITER project can be only partially used in the FNS (considering the capacity factor higher than 0.3, tritium flow up to 200 m{sup 3}Pa/s, and temperature of reactor elements up to 650°C). The deuterium–tritium fuel cycle of the stationary FNS is considered. The TC-FNS computer code developed for estimating the tritium distribution in the systems of FNS is described. The code calculates tritium flows and inventory in tokamak systems (vacuum chamber, cryogenic pumps, neutral injection system, fuel mixture purification system, isotope separation system, tritium storage system) and takes into account tritium loss in the fuel cycle due to thermonuclear burnup and β decay. For the two facility versions considered, FNS-ST and DEMO-FNS, the amount of fuel mixture needed for uninterrupted operation of all fuel cycle systems is 0.9 and 1.4 kg, consequently, and the tritium consumption is 0.3 and 1.8 kg per year, including 35 and 55 g/yr, respectively, due to tritium decay.

  18. Results of nuclear fusion development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Kenzo

    1975-01-01

    Compared with the nuclear fission research which followed that in advanced countries, Japan has treaded on its own track in nuclear fusion development; in the former, she had been far behind other leading countries. Characteristic of the efforts in Japan is the collaboration with educational institutions. Works are now carried out mainly in Tokamak plasma confinement, though other means being studied simultaneously. The nation's fusion research program is the realization of a fusion reactor at the turn of the present century, based on the world-level results attained with Tokamak. Past developments in the nuclear fusion research, the current status, and aspects for the future are discribed. (Mori, K.)

  19. Alternate fusion fuels workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    The workshop was organized to focus on a specific confinement scheme: the tokamak. The workshop was divided into two parts: systems and physics. The topics discussed in the systems session were narrowly focused on systems and engineering considerations in the tokamak geometry. The workshop participants reviewed the status of system studies, trade-offs between d-t and d-d based reactors and engineering problems associated with the design of a high-temperature, high-field reactor utilizing advanced fuels. In the physics session issues were discussed dealing with high-beta stability, synchrotron losses and transport in alternate fuel systems. The agenda for the workshop is attached

  20. Cold nuclear fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsyganov, E.N., E-mail: edward.tsyganov@coldfusion-power.com [Cold Fusion Power, International (United States); Bavizhev, M.D. [LLC “Radium”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Buryakov, M.G. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Dabagov, S.B. [RAS P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninsky pr. 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Kashirskoe shosse 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Golovatyuk, V.M.; Lobastov, S.P. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    If target deuterium atoms were implanted in a metal crystal in accelerator experiments, a sharp increase in the probability of DD-fusion reaction was clearly observed when compared with the reaction’s theoretical value. The electronic screening potential, which for a collision of free deuterium atoms is about 27 eV, reached 300–700 eV in the case of the DD-fusion in metallic crystals. These data leads to the conclusion that a ban must exist for deuterium atoms to be in the ground state 1s in a niche filled with free conduction electrons. At the same time, the state 2p whose energy level is only 10 eV above that of state 1s is allowed in these conditions. With anisotropy of 2p, 3p or above orbitals, their spatial positions are strictly determined in the lattice coordinate system. When filling out the same potential niches with two deuterium atoms in the states 2p, 3p or higher, the nuclei of these atoms can be permanently positioned without creating much Coulomb repulsion at a very short distance from each other. In this case, the transparency of the potential barrier increases dramatically compared to the ground state 1s for these atoms. The probability of the deuterium nuclei penetrating the Coulomb barrier by zero quantum vibration of the DD-system also increases dramatically. The so-called cold nuclear DD-fusion for a number of years was registered in many experiments, however, was still rejected by mainstream science for allegedly having no consistent scientific explanation. Finally, it received the validation. Below, we outline the concept of this explanation and give the necessary calculations. This paper also considers the further destiny of the formed intermediate state of {sup 4}He{sup ∗}.

  1. Nuclear fusion apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizawa, Teruhiro.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To provide a nuclear fusion apparatus which can make a disorderly magnetic field due to shell current as small as possible, thereby enhancing efficiency. Structure: On each divided end of each shell is integrally projected an auxiliary shell which has thick greater than the other portion of shell. These auxiliary shells are made of a material of high electric conductivity, and the shape of the auxiliary shells may properly be selected so that electric resistance of the auxiliary shell at the divided end of the shell to the shell current may be made smaller than the electric resistance of intermediate of the shell to the shell current. With this, the shell current is concentrated on the auxiliary shell at the divided end of the shell to form an adjacent reciprocating current between it and the shell current opposite the auxiliary shell, thus reducing the disorderly magnetic field. (Yoshihara, H.)

  2. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinauk, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Since 1985, Fragema has been marketing and selling the Advanced Fuel Assemby AFA whose main features are its zircaloy grids and removable top and bottom nozzles. It is this product, which exists for several different fuel assembly arrays and heights, that will be employed in the reactors at Daya Bay. Fragema employs gadolinium as the consumable poison to enable highperformance fuel management. More recently, the company has supplied fuel assemblies of the mixed-oxide(MOX) and enriched reprocessed uranium type. The reliability level of the fuel sold by Fragema is one of the highest in the world, thanks in particular to the excellence of the quality assurance and quality control programs that have been implemented at all stages of its design and manufacture

  3. Nuclear fusion apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Daizaburo; Yamada, Masao.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To provide a nuclear fusion apparatus in which a magnetic limiter is disposed within a vacuum vessel, said magnetic limiter being supported in such a manner so as to not to exert mechanical action upon said vacuum vessel, thereby minimizing a force applied to the vacuum vessel to easily manufacture the vacuum vessel. Structure: The magnetic limiter disposed within the vacuum vessel is connected to one end of a supporting post which extends through the wall of the vacuum vessel through a seal portion, the other end of the supporting post being secured to a structure such as a house outside the vacuum vessel. The seal portion comprises a bellows of high spring elasticity mounted on the vacuum vessel and a seal element comprised of an electric insulator such as ceramic for connecting the bellows to the supporting post, the supporting post extending through the wall of the vacuum vessel in vacuum-tight fashion, the force applied to the magnetic limiter exerting no influence upon the vacuum vessel. (Kamimura, M.)

  4. Nuclear fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinghee, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    In this chapter, fusion is compared with other inexhaustible energy sources. Research is currently being conducted both within and outside the USA. The current confinement principles of thermonuclear reactions are reveiwed with the discussion of economics mainly focusing on the magnetic confinement concepts. Environmental, health and safety factors are of great concern to the public and measures are being taken to address them. The magnetic fusion program logic and the inertial fusion program logic are compared

  5. Progress of laser nuclear fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraga, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the principle and features of nuclear fusion using laser, as well as its basic concepts such as high-temperature / high-density implosion system and fast ignition of fuel. At present, researches aiming at nuclear fusion ignition have been developing. As the current state of researches, this paper reviews the situations of FIREX (Fast Ignition Realization Experiment) project of Japan focusing on direct irradiation implosion and fast ignition system, as well as NIF (National Ignition Facility) project of the U.S. aiming at ignition combustion based on indirect irradiation implosion and central ignition system. In collaboration with the National Institute for Fusion Science, Osaka University started FIREX-1 project in 2003. It built a heating laser LFEX of 10 kJ/1 to 10ps, and started an implosion/heating integration experiment in 2009. Currently, it is developing experiment to achieve heating to 5 keV. At NIF, the self-heating of central sparks via energy of α particles generated in the nuclear fusion reaction has been realized. This paper also overviews R and D issues surrounding the lasers for reactors for use in laser nuclear fusion power generators. (A.O.)

  6. Nuclear fusion: The issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    The taming of fusion energy, has proved one of the most elusive quests of modern science. For four decades, the United States has doggedly pursued energy's holy grail, pumping more than $9 billion into research and reactor prototypes. This year, the federal government is slated to spend $339 million on fusion, more than the combined amount the government will spend for research on oil, natural gas, solar power, wind power, geothermal energy, biofuels and conservation. This article summarizes the technical, political in terms of international cooperation, economic, planning, etc. issues surrounding the continued development of fusion as a possible power source for the next century. Brief descriptions of how fusion works and of the design of a tokamak fusion machine are included

  7. Nuclear hydrogen production: re-examining the fusion option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baindur, S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a scheme for nuclear hydrogen production by fusion. The basic idea is to use nuclear energy of the fuel (hydrogen plasma) to produce molecular hydrogen fro carbon-free hydrogen compounds. The hydrogen is then stored and utilized electrochemically in fuel cells or chemically as molecular hydrogen in internal combustion engines

  8. Chemical engineering side of nuclear fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.F.

    1976-10-01

    It is widely recognized that chemical engineering has important roles to play in the development of national and world wide energy resources through optimal utilization of fossil fuel reserves. It is much less appreciated that there are crucial chemical engineering problems in the development of energy production from other sources. In particular the successful development of nuclear fusion power generating systems will require the solution of many problems that are uniquely suited to chemical engineers. This article presents a brief overview of the fusion development program and an identification of the major technological problems remaining to be solved

  9. Fuel cycle problems in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    Fuel cycle problems of fusion reactors evolve around the breeding, recovery, containment, and recycling of tritium. These processes are described, and their implications and alternatives are discussed. Technically, fuel cycle problems are solvable; economically, their feasibility is not yet known

  10. Nuclear fuel preheating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrea, C.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear reactor new fuel handling system which conveys new fuel from a fuel preparation room into the reactor containment boundary is described. The handling system is provided with a fuel preheating station which is adaptd to heat the new fuel to reactor refueling temperatures in such a way that the fuel is heated from the top down so that fuel element cladding failure due to thermal expansions is avoided. (U.S.)

  11. Hybrid fission-fusion nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchetti, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    A fusion-fission hybrid could contribute to all components of nuclear power - fuel supply, electricity production, and waste management. The idea of the fusion-fission hybrid is many decades old. Several ideas, both new and revisited, have been investigated by hybrid proponents. These ideas appear to have attractive features, but they require various levels of advances in plasma science and fusion and nuclear technology. As a first step towards the development of hybrid reactors, fusion neutron sources can be considered as an option. Compact high-field tokamaks can be a candidate for being the neutron source in a fission-fusion hybrid, essentially due to their design characteristics, such as compact dimensions, high magnetic field, flexibility of operation. This study presents the development of a tokamak neutron source for a material testing facility using an Ignitor-based concept. The computed values show the potential of this neutron-rich device for fusion materials testing. Some full-power months of operation are sufficient to obtain relevant radiation damage values in terms of dpa. (Author)

  12. Chemistry in and from nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, M.

    1989-01-01

    The time, of the realization of nuclear fusion reactor is not clear even now. However, it is generally believed that the nuclear fusion is only one candidate of the big power source for humanbeing. We may be not able to, but our children or grandchildren would be able to see the nuclear fusion reactors. The nuclear fusion development may be the last and biggest technology program for us, so it will take so long leading time. Now, we are in the first stage of this leading time, I think. As being found in the history of every technology, chemistry is essential to develop the fusion nuclear technology. To assure the safety of the nuclear fusion system, chemistry should play the main role. There have been already not a few advanced chemistry initiated by the connected technologies with the nuclear fusion researches. The nuclear fusion needs chemistry and the nuclear fusion leads some of the new phases of chemistry. (author)

  13. Romanian nuclear fuel program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budan, O.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents and comments the policy adopted in Romania for the production of CANDU-6 nuclear fuel before and after 1990. The CANDU-6 nuclear fuel manufacturing started in Romania in December 1983. Neither AECL nor any Canadian nuclear fuel manufacturer were involved in the Romanian industrial nuclear fuel production before 1990. After January 1990, the new created Romanian Electricity Authority (RENEL) assumed the responsibility for the Romanian Nuclear Power Program. It was RENEL's decision to stop, in June 1990, the nuclear fuel production at the Institute for Nuclear Power Reactors (IRNE) Pitesti. This decision was justified by the Canadian specialists team findings, revealed during a general, but well enough technically founded analysis performed at IRNE in the spring of 1990. All fuel manufactured before June 1990 was quarantined as it was considered of suspect quality. By that time more than 31,000 fuel bundles had already been manufactured. This fuel was stored for subsequent assessment. The paper explains the reasons which provoked this decision. The paper also presents the strategy adopted by RENEL after 1990 regarding the Romanian Nuclear Fuel Program. After a complex program done by Romanian and Canadian partners, in November 1994, AECL issued a temporary certification for the Romanian nuclear fuel plant. During the demonstration manufacturing run, as an essential milestone for the qualification of the Romanian fuel supplier for CANDU-6 reactors, 202 fuel bundles were produced. Of these fuel bundles, 66 were part of the Cernavoda NGS Unit 1 first fuel load (the balance was supplied by Zircatec Precision Industries Inc. ZPI). The industrial nuclear fuel fabrication re-started in Romania in January 1995 under AECL's periodical monitoring. In December 1995, AECL issued a permanent certificate, stating the Romanian nuclear fuel plant as a qualified and authorised CANDU-6 fuel supplier. The re-loading of the Cernavoda NGS Unit 1 started in the middle

  14. Nuclear fuel lease accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielson, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    The subject of nuclear fuel lease accounting is a controversial one that has received much attention over the years. This has occurred during a period when increasing numbers of utilities, seeking alternatives to traditional financing methods, have turned to leasing their nuclear fuel inventories. The purpose of this paper is to examine the current accounting treatment of nuclear fuel leases as prescribed by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC's) Uniform System of Accounts. Cost accounting for leased nuclear fuel during the fuel cycle is also discussed

  15. The Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-08-01

    This brochure describes the nuclear fuel cycle, which is an industrial process involving various activities to produce electricity from uranium in nuclear power reactors. The cycle starts with the mining of uranium and ends with the disposal of nuclear waste. The raw material for today's nuclear fuel is uranium. It must be processed through a series of steps to produce an efficient fuel for generating electricity. Used fuel also needs to be taken care of for reuse and disposal. The nuclear fuel cycle includes the 'front end', i.e. preparation of the fuel, the 'service period' in which fuel is used during reactor operation to generate electricity, and the 'back end', i.e. the safe management of spent nuclear fuel including reprocessing and reuse and disposal. If spent fuel is not reprocessed, the fuel cycle is referred to as an 'open' or 'once-through' fuel cycle; if spent fuel is reprocessed, and partly reused, it is referred to as a 'closed' nuclear fuel cycle.

  16. Concepts for fusion fuel production blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierszewski, P.

    1986-06-01

    The fusion blanket surrounds the burning hydrogen core of the fusion reactor. It is in this blanket that most of the energy released by the DT fusion reaction is converted into useable product, and where tritium fuel is produced to enable further operation of the reactor. Blankets will involve new materials, conditions and processes. Several recent fusion blanket concepts are presented to illustrate the range of ideas

  17. Nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Keiichi

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the tensile stresses resulted in a fuel can as well as prevent decladding of fuel pellets into the bore holes by decreasing the inner pressure within the nuclear fuel element. Constitution: A fuel can is filled with hollow fuel pellets, inserted with a spring for retaining the hollow fuel pellets with an appropriate force and, thereafter, closely sealed at the both ends with end plugs. A cylindrical body is disposed into the bore holes of the hollow fuel pellets. Since initial sealing gases and/or gaseous nuclear fission products can thus be excluded from the bore holes where the temperature is at the highest level, the inner pressure of the nuclear fuel element can be reduced to decrease the tensile strength resulted to the fuel can. Furthermore, decladding of fuel pellets into the bore holes can be prevented. (Moriyama, K.)

  18. Confinement inertial fusion. Power reactors of nuclear fusion by lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velarde, G.; Ahnert, C.; Aragones, J.M.; Leira, G; Martinez-Val, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The energy crisis and the need of the nuclear fusion energy are analized. The nuclear processes in the laser interation with the ablator material are studied, as well as the thermohydrodinamic processes in the implossion, and the neutronics of the fusion. The fusion reactor components are described and the economic and social impact of its introduction in the future energetic strategies.(author)

  19. Nuclear fuel replacement device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritz, W.C.; Robey, R.M.; Wett, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    A fuel handling arrangement for a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a single rotating plug eccentric to the fuel core and a fuel handling machine radially movable along a slot in the plug with a transfer station disposed outside the fuel core but covered by the eccentric plug and within range of movement of said fuel handling machine to permit transfer of fuel assemblies between the core and the transfer station. (author)

  20. Controlled nuclear fusion apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussard, R.W.; Coppi, B.

    1982-01-01

    A fusion power generating device is disclosed having a relatively small and inexpensive core region which may be contained within an energy absorbing blanket region. The fusion power core region contains apparatus of the toroidal type for confining a high density plasma. The fusion power core is removable from the blanket region and may be disposed and/or recycled for subsequent use within the same blanket region. Thermonuclear ignition of the plasma is obtained by feeding neutral fusible gas into the plasma in a controlled manner such that charged particle heating produced by the fusion reaction is utilized to bootstrap the device to a region of high temperatures and high densities wherein charged particle heating is sufficient to overcome radiation and thermal conductivity losses. The high density plasma produces a large radiation and particle flux on the first wall of the plasma core region thereby necessitating replacement of the core from the blanket region from time to time. A series of potentially disposable and replaceable central core regions are disclosed for a large-scale economical electrical power generating plant

  1. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    An array of rods comprising zirconium alloy sheathed nuclear fuel pellets assembled to form a fuel element for a pressurised water reactor is claimed. The helium gas pressure within each rod differs substantially from that of its closest neighbours

  2. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, E.D.

    1984-01-01

    The fuel elements for a pressurised water reactor comprise arrays of rods of zirconium alloy sheathed nuclear fuel pellets. The helium gas pressure within each rod differs substantially from that of its closest neighbours

  3. Fusion: an energy source for synthetic fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.A.; Powell, J; Steinberg, M.

    1980-01-01

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and supplement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of approx. 50 to 70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion

  4. Nuclear fuel accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisch, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    After a nuclear power plant has started commercial operation the actual nuclear fuel costs have to be demonstrated in the rate making procedure. For this purpose an accounting system has to be developed which comprises the following features: 1) All costs associated with nuclear fuel shall be correctly recorded; 2) it shall be sufficiently flexible to cover also deviations from proposed core loading patterns; 3) it shall be applicable to different fuel cycle schemes. (orig./RW) [de

  5. Fusion-supported decentralized nuclear energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jassby, D.L.

    1979-04-01

    A decentralized nuclear energy system is proposed comprising mass-produced pressurized water reactors in the size range 10 to 300 MW (thermal), to be used for the production of process heat, space heat, and electricity in applications where petroleum and natural gas are presently used. Special attention is given to maximizing the refueling interval with no interim batch shuffling in order to minimize fuel transport, reactor downtime, and opportunity for fissile diversion. These objectives demand a substantial fissile enrichment (7 to 15%). The preferred fissile fuel is U-233, which offers an order of magnitude savings in ore requirements (compared with U-235 fuel), and whose higher conversion ratio in thermal reactors serves to extend the period of useful reactivity and relieve demand on the fissile breeding plants (compared with Pu-239 fuel). Application of the neutral-beam-driven tokamak fusion-neutron source to a U-233 breeding pilot plant is examined. This scheme can be extended in part to a decentralized fusion energy system, wherein remotely located large fusion reactors supply excess tritium to a distributed system of relatively small nonbreeding D-T reactors

  6. The nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    After a short introduction about nuclear power in the world, fission physics and the French nuclear power plants, this brochure describes in a digest way the different steps of the nuclear fuel cycle: uranium prospecting, mining activity, processing of uranium ores and production of uranium concentrates (yellow cake), uranium chemistry (conversion of the yellow cake into uranium hexafluoride), fabrication of nuclear fuels, use of fuels, reprocessing of spent fuels (uranium, plutonium and fission products), recycling of energetic materials, and storage of radioactive wastes. (J.S.)

  7. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. A heat conducting fission product retaining metal liner of a refractory metal is incorporated in the fuel element between the cladding and the nuclear fuel to inhibit mechanical interaction between the nuclear fuel and the cladding, to isolate fission products and nuclear fuel impurities from contacting the cladding, and to improve the axial thermal peaking gradient along the length of the fuel rod. The metal liner can be in the form of a tube or hollow cylindrical column, a foil of single or multiple layers in the shape of a hollow cylindrical column, or a coating on the internal surface of the cladding. Preferred refractory metal materials are molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, niobium and alloys of the foregoing metals

  8. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.R.; Rowland, T.C.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. A heat conducting, fission product retaining metal liner of a refractory metal is incorporated in the fuel element between the cladding and the nuclear fuel to inhibit mechanical interaction between the nuclear fuel and the cladding, to isolate fission products and nuclear fuel impurities from contacting the cladding and to improve the axial thermal peaking gradient along the length of the fuel rod. The metal liner can be in the form of a tube or hollow cylindrical column, a foil of single or multiple layers in the shape of a hollow cylindrical column, or a coating on the internal surface of the cladding. Preferred refractory metal materials are molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, niobium and alloys of the foregoing metals

  9. Nuclear fusion - Inexhaustible source of energy for tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiser, M.; Demchenko, V.

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a general description of nuclear fusion as an energy option for the future and to clarify to some extent the various issues - scientific, technological, economic and environmental - which are likely to be relevant to controlled thermonuclear fusion. Section 1 describes the world energy problem and some advantages of nuclear fusion compared to other energy options. Sections 2 and 3 describe the fundamentals of fusion energy, plasma confinement, heating and technological aspects of fusion researches. Some plasma confinement schemes (tokamak, stellarator, inertial confinement fusion) are described. The main experimental results and parameter devices are cited to illustrate the state of the art as of 1989. Various engineering problems associated with reactor design, magnetic systems, materials, plasma purity, fueling, blankets, environment, economics and safety are discussed. A description of both bilateral and multilateral efforts in fusion research under the auspices of the IAEA is presented in Section 4. (author). 11 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  10. Nuclear Fusion prize laudation Nuclear Fusion prize laudation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, W.

    2011-01-01

    Clean energy in abundance will be of critical importance to the pursuit of world peace and development. As part of the IAEA's activities to facilitate the dissemination of fusion related science and technology, the journal Nuclear Fusion is intended to contribute to the realization of such energy from fusion. In 2010, we celebrated the 50th anniversary of the IAEA journal. The excellence of research published in the journal is attested to by its high citation index. The IAEA recognizes excellence by means of an annual prize awarded to the authors of papers judged to have made the greatest impact. On the occasion of the 2010 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon, Republic of Korea at the welcome dinner hosted by the city of Daejeon, we celebrated the achievements of the 2009 and 2010 Nuclear Fusion prize winners. Steve Sabbagh, from the Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York is the winner of the 2009 award for his paper: 'Resistive wall stabilized operation in rotating high beta NSTX plasmas' [1]. This is a landmark paper which reports record parameters of beta in a large spherical torus plasma and presents a thorough investigation of the physics of resistive wall mode (RWM) instability. The paper makes a significant contribution to the critical topic of RWM stabilization. John Rice, from the Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge is the winner of the 2010 award for his paper: 'Inter-machine comparison of intrinsic toroidal rotation in tokamaks' [2]. The 2010 award is for a seminal paper that analyzes results across a range of machines in order to develop a universal scaling that can be used to predict intrinsic rotation. This paper has already triggered a wealth of experimental and theoretical work. I congratulate both authors and their colleagues on these exceptional papers. W. Burkart Deputy Director General Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna

  11. Nuclear fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randol, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    The production of new fuel for a power plant reactor and its disposition following discharge from the power plant is usually referred to as the ''nuclear fuel cycle.'' The processing of fuel is cyclic in nature since sometime during a power plant's operation old or ''depleted'' fuel must be removed and new fuel inserted. For light water reactors this step typically occurs once every 12-18 months. Since the time required for mining of the raw ore to recovery of reusable fuel materials from discharged materials can span up to 8 years, the management of fuel to assure continuous power plant operation requires simultaneous handling of various aspects of several fuel cycles, for example, material is being mined for fuel to be inserted in a power plant 2 years into the future at the same time fuel is being reprocessed from a discharge 5 years prior. Important aspects of each step in the fuel production process are discussed

  12. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogard, J.H.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element is disclosed for use in power producing nuclear reactors, comprising a plurality of axially aligned ceramic cylindrical fuel bodies of the sintered type, and a cladding tube of metal or metal alloys, wherein said cladding tube on its cylindrical inner surface is provided with a plurality of slightly protruding spacing elements distributed over said inner surface

  13. Nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Status of different nuclear fuel cycle phases in 1992 is discussed including the following issues: uranium exploration, resources, supply and demand, production, market prices, conversion, enrichment; reactor fuel technology; spent fuel management, as well as trends of these phases development up to the year 2010. 10 refs, 11 figs, 15 tabs

  14. Nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Y.; Tashima, J.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of nuclear reactor fuel assemblies arranged in the form of a lattice wherein there is attached to the interface of one of two adjacent fuel assemblies a plate spring having a concave portion curved toward said interface and to the interface of the other fuel assembly a plate spring having a convex portion curved away from said interface

  15. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    A bimetallic spacer means is cooperatively associated with a nuclear fuel assembly and operative to resist the occurrence of in-reactor bowing of the nuclear fuel assembly. The bimetallic spacer means in one embodiment of the invention includes a space grid formed, at least principally, of zircaloy to the external surface of which are attached a plurality of stainless steel strips. In another embodiment the strips are attached to fuel pins. In each of the embodiments, the stainless steel strips during power production expand outwardly to a greater extent than do the members to which the stainless steel strips are attached, thereby forming stiff springs which abut against like bimetallic spacer means with which the other nuclear fuel assemblies are provided in a given nuclear reactor core to thus prevent the occurrence of in-reactor bowing of the nuclear fuel assemblies. (author)

  16. Nuclear fuel storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Takashi; Isaka, Shinji.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the spent fuel storage capacity and reduce the installation cost in a nuclear fuel storage facility. Constitution: Fuels handled in the nuclear fuel storage device of the present invention include the following four types: (1) fresh fuels, (2) 100 % reactor core charged fuels, (3) spent fuels just after taking out and (4) fuels after a certain period (for example one half-year) from taking out of the reactor. Reactivity is high for the fuels (1), and some of fuels (2), while low in the fuels (3) (4), Source intensity is strong for the fuels (3) and some of the fuels (2), while it is low for the fuels (1) and (4). Taking notice of the fact that the reactivity, radioactive source intensity and generated after heat are different in the respective fuels, the size of the pool and the storage capacity are increased by the divided storage control. While on the other hand, since the division is made in one identical pool, the control method becomes important, and the working range is restricted by means of a template, interlock, etc., the operation mode of the handling machine is divided into four, etc. for preventing errors. (Kamimura, M.)

  17. Radioactive waste management and advanced nuclear fuel cycle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    In 2007 ENEA's Department of Nuclear Fusion and Fission, and Related Technologies acted according to national policy and the role assigned to ENEA FPN by Law 257/2003 regarding radioactive waste management and advanced nuclear fuel cycle technologies

  18. Proliferation Resistant Nuclear Reactor Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Moody, K.J.; Bradley, K.S.; Lorenzana, H.E.

    2011-01-01

    Global appetite for fission power is projected to grow dramatically this century, and for good reason. Despite considerable research to identify new sources of energy, fission remains the most plentiful and practical alternative to fossil fuels. The environmental challenges of fossil fuel have made the fission power option increasingly attractive, particularly as we are forced to rely on reserves in ecologically fragile or politically unstable corners of the globe. Caught between a globally eroding fossil fuel reserve as well as the uncertainty and considerable costs in the development of fusion power, most of the world will most likely come to rely on fission power for at least the remainder of the 21st century. Despite inevitable growth, fission power faces enduring challenges in sustainability and security. One of fission power's greatest hurdles to universal acceptance is the risk of potential misuse for nefarious purposes of fissionable byproducts in spent fuel, such as plutonium. With this issue in mind, we have discussed intrinsic concepts in this report that are motivated by the premise that the utility, desirability, and applicability of nuclear materials can be reduced. In a general sense, the intrinsic solutions aim to reduce or eliminate the quantity of existing weapons usable material; avoid production of new weapons-usable material through enrichment, breeding, extraction; or employ engineering solutions to make the fuel cycle less useful or more difficult for producing weapons-usable material. By their nature, these schemes require modifications to existing fuel cycles. As such, the concomitants of these modifications require engagement from the nuclear reactor and fuel-design community to fully assess their effects. Unfortunately, active pursuit of any scheme that could further complicate the spread of domestic nuclear power will probably be understandably unpopular. Nevertheless, the nonproliferation and counterterrorism issues are paramount, and

  19. Nuclear fuel management in JMTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naka, Michihiro; Miyazawa, Masataka; Sato, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Fusao; Ito, Haruhiko

    1999-01-01

    The Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) is the largest scale materials (author)ted the fission gas release compared with the steady state opkW/l in Japan. JMTR as a multi-purpose reactor has been contributing to research and development on nuclear field with a wide variety of irradiation for performing engineering tests and safety research on fuel and component for light water reactor as well as fast breeder reactor, high temperature gas-cooled reactor etc., for research and development on blanket material for fusion reactor, for fundamental research, and for radio-isotope (RI) production. The driver nuclear fuel used in JMTR is aluminum based MTR type fuel. According to the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program, the JMTR fuel elements had been converted from 93% high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to 45% medium enriched uranium (MEU) fuel in 1986, and then to 20% low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel in 1994. The cumulative operation cycles until March 1999 reached to 127 cycles since the first criticality in 1968. JMTR has used 1,628 HEU, 688 MEU and 308 LEU fuel elements for these operation cycles. After these spent fuel elements were cooled in the JMTR water canal more than one year after discharged from the JMTR core, they had been transported to reprocessing plants in Europe, and then to plants in USA in order to extract the uranium remaining in the spent fuel. The JMTR spent fuel transportation for reprocessing had been continued until the end of 1988. However, USA had ceased spent fuel reprocessing in 1989, while USDOE committed to prepare an environmental review of the impacts of accepting spent fuels from foreign research reactors. After that, USDOE decided to implement a new acceptance policy in 1996, the spent fuel transportation from JMTR to Savannah River Site was commenced in 1997. It was the first transportation not only in Japan but in Asia also. Until resuming the transportation, the spent fuel elements stored in JMTR

  20. Fusion energy and nuclear liability considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fork, William E.; Peterson, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    For over 60 years, fusion energy has been recognised as a promising technology for safe, secure and environmentally-sustainable commercial electrical power generation. Over the past decade, research and development programmes across the globe have shown progress in developing critical underlying technologies. Approaches ranging from high-temperature plasma magnetic confinement fusion to inertial confinement fusion are increasingly better understood. As scientific research progresses in its aim to achieve fusion 'ignition', where nuclear fusion becomes self-sustaining, the international legal community should consider how fusion power technologies fit within the current nuclear liability legal framework. An understanding of the history of the civil nuclear liability regimes, along with the different risks associated with fusion power, will enable nations to consider the proper legal conditions needed to deploy and commercialise fusion technologies for civil power generation. This note is divided into three substantive parts. It first provides background regarding fusion power and describes the relatively limited risks of fusion technologies when compared with traditional nuclear fission technologies. It then describes the international nuclear liability regime and analyses how fusion power fits within the text of the three leading conventions. Finally, it examines how fusion power may fall within the international nuclear liability framework in the future, a discussion that includes possible amendments to the relevant international liability conventions. It concludes that the unique nature of the current civil nuclear liability regime points towards the development of a more tailored liability solution because of the reduced risks associated with fusion power. (authors)

  1. Nuclear fuel activities in Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bairiot, H

    1997-12-01

    In his presentation on nuclear fuel activities in belgium the author considers the following directions of this work: fuel fabrication, NPP operation, fuel performance, research and development programmes.

  2. State of controlled nuclear fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigo, A.B.

    1978-04-01

    The development of a commercial fusion reactor requires an adequate solution to the problems of heating and confinement of the nuclear fuel, as well as a considerable effort in materials technology and reactor engineering. A general discussion is presented of the status of the research connected with the most advanced concepts, indicating in each case the present situation and the main problems that must be solved to meet the requeriments estimated for power reactors. In particular, the laser-inertial concept is reviewed in detail. (author) [es

  3. Boosting nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demarthon, F.; Donnars, O.; Dupuy-Maury, F.

    2002-01-01

    This dossier gives a broad overview of the present day status of the nuclear fuel cycle in France: 1 - the revival of nuclear power as a solution to the global warming and to the increase of worldwide energy needs; 2 - the security of uranium supplies thanks to the reuse of weapon grade highly enriched uranium; 3 - the fabrication of nuclear fuels from the mining extraction to the enrichment processes, the fabrication of fuel pellets and the assembly of fuel rods; 4 - the new composition of present day fuels (UO x and chromium-doped pellets); 5 - the consumption of plutonium stocks and the Corail and Apa fuel assemblies for the reduction of plutonium stocks and the preservation of uranium resources. (J.S.)

  4. Nuclear fusion and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Taijiro

    1987-01-01

    Work for design, research and development is expected to start in 1988 for a new nuclear fusion reactor called ITER (international thermonuclear experimental reactor), which is to be constructed and operated through cooperation among Japan, U.S., Soviet Union and EC. Many talks and discussions concerning the work have been made on various occasions, including the Reagan-Gorbachev talks at Geneva in November 1985, 5th Fusion Working Group meeting in Germany in January 1986, extraordinary FWG meeting at Tokyo in February-March 1986, 11th International Conference on Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Control held under IAEA at Kyoto in November 1986, and first formal four-party (Japan, U.S., Soviet Union, EC) meeting at the IAEA headquarters in March this year. The ITER Technical Working Group was established and its first meeting was held on May 21 - 23, 1987. It was concluded in the meeting that the operation of ITER will be performed in two phases intended for nuclear combustion plasma physics studies and stationary operation, respectively. Major research and development activities carried out in the U.S., Europe, the Soviet Union, Japan and IAEA in connection with the development of ITER are outlined. (Nogami, K.)

  5. Fusion as a source of synthetic fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.R.; Fillo, J.A.; Steinberg, M.

    1981-01-01

    In the near-term, coal derived synthetic fuels will be used; but in the long-term, resource depletion and environmental effects will mandate synthetic fuels from inexhaustible sources - fission, fusion, and solar. Of the three sources, fusion appears uniquely suited for the efficient production of hydrogen-based fuels, due to its ability to directly generate very high process temperatures (up to approx. 2000 0 C) for water splitting reactions. Fusion-based water splitting reactions include high temperature electrolysis (HTE) of steam, thermochemical cycles, hybrid electrochemical/thermochemical, and direct thermal decomposition. HTE appears to be the simplest and most efficient process with efficiencies of 50 to 70% (fusion to hydrogen chemical energy), depending on process conditions

  6. Improved nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepfer, H.H.

    1974-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element is described which comprises: 1) an elongated clad container, 2) a layer of high lubricity material being disposed in and adjacent to the clad container, 3) a low neutron capture cross section metal liner being disposed in the clad container and adjacent to the layer, 4) a central core of a body of nuclear fuel material disposed in and partially filling the container and forming an internal cavity in the container, 5) an enclosure integrally secured and sealed at each end of the container, and a nuclear fuel material retaining means positioned in the cavity. (author)

  7. Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, Michael F.; Law, Jack D.

    2010-01-01

    This is a submission for the Encyclopedia of Sustainable Technology on the subject of Reprocessing Spent Nuclear Fuel. Nuclear reprocessing is the chemical treatment of spent fuel involving separation of its various constituents. Principally, it is used to recover useful actinides from the spent fuel. Radioactive waste that cannot be re-used is separated into streams for consolidation into waste forms. The first known application of nuclear reprocessing was within the Manhattan Project to recover material for nuclear weapons. Currently, reprocessing has a peaceful application in the nuclear fuel cycle. A variety of chemical methods have been proposed and demonstrated for reprocessing of nuclear fuel. The two most widely investigated and implemented methods are generally referred to as aqueous reprocessing and pyroprocessing. Each of these technologies is described in detail in Section 3 with numerous references to published articles. Reprocessing of nuclear fuel as part of a fuel cycle can be used both to recover fissionable actinides and to stabilize radioactive fission products into durable waste forms. It can also be used as part of a breeder reactor fuel cycle that could result in a 14-fold or higher increase in energy utilization per unit of natural uranium. Reprocessing can also impact the need for geologic repositories for spent fuel. The volume of waste that needs to be sent to such a repository can be reduced by first subjecting the spent fuel to reprocessing. The extent to which volume reduction can occur is currently under study by the United States Department of Energy via research at various national laboratories and universities. Reprocessing can also separate fissile and non-fissile radioactive elements for transmutation.

  8. Spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanato, Luiz Sergio

    2005-01-01

    When a country becomes self-sufficient in part of the nuclear cycle, as production of fuel that will be used in nuclear power plants for energy generation, it is necessary to pay attention for the best method of storing the spent fuel. Temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel is a necessary practice and is applied nowadays all over the world, so much in countries that have not been defined their plan for a definitive repository, as well for those that already put in practice such storage form. There are two main aspects that involve the spent fuels: one regarding the spent nuclear fuel storage intended to reprocessing and the other in which the spent fuel will be sent for final deposition when the definitive place is defined, correctly located, appropriately characterized as to several technical aspects, and licentiate. This last aspect can involve decades of studies because of the technical and normative definitions at a given country. In Brazil, the interest is linked with the storage of spent fuels that will not be reprocessed. This work analyses possible types of storage, the international panorama and a proposal for future construction of a spent nuclear fuel temporary storage place in the country. (author)

  9. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Seigoro.

    1994-01-01

    Ultrafine particles of a thermal neutron absorber showing ultraplasticity is dispersed in oxide ceramic fuels by more than 1% to 10% or lower. The ultrafine particles of the thermal neutron absorber showing ultrafine plasticity is selected from any one of ZrGd, HfEu, HfY, HfGd, ZrEu, and ZrY. The thermal neutron absorber is converted into ultrafine particles and solid-solubilized in a nuclear fuel pellet, so that the dispersion thereof into nuclear fuels is made uniform and an absorbing performance of the thermal neutrons is also made uniform. Moreover, the characteristics thereof, for example, physical properties such as expansion coefficient and thermal conductivity of the nuclear fuels are also improved. The neutron absorber, such as ZrGd or the like, can provide plasticity of nuclear fuels, if it is mixed into the nuclear fuels for showing the plasticity. The nuclear fuel pellets are deformed like an hour glass as burning, but, since the end portion thereof is deformed plastically within a range of a repulsive force of the cladding tube, there is no worry of damaging a portion of the cladding tube. (N.H.)

  10. Nuclear fusion and neutron processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, V.V.; Shatalov, G.E.; Sherstnev, K.E.

    1984-01-01

    Problems of providing development of the design of an experimental fusion reactor with necessary neutron-physical data are discussed. Isotope composition of spent fuel in the blanket of a hybride fusion reactor (HFR) is given. Neutron balance of the reactor with Li-blanket and neutron balance of the reactor with Pb-multiplier are disclosed. A simplified scheme of neutron and energy balance in the HFR blanket is given. Development and construction of the experimental power reactor is shown to become the nearest problem of the UTS program. Alongside with other complex physical and technical problems solution of this problem requires realization of a wide program of neutron-physical investigations including measurements with required accuracy of neutron cross sections, development of methodical, program and constant basis of neutron calculations and macroscopic experiments on neutron sources

  11. Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project annual report 93/94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project exists to develop fusion technologies and apply them worldwide in today's advanced fusion projects and to apply these technologies in fusion and tritium research facilities. CFFTP concentrates on developing capability in fusion fuel cycle systems, in tritium handling technologies and in remote handling. This is an annual report for CFFTP and as such also includes a financial report

  12. Nuclear structure and fusion at the barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisdorf, W.

    1985-01-01

    A comparative study of measured fusion excitation functions in the vicinity of the barrier reveals nuclear structure effects, due in particular to the coupling of the fusion process to direct-reaction channels. (orig.)

  13. Transportation of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prowse, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    Shipment of used fuel from nuclear reactors to a central fuel management facility is discussed with particular emphasis on the assessment of the risk to the public due to these shipments. The methods of transporting used fuel in large shipping containers is reviewed. In terms of an accident scenario, it is demonstrated that the primary risk of transport of used fuel is due to injury and death in common road accidents. The radiological nature of the used fuel cargo is, for all practical purposes, an insignificant factor in the total risk to the public. (author)

  14. Nuclear fuel banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    In december 2010 IAEA gave its agreement for the creation of a nuclear fuel bank. This bank will allow IAEA to help member countries that renounce to their own uranium enrichment capacities. This bank located on one or several member countries will belong to IAEA and will be managed by IAEA and its reserve of low enriched uranium will be sufficient to fabricate the fuel for the first load of a 1000 MW PWR. Fund raising has been successful and the running of the bank will have no financial impact on the regular budget of the IAEA. Russia has announced the creation of the first nuclear fuel bank. This bank will be located on the Angarsk site (Siberia) and will be managed by IAEA and will own 120 tonnes of low-enriched uranium fuel (between 2 and 4.95%), this kind of fuel is used in most Russian nuclear power plants. (A.C.)

  15. The nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter explains the distinction between fissile and fertile materials, examines briefly the processes involved in fuel manufacture and management, describes the alternative nuclear fuel cycles and considers their advantages and disadvantages. Fuel management is usually divided into three stages; the front end stage of production and fabrication, the back end stage which deals with the fuel after it is removed from the reactor (including reprocessing and waste treatment) and the stage in between when the fuel is actually in the reactor. These stages are illustrated and explained in detail. The plutonium fuel cycle and thorium-uranium-233 fuel cycle are explained. The differences between fuels for thermal reactors and fast reactors are explained. (U.K.)

  16. Nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrett, G.J.; Gillespie, P.A.

    1983-07-01

    This report discusses events and processes that could adversely affect the long-term stability of a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault or the regions of the geosphere and the biosphere to which radionuclides might migrate from such a vault

  17. The nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patarin, L.

    2002-01-01

    This book treats of the different aspects of the industrial operations linked with the nuclear fuel, before and after its use in nuclear reactors. The basis science of this nuclear fuel cycle is chemistry. Thus a recall of the elementary notions of chemistry is given in order to understand the phenomena involved in the ore processing, in the isotope enrichment, in the fabrication of fuel pellets and rods (front-end of the cycle), in the extraction of recyclable materials (residual uranium and plutonium), and in the processing and conditioning of wastes (back-end of the fuel cycle). Nuclear reactors produce about 80% of the French electric power and the Cogema group makes 40% of its turnover at the export. Thus this book contains also some economic and geopolitical data in order to clearly position the stakes. The last part, devoted to the management of wastes, presents the solutions already operational and also the research studies in progress. (J.S.)

  18. Nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.

    1981-01-01

    A simple friction device for cutting nuclear fuel wrappers comprising a thin metal disc clamped between two large diameter clamping plates. A stream of gas ejected from a nozzle is used as coolant. The device may be maintained remotely. (author)

  19. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Hiroshi; Watari, Yoshio; Hizahara, Hiroshi; Masuoka, Ryuzo.

    1970-01-01

    When exchanging nuclear fuel assemblies during the operation of a nuclear reactor, melting of fuel bodies, and severence of tubular claddings is halted at the time of insertion by furnishing a neutron absorbing material such as B 10 , Cd, Gd or the like at the forward end of the fuel assembly to thereby lower the power peak at the forward ends of the fuel elements to within tolerable levels and thus prevent both fuel liquification and excessive expansion. The neutron absorbing material may be attached in the form of a plate to the fuel assembly forward tie plate, or may be inserted as a pellet into the front end of the tubular cladding. (Owens, K.J.)

  20. Nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, K.F.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element is described having a cluster of nuclear fuel pins supported in parallel, spaced apart relationship by transverse cellular braces within coaxial, inner and outer sleeves, the inner sleeve being in at least two separate axial lengths, each of the transverse braces having a peripheral portion which is clamped peripherally between the ends of the axial lengths of the inner sleeve. (author)

  1. Nuclear fuel manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, J.M.

    1980-09-01

    The technologies used to manufacture nuclear fuel from uranium ore are outlined, with particular reference to the light water reactor fuel cycle. Capital and operating cost estimates for the processing stages are given, and the relevance to a developing uranium industry in Australia is discussed

  2. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterfield, C.E.; Waite, E.

    1982-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element comprising a column of vibration compacted fuel which is retained in consolidated condition by a thimble shaped plug. The plug is wedged into gripping engagement with the wall of the sheath by a wedge. The wedge material has a lower coefficient of expansion than the sheath material so that at reactor operating temperature the retainer can relax sufficient to accommodate thermal expansion of the column of fuel. (author)

  3. Nuclear fuel pellet loading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerkey, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    An automatic apparatus for loading a predetermined amount of nuclear fuel pellets into a nuclear fuel element to be used in a nuclear reactor is described. The apparatus consists of a vibratory bed capable of supporting corrugated trays containing rows of nuclear fuel pellets and arranged in alignment with the open ends of several nuclear fuel elements. A sweep mechanism is arranged above the trays and serves to sweep the rows of fuel pellets onto the vibratory bed and into the fuel element. A length detecting system, in conjunction with a pellet stopping mechanism, is also provided to assure that a predetermined amount of nuclear fuel pellets are loaded into each fuel element

  4. Chemical aspects of nuclear fusion: New developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ache, H.J.; Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH

    1990-01-01

    Managing thermally controlled nuclear fusion will certainly be regarded one day as one of the most successful accomplishments in nuclear physics. At the same time, however, it will represent a technical achievement unparalleled in the history of science and engineering. This in turn would mean, in retrospect, that decisive contributions had to come from a number of disciplines as diverse as materials and engineering sciences and classical chemistry, and that the same collaboration will have to continue in the future in order to reach the ultimate goal, to construct a reactor capable of producing energy from almost inexhaustible source materials (fuels), such as deuterium and lithium. What is the chemist's role in this development. Similarly as in the development of fission reactors, i.e., the nuclear power plants currently in operation, chemists will have to ensure the existence of a reliable fuel cycle - starting from the availability, storage and reprocessing of the fuel through to the provision for safe storage of the waste. In this review article an attempt will be made to outline the problems associated with these tasks and the approaches to be made by the chemist in solving them. (orig.)

  5. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    . The four Objectives publications include Nuclear General Objectives, Nuclear Power Objectives, Nuclear Fuel Cycle Objectives, and Radioactive Waste management and Decommissioning Objectives. This publication sets out the objectives that need to be achieved in the area of the nuclear fuel cycle to ensure that the Nuclear Energy Basic Principles are satisfied. Within each of these four Objectives publications, the individual topics that make up each area are addressed. The five topics included in this publication are: resources; fuel engineering and performance; spent fuel management and reprocessing; fuel cycles; and the research reactor nuclear fuel cycle

  6. High-Frequency Gravitational Wave Induced Nuclear Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontana, Giorgio; Baker, Robert M. L. Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear fusion is a process in which nuclei, having a total initial mass, combine to produce a single nucleus, having a final mass less than the total initial mass. Below a given atomic number the process is exothermic; that is, since the final mass is less than the combined initial mass and the mass deficit is converted into energy by the nuclear fusion. On Earth nuclear fusion does not happen spontaneously because electrostatic barriers prevent the phenomenon. To induce controlled, industrial scale, nuclear fusion, only a few methods have been discovered that look promising, but net positive energy production is not yet possible because of low overall efficiency of the systems. In this paper we propose that an intense burst of High Frequency Gravitational Waves (HFGWs) could be focused or beamed to a target mass composed of appropriate fuel or target material to efficiently rearrange the atomic or nuclear structure of the target material with consequent nuclear fusion. Provided that efficient generation of HFGW can be technically achieved, the proposed fusion reactor could become a viable solution for the energy needs of mankind and alternatively a process for beaming energy to produce a source of fusion energy remotely - even inside solid materials

  7. Improved nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed and has a metal liner disposed between the cladding and the nuclear fuel material and a high lubricity material in the form of a coating disposed between the liner and the cladding. The liner preferably has a thickness greater than the longest fission product recoil distance and is composed of a low neutron capture cross-section material. The liner is preferably composed of zirconium, an alloy of zirconium, niobium or an alloy of niobium. The liner serves as a preferential reaction site for volatile impurities and fission products and protects the cladding from contact and reaction with such impurities and fission products. The high lubricity material acts as an interface between the liner and the cladding and reduces localized stresses on the cladding due to fuel expansion and cracking of the fuel

  8. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakamatsu, Mitsuo.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To improve a circulating flow passage of coolant so as to be able to accurately detect the temperature of coolant, rare gases contained, and the like. Structure: A fuel assembly comprising a flow regulating lattice provided with a plurality of communication holes in an axial direction, said lattice being positioned at the upper end of an outer tube in which nuclear fuel elements are received, and a neutron shielding body having a plurality of spiral coolant flow passages disposed between the lattice and the nuclear fuel elements, whereby a coolant comprised of liquid sodium or the like, which moves up passing through the coolant flow passages and the flow regulating passage, is regulated and passed through a detector mounted at the upper part of the flow regulating lattice to detect coolant temperature, flow rate, and rare gases or the like as the origin of nuclear fission contained in the coolant due to breakage of fuel elements. (Kamimura, M.)

  9. Nuclear Fusion Award 2009 speech Nuclear Fusion Award 2009 speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh, Steven Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This is an exceptional moment in my career, and so I want to thank all of my teachers, colleagues and mentors who have made this possible. From my co-authors and myself, many thanks to the International Atomic Energy Agency, IOP Publishing, the Nuclear Fusion journal team, and the selection committee for the great honor of receiving this award. Also gratitude to Kikuchi-sensei, not only for the inventive and visionary creation of this award, but also for being a key mentor dating back to his efforts in producing high neutron output in JT-60U. It was also a great honor to receive the award directly from IAEA Deputy Director General Burkart during the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon. Receiving the award at this venue is particularly exciting as Daejeon is home to the new, next-generation KSTAR tokamak device that will lead key magnetic fusion research areas going forward. I would also like to thank the mayor of Daejeon, Dr Yum Hong-Chul, and all of the meeting organizers for giving us all a truly spectacular and singular welcoming event during which the award was presented. The research leading to the award would not have been possible without the support of the US Department of Energy, and I thank the Department for the continued funding of this research. Special mention must be made to a valuable co-author who is no longer with us, Professor A. Bondeson, who was a significant pioneer in resistive wall mode (RWM) research. I would like to thank my wife, Mary, for her infinite patience and encouragement. Finally, I would like to personally thank all of you that have approached and congratulated me directly. There are no units to measure how important your words have been in this regard. When notified that our paper had been shortlisted for the 2009 Nuclear Fusion Award, my co-authors responded echoing how I felt—honored to be included in such a fine collection of research by colleagues. It was unfathomable—would this paper follow the brilliant work

  10. Nuclear Propulsion through Direct Conversion of Fusion Energy: The Fusion Driven Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slough, John; Pancotti, Anthony; Kirtley, David; Pihl, Christopher; Pfaff, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The future of manned space exploration and development of space depends critically on the creation of a dramatically more proficient propulsion architecture for in-space transportation. A very persuasive reason for investigating the applicability of nuclear power in rockets is the vast energy density gain of nuclear fuel when compared to chemical combustion energy. Current nuclear fusion efforts have focused on the generation of electric grid power and are wholly inappropriate for space transportation as the application of a reactor based fusion-electric system creates a colossal mass and heat rejection problem for space application.

  11. Nuclear fuel quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Full text: Quality assurance is used extensively in the design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants. This methodology is applied to all activities affecting the quality of a nuclear power plant in order to obtain confidence that an item or a facility will perform satisfactorily in service. Although the achievement of quality is the responsibility of all parties participating in a nuclear power project, establishment and implementation of the quality assurance programme for the whole plant is a main responsibility of the plant owner. For the plant owner, the main concern is to achieve control over the quality of purchased products or services through contractual arrangements with the vendors. In the case of purchase of nuclear fuel, the application of quality assurance might be faced with several difficulties because of the lack of standardization in nuclear fuel and the proprietary information of the fuel manufacturers on fuel design specifications and fuel manufacturing procedures. The problems of quality assurance for purchase of nuclear fuel were discussed in detail during the seminar. Due to the lack of generally acceptable standards, the successful application of the quality assurance concept to the procurement of fuel depends on how much information can be provided by the fuel manufacturer to the utility which is purchasing fuel, and in what form and how early this information can be provided. The extent of information transfer is basically set out in the individual vendor-utility contracts, with some indirect influence from the requirements of regulatory bodies. Any conflict that exists appears to come from utilities which desire more extensive control over the product they are buying. There is a reluctance on the part of vendors to permit close insight of the purchasers into their design and manufacturing procedures, but there nevertheless seems to be an increasing trend towards release of more information to the purchasers. It appears that

  12. Reprocessing of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatfield, G.W.

    1960-11-01

    One of the persistent ideas concerning nuclear power is that the fuel costs are negligible. This, of course, is incorrect and, in fact, one of the major problems in the development of economic nuclear power is to get the cost of the fuel cycles down to an acceptable level. The irradiated fuel removed from the nuclear power reactors must be returned as fresh fuel into the system. Aside from the problems of handling and shipping involved in the reprocessing cycles, the two major steps are the chemical separation and the refabrication. The chemical separation covers the processing of the spent fuel to separate and recover the unburned fuel as well as the new fuel produced in the reactor. This includes the decontamination of these materials from other radioactive fission products formed in the reactor. Refabrication involves the working and sheathing of recycled fuel into the shapes and forms required by reactor design and the economics of the fabrication problem determines to a large extent the quality of the material required from the chemical treatment. At present there appear to be enough separating facilities in the United States and the United Kingdom to handle the recycling of fuel from power reactors for the next few years. However, we understand the costs of recycling fuel in these facilities will be high or low depend ing on whether or not the capital costs of the plant are included in the processing cost. Also, the present plants may not be well adapted to carry out the chemical processing of the very wide variety of power reactor fuel elements which are being considered and will continue to be considered over the years to come. (author)

  13. Fusion Nuclear Science Pathways Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.E. Kessel, et. al.

    2012-02-23

    With the strong commitment of the US to the success of the ITER burning plasma mission, and the project overall, it is prudent to consider how to take the most advantage of this investment. The production of energy from fusion has been a long sought goal, and the subject of several programmatic investigations and time line proposals [1]. The nuclear aspects of fusion research have largely been avoided experimentally for practical reasons, resulting in a strong emphasis on plasma science. Meanwhile, ITER has brought into focus how the interface between the plasma and engineering/technology, presents the most challenging problems for design. In fact, this situation is becoming the rule and no longer the exception. ITER will demonstrate the deposition of 0.5 GW of neutron heating to the blanket, deliver a heat load of 10-20 MW/m2 or more on the divertor, inject 50-100 MW of heating power to the plasma, all at the expected size scale of a power plant. However, in spite of this, and a number of other technologies relevant power plant, ITER will provide a low neutron exposure compared to the levels expected to a fusion power plant, and will purchase its tritium entirely from world reserves accumulated from decades of CANDU reactor operations. Such a decision for ITER is technically well founded, allowing the use of conventional materials and water coolant, avoiding the thick tritium breeding blankets required for tritium self-sufficiency, and allowing the concentration on burning plasma and plasma-engineering interface issues. The neutron fluence experienced in ITER over its entire lifetime will be ~ 0.3 MW-yr/m2, while a fusion power plant is expected to experience 120-180 MW-yr/m2 over its lifetime. ITER utilizes shielding blanket modules, with no tritium breeding, except in test blanket modules (TBM) located in 3 ports on the midplane [2], which will provide early tests of the fusion nuclear environment with very low tritium production (a few g per year).

  14. Laser-prearc railgun: Development for the application to a fuel pellet injector of a nuclear fusion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, H.; Sawaoka, A. B.; Oda, Y.; Onozuka, M.; Kuribayashi, S.; Shimizu, K.

    1992-05-01

    The laser-prearc railgun, that utilizes the phenomenon of laser-induced arc formation, was constructed and tested with plastic pellet projectiles. We envision our railgun as especially well suited as a solid hydrogen pellet injector for magnetic confinement fusion. The system consisted of a gas gun for preacceleration of a pellet and a railgun for its primary acceleration. A Q-switched ruby laser was used to induce electrical breakdown of propellant helium gas behind a dielectric pellet in the railgun. The present railgun was shown to accelerate a plastic pellet up to a velocity of 2.4 km/s.

  15. Nuclear Fusion Award 2010 speech Nuclear Fusion Award 2010 speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, John

    2011-01-01

    Following the suggestion of Earl Marmar in 1995, I installed a compact von Hamos type x-ray spectrometer (originally built with Elisabeth Rachlew and Jan Kallne) on a tangentially viewing port on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. The spectrometer views the plasma through a 2 cm diameter hole, and is tuned to H-like argon, suitable for passive measurement of the core toroidal rotation velocity from the Doppler shift. It soon became evident that the rotation in Ohmic L-mode discharges, while for the most part directed counter-current, depends in a very complicated fashion on plasma parameters, notably the electron density, current and magnetic configuration. The rotation can even flip sign for almost no apparent reason! In Ohmic and ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) heated H-mode plasmas the rotation is in the co-current direction and has a relatively simple dependence on plasma parameters, proportional to the stored energy normalized to the current. Rotation velocities as high as 130 km s-1 have been observed without external momentum input. In dimensionless terms this intrinsic (or spontaneous rotation) depends on the normalized plasma pressure. The association of toroidal rotation with plasma pressure in ICRF H-modes was first observed by Lars-Goran Eriksson in JET discharges. Similar results were subsequently reported for Tore Supra enhanced confinement plasmas. In the early 2000s concerns began to surface about the lack of substantial neutral beam driven rotation in ITER, and intrinsic rotation became a topic of interest in the ITPA Transport Group. Through that connection, similar observations from DIII-D, TCV and JT-60U were added to the growing list. A database of intrinsic rotation observations was assembled with the goal of extrapolating to the expected values for ITER. Both dimensional and dimensionless scalings were developed and formed the backbone of the 2007 Nuclear Fusion paper. I gratefully acknowledge the important contributions to this paper from

  16. Nuclear fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterfield, R.S.; Garner, D.L.M.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to nuclear fuel assemblies designed for cooling on the 'tube-in-shell' principle in which the fuel is contained by a shell and is cooled by coolant passed through tubes extending through the shell. It has been proposed to employ coated particle fuel as a porous bed on the tube side and the bleed coolant from the tubes into direct contact with the fuel particles. In this way heat is extracted both by direct contact with the fuel and by heat transfer through the coolant tube walls. The system described aims to provide an improved structure of tube and shell for a fuel assembly of this kind and is particularly suitable for use in a gas cooled fast reactor, being able to withstand the neutron flux and high temperature conditions in these reactors. Constructional details are given. (U.K.)

  17. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Satoshi; Kawada, Toshiyuki; Matsuzaki, Masayoshi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a fuel element for reducing the mechanical interactions between a fuel-cladding tube and the fuel element and for alleviating the limits of the operating conditions of a reactor. Constitution: A fuel element having mainly uranium dioxide consists of a cylindrical outer pellet and cylindrical inner pellet inserted into the outer pellet. The outer pellet contains two or more additives selected from aluminium oxide, beryllium oxide, magnesium oxide, silicon oxide, sodium oxide, phosphorus oxide, calcium oxide and iron oxide, and the inner pellet contains nuclear fuel substance solely or one additive selected from calcium oxide, silicon oxide, aluminium oxide, magnesium oxide, zirconium oxide and iron oxide. The outer pellet of the fuel thus constituted is reduced in mechanical strength and also in the mechanical interactions with the cladding tube, and the plastic fluidity of the entire pellet is prevented by the inner pellet increased in the mechanical strength. (Kamimura, M.)

  18. Nuclear fuel deformation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Brutzel, L.; Dingreville, R.; Bartel, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear fuel encounters severe thermomechanical environments. Its mechanical response is profoundly influenced by an underlying heterogeneous microstructure but also inherently dependent on the temperature and stress level histories. The ability to adequately simulate the response of such microstructures, to elucidate the associated macroscopic response in such extreme environments is crucial for predicting both performance and transient fuel mechanical responses. This chapter discusses key physical phenomena and the status of current modelling techniques to evaluate and predict fuel deformations: creep, swelling, cracking and pellet-clad interaction. This chapter only deals with nuclear fuel; deformations of cladding materials are discussed elsewhere. An obvious need for a multi-physics and multi-scale approach to develop a fundamental understanding of properties of complex nuclear fuel materials is presented. The development of such advanced multi-scale mechanistic frameworks should include either an explicit (domain decomposition, homogenisation, etc.) or implicit (scaling laws, hand-shaking,...) linkage between the different time and length scales involved, in order to accurately predict the fuel thermomechanical response for a wide range of operating conditions and fuel types (including Gen-IV and TRU). (authors)

  19. Nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear fuel storage apparatus for use in a water-filled pool is fabricated of a material such as stainless steel in the form of an egg crate structure having vertically extending openings. Fuel may be stored in this basic structure in a checkerboard pattern with high enrichment fuel, or in all openings when the fuel is of low effective enrichment. Inserts of a material such as stainless steel are adapted to fit within these openings so that a water gap and, therefore, a flux trap is formed between adjacent fuel storage locations. These inserts may be added at a later time and fuel of a higher enrichment may be stored in each opening. When it is desired to store fuel of still greater enrichment, poison plates may be added to the water gap formed by the installed insert plates, or substituted for the insert plates. Alternately, or in addition, fuel may be installed in high neutron absorption poison boxes which surround the fuel assembly. The stainless steel inserts and the poison plates are each not required until the capacity of the basic egg crate structure is approached. Purchase of these items can, therefore, be deferred for many years. Should the fuel to be stored be of higher enrichment than initially forecast, the deferred decision on the poison plates makes it possible to obtain increased poison in the plates to satisfy the newly discovered requirement

  20. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, A.N.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear fuel-containing body for a high temperature gas cooled nuclear reactor is described which comprises a flat plate in which the nuclear fuel is contained as a dispersion of fission product-retaining coated fuel particles in a flat sheet of graphitic or carbonaceous matrix material. The flat sheet is clad with a relatively thin layer of unfuelled graphite bonded to the sheet by being formed initially from a number of separate preformed graphitic artefacts and then platen-pressed on to the exterior surfaces of the flat sheet, both the matrix material and the artefacts being in a green state, to enclose the sheet. A number of such flat plates are supported edge-on to the coolant flow in the bore of a tube made of neutron moderating material. Where a number of tiers of plates are superimposed on one another, the abutting edges are chamfered to reduce vibration. (author)

  1. Nuclear fuel strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rippon, S.

    1989-01-01

    The paper reports on two international meetings on nuclear fuel strategies, one organised by the World Nuclear Fuel Market in Seville (Spain) October 1988, and the other organised by the American and European nuclear societies in Washington (U.S.A.) November 1988. At the Washington meeting a description was given of the uranium supply and demand market, whereas free trade in uranium was considered in Seville. Considerable concern was expressed at both meetings on the effect on the uranium and enrichment services market of very low prices for spot deals being offered by China and the Soviet Union. Excess enrichment capacity, the procurement policies of the USA and other countries, and fuel cycle strategies, were also discussed. (U.K.)

  2. Catalogue of nuclear fusion codes - 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-10-01

    A catalogue is presented of the computer codes in nuclear fusion research developed by JAERI, Division of Thermonuclear Fusion Research and Division of Large Tokamak Development in particular. It contains a total of about 100 codes under the categories: Atomic Process, Data Handling, Experimental Data Processing, Engineering, Input and Output, Special Languages and Their Application, Mathematical Programming, Miscellaneous, Numerical Analysis, Nuclear Physics, Plasma Physics and Fusion Research, Plasma Simulation and Numerical Technique, Reactor Design, Solid State Physics, Statistics, and System Program. (auth.)

  3. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, R.T.; Thompson, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    A method of protecting the cladding of a nuclear fuel element from internal attack and a nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor are disclosed. The nuclear fuel element has disposed therein an additive of a barium-containing material and the barium-containing material collects reactive gases through chemical reaction or adsorption at temperatures ranging from room temperature up to fuel element plenum temperatures. The additive is located in the plenum of the fuel element and preferably in the form of particles in a hollow container having a multiplicity of gas permeable openings in one portion of the container with the openings being of a size smaller than the size of the particles. The openings permit gases and liquids entering the plenum to contact the particles. The additive is comprised of elemental barium or a barium alloy containing one or more metals in addition to barium such as aluminum, zirconium, nickel, titanium and combinations thereof. 6 claims, 3 drawing figures

  4. Nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedrig, T.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear fuel supply is viewed as a buyer's market of assured medium-term stability. Even on a long-term basis, no shortage is envisaged for all conceivable expansion schedules. The conversion and enrichment facilities developed since the mid-seventies have done much to stabilize the market, owing to the fact that one-sided political decisions by the USA can be counteracted efficiently. In view of the uncertainties concerning realistic nuclear waste management strategies, thermal recycling and mixed oxide fuel elements might increase their market share in the future. Capacities are being planned accordingly. (orig.) [de

  5. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, L.N.; Levin, H.A.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element has disposed therein an alloy having the essential components of nickel, titanium and zirconium, and the alloy reacts with water, water vapor and reactive gases at reactor ambient temperatures. The alloy is disposed in the plenum of the fuel element in the form of particles in a hollow gas permeable container having a multiplicity of openings of size smallr than the size of the particles. The container is preferably held in the spring in the plenum of the fuel element. (E.C.B.)

  6. Nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawada, Toshiyuki; Hirayama, Satoshi; Yoneya, Katsutoshi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To enable load-depending operation as well as moderation for the restriction of operation conditions in the present nuclear reactors, by specifying the essential ingredients and the total weight of the additives to UO 2 fuel substances. Constitution: Two or more additives selected from Al 2 O 3 , B 2 O, CaO, MgO, SiO 2 , Na 2 O and P 2 O 5 are added by the total weight of 2 - 5% to fuel substances consisting of UO 2 or a mixture of UO 2 and PuO 2 . When the mixture is sintered, the strength of the fuel elements is decreased and the fuel-cladding interactions due to the difference in the heat expansion coefficients between the ceramic fuel elements and the metal claddings are decreased to a substantially harmless degree. (Horiuchi, T.)

  7. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domoto, Noboru; Masuda, Hiroyuki

    1989-01-01

    In a nuclear fuel assembly loaded with a plurality of fuel rods, the inside of a fuel rod disposed at a high neutron flux region is divided into an inner region and an outer region, and more burnable poisons are mixed in the inner region than in the outer region. Alternatively, the central portion of a pellet disposed in a high neutron flux region is made hollow, in which burnable poisons are charged. This can prevent neutron infinite multiplication factor from decreasing extremely at the initial burning stage. Further, the burnable poisons are not rapidly burnt completely and local peaking coefficient can be controlled. Accordingly, in a case of suppressing a predetermined excess reactivity by using a fuel rod incorporated with the burnable poison, the fuel economy can be improved more and the reactor core controllability can also be improved as compared with the usual case. (T.M.)

  8. The nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The papers presented at the International Conference on The Nuclear Fuel Cycle, held at Stockholm, 28 to 31 October 1975, are reviewed. The meeting, organised by the U.S. Atomic Industrial Forum, and the Swedish Nuclear Forum, was concerned more particularly with economic, political, social and commercial aspects than with tecnology. The papers discussed were considered under the subject heading of current status, uranium resources, enrichment, and reprocessing. (U.K.)

  9. Nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-12-01

    The papers presented at the International Conference on The Nuclear Fuel Cycle, held at Stockholm, 28 to 31 October 1975, are reviewed. The meeting, organised by the U.S. Atomic Industrial Forum, and the Swedish Nuclear Forum, was concerned more particularly with economic, political, social and commercial aspects than with tecnology. The papers discussed were considered under the subject heading of current status, uranium resources, enrichment, and reprocessing.

  10. Encapsulating spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, L.R.; Gunasekaran, M.

    1979-01-01

    A system is described for encapsulating spent nuclear fuel discharged from nuclear reactors in the form of rods or multi-rod assemblies. The rods are completely and contiguously enclosed in concrete in which metallic fibres are incorporated to increase thermal conductivity and polymers to decrease fluid permeability. This technique provides the advantage of acceptable long-term stability for storage over the conventional underwater storage method. Examples are given of suitable concrete compositions. (UK)

  11. Outline of cold nuclear fusion reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachikawa, Enzo

    1991-01-01

    In 2010, as the total supply capacity of primary energy, 666 million liter is anticipated under the measures of thorough energy conservation. The development of energy sources along the energy policy based on environment preservation, safety, the quantity of resources and economy is strongly demanded. The nuclear power generation utilizing nuclear fission has been successfully carried out. As the third means of energy production, the basic research and technical development have been actively advanced on the energy production utilizing nuclear fusion reaction. The main object of the nuclear fusion research being advanced now is D-D reaction and D-T reaction. In order to realize low temperature nuclear fusion reaction, muon nuclear fusion has been studied so far. The cold nuclear fusion reaction by the electrolysis of heavy water has been reported in 1989, and its outline is ixplained in this report. The trend of the research on cold nuclear fusion is described. But the possibility of cold nuclear fusion as an energy source is almost denied. (K.I.)

  12. Economic comparison of fusion fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brereton, S.J.; Kazimi, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    The economics of the DT, DD, and DHe fusion fuel cycles are evaluated by comparison on a consistent basis. The designs for the comparison employ HT-9 structure and helium coolant; liquid lithium is used as the tritium breeding material for the DT fuel cycle. The reactors are pulsed, superconducting tokamaks, producing 1200 MW of electric power. The DT and DD designs scan a range of values of plasma beta, assuming first stability scaling laws. The results indicate that on a purely economic basis, the DT fuel cycle is superior to both of the advanced fuel cycles. Geometric factors, materials limitations, and plasma beta were seen to have an impact on the Cost of Electricity (COE). The economics for the DD fuel cycle are more strongly affected by these parameters than is the DT fuel cycle. Fuel costs are a major factor in determining the COE for the DHe fuel cycle. Based on costs directly attributable to the fuel cycle, the DT fuel cycle appears most attractive. Technological advances, improved understanding of physics, or strides in advanced energy conversion schemes may result in altering the economic ranking of the fuel cycles indicated here. 7 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Conceptual design of light ion beam inertia nuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    Light ion beam, inertia nuclear fusion system drew attention recently as one of the nuclear fusion systems for power reactors in the history of the research on nuclear fusion. Its beginning seemed to be the judgement that the implosion of fusion fuel pellets with light ions can be realized with the light ions which can be obtained in view of accelerator techniques. Of course, in order to generate practically usable nuclear fusion reaction by this system and maintain it, many technical difficulties must be overcome. This research was carried out for the purpose of discovering such technical problems and searching for their solution. At the time of doing the works, the following policy was adopted. Though their is the difference of fine and rough, the design of a whole reactor system is performed conformably. In order to make comparison with other reactor types and nuclear fusion systems, the design is carried out as the power plant of about one million kWe output. As the extent of the design, the works at conceptual design stage are performed to present the concept of design which satisfies the required function. Basically, the design is made from conservative standpoint. This research of design was started in 1981, and in fiscal 1982, the mutual adjustment among the design of respective parts was performed on the basis of the results in 1981, and the possible revision and new proposal were investigated. (Kako, I.)

  14. Nuclear fuel cycle information workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This overview of the nuclear fuel cycle is divided into three parts. First, is a brief discussion of the basic principles of how nuclear reactors work; second, is a look at the major types of nuclear reactors being used and world-wide nuclear capacity; and third, is an overview of the nuclear fuel cycle and the present industrial capability in the US

  15. Does cold nuclear fusion exist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brudanin, V.B.; Bystritskij, V.M.; Egorov, V.G.; Shamsutdinov, S.G.; Shyshkin, A.L.; Stolupin, V.A.; Yutlandov, I.A.

    1989-01-01

    The results of investigation of cold nuclear fusion on palladium are given both for electrolysis of heavy water D 2 O and mixture D 2 O + H 2 O) (1:1) and for palladium saturation with gaseous deuterium. The possibility of existance of this phenomenon was examined by detection of neutrons and gamma quanta from reactions: d + d → 3 He + n + 3.27 MeV, p + d → 3 He + γ + 5.5 MeV. Besides these reactions were identified by measuring the characteristic X radiation of palladium due to effect of charged products 3 He, p, t. The upper limits of the intensities of hypothetical sources of neutrons and gamma quanta at the 95% confidence level were obtained to be Q n ≤ 2x10 -2 n/sxcm 3 Pd, Q γ ≤ 2x10 -3 γ/sxcm 3 Pd. 2 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  16. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Yasushi; Hirukawa, Koji; Sakurada, Koichi.

    1994-01-01

    A bundle of fuel rods is divided into four fuel rod group regions of small fuel rod bundles by a cross-shaped partitioning structure consisting of paired plate-like structures which connect two opposing surfaces of a channel box. A water removing material with less neutron absorption (for example, Zr or a Zr alloy) or a solid moderator is inserted and secured to a portion of a non-boiling water region interposed between the paired plate-like structure. It has a structure that light water flows to the region in the plate-like structure. The volume, density or composition of the water removing material is controlled depending on the composition of the fuels, to change the moderating characteristics of neutrons in the non-boiling water region. This can easily moderate the difference of nuclear characteristics between each of fuel assemblies using fuel materials of different fuel compositions. Further, the reactivity control effect of the burnable poisons can be enhanced without worsening fuel economy or linear power density. (I.N.)

  17. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delafosse, Jacques.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to a nuclear fuel assembly for a light or heavy water reactor, or for a fast reactor of the kind with a bundle of cladded pins, maintained parallel to each other in a regular network by an assembly of separate supporting grids, fitted with elastic bearing surfaces on these pins [fr

  18. Nuclear fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, R.I.; Brassfield, H.C.

    1981-01-01

    Increased strength and physical durability in green bodies or pellets formed of particulate nuclear fuel oxides is achieved by inclusion of a fugitive binder which is ammonium bicarbonate, bicarbonate carbomate, carbomate, sesquicarbonate or mixtures thereof. Ammonium oxadate may be included as pore former. (author)

  19. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Arata; Wakamatsu, Mitsuo.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To permit the coolant in an FBR type reactor to enter from the entrance nozzle into a nuclear fuel assembly without causing cavitation. Structure: In a nuclear fuel assembly, which comprises a number of thin fuel pines bundled together at a uniform spacing and enclosed within an outer cylinder, with a handling head connected to an upper portion of the outer cylinder and an entrance nozzle connected to a lower portion of the cylinder, the inner surface of the entrance nozzle is provided with a buffer member and an orifice successively in the direction of flow of the coolant. The coolant entering from a low pressure coolant chamber into the entrance nozzle strikes the buffer member and is attenuated, and thereafter flows through an orifice into the outer cylinder. (Horiuchi, T.)

  20. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirama, H.

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element comprises an elongated tube having upper and lower end plugs fixed to both ends thereof and nuclear fuel pellets contained within the tube. The fuel pellets are held against the lower end plug by a spring which is supported by a setting structure. The setting structure is maintained at a proper position at the middle of the tube by a wedge effect caused by spring force exerted by the spring against a set of balls coacting with a tapered member of the setting structure thereby wedging the balls against the inner wall of the tube, and the setting structure is moved free by pushing with a push bar against the spring force so as to release the wedge effect

  1. Integral nuclear fuel element assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schluderberg, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    An integral nuclear fuel element assembly utilizes longitudinally finned fuel pins. The continuous or interrupted fins of the fuel pins are brazed to fins of juxtaposed fuel pins or directly to the juxtaposed fuel pins or both. The integrally brazed fuel assembly is designed to satisfy the thermal and hydraulic requirements of a fuel assembly lattice having moderator to fuel atom ratios required to achieve high conversion and breeding ratios

  2. Overview of fusion nuclear technology in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreani, R. E-mail: roberto.andreani@tech.efda.org; Gasparotto, M. E-mail: maurizio.gasparotto@tech.efda.org

    2002-11-01

    The fusion nuclear technology programme in the EU is focussed on materials and breeding blankets development, tritium and high heat flux component technologies. A strong effort is also devoted to the validation of the design of an intense 14 MeV neutron source (IFMIF). The material programme includes the development of reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel (EUROFER) to be used as structural material in a DEMO reactor, and potentially more attractive higher performance materials: ODS and SiC/SiC composites. The breeding blanket activities are focussed in the preparation of the two European Test Blanket Moduli to be installed in ITER. The Fuel Cycle activities for ITER include development of the torus exhaust cryopump, fuel storage system, performance characterisation of the torus exhaust processing and design of water detritiation system. High heat flux components have been developed in the framework of ITER R and D programme and based on copper alloy heat sink protected by an armour of beryllium, CFC or tungsten. Studies give an important contribution in defining the nuclear technology programme strategy.

  3. Overview of fusion nuclear technology in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreani, R.; Gasparotto, M.

    2002-01-01

    The fusion nuclear technology programme in the EU is focussed on materials and breeding blankets development, tritium and high heat flux component technologies. A strong effort is also devoted to the validation of the design of an intense 14 MeV neutron source (IFMIF). The material programme includes the development of reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel (EUROFER) to be used as structural material in a DEMO reactor, and potentially more attractive higher performance materials: ODS and SiC/SiC composites. The breeding blanket activities are focussed in the preparation of the two European Test Blanket Moduli to be installed in ITER. The Fuel Cycle activities for ITER include development of the torus exhaust cryopump, fuel storage system, performance characterisation of the torus exhaust processing and design of water detritiation system. High heat flux components have been developed in the framework of ITER R and D programme and based on copper alloy heat sink protected by an armour of beryllium, CFC or tungsten. Studies give an important contribution in defining the nuclear technology programme strategy

  4. Nuclear fuel cycle techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecqueur, Michel; Taranger, Pierre

    1975-01-01

    The production of fuels for nuclear power plants involves five principal stages: prospecting of uranium deposits (on the ground, aerial, geochemical, geophysical, etc...); extraction and production of natural uranium from the deposits (U content of ores is not generally high and a chemical processing is necessary to obtain U concentrates); production of 235 U enriched uranium for plants utilizing this type of fuel (a description is given of the gaseous diffusion process widely used throughout the world and particularly in France); manufacture of suitable fuel elements for the different plants; reprocessing of spent fuels for the purpose of not only recovering the fissile materials but also disposing safely of the fission products and other wastes [fr

  5. Nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikhorev, Yu.V.; Biryukov, G.I.; Kirilyuk, N.A.; Lobanov, V.N.

    1977-01-01

    A fuel assembly is proposed for nuclear reactors allowing remote replacement of control rod bundles or their shifting from one assembly to another, i.e., their multipurpose use. This leads to a significant increase in fuel assembly usability. In the fuel assembly the control rod bundle is placed in guide tube channels to which baffles are attached for fuel element spacing. The remote handling of control rods is provided by a hollow cylinder with openings in its lower bottom through which the control rods pass. All control rods in a bundle are mounted to a cross beam which in turn is mounted in the cylinder and is designed for grasping the whole rod bundle by a remotely controlled telescopic mechanism in bundle replacement or shifting. (Z.M.)

  6. Experience with nuclear fuel utilization in Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harizanov, Y [Committee on the Use of Atomic Energy for Peaceful Purposes, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1997-12-01

    The presentation on experience with nuclear fuel utilization in Bulgaria briefly reviews the situation with nuclear energy in Bulgaria and then discusses nuclear fuel performance (amount of fuel loaded, type of fuel, burnup, fuel failures, assemblies deformation). 2 tabs.

  7. Nuclear fuel cycle system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, W. I.; Kwon, E. H.; Kim, S. G.; Park, B. H.; Song, K. C.; Song, D. Y.; Lee, H. H.; Chang, H. L.; Jeong, C. J.

    2012-04-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle system analysis method has been designed and established for an integrated nuclear fuel cycle system assessment by analyzing various methodologies. The economics, PR(Proliferation Resistance) and environmental impact evaluation of the fuel cycle system were performed using improved DB, and finally the best fuel cycle option which is applicable in Korea was derived. In addition, this research is helped to increase the national credibility and transparency for PR with developing and fulfilling PR enhancement program. The detailed contents of the work are as follows: 1)Establish and improve the DB for nuclear fuel cycle system analysis 2)Development of the analysis model for nuclear fuel cycle 3)Preliminary study for nuclear fuel cycle analysis 4)Development of overall evaluation model of nuclear fuel cycle system 5)Overall evaluation of nuclear fuel cycle system 6)Evaluate the PR for nuclear fuel cycle system and derive the enhancement method 7)Derive and fulfill of nuclear transparency enhancement method The optimum fuel cycle option which is economical and applicable to domestic situation was derived in this research. It would be a basis for establishment of the long-term strategy for nuclear fuel cycle. This work contributes for guaranteeing the technical, economical validity of the optimal fuel cycle option. Deriving and fulfillment of the method for enhancing nuclear transparency will also contribute to renewing the ROK-U.S Atomic Energy Agreement in 2014

  8. Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project annual report 93/94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project exists to develop fusion technologies and apply them worldwide in today`s advanced fusion projects and to apply these technologies in fusion and tritium research facilities. CFFTP concentrates on developing capability in fusion fuel cycle systems, in tritium handling technologies and in remote handling. This is an annual report for CFFTP and as such also includes a financial report.

  9. The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dautovich, D.P.; Gierszewski, P.J.; Wong, K.Y.; Stasko, R.R.; Burnham, C.D.

    1987-04-01

    The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project (CFFTP) is a national project whose aim is to develop capability in tritium and robotics technologies for application to international fusion development programs. Activities over the first five years have brought substantial interaction with the world's leading projects such as Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), the Joint European Torus (JET), and the Next European Torus (NET), Canadian R and D and engineering services, and hardware are in demand as these major projects prepare for tritium operation leading to the demonstration of energy breakeven around 1990. Global planning is underway for the next generation ignition experiment. It is anticipated this will provide increased opportunity for CFFTP and its contractors among industry, universities and governmental laboratories

  10. Nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This film for a general audience deals with nuclear fuel waste management in Canada, where research is concentrating on land based geologic disposal of wastes rather than on reprocessing of fuel. The waste management programme is based on cooperation of the AECL, various universities and Ontario Hydro. Findings of research institutes in other countries are taken into account as well. The long-term effects of buried radioactive wastes on humans (ground water, food chain etc.) are carefully studied with the help of computer models. Animated sequences illustrate the behaviour of radionuclides and explain the idea of a multiple barrier system to minimize the danger of radiation hazards

  11. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, E. D.

    1984-01-01

    An array of rods is assembled to form a fuel element for a pressurized water reactor, the rods comprising zirconium alloy sheathed nuclear fuel pellets and containing helium. The helium gas pressure is selected for each rod so that it differs substantially from the helium gas pressure in its closest neighbors. In a preferred arrangement the rods are arranged in a square lattice and the helium gas pressure alternates between a relatively high value and a relatively low value so that each rod has as its closest neighbors up to four rods containing helium gas at the other pressure value

  12. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, E. D.

    1984-10-16

    An array of rods is assembled to form a fuel element for a pressurized water reactor, the rods comprising zirconium alloy sheathed nuclear fuel pellets and containing helium. The helium gas pressure is selected for each rod so that it differs substantially from the helium gas pressure in its closest neighbors. In a preferred arrangement the rods are arranged in a square lattice and the helium gas pressure alternates between a relatively high value and a relatively low value so that each rod has as its closest neighbors up to four rods containing helium gas at the other pressure value.

  13. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The nuclear fuel assembly described includes a cluster of fuel elements supported at a distance from each other so that their axes are parallel in order to establish secondary channels between them reserved for the coolant. Several ducts for an auxiliary cooling fluid are arranged in the cluster. The wall of each duct is pierced with coolant ejection holes which are placed circumferentially to a pre-determined pattern established according to the position of the duct in the cluster and by the axial distance of the ejection hole along the duct. This assembly is intended for reactors cooled by light or heavy water [fr

  14. Nuclear fuel activities in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, D S [Fuel Development Branch, Chalk River Labs., AECL (Canada)

    1997-12-01

    Nuclear fuel activities in Canada are considered in the presentation on the following directions: Canadian utility fuel performance; CANDU owner`s group fuel programs; AECL advanced fuel program (high burnup fuel behaviour and development); Pu dispositioning (MOX) activities. 1 tab.

  15. The internal propagation of fusion flame with the strong shock of a laser driven plasma block for advanced nuclear fuel ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malekynia, B.; Razavipour, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    An accelerated skin layer may be used to ignite solid state fuels. Detailed analyses were clarified by solving the hydrodynamic equations for nonlinear force driven plasma block ignition. In this paper, the complementary mechanisms are included for the advanced fuel ignition: external factors such as lasers, compression, shock waves, and sparks. The other category is created within the plasma fusion as reheating of an alpha particle, the Bremsstrahlung absorption, expansion, conduction, and shock waves generated by explosions. With the new condition for the control of shock waves, the spherical deuterium-tritium fuel density should be increased to 75 times that of the solid state. The threshold ignition energy flux density for advanced fuel ignition may be obtained using temperature equations, including the ones for the density profile obtained through the continuity equation and the expansion velocity for the r ≠ 0 layers. These thresholds are significantly reduced in comparison with the ignition thresholds at x = 0 for solid advanced fuels. The quantum correction for the collision frequency is applied in the case of the delay in ion heating. Under the shock wave condition, the spherical proton-boron and proton-lithium fuel densities should be increased to densities 120 and 180 times that of the solid state. These plasma compressions are achieved through a longer duration laser pulse or X-ray. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  16. Nuclear fuel brokerage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, J.; Schreiber, K.

    1985-01-01

    Making available nuclear fuels on the spot market, especially uranium in various compounds and processing stages, has become an important service rendered nuclear power plant operators. A secondary market has grown, both for natural uranium and for separative work, the conditions and transactions of which require a comprehensive overview of what is going on, especially also in connection with possibilities to terminate in a profitable manner existing contracts. This situation has favored the activity of brokers with excellent knowledge of the market, who are able to handle the complicated terms and conditions in an optimum way. (orig.) [de

  17. Controlled Nuclear Fusion: Status and Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, David J.

    1971-01-01

    Presents the history, current concerns and potential developments of nuclear fusion as a major energy source. Controlled fusion research is summarized, technological feasibility is discussed and environmental factors are examined. Relationships of alternative energy sources as well as energy utilization are considered. (JM)

  18. Mass Producing Targets for Nuclear Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T. G.; Elleman, D. D.; Kendall, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Metal-encapsulating technique advances prospects of controlling nuclear fusion. Prefilled fusion targets form at nozzle as molten metal such as tin flows through outer channel and pressurized deuterium/tritium gas flows through inner channel. Molten metal completely encloses gas charge as it drops off nozzle.

  19. Compact nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, V.V.; Churakov, Yu.A.; Danchenko, Yu.V.; Bylkin, B.K.; Tsvetkov, S.V.

    1983-01-01

    Different constructions of racks for compact storage of spent fuel assemblies (FA) in ''coolin''g pools (CP) of NPPs with the BWR and PWR type reactors are described. Problems concerning nuclear and radiation safety and provision of necessary thermal conditions arising in such rack design are discussed. It is concluded that the problem of prolonged fuel storage at NPPs became Very actual for many countries because of retapdation of the rates of fuel reprocessing centers building. Application of compact storage racks is a promising solution of the problem of intermediate FA storage at NPPs. Such racks of stainless boron steel and with neutron absorbers in the from of boron carbide panels enable to increase the capacity of the present CP 2-2.6 times, and the period of FA storage in them up to 5-10 years

  20. Nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a nuclear reactor fuel assembly comprising a cluster of fuel elements supported by transversal grids so that their axes are parallel to and at a distance from each other, in order to establish interstices for the axial flow of a coolant. At least one of the interstices is occupied by an axial duct reserved for an auxiliary cooling fluid and is fitted with side holes through which the auxiliary cooling fluid is sprayed into the cluster. Deflectors extend as from a transversal grid in a position opposite the holes to deflect the cooling fluid jet towards those parts of the fuel elements that are not accessible to the auxiliary coolant. This assembly is intended for reactors cooled by light or heavy water [fr

  1. Nuclear fuel pin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, Kenneth; Moulding, T.L.J.; Rostron, Norman.

    1979-01-01

    Fuel pin for use in fast breeder nuclear reactors containing fissile and fertile areas of which the fissile and fertile materials do not mix. The fissile material takes the shape of large and small diameter microspheres (the small diameter microspheres can pass through the interstices between the large microspheres). The barrier layers being composed of microspheres with a diameter situated between those of the large and small microspheres ensure that the materials do not mix [fr

  2. Alternative nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    This diffuse subject involves value judgments that are political as well as technical, and is best understood in that context. The four questions raised here, however, are mostly from the technical viewpoints: (1) what are alternative nuclear fuel cycles; (2) what generalizations are possible about their characteristics; (3) what are the major practical considerations; and (4) what is the present situation and what can be said about the outlook for the future

  3. Vented nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguma, M.; Hirose, Y.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of a vented nuclear fuel element having a plenum for accumulation of fission product gases and plug means for delaying the release of the fission product gases from the plenum, the plug means comprising a first porous body wettable with a liquid metal and a second porous body non-wettable with the liquid metal, the first porous body being impregnated with the liquid metal and in contact with the liquid metal

  4. Nuclear reactor fuel element splitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, D.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for removing nuclear fuel from a clad fuel element. The fuel element is power driven past laser beams which simultaneously cut the cladding lengthwise into at least two longitudinal pieces. The axially cut lengths of cladding are then separated, causing the nuclear fuel contained therein to drop into a receptacle for later disposition. The cut lengths of cladding comprise nuclear waste which is disposed of in a suitable manner. 6 claims, 10 drawing figures

  5. Overview on Fusion Nuclear Technology Experimental Testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Entler, Slavomír; Kysela, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2016), č. článku 021018. ISSN 2332-8983 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : fusion * corrosion * thermohydraulic * LiPb * HHF * ITER Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  6. Nuclear fusion power supply device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Satoshi.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To use a hybrid power supply device, which comprises a thyristor power supply and a diode power supply, to decrease cost of a nuclear fusion power supply device. Structure: The device comprises a thyristor power supply connected through a closing unit and a diode power supply connected in parallel through a breaker, input of each power supply being applied with an output voltage of a flywheel AC generator. When a current transformer is excited, a disconnecting switch is turned on to close the diode power supply and a current of the current transformer is increased by an automatic voltage regulator to a set value within a predetermined period of time. Next, the current is cut off by a breaker, and when the breaker is in on position, the disconnecting switch is opened to turn on the closing unit. Thus, when a plasma electric current reaches a predetermined value, the breaker is turned on, and the current of the current transformer is controlled by the thyristor power supply. (Kamimura, M.)

  7. Support of nuclear fusion apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watarai, Tetsuo; Ito, Yutaka.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To integrally form a bed for a body for supporting a vacuum container, coil and the like and a bed for a current transformer for supporting the current transformer prior to installation thereof on the floor thereby facilitating assembly and installation. Structure: To provide a base common to a current transformer bed and a body bed without direct installation thereof on the floor. Prior to installation of the current transformer bed and body bed, they are fastened to the base by means of bolts and welded integrally, and the thus formed base is fixed to the floor by means of anchor bolts. Since the current transformer bed and the body bed are formed integrally through the common base, apparatus may easily be carried in and disassembling and re-assembling of apparatus become unnecessary when installed. Further, since the positional relation of the current transformer bed and body bed does not depend on accuracy at the time of installation but depends on accuracy when apparatus manufactured, the toroidal type nuclear fusion apparatus of good accuracy may be obtained. (Yoshihara, H.)

  8. Nuclear data for fusion reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    The meeting was organized in four sessions and four working groups devoted to the following topics: Requirements of nuclear data for fusion reactor technology (6 papers); Status of experimental and theoretical investigations of microscopic nuclear data (10 papers); Status of existing libraries for fusion neutronic calculations (5 papers); and Status of integral experiments and benchmark tests (6 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

  9. Fusion Nuclear Data activities at FNL, IPR

    OpenAIRE

    P. M. Prajapati; B. Pandey; S. Jakhar; C.V. S. Rao; T. K. Basu; B. K. Nayak; S. V. Suryanarayana; A. Saxena

    2015-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the current fusion nuclear data activities at Fusion Neutronics Laboratory, Institute for Plasma Research. It consist of infrastructure development for the cross-section measurements of structural materials with an accelerator based 14 MeV neutron generator and theoretical study of the cross-section using advanced nuclear reaction modular codes EMPIRE and TALYS. It will also cover the proposed surrogate experiment to measure 55Fe (n, p) 55Mn using BARC-TIFR Pel...

  10. Nuclear fuel handling apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrea, C.; Dupen, C.F.G.; Noyes, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    A fuel handling machine for a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor in which a retractable handling tube and gripper are lowered into the reactor to withdraw a spent fuel assembly into the handling tube. The handling tube containing the fuel assembly immersed in liquid sodium is then withdrawn completely from the reactor into the outer barrel of the handling machine. The machine is then used to transport the spent fuel assembly directly to a remotely located decay tank. The fuel handling machine includes a decay heat removal system which continuously removes heat from the interior of the handling tube and which is capable of operating at its full cooling capacity at all times. The handling tube is supported in the machine from an articulated joint which enables it to readily align itself with the correct position in the core. An emergency sodium supply is carried directly by the machine to provide make up in the event of a loss of sodium from the handling tube during transport to the decay tank. 5 claims, 32 drawing figures

  11. Nuclear fusion: power for the next century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    The basis of fusion reactions is outlined, with special reference to deuterium and tritium (from lithium, by neutron reaction) as reactants, and the state of research worldwide is indicated. The problems inherent in fusion reactions are discussed, plasma is defined, and the steps to be taken to generate electricity from controlled nuclear fusion are stated. Methods of plasma heating and plasma confinement are considered, leading to a description of the tokamak plasma confinement system. Devices under construction include the JET (Joint European Torus) Undertaking in the UK. Plans and possibilities for fusion reactors are discussed. (U.K.)

  12. South Korea's nuclear fuel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    March 1990 marked a major milestone for South Korea's nuclear power program, as the country became self-sufficient in nuclear fuel fabrication. The reconversion line (UF 6 to UO 2 ) came into full operation at the Korea Nuclear Fuel Company's fabrication plant, as the last step in South Korea's program, initiated in the mid-1970s, to localize fuel fabrication. Thus, South Korea now has the capability to produce both CANDU and pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies. This article covers the nuclear fuel industry in South Korea-how it is structures, its current capabilities, and its outlook for the future

  13. Nuclear fuel rod loading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, H.B.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear fuel loading apparatus, incorporating a microprocessor control unit, is described which automatically loads nuclear fuel pellets into dual fuel rods with a minimum of manual involvement and in a manner and sequence to ensure quality control and accuracy. (U.K.)

  14. Fusion fuel cycle solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gore, B.F.; Kaser, J.D.; Kabele, T.J.

    1978-06-01

    Eight conceptual deuterium-tritium fueled fusion power plant designs have been analyzed to identify waste sources, materials and quantities. All plant designs include the entire D-T fuel cycle within each plant. Wastes identified include radiation-damaged structural, moderating, and fertile materials; getter materials for removing corrosion products and other impurities from coolants; absorbents for removing tritium from ventilation air; getter materials for tritium recovery from fertile materials; vacuum pump oil and mercury sludge; failed equipment; decontamination wastes; and laundry waste. Radioactivity in these materials results primarily from neutron activation and from tritium contamination. For the designs analyzed annual radwaste volume was estimated to be 150 to 600 m 3 /GWe. This may be compared to 500 to 1300 m 3 /GWe estimated for the LMFBR fuel cycle. Major waste sources are replaced reactor structures and decontamination waste

  15. The European fusion nuclear technology effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darvas, J.

    1989-01-01

    The role of fusion technology in the European fusion development strategy is outlined. The main thrust of the present fusion technology programme is responding to development needs of the Next European Torus. A smaller, but important and growing R and D effort is dealing with problems specific to the Demonstration, or Fusion Power, Reactor. The part of the programme falling under the somewhat arbitrarily defined category of 'fusion nuclear technology' is reviewed and an outlook to future activities is given. The review includes tritium technology, blanket technology and breeder materials development, technology and materials for the protection of the first wall and of other plasma facing components, remote handling technology, and safety and environmental impact studies. A few reflections are offered on the future long-term developments in fusion technology. (orig.)

  16. Future trends in nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guitierrez, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    This series of transparencies presents: the fuel management cycle and key areas (security of supplies, strategies and core management, reliability, spent fuel management), the world nuclear generating capacity, concentrate capacity, enrichment capacity, and manufacturing capacity forecasts, the fuel cycle strategies and core management (longer cycles, higher burnups, power up-rates, higher enrichments), the Spanish nuclear generation cost, the fuel reliability (no defects, robust designs, operational margins, integrated fuel and core design), spent fuel storage (design and safety criteria, fuel performance and integrity). (J.S.)

  17. Laser-induced nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablon, Claude

    1977-01-01

    Research programs on laser-induced thermonuclear fusion in the United States, in Europe and in USSR are reviewed. The principle of the fusion reactions induced is explained, together with the theoretical effects of the following phenomena: power and type of laser beams, shape and size of the solid target, shock waves, and laser-hydrodynamics coupling problems [fr

  18. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwano, Yoshihiko.

    1993-01-01

    Microfine cracks having a depth of less than 10% of a pipe thickness are disposed radially from a central axis each at an interval of less than 100 micron over the entire inner circumferential surface of a zirconium alloy fuel cladding tube. For manufacturing such a nuclear fuel element, the inside of the cladding tube is at first filled with an electrolyte solution of potassium chloride. Then, electrolysis is conducted using the cladding tube as an anode and the electrolyte solution as a cathode, and the inner surface of the cladding tube with a zirconium dioxide layer having a predetermined thickness. Subsequently, the cladding tube is laid on a smooth steel plate and lightly compressed by other smooth steel plate to form microfine cracks in the zirconium dioxide layer on the inner surface of the cladding tube. Such a compressing operation is continuously applied to the cladding tube while rotating the cladding tube. This can inhibit progress of cracks on the inner surface of the cladding tube, thereby enabling to prevent failure of the cladding tube even if a pellet/cladding tube mechanical interaction is applied. Accordingly, reliability of the nuclear fuel elements is improved. (I.N.)

  19. Towards abundant and pollution-free energy. Laser nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robieux, J.

    2008-01-01

    This book shows that it is now practically certain that by the year 2080 laser nuclear fusion will allow to produce an abundant and relatively cheap energy. Thanks to this energy, it will be possible to convert a mixture of CO 2 , H 2 and water into an automotive fuel or a food product. Laser nuclear fusion will use deuterium as fuel and thus oil and gas will become useless. Also, thanks to this new energy source, global warming and starvation will be overcome. The laser fusion concept was introduced by J. Robieux in 1962 just after the discovery of the laser. This idea was immediately accepted and sustained by the French President De Gaulle. The research on laser fusion was initially undertaken at the Marcoussis research centre from the Compagnie Generale d'Electricite (General Electricity Company - CGE). In 1967, the lasers built at Marcoussis were 30 times more powerful than any other laser in the rest of world. A cooperation with the USA started at that time and is still going on today. In 1969, the CEA centre of Limeil realized the world premiere experiments of laser fusion. This book presents the historical aspects and the state-of-the-art of this technology today. It is written in two parts, the first part does not require any scientific knowledge and is accessible to everybody, while the second part can be understood only by readers having a basic scientific background. (J.S.)

  20. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armijo, J.S.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed which has a composite cladding having a substrate, a metal barrier metallurgically bonded to the inside surface of the substrate and an inner layer metallurgically bonded to the inside surface of the metal barrier. In this composite cladding, the inner layer and the metal barrier shield the substrate from any impurities or fission products from the nuclear fuel material held within the composite cladding. The metal barrier forms about 1 to about 4 percent of the thickness of the cladding and is comprised of a metal selected from the group consisting of niobium, aluminum, copper, nickel, stainless steel, and iron. The inner layer and then the metal barrier serve as reaction sites for volatile impurities and fission products and protect the substrate from contact and reaction with such impurities and fission products. The substrate and the inner layer of the composite cladding are selected from conventional cladding materials and preferably are a zirconium alloy. Also in a preferred embodiment the substrate and the inner layer are comprised of the same material, preferably a zirconium alloy. 19 claims, 2 figures

  1. Improved nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The invention is of a nuclear fuel element which comprises a central core of a body of nuclear fuel material selected from the group consisting of compounds of uranium, plutonium, thorium and mixtures thereof, and an elongated composite cladding container comprising a zirconium alloy tube containing constituents other than zirconium in an amount greater than about 5000 parts per million by weight and an undeformed metal barrier of moderate purity zirconium bonded to the inside surface of the alloy tube. The container encloses the core so as to leave a gap between the container and the core during use in a nuclear reactor. The metal barrier is of moderate purity zirconium with an impurity level on a weight basis of at least 1000ppm and less than 5000ppm. Impurity levels of specific elements are given. Variations of the invention are also specified. The composite cladding reduces chemical interaction, minimizes localized stress and strain corrosion and reduces the likelihood of a splitting failure in the zirconium alloy tube. Other benefits are claimed. (U.K.)

  2. Twenty years of ''Nuclear Fusion''. Inertial confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, C.

    1980-01-01

    Inertial confinement (ICF) fusion research is directed towards demonstrating the feasibility of very rapidly heating and compressing small pellets of suitable fuel until conditions exist where thermonuclear fusion can occur and useful amounts of power can be produced. Major problems which have to be solved are the following: 1) pellet design based on driver-plasma coupling; 2) the technology of energy drivers; 3) feasibility of ICF reactor systems

  3. Quality management of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Guide presents the quality management requirements to be complied with in the procurement, design, manufacture, transport, receipt, storage, handling and operation of nuclear fuel. The Guide also applies to control rods and shield elements to be placed in the reactor. The Guide is mainly aimed for the licensee responsible for the procurement and operation of fuel, for the fuel designer and manufacturer and for other organisations, whose activities affect fuel quality and the safety of fuel transport, storage and operation. General requirements for nuclear fuel are presented in Section 114 of the Finnish Nuclear Energy Decree and in Section 15 of the Government Decision (395/1991). Regulatory control of the safety of fuel is described in Guides YVL6.1, YVL6.2 and YVL6.3. An overview of the regulatory control of nuclear power plants carried out by STUK (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Finland) is clarified in Guide YVL1.1

  4. Nuclear fusion, an energy source of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppendoerfer, W.

    1994-01-01

    The paper discusses the possibility to obtain energy by nuclear fusion. It deals successively with: The physical bases of nuclear fusion, research and development with a view to harnessing nuclear fusion, properties of a fusion reactor, and programme and timetable to economic exploitation. (orig./UA) [de

  5. Nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-07-01

    The IAEA is organizing a major conference on nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle, which is to be held from 2 to 13 May 1977 in Salzburg, Austria. The programme for the conference was published in the preceding issue of the IAEA Bulletin (Vol.18, No. 3/4). Topics to be covered at the conference include: world energy supply and demand, supply of nuclear fuel and fuel cycle services, radioactivity management (including transport), nuclear safety, public acceptance of nuclear power, safeguarding of nuclear materials, and nuclear power prospects in developing countries. The articles in the section that follows are intended to serve as an introduction to the topics to be discussed at the Salzburg Conference. They deal with the demand for uranium and nuclear fuel cycle services, uranium supplies, a computer simulation of regional fuel cycle centres, nuclear safety codes, management of radioactive wastes, and a pioneering research project on factors that determine public attitudes toward nuclear power. It is planned to present additional background articles, including a review of the world nuclear fuel reprocessing situation and developments in the uranium enrichment industry, in future issues of the Bulletin. (author)

  6. Nuclear fuel supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    When the International Atomic Energy Agency was set up nearly three years ago, it was widely believed that it would soon become a world bank or broker for the supply of nuclear fuel. Some observers now seem to feel that this promise has been rather slow to come to fruition. A little closer analysis would, however, show that the promise can be fulfilled only in a certain objective context, and to the extent that this context exists, the development of the Agency's role has been commensurate with the actual needs of the situation

  7. Nuclear diagnostics for inertial confinement fusion implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    This abstract contains viewgraphs on nuclear diagnostic techniques for inertial confinement fusion implosions. The viewgraphs contain information on: reactions of interest in ICF; advantages and disadvantages of these methods; the properties nuclear techniques can measure; and some specifics on the detectors used

  8. Fusion of Nuclear and Emerging Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahrul Khaer Alang Rashid

    2005-04-01

    The presentation discussed the following subjects: emerging technology; nuclear technology; fusion emerging and nuclear technology; progressive nature of knowledge; optically stimulated luminescence - application of luminescence technology to sediments; Biosystemics technology -convergence nanotechnology, ecological science, biotechnology, cognitive science and IT - prospective impact on materials science, the management of public system for bio-health, eco and food system integrity and disease mitigation

  9. Nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal is based on disposing of the waste in a vault excavated 500-1000 m deep in intrusive igneous rock of the Canadian Shield. The author believes that, if the concept is accepted following review by a federal environmental assessment panel (probably in 1995), then it is important that implementation should begin without delay. His reasons are listed under the following headings: Environmental leadership and reducing the burden on future generations; Fostering public confidence in nuclear energy; Forestalling inaction by default; Preserving the knowledge base. Although disposal of reprocessing waste is a possible future alternative option, it will still almost certainly include a requirement for geologic disposal

  10. Nuclear data needs for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.

    1986-01-01

    The nuclear design of fusion components (e.g., first wall, blanket, shield, magnet, limiter, divertor, etc.) requires an accurate prediction of the radiation field, the radiation damage parameters, and the activation analysis. The fusion nucleonics for these tasks are reviewed with special attention to point out nuclear data needs and deficiencies which effect the design process. The main areas included in this review are tritium breeding analyses, nuclear heating calculations, radiation damage in reactor components, shield designs, and results of uncertainty analyses as applied to fusion reactor studies. Design choices and reactor parameters that impact the neutronics performance of the blanket are discussed with emphasis on the tritium breeding ratio. Nuclear data required for kerma factors, shielding analysis, and radiation damage are discussed. Improvements in the evaluated data libraries are described to overcome the existing problems. 84 refs., 11 figs., 9 tabs

  11. Characterization methods of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustillos, O.W.R.; Teixeira, S.R.; Lordello, A.R.; Imakuma, K.; Rodrigues, C.

    1980-01-01

    In order to organize quality control and quality assurance activities for PWR fuel production, the laboratory of IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares) has developed various chemical and physical methods to be employed for fuel characterization of UO 2 pellets. The techniques developed are the determination of total residual gases by vacuum fusion method, determination of impurity elements by optical spectrography and characterization methods by X-ray diffraction. The development and the implementation of these techniques under the implementation of these techniques under the general scheme of characterization and quality control is the major theme discussed. (E.G.) [pt

  12. Regulation at nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This bulletin contains information about activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD). In this leaflet the role of the UJD in regulation at nuclear fuel cycle is presented. The Nuclear Fuel Cycle (NFC) is a complex of activities linked with production of nuclear fuel for nuclear reactors as a source of energy used for production of electricity and heat, and of activities linked with spent nuclear fuel handling. Activities linked with nuclear fuel (NF) production, known as the Front-End of Nuclear Fuel Cycle, include (production of nuclear fuel from uranium as the most frequently used element). After discharging spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from nuclear reactor the activities follow linked with its storage, reprocessing and disposal known as the Back-End of Nuclear Fuel Cycle. Individual activity, which penetrates throughout the NFC, is transport of nuclear materials various forms during NF production and transport of NF and SNF. Nuclear reactors are installed in the Slovak Republic only in commercial nuclear power plants and the NFC is of the open type is imported from abroad and SNF is long-term supposed without reprocessing. The main mission of the area of NFC is supervision over: - assurance of nuclear safety throughout all NFC activities; - observance of provisions of the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons during nuclear material handling; with an aim to prevent leakage of radioactive substances into environment (including deliberated danage of NFC sensitive facilities and misuse of nuclear materials to production of nuclear weapons. The UJD carries out this mission through: - assessment of safety documentation submitted by operators of nuclear installations at which nuclear material, NF and SNF is handled; - inspections concentrated on assurance of compliance of real conditions in NFC, i.e. storage and transport of NF and SNF; storage, transport and disposal of wastes from processing of SNF; with assumptions of the safety

  13. Nuclear power generation and nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Yasujiro

    1985-01-01

    As of June 30, 1984, in 25 countries, 311 nuclear power plants of about 209 million kW were in operation. In Japan, 27 plants of about 19 million kW were in operation, and Japan ranks fourth in the world. The present state of nuclear power generation and nuclear fuel cycle is explained. The total uranium resources in the free world which can be mined at the cost below $130/kgU are about 3.67 million t, and it was estimated that the demand up to about 2015 would be able to be met. But it is considered also that the demand and supply of uranium in the world may become tight at the end of 1980s. The supply of uranium to Japan is ensured up to about 1995, and the yearly supply of 3000 st U 3 O 8 is expected in the latter half of 1990s. The refining, conversion and enrichment of uranium are described. In Japan, a pilot enrichment plant consisting of 7000 centrifuges has the capacity of about 50 t SWU/year. UO 2 fuel assemblies for LWRs, the working of Zircaloy, the fabrication of fuel assemblies, the quality assurance of nuclear fuel, the behavior of UO 2 fuel, the grading-up of LWRs and nuclear fuel, and the nuclear fuel business in Japan are reported. The reprocessing of spent fuel and plutonium fuel are described. (Kako, I.)

  14. New materials in nuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Shuichi

    1988-01-01

    In the autumn of 1987, the critical condition was attained in the JET in Europe and Japanese JT-60, thus the first subject in the physical verification of nuclear fusion reactors was resolved, and the challenge to the next attainment of self ignition condition started. As the development process of nuclear fusion reactors, there are the steps of engineering, economical and social verifications after this physical verification, and in respective steps, there are the critical problems related to materials, therefore the development of new materials must be advanced. The condition of using nuclear fusion reactors is characterized by high fluence, high thermal flux and strong magnetic field, and under such extreme condition, the microscopic structures of materials change, and they behave much differently from usual case. The subjects of material development for nuclear fusion reactors, the material data base being built up, the materials for facing plasma and high thermal flux, first walls, blanket structures, electric insulators and others are described. The serious effect of irradiation and the rate of defect inducement must be taken in consideration in the structural materials for nuclear fusion reactors. (Kako, I.)

  15. Financing the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephany, M.

    1975-01-01

    While conventional power stations usually have fossil fuel reserves for only a few weeks, nuclear power stations, because of the relatively long time required for uranium processing from ore extraction to the delivery of the fuel elements and their prolonged in-pile time, require fuel reserves for a period of several years. Although the specific fuel costs of nuclear power stations are much lower than those of conventional power stations, this results in consistently higher financial requirements. But the problems involved in financing the nuclear fuel do not only include the aspect of financing the requirements of reactor operators, but also of financing the facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle. As far as the fuel supply is concerned, the true financial requirements greatly exceed the mere purchasing costs because the costs of financing are rather high as a consequence of the long lead times. (orig./UA) [de

  16. The European programme for controlled nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This illustrated document is intended for information only and should not be used as a technical reference. The nuclear fusion reactors are presented with the two approaches: magnetic confinement and inertial confinement; are described: the place of fusion in the world energy scene and its importance for Europe, how research is at present organized, and the European programme with this next stage: the JET (Joint European Torus), the largest tokamak machine in Europe

  17. IAEA activities on nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basak, U.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a brief description and the main objectives of IAEA Programme B on Nuclear fuel cycle are given. The following Coordinated Research Projects: 1) FUel performance at high burn-up and in ageing plant by management and optimisation of WAter Chemistry Technologies (FUWAC ); 2) Near Term and Promising Long Term Options for Deployment of Thorium Based Nuclear Energy; 3) Fuel Modelling (FUMEX-III) are shortly described. The data collected by the IAEA Expert Group of Fuel Failures in Water Cooled Reactors including information about fuel failure cause for PWR (1994-2006) and failure mechanisms for BWR fuel (1994-2006) are shown. The just published Fuel Failure Handbook as well as preparation of a Monograph on Zirconium including an overview of Zirconium for nuclear applications are presented. The current projects in Sub-programme B2 - Power Reactor Fuel Engineering are also listed

  18. Nuclear fuel pellet charging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komuro, Kojiro.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns a nuclear fuel pellet loading device, in which nuclear fuel pellets are successively charged from an open end of a fuel can while rotating the can. That is, a fuel can sealed at one end with an end plug and opened at the other end is rotated around its pipe axis as the center on a rotationally diriving table. During rotation of the fuel can, nuclear fuel pellets are successively charged by means of a feed rod of a feeding device to the inside of the fuel can. The fuel can is rotated while being supported horizontally and the fuel pellets are charged from the open end thereof. Alternatively, the fuel can is rotated while being supported obliquely and the fuel pellets are charged gravitationally into the fuel can. In this way, the damages to the barrier of the fuel can can be reduce. Further, since the fuel pellets can be charged gravitationally by rotating the fuel can while being supported obliquely, the damages to the barrier can be reduced remarkably. (I.S.)

  19. Neutrons and fusion nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Shoichi

    1991-01-01

    The strategy of the devolopment of the fusion reactor has been compared with the history of the development of the fission reactor. More than 50 neutron reactors (neutron sources for research and development of reactor components and materials, and for Pu production) have been constructed and operated before the introduction of demonstration power reactors. This fact suggests us to introduce a new path of neutron reactor in the strategy of the development of fusion power reactor in addition to the orthodox approach which goes through the break-even, self-ignition, ETR, and DEMO. One of the benefits of the introduction of such neutron reactor or into the strategy of the fusion reactor development has been studied numerically. The results demonstrate that the introduction of fission-fusion hybrid reactor in 2030, can save ∝20% of natural uranium by 2100 in Japan, in comparison with the case when the fast breeder reactor is introduced in 2030. This saving is recognized large enough to justify earlier construction of the fusion neutron reactor. (orig.)

  20. Nuclear power fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havelka, S.; Jakesova, L.

    1982-01-01

    Economic problems are discussed of the fuel cycle (cost of the individual parts of the fuel cycle and the share of the fuel cycle in the price of 1 kWh), the technological problems of the fuel cycle (uranium ore mining and processing, uranium isotope enrichment, the manufacture of fuel elements, the building of long-term storage sites for spent fuel, spent fuel reprocessing, liquid and gaseous waste processing), and the ecologic aspects of the fuel cycle. (H.S.)

  1. Progress of nuclear fusion research and review on development of fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Set up in October 1971, the ad hoc Committee on Survey of Nuclear Fusion Reactors has worked on overall fusion reactor aspects and definition of the future problems under four working groups of core, nuclear heat, materials and system. The presect volume is intended to provide reference materials in the field of fusion reactor engineering, prepared by members of the committee. Contents are broadly the following: concept of the nuclear fusion reactor, fusion core engineering, fusion reactor blanket engineering, fusion reactor materials engineering, and system problems in development of fusion reactors. (Mori, K.)

  2. Resources of nuclear fuels and materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, K [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan); Kamiyama, Teiji; Hayashi, S; Hida, Noboru; Okano, T

    1974-11-01

    In this explanatory article, data on the world resources of nuclear fuels and materials, their production, and the present state of utilization are presented by specialists in varied fields. Main materials taken up are uranium, thorium, beryllium, zirconium, niobium, rare earth elements, graphite, and materials for nuclear fusion (heavy hydrogen and tritium). World reserves and annual production of these materials listed in a number of tables are cited from statistics of the period 1970-1973 or given by estimation. These data may be used as valuable numerical data for various projects and problems of atomic power industries.

  3. Nuclear fusion research in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheetham, A.D.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the recently formed National Plasma Fusion Research Facility centred around the H-1NF Heliac, located at the Australian National University, the Institute of Advanced Studies is described in the context of the international Stellarator program and the national collaboration with the Australian Fusion Research Group. The objectives of the facility and the planned physics research program over the next five years are discussed and some recent results will be presented. The facility will support investigations in the following research areas: finite pressure equilibrium and stability, transport in high temperature plasmas, plasma heating and formation, instabilities and turbulence, edge plasma physics and advanced diagnostic development

  4. Comparative energetics of three fusion-fission symbiotic nuclear reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, C.W.; Harms, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    The energetics of three symbiotic fusion-fission nuclear reactor concepts are investigated. The fuel and power balances are considered for various values of systems parameters. The results from this analysis suggest that symbiotic fusion-fission systems are advantageous from the standpoint of economy and resource utilization. (Auth.)

  5. Remote handling technology for nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Akira; Maekawa, Hiromichi; Ohmura, Yutaka

    1997-01-01

    Design and R and D on nuclear fuel cycle facilities has intended development of remote handling and maintenance technology since 1977. IHI has completed the design and construction of several facilities with remote handling systems for Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC), Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), and Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd. (JNFL). Based on the above experiences, IHI is now undertaking integration of specific technology and remote handling technology for application to new fields such as fusion reactor facilities, decommissioning of nuclear reactors, accelerator testing facilities, and robot simulator-aided remote operation systems in the future. (author)

  6. Radiolytic production of chemical fuels in fusion reactor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish, J D

    1977-06-01

    Miley's energy flow diagram for fusion reactor systems is extended to include radiolytic production of chemical fuel. Systematic study of the economics and the overall efficiencies of fusion reactor systems leads to a criterion for evaluating the potential of radiolytic production of chemical fuel as a means of enhancing the performance of a fusion reactor system. The ecumenicity of the schema is demonstrated by application to (1) tokamaks, (2) mirror machines, (3) theta-pinch reactors, (4) laser-heated solenoids, and (5) inertially confined, laser-pellet devices. Pure fusion reactors as well as fusion-fission hybrids are considered.

  7. Radiolytic production of chemical fuels in fusion reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish, J.D.

    1977-06-01

    Miley's energy flow diagram for fusion reactor systems is extended to include radiolytic production of chemical fuel. Systematic study of the economics and the overall efficiencies of fusion reactor systems leads to a criterion for evaluating the potential of radiolytic production of chemical fuel as a means of enhancing the performance of a fusion reactor system. The ecumenicity of the schema is demonstrated by application to (1) tokamaks, (2) mirror machines, (3) theta-pinch reactors, (4) laser-heated solenoids, and (5) inertially confined, laser-pellet devices. Pure fusion reactors as well as fusion-fission hybrids are considered

  8. Inertial Confinement Fusion R and D and Nuclear Proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    In a few months, or a few years, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory may achieve fusion gain using 192 powerful lasers to generate x-rays that will compress and heat a small target containing isotopes of hydrogen. This event would mark a major milestone after decades of research on inertial confinement fusion (ICF). It might also mark the beginning of an accelerated global effort to harness fusion energy based on this science and technology. Unlike magnetic confinement fusion (ITER, 2011), in which hot fusion fuel is confined continuously by strong magnetic fields, inertial confinement fusion involves repetitive fusion explosions, taking advantage of some aspects of the science learned from the design and testing of hydrogen bombs. The NIF was built primarily because of the information it would provide on weapons physics, helping the United States to steward its stockpile of nuclear weapons without further underground testing. The U.S. National Academies' National Research Council is now hosting a study to assess the prospects for energy from inertial confinement fusion. While this study has a classified sub-panel on target physics, it has not been charged with examining the potential nuclear proliferation risks associated with ICF R and D. We argue here that this question urgently requires direct and transparent examination, so that means to mitigate risks can be assessed, and the potential residual risks can be balanced against the potential benefits, now being assessed by the NRC. This concern is not new (Holdren, 1978), but its urgency is now higher than ever before.

  9. Plasma physics and nuclear fusion research

    CERN Document Server

    Gill, Richard D

    1981-01-01

    Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Research covers the theoretical and experimental aspects of plasma physics and nuclear fusion. The book starts by providing an overview and survey of plasma physics; the theory of the electrodynamics of deformable media and magnetohydrodynamics; and the particle orbit theory. The text also describes the plasma waves; the kinetic theory; the transport theory; and the MHD stability theory. Advanced theories such as microinstabilities, plasma turbulence, anomalous transport theory, and nonlinear laser plasma interaction theory are also considered. The book furthe

  10. Focus on nuclear fusion research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křenek, Petr; Mlynář, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 61, - (2011), s. 62-63 ISSN 0375-8842 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : ITER * COMPASS * fusion energy * tokamak * EURATOM Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://www.ipp.cas.cz/Tokamak/clanky/energetika_COMPASS.pdf

  11. Romanian nuclear fuel cycle development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapeanu, S.N.; Comsa, Olivia

    1998-01-01

    Romanian decision to introduce nuclear power was based on the evaluation of electricity demand and supply as well as a domestic resources assessment. The option was the introduction of CANDU-PHWR through a license agreement with AECL Canada. The major factors in this choice have been the need of diversifying the energy resources, the improvement the national industry and the independence of foreign suppliers. Romanian Nuclear Power Program envisaged a large national participation in Cernavoda NPP completion, in the development of nuclear fuel cycle facilities and horizontal industry, in R and D and human resources. As consequence, important support was being given to development of industries involved in Nuclear Fuel Cycle and manufacturing of equipment and nuclear materials based on technology transfer, implementation of advanced design execution standards, QA procedures and current nuclear safety requirements at international level. Unit 1 of the first Romanian nuclear power plant, Cernavoda NPP with a final profile 5x700 Mw e, is now in operation and its production represents 10% of all national electricity production. There were also developed all stages of FRONT END of Nuclear Fuel Cycle as well as programs for spent fuel and waste management. Industrial facilities for uranian production, U 3 O 8 concentrate, UO 2 powder and CANDU fuel bundles, as well as heavy water plant, supply the required fuel and heavy water for Cernavoda NPP. The paper presents the Romanian activities in Nuclear Fuel Cycle and waste management fields. (authors)

  12. Reactor Structure Materials: Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannen, L.; Verwerft, M.

    2000-01-01

    Progress and achievements in 1999 in SCK-CEN's programme on applied and fundamental nuclear fuel research in 1999 are reported. Particular emphasis is on thermochemical fuel research, the modelling of fission gas release in LWR fuel as well as on integral experiments

  13. Burnable absorber coated nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubb, W.; Radford, K.C.; Parks, B.H.

    1984-01-01

    A nuclear fuel body which is at least partially covered by a burnable neutron absorber layer is provided with a hydrophobic overcoat generally covering the burnable absorber layer and bonded directly to it. In a method for providing a UO 2 fuel pellet with a zirconium diboride burnable poison layer, the fuel body is provided with an intermediate niobium layer. (author)

  14. The fuel of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This booklet is a presentation of the different steps of the preparation of nuclear fuels performed by Cogema. The documents starts with a presentation of the different French reactor types: graphite moderated reactors, PWRs using MOX fuel, fast breeder reactors and research reactors. The second part describes the fuel manufacturing process: conditioning of nuclear materials and fabrication of fuel assemblies. The third part lists the different companies involved in the French nuclear fuel industry while part 4 gives a short presentation of the two Cogema's fuel fabrication plants at Cadarache and Marcoule. Part 5 and 6 concern the quality assurance, the safety and reliability aspects of fuel elements and the R and D programs. The last part presents some aspects of the environmental and personnel protection performed by Cogema. (J.S.)

  15. The evolving nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, J.D.; Hanson, G.E.; Coleman, T.A.

    1993-01-01

    Various economics and political pressures have shaped the evolution of nuclear fuel cycles over the past 10 to 15 yr. Future trends will no doubt be similarly driven. This paper discusses the influences that long cycles, high discharge burnups, fuel reliability, and costs will have on the future nuclear cycle. Maintaining the economic viability of nuclear generation is a key issue facing many utilities. Nuclear fuel has been a tremendous bargain for utilities, helping to offset major increases in operation and maintenance (O ampersand M) expenses. An important factor in reducing O ampersand M costs is increasing capacity factor by eliminating outages

  16. Nuclear Fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirakawa, Hiromasa.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the stress gradient resulted in the fuel can in fuel rods adapted to control the axial power distribution by the combination of fuel pellets having different linear power densities. Constitution: In a fuel rod comprising a first fuel pellet of a relatively low linear power density and a second fuel pellet of a relatively high linear power density, the second fuel pellet is cut at its both end faces by an amount corresponding to the heat expansion of the pellet due to the difference in the linear power density to the adjacent first fuel pellet. Thus, the second fuel pellet takes a smaller space than the first fuel pellet in the fuel can. This can reduce the stress produced in the portion of the fuel can corresponding to the boundary between the adjacent fuel pellets. (Kawakami, Y.)

  17. Thorium in nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankevicius, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    We revise the advantages and possible problems on the use of thorium as a nuclear fuel instead of uranium. The following aspects are considered: 1) In the world there are three times more thorium than uranium 2) In spite that thorium in his natural form it is not a fisil, under neutron irradiation, is possible to transform it to uranium 233, a fisil of a high quality. 3) His ceramic oxides properties are superior to uranium or plutonium oxides. 4) During the irradiation the U 233 due to n,2n reaction produce small quantities of U 232 and his decay daughters' bismuth 212 and thallium 208 witch are strong gamma source. In turn thorium 228 and uranium 232 became, in time anti-proliferate due to there radiation intensity. 5) As it is described in here and experiments done in several countries reactors PHWR can be adapted to the use of thorium as a fuel element 6) As a problem we should mentioned that the different steps in the process must be done under strong radiation shielding and using only automatized equipment s (author)

  18. British Nuclear Fuels (Warrington)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyle, D.; Cryer, B.; Bellotti, D.

    1992-01-01

    This adjournment debate is about British Nuclear Fuels plc and the 750 redundancies due to take place by the mid-1990s at BNFL, Risley. The debate was instigated by the Member of Parliament for Warrington, the constituency in which BNFL, Risley is situated. Other members pointed out that other industries, such as the textile industry are also suffering job losses due to the recession. However the MP for Warrington argued that the recent restructuring of BNFL restricted the financial flexibility of BNFL so that the benefits of contracts won for THORP at Sellafield could not help BNFL, Risley. The debate became more generally about training, apprentices and employment opportunities. The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Energy explained the position as he saw it and said BNFL may be able to offer more help to its apprentices. Long- term employment prospects at BNFL are dependent on the future of the nuclear industry in general. The debate lasted about half an hour and is reported verbatim. (U.K)

  19. G8 decision on fusion would herald nuclear future

    CERN Multimedia

    Starck, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear fusion as a future abundant energy source would receive a boost if G8 leaders agree next month on the site for the world's first fusion test reactor, two nuclear scientists said on Wednesday (1 page)

  20. Nuclear data requirements for fusion reactor shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.

    1979-01-01

    The nuclear data requirements for experimental, demonstration and commercial fusion reactors are reviewed. Particular emphasis is given to the shield as well as major reactor components of concern to the nuclear performance. The nuclear data requirements are defined as a result of analyzing four key areas. These are the most likely candidate materials, energy range, types of needed nuclear data, and the required accuracy in the data. Deducing the latter from the target goals for the accuracy in prediction is also discussed. A specific proposal of measurements is recommended. Priorities for acquisition of data are also assigned. (author)

  1. History of controlled nuclear fusion in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uematsu, Eisui; Nishio, Shigeko; Takeda, Tatsuoki

    2001-01-01

    A research development of nuclear fusion was divided four periods: the first period as prehistory (until about 1955), the second period as begin of research (1955 to 1969), the third as the growth period (1970 to 1985) and the forth as the large tokamak age. In this paper I explained the second period, because general physicists and young plasma and controlled nuclear fusion researcher did not know about this period. The controlled nuclear fusion research was begun by the experiment of hydrogen bomb by USA and USSR in 1952 and 1953. In Japan, on the basis of many societies, 'The Controlled Nuclear Fusion Meeting' was established as an independent system and KAKEA (Journal of Fusion Research) was published in 1958. Japan government began to make the system by the Nuclear Commission in 1957. The main research devices in 1962 were linear pinch, mirror device, toroidal pinch, helical system, plasma gun and plasma measurement. USSR showed the excellent results of tokamak device in 1968. Ookawa spoke the effect of the average minimum-B, the best report in this period, at the second IAEA meeting, 1965. JAERI constructed JFT-1 and JFT-2, the latter was the first class device in the world and made the first step of Japanese research into the world, for examples, to attain the equilibrium of divertor plasma and to control impurity. Many research centers of controlled fusion were established in many universities in Japan from 1966 to 1980. Cooperation researchs between Japan and USA, USSR and many countries has been carried out after 1978: JIFT (Joint Institute for Fusion Theory) and FPPC (Fusion Power Coordinating Committee). The important results increased in this period. After 1985, the research activities are processing and data increased very fast depend on the larger devices and system, good measurement system and development of information system. JT-60 in JAERI opened to the large tokamak period. It led controlled fusion researchs in the world the same as TFTR (US

  2. Nuclear elastic scattering effects on fusion product transport in compact tori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVeaux, J.; Greenspan, E.; Miley, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    This paper seeks to advance previous work including the effects of nuclear elastic scattering (NES) on fusion-product transport. We have found that NES may dominate the slowing-down process for high-temperature, advance-fuel plasmas which burn Cat.D or D- 3 He. A modified version of the Monte Carlo fusion product transport code, MCFRM, was used to evaluate the effects of NES on discrete fusion-product orbits in the FRM

  3. Development of fusion fuel cycles: Large deviations from US defense program systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, James Edward, E-mail: james.klein@srnl.doe.gov; Poore, Anita Sue; Babineau, David W.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • All tritium fuel cycles start with a “Tritium Process.” All have similar tritium processing steps. • Fusion tritium fuel cycles minimize process tritium inventories for various reasons. • US defense program facility designs did not minimize in-process inventories. • Reduced inventory tritium facilities will lower public risk. - Abstract: Fusion energy research is dominated by plasma physics and materials technology development needs with smaller levels of effort and funding dedicated to tritium fuel cycle development. The fuel cycle is necessary to supply and recycle tritium at the required throughput rate; additionally, tritium confinement throughout the facility is needed to meet regulatory and environmental release limits. Small fuel cycle development efforts are sometimes rationalized by stating that tritium processing technology has already been developed by nuclear weapons programs and these existing processes only need rescaling or engineering design to meet the needs of fusion fuel cycles. This paper compares and contrasts features of tritium fusion fuel cycles to United States Cold War era defense program tritium systems. It is concluded that further tritium fuel cycle development activities are needed to provide technology development beneficial to both fusion and defense programs tritium systems.

  4. The development of controlled nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pease, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    The high temperature conditions needed in a controlled nuclear fusion reactor are now being approached in experiments using magnetic fields to confine and isolate the plasma, especially in systems of the tokamak type. The underlying reasons for the successes are discussed and it is concluded that the remaining advances needed in temperature and thermal insulation may well be achieved in new large tokamak experiments now under construction. Comparable progress is being made also in inertial confinement systems; key experiments on achieving the required super-high densities with high-powered pulsed laser systems are about to commence. To achieve fusion reactors will require the combination of three major disciplines: plasma physics, electromechanical engineering and nuclear engineering. Proposals have been made for an international study group to be set up under the IAEA auspices to consider technical objectives and the nature of the next large fusion device which could be constructed internationally, and in which this synthesis could be attempted. (author)

  5. Current state of nuclear fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naraghi, M.

    1985-01-01

    During the past quarter century, plasma physics and nuclear fusion research have gone through impressive development. Tokamak, is realized to be the number one candidate for nuclear fusion reactor. Two large experiments, one called Joint European Torus (JET) at Culham, England, and the other JT-60 project in Japan have been completed and have reported preliminary results. In JET an average electron density of 4x10 13 pcls/ cm 3 , ion temperatures of 3Kev and energy confinement of 0.8 sec have been achieved. However, the Zeff has been even equal to 10 which unfortunately is a source of plasma energy loss. JT-60 has not offered any appreciable results yet, however, the objectives and initial tests promise long pulse duration, with very high ion and plasma densities. Both experiments have promised to achieve conditions approaching those needed in a fusion reactor. Other important experiments will be discussed and the role of third world countries will be emphasized. (Author)

  6. Nuclear fuel tax in court

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leidinger, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Besides the 'Nuclear Energy Moratorium' (temporary shutdown of eight nuclear power plants after the Fukushima incident) and the legally decreed 'Nuclear Energy Phase-Out' (by the 13th AtG-amendment), also the legality of the nuclear fuel tax is being challenged in court. After receiving urgent legal proposals from 5 nuclear power plant operators, the Hamburg fiscal court (4V 154/13) temporarily obliged on 14 April 2014 respective main customs offices through 27 decisions to reimburse 2.2 b. Euro nuclear fuel tax to the operating companies. In all respects a remarkable process. It is not in favour of cleverness to impose a political target even accepting immense constitutional and union law risks. Taxation 'at any price' is neither a statement of state sovereignty nor one for a sound fiscal policy. Early and serious warnings of constitutional experts and specialists in the field of tax law with regard to the nuclear fuel tax were not lacking. (orig.)

  7. Portuguese research program on nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varandas, C.A.F.; Cabral, J.A.C.; Manso, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    The Portuguese research program on nuclear fusion is presented. The experimental activity associated with the tokamak ISTTOK as well as the work carried out in the frame of international collaboration are summarized. The main technological features of ISTTOK are described along with studies on microwave reflectometry. Future plans are briefly described

  8. Nuclear reactors and fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Center (CCN) of IPEN produces nuclear fuel for the continuous operation of the IEA-R1 research reactor of IPEN. The serial production started in 1988, when the first nuclear fuel element was delivered for IEA-R1. In 2011, CCN proudly presents the 100{sup th} nuclear fuel element produced. Besides routine production, development of new technologies is also a permanent concern at CCN. In 2005, U{sub 3}O{sub 8} were replaced by U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-based fuels, and the research of U Mo is currently under investigation. Additionally, the Brazilian Multipurpose Research Reactor (RMB), whose project will rely on the CCN for supplying fuel and uranium targets. Evolving from an annual production from 10 to 70 nuclear fuel elements, plus a thousand uranium targets, is a huge and challenging task. To accomplish it, a new and modern Nuclear Fuel Factory is being concluded, and it will provide not only structure for scaling up, but also a safer and greener production. The Nuclear Engineering Center has shown, along several years, expertise in the field of nuclear, energy systems and correlated areas. Due to the experience obtained during decades in research and technological development at Brazilian Nuclear Program, personnel has been trained and started to actively participate in design of the main system that will compose the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) which will make Brazil self-sufficient in production of radiopharmaceuticals. The institution has participated in the monitoring and technical support concerning the safety, licensing and modernization of the research reactors IPEN/MB-01 and IEA-R1. Along the last two decades, numerous specialized services of engineering for the Brazilian nuclear power plants Angra 1 and Angra 2 have been carried out. The contribution in service, research, training, and teaching in addition to the development of many related technologies applied to nuclear engineering and correlated areas enable the institution to

  9. Nuclear reactors and fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Center (CCN) of IPEN produces nuclear fuel for the continuous operation of the IEA-R1 research reactor of IPEN. The serial production started in 1988, when the first nuclear fuel element was delivered for IEA-R1. In 2011, CCN proudly presents the 100 th nuclear fuel element produced. Besides routine production, development of new technologies is also a permanent concern at CCN. In 2005, U 3 O 8 were replaced by U 3 Si 2 -based fuels, and the research of U Mo is currently under investigation. Additionally, the Brazilian Multipurpose Research Reactor (RMB), whose project will rely on the CCN for supplying fuel and uranium targets. Evolving from an annual production from 10 to 70 nuclear fuel elements, plus a thousand uranium targets, is a huge and challenging task. To accomplish it, a new and modern Nuclear Fuel Factory is being concluded, and it will provide not only structure for scaling up, but also a safer and greener production. The Nuclear Engineering Center has shown, along several years, expertise in the field of nuclear, energy systems and correlated areas. Due to the experience obtained during decades in research and technological development at Brazilian Nuclear Program, personnel has been trained and started to actively participate in design of the main system that will compose the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) which will make Brazil self-sufficient in production of radiopharmaceuticals. The institution has participated in the monitoring and technical support concerning the safety, licensing and modernization of the research reactors IPEN/MB-01 and IEA-R1. Along the last two decades, numerous specialized services of engineering for the Brazilian nuclear power plants Angra 1 and Angra 2 have been carried out. The contribution in service, research, training, and teaching in addition to the development of many related technologies applied to nuclear engineering and correlated areas enable the institution to fulfill its mission that is

  10. Nuclear fusion: sixty years of efforts, great advances and challenges. May nuclear fusion replace fossil energies? The Grail which makes start-ups dream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilbaud, Sylvain; Pajot, Philippe; Delbecq, Denis

    2016-01-01

    A first article proposes an overview of sixty years of researches, investments and realisations aimed at a better knowledge and control of nuclear fusion to solve the Planet's energy problems. After a brief overview of the Sun as an example, and while presenting the principle of magnetic fusion in a tokamak, some key figures illustration the development of ITER, the authors describe magnetic fusion as the royal road to nuclear fusion (challenges for the ITER project, development of Stellarator as a concurrent of tokamaks), and inertial fusion as an alternate approach (principle, military interest, plasma physics). They also indicate other approaches based on a change of energy source, a change in ignition process, or a change in fuel. In a second article, the author discusses the economic perspectives of nuclear fusion: a supposed unlimited fuel, existence of radioactive releases and pollution, operation risks and costs, technical challenges to be faced, a development to be amortised on more than a century except if more compact processes are elaborated and developed. The author also discusses issues of profitability and of proliferation. The third and last article comments the existence of many start-ups, notably financed by Silicon Valley rich companies, which invest in researches and projects on nuclear fusion. They try to develop more compact systems, and aim at manufacturing their first prototypes by 2020. On the other side, academics remain doubtful about their ability to reach their objectives

  11. Confusion about nuclear fusion: a false report is laid bare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintsches, E.

    1983-01-01

    The author discusses the inaccurate and precipitate news of alleged successful controlled nuclear fusion in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor at Princeton University. The later modified published report indicated that in a first test, fractional second operation had produced plasma gas temperature of 100,000 0 C whereas 100 million degrees C is necessary for hydrogen nuclear fusion. Also power generation from nuclear fusion is still a long term goal. Problems of nuclear fusion are very briefly mentioned, and an impression of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor is illustrated. (H.V.H.)

  12. Nuclear Fuels & Materials Spotlight Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petti, David Andrew

    2016-01-01

    As the nation's nuclear energy laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory brings together talented people and specialized nuclear research capability to accomplish our mission. This edition of the Nuclear Fuels and Materials Division Spotlight provides an overview of some of our recent accomplishments in research and capability development. These accomplishments include: • Evaluation and modeling of light water reactor accident tolerant fuel concepts • Status and results of recent TRISO-coated particle fuel irradiations, post-irradiation examinations, high-temperature safety testing to demonstrate the accident performance of this fuel system, and advanced microscopy to improve the understanding of fission product transport in this fuel system. • Improvements in and applications of meso and engineering scale modeling of light water reactor fuel behavior under a range of operating conditions and postulated accidents (e.g., power ramping, loss of coolant accident, and reactivity initiated accidents) using the MARMOT and BISON codes. • Novel measurements of the properties of nuclear (actinide) materials under extreme conditions, (e.g. high pressure, low/high temperatures, high magnetic field) to improve the scientific understanding of these materials. • Modeling reactor pressure vessel behavior using the GRIZZLY code. • New methods using sound to sense temperature inside a reactor core. • Improved experimental capabilities to study the response of fusion reactor materials to a tritium plasma. Throughout Spotlight, you'll find examples of productive partnerships with academia, industry, and government agencies that deliver high-impact outcomes. The work conducted at Idaho National Laboratory helps spur innovation in nuclear energy applications that drive economic growth and energy security. We appreciate your interest in our work here at Idaho National Laboratory, and hope that you find this issue informative.

  13. Nuclear Fuels & Materials Spotlight Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, David Andrew [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-10-01

    As the nation's nuclear energy laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory brings together talented people and specialized nuclear research capability to accomplish our mission. This edition of the Nuclear Fuels and Materials Division Spotlight provides an overview of some of our recent accomplishments in research and capability development. These accomplishments include: • Evaluation and modeling of light water reactor accident tolerant fuel concepts • Status and results of recent TRISO-coated particle fuel irradiations, post-irradiation examinations, high-temperature safety testing to demonstrate the accident performance of this fuel system, and advanced microscopy to improve the understanding of fission product transport in this fuel system. • Improvements in and applications of meso and engineering scale modeling of light water reactor fuel behavior under a range of operating conditions and postulated accidents (e.g., power ramping, loss of coolant accident, and reactivity initiated accidents) using the MARMOT and BISON codes. • Novel measurements of the properties of nuclear (actinide) materials under extreme conditions, (e.g. high pressure, low/high temperatures, high magnetic field) to improve the scientific understanding of these materials. • Modeling reactor pressure vessel behavior using the GRIZZLY code. • New methods using sound to sense temperature inside a reactor core. • Improved experimental capabilities to study the response of fusion reactor materials to a tritium plasma. Throughout Spotlight, you'll find examples of productive partnerships with academia, industry, and government agencies that deliver high-impact outcomes. The work conducted at Idaho National Laboratory helps spur innovation in nuclear energy applications that drive economic growth and energy security. We appreciate your interest in our work here at Idaho National Laboratory, and hope that you find this issue informative.

  14. Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project activities report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project was formally established in 1982. The project is directed toward the further development of Canadian capabilities in five major areas: tritium technology, breeder technology, materials technology, equipment development and safety and the environment. The project is funded by three partners - Government of Canada (50%), Ontario Provincial Government (25%) and Ontario Hydro (25%). The fiscal year 1984/85 represents the third year of operation of the project. In 1984/85, 108 contracts were awarded totalling $4 million. Supplementary funding by subcontractors added approximately $1.9 million to the total project value. More than 200 people participated in the technical work involved in the project. Sixteen people were on attachment to foreign facilities for terms ranging from 1 month to 2.5 years. Five patents were applied for including a tritium discrimination monitor, a new radio-chemical tritium separation method, a new variation of fuel cleanup by gas chromatography, a passive tritium permeation system using bimetallic membranes, and a new breeder process using lithium salts dissolved in heavy water

  15. Nuclear structure and heavy-ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokstad, R.G.

    1980-10-01

    A series of lectures is presented on experimental studies of heavy-ion fusion reactions with emphasis on the role of nuclear structure in the fusion mechanism. The experiments considered are of three types: the fusion of lighter heavy ions at subcoulomb energies is studied with in-beam γ-ray techniques; the subbarrier fusion of 16 O and 40 Ar with the isotopes of samarium is detected out of beam by x-radiation from delayed activity; and measurements at very high energies, again for the lighter ions, employ direct particle identification of evaporation residues. The experimental data are compared with predictions based on the fusion of two spheres with the only degree of freedom being the separation of the centers, and which interact via potentials that vary smoothly with changes in the mass and charge of the projectile and target. The data exhibit with the isotopes of samarium, a portion of these deviations can be understood in terms of the changing deformation of the target nucleus, but an additional degree of freedom such as neck formation appears necessary. The results on 10 B + 16 O and 12 C + 14 N → 26 Al at high bombarding energies indicate a maximum limiting angular momentum characteristic of the compound nucleus. At lower energies the nuclear structure of the colliding ion seems to affect strongly the cross section for fusion. Measurements made at subbarrier energies for a variety of projectile-target combinations in the 1p and 2s - 1d shell also indicate that the valence nucleons can affect the energy dependence for fusion. About half the systems studied so far have structureless excitation functions which follow a standard prediction. The other half exhibit large variations from this prediction. The possible importance of neutron transfer is discussed. The two-center shell model appears as a promising approach for gaining a qualitative understanding of these phenomena. 95 references, 52 figures, 1 table

  16. Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidd, S.

    2008-01-01

    The closed fuel cycle is the most sustainable approach for nuclear energy, as it reduces recourse to natural uranium resources and optimises waste management. The advantages and disadvantages of used nuclear fuel reprocessing have been debated since the dawn of the nuclear era. There is a range of issues involved, notably the sound management of wastes, the conservation of resources, economics, hazards of radioactive materials and potential proliferation of nuclear weapons. In recent years, the reprocessing advocates win, demonstrated by the apparent change in position of the USA under the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program. A great deal of reprocessing has been going on since the fourties, originally for military purposes, to recover plutonium for weapons. So far, some 80000 tonnes of used fuel from commercial power reactors has been reprocessed. The article indicates the reprocessing activities and plants in the United Kigdom, France, India, Russia and USA. The aspect of plutonium that raises the ire of nuclear opponents is its alleged proliferation risk. Opponents of the use of MOX fuels state that such fuels represent a proliferation risk because the plutonium in the fuel is said to be 'weapon-use-able'. The reprocessing of used fuel should not give rise to any particular public concern and offers a number of potential benefits in terms of optimising both the use of natural resources and waste management.

  17. Nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.

    1979-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the storage of fuel in a stainless steel egg crate structure within a storage pool are described. Fuel is initially stored in a checkerboard pattern or in each opening if the fuel is of low enrichment. Additional fuel (or fuel of higher enrichment) is later stored by adding stainless steel angled plates within each opening, thereby forming flux traps between the openings. Still higher enrichment fuel is later stored by adding poison plates either with or without the stainless steel angles. 8 claims

  18. Transportation of spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meguro, Toshiichi

    1976-01-01

    The spent nuclear fuel taken out of reactors is cooled in the cooling pool in each power station for a definite time, then transported to a reprocessing plant. At present, there is no reprocessing plant in Japan, therefore the spent nuclear fuel is shipped abroad. In this paper, the experiences and the present situation in Japan are described on the transport of the spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors, centering around the works in Tsuruga Power Station, Japan Atomic Power Co. The spent nuclear fuel in Tsuruga Power Station was first transported in Apr. 1973, and since then, about 36 tons were shipped to Britain by 5 times of transport. The reprocessing plant in Japan is expected to start operation in Apr. 1977, accordingly the spent nuclear fuel used for the trial will be transported in Japan in the latter half of this year. Among the permission and approval required for the transport of spent nuclear fuel, the acquisition of the certificate for transport casks and the approval of land and sea transports are main tasks. The relevant laws are the law concerning the regulations of nuclear raw material, nuclear fuel and reactors and the law concerning the safety of ships. The casks used in Tsuruga Power Station and EXL III type, and the charging of spent nuclear fuel, the decontamination of the casks, the leak test, land transport with a self-running vehicle, loading on board an exclusive carrier and sea transport are briefly explained. The casks and the ship for domestic transport are being prepared. (Kato, I.)

  19. Nuclear fuels policy. Report of the Atlantic Council's Nuclear Fuels Policy Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    This Policy Paper recommends the actions deemed necessary to assure that future U.S. and non-Communist countries' nuclear fuels supply will be adequate, considering the following: estimates of modest growth in overall energy demand, electrical energy demand, and nuclear electrical energy demand in the U.S. and abroad, predicated upon the continuing trends involving conservation of energy, increased use of electricity, and moderate economic growth (Chap. I); possibilities for the development and use of all domestic resources providing energy alternatives to imported oil and gas, consonant with current environmental, health, and safety concerns (Chap. II); assessment of the traditional energy sources which provide current alternatives to nuclear energy (Chap. II); evaluation of realistic expectations for additional future energy supplies from prospective technologies: enhanced recovery from traditional sources and development and use of oil shales and synthetic fuels from coal, fusion and solar energy (Chap. II); an accounting of established nuclear technology in use today, in particular the light water reactor, used for generating electricity (Chap. III); an estimate of future nuclear technology, in particular the prospective fast breeder (Chap. IV); current and projected nuclear fuel demand and supply in the U.S. and abroad (Chaps. V and VI); the constraints encountered today in meeting nuclear fuels demand (Chap. VII); and the major unresolved issues and options in nuclear fuels supply and use (Chap. VIII). The principal conclusions and recommendations (Chap. IX) are that the U.S. and other industrialized countries should strive for increased flexibility of primary energy fuel sources, and that a balanced energy strategy therefore depends on the secure supply of energy resources and the ability to substitute one form of fuel for another

  20. Present knowledge of nuclear cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Violante, V.; Tripodi, P.; Lombardi, C.

    2001-01-01

    The nuclear cold fusion, disclosed with clamour in 1989, was successively deemed by most people a blunder. However, the research activities went on, even if softly, and they have been producing more convincing and reproducible results, as well as theoretical models capable of explaining the noticeable anomalies of this phenomenon with respect to the hot fusion. Then, now the demonstration of the phenomenon may be considered valid and accepted. More time is needed to know whether and how this new process may be exploitable to produce energy on an industrial scale [it

  1. Quality assurance of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The guide presents the quality assurance requirements to be completed with in the procurement, design, manufacture, transport, handling and operation of the nuclear fuel. The guide also applies to the procurement of the control rods and the shield elements to be placed in the reactor. The guide is mainly aimed for the licensee responsible for the procurement and operation of fuel, for the fuel designer and manufacturer and for other organizations whose activities affect fuel quality, the safety of fuel transport, storage and operation. (2 refs.)

  2. Nuclear Fuel Cycle & Vulnerabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Brian D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-18

    The objective of safeguards is the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful nuclear activities to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or of other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown, and deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection. The safeguards system should be designed to provide credible assurances that there has been no diversion of declared nuclear material and no undeclared nuclear material and activities.

  3. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Tomihiro.

    1970-01-01

    The present invention relates to fuel assemblies employing wire wrap spacers for retaining uniform spatial distribution between fuel elements. Clad fuel elements are helically wound in the oxial direction with a wave-formed wire strand. The strand is therefore provided with spring action which permits the fuel elements to expand freely in the axial and radial directions so as to retain proper spacing and reduce stresses due to thermal deformation. (Ownes, K.J.)

  4. Fusion fuel cycle: material requirements and potential effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teofilo, V.L.; Bickford, W.E.; Long, L.W.; Price, B.A.; Mellinger, P.J.; Willingham, C.E.; Young, J.K.

    1980-10-01

    Environmental effluents that may be associated with the fusion fuel cycle are identified. Existing standards for controlling their release are summarized and anticipated regulatory changes are identified. The ability of existing and planned environmental control technology to limit effluent releases to acceptable levels is evaluated. Reference tokamak fusion system concepts are described and the principal materials required of the associated fuel cycle are analyzed. These materials include the fusion fuels deuterium and tritium; helium, which is used as a coolant for both the blanket and superconducting magnets; lithium and beryllium used in the blanket; and niobium used in the magnets. The chemical and physical processes used to prepare these materials are also described

  5. Fusion fuel cycle: material requirements and potential effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teofilo, V.L.; Bickford, W.E.; Long, L.W.; Price, B.A.; Mellinger, P.J.; Willingham, C.E.; Young, J.K.

    1980-10-01

    Environmental effluents that may be associated with the fusion fuel cycle are identified. Existing standards for controlling their release are summarized and anticipated regulatory changes are identified. The ability of existing and planned environmental control technology to limit effluent releases to acceptable levels is evaluated. Reference tokamak fusion system concepts are described and the principal materials required of the associated fuel cycle are analyzed. These materials include the fusion fuels deuterium and tritium; helium, which is used as a coolant for both the blanket and superconducting magnets; lithium and beryllium used in the blanket; and niobium used in the magnets. The chemical and physical processes used to prepare these materials are also described.

  6. Nuclear fuel string assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ip, A.K.; Koyanagi, K.; Tarasuk, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    A method of fabricating rodded fuels suitable for use in pressure tube type reactors and in pressure vessel type reactors is described. Fuel rods are secured as an inner and an outer sub-assembly, each rod attached between mounting rings secured to the rod ends. The two sub-assemblies are telescoped together and positioned by spaced thimbles located between them to provide precise positioning while permittng differential axial movement between the sub-assemblies. Such sub-assemblies are particularly suited for mounting as bundle strings. The method provides particular advantages in the assembly of annular-section fuel pins, which includes booster fuel containing enriched fuel material. (LL)

  7. Nuclear fuel rod loading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, H.B.; Macivergan, R.; Mckenzie, G.W.

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus incorporating a microprocessor control is provided for automatically loading nuclear fuel pellets into fuel rods commonly used in nuclear reactor cores. The apparatus comprises a split ''v'' trough for assembling segments of fuel pellets in rows and a shuttle to receive the fuel pellets from the split ''v'' trough when the two sides of the split ''v'' trough are opened. The pellets are weighed while in the shuttle, and the shuttle then moves the pellets into alignment with a fuel rod. A guide bushing is provided to assist the transfer of the pellets into the fuel rod. A rod carousel which holds a plurality of fuel rods presents the proper rod to the guide bushing at the appropriate stage in the loading sequence. The bushing advances to engage the fuel rod, and the shuttle advances to engage the guide bushing. The pellets are then loaded into the fuel rod by a motor operated push rod. The guide bushing includes a photocell utilized in conjunction with the push rod to measure the length of the row of fuel pellets inserted in the fuel rod

  8. Spent Nuclear Fuel project, project management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuquay, B.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project has been established to safely store spent nuclear fuel at the Hanford Site. This Project Management Plan sets forth the management basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. The plan applies to all fabrication and construction projects, operation of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project facilities, and necessary engineering and management functions within the scope of the project

  9. IAEA activities on nuclear fuel cycle 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oi, N.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discussing the IAEA activities on nuclear fuel cycle reviews the following issues: organizational charts of IAEA, division of nuclear power and the fuel cycle, nuclear fuel cycle and materials section; 1997 budget estimates; budget trends; the nuclear fuel cycle programme

  10. IAEA activities on nuclear fuel cycle 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oi, N [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Materials Section

    1997-12-01

    The presentation discussing the IAEA activities on nuclear fuel cycle reviews the following issues: organizational charts of IAEA, division of nuclear power and the fuel cycle, nuclear fuel cycle and materials section; 1997 budget estimates; budget trends; the nuclear fuel cycle programme.

  11. Alternatives for nuclear fuel disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Badillo A, V.; Palacios H, J.; Celis del Angel, L.

    2010-10-01

    The spent fuel is one of the most important issues in the nuclear industry, currently spent fuel management is been cause of great amount of research, investments in the construction of repositories or constructing the necessary facilities to reprocess the fuel, and later to recycle the plutonium recovered in thermal reactors. What is the best solution? or, What is the best technology for a specific solution? Many countries have deferred the decision on selecting an option, while other works actively constructing repositories and others implementing the reprocessing facilities to recycle the plutonium obtained from nuclear spent fuel. In Mexico the nuclear power is limited to two reactors BWR type and medium size. So the nuclear spent fuel discharged has been accommodated at reactor's spent fuel pools. Originally these pools have enough capacity to accommodate spent fuel for the 40 years of designed plant operation. However, currently is under process an extended power up rate to 20% of their original power and also there are plans to extend operational life for 20 more years. Under these conditions there will not be enough room for spent fuel in the pools. So this work describes some different alternatives that have been studied in Mexico to define which will be the best alternative to follow. (Author)

  12. Nuclear Fuel in Cofrentes NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Fuel is an essential in the nuclear power generating business because of its direct implications on safety, generating costs and the operating conditions and limitations of the facility. Fuel management in Cofrentes NPP has been targeted at optimized operation, enhanced reliability and the search for an in-depth knowledge of the design and licensing processes that will provide Iberdrola,as the responsible operator, with access to independent control of safety aspects related to fuel and free access to manufacturing markets. (Author)

  13. Conditioning of nuclear reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A method of conditioning the fuel of a nuclear reactor core to minimize failure of the fuel cladding comprising increasing the fuel rod power to a desired maximum power level at a rate below a critical rate which would cause cladding damage is given. Such conditioning allows subsequent freedom of power changes below and up to said maximum power level with minimized danger of cladding damage. (Auth.)

  14. Electrochemically induced nuclear fusion of deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorne, J.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper cold fusion of deuterium by electrolysis of heavy water onto a palladium (or titanium) cathode is reported. Contrary to the assumption of Fleishmann and Pons that electrochemically compressed D + exists inside the palladium cathode, the observations of Jones et al. can be partially explained by the simultaneous presence of deuteride D - and the highly mobile positive deuterium ion D + . The opposite charges reduce the intranuclear distance and enhance the tunneling fusion rate. Furthermore, alloying of lithium with palladium can stabilize a negatively charged deuteride ion due to the salinelike character of lithium deuteride. The enormous pressure (or fugacity), achieved by the applied electrochemical potential (10 30 atm), is a virtual pressure that would have existed in equilibrium with palladium deuteride (PdD x ). It is speculated that nuclear fusion occurs at the surface, and the PdD x serves as a reservoir for the supply of deuteride ions

  15. Nuclear energy and the fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folinsbee, R E

    1970-01-01

    The energy phenomenon of the first half of this century has been the increase in the use of petroleum and natural gas as fuels. World demand for petroleum energy has been increasing at the rate of 11% per yr. This demand is unsustainable, for the supply, as with any exhaustible resource, is limited. The continental energy policy is essentially one of integrating the North American supply and demand picture for the fossil fuels, using oil and gas from the interior of the continent to supply demand from the interior and using overseas supplies, up the limit of national security, for energy users farthest removed from these sources. The economics of expensive pipeline transportation as against cheap supertankers dictates this policy. Beyond any shadow of a doubt, the fuel of the future will be nuclear, and for this century almost entirely the energy of fission rather than of fusion. Recent estimates suggest that as much as 50% of the energy for the U.S. will be nuclear by the year 2,000, and for Canada the more modest National Energy Board estimate holds that in 1990, 35% of Canadian electric generation will be by nuclear power reactors concentrated in the fuel-starved province of Ontario. (17 refs.)

  16. Nuclear fuel pellet loading machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dazen, J.R.; Denero, J.V.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear fuel pellet loading machine is described including an inclined rack mounted on a base and having parallel spaced grooves on its upper surface arranged to support fuel rods. A fuel pellet tray is adapted to be placed on a table spaced from the rack, the tray having columns of fuel pellets which are in alignment with the open ends of fuel rods located in the rack grooves. A transition plate is mounted between the fuel rod rack and the fuel pellet tray to receive and guide the pellets into the open ends of the fuel rods. The pellets are pushed into the fuel rods by a number of mechanical fingers mounted on a motor operated block which is moved along the pellet tray length by a drive screw driven by the motor. To facilitate movement of the pellets in the fuel rods the rack is mounted on a number of spaced vibrators which vibrate the fuel rods during fuel pellet insertion. A pellet sensing device movable into an end of each fuel rod indicates to an operator when each rod has been charged with the correct number of pellets

  17. Nuclear power and its fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wymer, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    A series of viewgraphs describes the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear power, covering reactor types, sources of uranium, enrichment of uranium, fuel fabrication, transportation, fuel reprocessing, and radioactive wastes

  18. Concept of DT fuel cycle for a fusion neutron source DEMO-FNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananyev, Sergey S., E-mail: Ananyev_SS@nrcki.ru; Spitsyn, Alexander V.; Kuteev, Boris V.

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • We presented the concept of a deuterium-tritium fuel cycle of stationary thermonuclear reactor. • Data of fuel cycles for nuclear facility (DEMO-FNS) with 2 variants of the fuel mixture for NBI system are presented. • The amount of tritium which is required for operation of DEMO-FNS is estimated. - Abstract: The paper describes the concept of a deuterium-tritium fuel cycle of a steady-state thermonuclear reactor with a fusion power over 10 MW. Parameters of fuel cycle for nuclear facility (JET scale) with different types of fuel mixtures for neutral beam injection system are presented. Optimization of fuel cycle characteristics was aimed at reducing flows and inventory of hydrogen isotopes and tritium in fuel cycle subsystems. The calculations were carried out using computer code TC-FNS to estimate tritium distribution in fusion reactor systems and components of “tritium plant”. The code enables calculations of tritium flows and inventory in the tokamak systems. Calculations of tritium flows and accumulation have been carried out for two different cases of the fuel mixture for neutral beam injection (NBI) system. The amounts of tritium which is required for operation of all fuel cycle systems in two different cases of the fuel mixture for NBI are 0.45 “” kg (D:T = 1:0) and 0.9 kg (D:T = 1:1) respectively.

  19. Nuclear fuels and development of nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaram, C.V.; Mannan, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    Safe, reliable and economic operation of nuclear fission reactors, the source of nuclear power at present, requires judicious choice, careful preparation and specialised fabrication procedures for fuels and fuel element structural materials. These aspects of nuclear fuels (uranium, plutonium and their oxides and carbides), fuel element technology and structural materials (aluminium, zircaloy, stainless steel etc.) are discussed with particular reference to research and power reactors in India, e.g. the DHRUVA research reactor at BARC, Trombay, the pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWR) at Rajasthan and Kalpakkam, and the Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) at Kalpakkam. Other reactors like the gas-cooled reactors operating in UK are also mentioned. Because of the limited uranium resources, India has opted for a three-stage nuclear power programme aimed at the ultimate utilization of her abundant thorium resources. The first phase consists of natural uranium dioxide-fuelled, heavy water-moderated and cooled PHWR. The second phase was initiated with the attainment of criticality in the FBTR at Kalpakkam. Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR) utilize the plutonium and uranium by-products of phase 1. Moreover, FBR can convert thorium into fissile 233 U. They produce more fuel than is consumed - hence, the name breeders. The fuel parameters of some of the operating or proposed fast reactors in the world are compared. FBTR is unique in the choice of mixed carbides of plutonium and uranium as fuel. Factors affecting the fuel element performance and life in various reactors e.g. hydriding of zircaloys, fuel pellet-cladding interaction etc. in PHWR and void swelling; irradiation creep and helium embrittlement of fuel element structural materials in FBR are discussed along with measures to overcome some of these problems. (author). 15 refs., 9 tabs., 23 figs

  20. Project Icarus: Nuclear Fusion Propulsion Concept Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanic, M.

    Project Icarus will use nuclear fusion as the primary propulsion, since achieving breakeven is imminent within the next decade. Therefore, fusion technology provides confidence in further development and fairly high technological maturity by the time the Icarus mission would be plausible. Currently there are numerous (over 2 dozen) different fusion approaches that are simultaneously being developed around the World and it is difficult to predict which of the concepts is going to be the most successful one. This study tried to estimate current technological maturity and possible technological extrapolation of fusion approaches for which appropriate data could be found. Figures of merit that were assessed include: current technological state, mass and volume estimates, possible gain values, main advantages and disadvantages of the concept and an attempt to extrapolate current technological state for the next decade or two. Analysis suggests that Magnetic Confinement Fusion (MCF) concepts are not likely to deliver sufficient performance due to size, mass, gain and large technological barriers of the concept. However, ICF and PJMIF did show potential for delivering necessary performance, assuming appropriate techno- logical advances. This paper is a submission of the Project Icarus Study Group.

  1. Study of DD versus DT fusion fuel cycles for different fusion-fission hybrid energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.; Baker, C.C.

    1981-01-01

    A study was performed to investigate the characteristics of an energy system to produce fissile fuel for fission reactors. DD and DT fusion reactors were examined in this study with either a thorium or uranium blanket for each fusion reactor. Various fuel cycles were examined for light-water reactors including the denatured fuel cycles (which may offer proliferation resistance compared to other fuel cycles); these fuel cycles include a uranium fuel cycle with 239 Pu makeup, a thorium fuel cycle with 239 Pu makeup, a denatured uranium fuel cycle with 233 U makeup, and a denatured thorium fuel cycle with 233 U makeup. Four different blankets were considered for this study. The first two blankets have a tritium breeding capability for DT reactors. Lithium oxide (Li 2 O) was used for tritium breeding due to its high lithium density and high temperature capability; however, the use of Li 2 O may result in higher tritium inventories compared to other solid breeders

  2. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betten, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    Under the invention the fuel assembly is particularly suitable for liquid metal cooled fast neutron breeder reactors. Hence, according to the invention a fuel assembly cladding includes inward corrugations with respect to the remainder of the cladding according to a recurring pattern determined by the pitch of the metal wire helically wound round the fuel rods of the assembly. The parts of the cladding pressed inwards correspond to the areas in which the wire encircling the peripheral fuel rods is generally located apart from the cladding, thereby reducing the play between the cladding and the peripheral fuel rods situated in these areas. The reduction in the play in turn improves the coolant flow in the internal secondary channels of the fuel assembly to the detriment of the flow in the peripheral secondary channels and thereby establishes a better coolant fluid temperature profile [fr

  3. Nuclear fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natori, Hisahide; Kurihara, Kunitoshi.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the fuel safety by decreasing the gap conductance between fuels and cladding tubes, as well as improve the reactor core controllability by rendering the void coefficient negative. Constitution: Fuel assemblies in a pressure tube comprise a tie-rod, fuel rods in a central region, and fuel rods with burnable poison in the outer circumference region. Here, B 4 C is used as the burnable poison by 1.17 % by weight ratio. The degrees of enrichment for the fissile plutonium as PuO 2 -UO 2 fuel used in the assemblies are 2.7 %, 2.7 % and 1.5 % respectively in the innermost layer, the intermediate layer and the outermost layer. This increases the burn-up degree to improve the plant utilizability, whereby the void coefficient is rendered negative to improve the reactor core controllability. (Horiuchi, T.)

  4. Nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Shungo; Ogiya, Shunsuke.

    1990-01-01

    In a fuel assembly, if the entire fuels comprise mixed oxide fuels, reactivity change in cold temperature-power operation is increased to worsen the reactor shutdown margin. The reactor shutdown margin has been improved by increasing the burnable poison concentration thereby reducing the reactivity of the fuel assembly. However, since unburnt poisons are present at the completion of the reactor operation, the reactivity can not be utilized effectively to bring about economical disadvantage. In view of the above, the reactivity change between lower temperature-power operations is reduced by providing a non-boiling range with more than 9.1% of cross sectional area at the inside of a channel at the central portion of the fuel assembly. As a result, the amount of the unburnt burnable poisons is decreased, the economy of fuel assembly is improved and the reactor shutdown margin can be increase. (N.H.)

  5. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnesale, A.

    1980-01-01

    As nuclear power expands globally, so too expands the capability for producing nuclear weapons. The International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE) was organized in 1977 for the purpose of exploring two areas: (1) ways in which nuclear energy can be made available to help meet world energy needs, and (2) means by which the attendant risk of weapons proliferation can be held to a minimum. INFCE is designed for technical and analytical study rather than negotiation. Its organizational structure and issues under consideration are discussed. Some even broader issues that emerge from consideration of the relationships between the peaceful and military use of nuclear energy are also discussed. These are different notions of the meaning of nuclear proliferation, nuclear export policy, the need of a nuclear policy to be both a domestic as well as a foreign one, and political-military measures that can help reduce incentives of countries to acquire nuclear weapons of their own

  6. Once more about cold nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brudanin, V.B.; Bystritsky, V.M.; Egorov, V.G.

    1989-01-01

    The results of the experiments on the search for cold nuclear d-d fusion in chemically pure titanium are given both for electrolysis of heavy water D 2 O and for titanium saturation with gaseous deuterium. The saturation took place at the temperature of 77K and pressure of 50 and 150 atm. A round of experiments with temperature varying from 1 to 600 atm was carried out. The limiting values of the partial rate of the nuclear reaction of d-d fusion with neutron production were obtained per deuteron (at the 95% confidence level): λ f ≤4x10 -25 s -1 (experiment with electrolysis), λ f ≤7x10 -28 s -1 (experiment with gaseous deuterium). 7 refs.; 5 figs.; 2 tabs

  7. Nuclear fuel financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lurf, G.

    1975-01-01

    Fuel financing is only at its beginning. A logical way of developing financing model is a step by step method starting with the financing of pre-payments. The second step will be financing of natural uranium and enrichment services to the point where the finished fuel elements are delivered to the reactor operator. The third step should be the financing of fuel elements during the time the elements are inserted in the reactor. (orig.) [de

  8. Nuclear fuel cycle. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle information in the main countries that develop, supply or use nuclear energy is presented. Data about Japan, FRG, United Kingdom, France and Canada are included. The information is presented in a tree-like graphic way. (C.S.A.) [pt

  9. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Introductory Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-02

    The nuclear fuel cycle is a complex entity, with many stages and possibilities, encompassing natural resources, energy, science, commerce, and security, involving a host of nations around the world. This overview describes the process for generating nuclear power using fissionable nuclei.

  10. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Introductory Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle is a complex entity, with many stages and possibilities, encompassing natural resources, energy, science, commerce, and security, involving a host of nations around the world. This overview describes the process for generating nuclear power using fissionable nuclei.

  11. Nuclear fuel cycle. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle information in some countries that develop, supply or use nuclear energy is presented. Data about Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Netherlands, Italy, Denmarmark, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, Finland, Spain and India are included. The information is presented in a tree-like graphic way. (C.S.A.) [pt

  12. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Safety Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garvin, L.J.

    1996-02-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Safety Management Plan describes the new nuclear facility regulatory requirements basis for the Spemt Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project and establishes the plan to achieve compliance with this basis at the new SNF Project facilities

  13. Quantification of fusion in ashes from solid fuel combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Aslaug; Frandsen, Flemming; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1999-01-01

    The fusion of ashes produced during solid fuel combustion greatly affects the tendency of these ashes to cause operational problems in utility boilers. In this paper, a new and quantitative laboratory method for assessing the fusion of ashes based on simultaneous thermal analysis, STA, is described...

  14. Device for reprocessing nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Mamoru.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To readily discharge a nuclear fuel by burning the nuclear fuel as it is without a pulverizing step and removing the graphite and other coated fuel particles. Constitution: An oxygen supply pipe is connected to the lower portion of a discharge chamber having an inlet for the fuel, and an exhaust pipe is connected to the upper portion of the chamber. The fuel mounted on a metallic gripping member made of metallic material is inserted from the inlet, the gripping member is connected through a conductor to a voltage supply unit, oxygen is then supplied through the oxygen supply tube to the discharge chamber, the voltage supply unit is subsequently operated, and discharge takes place among the fuels. Thus, high heat is generated by the discharge, the graphite carbon of the fuel is burnt, silicon carbide is destroyed and decomposed, the isolated nuclear fuel particles are discharged from the exhaust port, and the combustion gas and small embers are exhausted from the exhaust tube. Accordingly, radioactive dusts are not so much generated as when using a mechanical pulverizing means, and prescribed objective can be achieved. (Yoshino, Y.)

  15. Radio frequency system for nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozeki, Shoichiro; Sagawa, Norimoto; Takizawa, Teruhiro

    1987-01-01

    The importance of radio frequency waves has been increasing in the area of nuclear fusion since they are indispensable for heating of plasma, etc. This report outlines radio frequency techniques used for nuclear fusion and describes the development of radio frequency systems (radio frequency plasma heating system and current drive system). Presently, in-depth studies are underway at various research institutes to achieve plasma heating by injection of radio frequency electric power. Three ranges of frequencies, ICRF (ion cyclotron range of frequency), LHRF (lower hybrid range of frequency) and ECRF (electron cyclotron range of frequency), are considered promissing for radio frequency heating. Candidate waves for plasma current driving include ECW (electron cyclotron wave), LHW (lower hybrid wave), MSW (magnetic sound wave), ICW (ion cyclotron wave) with minority component, and FW (fast wave). FW is the greatest in terms of current drive efficiency. In general, a radio frequency system for nuclear fusion consists of a radio frequency power source, transmission/matching circuit component and plasma connection component. (Nogami, K.)

  16. Verification of cold nuclear fusion reaction, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Zenko; Aratono, Yasuyuki; Hirabayashi, Takakuni

    1991-01-01

    Can cold nuclear fusion reaction occur as is expected? If it occurs, what extent is its reaction probability? At present after 2 years elapsed since its beginning, the clear solution of these questions is not yet obtained. In many reaction systems employing different means, the experiments to confirm the cold nuclear fusion reaction have been attempted. In order to confirm that the nuclear fusion reaction of deuterium mutually has occurred, the neutrons, He-3, protons, tritium or generated heat, which were formed by the reaction and released from the system, are measured. Since it is considered that the frequency of the occurrence at normal temperature of the reaction is very low, it is necessary to select the most suitable method upon evaluating the limit of detection peculiar to the measuring methods. The methods of measuring neutrons, protons, gamma ray and generated heat, and the reaction systems by electrolytic process and dry process are explained. The detection of plural kinds of the reaction products and the confirmation of synchronism of signals are important. (K.I.)

  17. Power source system for nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Satoshi.

    1975-01-01

    Object: When using an external system power source and an exclusive power source in a power source circuit for supplying power to the coils of a nuclear fusion apparatus, to minimize the capacity of the exclusive power source and provide an economical power source circuit construction. Structure: In the initial stage of the power supply, rectifying means provided in individual blocks are connected in parallel on the AC side, and power is supplied to the coils of the nuclear fusion apparatus from an external system power source with the exclusive power source held in the disconnected state. Further, at an instant when the limit of permissible input is reached, the afore-mentioned parallel circuit consisting of rectifying means is disconnected, while at the same time the exclusive power source is connected to the input side of the rectifying means provided in a block corresponding to the exclusive power source side, thereby supplying power to the coils of the nuclear fusion apparatus from both the external system power source and exclusive power source. (Kamimura, M.)

  18. Application of spin-polarized fuel to fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakuta, Y.; Nakao, Y.; Honda, T.; Honda, Y.; Nakashima, H.

    1990-01-01

    Studies on the application of the polarized fuel to the inertial fusion reaction have been carried out. It is shown that the use of the spin-polarized fuel D vector·T vector or D vector· 3 (He)vector reduces the irradiating laser power more than 50% compared with the use of the unpolarized fuel. The depolarization rate of the polarized fuel during the fusing process is found to be almost negligible. (author)

  19. Nuclear fusion: technology development and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ana, G.; Brad, S.; Lazar, A.; Spiridon, I.; Vijulie, M.

    2009-01-01

    The strategy for reducing the enhanced greenhouse effect, affecting our planet and the increasing energy demand caused by global growth of population, as well, is, certainly, that of adopting, all the three long-term carbon-free options for energy: renewable sources, fission and fusion reactions. All of them should be further explored and developed for the welfare of future generations, thus leaving them the option of a clean and green energy. From all those available options, the fusion is viewed as an energy source that would be effective in solving future demands, referring to the amount of the energy that can be produced taking into account spent fuel to obtain it. The slow (but steady) progress of fusion development linked with the need for large and expensive experimental devices is remarkable; all available technical and scientific information from experiment shows that progress is being made towards a successful reactor (ITER). The desired objective of this intensive research is obtaining of an industrial reactor able to cover energy future requirements. For the construction of this desired reactor, special designs systems are required. The TRF (TRITIUM RECOVERY FACILITY) is one of the installations that have a major importance maintaining an efficient fuel cycle of the reactor in proper function stage. A test model of TRF for implementation in reactor systems, proposed and developed at ICIT Ramnicu Valcea is presented. (authors)

  20. Progress of research and development of nuclear fusion and development of large nuclear fusion device technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In the last several years, the results of tokamak experiments were conspicuous, and the progress of plasma confinement performance, transport mechanism, divertors and impurities, helium transport and exhaust, electric current drive, magnetic field ripple effect and high speed particle transport and DT experiment are reported. The other confinement methods than tokamak, the related theories and reactor technology are described. The conceptual design of ITER was carried out by the cooperation of Japan, USA, EC and the former USSR. The projects of developing nuclear fusion in various countries, the design and the required research and development of ITER, the reconstruction and the required research and development of JT-60, JET and TFTR, the design and the required research and development of large helical device, the state of research and development of laser nuclear fusion and inversion magnetic field pinch nuclear fusion, the activities and roles of industrial circles in large nuclear fusion device technology, and the long term perspective of the technical development of nuclear fusion are described. (K.I.)

  1. Nuclear fuel element end fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1979-01-01

    A typical embodiment of the invention has an array of sockets that are welded to the intersections of the plates that form the upper and lower end fittings of a nuclear reactor fuel element. The sockets, which are generally cylindrical in shape, are oriented in directions that enable the longitudinal axes of the sockets to align with the longitudinal axes of the fuel rods that are received in the respective sockets. Detents impressed in the surfaces of the sockets engage mating grooves that are formed in the ends of the fuel rods to provide for the structural integrity of the fuel element

  2. Nuclear fuel recycling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.R.; Koch, A.K.; Krawczyk, A.

    1981-01-01

    A process is provided for recycling sintered uranium dioxide fuel pellets rejected during fuel manufacture and the swarf from pellet grinding. The scrap material is prepared mechanically by crushing and milling as a high solids content slurry, using scrap sintered UO 2 pellets as the grinding medium under an inert atmosophere

  3. Nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Hiroshi.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To suppress iodine release thereby prevent stress corrosion cracks in fuel cans by dispersing ferrous oxide at the outer periphery of sintered uranium dioxide pellets filled and sealed within zirconium alloy fuel cans of fuel elements. Constitution: Sintered uranium dioxide pellets to be filled and sealed within a zirconium alloy fuel can are prepared either by mixing ferric oxide powder in uranium dioxide powder, sintering and then reducing at low temperature or by mixing iron powder in uranium dioxide powder, sintering and then oxidizing at low temperature. In this way, ferrous oxide is dispersed on the outer periphery of the sintered uranium dioxide pellets to convert corrosive fission products iodine into iron iodide, whereby the iodine release is suppressed and the stress corrosion cracks can be prevented in the fuel can. (Moriyama, K.)

  4. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrman, B.; Nylund, O.

    1984-01-01

    A fuel assembly with a fuel channel which surrounds a plurality of fuel rods and which is divided, by means of a stiffening device of cruciform cross-section and four wings, into four sub-channels each of which comprises a bundle of fuel rods. Each fuel channel side has a plurality of stamped, inwardly-directed projections, arranged vertically one after the other, aid projections being welded to one and the same stiffening wing. Each one of the wall portions located between the projections defines, together with two adjacently positioned projections and a portion of the stiffening wing, a communiation opening between two bundles located on on one side each of the stiffening wing. (Author)

  5. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Tsuneyasu.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a mechanism for the prevention of fuel pellet dislocation in fuel can throughout fuel fablication, fuel transportation and reactor operation. Constitution: A plenum spacer as a mechanism for the prevention of fuel pellet dislocation inserted into a cladding tube comprises split bodies bundled by a frame and an expansion body being capable of inserting into the central cavity of the split bodies. The expansion body is, for example, in a conical shape and the split bodies are formed so that they define in the center portion, when disposed along the inner wall of the cladding tube, a gap capable of inserting the conical body. The plenum spacer is assembled by initially inserting the split bodies in a closed state into the cladding tube after the loading of the pellets, pressing their peripheral portions and then inserting the expansion body into the space to urge the split bodies to the inner surface of the cladding tube. (Kawakami, Y.)

  6. Nuclear fuels accounting interface: River Bend experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    This presentation describes nuclear fuel accounting activities from the perspective of nuclear fuels management and its interfaces. Generally, Nuclear Fuels-River Bend Nuclear Group (RBNG) is involved on a day-by-day basis with nuclear fuel materials accounting in carrying out is procurement, contract administration, processing, and inventory management duties, including those associated with its special nuclear materials (SNM)-isotopics accountability oversight responsibilities as the Central Accountability Office for the River Bend Station. As much as possible, these duties are carried out in an integrated, interdependent manner. From these primary functions devolve Nuclear Fuels interfacing activities with fuel cost and tax accounting. Noting that nuclear fuel tax accounting support is of both an esoteric and intermittent nature, Nuclear Fuels-RBNG support of developments and applications associated with nuclear fuel cost accounting is stressed in this presentation

  7. Rack for nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinstein, H.J.; Gordon, C.B.; Robison, A.; Clark, P.M.

    1977-01-01

    Disclosed is a rack for storing spent nuclear fuel elements in which a plurality of aligned rows of upright enclosures of generally square cross-sectional areas contain vertically disposed spent fuel elements. Each fuel element is supported at the lower end thereof by a respective support that rests on the floor of the spent fuel pool for a nuclear power plant. An open rack frame is employed as an upright support for the enclosures containing the spent fuel elements. Legs at the lower corners of the frame rest on the floor of the pool to support the frame. In one exemplary embodiment, the support for the fuel element is in the form of a base on which a fuel element rests and the base is supported by legs. In another exemplary embodiment, each fuel element is supported on the pool floor by a self-adjusting support in the form of a base on which a fuel element rests and the base rests on a ball or swivel joint for self-alignment. The lower four corners of the frame are supported by legs adjustable in height for leveling the frame. Each adjustable frame leg is in the form of a base resting on the pool floor and the base supports a threaded post. The threaded post adjustably engages a threaded column on which rests the lower end of the frame. 16 claims, 14 figures

  8. Nuclear fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Toyoji.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To remove failures caused from combination of fuel-cladding interactions, hydrogen absorptions, stress corrosions or the likes by setting the quantity ratio of uranium or uranium and plutonium relative to oxygen to a specific range in fuel pellets and forming a specific size of a through hole at the center of the pellets. Constitution: In a fuel rods of a structure wherein fuel pellets prepared by compacting and sintering uranium dioxide, or oxide mixture consisting of oxides of plutonium and uranium are sealed with a zirconium metal can, the ratio of uranium or uranium and plutonium to oxygen is specified as 1 : 2.01 - 1 : 2.05 in the can and a passing hole of a size in the range of 15 - 30% of the outer diameter of the fuel pellet is formed at the center of the pellet. This increases the oxygen partial pressure in the fuel rod, oxidizes and forms a protection layer on the inner surface of the can to control the hydrogen absorption and stress corrosion. Locallized stress due to fuel cladding interaction (PCMI) can also be moderated. (Horiuchi, T.)

  9. Material input of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rissanen, S.; Tarjanne, R.

    2001-01-01

    The Material Input (MI) of nuclear fuel, expressed in terms of the total amount of natural material needed for manufacturing a product, is examined. The suitability of the MI method for assessing the environmental impacts of fuels is also discussed. Material input is expressed as a Material Input Coefficient (MIC), equalling to the total mass of natural material divided by the mass of the completed product. The material input coefficient is, however, only an intermediate result, which should not be used as such for the comparison of different fuels, because the energy contents of nuclear fuel is about 100 000-fold compared to the energy contents of fossil fuels. As a final result, the material input is expressed in proportion to the amount of generated electricity, which is called MIPS (Material Input Per Service unit). Material input is a simplified and commensurable indicator for the use of natural material, but because it does not take into account the harmfulness of materials or the way how the residual material is processed, it does not alone express the amount of environmental impacts. The examination of the mere amount does not differentiate between for example coal, natural gas or waste rock containing usually just sand. Natural gas is, however, substantially more harmful for the ecosystem than sand. Therefore, other methods should also be used to consider the environmental load of a product. The material input coefficient of nuclear fuel is calculated using data from different types of mines. The calculations are made among other things by using the data of an open pit mine (Key Lake, Canada), an underground mine (McArthur River, Canada) and a by-product mine (Olympic Dam, Australia). Furthermore, the coefficient is calculated for nuclear fuel corresponding to the nuclear fuel supply of Teollisuuden Voima (TVO) company in 2001. Because there is some uncertainty in the initial data, the inaccuracy of the final results can be even 20-50 per cent. The value

  10. Evaluation of DD and DT fusion fuel cycles for different fusion-fission energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.

    1980-01-01

    A study has been carried out in order to investigate the characteristics of an energy system to produce a new source of fissile fuel for existing fission reactors. The denatured fuel cycles were used because it gives additional proliferation resistance compared to other fuel cycles. DT and DD fusion drivers were examined in this study with a thorium or uranium blanket for each fusion driver. Various fuel cycles were studied for light-water and heavy-water reactors. The cost of electricity for each energy system was calculated

  11. Transport of irradiated nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    In response to public interest in the transport by rail through London of containers of irradiated fuel elements on their way from nuclear power stations to Windscale, the Central Electricity Generating Board and British Rail held three information meetings in London in January 1980. One meeting was for representatives of London Borough Councils and Members of Parliament with a known interest in the subject, and the others were for press, radio and television journalists. This booklet contains the main points made by the principal speakers from the CEGB and BR. (The points covered include: brief description of the fuel cycle; effect of the fission process in producing plutonium and fission products in the fuel element; fuel transport; the fuel flasks; protection against accidents; experience of transporting fuel). (U.K.)

  12. Fuel assembly for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Akihiro; Haikawa, Katsumasa; Haraguchi, Yuko; Nakamura, Mitsuya; Aoyama, Motoo; Koyama, Jun-ichi.

    1996-01-01

    In a BWR type fuel assembly comprising first fuel rods filled with nuclear fission products and second fuel rods filled with burnable poisons and nuclear fission products, the concentration of the burnable poisons mixed to a portion of the second fuel rods is controlled so that it is reduced at the upper portion and increased at the lower portion in the axial direction. In addition, a product of the difference of an average concentration of burnable poisons between the upper portion and the lower portion and the number of fuel rods is determined to higher than a first set value determined corresponding to the limit value of a maximum linear power density. The sum of the difference of the average concentration of the burnable poisons between the upper portion and the lower portion of the second fuel rod and the number of the second fuel rods is determined to lower than a second set value determined corresponding to a required value of a surplus reactivity. If the number of the fuel rods mixed with the burnable poisons is increased, the infinite multiplication factor at an initial stage of the burning is lowered and, if the concentration of the mixed burnable poisons is increased, the time of exhaustion of the burnable poisons is delayed. As a result, the maximum value of the infinite multiplication factor is suppressed thereby enabling to control surplus reactivity. (N.H.)

  13. Nuclear fusion research at Tokamak Energy Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windridge, Melanie J.; Gryaznevich, Mikhail; Kingham, David

    2017-01-01

    Tokamak Energy's approach is close to the mainstream of nuclear fusion, and chooses a spherical tokamak, which is an economically developed form of Tokamak reactor design, as research subjects together with a high-temperature superconducting magnet. In the theoretical prediction, it is said that spherical tokamak can make tokamak reactor's scale compact compared with ITER or DEMO. The dependence of fusion energy multiplication factor on reactor size is small. According to model studies, it has been found that the center coil can be protected from heat and radiation damage even if the neutron shielding is optimized to 35 cm instead of 1 m. As a small tokamak with a high-temperature superconducting magnet, ST25 HTS, it demonstrated in 2015 continuous operation for more than 24 hours as a world record. Currently, this company is constructing a slightly larger ST40 type, and it is scheduled to start operation in 2017. ST40 is designed to demonstrate that it can realize a high magnetic field with a compact size and aims at attaining 8-10 keV (reaching the nuclear fusion reaction temperature at about 100 million degrees). This company will verify the startup and heating technology by the coalescence of spherical tokamak expected to have plasma current of 2 MA, and will also use 2 MW of neutral particle beam heating. In parallel with ST40, it is promoting a development program for high-temperature superconducting magnet. (A.O.)

  14. Inspection of nuclear fuel transport in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo Mendez, J.

    1977-01-01

    The experience acquired in inspecting nuclear fuel shipments carried out in Spain will serve as a basis for establishing the regulations wich must be adhered to for future transports, as the transport of nuclear fuels in Spain will increase considerably within the next years as a result of the Spanish nuclear program. The experience acquired in nuclear fuel transport inspection is described. (author) [es

  15. Nuclear fuel elements design, fabrication and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Frost, Brian R T

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear Fuel Elements: Design, Fabrication and Performance is concerned with the design, fabrication, and performance of nuclear fuel elements, with emphasis on fast reactor fuel elements. Topics range from fuel types and the irradiation behavior of fuels to cladding and duct materials, fuel element design and modeling, fuel element performance testing and qualification, and the performance of water reactor fuels. Fast reactor fuel elements, research and test reactor fuel elements, and unconventional fuel elements are also covered. This volume consists of 12 chapters and begins with an overvie

  16. Nuclear fusion in a solid body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romodanov, V.A.; Savin, V.I.; Shakhurin, M.V.; Chernyavskij, V.T.; Pustovit, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    The present work was aimed at investigating a possibility to have a fusion reaction during the interaction of gaseous deuterium with various metals under conditions of glow discharge. It is shown that neutron flux which presumably occurs due to the reaction of nuclear fusion exceeded the background level two times maximum for such materials as Cr, Pd, B, Li. A conclusion is made that for the recording of neutrons which can be generated under bombardment of material surfaces with accelerated ions an additional shielding of standard recorders is required against electromagnetic oscillations both in the input circuits and power supply circuits. A significant increase of tritium concentration in deuterium was recorded (by mass spectrometry and β activity measurement) during the passage of the latter through the metal being bombarded with accelerated ions from glow discharge plasma

  17. Who works with nuclear fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettiger, H.

    1977-01-01

    Humanity today, and especially the youth in industrial nations, undergoes a trend towards a 'post-industrial society'. This may be due to the resignation of those who think themselves unable to meet the increasing demands made on social production. The paper draws up a concept to give humanity a new interest in life. First, the paradox educational situation in the FRG today is outlined. Nuclear fusion technology and the industrial development necessary for its implementation are offered as a way out of the paradox situation of the present educational system. The demands to be made on an educational system for fusion technology are discussed. This strategy for world-wide economic growth integrates the intelligence potential of the industrial nations and the potential labour force of the Third World. (GG) [de

  18. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Tadashi; Sato, Kenji; Goto, Masakazu.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate identification of a fuel assembly upon fuel exchange in BWR type reactors. Constitution: Fluorescent material is coated or metal plating is applied to the impressed portion of a upper tie plate handle of a fuel assembly, and the fluorescent material or the metal plating surface is covered with a protective membrane made of transparent material. This enables to distinguish the impressed surface from a distant place and chemical reaction between the impressed surface and the reactor water can be prevented. Furthermore, since the protective membrane is formed such that it protrudes toward the upper side relative to the impressed surface, there is no risk of depositions of claddings thereover. (Moriyama, K.)

  19. Nuclear fuel cladding material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahigashi, Shigeo.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To largely improve the durability and the safety of fuel cladding material. Constitution: Diffusion preventive layers, e.g., aluminum or the like are covered on both sides of a zirconium alloy base layer of thin material, and corrosion resistant layers, e.g., copper or the like are covered thereon. This thin plate material is intimately wound in a circularly tubular shape in a plurality of layers to form a fuel cladding tube. With such construction, corrosion of the tube due to fuel and impurity can be prevented by the corrosion resistant layers, and the diffusion of the corrosion resistant material to the zirconium alloy can be prevented by the diffusion preventive layers. Since a plurality of layers are cladded, even if the corrosion resistant layers are damaged or cracked due to stress corrosion, only one layer is damaged or cracked, but the other layers are not affected. (Sekiya, K.)

  20. Nuclear reactor fuel rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, H.; Mindnich, F.R.

    1973-01-01

    The fuel rod consists of a can with at least one end cap and a plenum spring between this cap and the fuel. To prevent the hazard that a eutectic mixture is formed during welding of the end cap, a thermal insulation is added between the end cap and plenum spring. It consists of a comical extension of the end cap with a terminal disc against which the spring is supported. The end cap, the extension, and the disc may be formed by one or several pieces. If the disc is separated from the other parts it may be manufactured from chrome steel or VA steel. (DG) [de

  1. Modular nuclear fuel assembly rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.J.

    1982-01-01

    A modular nuclear fuel assembly rack constructed of an array of identical cells, each cell constructed of a plurality of identical flanged plates. The unique assembly of the plates into a rigid rack provides a cellular compartment for nuclear fuel assemblies and a cavity between the cells for accepting neutron absorbing materials thus allowing a closely spaced array. The modular rack size can be easily adapted to conform with available storage space. U-shaped flanges at the edges of the plates are nested together at the intersection of four cells in the array. A bar is placed at the intersection to lock the cells together

  2. Spent nuclear fuel shipping basket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, A.H.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a basket for a cask for transporting nuclear fuel elements. It comprises: sleeve members, each of the sleeve members having interior cross-section dimensions for receiving a nuclear fuel assembly such that the assembly is restrained from lateral movement within the sleeve member, apertured disk members, means for axially aligning the apertures in the disk members, and means for maintaining the disk members in fixed spaced relationship to form a disk assembly, comprising an array of disks, the aligned apertures of the disks being adapted to receive the sleeve members and maintain them in fixed spaced relationship

  3. Spent nuclear fuel in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peev, P.; Kalimanov, N.

    1999-01-01

    The development of the nuclear energy sector in Bulgaria is characterized by two major stages. The first stage consisted of providing a scientific basis for the programme for development of the nuclear energy sector in the country and was completed with the construction of an experimental water-water reactor. At present, spent nuclear fuel from this reactor is placed in a water filled storage facility and will be transported back to Russia. The second stage consisted of the construction of the 6 NPP units at the Kozloduy site. The spent nuclear fuel from the six units is stored in at reactor pools and in an additional on-site storage facility which is nearly full. In order to engage the government of the country with the on-site storage problems, the new management of the National Electric Company elaborated a policy on nuclear fuel cycle and radioactive waste management. The underlying policy is de facto the selection of the 'deferred decision' option for its spent fuel management. (author)

  4. Fuel Fabrication and Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-02

    The uranium from the enrichment plant is still in the form of UF6. UF6 is not suitable for use in a reactor due to its highly corrosive chemistry as well as its phase diagram. UF6 is converted into UO2 fuel pellets, which are in turn placed in fuel rods and assemblies. Reactor designs are variable in moderators, coolants, fuel, performance etc.The dream of energy ‘too-cheap to meter’ is no more, and now the nuclear power industry is pushing ahead with advanced reactor designs.

  5. Fuel bundle for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.W.; Flora, B.S.; Ford, K.L.

    1977-01-01

    The invention concerns a new, simple and inexpensive system for assembling and dismantling a nuclear reactor fuel bundle. Several fuel rods are fitted in parallel rows between two retaining plates which secure the fuel rods in position and which are maintained in an assembled position by means of several stays fixed to the two end plates. The invention particularly refers to an improved apparatus for fixing the stays to the upper plate by using locking fittings secured to rotating sleeves which are applied against this plate [fr

  6. Present status of nuclear fusion research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discussions are included on the following topics: (1) plasma confinement theoretical research, (2) torus plasma research, (3) plasma measurement research, (4) technical development of equipment, (5) plasma heating, (6) vacuum wall surface phenomena, (7) critical plasma test equipment design, (8) noncircular cross-sectional torus test equipment design, (9) nuclear fusion reactor design, (10) nuclear fusion reactor engineering, (11) summary of nuclear fusion research in foreign countries, and (12) long range plan in Japan

  7. Regulating nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    When Parliament passed the Atomic Energy Control Act in 1946, it erected the framework for nuclear safety in Canada. Under the Act, the government created the Atomic Energy Control Board and gave it the authority to make and enforce regulations governing every aspect of nuclear power production and use in this country. The Act gives the Control Board the flexibility to amend its regulations to adapt to changes in technology, health and safety standards, co-operative agreements with provincial agencies and policy regarding trade in nuclear materials. This flexibility has allowed the Control Board to successfully regulate the nuclear industry for more than 40 years. Its mission statement 'to ensure that the use of nuclear energy in Canada does not pose undue risk to health, safety, security and the environment' concisely states the Control Board's primary objective. The Atomic Energy Control Board regulates all aspects of nuclear energy in Canada to ensure there is no undue risk to health, safety, security or the environment. It does this through a multi-stage licensing process

  8. World nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    A coloured pull-out wall chart is presented showing the fuel cycle interests of the world. Place names are marked and symbols are used to indicate regions associated with uranium or thorium deposits, mining, milling, enrichment, reprocessing and fabrication. (UK)

  9. Contracting for nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuessler, C.M.

    1981-10-01

    This paper deals with uranium sales contracts, i.e. with contractual arrangements in the first steps of the fuel cycle, which cover uranium production and conversion. The various types of contract are described and, where appropriate, their underlying business philosophy and their main terms and conditions. Finally, the specific common features of such contracts are reviewed. (NEA) [fr

  10. Nuclear fuel cycle studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    For the metal-matrix encapsulation of radioactive waste, brittle-fracture, leach-rate, and migration studies are being conducted. For fuel reprocessing, annular and centrifugal contactors are being tested and modeled. For the LWBR proof-of-breeding project, the full-scale shear and the prototype dissolver were procured and tested. 5 figures

  11. Axially alignable nuclear fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, E.B.; Klahn, D.H.; Marlowe, M.O.

    1978-01-01

    An axially alignable nuclear fuel pellet of the type stacked in end-to-end relationship within a tubular cladding is described. Fuel cladding failures can occur at pellet interface locations due to mechanical interaction between misaligned fuel pellets and the cladding. Mechanical interaction between the cladding and the fuel pellets loads the cladding and causes increased cladding stresses. Nuclear fuel pellets are provided with an end structure that increases plastic deformation of the pellets at the interface between pellets so that lower alignment forces are required to straighten axially misaligned pellets. Plastic deformation of the pellet ends results in less interactions beween the cladding and the fuel pellets and significantly lowers cladding stresses. The geometry of pellets constructed according to the invention also reduces alignment forces required to straighten fuel pellets that are tilted within the cladding. Plastic deformation of the pellets at the pellet interfaces is increased by providing pellets with at least one end face having a centrally-disposed raised area of convex shape so that the mean temperature and shear stress of the contact area is higher than that of prior art pellets

  12. Nuclear fuel fabrication in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondal Rao, N

    1975-01-01

    The important role of a nuclear power program in meeting the growing needs of power in India is explained. The successful installation of Tarapur Atomic Power Station and Rajasthan Atomic Power Station as well as the work at Madras Atomic Power Station are described. The development of the Atomic Fuels Division and the Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad which is mainly concerned with the fabrication of fuel elements and the reprocessing of fuels are explained. The N.F.C. essentially has the following constituent units : Zirconium Plant (ZP) comprising of Zirconium Oxide Plant, Zirconium Sponge Plant and Zirconium Fabrication Plant; Natural Uranium Oxide Plant (UOP); Ceramic Fuel Fabrication Plant (CFFP); Enriched Uranium Oxide Plant (EUOP); Enriched Fuel Fabrication Plant (EEFP) and Quality Control Laboratory for meeting the quality control requirements of all plants. The capacities of various plants at the NFC are mentioned. The work done on mixed oxide fuels and FBTR core with blanket assemblies, nickel and steel assemblies, thermal research reactor of 100 MW capacity, etc. are briefly mentioned.

  13. Means for supporting nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocker, P.; Price, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    Reference is made to means for supporting nuclear fuel pins in a reactor coolant channel and the problems that arise in this connection. For reasons of nuclear reactivity and neutron economy 'parasitic' material in a reactor core must be kept to a minimum, whilst for heat transfer reasons the use of fuel pins of large cross-sectional areas should be avoided. Fuel pins tend to be long thin objects having a can of minimum thickness and typically a pin may have a length/diameter ratio of about 500/1 and for fast reactor fuel pins, the outside diameter may be about 0.2 inch. The long slender pins must also be spaced very close together. A fast reactor fuel assembly may involve 200 to 300 fuel pins, each a few tenths of an inch in diameter, supported end on to coolant flowing up a channel of about 22 square inches in total area. The pins have a heavy metal oxide filling and require support. Details are given of a suitable method of support. Such support also allows withdrawal of pins from a fuel channel without the risk of breach of the can, after irradiation. (U.K.)

  14. Nuclear fuel fabrication in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondal Rao, N.

    1975-01-01

    The important role of a nuclear power programme in meeting the growing needs of power in India is explained. The successful installation of Tarapur Atomic Power Station and Rajasthan Atomic Power Station as well as the work at Madras Atomic Power Station are described. The development of the Atomic Fuels Division and the Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad which is mainly concerned with the fabrication of fuel elements and the reprocessing of fuels are explained. The N.F.C. essentially has the following constituent units : Zirconium Plant (ZP) comprising of Zirconium Oxide Plant, Zirconium Sponge Plant and Zirconium Fabrication Plant; Natural Uranium Oxide Plant (UOP); Ceramic Fuel Fabrication Plant (CFFP); Enriched Uranium Oxide Plant (EUOP); Enriched Fuel Fabrication Plant (EEFP) and Quality Control Laboratory for meeting the quality control requirements of all plants. The capacities of various plants at the NFC are mentioned. The work done on mixed oxide fuels and FBTR core with blanket assemblies, nickel and steel assemblies, thermal research reactor of 100 MW capacity, etc. are briefly mentioned. (K.B.)

  15. Development of dynamic simulation code for fuel cycle fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Isao; Seki, Yasushi [Department of Fusion Engineering Research, Naka Fusion Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan); Sasaki, Makoto; Shintani, Kiyonori; Kim, Yeong-Chan

    1999-02-01

    A dynamic simulation code for fuel cycle of a fusion experimental reactor has been developed. The code follows the fuel inventory change with time in the plasma chamber and the fuel cycle system during 2 days pulse operation cycles. The time dependence of the fuel inventory distribution is evaluated considering the fuel burn and exhaust in the plasma chamber, purification and supply functions. For each subsystem of the plasma chamber and the fuel cycle system, the fuel inventory equation is written based on the equation of state considering the fuel burn and the function of exhaust, purification, and supply. The processing constants of subsystem for steady states were taken from the values in the ITER Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) report. Using this code, the time dependence of the fuel supply and inventory depending on the burn state and subsystem processing functions are shown. (author)

  16. Nuclear data for fusion technology – the European approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The European approach for the development of nuclear data for fusion technology applications is presented. Related R&D activities are conducted by the Consortium on Nuclear Data Development and Analysis for Fusion to satisfy the nuclear data needs of the major projects including ITER, the Early Neutron Source (ENS and DEMO. Recent achievements are presented in the area of nuclear data evaluations, benchmarking and validation, nuclear model improvements, and uncertainty assessments.

  17. Deuterium-tritium fuel self-sufficiency in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.; Vold, E.L.; Gung, C.Y.; Youssef, M.Z.; Shin, K.

    1986-01-01

    Conditions necessary to achieve deuterium-tritium fuel self-sufficiency in fusion reactors are derived through extensive modeling and calculations of the required and achievable tritium breeding ratios as functions of the many reactor parameters and candidate design concepts. It is found that the excess margin in the breeding potential is not sufficient to cover all present uncertainties. Thus, the goal of attaining fuel self-sufficiency significantly restricts the allowable parameter space and design concepts. For example, the required breeding ratio can be reduced by (A) attaining high tritium fractional burnup, >5%, in the plasma, (B) achieving very high reliability, >99%, and very short times, <1 day, to fix failures in the tritium processing system, and (C) ensuring that nonradioactive decay losses from all subsystems are extremely low, e.g., <0.1% for the plasma exhaust processing system. The uncertainties due to nuclear data and calculational methods are found to be significant, but they are substantially smaller than those due to uncertainties in system definition

  18. Nuclear fusion: Pursuing the Soft [Symposium on fusion technology] option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenward, M.

    1991-01-01

    Fusion research has come a long way since the fusion community held the first Symposium on fusion technology (Soft) in Britain 30 years ago. Some of the recent achievements of the Jet project are reported from this year's symposium, the 16th in the series, held in London at the beginning of September. (author)

  19. Coil for a nuclear fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadotani, Kenzo.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To provide a thin nuclear fusion coil having good thermal insulation and insulating properties in which mica and glass materials are wound round conductors subjected to varnish treatment and hardened, which is then sealed into a metallic case along with negative gases of more than two atmospheric pressures. Structure: A plurality of conductors impregnated with varnish are hardened by a rare insulating layer, after which it is coated with a layer of mica not impregnated with varnish and a layer of glass substance and is then received into a metallic case and filled under pressure with negative gases at a pressure more than two atmospheric pressures. (Kamimura, M.)

  20. Protector in a nuclear fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Masayuki; Yamane, Katsumi; Niwa, Sadahiko; Ogata, Fumio; Masuda, Jun-ichi.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To block an abnormal voltage, which shifts from plasma to coil or power supply by means of action of mutual induction, by a circuit utilizing non-linear impedance elements. Structure: The nuclear fusion device includes a current transformer coil, a vertical field coil and a plasma circuit, with a non-linear impedance element disposed in parallel with at least the current transformer coil, said impedance element being disposed in parallel with a short-circuiting switch, relative to the abnormal voltage moving from the plasma by means of action of mutual induction. (Kamimura, M.)

  1. Sensor Fusion for Nuclear Proliferation Activity Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adel Ghanem, Ph D

    2007-03-30

    The objective of Phase 1 of this STTR project is to demonstrate a Proof-of-Concept (PoC) of the Geo-Rad system that integrates a location-aware SmartTag (made by ZonTrak) and a radiation detector (developed by LLNL). It also includes the ability to transmit the collected radiation data and location information to the ZonTrak server (ZonService). The collected data is further transmitted to a central server at LLNL (the Fusion Server) to be processed in conjunction with overhead imagery to generate location estimates of nuclear proliferation and radiation sources.

  2. Nuclear reactor fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Eye, R.W.M.; Shennan, J.V.; Ford, L.H.

    1977-01-01

    Fuel element with particles from ceramic fissionable material (e.g. uranium carbide), each one being coated with pyrolitically deposited carbon and all of them being connected at their points of contact by means of an individual crossbar. The crossbar consists of silicon carbide produced by reaction of silicon metal powder with the carbon under the influence of heat. Previously the silicon metal powder together with the particles was kneaded in a solvent and a binder (e.g. epoxy resin in methyl ethyl ketone plus setting agent) to from a pulp. The reaction temperature lies at 1750 0 C. The reaction itself may take place in a nitrogen atmosphere. There will be produced a fuel element with a high overall thermal conductivity. (DG) [de

  3. Introduction to Nuclear Fusion Power and the Design of Fusion Reactors. An Issue-Oriented Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillo, J. A.

    This three-part module focuses on the principles of nuclear fusion and on the likely nature and components of a controlled-fusion power reactor. The physical conditions for a net energy release from fusion and two approaches (magnetic and inertial confinement) which are being developed to achieve this goal are described. Safety issues associated…

  4. Spent nuclear fuel transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'ev, A.N.; Kosarev, Yu.A.; Yulikov, E.I.

    1977-01-01

    The paper considers the problems of shipping spent fuel from nuclear power stations to reprocessing plants and also the principal ways of solving these problems with a view to achieving maximum economy and safety in transport. The increase in the number of nuclear power plants in the USSR will entail an intensification of spent-fuel shipments. Higher burnup and the need to reduce cooling time call for heavier and more complex shipping containers. The problem of shipping spent fuel should be tackled comprehensively, bearing in mind the requirements of safety and economy. One solution to these problems is to develop rational and cheap designs of such containers. In addition, the world-wide trend towards more thorough protection of the environment against pollution and of the health of the population requires the devotion of constant attention to improving the reliability and safety of shipments. The paper considers the prospects for nuclear power development in the USSR and in other member countries of the CMEA (1976-1980), the composition and design of some Soviet packaging assemblies, the appropriate cooling time for spent fuel from thermal reactor power stations, procedures for reducing fuel-shipping costs, some methodological problems of container calculation and design, and finally problems of testing and checking containers on test rigs. (author)

  5. Disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    This report addresses the topic of the mined geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). Although some fuel processing options are identified, most of the information in this report relates to the isolation of spent fuel in the form it is removed from the reactor. The characteristics of the waste management system and research which relate to spent fuel isolation are discussed. The differences between spent fuel and processed HLW which impact the waste isolation system are defined and evaluated for the nature and extent of that impact. What is known and what needs to be determined about spent fuel as a waste form to design a viable waste isolation system is presented. Other waste forms and programs such as geologic exploration, site characterization and licensing which are generic to all waste forms are also discussed. R and D is being carried out to establish the technical information to develop the methods used for disposal of spent fuel. All evidence to date indicates that there is no reason, based on safety considerations, that spent fuel should not be disposed of as a waste

  6. Fire resistant nuclear fuel cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, R.C.; Moss, M.

    1979-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a fire resistant nuclear fuel cask employing reversibly thermally expansible bands between adjacent cooling fins such that normal outward flow of heat is not interfered with, but abnormal inward flow of heat is impeded or blocked

  7. Storage arrangements for nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ealing, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    A storage arrangement for nuclear fuel has a plurality of storage tubes connected by individual pipes to manifolds which are connected, in turn, to an exhaust system for maintaining the tubes at sub-atmospheric pressure, and means for producing a flow of a cooling fluid, such as air, over the exterior surfaces of the tubes. (author)

  8. World nuclear fuel cycle requirements 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-10

    The nuclear fuel cycle consists of mining and milling uranium ore, processing the uranium into a form suitable for generating electricity, burning'' the fuel in nuclear reactors, and managing the resulting spent nuclear fuel. This report presents projections of domestic and foreign requirements for natural uranium and enrichment services as well as projections of discharges of spent nuclear fuel. These fuel cycle requirements are based on the forecasts of future commercial nuclear power capacity and generation published in a recent Energy Information Administration (EIA) report. Also included in this report are projections of the amount of spent fuel discharged at the end of each fuel cycle for each nuclear generating unit in the United States. The International Nuclear Model is used for calculating the projected nuclear fuel cycle requirements. 14 figs., 38 tabs.

  9. World nuclear fuel cycle requirements 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle consists of mining and milling uranium ore, processing the uranium into a form suitable for generating electricity, ''burning'' the fuel in nuclear reactors, and managing the resulting spent nuclear fuel. This report presents projections of domestic and foreign requirements for natural uranium and enrichment services as well as projections of discharges of spent nuclear fuel. These fuel cycle requirements are based on the forecasts of future commercial nuclear power capacity and generation published in a recent Energy Information Administration (EIA) report. Also included in this report are projections of the amount of spent fuel discharged at the end of each fuel cycle for each nuclear generating unit in the United States. The International Nuclear Model is used for calculating the projected nuclear fuel cycle requirements. 14 figs., 38 tabs

  10. Study Of Thorium As A Nuclear Fuel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Humane

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional fuel sources for power generation are to be replacing by nuclear power sources like nuclear fuel Uranium. But Uranium-235 is the only fissile fuel which is in 0.72 found in nature as an isotope of Uranium-238. U-238 is abundant in nature which is not fissile while U-239 by alpha decay naturally converted to Uranium- 235. For accompanying this nuclear fuel there is another nuclear fuel Thorium is present in nature is abundant can be used as nuclear fuel and is as much as safe and portable like U-235.

  11. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research 1988. V.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Volume 3 of the proceedings of the twelfth international conference on plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion, held in Nice, France, 12-19 October, 1988, contains papers presented on inertial fusion. Direct and indirect laser implosion experiments, programs of laser construction, computer modelling of implosions and resulting plasmas, and light ion beam fusion experiments are discussed. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. Innovative microstructures in nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutty, T.R.G.; Kumar, Arun; Kamath, H.S.

    2009-01-01

    For cleaner and safe nuclear power, new processes are required to design better nuclear fuels and make more efficient reactors to generate nuclear power. Therefore, one must understand how the microstructure changes during reactor operation. Accordingly, the materials scientists and engineers can then design and fabricate fuels with higher reliability and performance. Microstructure and its evolution are big unknowns in nuclear fuel. The basic requirements for the high performance of a fuel are: a) Soft pellets - To reduce Pellet clad mechanical interaction (PCMI) b) Large grain size - To reduce fission gas release (FGR). The strength of the pellet at room temperature is related to grain size by the Hall-Petch relation. Accordingly, the lower grain sized pellets will have high strength. But at high temperature (above equicohesive temperature) the grain boundaries becomes weaker than grain matrix. Since the small grain sized pellets have more grain boundary areas, these pellet become softer than pellet that have large grain sizes. Also as grain size decreases, creep rate of the fuel increases. Therefore, pellets with small grain size have higher creep rate and better plasticity. Therefore, these pellets will be useful to reduce the PCMI. On the other hand, pellet with large grain size is beneficial to reduce the fission gas release. In developing thermal reactor fuels for high burn-up, this factor should be taken into consideration. The question being asked is whether the microstructure can be tailored for irradiation hardening, fracture resistance, fission-gas release. This paper deals with the role played by microstructure for better irradiation performance. (author)

  13. Japanese perspective of fusion nuclear technology from ITER to DEMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Satoru; Takatsu, Hideyuki

    2007-01-01

    The world fusion community is now launching construction of ITER, the first nuclear-grade fusion machine in the world. In parallel to the ITER program, Broader Approach (BA) activities are to be initiated in this year by EU and Japan, mainly at Rokkasho BA site in Japan, as complementary activities to ITER toward DEMO. The BA activities include IFMIFEVEDA (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility-Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities) and DEMO design activities with generic technology R and Ds, both of which are critical to the rapid development of DEMO and commercial fusion power plants. The Atomic Energy Commission of Japan reviewed on-going third phase fusion program and issued the results of the review, 'On the policy of Nuclear Fusion Research and Development' in November 2005. In this report, it is anticipated that the ITER will be made operational in a decade and the programmatic objective can be met in the succeeding seven or eight years. Under this condition, the report presents a roadmap toward the DEMO and beyond and R and D items on fusion nuclear technology, indispensable for fusion energy utilization, are re-aligned. In the present paper, Japanese view and policy on ITER and beyond is summarized mainly from the viewpoints of nuclear fusion technology, and a minimum set of R and D elements on fusion nuclear technology, essential for fusion energy utilization, is presented. (orig.)

  14. Statements on Energy from Nuclear Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Energy Committee of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences

    2006-07-01

    The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (KVA) is an independent non-governmental organization, with expertise in most of the sciences as well as in the economical, social and humanistic fields. The KVA has appointed an Energy Committee that will summarize scientific knowledge on supply and use of energy over the coming fifty years. The Energy Committee has selected a number of subjects to be studied in some depth, one of these being nuclear energy from the fission process. The Energy Committee's key issues concerning nuclear energy: We have identified six key issues which require very careful analysis during the coming years. Safety remains a key issue. It is one of the major activities of OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency. 40 years of multilateral cooperation has led to improvements in the analysis and management of accidents and in the assessment of safety margins in the fuel cycle. In particular, attention is focused on ageing and structural integrity as the lifetime of reactors is extended to up to 60 years. The new Gen III reactors have improved safety features such as double containment, better separation of critical safety systems and improved possibilities to handle steam explosions and core meltdown. The Gen IV reactors will be designed with a goal to further improve safety features. Handling of the nuclear waste: Today, in most light water reactors, the fuel is used once only ('once through') and then sent directly to repositories. After some cooling time, the waste will be buried in underground repositories. Another important aspect is that a final decision for waste disposal is of great importance to the public's acceptance of any new nuclear ventures. The waste handling in future reactors is an important item for research and its solution will also influence how the waste from current reactors is managed. Non-proliferation: With increased use of nuclear energy, more countries may build up facilities for the whole fuel cycle, thus also, at least theoretically

  15. Apparatus for locating defective nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrie, W.E.

    1979-01-01

    An ultrasonic search unit for locating defective fuel elements within a fuel assembly used in a water cooled nuclear reactor is presented. The unit is capable of freely traversing the restricted spaces between the fuel elements

  16. Fabrication and Installation of Radiation Shielded Spent Fuel Fusion System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soon Dal; Park, Yang Soon; Kim, Jong Goo; Ha, Yeong Keong; Song, Kyu Seok

    2010-02-01

    Most of the generated fission gases are retained in the fuel matrix in supersaturated state, thus alter the original physicochemical properties of the fuel. And some of them are released into free volume of a fuel rod and that cause internal pressure increase of a fuel rod. Furthermore, as extending fuel burnup, the data on fission gas generation(FGG) and fission gas release(FGR) are considered very important for fuel safety investigation. Consequently, it is required to establish an experimental facility for handling of highly radioactive sample and to develop an analytical technology for measurement of retained fission gas in a spent fuel. This report describes not only on the construction of a shielded glove box which can handle highly radioactive materials but also on the modifications and instrumentations of spent fuel fusion facilities and collection apparatuses of retained fission gas

  17. Fuel containing vessel for transporting nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Hiroyasu; Shimizu, Fukuzo; Tanaka, Nobuyuki.

    1996-01-01

    A shock absorbing mechanism is disposed on an inner bottom of a vessel main body. The shock absorbing mechanism comprises a shock absorbing member disposed on the upper surface of a bottom wall, an annular metal plate disposed on the upper surface of the shock absorbing member and an annular spacer disposed on the upper surface of the metal plate. The shock absorbing member is made of a material such as of wood, lead, metal honeycomb or a metal mesh, which plastically deforms when applied with load higher than a predetermined level, and is formed in a square block-like form covering the upper surface of the bottom wall. The spacer is made of a thin soft material such as tetrafluoroethylene, and is formed in such a shape as capable of preventing direct contact of the lower end of the cylindrical member in a lower tie plate of nuclear fuels with the metal portion. This can ensure integrity of nuclear fuels even when they fall from a high place upon an assumed dropping accident. (I.N.)

  18. Nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmonier, Pierre; Mesnage, Bernard; Nervi, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    This invention refers to fuel assemblies for a liquid metal cooled fast neutron reactor. Each assembly is composed of a hollow vertical casing, of regular polygonal section, containing a bundle of clad pins filled with a fissile or fertile substance. The casing is open at its upper end and has a cylindrical foot at its lower end for positioning the assembly in a housing provided in the horizontal diagrid, on which the core assembly rests. A set of flat bars located on the external surface of the casing enables it to be correctly orientated in its housing among the other core assemblies [fr

  19. Spent fuel management and closed nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryavtsev, E.G.

    2012-01-01

    Strategic objectives set by Rosatom Corporation in the field of spent fuel management are given. By 2030, Russia is to create technological infrastructure for innovative nuclear energy development, including complete closure of the nuclear fuel cycle. A target model of the spent NPP nuclear fuel management system until 2030 is analyzed. The schedule for key stages of putting in place the infrastructure for spent NPP fuel management is given. The financial aspect of the problem is also discussed [ru

  20. Uranium - the nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.E.N.

    1976-01-01

    A brief history is presented of Canadian uranium exploration, production, and sales. Statistics show that Canada is a good customer for its own uranium due to a rapidly expanding nuclear power program. Due to an average 10 year lag between commencement of exploration and production, and with current producers sold out through 1985, it is imperative that exploration efforts be increased. (E.C.B.)

  1. Database for fusion devices and associated fuel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolgar, P.W.

    1983-03-01

    A computerized database storage and retrieval system has been set up for fusion devices and the associated fusion fuel systems which should be a useful tool for the CFFTP program and other users. The features of the Wang 'Alliance' system are discussed for this application, as well as some of the limitations of the system. Recommendations are made on the operation, upkeep and further development that should take place to implement and maintain the system

  2. Storage arrangements for nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deacon, D.

    1982-01-01

    A storage arrangement for spent nuclear fuel either irradiated or pre-irradiated or for vitrified waste after spent fuel reprocessing, comprises a plenum chamber which has a base pierced by a plurality of openings each of which has sealed to it an open topped tube extending downwards and closed at its lower end. The plenum chamber, with the tubes, forms an air-filled enclosure associated with an exhaust system for exhausting air from the system through filters to maintain the interior of the enclosure at sub-atmospheric pressure. The tubes are arranged to accommodate the stored fuel and the arrangement includes a means for producing a flow of cooling air over the exterior of the tubes so that the latter effectively form a plurality of heat exchangers in close proximity to the fuel. The air may be caused to flow over the tube surfaces by a natural thermosyphon process. (author)

  3. Nuclear fuel and energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.B.

    1979-01-01

    This book examines the uranium resource situation in relation to the future needs of the nuclear economy. Currently the United States is the world's leading producer and consumer of nuclear fuels. In the future US nuclear choices will be highly interdependent with the rest of the world as other countries begin to develop their own nuclear programs. Therefore the world's uranium resource availability has also been examined in relation to the expected growth in the world nuclear industry. Based on resource evaluation, the study develops an economic framework for analyzing and describing the behavior of the US uranium mining and milling industry. An econometric model designed to reflect the underlying structure of the physical processes of the uranium mining and milling industry has been developed. The purpose of this model is to forecast uranium prices and outputs for the period 1977 to 2000. Because uncertainty has sometimes surrounded the economic future of the uranium markets, the results of the econometric modeling should be interpreted with great care and restrictive assumptions. Another aspect of this study is to provide much needed information on the operations of government-owned enrichment plants and the practices used by the government in the determination of fuel enrichment costs. This study discusses possible future developments in enrichment supply and technologies and their implications for future enrichment costs. A review of the operations involving the uranium concentrate conversion to uranium hexafluoride and fuel fabrication is also provided. An economic analysis of these costs provides a comprehensive view of the front-end costs of the nuclear fuel cycle

  4. Nuclear data for structural materials of fission and fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulo, V.

    1989-06-01

    The document presents the status of nuclear reaction theory concerning optical model development, level density models and pre-equilibrium and direct processes used in calculation of neutron nuclear data for structural materials of fission and fusion reactors. 6 refs

  5. Ceramics as nuclear reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeve, K.D.

    1975-01-01

    Ceramics are widely accepted as nuclear reactor fuel materials, for both metal clad ceramic and all-ceramic fuel designs. Metal clad UO 2 is used commercially in large tonnages in five different power reactor designs. UO 2 pellets are made by familiar ceramic techniques but in a reactor they undergo complex thermal and chemical changes which must be thoroughly understood. Metal clad uranium-plutonium dioxide is used in present day fast breeder reactors, but may eventually be replaced by uranium-plutonium carbide or nitride. All-ceramic fuels, which are necessary for reactors operating above about 750 0 C, must incorporate one or more fission product retentive ceramic coatings. BeO-coated BeO matrix dispersion fuels and silicate glaze coated UO 2 -SiO 2 have been studied for specialised applications, but the only commercial high temperature fuel is based on graphite in which small fuel particles, each coated with vapour deposited carbon and silicon carbide, are dispersed. Ceramists have much to contribute to many aspects of fuel science and technology. (author)

  6. Fuel assemblies for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Akihito.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To control power-up rate at the initial burning stage of new fuel assemblies due to fuel exchange in a pressure tube type power reactor. Constitution: Burnable poisons are disposed to a most portion of fuel pellets in a fuel assembly to such a low concentration as the burn-up rate changes with time at the initial stage of the burning. The most portion means substantially more than one-half part of the pellets and gadolinia is used as burn-up poisons to be dispersed and the concentration is set to less than about 0.2 %. Upon elapse of about 15 days after the charging, the burnable poisons are eliminated and the infinite multiplication factors are about at 1.2 to attain a predetermined power state. Since the power-up rate of the nuclear reactor fuel assembly is about 0.1 % power/hour and the power-up rate of the fuel assembly around the exchanged channel is lower than that, it can be lowered sufficiently than the limit for the power-up rate practiced upon reactor start-up thereby enabling to replace fuels during power operation. (Horiuchi, T.)

  7. Microencapsulation and fabrication of fuel pellets for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolen, R.L. Jr.; Kool, L.B.

    1981-01-01

    Various microencapsulation techniques were evaluated for fabrication of thermonuclear fuel pellets for use in existing experimental facilities studying inertial confinement fusion and in future fusion-power reactors. Coacervation, spray drying, in situ polymerization, and physical microencapsulation methods were employed. Highly spherical, hollow polymeric shells were fabricated ranging in size from 20 to 7000 micron. In situ polymerization microencapsulation with poly(methyl methacrylate) provided large shells, but problems with local wall defects still must be solved. Extension to other polymeric systems met with limited success. Requirements for inertial confinement fusion targets are described, as are the methods that were used

  8. Development of high burnup nuclear fuel technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suk, Ho Chun; Kang, Young Hwan; Jung, Jin Gone; Hwang, Won; Park, Zoo Hwan; Ryu, Woo Seog; Kim, Bong Goo; Kim, Il Gone

    1987-04-01

    The objectives of the project are mainly to develope both design and manufacturing technologies for 600 MWe-CANDU-PHWR-type high burnup nuclear fuel, and secondly to build up the foundation of PWR high burnup nuclear fuel technology on the basis of KAERI technology localized upon the standard 600 MWe-CANDU- PHWR nuclear fuel. So, as in the first stage, the goal of the program in the last one year was set up mainly to establish the concept of the nuclear fuel pellet design and manufacturing. The economic incentives for high burnup nuclear fuel technology development are improvement of fuel utilization, backend costs plant operation, etc. Forming the most important incentives of fuel cycle costs reduction and improvement of power operation, etc., the development of high burnup nuclear fuel technology and also the research on the incore fuel management and safety and technologies are necessary in this country

  9. Sufficiency of the Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pevec, D.; Knapp, V.; Matijevic, M.

    2008-01-01

    Estimation of the nuclear fuel sufficiency is required for rational decision making on long-term energy strategy. In the past an argument often invoked against nuclear energy was that uranium resources are inadequate. At present, when climate change associated with CO 2 emission is a major concern, one novel strong argument for nuclear energy is that it can produce large amounts of energy without the CO 2 emission. Increased interest in nuclear energy is evident, and a new look into uranium resources is relevant. We examined three different scenarios of nuclear capacity growth. The low growth of 0.4 percent per year in nuclear capacity is assumed for the first scenario. The moderate growth of 1.5 percent per year in nuclear capacity preserving the present share in total energy production is assumed for the second scenario. We estimated draining out time periods for conventional resources of uranium using once through fuel cycle for the both scenarios. For the first and the second scenario we obtained the draining out time periods for conventional uranium resources of 154 years and 96 years, respectively. These results are, as expected, in agreement with usual evaluations. However, if nuclear energy is to make a major impact on CO 2 emission it should contribute much more in the total energy production than at present level of 6 percent. We therefore defined the third scenario which would increase nuclear share in the total energy production from 6 percent in year 2020 to 30 percent by year 2060 while the total world energy production would grow by 1.5 percent per year. We also looked into the uranium requirement for this scenario, determining the time window for introduction of uranium or thorium reprocessing and for better use of uranium than what is the case in the once through fuel cycle. The once through cycle would be in this scenario sustainable up to about year 2060 providing most of the expected but undiscovered conventional uranium resources were turned

  10. 2013 Nuclear Fusion Prize Acceptance Speech 2013 Nuclear Fusion Prize Acceptance Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, D.

    2015-01-01

    I would like to express gratitude to the IAEA, the journal Nuclear Fusion and its board for this acknowledgement of work carried out at the MIT Alcator C-Mod tokamak. I must begin by making it clear that this is in no way an award to an individual. The experiments, data analysis and paper were a true collaborative effort from the C-Mod team. It is a honor to work with them and to accept the award on their behalf. I would also like to thank the US Department of Energy for their support in funding this research. The paper describes the exploration of the 'improved' confinement regime dubbed 'I-mode'. The distinguishing feature of this operational mode is a robust boundary pedestal in temperature with the somewhat surprising lack of any form of density pedestal. Thus the regime exhibits an enhanced energy confinement similar to H-mode, roughly double of L-mode at fixed input power, yet has global fuel and impurity particle transport of L-mode. These features are intriguing from a scientific and practical point of view. On the science side it is extremely useful to obtain such a clear demarcation between the energy and particle transport. For example, soon after its discovery, the I-mode was used to extract the observation that the edge T pedestal is the strongest determinant for intrinsic rotation in work by John Rice, Pat Diamond and colleagues. Recent results regarding core transport by Anne White, Nate Howard and colleagues show that I-mode has intriguing properties with respect to core response of fluctuations and profile stiffness. Mike Churchill's recent Ph. D study on C-Mod shows that I-mode exhibits no strong poloidal impurity asymmetry, unlike H-mode. The I-mode posed an interesting test for the peeling-ballooning-KBM model of the pedestal, the subject of the 2014 Nuclear Fusion award of Phil Snyder, and was examined by John Walk and Jerry Hughes showing that in fact the lack of the density pedestal pushed the I-mode far away from the P-B limit, and thus the

  11. Method of manufacturing nuclear fuel pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguma, Masaomi; Masuda, Hiroshi; Hirai, Mutsumi; Tanabe, Isami; Yuda, Ryoichi.

    1989-01-01

    In a method of manufacturing nuclear fuel pellets by compression molding an oxide powder of nuclear fuel material followed by sintering, a metal nuclear material is mixed with an oxide powder of the nuclear fuel material. As the metal nuclear fuel material, whisker or wire-like fine wire or granules of metal uranium can be used effectively. As a result, a fuel pellet in which the metal nuclear fuel is disposed in a network-like manner can be obtained. The pellet shows a great effect of preventing thermal stress destruction of pellets upon increase of fuel rod power as compared with conventional pellets. Further, the metal nuclear fuel material acts as an oxygen getter to suppress the increase of O/M ratio of the pellets. Further, it is possible to reduce the swelling of pellet at high burn-up degree. (T.M.)

  12. Canadian capabilities in fusion fuels technology and remote handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    This report describes Canadian expertise in fusion fuels technology and remote handling. The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project (CFFTP) was established and is funded by the Canadian government, the province of Ontario and Ontario Hydro to focus on the technology necessary to produce and manage the tritium and deuterium fuels to be used in fusion power reactors. Its activities are divided amongst three responsibility areas, namely, the development of blanket, first wall, reactor exhaust and fuel processing systems, the development of safe and reliable operating procedures for fusion facilities, and, finally, the application of these developments to specific projects such as tritium laboratories. CFFTP also hopes to utilize and adapt Canadian developments in an international sense, by, for instance, offering training courses to the international tritium community. Tritium management expertise is widely available in Canada because tritium is a byproduct of the routine operation of CANDU reactors. Expertise in remote handling is another byproduct of research and development of of CANDU facilities. In addition to describing the remote handling technology developed in Canada, this report contains a brief description of the Canadian tritium laboratories, storage beds and extraction plants as well as a discussion of tritium monitors and equipment developed in support of the CANDU reactor and fusion programs. Appendix A lists Canadian manufacturers of tritium equipment and Appendix B describes some of the projects performed by CFFTP for offshore clients

  13. Nuclear fuel element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armijo, J S; Coffing, L F

    1979-04-05

    The fuel element with circular cross-section for BWR and PWR consists of a core surrounded by a compound jacket container where there is a gap between the core and jacket during operation in the reactor. The core consists of U, Pu, Th compounds and mixtures of these. The compound jacket consists of zircaloy 2 or 4. In order to for example prevent the corrosion of the compound jacket, its inner surface has a metal barrier with smaller neutron absorbers than the jacket material in the form of a zirconium sponge. The zirconium of this metal barrier has impurities of various elements in the order of magnitude of 1000 to 5000 ppm. The oxygen content is in the range of 200 to 1200 ppm and the thickness of the metal barrier is 1-30% of the thickness of the jacket.

  14. Cooling nuclear reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, W.H.L.

    1975-01-01

    Reference is made to water or water/steam cooled reactors of the fuel cluster type. In such reactors it is usual to mount the clusters in parallel spaced relationship so that coolant can pass freely between them, the coolant being passed axially from one end of the cluster in an upward direction through the cluster and being effective for cooling under normal circumstances. It has been suggested, however, that in addition to the main coolant flow an auxiliary coolant flow be provided so as to pass laterally into the cluster or be sprayed over the top of the cluster. This auxiliary supply may be continuously in use, or may be held in reserve for use in emergencies. Arrangements for providing this auxiliary cooling are described in detail. (U.K.)

  15. Burning nuclear wastes in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meldner, H.W.; Howard, W.M.

    1979-01-01

    A study was made up of actinide burn-up in ICF reactor pellets; i.e. 14 Mev neutron fission of the very long-lived actinides that pose storage problems. A major advantage of pellet fuel region burn-up is safety: only milligrams of highly toxic and active material need to be present in the fusion chamber, whereas blanket burn-up requires the continued presence of tons of actinides in a small volume. The actinide data tables required for Monte Carlo calculations of the burn-up of /sup 241/Am and /sup 243/Am are discussed in connection with a study of the sensitivity to cross section uncertainties. More accurate and complete cross sections are required for realistic quantitative calculations. 13 refs

  16. Closed loop control of the sawtooth instability in nuclear fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witvoet, G.; Steinbuch, M.; Westerhof, E.; Doelman, N.J.; Baar, de M.R.

    2010-01-01

    In nuclear fusion the sawtooth instability is an important plasma phenomenon, having both positive and negative effects on the tokamak plasma. Control of its period is essential in future nuclear fusion reactors. This paper presents a control oriented model of the sawtooth instability, with current

  17. Controllers for high-performance nuclear fusion plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baar, de M.R.

    2012-01-01

    A succesful nuclear fusion reactor will confine plasma at hig temperatures and densities, with low thermal losses. The workhorse of the nuclear fusion community is the tokamak, a toroidal device in which plasmas are confined by poloidal and toroidal magnetic fields. Ideally, the confirming magnetic

  18. Nuclear fuel reprocessing expansion strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of an effort to apply the techniques of operations research and energy system modeling to the problem of determination of cost-effective strategies for capacity expansion of the domestic nuclear fuel reprocessing industry for the 1975 to 2000 time period. The research also determines cost disadvantages associated with alternative strategies that may be attractive for political, social, or ecological reasons. The sensitivity of results to changes in cost assumptions was investigated at some length. Reactor fuel types covered by the analysis include the Light Water Reactor (LWR), High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR), and the Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR)

  19. Fuel element for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwell, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    The invention concerns a fuel element for nuclear reactors with fuel rods and control rod guide tubes, where the control rod guide tubes are provided with flat projections projecting inwards, in the form of local deformations of the guide tube wall, in order to reduce the radial play between the control rod concerned and the guide tube, and to improve control rod movement. This should ensure that wear on the guide tubes is largely prevented which would be caused by lateral vibration of the control rods in the guide tubes, induced by the flow of coolant. (orig.) [de

  20. Spent nuclear fuel sampling strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    This report proposes a strategy for sampling the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stored in the 105-K Basins (105-K East and 105-K West). This strategy will support decisions concerning the path forward SNF disposition efforts in the following areas: (1) SNF isolation activities such as repackaging/overpacking to a newly constructed staging facility; (2) conditioning processes for fuel stabilization; and (3) interim storage options. This strategy was developed without following the Data Quality Objective (DQO) methodology. It is, however, intended to augment the SNF project DQOS. The SNF sampling is derived by evaluating the current storage condition of the SNF and the factors that effected SNF corrosion/degradation

  1. Grids for nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, G.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to grids for nuclear fuel assemblies with the object of providing an improved grid, tending to have greater strength and tending to offer better location of the fuel pins. It comprises sets of generally parallel strips arranged to intersect to define a structure of cellular form, at least some of the intersections including a strip which is keyed to another strip at more than one point. One type of strip may be dimpled along its length and another type of strip may have slots for keying with the dimples. (Auth.)

  2. Fuel and helium confinement in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houlberg, W.A.; Attenberger, S.E.

    1993-01-01

    An expanded macroscopic model for particle confinement is used to investigate both fuel and helium confinement in reactor plasmas. The authors illustrate the relative effects of external sources of fuel, divertor pumping, and wall and divertory recycle on core, edge and scrape-off layer densities by using separate particle confinement times for open-quote core close-quote fueling (deep pellet or beam penetration, τ c ), open-quote shallow close-quote fueling (shallow pellet penetration or neutral atoms that penetrate the scrape-off layer, τ s ) and fueling in the scrape-off layer (τ sol ). Because τ s is determined by the parallel flow velocity and characteristic distance to the divertor plate, it can be orders of magnitude lower than either τ c or τ sol . A dense scrape-off region, desirable for reduced divertor erosion, leads to a high fraction of the recycled neutrals being ionized in the scrape-off region and poor core fueling efficiency. The overall fueling efficiency can then be dramatically improved with either shallow or deep auxillary fueling. Helium recycle is nearly always coupled to the scrape-off region and does not lead to strong core accumulation unless the helium pumping efficiency is much less than the fuel pumping efficiency, or the plasma preferentially retains helium over hydrogenic ions. Differences between the results of this model, single-τ p macroscopic models, and 1-D and 2-D models are discussed in terms of assumptions and boundary conditions

  3. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watarumi, Kazutoshi.

    1992-01-01

    Hollow fuel pellets are piled at multi-stages in a cladding tube to form a pellet stack. A bundle of metal fine wires made of zirconium or an alloy thereof is inserted passing through the hollow portion of each of the hollow pellets over a length of the pellet stack. The metal fine wires are bundled by securing ring at a joining portions of the pellets. Then, the portion between both of adjacent rings is expanded radially and has a spring function biasing in the radial direction. With such a constitution, even if the pellet is expanded radially due to pallet gas swelling, the hollow portion is not closed, and the gas flow channel is ensured. In addition, even if the pellet is cracked due to thermal shocks, the pellet piece is prevented from dropping to the hollow portion. In this case, the thermal conduction between the pellets and the cladding tube is kept satisfactorily by the spring function of the metal wire bundle. (I.N.)

  4. Coal and nuclear electricity fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahnama, F.

    1982-06-01

    Comparative economic analysis is used to contrast the economic advantages of nuclear and coal-fired electric generating stations for Canadian regions. A simplified cash flow method is used with present value techniques to yield a single levelized total unit energy cost over the lifetime of a generating station. Sensitivity analysis illustrates the effects of significant changes in some of the cost data. The analysis indicates that in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and British Columbia nuclear energy is less costly than coal for electric power generation. In the base case scenario the nuclear advantage is 24 percent in Quebec, 29 percent in Ontario, 34 percent in Manitoba, and 16 percent in British Columbia. Total unit energy cost is sensitive to variations in both capital and fuel costs for both nuclear and coal-fuelled power stations, but are not very sensitive to operating and maintenance costs

  5. ANNETTE Project: Contributing to The Nuclearization of Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosini, W.; Cizelj, L.; Dieguez Porras, P.; Jaspers, R.; Noterdaeme, J.; Scheffer, M.; Schoenfelder, C.

    2018-01-01

    The ANNETTE Project (Advanced Networking for Nuclear Education and Training and Transfer of Expertise) is well underway, and one of its work packages addresses the design, development and implementation of nuclear fusion training. A systematic approach is used that leads to the development of new training courses, based on identified nuclear competences needs of the work force of (future) fusion reactors and on the current availability of suitable training courses. From interaction with stakeholders involved in the ITER design and construction or the JET D-T campaign, it became clear that the lack of nuclear safety culture awareness already has an impact on current projects. Through the collaboration between the European education networks in fission (ENEN) and fusion (FuseNet) in the ANNETTE project, this project is well positioned to support the development of nuclear competences for ongoing and future fusion projects. Thereby it will make a clear contribution to the realization of fusion energy.

  6. ANNETTE Project: Contributing to The Nuclearization of Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrosini W.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The ANNETTE Project (Advanced Networking for Nuclear Education and Training and Transfer of Expertise is well underway, and one of its work packages addresses the design, development and implementation of nuclear fusion training. A systematic approach is used that leads to the development of new training courses, based on identified nuclear competences needs of the work force of (future fusion reactors and on the current availability of suitable training courses. From interaction with stakeholders involved in the ITER design and construction or the JET D-T campaign, it became clear that the lack of nuclear safety culture awareness already has an impact on current projects. Through the collaboration between the European education networks in fission (ENEN and fusion (FuseNet in the ANNETTE project, this project is well positioned to support the development of nuclear competences for ongoing and future fusion projects. Thereby it will make a clear contribution to the realization of fusion energy.

  7. Nuclear fuel shipping inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Toshio; Hada, Koji.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To provide an nuclear fuel shipping inspection device having a high detection sensitivity and capable of obtaining highly reliable inspection results. Constitution: The present invention concerns a device for distinguishing a fuel assembly having failed fuel rods in LMFBR type reactors. Coolants in a fuel assembly to be inspected are collected by a sampling pipeway and transferred to a filter device. In the filter device, granular radioactive corrosion products (CP) in the coolants are captured, to reduce the background. The coolants, after being passed through the filter device, are transferred to an FP catching device and gamma-rays of iodine and cesium nuclides are measured in FP radiation measuring device. Subsequently, the coolants transferred to a degasing device to separate rare gas FP in the coolants from the liquid phase. In a case if rare gas fission products are detected by the radiation detector, it means that there is a failed fuel rod in the fuel assembly to be inspected. Since the CP and the soluble FP are separated and extracted for the radioactivity measurement, the reliability can be improved. (Kamimura, M.)

  8. Nuclear Fuels: Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald R. Olander

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The important new developments in nuclear fuels and their problems are reviewed and compared with the status of present light-water reactor fuels. The limitations of these fuels and the reactors they power are reviewed with respect to important recent concerns, namely provision of outlet coolant temperatures high enough for use in H2 production, destruction of plutonium to eliminate proliferation concerns, and burning of the minor actinides to reduce the waste repository heat load and long-term radiation hazard. In addition to current oxide-based fuel-rod designs, the hydride fuel with liquid metal thermal bonding of the fuel-cladding gap is covered. Finally, two of the most promising Generation IV reactor concepts, the Very High Temperature Reactor and the Sodium Fast Reactor, and the accompanying reprocessing technologies, aqueous-based UREX and pyrometallurgical, are summarized. In all of the topics covered, the thermodynamics involved in the material's behavior under irradiation and in the reprocessing schemes are emphasized.

  9. The Sustainable Nuclear Future: Fission and Fusion E.M. Campbell Logos Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, E. Michael

    2010-02-01

    Global industrialization, the concern over rising CO2 levels in the atmosphere and other negative environmental effects due to the burning of hydrocarbon fuels and the need to insulate the cost of energy from fuel price volatility have led to a renewed interest in nuclear power. Many of the plants under construction are similar to the existing light water reactors but incorporate modern engineering and enhanced safety features. These reactors, while mature, safe and reliable sources of electrical power have limited efficiency in converting fission power to useful work, require significant amounts of water, and must deal with the issues of nuclear waste (spent fuel), safety, and weapons proliferation. If nuclear power is to sustain its present share of the world's growing energy needs let alone displace carbon based fuels, more than 1000 reactors will be needed by mid century. For this to occur new reactors that are more efficient, versatile in their energy markets, require minimal or no water, produce less waste and more robust waste forms, are inherently safe and minimize proliferation concerns will be necessary. Graphite moderated, ceramic coated fuel, and He cooled designs are reactors that can satisfy these requirements. Along with other generation IV fast reactors that can further reduce the amounts of spent fuel and extend fuel resources, such a nuclear expansion is possible. Furthermore, facilities either in early operations or under construction should demonstrate the next step in fusion energy development in which energy gain is produced. This demonstration will catalyze fusion energy development and lead to the ultimate development of the next generation of nuclear reactors. In this presentation the role of advanced fission reactors and future fusion reactors in the expansion of nuclear power will be discussed including synergies with the existing worldwide nuclear fleet. )

  10. Laser Intertial Fusion Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Kevin James [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-04-08

    of fixed fuel configurations that would normally require a computationally burdensome number of depletion zones. Alternatively, Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) adjusts the depletion zone size according to the variation in flux across the zone or fractional contribution to total absorption or fission. A parametric analysis on a fully mixed fuel core was performed using the LNC and ABL code suites. The resulting system parameters are found to optimize performance metrics using a 20 MT DU fuel load with a 20% TRISO packing and a 300 μm kernel radius operated with a fusion input power of 500 MW and a fission blanket gain of 4.0. LFFH potentially offers a proliferation resistant technology relative to other nuclear energy systems primarily because of no need for fuel enrichment or reprocessing. A figure of merit of the material attractiveness is examined and it is found that the fuel is effectively contaminated to an unattractive level shortly after the system is started due to fission product and minor actinide build up.

  11. Nuclear fuel pellet transfer escalator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huggins, T.B. Sr.; Roberts, E.; Edmunds, M.O.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear fuel pellet escalator for loading nuclear fuel pellets into a sintering boat. It comprises a generally horizontally-disposed pellet transfer conveyor for moving pellets in single file fashion from a receiving end to a discharge end thereof, the conveyor being mounted about an axis at its receiving end for pivotal movement to generally vertically move its discharge end toward and away from a sintering boat when placed below the discharge end of the conveyor, the conveyor including an elongated arm swingable vertically about the axis and having an elongated channel recessed below an upper side of the arm and extending between the receiving and discharge ends of the conveyor; a pellet dispensing chute mounted to the arm of the conveyor at the discharge end thereof and extending therebelow such that the chute is carried at the discharge end of the conveyor for generally vertical movement therewith toward and away from the sintering boat

  12. Nuclear reactor fuel element assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raven, L.F.

    1975-01-01

    A spacer grid for a nuclear fuel element comprises a plurality of cojointed cylindrical ferrules adapted to receive a nuclear fuel pin. Each ferrule has a pair of circumferentially spaced rigid stop members extending inside the ferrule and a spring locating member attached to the ferrule and also extending from the ferrule wall inwardly thereof at such a circumferential spacing relative to the rigid stop members that the line of action of the spring locating member passes in opposition to and between the rigid stop members which lie in the same diametric plane. At least some of the cylindrical ferrules have one rim shaped to promote turbulence in fluid flowing through the grid. (Official Gazette)

  13. Apparatus and method for extracting power from energetic ions produced in nuclear fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisch, Nathaniel J.; Rax, Jean M.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method of extracting power from energetic ions produced by nuclear fusion in a toroidal plasma to enhance respectively the toroidal plasma current and fusion reactivity. By injecting waves of predetermined frequency and phase traveling substantially in a selected poloidal direction within the plasma, the energetic ions become diffused in energy and space such that the energetic ions lose energy and amplify the waves. The amplified waves are further adapted to travel substantially in a selected toroidal direction to increase preferentially the energy of electrons traveling in one toroidal direction which, in turn, enhances or generates a toroidal plasma current. In an further adaptation, the amplified waves can be made to preferentially increase the energy of fuel ions within the plasma to enhance the fusion reactivity of the fuel ions. The described direct, or in situ, conversion of the energetic ion energy provides an efficient and economical means of delivering power to a fusion reactor.

  14. Fusion-Fission Hybrid for Fissile Fuel Production without Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratoni, M; Moir, R W; Kramer, K J; Latkowski, J F; Meier, W R; Powers, J J

    2012-01-02

    Two scenarios are typically envisioned for thorium fuel cycles: 'open' cycles based on irradiation of {sup 232}Th and fission of {sup 233}U in situ without reprocessing or 'closed' cycles based on irradiation of {sup 232}Th followed by reprocessing, and recycling of {sup 233}U either in situ or in critical fission reactors. This study evaluates a third option based on the possibility of breeding fissile material in a fusion-fission hybrid reactor and burning the same fuel in a critical reactor without any reprocessing or reconditioning. This fuel cycle requires the hybrid and the critical reactor to use the same fuel form. TRISO particles embedded in carbon pebbles were selected as the preferred form of fuel and an inertial laser fusion system featuring a subcritical blanket was combined with critical pebble bed reactors, either gas-cooled or liquid-salt-cooled. The hybrid reactor was modeled based on the earlier, hybrid version of the LLNL Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE1) system, whereas the critical reactors were modeled according to the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) and the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) design. An extensive neutronic analysis was carried out for both the hybrid and the fission reactors in order to track the fuel composition at each stage of the fuel cycle and ultimately determine the plant support ratio, which has been defined as the ratio between the thermal power generated in fission reactors and the fusion power required to breed the fissile fuel burnt in these fission reactors. It was found that the maximum attainable plant support ratio for a thorium fuel cycle that employs neither enrichment nor reprocessing is about 2. This requires tuning the neutron energy towards high energy for breeding and towards thermal energy for burning. A high fuel loading in the pebbles allows a faster spectrum in the hybrid blanket; mixing dummy carbon pebbles with fuel pebbles enables a softer spectrum in

  15. Interfaces in ceramic nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeve, K.D.

    Internal interfaces in all-ceramic dispersion fuels (such as these for HTGRs) are discussed for two classes: BeO-based dispersions, and coated particles for graphite-based fuels. The following points are made: (1) The strength of a two-phase dispersion is controlled by the weaker dispersed phase bonded to the matrix. (2) Differential expansion between two phases can be controlled by an intermediate buffer zone of low density. (3) A thin ceramic coating should be in compression. (4) Chemical reaction between coating and substrate and mass transfer in service should be minimized. The problems of the nuclear fuel designer are to develop coatings for fission product retention, and to produce radiation-resistant interfaces. 44 references, 18 figures

  16. Electrochemical reprocessing of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, G.; Sartorelli, A.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel which is particularly suitable for use with fuel from fast reactors and has the advantage of being a dry process in which there is no danger of radiation damage to a solvent medium as in a wet process. It comprises the steps of dissolving the fuel in a salt melt under such conditions that uranium and plutonium therein are converted to sulphate form. The plutonium sulphate may then be thermally decomposed to PuO 2 and removed. The salt melt is then subjected to electrolysis conditions to achieve cathodic deposition of UO 2 (and possibly PuO 2 ). The salt melt can then be recycled or conditioned for final disposal. (author)

  17. Storage of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, O.J.; Moore, J.T.; Cooney, B.F.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a rack for storing nuclear fuel assemblies. The rack including a base, an array of side-by-side fuel-storage locations, each location being a hollow body of rectangular transverse cross section formed of metallic sheet means which is readily bent, each body having a volume therein dimensioned to receive a fuel assembly. The bodies being mounted on the base with each body secured to bodies adjacent each body along welded joints, each joint joining directly the respective contiguous corners of each body and of bodies adjacent to each body and being formed by a series of separate welds spaced longitudinally between the tops and bottoms of the secured bodies along each joint. The spacings of the separate welds being such that the response of the rack when it is subjected to the anticipated seismic acceleration of the rack, characteristic of the geographical regions where the rack is installed, is minimized

  18. Fuel assemblies for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1979-01-01

    In a nuclear fuel assembly, hollow guide posts protrude into a fuel assembly and fitting grill from a biased spring pad with a plunger that moves with the spring pad plugging one end of each of the guide posts. A plate on the end fitting grill that has a hole for fluid discharge partially plugs the other end of the guide post. Pressurized water coolant that fills the guide post volume acts as a shock absorber and should the reactor core receive a major seismic or other shock, the fuel assembly is compelled to move towards a pad depending from a transversely disposed support grid. The pad bears against the spring pad and the plunger progressively blocks the orifices provided by slots in the guide posts thus gradually absorbing the applied shock. After the orifice has been completely blocked, controlled fluid discharge continues through a hole coil spring cooperating in the attenuation of the shock. (author)

  19. Inserts for nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cragg, P.J.

    1982-01-01

    An insert for a nuclear fuel pin which comprises a strip. The strip carries notches, which enable a coding arrangement to be carried on the strip. The notches may be of differing sizes and the coding on the strip includes identification and identification checking data. Each notch on the strip may give rise to a signal pulse which is counted by a detector to avoid errors. (author)

  20. Distinct roles for key karyogamy proteins during yeast nuclear fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melloy, Patricia; Shen, Shu; White, Erin; Rose, Mark D

    2009-09-01

    During yeast mating, cell fusion is followed by the congression and fusion of the two nuclei. Proteins required for nuclear fusion are found at the surface (Prm3p) and within the lumen (Kar2p, Kar5p, and Kar8p) of the nuclear envelope (NE). Electron tomography (ET) of zygotes revealed that mutations in these proteins block nuclear fusion with different morphologies, suggesting that they act in different steps of fusion. Specifically, prm3 zygotes were blocked before formation of membrane bridges, whereas kar2, kar5, and kar8 zygotes frequently contained them. Membrane bridges were significantly larger and occurred more frequently in kar2 and kar8, than in kar5 mutant zygotes. The kinetics of NE fusion in prm3, kar5, and kar8 mutants, measured by live-cell fluorescence microscopy, were well correlated with the size and frequency of bridges observed by ET. However the kar2 mutant was defective for transfer of NE lumenal GFP, but not diffusion within the lumen, suggesting that transfer was blocked at the NE fusion junction. These observations suggest that Prm3p acts before initiation of outer NE fusion, Kar5p may help dilation of the initial fusion pore, and Kar2p and Kar8p act after outer NE fusion, during inner NE fusion.

  1. Sono-luminescence and nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seife, Ch.; Hilgenfeldt, S.; Lohse, D.

    2002-01-01

    This article presents multi-bubble and single-bubble luminescence. Since long scientists have known that ultra-sound waves could trigger the formation of bubbles in water (phenomenon called cavitation) but in 1930, for the first time experiments showed that these bubbles could emit light in particular conditions. In 1989 F. Gaitan succeeded in trapping a single bubble by using stationary ultra-sound waves, this bubble was exploding 20.000 times per second according to the frequency of the wave while emitting a series of flashes of light. Some scientists thought that the gas inside the bubble could reach very high values of temperature and pressure, and proposed the possibility of nuclear fusion to explain the excess of neutrons that has been evidenced in a cavitation experiment with deuterated acetone. The last part of this article describes the controversy triggered by the article describing this experiment, that was published by 'Science' in march 2002. (A.C.)

  2. Vacuum vessel for a nuclear fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Takashi; Sato, Hiroshi; Owada, Koro.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a reinforcing member on a bellows portion to reduce a stress at the bellows portion thereby increasing the strength of a vessel. Structure: A vacuum vessel for a nuclear fusion device has a bellows portion and a wall thick portion. A support extended toward the bellows portion is secured inside of a toroidal section in order to reduce the stress at the bellows portion. An insulator is interposed between the support and the bellows portion and is retained on the support by a bolt. Since the stress may be reduced by the support, the wall thick of the bellows portion may be decreased to sufficiently secure the low electric resistance value. (Yoshihara, H.)

  3. Nuclear fuel element and container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubb, W.T.; King, L.H.

    1981-01-01

    The invention is based on the discovery that a substantial reduction in metal embrittlement or stress corrosion cracking from fuel pellet-cladding interaction can be achieved by the use of a copper layer or liner in proximity to the nuclear fuel, and an intermediate zirconium oxide barrier layer between the copper layer and the zirconium cladding substrate. The intermediate zirconia layer is a good copper diffusion barrier; also, if the zirconium cladding surface is modified prior to oxidation, copper can be deposited by electroless plating. A nuclear fuel element is described which comprises a central core of fuel material and an elongated container using the system outlined above. The method for making the container is again described. It comprises roughening or etching the surface of the zirconium or zirconium alloy container, oxidizing the resulting container, activating the oxidized surface to allow for the metallic coating of such surfaces by electroless deposition and further coating the activated-oxidized surface of the zirconium or zirconium alloy container with copper, iron or nickel or an alloy thereof. (U.K.)

  4. Modeling the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, Jacob J.; Dunzik-Gougar, Mary Lou; Juchau, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    A review of existing nuclear fuel cycle systems analysis codes was performed to determine if any existing codes meet technical and functional requirements defined for a U.S. national program supporting the global and domestic assessment, development and deployment of nuclear energy systems. The program would be implemented using an interconnected architecture of different codes ranging from the fuel cycle analysis code, which is the subject of the review, to fundamental physical and mechanistic codes. Four main functions are defined for the code: (1) the ability to characterize and deploy individual fuel cycle facilities and reactors in a simulation, while discretely tracking material movements, (2) the capability to perform an uncertainty analysis for each element of the fuel cycle and an aggregate uncertainty analysis, (3) the inclusion of an optimization engine able to optimize simultaneously across multiple objective functions, and (4) open and accessible code software and documentation to aid in collaboration between multiple entities and facilitate software updates. Existing codes, categorized as annualized or discrete fuel tracking codes, were assessed according to the four functions and associated requirements. These codes were developed by various government, education and industrial entities to fulfill particular needs. In some cases, decisions were made during code development to limit the level of detail included in a code to ease its use or to focus on certain aspects of a fuel cycle to address specific questions. The review revealed that while no two of the codes are identical, they all perform many of the same basic functions. No code was able to perform defined function 2 or several requirements of functions 1 and 3. Based on this review, it was concluded that the functions and requirements will be met only with development of a new code, referred to as GENIUS.

  5. Spent nuclear fuel storage vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshio; Kashiwagi, Eisuke; Sekikawa, Tsutomu.

    1997-01-01

    Containing tubes for containing spent nuclear fuels are arranged vertically in a chamber. Heat releasing fins are disposed horizontal to the outer circumference of the containing tubes for rectifying cooling air and promoting cooling of the containing tubes. Louvers and evaporation sides of heat pipes are disposed at a predetermined distance in the chamber. Cooling air flows from an air introduction port to the inside of the chamber and takes heat from the containing tubes incorporated with heat generating spent nuclear fuels, rising its temperature and flows off to an air exhaustion exit. The direction for the rectification plate of the louver is downward from a horizontal position while facing to the air exhaustion port. Since the evaporation sides of the heat pipes are disposed in the inside of the chamber and the condensation side of the heat pipes is disposed to the outside of the chamber, the thermal energy can be recovered from the containing tubes incorporated with spent nuclear fuels and utilized. (I.N.)

  6. Fusion-Fission Transmutation Scheme-Efficient destruction of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotschenreuther, M.; Valanju, P.M.; Mahajan, S.M.; Schneider, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    A fusion-assisted transmutation system for the destruction of transuranic nuclear waste is developed by combining a subcritical fusion-fission hybrid assembly uniquely equipped to burn the worst thermal nonfissile transuranic isotopes with a new fuel cycle that uses cheaper light water reactors for most of the transmutation. The center piece of this fuel cycle, the high power density compact fusion neutron source (100 MW, outer radius <3 m), is made possible by a new divertor with a heat-handling capacity five times that of the standard alternative. The number of hybrids needed to destroy a given amount of waste is an order of magnitude below the corresponding number of critical fast-spectrum reactors (FRs) as the latter cannot fully exploit the new fuel cycle. Also, the time needed for 99% transuranic waste destruction reduces from centuries (with FR) to decades

  7. Modification in fuel processing of Mitsubishi Nuclear Fuel's Tokai Works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Results of the study by the Committee for Examination of Fuel Safety, reported to the AEC of Japan, are presented, concerning safety of the modifications of Tokai Works, Mitsubishi Nuclear Fuel Co., Ltd. Safety has been confirmed thereof. The modifications covered are the following: storage facility of nuclear fuel in increase, analytical facility in transfer, fuel assemblage equipment in addition, incineration facility of combustible solid wastes in installation, experimental facility of uranium recovery in installation, and warehouse in installation. (Mori, K.)

  8. Waste management strategy for nuclear fusion power systems from a regulatory perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckman, R.A.

    1977-12-06

    A waste management strategy for future nuclear fusion power systems is developed using existing regulatory methodology. The first step is the development of a reference fuel cycle. Next, the waste streams from such a facility are identified. Then a waste management system is defined to safely handle and dispose of these wastes. The future regulator must identify the decisions necessary to establish waste management performance criteria. The data base and methodologies necessary to make these decisions must then be developed. Safe management of nuclear fusion wastes is not only a technological challenge, but encompasses significant social, political, and ethical questions as well.

  9. Waste management strategy for nuclear fusion power systems from a regulatory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    A waste management strategy for future nuclear fusion power systems is developed using existing regulatory methodology. The first step is the development of a reference fuel cycle. Next, the waste streams from such a facility are identified. Then a waste management system is defined to safely handle and dispose of these wastes. The future regulator must identify the decisions necessary to establish waste management performance criteria. The data base and methodologies necessary to make these decisions must then be developed. Safe management of nuclear fusion wastes is not only a technological challenge, but encompasses significant social, political, and ethical questions as well

  10. An effect of nuclear electric quadrupole moments in thermonuclear fusion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, B. R.; Srnka, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    Consideration of the nuclear electric quadrupole terms in the expression for the fusion Coulomb barrier suggests that this electrostatic barrier may be substantially modified from that calculated under the usual plasma assumption that the nuclei are electric monopoles. This effect is a result of the nonspherical potential shape and the spatial quantization of the nuclear spins of the fully stripped ions in the presence of a magnetic field. For monopole-quadrupole fuel cycles like p-B-11, the fusion cross-section may be substantially increased at low energies if the protons are injected at a small angle relative to the confining magnetic field.

  11. Present status of laser fusion fuel pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Sadao; Mima, Kunioki; Norimatsu, Takayoshi; Takagi, Masaru.

    1986-01-01

    Accompanying the advance of pellet implosion experiment, the data base required for fuel pellet design has been steadily accumulated. The clarification of the physics related to the process of absorbing laser beam, energy transport, the generation of ablative pressure, the hydrodynamic mechanism of implosion, the energy transmission to fuel core and so on progressed, and the design data supported by these results are prepared. Based on the data base like this, the design of fuel pellets taking the optimization of implosion in consideration is carried out. The various fuel pellets designed in this way are tested for their effectiveness by implosion experiment. For this purpose, the high performance measurement of implosion and the high accuracy manufacture of fuel pellets become very important. In this paper, the present state of the research on the method of laser implosion, the example of pellet design and the law of proportion, the manufacturing techniques of the fuel pellets having various structures, the techniques dealing with tritium and so on is summarized, and the direction of future research and development is ascertained. At present, implosion experiment is carried out mostly by hanging a pellet target with a fiber of several μm diameter, but the fiber impairs the symmetry of implosion. The levitation techniques without contact is required. (Kako, I.)

  12. Nuclear engineering questions: power, reprocessing, waste, decontamination, fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, R.D. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the chemical engineering symposium on nuclear questions. Specific questions addressed by the speakers included: nuclear power - why and how; commercial reprocessing - permanent death or resurrection; long-term management of commercial high-level wastes; long-term management of defense high-level waste; decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities, engineering aspects of laser fusion I; and engineering aspects of laser fusion II. Individual papers have been input to the Energy Data Base previously

  13. Nuclear fusion energy for the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This film explains the principles of nuclear fusion and how it differs from nuclear fission. Culham Laboratory in Oxfordshire has been the UK centre for research into fusion power for over 20 years. In addition Britain and other European countries are working on JET -the Joint European Torus. The film explains how, since 1978, Culham has been the centre of this joint European research project on fusion and it traces the development of fusion research that has led to the construction of JET. (author)

  14. Self-sustaining nuclear pumped laser-fusion reactor experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boody, F.P.; Choi, C.K.; Miley, G.H.

    1977-01-01

    The features of a neutron feedback nuclear pumped (NFNP) laser-fusion reactor equipment were studied with the intention of establishing the feasibility of the concept. The NFNP laser-fusion concept is compared schematically to electrically pumped laser fusion. The study showed that, once a method of energy storage has been demonstrated, a self-sustaining fusion-fission hybrid reactor with a ''blanket multiplication'' of two would be feasible using nuclear pumped Xe F* excimer lasers having efficiencies of 1 to 2 percent and D-D-T pellets with gains of 50 to 100

  15. Kinetic advantage of controlled intermediate nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xiaoming

    2012-01-01

    The dominated process of controlled fusion is to let nuclei gain enough kinetic energy to overcome Coulomb barrier. As a result, a fusion scheme can consider two factors in its design: to increase kinetic energy of nuclei and to alter the Coulomb barrier. Cold Fusion and Hot fusion are all one-factor schemes while Intermediate Fusion is a twofactors scheme. This made CINF kinetically superior. Cold Fusion reduces deuteron-deuteron distance, addressing Coulomb barrier, and Hot Fusion heat up plasma into extreme high temperature, addressing kinetic energy. Without enough kinetic energy made Cold Fusion skeptical. Extreme high temperature made Hot Fusion very difficult to engineer. Because CIFN addresses both factors, CIFN is a more promising technique to be industrialized.

  16. Strategies of management of the nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, J.R.; Perez, A.; Filella, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The management of nuclear fuel is depending on several factors: - Regulatory commission. The enterprises owner of the NPPs.The enterprise owner of the energy distribution. These factors are considered for the management of nuclear fuel. The design of fuel elements, the planning of cycles, the design of core reactors and the costs are analyzed. (Author)

  17. Role of ion chromatograph in nuclear fuel fabrication process at Nuclear Fuel Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaji Rao, Y.; Prasada Rao, G.; Prahlad, B.; Saibaba, N.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper discusses the different applications of ion chromatography followed in nuclear fuel fabrication process at Nuclear Fuel Complex. Some more applications of IC for characterization of nuclear materials and which are at different stages of method development at Control Laboratory, Nuclear Fuel Complex are also highlighted

  18. Will nuclear fusion be able to power the next century?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grad, P.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear fusion is widely regarded as potentially the ultimate energy-generation concept. Although an enormous amount of work and resources has already been committed throughout the world on nuclear fusion research, controlled nuclear fusion has so far proved largely elusive and the difficulties to be overcome before the first commercial fusion reactor is put into operation remain daunting and formidable. In Australia there are three main nuclear fusion research efforts. Sydney University's School of Physics operates a tokamak and a team there has been studying plasma properties in general and in particular radio frequency wave heating of the plasma. At the Australian National University a group has pioneered the construction and operation of an advanced stellarator model called a heliac while at Flinders University in Adelaide a team has developed a rotamak model. The US, Europe, Japan and the USSR each has a frontline fusion research tokamak with Princeton University's TFTR and Culham's JET closest to reactor operation conditions. Although several questions remain to be answered about the safety of a fusion reactor, all experts agree that these problems would be easier to solve than those of conventional fission reactors and there would be no major radioactive waste disposal problem. Some argue that fusion would contribute to the greenhouse effect but most authorities have expressed optimism that fusion, once the technical hurdles are overcome, could economically provide virtually unlimited energy with minimal environmental hazards and at a high safety level

  19. On the nuclear fuel and fossil fuel reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fettweis, G.

    1978-01-01

    A short discussion of the nuclear fuel and fossil fuel reserves and the connected problem of prices evolution is presented. The need to regard fuel production under an economic aspect is emphasized. Data about known and assessed fuel reserves, world-wide and with special consideration of Austria, are reviewed. It is concluded that in view of the fuel reserves situation an energy policy which allows for a maximum of options seems adequate. (G.G.)

  20. Nuclear fuels - swords and ploughshares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklin, N.L.

    1986-05-01

    In 1986 the problems associated with the implementation of nuclear power programmes mainly arise from difficulties of social acceptability. The scientific and technological achievements are no longer a source of wonder and are taken for granted by a public which has become accustomed to such achievements in other fields. This lecture recounts the history of the nuclear fuel cycle starting around 1955 but continuing, to look at future prospects. The problems are discussed. The technical improvements that have occurred over the years mean that, currently it is possible for all the problems to be overcome technically. Although there is always room for improvements in endurance, design etc. commercial and safety requirements can be met. In economic terms, the real costs of the fuel cycle have reached a plateau and should decrease as the result of lower cost for enriched uranium, lower reprocessing costs and better fuel management. However, in social and political terms, the position is not so certain because of public concern about reprocessing plants and the disposal of radioactive wastes. (U.K.).

  1. Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, D.

    1985-01-01

    How should the decision in favour of reprocessing and against alternative waste management concepts be judged from an economic standpoint. Reprocessing is not imperative neither for resource-economic reasons nor for nuclear energy strategy reasons. On the contrary, the development of an ultimate storage concept representing a real alternative promising to close, within a short period of time, the nuclear fuel cycle at low cost. At least, this is the result of an extensive economic efficiency study recently submitted by the Energy Economics Institute which investigated all waste management concepts relevant for the Federal Republic of Germany in the long run, i.e. direct ultimate storage of spent fuel elements (''Other waste disposal technologies'' - AE) as well as reprocessing of spent fuel elements where re-usable plutonium and uranium are recovered and radioactive waste goes to ultimate storage (''Integrated disposal'' - IE). Despite such fairly evident results, the government of the Federal Republic of Germany has favoured the construction of a reprocessing plant. From an economic point of view there is no final answer to the question whether or not the argumentation is sufficient to justify the decision to construct a reprocessing plant. This is true for both the question of technical feasibility and issues of overriding significance of a political nature. (orig./HSCH) [de

  2. An introduction to the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuze, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    This overview of the nuclear fuel cycle is divided into three parts. First, is a brief discussion of the basic principles of how nuclear reactors work;second, is a look at the major types of nuclear reactors being used and world-wide nuclear capacity;and third, is an overview of the nuclear fuel cycle and the present industrial capability in the US. 34 figs., 10 tabs

  3. Critical review of nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuster, N.

    1996-01-01

    Transmutation of long-lived radionuclides is considered as an alternative to the in-depth disposal of spent nuclear fuel, in particular, on the final stage of the nuclear fuel cycle. The majority of conclusions is the result of the common work of the Karlsruhe FZK and the Commissariat on nuclear energy of France (CEA)

  4. Fuel procurement for first generation fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gore, B.F.; Hendrickson, P.L.

    1976-09-01

    The provision of deuterium, tritium, lithium and beryllium fuel materials for fusion power plants is examined in this document. Possible fusion reactions are discussed for use in first generation power plants. Requirements for fuel materials are considered. A range of expected annual consumption is given for each of the materials for a 1000 megawatts electric (MWe) fusion power plant. Inventory requirements are also given. Requirements for an assumed fusion power plant electrical generating capacity of 10 6 MWe (roughly twice present U.S. generating capacity) are also given. The supply industries are then examined for deuterium, lithium, and beryllium. Methods are discussed for producing the only tritium expected to be purchased by a commercial fusion industry--an initial inventory for the first plant. Present production levels and methods are described for deuterium, lithium and beryllium. The environmental impact associated with production of these materials is then discussed. The toxicity of beryllium is described, and methods are indicated to keep worker exposure to beryllium as low as achievable

  5. Determining fissile content of nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arya, S.P.; Grossman, L.N.; Schoenig, F.C.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to the determination of the fissile fuel content of fuel for nuclear reactors. A nondestructive method is described for determining rapidly, accurately and simultaneously the fissile content, enrichment and location of fuel material which may also contain amounts of burnable poison, by detecting the γ-rays emitted from the fuel material due to natural radioactive decay. (U.K.)

  6. Transport and reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenail, B.

    1981-01-01

    This contribution deals with transport and packaging of oxide fuel from and to the Cogema reprocessing plant at La Hague (France). After a general discussion of nuclear fuel and the fuel cycle, the main aspects of transport and reprocessing of oxide fuel are analysed. (Auth.)

  7. Fuel optimization of Qinshan nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Zejun; Li Zhuoqun; Kong Deping; Xue Xincai; Wang Shiwei

    2010-01-01

    Based on the design practice of the fuel replacement of Qin Shan nuclear power plant, this document effectively analyzes the shortcomings of current replacement design of Qin Shan. To address these shortcomings, this document successfully implements the 300 MW fuel optimization program from fuel replacement. fuel improvement and experimentation ,and achieves great economic results. (authors)

  8. Nuclear fuel control in fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Yoshitatsu

    1976-01-01

    The basic control problems of measuring uranium and of the environment inside and outside nuclear fuel fabrication plants are reviewed, excluding criticality prevention in case of submergence. The occurrence of loss scraps in fabrication and scrap-recycling, the measuring error, the uranium going cut of the system, the confirmation of the presence of lost uranium and the requirement of the measurement control for safeguard make the measurement control very complicated. The establishment of MBA (material balance area) and ICA (item control area) can make clearer the control of inventories, the control of loss scraps and the control of measuring points. Besides the above basic points, the following points are to be taken into account: 1) the method of confirmation of inventories, 2) the introduction of reliable NDT instruments for the rapid check system for enrichment and amount of uranium, 3) the introduction of real time system, and 4) the clarification of MUF analysis and its application to the reliability check of measurement control system. The environment control includes the controls of the uranium concentration in factory atmosphere, the surface contamination, the space dose rate, the uranium concentration in air and water discharged from factories, and the uranium in liquid wastes. The future problems are the practical restudy of measurement control under NPT, the definite plan of burglary protection and the realization of the disposal of solid wastes. (Iwakiri, K.)

  9. Nuclear fuel cycle modelling using MESSAGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiying Zhang; Dongsheng Niu; Guoliang Xu; Hui Zhang; Jue Li; Lei Cao; Zeqin Guo; Zhichao Wang; Yutong Qiu; Yanming Shi; Gaoliang Li

    2017-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the possibilities of application of MESSAGE tool for the modelling of a Nuclear Energy System at the national level, one of the possible open nuclear fuel cycle options based on thermal reactors has been modelled using MESSAGE. The steps of the front-end and back-end of nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear reactor operation are described. The optimal structure for Nuclear Power Development and optimal schedule for introducing various reactor technologies and fuel cycle options; infrastructure facilities, nuclear material flows and waste, investments and other costs are demonstrated. (author)

  10. Method of producing nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Tokuyuki; Oomura, Hiroshi.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To fabricate a nuclear fuel assembly with uniform enrichment degree, in the blanket of a hybrid reactor. Constitution: A vessel charged with powderous source materials is conveyed by a conveying gas through a material charge/discharge tube to the inside of the blanket. Then, plasmas are formed in the inner space of the blanket so as to enrich the source materials by the irradiation of neutrons. After the average degree of enrichment reaches a predetermined level, the material vessel is discharged by the conveying gas onto a conveyor. The powder materials are separated from the source-material vessel and then charged into a source-material hopper. The mixed material of a uniform enrichment degree is supplied to a fuel-assembly-fabrication device. FP gases resulted after the enrichment are effectively separated and removed through an FP gas pipe. (Horiuchi, T.)

  11. Nuclear fuel pellet loading machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kee, R.W.; Denero, J.V.

    1975-01-01

    An apparatus for loading nuclear fuel pellets on trays for transfer in a system is described. A conveyor supplies pellets from a source to a loading station. When the pellets reach a predetermined position at the loading station, a manual or automatically operated arm pushes the pellets into slots on a tray and this process is repeated until pellet sensing switches detect that the tray is full. Thereupon, the tray is lowered onto a belt or other type conveyor and transferred to other apparatus in the system, such as a furnace for sintering, and in some cases, reduction of UO 2 . 2 to UO 2 . The pellets are retained on the tray and subsequently loaded directly into fuel rods to be used in the reactor core. (auth)

  12. Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Mahaffey, James A

    2012-01-01

    As energy problems of the world grow, work toward fusion power continues at a greater pace than ever before. The topic of fusion is one that is often met with the most recognition and interest in the nuclear power arena. Written in clear and jargon-free prose, Fusion explores the big bang of creation to the blackout death of worn-out stars. A brief history of fusion research, beginning with the first tentative theories in the early 20th century, is also discussed, as well as the race for fusion power. This brand-new, full-color resource examines the various programs currently being funded or p

  13. Nuclear fuel pellet production method and nuclear fuel pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuda, Ryoichi; Ito, Ken-ichi; Masuda, Hiroshi.

    1993-01-01

    In a method of manufacturing nuclear fuel pellets by compression-molding UO 2 powders followed by sintering, a sintering agent having a composition of about 40 to 80 wt% of SiO 2 and the balance of Al 2 O 3 , a sintering agent at a ratio of 10 to 500 ppm based on the total amount of UO 2 and UO 2 powders are mixed, compression molded and then sintered at a sintering temperature of about 1500 of 1800degC. The UO 2 particles have an average grain size of about 20 to 60μm, most of the crystal grain boundary thereof is coated with a glassy or crystalline alumina silicate phase, and the porosity is about 1 to 4 vol%. With such a constitution, the sintering agent forms a single liquid phase eutectic mixture during sintering, to promote a surface reaction between nuclear fuel powders by a liquid phase sintering mechanism, increase their density and promote the crystal growth. Accordingly, it is possible to lower the softening temperature, improve the creep velocity of the pellets and improve the resistance against pellet-clad interaction. (T.M.)

  14. Breeding nuclear fuels with accelerators: replacement for breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grand, P.; Takahashi, H.

    1984-01-01

    One application of high energy particle accelerators has been, and still is, the production of nuclear fuel for the nuclear energy industry; tantalizing because it would create a whole new industry. This approach to producing fissile from fertile material was first considered in the early 1950's in the context of the nuclear weapons program. A considerable development effort was expended before discovery of uranium ore in New Mexico put an end to the project. Later, US commitment to the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR) killed any further interest in pursuing accelerator breeder technology. Interest in the application of accelerators to breed nuclear fuels, and possibly burn nuclear wastes, revived in the late 1970's, when the LMFBR came under attack during the Carter administration. This period gave the opportunity to revisit the concept in view of the present state of the technology. This evaluation and the extensive calculational modeling of target designs that have been carried out are promising. In fact, a nuclear fuel cycle of Light Water Reactors and Accelerator Breeders is competitive to that of the LMFBR. At this time, however, the relative abundance of uranium reserves vs electricity demand and projected growth rate render this study purely academic. It will be for the next generation of accelerator builders to demonstate the competitiveness of this technology versus that of other nuclear fuel cycles, such as LMFBR's or Fusion Hybrid systems. 22 references, 1 figure, 5 tables

  15. Nuclear fusion an energetic option to the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medialdea Utande, A.; Sanchez Sanz, J.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear fusion is the energy source of the Sun and the rest of starts. The great availability of deuterium on Earth, the inherent safety of the reactions involved and the intrinsic environmental respect make fusion an attractive energy source for the future of making of man king. International promising contributions are making Fusion Science and Technology progress by leaps and bounds to achieve its long term goal of cost-effective energy-producing plasmas. (Author)

  16. Measurement of nuclear potentials from fusion excitation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huizenga, J.R.; Birkelund, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The basis for measuring nuclear potentials from fusion excitation functions at energies above barrier is reviewed. It is argued that because of experimental and conceptual problems fusion excitation functions at high energies cannot lead to model independent measurements of internuclear potential at small separations. The Al 27 + Ne 20 reaction previously analyzed by others is used as an example of problems arising from the inability to distinguish complete and incomplete fusion in experimental data

  17. Study on fission blanket fuel cycling of a fusion-fission hybrid energy generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Z.; Yang, Y.; Xu, H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study on neutron physics characteristics of a light water cooled fission blanket for a new type subcritical fusion-fission hybrid reactor aiming at electric power generation with low technical limits of fission fuel. The major objective is to study the fission fuel cycling performance in the blanket, which may possess significant impacts on the feasibility of the new concept of fusion-fission hybrid reactor with a high energy gain (M) and tritium breeding ratio (TBR). The COUPLE2 code developed by the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University is employed to simulate the neutronic behaviour in the blanket. COUPLE2 combines the particle transport code MCNPX with the fuel depletion code ORIGEN2. The code calculation results show that soft neutron spectrum can yield M > 20 while maintaining TBR >1.15 and the conversion ratio of fissile materials CR > 1 in a reasonably long refuelling cycle (>five years). The preliminary results also indicate that it is rather promising to design a high-performance light water cooled fission blanket of fusion-fission hybrid reactor for electric power generation by directly loading natural or depleted uranium if an ITER-scale tokamak fusion neutron source is achievable.

  18. International nuclear fuel cycle evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, P.

    1980-01-01

    In the end of February 1980, the two-years work on the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE) was finished in Vienna with a plenary meeting. INFCE is likely to have been a unique event in the history of international meetings: It was ni diplomatic negotiation meeting, but a techno-analytical investigation in which the participants tenaciously shuggled for many of the formulations. Starting point had been a meeting initiated by President Carter in Washington in Oct. 1979 after the World Economy Summit Meeting in London. The results of the investigation are presented here in a brief and popular form. (orig./UA) [de

  19. Nuclear fuel grid outer strap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, R.; Craver, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor fuel assembly grid. It comprises a first outer grip strap segment end. The first end having a first tab arranged in substantially the same plane as the plane defined by the first end; a second outer grip strap end. The second end having a second slot arranged in substantially the same plane as the plane defined by the second end, with the tab being substantially disposed in the slot, defining a socket therebetween; and a fort tine interposed substantially perpendicularly in the socket

  20. Radioecology of nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwell, L.L.

    1982-01-01

    This study provides information to help assess the environmental impacts and certain potential human hazards associated with nuclear fuel cycles. A data base is being developed to define and quantify biological transport routes, which will permit credible predictions and assessment of routine and potential large-scale releases of radionuclides and other toxic materials. These data, used in assessment models, will increase the accuracy of estimating radiation doses to man and other life forms. Results will provide information to determine if waste management procedures on the Hanford site have caused ecological perturbations, and, if so, to determine the source, nature and magnitude of such disturbances

  1. Container for nuclear fuel powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etheredge, B.F.; Larson, R.I.

    1982-01-01

    A critically safe container is disclosed for the storage and rapid discharge of enriched nuclear fuel material in powder form is disclosed. The container has a hollow, slab-shaped container body that has one critically safe dimension. A powder inlet is provided on one side wall of the body adjacent to a corner thereof and a powder discharge port is provided at another corner of the body approximately diagonal the powder inlet. Gas plenum for moving the powder during discharge are located along the side walls of the container adjacent the discharge port

  2. Radioecology of nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreckhise, R.G.; Cadwell, L.L.; Emery, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    This study provides information to help assess the environmental impacts and certain potential human hazards associated with nuclear fuel cycles. A data base is being developed to define and quantify biological transport routes which will permit credible predictions and assessment of routine and potential large-scale releases of radionuclides and other toxic materials. Information obtained from existing storage and disposal sites will provide a meaningful radioecological perspective with which to improve the effectiveness of waste management practices. This paper focuses on terrestrial and aquatic radioecology of waste management areas and biotic transport parameters

  3. Overview of alternate-fuel fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    Alternate fuels (AFs) such as Cat-D, D- 3 He and p- 11 B offer the potential advantages of elimination of tritium breeding and reduced energy release in neutrons. An adequate energy balance appears exceedingly difficult to achieve with proton-based fuels such as p- 11 B. Thus Cat-D, which can ignite at temperatures in the range of 30 to 40 keV, represents the logical near-term candidate. An attractive variation which adds flexibility would be to develop semi-catalyzed-D plants for synfuel production with simultaneous generation of 3 He for use in D- 3 He satellite electrical power plants. These approaches and problems are discussed

  4. Getter for nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.T.; Williamson, H.E.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed and has disposed therein an improved getter capable of gettering reactive gases including a source of hydrogen. The getter comprises a composite with a substrate having thereon a coating capable of gettering reactive gases. The substrate has a greater coefficient of thermal expansion than does the coating, and over a period of time at reactor operating temperatures any protective film on the coating is fractured at various places and fresh portions of the coating are exposed to getter reactive gases. With further passage of time at reactor operating temperatures a fracture of the protective film on the coating will grow into a crack in the coating exposing further portions of the coating capable of gettering reactive gases. 13 claims, 5 drawing figures

  5. Getter for nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.T.; Williamson, H.E.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed and has disposed therein an improved getter capable of gettering reactive gases including a source of hydrogen. The getter comprises a composite with a substrate having thereon a coating capable of gettering reactive gases. The substrate has a greater coefficient of thermal expansion than does the coating, and over a period of time at reactor operating temperatures any protective film on the coating is fractured at various places and fresh portions of the coating are exposed to getter reactive gases. With further passage of time at reactor operating temperatures a fracture of the protective film on the coating will grow into a crack in the coating exposing further portions of the coating capable of gettering reactive gases

  6. Nuclear fusion experimental study on 16 O + 60 Ni system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.P. da.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear fusion cross section measurements were performed in the energy range near The Coulomb Barrier (E Lab -> 40-72 MeV), for the system 16 O + 60 Ni, aiming the study of Fusion Process involving heavy ions. (L.C.J.A.)

  7. Canonical form of an elastoplastic model of nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlova, T.I.; Mikhajlov, I.N.; Do Dang, G.

    1997-01-01

    Starting from equations of motion describing the fusion process in symmetrical nuclear systems of low angular momenta we reconstruct the collective Lagrangian and dissipation Rayleigh functions. This opens new perspectives in studying the dynamical effects in the heavy nuclei collisions. In particular, it provides a basis for a quantal description of the fusion process and accompanying its effects

  8. The U.S. program for fusion nuclear technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.F.; Haas, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    The Fusion Nuclear Technology (FNT) research and development program in the United States is shaped by a hierarchy of documents and by the environment for nuclear energy existing in the United States. The fission nuclear industry in the United States has suffered problems with public perception of safety, waste disposal issues, and economics as influenced by safety and environmental issues. For fusion to be a viable energy alternative, it must offer significant improvements in these areas. The hierarchy of documents defining objectives, plans, and strategy of the U.S. FNT program consists of the Magnetic Fusion Program Plan (MFPP) (February 1985), the Technical Planning Activity Final Report (January 1987), the Finesse Program Report (January 1987), and the Blanket Comparison and Selection Study Final Report (September 1984). In addition, two other documents are also significant in shaping FNT policy. These are the IEA report on Material for Fusion (December 1986) and the Summary of the Report of the Senior Committee on Environmental, Safety, and Economic Aspects of Magnetic Fusion Energy (September 1987). The U.S. Magnetic Fusion Program Plan defines four key technical issues (magnetic confinement systems, properties of burning plasmas, fusion nuclear technology, and fusion materials). (orig./KP)

  9. The Fight for Fusion: A Modern Nuclear War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Adam; Sereda, David

    1992-01-01

    Describes the work of Bogdan Maglich with helium-based fusion and barriers to its development resulting from lack of government support, competition for funding, and political pet projects. Compares tritium-based to helium-based fusion and the potential for nonradioactive nuclear power to supply the world's energy requirements with no negative…

  10. Nuclear fuel element leak detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, C.D. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a leak detection system integral with a wall of a building used to fabricate nuclear fuel elements for detecting radiation leakage from the nuclear fuel elements as the fuel elements exit the building. The leak detecting system comprises a shielded compartment constructed to withstand environmental hazards extending into a similarly constructed building and having sealed doors on both ends along with leak detecting apparatus connected to the compartment. The leak detecting system provides a system for removing a nuclear fuel element from its fabrication building while testing for radiation leaks in the fuel element

  11. The Nuclear Fuel Cycle Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Cycle Information System (NFCIS) is an international directory of civilian nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Its purpose is to identify existing and planned nuclear fuel cycle facilities throughout the world and to indicate their main parameters. It includes information on facilities for uranium ore processing, refining, conversion and enrichment, for fuel fabrication, away-from-reactor storage of spent fuel and reprocessing, and for the production of zirconium metal and Zircaloy tubing. NFCIS currently covers 271 facilities in 32 countries and includes 171 references

  12. Dissolving method for nuclear fuel oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiyasu, Hiroshi; Kataoka, Makoto; Asano, Yuichiro; Hasegawa, Shin-ichi; Takashima, Yoichi; Ikeda, Yasuhisa.

    1996-01-01

    In a method of dissolving oxides of nuclear fuels in an aqueous acid solution, the oxides of the nuclear fuels are dissolved in a state where an oxidizing agent other than the acid is present together in the aqueous acid solution. If chlorate ions (ClO 3 - ) are present together in the aqueous acid solution, the chlorate ions act as a strong oxidizing agent and dissolve nuclear fuels such as UO 2 by oxidation. In addition, a Ce compound which generates Ce(IV) by oxidation is added to the aqueous acid solution, and an ozone (O 3 ) gas is blown thereto to dissolve the oxides of nuclear fuels. Further, the oxides of nuclear fuels are oxidized in a state where ClO 2 is present together in the aqueous acid solution to dissolve the oxides of nuclear fuels. Since oxides of the nuclear fuels are dissolved in a state where the oxidizing agent is present together as described above, the oxides of nuclear fuels can be dissolved even at a room temperature, thereby enabling to use a material such as polytetrafluoroethylene and to dissolve the oxides of nuclear fuels at a reduced cost for dissolution. (T.M.)

  13. Brief history and current developments of nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2016-01-01

    The history of nuclear fusion is briefly outlined, the ITER project is described, the advantages of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator are described, alternative projects and mentioned, and prospects for the nearest time to come are shown. (P.A.)

  14. Nuclear fusion: a dream in progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaut, Cecile

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the construction of ITER, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, in which will be produced nuclear fusion reactions of the same type as those occurring in the sun. As only foundations have been built, physicists are working on component design, on material improvement, on monitoring and maintenance robots, on the simulation of plasma behaviour, a critical aspect of the operation. Experiments are performed in an older and smaller experimental reactor, Tore Supra. It is used to test plasma heating modes, the injection mode of deuterium and tritium which will fuse in ITER. Some parts of this installation are used to extract heat from plasma and must sustain huge heat fluxes (10 millions of Watt per square meter). In order to maintain ITER without stopping it, robots will be used to control and repair the installation. A virtual reality room has been designed to check in advance the construction process as well as the operation. ITER must be completed in 2018 and the first plasmas be produced in 2019. Tritium is to be introduced in 2026. Then, scientists hope to produce a power which will be ten times the input power

  15. Magnetic field coil in nuclear fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Mitsugi; Takano, Hirohisa.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To provide an electrical-insulatively stabilized magnetic field coil in nuclear fusion device, restraining an increase in voltage when plasma current is rapidly changed. Structure: A magnetic field coil comprises coils arranged coaxial with respective vacuum vessels, said coils being wound in positive and reverse polarities so as to form a vertical magnetic field within the plasma. The coils of the positive polarity are arranged along the vacuum vessel inside of an axis vertical in section of the annular plasma and are arranged symmetrically up and down of a horizontal axis. On the other hand, the coils of the reverse polarity are arranged along the vacuum vessel outside of a vertical axis and arranged symmetrically up and down of the horizontal axis. These positive and reverse polarity coils are alternately connected in series, and lead portions of the coils are connected to a power source by means of connecting wires. In this case, lead positions of the coils are arranged in one direction, and the connecting wires are disposed in closely contact relation to offset magnetic fields formed by the connecting wires each other. (Kawakami, Y.)

  16. MODELLING OF NUCLEAR FUEL CLADDING TUBES CORROSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Cech

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes materials made of zirconium-based alloys used for nuclear fuel cladding fabrication. It is focused on corrosion problems their theoretical description and modeling in nuclear engineering.

  17. OECD - HRP Summer School on Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In cooperation with the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), the Halden Reactor Project organised a Summer School on nuclear fuel in the period August 28 September 1, 2000. The summer school was primarily intended for people who wanted to become acquainted with fuel-related subjects and issues without being experts. It was especially hoped that the summer school would serve to transfer knowledge to the ''young generation'' in the field of nuclear fuel. Experts from Halden Project member organisations gave the following presentations: (1) Overview of the nuclear community, (2) Criteria for safe operation and design of nuclear fuel, (3) Fuel design and fabrication, (4) Cladding Manufacturing, (5) Overview of the Halden Reactor Project, (6) Fuel performance evaluation and modelling, (7) Fission gas release, and (8) Cladding issues. Except for the Overview, which is a written paper, the other contributions are overhead figures from spoken lectures.

  18. International Summer School on Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In cooperation with the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), the Halden Reactor Project organised a Summer School on nuclear fuel in the period August 28 September 1, 2000. The summer school was primarily intended for people who wanted to become acquainted with fuel-related subjects and issues without being experts. It was especially hoped that the summer school would serve to transfer knowledge to the ''young generation'' in the field of nuclear fuel. Experts from Halden Project member organisations gave the following presentations: (1) Overview of the nuclear community, (2) Criteria for safe operation and design of nuclear fuel, (3) Fuel design and fabrication, (4) Cladding Manufacturing, (5) Overview of the Halden Reactor Project, (6) Fuel performance evaluation and modelling, (7) Fission gas release, and (8) Cladding issues. Except for the Overview, which is a written paper, the other contributions are overhead figures from spoken lectures.

  19. OECD - HRP Summer School on Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In cooperation with the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), the Halden Reactor Project organised a Summer School on nuclear fuel in the period August 28 September 1, 2000. The summer school was primarily intended for people who wanted to become acquainted with fuel-related subjects and issues without being experts. It was especially hoped that the summer school would serve to transfer knowledge to the ''young generation'' in the field of nuclear fuel. Experts from Halden Project member organisations gave the following presentations: (1) Overview of the nuclear community, (2) Criteria for safe operation and design of nuclear fuel, (3) Fuel design and fabrication, (4) Cladding Manufacturing, (5) Overview of the Halden Reactor Project, (6) Fuel performance evaluation and modelling, (7) Fission gas release, and (8) Cladding issues. Except for the Overview, which is a written paper, the other contributions are overhead figures from spoken lectures

  20. The safety of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The procurement and preparation of fuel for nuclear power reactors, followed by its recovery, processing and management subsequent to reactor discharge, are frequently referred to as the ''front end'' and ''back end'' of the nuclear fuel cycle. The facilities associated with these activities have an extensive and well-documented safety record accumulated over the past 50 years by technical experts and safety authorities. This information has enabled an in-depth analysis of the complete fuel cycle. Preceded by two previous editions in 1981 and 1993, this new edition of the Safety of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle represents the most up-to-date analysis of the safety aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle. It will be of considerable interest to nuclear safety experts, but also to those wishing to acquire extensive information about the fuel cycle more generally. (author)

  1. The safety of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    The procurement and preparation of fuel for nuclear power reactors, followed by its recovery, processing and management subsequent to reactor discharge, are frequently referred to as the 'front end' and 'back end' of the nuclear fuel cycle. The facilities associated with these activities have an extensive and well-documented safety record accumulated over the past 50 years by technical experts and safety authorities. This information has enabled an in-depth analysis of the complete fuel cycle. Preceded by two previous editions in 1981 and 1993, this new edition of The Safety of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle represents the most up-to-date analysis of the safety aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle. It will be of considerable interest to nuclear safety experts, but also to those wishing to acquire extensive information about the fuel cycle more generally. (author)

  2. Nuclear Fusion Research Understanding Plasma-Surface Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Robert E.H

    2005-01-01

    It became clear in the early days of fusion research that the effects of the containment vessel (erosion of "impurities") degrade the overall fusion plasma performance. Progress in controlled nuclear fusion research over the last decade has led to magnetically confined plasmas that, in turn, are sufficiently powerful to damage the vessel structures over its lifetime. This book reviews current understanding and concepts to deal with this remaining critical design issue for fusion reactors. It reviews both progress and open questions, largely in terms of available and sought-after plasma-surface interaction data and atomic/molecular data related to these "plasma edge" issues.

  3. The dense plasma focus and nuclear energy. A possible path towards fuel-selfsufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heindler, M.; Harms, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter examines the concept of incorporating a dense plasma focus device which supplies neutrons to breed fissile fuel for fission reactions in a nuclear energy system. Discusses the dense plasma focus in a fusion-fission symbiont concept; a parametric description of a DPF-based nuclear energy system; fissile fuel and energy balance in a DPF based symbiont; a fusion-fission symbiont with a DPF device of current design; and DPF facility requirements for a self-sufficient fusion-fission symbiont. The primary objective of this study was to establish a systems concept which is essentially self-sufficient with respect to nuclear fuel. Concludes that while existing dense plasma focus devices are insufficient and inadequate for such purpose, the improvement of some critical performance parameters (e.g., the pulse repetition rate and the neutron yield per pulse) could render a self-sufficient nuclear energy concept a nearterm technological objective

  4. Nuclear-fuel-cycle education: Module 1. Nuclear fuel cycle overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckhoff, N.D.

    1981-07-01

    This educational module is an overview of the nuclear-fule-cycle. The overview covers nuclear energy resources, the present and future US nuclear industry, the industry view of nuclear power, the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation program, the Union of Concerned Scientists view of the nuclear-fuel-cycle, an analysis of this viewpoint, resource requirements for a model light water reactor, and world nuclear power considerations

  5. International issue: the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    In this special issue a serie of short articles of informations are presented on the following topics: the EEC's medium term policy regarding the reprocessing and storage of spent fuel, France's natural uranium supply, the Pechiney Group in the nuclear field, zircaloy cladding for nuclear fuel elements, USSI: a major French nuclear engineering firm, gaseous diffusion: the only commercial enrichment process, the transport of nuclear materials in the fuel cycle, Cogema and spent fuel reprocessing, SGN: a leader in the fuel cycle, quality control of mechanical, thermal and termodynamic design in nuclear engineering, Sulzer's new pump testing station in Mantes, the new look of the Ateliers et Chantiers de Bretagne, tubes and piping in nuclear power plants, piping in pressurized water reactor. All these articles are written in English and in French [fr

  6. Achieving competitive excellence in nuclear energy: The threat of proliferation; the challenge of inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1994-06-01

    Nuclear energy will have an expanding role in meeting the twenty-first-century challenges of population and economic growth, energy demand, and global warming. These great challenges are non-linearly coupled and incompletely understood. In the complex global system, achieving competitive excellence for nuclear energy is a multi-dimensional challenge. The growth of nuclear energy will be driven by its margin of economic advantage, as well as by threats to energy security and by growing evidence of global warming. At the same time, the deployment of nuclear energy will be inhibited by concerns about nuclear weapons proliferation, nuclear waste and nuclear reactor safety. These drivers and inhibitors are coupled: for example, in the foreseeable future, proliferation in the Middle East may undermine energy security and increase demand for nuclear energy. The Department of Energy's nuclear weapons laboratories are addressing many of these challenges, including nuclear weapons builddown and nonproliferation, nuclear waste storage and burnup, reactor safety and fuel enrichment, global warming, and the long-range development of fusion energy. Today I will focus on two major program areas at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL): the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the development of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) energy

  7. A design of steady state fusion burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Hatori, Tadatsugu; Itoh, Kimitaka; Ikuta, Takashi; Kodama, Yuji.

    1975-01-01

    We present a brief design of a steady state fusion burner in which a continuous burning of nuclear fuel may be achieved with output power of a gigawatt. The laser fusion is proposed to ignite the fuel. (auth.)

  8. Some introductory notes on the problem of nuclear energy by controlled fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedretti, E.

    1988-01-01

    Written for scientists and technologist interested in, but unfamiliar with nuclear energy by controlled fusion reactions, this ''sui generis'' review paper attempts to provide the reader, as shortly as possible, with a general idea of the main issues at stake in nuclear fusion research. With the purpose of keeping this paper within a reasonable length, the various subjects are only outlined in their essence, basic features, underlying principles, etc., without entering into details, which are left to the quoted literature. Due to the particular readership of this journal, vacuum problems and/or aspects of fusion research anyhow related with vacuum science and technology are evidentiated. After reviewing fusion reactions' cross sections, fusion by accelerators and muon catalyzed fusion are described, followed by mention of Lawson's criteria and of plasma confinement features. Then, inertial confinement fusion is dealt with, also including one example of laser system (Nova), one of accelerator facility (PBFA-II) and some guesses on the classified Centurion-Halite program. Magnetic confinement fusion research is also reviewed, in particulary reporting one example of linear machine (MFTF-B), two examples of toroidal machines other than Tokamak (ATF and Eta-Beta-II) and various examples of Tokamaks, including PBX and PBX-M; TFTR, JET, JT-60, T-15 and Tore-Supra (large machines); Alcator A, FT, Alcator C/MTX, Alcator C-Mod and T-14 (compact high field machines). Tokamaks under design for ignition experiments (Ignitor, CIT, Ignitex and NET) are also illustrated. Thermal conversion of fusion power and direct generation of electricity are mentioned; conceptual design of fusion power plants are considered and illustrated by four examples (STARFIRE, WILDCAT, MARS and CASCADE). The D 3 He fuel cycle is discussed as an alternative more acceptable than Deuterium-Tritium, and thw Candor proposal is reported. After recalling past experience of the fission power development, some

  9. Nuclear fuel powder transfer device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komono, Akira

    1998-01-01

    A pair of parallel rails are laid between a receiving portion to a molding portion of a nuclear fuel powder transfer device. The rails are disposed to the upper portion of a plurality of parallel support columns at the same height. A powder container is disposed while being tilted in the inside of the vessel main body of a transfer device, and rotational shafts equipped with wheels are secured to right and left external walls. A nuclear powder to be mixed, together with additives, is supplied to the powder container of the transfer device. The transfer device engaged with the rails on the receiving side is transferred toward the molding portion. The wheels are rotated along the rails, and the rotational shafts, the vessel main body and the powder container are rotated. The nuclear powder in the tilted powder container disposed is rotated right and left and up and down by the rotation, and the powder is mixed satisfactory when it reaches the molding portion. (I.N.)

  10. On the economic prospects of nuclear fusion with tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfirsch, D.; Schmitter, K.H.

    1987-12-01

    This paper describes a method of cost and construction energy estimation for tokamak fusion power stations conforming to the present, early stage of fusion development. The method is based on first-wall heat load constraints rather than β limitations, which, however, might eventually be the more critical of the two. It is used to discuss the economic efficiency of pure fusion, with particular reference to the European study entitled 'Environmental Impact and Economic Prospects of Nuclear Fusion'. It is shown that the claims made therein for the economic prospects of pure fusion with tokamaks, when discussed on the basis of the present-day technology, do not stand up to critical examination. A fusion-fission hybrid, however, could afford more positive prospects. Support for the stated method is even derived when it is properly applied for cost estimation of advanced gascooled and Magnox reactors, the two very examples presented by the European study to 'disprove' it. (orig.)

  11. Propagation of nuclear data uncertainties for fusion power measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjöstrand Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron measurements using neutron activation systems are an essential part of the diagnostic system at large fusion machines such as JET and ITER. Nuclear data is used to infer the neutron yield. Consequently, high-quality nuclear data is essential for the proper determination of the neutron yield and fusion power. However, uncertainties due to nuclear data are not fully taken into account in uncertainty analysis for neutron yield calibrations using activation foils. This paper investigates the neutron yield uncertainty due to nuclear data using the so-called Total Monte Carlo Method. The work is performed using a detailed MCNP model of the JET fusion machine; the uncertainties due to the cross-sections and angular distributions in JET structural materials, as well as the activation cross-sections in the activation foils, are analysed. It is found that a significant contribution to the neutron yield uncertainty can come from uncertainties in the nuclear data.

  12. Nuclear design of APSARA reload-2 fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nath, M.; Veeraraghavan, N.

    1978-01-01

    In view of the satisfactory operating performance of initial and reload-1 fuel designs of Apsara reactor, it was felt desirable to adopt a basically similar design for reload-2 fuel, i.e. the fuel assembly should consist of equally spaced parallel fuel plates in which highly enriched uranium, alloyed with aluminium, is employed as fuel. However, because of fabricational constraints, certain modifications were necessary and were incorporated in the proposed reload design to cater to the multiple needs of operational requirements, improved fuel utilization and inherent reactor safety. The salient features of the nuclear design of reload-2 fuel for the Apsara reactor are discussed. (author)

  13. Monitoring arrangement for vented nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    In a nuclear fuel reactor core, fuel elements are arranged in a closely packed hexagonal configuration, each fuel element having diametrically opposed vents permitting 180 0 rotation of the fuel elements to counteract bowing. A grid plate engages the fuel elements and forms passages for communicating sets of three, four or six individual vents with respective monitor lines in order to communicate vented radioactive gases from the fuel elements to suitable monitor means in a manner readily permitting detection of leakage in individual fuel elements

  14. Sustainability Features of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Passerini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear fuel cycle is the series of stages that nuclear fuel materials go through in a cradle to grave framework. The Once Through Cycle (OTC is the current fuel cycle implemented in the United States; in which an appropriate form of the fuel is irradiated through a nuclear reactor only once before it is disposed of as waste. The discharged fuel contains materials that can be suitable for use as fuel. Thus, different types of fuel recycling technologies may be introduced in order to more fully utilize the energy potential of the fuel, or reduce the environmental impacts and proliferation concerns about the discarded fuel materials. Nuclear fuel cycle systems analysis is applied in this paper to attain a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of fuel cycle alternatives. Through the use of the nuclear fuel cycle analysis code CAFCA (Code for Advanced Fuel Cycle Analysis, the impact of a number of recycling technologies and the associated fuel cycle options is explored in the context of the U.S. energy scenario over 100 years. Particular focus is given to the quantification of Uranium utilization, the amount of Transuranic Material (TRU generated and the economics of the different options compared to the base-line case, the OTC option. It is concluded that LWRs and the OTC are likely to dominate the nuclear energy supply system for the period considered due to limitations on availability of TRU to initiate recycling technologies. While the introduction of U-235 initiated fast reactors can accelerate their penetration of the nuclear energy system, their higher capital cost may lead to continued preference for the LWR-OTC cycle.

  15. Nuclear fuel cycle scenarios at CGNPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Min; Zhou, Zhou; Nie, Li Hong; Mao, Guo Ping; Hao, Si Xiong; Shen, Kang

    2008-01-01

    Established in 1994, China Guangdong Nuclear Power Holding Co. (CGNPC) now owns two power stations GNPS and LNPS Phase I, with approximate 4000 MWe of installed capacity. With plant upgrades, advanced fuel management has been introduced into the two plants to improve the plant economical behavior with the high burnup fuel implemented. For the purpose of sustainable development, some preliminary studies on nuclear fuel cycle, especially on the back-end, have been carried out at CGNPC. According to the nuclear power development plan of China, the timing for operation and the capacity of the reprocessing facility are studied based on the amount of the spent fuel forecast in the future. Furthermore, scenarios of the fuel cycles in the future in China with the next generation of nuclear power were considered. Based on the international experiences on the spent fuel management, several options of spent fuel reprocessing strategies are investigated in detail, for example, MOX fuel recycling in light water reactor, especially in the current reactors of CGNPC, spent fuel intermediated storage, etc. All the investigations help us to draw an overall scheme of the nuclear fuel cycle, and to find a suitable road-map to achieve the sustainable development of nuclear power. (authors)

  16. Spent nuclear fuel disposal liability insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis examines the social efficiency of nuclear power when the risks of accidental releases of spent fuel radionuclides from a spent fuel disposal facility are considered. The analysis consists of two major parts. First, a theoretical economic model of the use of nuclear power including the risks associated with releases of radionuclides from a disposal facility is developed. Second, the costs of nuclear power, including the risks associated with a radionuclide release, are empirically compared to the costs of fossil fuel-fired generation of electricity. Under the provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, the federally owned and operated spent nuclear fuel disposal facility is not required to maintain a reserve fund to cover damages from an accidental radionuclide release. Thus, the risks of a harmful radionuclide release are not included in the spent nuclear fuel disposal fee charged to the electric utilities. Since the electric utilities do not pay the full, social costs of spent fuel disposal, they use nuclear fuel in excess of the social optimum. An insurance mechanism is proposed to internalize the risks associated with spent fueled disposal. Under this proposal, the Federal government is required to insure the disposal facility against any liabilities arising from accidental releases of spent fuel radionuclides

  17. [Two-nuclear neurons: sincitial fusion or amitotic division].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotnikov, O S; Frumkina, L E; Lactionova, A A; Paramonova, N M; Novakovskaia, S A

    2011-01-01

    In the review the history of research two-nuclear neurons is stated and two hypotheses about mechanisms of their formation are analysed: by sincitial fusion or amytotic divisions. The facts of discrepancy of the former orthodox cellular theory categorically denying possibility sincitial of communications in nervous system and of sincitial fusion neurons are mentioned. As an example results of ultrastructural researches of occurrence sincitium in a cortex of the big brain of rats, in autonomic ganglions, in hypocampus and a cerebellum of adult animals are presented. The video data of the sincitial fusion of live neurons and the mechanism of formation multinuclear neurons in tissue culture are analyzed. Existing data about amytotic a way of formation two-nuclear neurons are critically considered. The conclusion becomes, that the mechanism of formation two-nuclear neurons is cellular fusion. Simultaneously the review confirms our representations about existence in nervous system sincitial interneural communications.

  18. Realizing "2001: A Space Odyssey": Piloted Spherical Torus Nuclear Fusion Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Craig H.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Juhasz, Albert J.

    2005-01-01

    A conceptual vehicle design enabling fast, piloted outer solar system travel was created predicated on a small aspect ratio spherical torus nuclear fusion reactor. The initial requirements were satisfied by the vehicle concept, which could deliver a 172 mt crew payload from Earth to Jupiter rendezvous in 118 days, with an initial mass in low Earth orbit of 1,690 mt. Engineering conceptual design, analysis, and assessment was performed on all major systems including artificial gravity payload, central truss, nuclear fusion reactor, power conversion, magnetic nozzle, fast wave plasma heating, tankage, fuel pellet injector, startup/re-start fission reactor and battery bank, refrigeration, reaction control, communications, mission design, and space operations. Detailed fusion reactor design included analysis of plasma characteristics, power balance/utilization, first wall, toroidal field coils, heat transfer, and neutron/x-ray radiation. Technical comparisons are made between the vehicle concept and the interplanetary spacecraft depicted in the motion picture 2001: A Space Odyssey.

  19. Spent nuclear fuel storage - Basic concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krempel, Ascanio; Santos, Cicero D. Pacifici dos; Sato, Heitor Hitoshi; Magalhaes, Leonardo de

    2009-01-01

    According to the procedures adopted in others countries in the world, the spent nuclear fuel elements burned to produce electrical energy in the Brazilian Nuclear Power Plant of Angra do Reis, Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto - CNAAA will be stored for a long time. Such procedure will allow the next generation to decide how they will handle those materials. In the future, the reprocessing of the nuclear fuel assemblies could be a good solution in order to have additional energy resource and also to decrease the volume of discarded materials. This decision will be done in the future according to the new studies and investigations that are being studied around the world. The present proposal to handle the nuclear spent fuel is to storage it for a long period of time, under institutional control. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to introduce a proposal of a basic concept of spent fuel storage, which involves the construction of a new storage building at site, in order to increase the present storage capacity of spent fuel assemblies in CNAAA installation; the concept of the spent fuel transportation casks that will transfer the spent fuel assemblies from the power plants to the Spent Fuel Complementary Storage Building and later on from this building to the Long Term Intermediate Storage of Spent Fuel; the concept of the spent fuel canister and finally the basic concept of the spent fuel long term storage. (author)

  20. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Execution Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LEROY, P.G.

    2000-01-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project supports the Hanford Site Mission to cleanup the Site by providing safe, economic, environmentally sound management of Site spent nuclear fuel in a manner that reduces hazards by staging it to interim onsite storage and deactivates the 100 K Area facilities

  1. Multiphase Nanocrystalline Ceramic Concept for Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mecartnery, Martha [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Graeve, Olivia [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Patel, Maulik [Univ. of Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-25

    The goal of this research is to help develop new fuels for higher efficiency, longer lifetimes (higher burn-up) and increased accident tolerance in future nuclear reactors. Multiphase nanocrystalline ceramics will be used in the design of simulated advanced inert matrix nuclear fuel to provide for enhanced plasticity, better radiation tolerance, and improved thermal conductivity

  2. Multiphase Nanocrystalline Ceramic Concept for Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mecartnery, Martha; Graeve, Olivia; Patel, Maulik

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this research is to help develop new fuels for higher efficiency, longer lifetimes (higher burn-up) and increased accident tolerance in future nuclear reactors. Multiphase nanocrystalline ceramics will be used in the design of simulated advanced inert matrix nuclear fuel to provide for enhanced plasticity, better radiation tolerance, and improved thermal conductivity

  3. The IFR modern nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannum, W.H.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear power is an essential component of the world's energy supply. The IFR program, by returning to fundamentals, offers a fresh approach to closing the nuclear fuel cycle. This closed fuel cycle represents the ultimate in efficient resource utilization and environmental accountability. 35 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Execution Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LEROY, P.G.

    2000-11-03

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project supports the Hanford Site Mission to cleanup the Site by providing safe, economic, environmentally sound management of Site spent nuclear fuel in a manner that reduces hazards by staging it to interim onsite storage and deactivates the 100 K Area facilities.

  5. The IFR modern nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannum, W.H.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear power is an essential component of the world's energy supply. The IFR program, by returning to fundamentals, offers a fresh approach to closing the nuclear fuel cycle. This closed fuel cycle represents the ultimate in efficient resource utilization and environmental accountability. 35 refs., 2 tabs

  6. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Information System. A directory of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. 2009 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-04-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Cycle Information System (NFCIS) is an international directory of civilian nuclear fuel cycle facilities, published online as part of the Integrated Nuclear Fuel Cycle Information System (iNFCIS: http://www-nfcis.iaea.org/). This is the fourth hardcopy publication in almost 30 years and it represents a snapshot of the NFCIS database as of the end of 2008. Together with the attached CD-ROM, it provides information on 650 civilian nuclear fuel cycle facilities in 53 countries, thus helping to improve the transparency of global nuclear fuel cycle activities

  7. Nuclear fuel burn-up economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matausek, M.

    1984-01-01

    In the period 1981-1985, for the needs of Utility Organization, Beograd, and with the support of the Scientific Council of SR Srbija, work has been performed on the study entitled 'Nuclear Fuel Burn-up Economy'. The forst [phase, completed during the year 1983 comprised: comparative analysis of commercial NPP from the standpoint of nuclear fuel requirements; development of methods for fuel burn-up analysis; specification of elements concerning the nuclear fuel for the tender documentation. The present paper gives the short description of the purpose, content and results achieved in the up-to-now work on the study. (author)

  8. The safety of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle covers the procurement and preparation of fuel for nuclear power reactors, its recovery and recycling after use and the safe storage of all wastes generated through these operations. The facilities associated with these activities have an extensive and well documented safety record accumulated over the past 40 years by technical experts and safety authorities. This report constitutes an up-to-date analysis of the safety of the nuclear fuel cycle, based on the available experience in OECD countries. It addresses the technical aspects of fuel cycle operations, provides information on operating practices and looks ahead to future activities

  9. Nuclear fuels for very high temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, L.B.; Hobbins, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    The success of the development of nuclear thermal propulsion devices and thermionic space nuclear power generation systems depends on the successful utilization of nuclear fuel materials at temperatures in the range 2000 to 3500 K. Problems associated with the utilization of uranium bearing fuel materials at these very high temperatures while maintaining them in the solid state for the required operating times are addressed. The critical issues addressed include evaporation, melting, reactor neutron spectrum, high temperature chemical stability, fabrication, fission induced swelling, fission product release, high temperature creep, thermal shock resistance, and fuel density, both mass and fissile atom. Candidate fuel materials for this temperature range are based on UO 2 or uranium carbides. Evaporation suppression, such as a sealed cladding, is required for either fuel base. Nuclear performance data needed for design are sparse for all candidate fuel forms in this temperature range, especially at the higher temperatures

  10. FERC perspectives on nuclear fuel accounting issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDanal, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the presentation is to discuss the treatment of nuclear fuel and problems that have evolved in industry practices in accounting for fuel. For some time, revisions to the Uniform System of Accounts have been considered with regard to the nuclear fuel accounts. A number of controversial issues have been encountered on audits, including treatment of nuclear fuel enrichment charges, costs associated with delays in enrichment services, the treatment and recognition of fuel inventories in excess of current or projected needs, and investments in and advances to mining and milling companies for future deliveries of nuclear fuel materials. In an effort to remedy the problems and to adapt the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's accounting to more easily provide for or point out classifications for each problem area, staff is reevaluating the need for contemplated amendments to the Uniform System of Accounts

  11. System for assembling nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An automatic system is described for assembling nuclear fuel elements, in particular those employing mixed oxide fuels. The system includes a sealing mechanism which allows movement during the assembling of the fuel element along the assembly stations without excessive release of contaminants. (U.K.)

  12. Fuel assemblies for use in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schluderberg, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    A fuel assembly for use in pressurized water cooled nuclear fast breeder reactors is described in which moderator to fuel ratios, conducive to a high Pu-U-D 2 O reactor breeding ratio, are obtained whilst at the same time ensuring accurate spacing of fuel pins without the parasitic losses associated with the use of spacer grids. (U.K.)

  13. 2014 Nuclear Fusion Prize Acceptance Speech 2014 Nuclear Fusion Prize Acceptance Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, P. B.

    2015-01-01

    It is a great honor to receive the 2014 Nuclear Fusion Prize, here at the 25th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. On behalf of everyone involved in this work, I would like to thank the IAEA, the Nuclear Fusion journal team, the IOP, and specifically Mitsuru Kikuchi, for their support of this important award. I would also like to acknowledge the many important contributions made by the other ten papers nominated for this prize. Our paper investigates the physics of the H-mode pedestal in tokamaks, specifically the development of a predictive understanding of the pedestal structure based on electromagnetic instabilities which constrain it, and the testing of the resulting theoretical model (EPED) against detailed observations on multiple devices. In addition to making pedestal predictions for existing devices, the paper also presents predictions for ITER, including methods for optimizing its pedestal height and fusion performance. What made this work possible, and indeed a pleasure to be involved with, was an extensive set of collaborations, including theory-experiment, multi-institutional, and international collaborations. Many of these collaborations have gone on for over a decade, and have been fostered in part by the ITPA Pedestal Group. The eight authors of this paper, from five institutions, all made important contributions. Rich Groebner, Tom Osborne and Tony Leonard carried out dedicated experiments and data analysis on the DIII-D tokamak, testing the EPED model over a very wide range of parameters. Jerry Hughes led dedicated experiments on Alcator C-Mod which tested the model at high magnetic field and pedestal pressure. Marc Beurskens carried out experiments and data analysis on the JET tokamak, testing the model at large scale. Xueqiao Xu conducted two-fluid studies of diamagnetic stabilization, which enabled a more accurate treatment of this important effect. Finally, Howard Wilson and I have been working together for many years to develop analytic formalism

  14. The economy of the nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, W [Alpha Chemie und Metallurgie G.m.b.H. (ALKEM), Hanau (Germany, F.R.)

    1989-07-01

    Heat extracted from nuclear fuel costs by a factor of 3 to 7 less than heat from conventional fossile fuel. So, nuclear fuel per se has an economical advantage, decreased however partly by higher nuclear plant investment costs. The standard LWR design does not allow all the fission energy stored in the fuel during on cycle to be used. It is therefore the most natural approach to separate fissionable species from fission products and consume them by fissioning. Whether this is economically justified as opposed by storing them indefinitely with spent fuel has widely been debated. The paper outlines the different approaches taken by nuclear communities worldwide and their perceived or proven rational arguments. It will balance economic and other factors for the near and distant future including advanced reactor concepts. The specific solution within the German nuclear programme will be explained, including foreseeable future trends. (orig.).

  15. Social awareness on nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigaki, Toshihiko

    2006-01-01

    In the present we surveyed public opinion regarding the nuclear fuel cycle to find out about the social awareness about nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear facilities. The study revealed that people's image of nuclear power is more familiar than the image of the nuclear fuel cycle. People tend to display more recognition and concern towards nuclear power and reprocessing plants than towards other facilities. Comparatively speaking, they tend to perceive radioactive waste disposal facilities and nuclear power plants as being highly more dangerous than reprocessing plants. It is found also that with the exception of nuclear power plants don't know very much whether nuclear fuel cycle facilities are in operation in Japan or not. The results suggests that 1) the relatively mild image of the nuclear fuel cycle is the result of the interactive effect of the highly dangerous image of nuclear power plants and the less dangerous image of reprocessing plants; and 2) that the image of a given plant (nuclear power plant, reprocessing plant, radioactive waste disposal facility) is influenced by the fact of whether the name of the plant suggests the presence of danger or not. (author)

  16. Nonproliferation norms in civilian nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, Tomio

    2005-01-01

    For sustainable use of nuclear energy in large scale, it seems inevitable to choose a closed cycle option. One of the important questions is, then, whether we can really achieve the compatibility between civilian nuclear fuel cycle and nonproliferation norms. In this aspect, Japan is very unique because she is now only one country with full-scope nuclear fuel cycle program as a non-nuclear weapon state in NPT regime. In June 2004 in the midst of heightened proliferation concerns in NPT regime, the IAEA Board of Governors concluded that, for Japanese nuclear energy program, non-diversion of declared nuclear material and the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities were verified through the inspections and examinations under Comprehensive Safeguards and the Additional Protocol. Based on this conclusion, the IAEA announced the implementation of Integrated Safeguards in Japan in September 2004. This paper reviews how Japan has succeeded in becoming the first country with full-scope nuclear fuel cycle program to qualify for integrated Safeguards, and identifies five key elements that have made this achievement happen: (1) Obvious need of nuclear fuel cycle program, (2) Country's clear intention for renunciation of nuclear armament, (3) Transparency of national nuclear energy program, (4) Record of excellent compliance with nonproliferation obligations for many decades, and (5) Numerous proactive efforts. These five key elements will constitute a kind of an acceptance model for civilian nuclear fuel cycle in NNWS, and may become the basis for building 'Nonproliferation Culture'. (author)

  17. Overview of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knief, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle is substantially more complicated than the energy production cycles of conventional fuels because of the very low abundance of uranium 235, the presence of radioactivity, the potential for producing fissile nuclides from irradiation, and the risk that fissile materials will be used for nuclear weapons. These factors add enrichment, recycling, spent fuel storage, and safeguards to the cycle, besides making the conventional steps of exploration, mining, processing, use, waste disposal, and transportation more difficult

  18. Financial aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lurf, G.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear power plant has a forward supply of several years as a consequence of the long processing time of the uranium from mining to delivery of fabricated fuel elements and of the long insertion time in the reactor. This leads to a considerable capital requirement although the specific fuel costs for nuclear fuel are considerably lower then for a conventional power plant and present only 15% of the total generating costs. (orig./RW) [de

  19. Nuclear reactor fuel assembly grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alder, J.L.; Kmonk, S.; Racki, F.R.

    1981-01-01

    A grid for a nuclear reactor fuel assembly which includes intersecting straps arranged to form a structure of egg crate configuration. The cells defined by the intersecting straps are adapted to contain axially extending fuel rods, each of which occupy one cell, while each control rod guide tube or thimble occupies the space of four cells. To effect attachment of each guide thimble to the grid, a short intermediate sleeve is brazed to the strap walls and the guide thimble is then inserted therein and mechanically secured to the sleeve walls. Each sleeve preferably, although not necessarily, is equipped with circumferentially spaced openings useful in adjusting dimples and springs in adjacent cells. To accurately orient each sleeve in position in the grid, the ends of straps extending in one direction project through transversely extending straps and terminate in the wall of the guide sleeve. Other straps positioned at right angles thereto terminate in that portion of the wall of a strap which lies next to a wall of the sleeve

  20. Design and cost evaluation of generic magnetic fusion reactor using the D-D fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, T.E.

    1988-01-01

    A fusion reactor systems code has been developed to evaluate the economic potential of power generation from a toroidal magnetic fusion reactor using deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fuel. A method similar to that developed by J. Sheffield, of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, for deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel was used to model the generic aspects of magnetic fusion reactors. The results of the systems study and cost evaluation show that the cost of electricity produced by a D-D reactor is two times higher than that produced by an equivalent D-T reactor design. The significant finding of the study is that the cost ratio between the D-D and D-T systems can potentially be reduced to 1.5 by improved engineering design and even lower by better physics performance. The absolute costs for both systems at this level are close to the costs for nuclear fission and fossil fuel plants. A design for a magnet reinforced with advanced composite materials is presented as an example of an engineering improvement that could reduce the cost of electricity produced by both reactors. However, since the magnets in the D-D reactor are much larger than in the K-T reactor, the cost ratio of the two systems is significantly reduced