WorldWideScience

Sample records for nuclear fuel uranium

  1. Uranium - the nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.E.N.

    1976-01-01

    A brief history is presented of Canadian uranium exploration, production, and sales. Statistics show that Canada is a good customer for its own uranium due to a rapidly expanding nuclear power program. Due to an average 10 year lag between commencement of exploration and production, and with current producers sold out through 1985, it is imperative that exploration efforts be increased. (E.C.B.)

  2. Uranium: the nuclear fuel. [Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, E E.N. [Eldorado Nuclear Ltd., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1976-05-01

    A brief history is presented of Canadian uranium exploration, production, and sales. Statistics show that Canada is a good customer for its own uranium due to a rapidly expanding nuclear power program. Due to an average 10 year lag between commencement of exploration and production, and with current producers sold out through 1985, it is imperative that exploration efforts be increased.

  3. Research on using depleted uranium as nuclear fuel for HWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiahua; Chen Zhicheng; Bao Borong

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of our work is to find a way for application of depleted uranium in CANDU reactor by using MOX nuclear fuel of depleted U and Pu instead of natural uranium. From preliminary evaluation and calculation, it was shown that MOX nuclear fuel consisting of depleted uranium enrichment tailings (0.25% 235 U) and plutonium (their ratio 99.5%:0.5%) could replace natural uranium in CANDU reactor to sustain chain reaction. The prospects of application of depleted uranium in nuclear energy field are also discussed

  4. Potential health hazard of nuclear fuel waste and uranium ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, K.; Sherman, G.R.; King, S.G.

    1991-06-01

    The variation of the radioactivity of nuclear fuel waste (used fuel and fuel reprocessing waste) with time, and the potential health hazard (or inherent radiotoxicity) resulting from its ingestion are estimated for CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) natural-uranium reactors. Four groups of radionuclides in the nuclear fuel waste are considered: actinides, fission products, activation products of zircaloy, and activation products of fuel impurities. Contributions from each of these groups to the radioactivity and to the potential health hazard are compared and discussed. The potential health hazard resulting from used fuel is then compared with that of uranium ore, mine tailings and refined uranium (fresh fuel) on the basis of equivalent amounts of uranium. The computer code HAZARD, specifically developed for these computations, is described

  5. Security of supply of uranium as nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman Gomez-Selles, L.

    2011-01-01

    When we talk about Sustainability related to nuclear fuel, the first concern that comes to our mind is about the possibility of having guarantees on the uranium supply for a sufficient period of time. In this paper we are going to analyze the last Reserves data published by the OCD's Red Book and also how the Reserve concept in fully linked to the uranium price. Additionally, it is demonstrated how the uranium Security of supply is guaranteed for, at least, the next 100 years. finally, some comments are made regarding other sources of nuclear fuel as it is the uranium coming from the phosphates or the thorium. (Author)

  6. Process for preparing sintered uranium dioxide nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    Uranium dioxide is prepared for use as fuel in nuclear reactors by sintering it to the desired density at a temperature less than 1300 0 C in a chemically controlled gas atmosphere comprised of at least two gases which in equilibrium provide an oxygen partial pressure sufficient to maintain the uranium dioxide composition at an oxygen/uranium ratio of at least 2.005 at the sintering temperature. 7 Claims, No Drawings

  7. Uranium for Nuclear Power: Resources, Mining and Transformation to Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hore-Lacy, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Uranium for Nuclear Power: Resources, Mining and Transformation to Fuel discusses the nuclear industry and its dependence on a steady supply of competitively priced uranium as a key factor in its long-term sustainability. A better understanding of uranium ore geology and advances in exploration and mining methods will facilitate the discovery and exploitation of new uranium deposits. The practice of efficient, safe, environmentally-benign exploration, mining and milling technologies, and effective site decommissioning and remediation are also fundamental to the public image of nuclear power. This book provides a comprehensive review of developments in these areas: • Provides researchers in academia and industry with an authoritative overview of the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle • Presents a comprehensive and systematic coverage of geology, mining, and conversion to fuel, alternative fuel sources, and the environmental and social aspects • Written by leading experts in the field of nuclear power, uranium mining, milling, and geological exploration who highlight the best practices needed to ensure environmental safety

  8. Uranium Resource Availability Analysis of Four Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, S. R.; Lee, S. H.; Jeong, M. S.; Kim, S. K.; Ko, W. I.

    2013-01-01

    Making the national policy regarding nuclear fuel cycle option, the policy should be established in ways that nuclear power generation can be maintained through the evaluation on the basis of the following aspects. To establish the national policy regarding nuclear fuel cycle option, that must begin with identification of a fuel cycle option that can be best suited for the country, and the evaluation work for that should be proceeded. Like all the policy decision, however, a certain nuclear fuel cycle option cannot be superior in all aspects of sustain ability, environment-friendliness, proliferation-resistance, economics, technologies, which make the comparison of the fuel cycle options very complicated. For such a purpose, this paper set up four different fuel cycle of nuclear power generation considering 2nd Comprehensive Nuclear Energy Promotion Plan(CNEPP), and analyzed material flow and features in steady state of all four of the fuel cycle options. As a result of an analysis on material flow of each nuclear fuel cycle, it was analyzed that Pyro-SFR recycling is most effective on U resource availability among four fuel cycle option. As shown in Figure 3, OT cycle required the most amount of U and Pyro-SFR recycle consumed the least amount of U. DUPIC recycling, PWR-MOX recycling, and Pyro-SFR recycling fuel cycle appeared to consumed 8.2%, 12.4%, 39.6% decreased amount of uranium respectively compared to OT cycle. Considering spent fuel can be recycled as potential energy resources, U and TRU taken up to be 96% is efficiently used. That is, application period of limited uranium natural resources can be extended, and it brings a great influence on stable use of nuclear energy

  9. DUCTILE URANIUM FUEL FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS AND METHOD OF MAKING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegler, S.T.

    1963-11-01

    The fabrication process for a ductile nuclear fuel alloy consisting of uranium, fissium, and from 0.25 to 1.0 wt% of silicon or aluminum or from 0.25 to 2 wt% of titanium or yttrium is presented. (AEC)

  10. Feasibility of Low Enriched Uranium Fuel for Space Nuclear Propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venneri, Paolo; Kim, Yonghee [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The purpose of this initial study is to create a baseline with which to perform further analysis and to build a solid understanding of the neutronic characteristics of a solid core for the nuclear thermal rocket. Once consistency with work done at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is established, this paper will provide a study of other fuel types, such as low and medium-enriched uranium fuels. This paper will examine how the implementation of each fuel type affects the multiplication factor of the reactor, and will then explore different possibilities for alterations needed to accommodate their successful usage. The reactor core analysis was done using the MCNP5 code. While this study has not shown that the SNRE can be easily retrofitted for low-enriched U fuel, it has made a detailed study of the SNRE, and identified the difficulties of the implementation of low-enriched fuels in small nuclear rockets. These difficulties are the need for additional moderation and fuel mass in order to achieve a critical mass. Neither of these is insurmountable. Future work includes finding the best method by which to increase the internal moderation of the reactor balanced with appropriate sizing to prevent neutron leakage. Both of these are currently being studied. This paper will present a study of the Small Nuclear Rocket Engine (SNRE) and the feasibility of using low enriched Uranium (LEU) instead of the traditional high enriched Uranium (HEU) fuels.

  11. Method for the chemical reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuels, in particular nuclear fuels containing uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, G.

    1976-01-01

    In the chemical processing of irradiated uranium-containing nuclear fuels which are hydrolyzed with aqueous nitric acid, a suggestion is made to use as quaternary ammonium nitrate trialkyl-methyl ammonium nitrates as extracting agent, in which the sum of C atoms is greater than 16. In the illustrated examples, tricaprylmethylammonium nitrate, trilaurylmethylammonium nitrate and tridecylmethylammonium nitrate are named. (HPH/LH) [de

  12. RECOVERY OF URANIUM FROM ZIRCONIUM-URANIUM NUCLEAR FUELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gens, T.A.

    1962-07-10

    An improvement was made in a process of recovering uranium from a uranium-zirconium composition which was hydrochlorinated with gsseous hydrogen chloride at a temperature of from 350 to 800 deg C resulting in volatilization of the zirconium, as zirconium tetrachloride, and the formation of a uranium containing nitric acid insoluble residue. The improvement consists of reacting the nitric acid insoluble hydrochlorination residue with gaseous carbon tetrachloride at a temperature in the range 550 to 600 deg C, and thereafter recovering the resulting uranium chloride vapors. (AEC)

  13. Reduction of uranium in disposal conditions of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myllykylae, E.

    2008-02-01

    This literature study is a summary of publications, in which the reduction of uranium by iron has been investigated in anaerobic groundwater conditions or in aqueous solution in general. The basics of the reduction phenomena and the oxidation states, complexes and solubilities of uranium and iron in groundwaters are discussed as an introduction to the subject, as well as, the Finnish disposal concept of spent nuclear fuel. The spent fuel itself mainly (∼96 %) consists of a sparingly soluble uranium(IV) dioxide, UO 2 (s), which is stable phase in the anticipated reducing disposal conditions. If spent fuel gets in contact with groundwater, oxidizing conditions might be induced by the radiolysis of water, or by the intrusion of oxidizing glacial melting water. Under these conditions, the oxidation and dissolution of uranium dioxide to more soluble U(VI) species could occur. This could lead to the mobilization of uranium and other components of spent fuel matrix including fission products and transuranium elements. The reduction of uranium back to oxidation state U(IV) can be considered as a favourable immobilization mechanism in a long-term, leading to precipitation due to the low solubility of U(IV) species. The cast iron insert of the disposal canister and its anaerobic corrosion products are the most important reductants under disposal conditions, but dissolved ferrous iron may also function as reductant. Other iron sources in the buffer or near-field rock, are also considered as possible reductants. The reduction of uranium is a very challenging phenomenon to investigate. The experimental studies need e.g. well-controlled anoxic conditions and measurements of oxidation states. Reduction and other simultaneous phenomena are difficult to distinghuish. The groundwater conditions (pH, Eh and ions) influence on the prevailing complexes of U and Fe and on forming corrosion products of iron and, thus they determine also the redox chemistry. The partial reduction of

  14. Low content uranium alloys for nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, H.; Laniesse, J.

    1964-01-01

    A description is given of the structure and the properties of low content alloys containing from 0.1 to 0.5 per cent by weight of Al, Fe, Cr, Si, Mo or a combination of these elements. A study of the kinetics and of the mode of transformation has made it possible to choose the most satisfactory thermal treatment. An attempt has been made to prepare alloys suitable for an economical industrial development having a small α grain structure without marked preferential orientation, with very fine and stable precipitates as well as a high creep-resistance. The physical properties and the mechanical strength of these alloys are given for temperatures of 20 to 600 deg C. These alloys proved very satisfactory when irradiated in the form of normal size fuel elements. (authors) [fr

  15. Operation of Nuclear Fuel Based on Reprocessed Uranium for VVER-type Reactors in Competitive Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troyanov, V.; Molchanov, V.; Tuzov, A. [TVEL Corporation, 49 Kashirskoe shosse, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Semchenkov, Yu.; Lizorkin, M. [RRC ' Kurchatov Institute' (Russian Federation); Vasilchenko, I.; Lushin, V. [OKB ' Gidropress' (Russian Federation)

    2009-06-15

    Current nuclear fuel cycle of Russian nuclear power involves reprocessed low-enriched uranium in nuclear fuel production for some NPP units with VVER-type LWR. This paper discusses design and performance characteristics of commercial nuclear fuel based on natural and reprocessed uranium. It presents the review of results of commercial operation of nuclear fuel based on reprocessed uranium on Russian NPPs-unit No.2 of Kola NPP and unit No.2 of Kalinin NPP. The results of calculation and experimental validation of safe fuel operation including necessary isotope composition conformed to regulation requirements and results of pilot fuel operation are also considered. Meeting the customer requirements the possibility of high burn-up achieving was demonstrated. In addition the paper compares the characteristics of nuclear fuel cycles with maximum length based on reprocessed and natural uranium considering relevant 5% enrichment limitation and necessity of {sup 236}U compensation. The expedience of uranium-235 enrichment increasing over 5% is discussed with the aim to implement longer fuel cycles. (authors)

  16. Uranium to Electricity: The Chemistry of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settle, Frank A.

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle consists of a series of industrial processes that produce fuel for the production of electricity in nuclear reactors, use the fuel to generate electricity, and subsequently manage the spent reactor fuel. While the physics and engineering of controlled fission are central to the generation of nuclear power, chemistry…

  17. Uranium dioxide and beryllium oxide enhanced thermal conductivity nuclear fuel development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Antonio Santos; Ferreira, Ricardo Alberto Neto

    2007-01-01

    The uranium dioxide is the most used substance as nuclear reactor fuel for presenting many advantages such as: high stability even when it is in contact with water in high temperatures, high fusion point, and high capacity to retain fission products. The conventional fuel is made with ceramic sintered pellets of uranium dioxide stacked inside fuel rods, and presents disadvantages because its low thermal conductivity causes large and dangerous temperature gradients. Besides, the thermal conductivity decreases further as the fuel burns, what limits a pellet operational lifetime. This research developed a new kind of fuel pellets fabricated with uranium dioxide kernels and beryllium oxide filling the empty spaces between them. This fuel has a great advantage because of its higher thermal conductivity in relation to the conventional fuel. Pellets of this kind were produced, and had their thermophysical properties measured by the flash laser method, to compare with the thermal conductivity of the conventional uranium dioxide nuclear fuel. (author) (author)

  18. IAEA Activities on Uranium Resources and Production, and Databases for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganguly, C.; Slezak, J. [Divison of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-05-15

    In recent years rising expectation for nuclear power has led to a significant increase in the demand for uranium and in turn dramatic increases in uranium exploration, mining and ore processing activities worldwide. Several new countries, often with limited experience, have also embarked on these activities. The ultimate goal of the uranium raw material industry is to provide an adequate supply of uranium that can be delivered to the market place at a competitive price by environmentally sound, mining and milling practices. The IAEA’s programme on uranium raw material encompass all aspects of uranium geology and deposits, exploration, resources, supply and demand, uranium mining and ore processing, environmental issues in the uranium production cycle and databases for the uranium fuel cycle. Radiological safety and environmental protection are major challenges in uranium mines and mills and their remediation. The IAEA has revived its programme for the Uranium Production Site Appraisal Team (UPSAT) to assist Member States to improve operational and safety performances at uranium mines and mill sites. The present paper summarizes the ongoing activities of IAEA on uranium raw material, highlighting the status of global uranium resources, their supply and demand, the IAEA database on world uranium deposit (UDEPO) and nuclear fuel cycle information system (NFCIS), recent IAEA Technical Meetings (TM) and related ongoing Technical Cooperation (TC) projects. (author)

  19. Colloids from the aqueous corrosion of uranium nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, M. D.; Dimitrijevic, N. M.; Mertz, C. J.; Goldberg, M. M.

    2005-12-01

    Colloids may enhance the subsurface transport of radionuclides and potentially compromise the long-term safe operation of the proposed radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Little data is available on colloid formation for the many different waste forms expected to be buried in the repository. This work expands the sparse database on colloids formed during the corrosion of metallic uranium nuclear fuel. We characterized spherical UO 2 and nickel-rich montmorilonite smectite-clay colloids formed during the corrosion of uranium metal fuel under bathtub conditions at 90 °C. Iron and chromium oxides and calcium carbonate colloids were present but were a minor population. The estimated upper concentration of the UO 2 and clays was 4 × 10 11 and 7 × 10 11-3 × 10 12 particles/L, respectively. However, oxygen eventually oxidized the UO 2 colloids, forming long filaments of weeksite K 2(UO 2) 2Si 6O 15 · 4H 2O that settled from solution, reducing the UO 2 colloid population and leaving predominantly clay colloids. The smectite colloids were not affected by oxygen. Plutonium was not directly observed within the UO 2 colloids but partitioned completely to the colloid size fraction. The plutonium concentration in the colloidal fraction was slightly higher than the value used in the viability assessment model, and does not change in concentration with exposure to oxygen. This paper provides conclusive evidence for single-phase radioactive colloids composed of UO 2. However, its impact on repository safety is probably small since oxygen and silica availability will oxidize and effectively precipitate the UO 2 colloids from concentrated solutions.

  20. Fuel balance in nuclear power with fast reactors without a uranium blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumov, V.V.; Orlov, V.V.; Smirnov, V.S.

    1994-01-01

    General aspects related to replacing the uranium blanket of a lead-cooled fast reactor burning uranium-plutonium nitride fuel with a more efficient lead reflector are briefly discussed in the article. A study is very briefly summarized, which showed that a breeding ratio of about 1 and electric power of about 300 MW were achievable. A nuclear fuel balance is performed to estimate the increased consumption of uranium to produce power and the gains achievable by eliminating the uranium blanket. Elimination of the uranium blanket has the advantages of simplifying and improving the fast reactor and eliminating the production of weapons quality plutonium. 3 figs

  1. Radiological and environmental safety aspects of uranium fuel fabrication plants at Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, S.; Surya Rao, B.; Lakshmanan, A.R.; Krishna Rao, T.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad manufactures uranium dioxide fuel assemblies for PHWRs and BWRs operating in India. Starting materials are magnesium diuranate received from UCIL, Jaduguda and imported UF. Both of these are converted to UO 2 pellets by identical chemical processes and mechanical compacting. Since the uranium handled here is free of daughter product activities, external radiation is not a problem. Inhalation of airborne U compounds is one of the main source of exposure. Engineered protective measures like enclosures around U bearing powder handling equipment and local exhausts reduce worker's exposure. Installation of pre-filters, wet rotoclones and electrostatic precipitators in the ventillation system reduces the release of U into the environment. The criticality hazard in handling slightly enriched uranium is very low due to the built-in control based on geometry and inventory. Where airborne uranium is significant, workers are provided with protective respirators. The workers are regularly monitored for external exposure and also for internal exposure. The environmental releases from the NFC facility is well controlled. Soil, water and air from the NFC environment are routinely collected and analysed for all the possible pollutants. The paper describes the Health Physics experience during the last five years on occupational exposures and on environmental surveillance which reveals the high quality of safety observed in our nuclear fuel fabricating installations. (author). 4 refs., 6 tabs

  2. The nuclear fuel cycle, From the uranium mine to waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    Fuel is a material that can be burnt to provide heat. The most familiar fuels are wood, coal, natural gas and oil. By analogy, the uranium used in nuclear power plants is called 'nuclear fuel', because it gives off heat too, although, in this case, the heat is obtained through fission and not combustion. After being used in the reactor, spent nuclear fuel can be reprocessed to extract recyclable energy material, which is why we speak of the nuclear fuel cycle. This cycle includes all the following industrial operations: - uranium mining, - fuel fabrication, - use in the reactor, - reprocessing the fuel unloaded from the reactor, - waste treatment and disposal. 'The nuclear fuel cycle includes an array of industrial operations, from uranium mining to the disposal of radioactive waste'. Per unit or mass (e.g. per kilo), nuclear fuel supplies far more energy than a fossil fuel (coal or oil). When used in a pressurised water reactor, a kilo of uranium generates 10,000 times more energy than a kilo of coal or oil in a conventional power station. Also, the fuel will remain in the reactor for a long time (several years), unlike conventional fuels, which are burnt up quickly. Nuclear fuel also differs from others in that uranium has to undergo many processes between the time it is mined and the time it goes into the reactor. For the sake of simplicity, the following pages will only look at nuclear fuel used in pressurised water reactors (or PWRs), because nuclear power plants consisting of one or more PWRs are the most widely used around the world. (authors)

  3. Uranium as a nuclear fuel: availability, economy, sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In the context of the much cited nuclear renaissance, the presence of the resource uranium not only raises questions about availability, but also places the central demand for sustainability in the limelight. Consideration of economic and environmental aspects of uranium production, e.g. through mining, provides the basis for a possible assessment of this resource. In addition to the crucial question of resource availability, this conference will also discuss its economic aspects and environmental risks.

  4. Micromechanical approach of behavior of uranium dioxide nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soulacroix, Julian

    2014-01-01

    Uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) is the reference fuel for pressurized water nuclear reactors. Our study deals with understanding and modeling of mechanical behavior at the microstructure scale at low temperatures (brittle fracture) and high temperature (viscoplastic strain). We have first studied the geometrical properties of polycrystals at large and of UO 2 polycrystal more specifically. As of now, knowledge of this behavior in the brittle fracture range is limited. Consequently, we developed an experimental method which allows better understanding of brittle fracture phenomenon at grain scale. We show that fracture is fully intra-granular and {100} planes seem to be the most preferential cleavage planes. Experimental results are directly used to deduce constitutive equations of intra-granular brittle fracture at crystal scale. This behavior is then used in 3D polycrystal simulation of brittle fracture. The full field calculation gives access to the initiation of fracture and propagation of the crack through the grains. Finally, we developed a mechanical behavior model of UO 2 in the viscoplastic range. We first present constitutive equations at macroscopic scale which accounts for an ageing process caused by migration of defects towards dislocations. Secondly, we have developed a crystal plasticity model which was fitted to UO 2 . This model includes the rotation of the crystal lattice. We present examples of polycrystalline simulations. (author) [fr

  5. Phenomenology of uranium-plutonium homogenization in nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The uranium and plutonium cations distribution in mixed oxide fuels (U 1-y Pu y )O 2 with y ≤ 0.1 has been studied in laboratory with industrial fabrication methods. Our experiences has showed a slow cations migration. In the substoichiometry (UPu)O 2-x the diffusion is in connection with the plutonium valence which is an indicator of the oxidoreduction state of the crystal lattice. The plutonium valence is in connection with the oxygen ion deficit in order to compensate the electrical charge. The oxygen ratio of the solid depends of the oxygen partial pressure prevailing at the time of product elaboration but it can be modified by impurities. These impurities permit to increase or decrease the fuel characteristics and performances. An homogeneity analysis methodology is proposed, its objective is to classify the mixed oxide fuels according to the uranium and plutonium ions distribution [fr

  6. Uranium recovery from waste of the nuclear fuel cycle plants at IPEN-CNEN/SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Antonio A.; Ferreira, Joao C.; Zini, Josiane; Scapin, Marcos A.; Carvalho, Fatima Maria Sequeira de, E-mail: afreitas@ipen.b, E-mail: jcferrei@ipen.b, E-mail: jzini@ipen.b, E-mail: mascapin@ipen.b, E-mail: fatimamc@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Sodium diuranate (DUS) is a uranium concentrate produced in monazite industry with 80% typical average grade of U{sup 3}O{sup 8}, containing sodium, silicon, phosphorus, thorium and rare earths as main impurities. Purification of such concentrate was achieved at the nuclear fuel cycle pilot plants of uranium at IPEN by nitric dissolution and uranium extraction into an organic phase using TBP/Varsol, while the aqueous phase retains impurities and a small quantity of non extracted uranium; both can be recovered later by precipitation with sodium hydroxide. Then the residual sodium diuranate goes to a long term storage at a safeguards deposit currently reaching 20 tonnes. This work shows how uranium separation and purification from such bulk waste can be achieved by ion exchange chromatography, aiming at decreased volume and cost of storage, minimization of environmental impacts and reduction of occupational doses. Additionally, the resulting purified uranium can be reused in nuclear fuel cycle.(author)

  7. Determination of uranium traces in fuel cans of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta L, C.E.; Benavides M, A.M.; Sanchez P, L.A.; Nava S, G.F.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this work is to quantify the uranium content that as impurity can be found in zircon and zircaloy alloys which are used in the construction of fuel cans. The determination of this serves as a quality control measure due to that the increment of uranium content in alloy, diminishing the corrosion resistance. The fluorimetric method was used to do this determination. It is a very sensitive, reliable, rapid method also high reproducibility and repeatability as well as low detection limits (0.25 mg/kg). (Author)

  8. Method of chemical reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuels (especially fuels containing uranium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, G.

    1975-01-01

    The invention deals with a method for the extraction especially of fast breeder fuels of high burn-up. A quaternary ammonium nitrate of high molecular weight is put into an organic diluting medium as extraction agent, corresponding to the general formula NRR'R''R'''NO 3 where R,R' and R'' are aliphatic radicals, R''' a methyl radical and the sum of the C atoms is greater than 16. After the extraction of the aqueous nitric acid containing nuclear fuel solution with this extracting agent, uranium, plutonium (or also thorium) can be found to a very high percentage in the organic phase and can be practically quantitatively back-extracted by means of diluted nitric acid, sulphuric acid or acetic acid. By using 30 volume percent tricapryl methyl ammonium nitrate in diethyl benzene for example, a distribution coefficient of 10.3 is obtained for uranium. (RB/LH) [de

  9. Nuclear fuel cycle head-end enriched uranium purification and conversion into metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonini, A.; Cabrejas, J.; Lio, L. de; Dell'Occhio, L.; Devida, C.; Dupetit, G.; Falcon, M.; Gauna, A.; Gil, D.; Guzman, G.; Neuringer, P.; Pascale, A.; Stankevicius, A.

    1998-01-01

    The CNEA (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica - Argentina) operated two facilities at the Ezeiza Atomic Center which supply purified enriched uranium employed in the production of nuclear fuels. At one of those facilities, the Triple Height Laboratory scraps from the production of MTR type fuel elements (mainly out of specification U 3 O 8 plates or powder) are purified to nuclear grade. The purification is accomplished by a solvent extraction process. The other facility, the Enriched Uranium Laboratory produces 90% enriched uranium metal to be used in Mo 99 production (originally the uranium was used for the manufacture of MTR fuel elements made of aluminium-uranium alloy). This laboratory also provided metallic uranium with a lower enrichment (20%) for a first uranium-silicon testing fuel element, and in the near future it is going to recommence 20% enriched uranium related activities in order to provide the metal for the silicon-based fuel elements production (according to the policy of enrichment reduction for MTR reactors). (author)

  10. Milling uranium silicide powder for dispersion nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, E.; Silva, D.G.; Souza, J.A.B.; Durazzo, M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Riella, H.G. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Uranium silicide (U3Si2) is presently considered the best fuel qualified so far in terms of uranium loading and performance. Stability of the U3Si2 fuel with uranium density of 4.8 g/cm3 was confirmed by burnup stability tests performed during the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. This fuel was chosen to compose the first core of the new Brazilian Multipurpose Research Reactor (RMB), planned to be constructed in the next years. This new reactor will consume bigger quantities of U3Si2 powder, when compared with the small consumption of the IEA-R1 research reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP, the unique MTR type research reactor operating in the country. At the present time, the milling operation of U3Si2 ingots is made manually. In order to increase the powder production capacity, the manual milling must be replaced by an automated procedure. This paper describes a new milling machine and procedure developed to produce U3Si2 powder with higher efficiency. (author)

  11. Uranium exploration, mining and the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickie, G.B.

    1982-05-01

    The object of this paper is to summarize the nuclear industry in an understandable and systematic manner. The authors conclude that: (a) Uranium exploration can be carried out in an environmentally safe manner. (b) Uranium mining is being carried on currently in Canada in an environmentally and socially acceptable manner with many benefits accruing to the local population near the mine. (c) Uranium tailings can be properly handled utilizing modern technology both in the short term and the long term. (d) It is generally agreed by the majority of the scientific community that radiation protection standards adequately protect both nuclear workers and the general public. (e) Nuclear and coal-fired electrical generating plants can both supply base load energy supplies in the short and long term. In some jurisdictions it is the nuclear system which can provide the lowest cost energy supply. It is important that this option not be lost, either as a potential source of electrical energy domestically or as an export commodity

  12. The utmost ends of the nuclear fuel cycle. How Finns perceive the risks of uranium mining and nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litmanen, Tapio (Univ. of Jyvaeskylae, Dept. of Social Sciences and Philosophy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)), e-mail: Tapio.Litmanen@jyu.fi

    2010-09-15

    The aim of the paper is to analyze how Finns perceive the risks of uranium mining and nuclear waste management. In social science quite much research has been done on the issue of how people perceive the risks of nuclear waste and nuclear waste management, but not much has been done in analyzing the similarities and differences of risk perception (and ethical considerations) of the utmost ends of nuclear fuel cycle. There have been some changes in Finnish nuclear policy during ongoing decade, which make this type of study interesting: decision on the fifth nuclear power plant was done in 2002, the site for spent nuclear fuel has been chosen in 2001 and in 2010 the Parliament will decide which of three competitors will get the permission to construct the sixth nuclear power plant. This national nuclear renaissance was accompanied with the uranium boom, which started in 2005. New international interest in nuclear power had raised the price of uranium. International mining companies started uranium explorations because Finnish bedrock is the oldest in Europe, and it is similar with and also of the same age as is that of the great uranium producers, Canada and Australia. The analysis of risk perceptions between uranium questions and spent nuclear fuel is based on the national survey data (N=1180) gathered in 2007

  13. The utmost ends of the nuclear fuel cycle. How Finns perceive the risks of uranium mining and nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litmanen, Tapio

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the paper is to analyze how Finns perceive the risks of uranium mining and nuclear waste management. In social science quite much research has been done on the issue of how people perceive the risks of nuclear waste and nuclear waste management, but not much has been done in analyzing the similarities and differences of risk perception (and ethical considerations) of the utmost ends of nuclear fuel cycle. There have been some changes in Finnish nuclear policy during ongoing decade, which make this type of study interesting: decision on the fifth nuclear power plant was done in 2002, the site for spent nuclear fuel has been chosen in 2001 and in 2010 the Parliament will decide which of three competitors will get the permission to construct the sixth nuclear power plant. This national nuclear renaissance was accompanied with the uranium boom, which started in 2005. New international interest in nuclear power had raised the price of uranium. International mining companies started uranium explorations because Finnish bedrock is the oldest in Europe, and it is similar with and also of the same age as is that of the great uranium producers, Canada and Australia. The analysis of risk perceptions between uranium questions and spent nuclear fuel is based on the national survey data (N=1180) gathered in 2007

  14. Uranium Oxide Rate Summary for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project (OCRWM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-09-20

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the uranium oxidation reaction rate information developed by the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project and describe the basis for selecting reaction rate correlations used in system design. The selection basis considers the conditions of practical interest to the fuel removal processes and the reaction rate application during design studies. Since the reaction rate correlations are potentially used over a range of conditions, depending of the type of evaluation being performed, a method for transitioning between oxidation reactions is also documented. The document scope is limited to uranium oxidation reactions of primary interest to the SNF Project processes. The reactions influencing fuel removal processes, and supporting accident analyses, are: uranium-water vapor, uranium-liquid water, uranium-moist air, and uranium-dry air. The correlation selection basis will consider input from all available sources that indicate the oxidation rate of uranium fuel, including the literature data, confirmatory experimental studies, and fuel element observations. Trimble (2000) summarizes literature data and the results of laboratory scale experimental studies. This document combines the information in Trimble (2000) with larger scale reaction observations to describe uranium oxidation rate correlations applicable to conditions of interest to the SNF Project.

  15. Uranium Oxide Rate Summary for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project (OCRWM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the uranium oxidation reaction rate information developed by the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project and describe the basis for selecting reaction rate correlations used in system design. The selection basis considers the conditions of practical interest to the fuel removal processes and the reaction rate application during design studies. Since the reaction rate correlations are potentially used over a range of conditions, depending of the type of evaluation being performed, a method for transitioning between oxidation reactions is also documented. The document scope is limited to uranium oxidation reactions of primary interest to the SNF Project processes. The reactions influencing fuel removal processes, and supporting accident analyses, are: uranium-water vapor, uranium-liquid water, uranium-moist air, and uranium-dry air. The correlation selection basis will consider input from all available sources that indicate the oxidation rate of uranium fuel, including the literature data, confirmatory experimental studies, and fuel element observations. Trimble (2000) summarizes literature data and the results of laboratory scale experimental studies. This document combines the information in Trimble (2000) with larger scale reaction observations to describe uranium oxidation rate correlations applicable to conditions of interest to the SNF Project

  16. Do we soon run out of uranium? Long-term concepts of nuclear fuel supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasser, Horst-Michael

    2008-01-01

    The extension of the worldwide light water reactor fleet will cause the demand for uranium to grow. The static reach of identified resources might soon fall below the life time of new nuclear power plants which are usually designed for 60 years of operation, if the exploration of new uranium deposits will stop resulting in exploitable resources. The article discusses, if, as frequently claimed, the energy consumption in the uranium mines renders impossible to secure the nuclear fuel supply in the long term. (orig.)

  17. Mixed Uranium/Refractory Metal Carbide Fuels for High Performance Nuclear Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, Travis; Anghaie, Samim

    2002-01-01

    Single phase, solid-solution mixed uranium/refractory metal carbides have been proposed as an advanced nuclear fuel for advanced, high-performance reactors. Earlier studies of mixed carbides focused on uranium and either thorium or plutonium as a fuel for fast breeder reactors enabling shorter doubling owing to the greater fissile atom density. However, the mixed uranium/refractory carbides such as (U, Zr, Nb)C have a lower uranium densities but hold significant promise because of their ultra-high melting points (typically greater than 3700 K), improved material compatibility, and high thermal conductivity approaching that of the metal. Various compositions of (U, Zr, Nb)C were processed with 5% and 10% metal mole fraction of uranium. Stoichiometric samples were processed from the constituent carbide powders, while hypo-stoichiometric samples with carbon-to-metal (C/M) ratios of 0.92 were processed from uranium hydride, graphite, and constituent refractory carbide powders. Processing techniques of cold uniaxial pressing, dynamic magnetic compaction, sintering, and hot pressing were investigated to optimize the processing parameters necessary to produce high density (low porosity), single phase, solid-solution mixed carbide nuclear fuels for testing. This investigation was undertaken to evaluate and characterize the performance of these mixed uranium/refractory metal carbides for high performance, ultra-safe nuclear reactor applications. (authors)

  18. Processing used nuclear fuel with nanoscale control of uranium and ultrafiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wylie, Ernest M.; Peruski, Kathryn M.; Prizio, Sarah E. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Bridges, Andrea N.A.; Rudisill, Tracy S.; Hobbs, David T. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Phillip, William A. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Burns, Peter C., E-mail: pburns@nd.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Current separation and purification technologies utilized in the nuclear fuel cycle rely primarily on liquid–liquid extraction and ion-exchange processes. Here, we report a laboratory-scale aqueous process that demonstrates nanoscale control for the recovery of uranium from simulated used nuclear fuel (SIMFUEL). The selective, hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative dissolution of SIMFUEL material results in the rapid assembly of persistent uranyl peroxide nanocluster species that can be separated and recovered at moderate to high yield from other process-soluble constituents using sequestration-assisted ultrafiltration. Implementation of size-selective physical processes like filtration could results in an overall simplification of nuclear fuel cycle technology, improving the environmental consequences of nuclear energy and reducing costs of processing. - Highlights: • Nanoscale control in irradiated fuel reprocessing. • Ultrafiltration to recover uranyl cage clusters. • Alternative to solvent extraction for uranium purification.

  19. Nuclear and uranium policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacNabb, G.M.; Uranium Canada Ltd., Ottawa, Ontario)

    The background of the uranium industry in Canada is described. Government policies with respect to ownership of the uranium mining industry, price stabilization, and especially reservation of sufficient supplies of nuclear fuels for domestic utilities, are explained. Canadian policy re nuclear exports and safeguards is outlined. (E.C.B.)

  20. Moderator configuration options for a low-enriched uranium fueled Kilowatt-class Space Nuclear Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Jeffrey C.; Mencarini, Leonardo de Holanda; Guimaraes, Lamartine N. F.

    2015-01-01

    The Brazilian Air Force, through its Institute for Advanced Studies (Instituto de Estudos Avancados, IEAv/DCTA), and the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) are studying the feasibility of a space nuclear reactor with a power of 1-5 kW e and fueled with Low-Enriched Uranium (LEU). This type of nuclear reactor would be attractive to signatory countries of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) or commercial interests. A LEU-fueled space reactor would avoid the security concerns inherent with Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel. As an initial step, the HEU-fueled Kilowatt Reactor Using Stirling Technology (KRUSTY) designed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory serves as a basis for a similar reactor fueled with LEU fuel. Using the computational code MCNP6 to predict the reactor neutronics performance, the size of the resulting reactor fueled with 19.75 wt% enriched uranium-10 wt% molybdenum alloy fuel is adjusted to match the excess reactivity of KRUSTY. Then, zirconium hydride moderator is added to the core to reduce the size of the reactor. This work presents the preliminary results of the computational modeling, with special emphasis on the comparison between homogeneous and heterogeneous moderator systems, in terms of the core diameter required to meet a specific multiplication factor (k eff = 1.035). This comparison illustrates the impact of moderator configuration on the size and performance of a LEU-fueled kilowatt-class space nuclear reactor. (author)

  1. Moderator configuration options for a low-enriched uranium fueled Kilowatt-class Space Nuclear Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Jeffrey C., E-mail: kingjc@mines.edu [Nuclear Science and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines (CSM), Golden, CO (United States); Mencarini, Leonardo de Holanda; Guimaraes, Lamartine N. F., E-mail: guimaraes@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: mencarini@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAV), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Divisao de Energia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    The Brazilian Air Force, through its Institute for Advanced Studies (Instituto de Estudos Avancados, IEAv/DCTA), and the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) are studying the feasibility of a space nuclear reactor with a power of 1-5 kW{sub e} and fueled with Low-Enriched Uranium (LEU). This type of nuclear reactor would be attractive to signatory countries of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) or commercial interests. A LEU-fueled space reactor would avoid the security concerns inherent with Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel. As an initial step, the HEU-fueled Kilowatt Reactor Using Stirling Technology (KRUSTY) designed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory serves as a basis for a similar reactor fueled with LEU fuel. Using the computational code MCNP6 to predict the reactor neutronics performance, the size of the resulting reactor fueled with 19.75 wt% enriched uranium-10 wt% molybdenum alloy fuel is adjusted to match the excess reactivity of KRUSTY. Then, zirconium hydride moderator is added to the core to reduce the size of the reactor. This work presents the preliminary results of the computational modeling, with special emphasis on the comparison between homogeneous and heterogeneous moderator systems, in terms of the core diameter required to meet a specific multiplication factor (k{sub eff} = 1.035). This comparison illustrates the impact of moderator configuration on the size and performance of a LEU-fueled kilowatt-class space nuclear reactor. (author)

  2. DUSCOBS - a depleted-uranium silicate backfill for transport, storage, and disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Pope, R.B.; Ashline, R.C.; DeHart, M.D.; Childs, K.W.; Tang, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    A Depleted Uranium Silicate COntainer Backfill System (DUSCOBS) is proposed that would use small, isotopically-depleted uranium silicate glass beads as a backfill material inside storage, transport, and repository waste packages containing spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The uranium silicate glass beads would fill all void space inside the package including the coolant channels inside SNF assemblies. Based on preliminary analysis, the following benefits have been identified. DUSCOBS improves repository waste package performance by three mechanisms. First, it reduces the radionuclide releases from SNF when water enters the waste package by creating a local uranium silicate saturated groundwater environment that suppresses (1) the dissolution and/or transformation of uranium dioxide fuel pellets and, hence, (2) the release of radionuclides incorporated into the SNF pellets. Second, the potential for long-term nuclear criticality is reduced by isotopic exchange of enriched uranium in SNF with the depleted uranium (DU) in the glass. Third, the backfill reduces radiation interactions between SNF and the local environment (package and local geology) and thus reduces generation of hydrogen, acids, and other chemicals that degrade the waste package system. In addition, the DUSCOBS improves the integrity of the package by acting as a packing material and ensures criticality control for the package during SNF storage and transport. Finally, DUSCOBS provides a potential method to dispose of significant quantities of excess DU from uranium enrichment plants at potential economic savings. DUSCOBS is a new concept. Consequently, the concept has not been optimized or demonstrated in laboratory experiments

  3. Physicochemical characteristics of uranium microparticles collected at nuclear fuel cycle plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaurov, G.; Stebelkov, V.; Kolesnikov, O.; Frolov, D.

    2001-01-01

    Any industrial process is accompanied by appearance of some quantity of microparticles of processed matter in the environment in immediate proximity to the manufacturing object. These particles can be transferred in atmosphere and can be collected at some distances from the plant. The determination of characteristics of industrial dust microparticles at nuclear fuel cycle plants (form, size, structure of surface, elemental composition, isotopic composition, presence of fission products, presence of activation products) in conjunction with the ability to connect these characteristics with certain nuclear manufacturing processes can become the main technical method of detecting of undeclared nuclear activity. Systematization of the experimental data on morphology, elemental and isotopic composition of uranium microparticles, collected at nuclear fuel cycle plants, is given. The purpose of this work is to establish the relationship between morphological characteristics of uranium dust microparticles and types of nuclear manufacture and to define the reference attributes of the most informative microparticles

  4. Method and device for the dry preparation of ceramic uranium dioxide nuclear fuel wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirk, H.; Roepenack, H.; Goeldner, U.

    1977-01-01

    Reprocessing of waste, resulting from the production of ceramic sintered bodies from uranium dioxide for use as nuclear fuel, in a dry process into very finely dispersed pure U 3 O 8 powder may be improved by applying vibrating screening during oxidation. An appropriate device is described. (UWI) [de

  5. Contribution to the study of nuclear fuel materials with a metallic uranium base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englander, M.

    1957-11-01

    In a power reactor destined to supply industrially recoverable thermal energy, the most economical source of heat still consists of natural metallic uranium. However, the nuclear fuel material, most often employed in the form of rods of 20 to 40 mm diameter, is subjected to a series of stresses which lead to irreversible distortions usually incompatible with the substructure of the reactor. As a result the fuel material must possess at the outset a certain number of qualities which must be determined. Investigations have therefore been carried out, first on the technological characters peculiar to each of the three allotropic phases of pure uranium metal, and on their interactions on the stabilisation of the material which consists of either cast uranium or uranium pile-treated in the γ phase. (author) [fr

  6. Uranium requirements for advanced fuel cycles in expanding nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.; Tamm, H.

    1978-01-01

    When considering advanced fuel cycle strategies in rapidly expanding nuclear power systems, equilibrium analyses do not apply. A computer simulation that accounts for system delay times and fissile inventories has been used to study the effects of different fuel cycles and different power growth rates on uranium consumption. The results show that for a given expansion rate of installed capacity, the main factors that affect resource requirements are the fissile inventory needed to introduce the advanced fuel cycle and the conversion (or breeding) ratio. In rapidly expanding systems, the effect of fissile inventory dominates, whereas in slowly expanding systems, conversion or breeding ratio dominates. Heavy-water-moderated and -cooled reactors, with their high conversion ratios, appear to be adaptable vehicles for accommodating fuel cycles covering a wide range of initial fissile inventories. They are therefore particularly suitable for conserving uranium over a wide range of nuclear power system expansion rates

  7. Nuclear reactor fuel structure containing uranium alloy wires embedded in a metallic matrix plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travelli, Armando

    1988-01-01

    A flat or curved plate structure, to be used as fuel in a nuclear reactor, comprises elongated fissionable wires or strips embedded in a metallic continuous non-fissionable matrix plate. The wires or strips are made predominantly of a malleable uranium alloy, such as uranium silicide, uranium gallide or uranium germanide. The matrix plate is made predominantly of aluminum or an aluminum alloy. The wires or strips are located in a single row at the midsurface of the plate, parallel with one another and with the length dimension of the plate. The wires or strips are separated from each other, and from the surface of the plate, by sufficient thicknesses of matrix material, to provide structural integrity and effective fission product retention, under neutron irradiation. This construction makes it safely feasible to provide a high uranium density, so that the uranium enrichment with uranium 235 may be reduced below about 20%, to deter the reprocessing of the uranium for use in nuclear weapons.

  8. Statistical model for forecasting uranium prices to estimate the nuclear fuel cycle cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Ki; Ko, Won Il; Nam, Hyoon [Nuclear Fuel Cycle Analysis, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chul Min; Chung, Yang Hon; Bang, Sung Sig [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    This paper presents a method for forecasting future uranium prices that is used as input data to calculate the uranium cost, which is a rational key cost driver of the nuclear fuel cycle cost. In other words, the statistical autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model and existing engineering cost estimation method, the so-called escalation rate model, were subjected to a comparative analysis. When the uranium price was forecasted in 2015, the margin of error of the ARIMA model forecasting was calculated and found to be 5.4%, whereas the escalation rate model was found to have a margin of error of 7.32%. Thus, it was verified that the ARIMA model is more suitable than the escalation rate model at decreasing uncertainty in nuclear fuel cycle cost calculation.

  9. Statistical model for forecasting uranium prices to estimate the nuclear fuel cycle cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Ki; Ko, Won Il; Nam, Hyoon; Kim, Chul Min; Chung, Yang Hon; Bang, Sung Sig

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a method for forecasting future uranium prices that is used as input data to calculate the uranium cost, which is a rational key cost driver of the nuclear fuel cycle cost. In other words, the statistical autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model and existing engineering cost estimation method, the so-called escalation rate model, were subjected to a comparative analysis. When the uranium price was forecasted in 2015, the margin of error of the ARIMA model forecasting was calculated and found to be 5.4%, whereas the escalation rate model was found to have a margin of error of 7.32%. Thus, it was verified that the ARIMA model is more suitable than the escalation rate model at decreasing uncertainty in nuclear fuel cycle cost calculation

  10. Safety analysis report of uranium dioxide fuel laboratory, Nuclear Research Centre Inchas, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Azim, M.S.; Abdel-Halim, A.

    1987-07-01

    In the Nuclear Research Center Inchas a uranium dioxide fuel laboratory is planned and built by the AEA Cairo (Atomic Energy Authority). The layout of this fuel lab and the programmatical contents are subject to the bilaterial cooperation between Egypt and the Federal Republic of Germany. In this report the safety analysis as basic items for the approval procedure are started in detail. (orig.) [de

  11. Criticality Calculations for a Typical Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Plant with Low Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed, Hade; Nagy, Mohamed; Agamy, Said; Shaat, Mohmaed

    2013-01-01

    The operations with the fissile materials such as U 235 introduce the risk of a criticality accident that may be lethal to nearby personnel and can lead the facility to shutdown. Therefore, the prevention of a nuclear criticality accident should play a major role in the design of a nuclear facility. The objectives of criticality safety are to prevent a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction and to minimize the consequences. Sixty criticality accidents were occurred in the world. These are accidents divided into two categories, 22 accidents occurred in process facilities and 38 accidents occurred during critical experiments or operations with research reactor. About 21 criticality accidents including Japan Nuclear Fuel Conversion Co. (JCO) accident took place with fuel solution or slurry and only one accident occurred with metal fuel. In this study the nuclear criticality calculations have been performed for a typical nuclear fuel fabrication plant producing nuclear fuel elements for nuclear research reactors with low enriched uranium up to 20%. The calculations were performed for both normal and abnormal operation conditions. The effective multiplication factor (k eff ) during the nuclear fuel fabrication process (Uranium hexafluoride - Ammonium Diuranate conversion process) was determined. Several accident scenarios were postulated and the criticalities of these accidents were evaluated. The computer code MCNP-4B which based on Monte Carlo method was used to calculate neutron multiplication factor. The criticality calculations Monte Carlo method was used to calculate neutron multiplication factor. The criticality calculations were performed for the cases of, change of moderator to fuel ratio, solution density and concentration of the solute in order to prevent or mitigate criticality accidents during the nuclear fuel fabrication process. The calculation results are analyzed and discussed

  12. The nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    After a short introduction about nuclear power in the world, fission physics and the French nuclear power plants, this brochure describes in a digest way the different steps of the nuclear fuel cycle: uranium prospecting, mining activity, processing of uranium ores and production of uranium concentrates (yellow cake), uranium chemistry (conversion of the yellow cake into uranium hexafluoride), fabrication of nuclear fuels, use of fuels, reprocessing of spent fuels (uranium, plutonium and fission products), recycling of energetic materials, and storage of radioactive wastes. (J.S.)

  13. The Cigar Lake uranium deposit: Analog information for Canada's nuclear fuel waste disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, J.J.

    1995-05-01

    The Cigar Lake uranium deposit, located in northern Saskatchewan, has many features that parallel those being considered within the Canadian concept for disposal of nuclear fuel waste. The study of these natural structures and processes provides valuable insight toward the eventual design and site selection of a nuclear fuel waste repository. The main feature of this analog is the absence of any indication on the surface of the rich uranium ore 450 m below. This shows that the combination of natural barriers has been effective in isolating the uranium ore from the surface environment. More specifically, the deposit provides analog information relevant to the stability of UO 2 fuel waste, the performance of clay-based and general aspects of water-rock interaction. The main geotechnical studies on this deposit focus on the evolution of groundwater compositions in the deposit and on their redox chemistry with respect to the uranium, iron and sulphide systems. This report reviews and summarizes the analog information and data from the Cigar Lake analog studies for the processes and scenarios expected to occur in the disposal system for used nuclear fuel proposed in Canada. (author). 45 refs., 10 figs

  14. Depleted uranium oxides as spent-nuclear-fuel waste-package invert and backfill materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Haire, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    A new technology has been proposed in which depleted uranium, in the form of oxides or silicates, is placed around the outside of the spent nuclear fuel waste packages in the geological repository. This concept may (1) reduce the potential for repository nuclear criticality events and (2) reduce long-term release of radionuclides from the repository. As a new concept, there are significant uncertainties

  15. Nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, H [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1976-10-01

    It is expected that nuclear power generation will reach 49 million kW in 1985 and 129 million kW in 1995, and the nuclear fuel having to be supplied and processed will increase in proportion to these values. The technical problems concerning nuclear fuel are presented on the basis of the balance between the benefit for human beings and the burden on the human beings. Recently, especially the downstream of nuclear fuel attracts public attention. Enriched uranium as the raw material for light water reactor fuel is almost monopolized by the U.S., and the technical information has not been published for fear of the diversion to nuclear weapons. In this paper, the present situations of uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, transportation, reprocessing and waste disposal and the future problems are described according to the path of nuclear fuel cycle. The demand and supply of enriched uranium in Japan will be balanced up to about 1988, but afterwards, the supply must rely upon the early establishment of the domestic technology by centrifugal separation method. No problem remains in the fabrication of light water reactor fuel, but for the fabrication of mixed oxide fuel, the mechanization of the production facility and labor saving are necessary. The solution of the capital risk for the construction of the second reprocessing plant is the main problem. Japan must develop waste disposal techniques with all-out efforts.

  16. Nuclear reactor fuel structure containing uranium alloy wires embedded in a metallic matrix plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travelli, A.

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear fuel-containing plate structure for a nuclear reactor is described; such structure comprising a pair of malleable metallic non-fissionable matrix plates having confronting surfaces which are pressure bonded together and fully united to form a bonded surface, and elongated malleable wire-like fissionable fuel members separately confined and fully enclosed between the matrix plates along the interface to afford a high fuel density as well as structural integrity and effective retention of fission products. The plates have separate recesses formed in the confronting surfaces for closely receiving the wire-like fissionable fuel members. The wire-like fissionable fuel members are made of a maleable uranium alloy capable of being formed into elongated wire-like members and capable of withstanding pressure bonding. The wire-like fissionable fuel members are completely separated and isolated by fully united portions of the interface

  17. Volatile behaviour of enrichment uranium in the total nuclear fuel price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaiz, J.; Inchausti, J. M.; Tarin, F.

    2004-01-01

    In this article the historical high volatile behaviour of the total nuclear fuel price is evaluated quantitatively and it is concluded that it has been due mainly to the fluctuations of the price of the principal components of enriched uranium (concentrates and enrichment). In order to avoid the negative effects of this volatiles behaviour as far as possible, a basic strategy in the uranium procurement activities is recommended (union of buyers, diversification of supplier, stock management, optimisation of contract portfolio and suitable currency management that guarantees a reliable uranium supply at reasonable prices. These guidelines are those that ENUSA has been following on behalf of the Spanish Utilities in the Commission of Uranium Procurement (CAU in Spanish). (Author) 11 refs

  18. Uranium from Seawater Program Review; Fuel Resources Uranium from Seawater Program DOE Office of Nuclear Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-07-01

    For nuclear energy to remain sustainable in the United States, economically viable sources of uranium beyond terrestrial ores must be developed. The goal of this program is to develop advanced adsorbents that can extract uranium from seawater at twice the capacity of the best adsorbent developed by researchers at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1.5 mg U/g adsorbent. A multidisciplinary team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the University of Texas at Austin was assembled to address this challenging problem. Polymeric adsorbents, based on the radiation grafting of acrylonitrile and methacrylic acid onto high surface-area polyethylene fibers followed by conversion of the nitriles to amidoximes, have been developed. These poly(acrylamidoxime-co-methacrylic acid) fibers showed uranium adsorption capacities for the extraction of uranium from seawater that exceed 3 mg U/g adsorbent in testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Marine Sciences Laboratory. The essence of this novel technology lies in the unique high surface-area trunk material that considerably increases the grafting yield of functional groups without compromising its mechanical properties. This technology received an R&D100 Award in 2012. In addition, high surface area nanomaterial adsorbents are under development with the goal of increasing uranium adsorption capacity by taking advantage of the high surface areas and tunable porosity of carbon-based nanomaterials. Simultaneously, de novo structure-based computational design methods are being used to design more selective and stable ligands and the most promising candidates are being synthesized, tested and evaluated for incorporation onto a support matrix. Fundamental thermodynamic and kinetic studies are being carried out to improve the adsorption efficiency, the selectivity of uranium over other metals, and the stability of the adsorbents. Understanding

  19. MUICYCL and MUIFAP: models tracking minor uranium isotopes in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, S.R.; McLaren, R.A.

    1979-10-01

    Two computer programs have been written to provide information on the buildup of minor uranium isotopes in the nuclear fuel cycle. The Minor Uranium Isotope Cycle Program, MUICYCL, tracks fuel through a multiyear campaign cycle of enrichment, reactor burnup, reprocessing, enrichment, etc. MUICYCL facilities include preproduction stockpiles, U 235 escalation, and calculation of losses. The Minor Uranium Isotope Flowsheet Analyzer Program, MUIFAP, analyzes one minor isotope in one year of an enrichment operation. The formulation of the enrichment cascade, reactors, and reprocessing facility is presented. Input and output descriptions and sample cases are presented. The programs themselves are documented by short descriptions of each routine, flowcharts, definitions of common blocks and variables, and internal documentation. The programs are written in FORTRAN for use in batch mode

  20. Nuclear fuel technology - Determination of uranium in uranyl nitrate solutions of nuclear grade quality - Gravimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This International Standard specifies a precise and accurate gravimetric method for determining the mass fraction of uranium in uranyl nitrate solutions of nuclear grade quality containing more than 100 g/kg of uranium. Non-volatile impurities influence the accuracy of the method

  1. RUSSIAN-ORIGIN HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL SHIPMENT FROM BULGARIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly Cummins; Igor Bolshinsky; Ken Allen; Tihomir Apostolov; Ivaylo Dimitrov

    2009-07-01

    In July 2008, the Global Threat Reduction Initiative and the IRT 2000 research reactor in Sofia, Bulgaria, operated by the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), safely shipped 6.4 kilograms of Russian origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to the Russian Federation. The shipment, which resulted in the removal of all HEU from Bulgaria, was conducted by truck, barge, and rail modes of transport across two transit countries before reaching the final destination at the Production Association Mayak facility in Chelyabinsk, Russia. This paper describes the work, equipment, organizations, and approvals that were required to complete the spent fuel shipment and provides lessons learned that might assist other research reactor operators with their own spent nuclear fuel shipments.

  2. Russian-Origin Highly Enriched Uranium Spent Nuclear Fuel Shipment From Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, Kelly; Bolshinsky, Igor; Allen, Ken; Apostolov, Tihomir; Dimitrov, Ivaylo

    2009-01-01

    In July 2008, the Global Threat Reduction Initiative and the IRT 2000 research reactor in Sofia, Bulgaria, operated by the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), safely shipped 6.4 kilograms of Russian origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to the Russian Federation. The shipment, which resulted in the removal of all HEU from Bulgaria, was conducted by truck, barge, and rail modes of transport across two transit countries before reaching the final destination at the Production Association Mayak facility in Chelyabinsk, Russia. This paper describes the work, equipment, organizations, and approvals that were required to complete the spent fuel shipment and provides lessons learned that might assist other research reactor operators with their own spent nuclear fuel shipments.

  3. Air Shipment of Highly Enriched Uranium Spent Nuclear Fuel from Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. J. Allen; I. Bolshinsky; L. L. Biro; M. E. Budu; N. V. Zamfir; M. Dragusin

    2010-07-01

    Romania safely air shipped 23.7 kilograms of Russian origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel from the VVR S research reactor at Magurele, Romania, to the Russian Federation in June 2009. This was the world’s first air shipment of spent nuclear fuel transported in a Type B(U) cask under existing international laws without special exceptions for the air transport licenses. This shipment was coordinated by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR), part of the U.S. Department of Energy Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), in cooperation with the Romania National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN), the Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), and the Russian Federation State Corporation Rosatom. The shipment was transported by truck to and from the respective commercial airports in Romania and the Russian Federation and stored at a secure nuclear facility in Russia where it will be converted into low enriched uranium. With this shipment, Romania became the 3rd country under the RRRFR program and the 14th country under the GTRI program to remove all HEU. This paper describes the work, equipment, and approvals that were required to complete this spent fuel air shipment.

  4. Air Shipment of Highly Enriched Uranium Spent Nuclear Fuel from Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, K.J.; Bolshinsky, I.; Biro, L.L.; Budu, M.E.; Zamfir, N.V.; Dragusin, M.

    2010-01-01

    Romania safely air shipped 23.7 kilograms of Russian-origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel from the VVR-S research reactor at Magurele, Romania, to the Russian Federation in June 2009. This was the world's first air shipment of spent nuclear fuel transported in a Type B(U) cask under existing international laws without special exceptions for the air transport licenses. This shipment was coordinated by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR), part of the U.S. Department of Energy Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), in cooperation with the Romania National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN), the Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), and the Russian Federation State Corporation Rosatom. The shipment was transported by truck to and from the respective commercial airports in Romania and the Russian Federation and stored at a secure nuclear facility in Russia where it will be converted into low enriched uranium. With this shipment, Romania became the 3. country under the RRRFR program and the 14. country under the GTRI program to remove all HEU. This paper describes the work, equipment, and approvals that were required to complete this spent fuel air shipment. (authors)

  5. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, J.B.L. de.

    1980-01-01

    All stages of nuclear fuel cycle are analysed with respect to the present situation and future perspectives of supply and demand of services; the prices and the unitary cost estimation of these stages for the international fuel market are also mentioned. From the world resources and projections of uranium consumption, medium-and long term analyses are made of fuel availability for several strategies of use of different reactor types. Finally, the cost of nuclear fuel in the generation of electric energy is calculated to be used in the energetic planning of the electric sector. (M.A.) [pt

  6. Development of the uranium recovery process from rejected fuel plates in the fabrication of MTR type nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming Rubio, Peter Alex

    2010-01-01

    The current work was made in Conversion laboratory belonging to Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, CCHEN. This is constituted by the development of three hydrometallurgical processes, belonging to the recovery of uranium from fuel plates based on uranium silicide (U_3Si_2) process, for nuclear research reactors MTR (Material Testing Reactor) type, those that come from the Fuel Elements Manufacture Plant, PEC. In the manufacturing process some of these plates are subjected to destructive tests by quality requirement or others are rejected for non-compliance with technical specifications, such as: lack of homogenization of the dispersion of uraniferous compound in the meat, as well as the appearance of the defects, such as blisters, so-called "dog bone", "fish tail", "remote islands", among others. Because the uranium used is enriched in 19.75% U_2_3_5 isotope, which explains the high value in the market, it must be recovered for reuse, returning to the production line of fuel elements. The uranium silicide, contained in the plates, is dispersed in an aluminum matrix and covered with plates and frames of ASTM 6061 Aluminum, as a sandwich coating, commonly referred to as 'meat' (sandwich meat). As aluminum is the main impurity, the process begins with this metal dissolution, present in meat and plates, by NaOH reaction, followed by a vacuum filtration, washing and drying, obtaining a powder of uranium silicide, with a small impurities percentage. Then, the crude uranium silicide reacts with a solution of hydrofluoric acid, dissolving the silicon and simultaneously precipitating UF_4 by reaction with HNO_3, obtaining an impure UO_2(NO_3)_2 solution. The experimental work was developed and implemented at laboratory scale for the three stages pertaining to the uranium recovery process, determining for each one the optimum operation conditions: temperature, molarity or concentration, reagent excess, among others (author)

  7. Recovery of fissile materials from plutonium residues, miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel, and uranium fissile wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1997-01-01

    A new process is proposed that converts complex feeds containing fissile materials into a chemical form that allows the use of existing technologies (such as PUREX and ion exchange) to recover the fissile materials and convert the resultant wastes to glass. Potential feed materials include (1) plutonium scrap and residue, (2) miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel, and (3) uranium fissile wastes. The initial feed materials may contain mixtures of metals, ceramics, amorphous solids, halides, and organics. 14 refs., 4 figs

  8. Accurate and Precise Titriraetric Analysis of Uranium in Nuclear Fuels. RCN Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolk, A.; Lingerak, W.A.; Verheul-Klompmaker, T.A.

    1970-09-01

    For the accurate and precise titrimetric analysis of uranium in nuclear fuels, the material is dissolved in orthophosphoric and nitric acids. The nitric acid is fumed off, and the U (VI) present is analysed reductometrically in a CO 2 -atmosphere with iron (II) ammonium sulfate. For U 3 O 8 -test-sample aliquots of resp. 800 and 80 mg coefficients of variation of 0.012 resp. 0.11% are measured. (author)

  9. The current uranium exploration activities of the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC), Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyada, H.

    2001-01-01

    As of November 1996, Japan's total installed commercial nuclear power generation capacity was 42 GW(e), accounting for 34% of total electric energy generation. By 2010, Japan intends to have an installed electricity generation capacity of 70.5 GW(e). This will increase the country's demand for nat Ural uranium from 7,700 t U in 1994 (13% of the world consumption) to 13,800 t U in 2010 (17%-19% of the world projected consumption). However, Japan's known uranium resources at Ningyo-Toge and Tono deposits, are estimated at roughly only 6,600 t U. The Long-term Programme for Research, Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy (adopted in 1994) calls for diversification through long-term purchasing contracts, independent exploration and involvement in mining vent Ures, with the objective of ensuring independence and stability in Japan's development and utilization of nuclear energy. The Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) has been commissioned to carry out the task of independent exploration. PNC is carrying out exploration projects in Canada, Australia, USA and China targeting unconformity related type deposits with an eye to privatizing them. Currently about 40,000 t U of uranium resources are held by PNC. PNC has been carrying out the following related activities: (1) Reference surveys on uranium resources to delineate the promising areas; (2) Development of uranium exploration technology; (3) Information surveys on the nuclear industries to project long-term supply and demand; (4) International Cooperation programme on uranium exploration with Asian countries. (author)

  10. Determination of uranium from nuclear fuel in environmental samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulyga, S.F.; Becker, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    As a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) the environment was contaminated with spent nuclear fuel. The 236 U isotope was used in this study to monitor the spent uranium from nuclear fallout in soil samples collected in the vicinity of the Chernobyl NPP. A rapid and sensitive analytical procedure was developed for uranium isotopic ratio measurement in environmental samples based on inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry with a hexapole collision cell (HEX-ICP-QMS). The figures of merit of the HEX-ICP-QMS were studied with a plasma-shielded torch using different nebulizers (such as an ultrasonic nebulizer (USN) and Meinhard nebulizer) for solution introduction. A 238 U + ion intensity of up to 27000 MHz/ppm in HEX-ICP-QMS with USN was observed by introducing helium into the hexapole collision cell as the collision gas at a flow rate of 10 ml min -1 . The formation rate of uranium hydride ions UH + /U + of 2 x 10 -6 was obtained by using USN with a membrane desolvator. The limit of 236 U/ 238 U ratio determination in 10 μg 1 -1 uranium solution was 3 x 10 -7 corresponding to the detection limit for 236 U of 3 pg 1 -1 . The precision of uranium isotopic ratio measurements in 10 μg 1 -1 laboratory uranium isotopic standard solution was 0.13% ( 235 U/ 238 U) and 0.33% ( 236 U/ 238 U) using a Meinhard nebulizer and 0.45% ( 235 U/ 238 U) and 0.88% ( 236 U/ 238 U) using a USN. The isotopic composition of all investigated Chernobyl soil samples differed from those of natural uranium; i.e. in these samples the 236 U/ 238 U ratio ranged from 10 -5 to 10 -3 . (orig.)

  11. Uranium, resources, production and demand including other nuclear fuel cycle data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-12-01

    The uranium reserves exploitable at a cost below 15 dollars/lb U 3 O 8 , are 210,000 tonnes. While present uranium production capacities amount to 26,000 tonnes uranium per year, plans have been announced which would increase this capacity to 44,000 tonnes by 1978. Given an appropriate economic climate, annual capacities of 60,000 tonnes and 87,000 tonnes could be attained by 1980 and 1985, respectively, based on presently known reserves. However, in order to maintain or increase such a capacity beyond 1985, substantial additional resources would have to be identified. Present annual demand for natural uranium amounts to 18,000 tonnes and is expected to establish itself at 50,000 tonnes by 1980 and double this figure by 1985. Influences to increase this demand in the medium term could come from shortages in other fuel cycle capacities, i.e. enrichment (higher tails assays) and reprocessing (no uranium and plutonium recycle). However, the analysis of the near term uranium supply and demand situation does not necessarily indicate a prolongation of the current tight uranium market. Concerning the longer term, the experts believe that the steep increase in uranium demand foreseen in the eighties, according to present reactor programmes, with doubling times of the order of 6 to 7 years, will pose formidable problems for the uranium industry. For example, in order to provide reserves sufficient to support the required production rates, annual additions to reserves must almost triple within the next 15 years. Efforts to expand world-wide exploration levels to meet this challenge would be facilitated if a co-ordinated approach were adopted by the nuclear industry as a whole

  12. Analysis of Uranium and Thorium in Radioactive Wastes from Nuclear Fuel Cycle Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunandjar

    2008-01-01

    The assessment of analysis method for uranium and thorium in radioactive wastes generated from nuclear fuel cycle process have been carried out. The uranium and thorium analysis methods in the assessment are consist of Titrimetry, UV-VIS Spectrophotometry, Fluorimetry, HPLC, Polarography, Emission Spectrograph, XRF, AAS, Alpha Spectrometry and Mass Spectrometry methods. From the assessment can be concluded that the analysis methods of uranium and thorium content in radioactive waste for low concentration level using UV-VIS Spectrometry is better than Titrimetry method. While for very low concentration level in part per billion (ppb) can be used by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Alpha Spectrometry and Mass Spectrometry. Laser Fluorimetry is the best method of uranium analysis for very low concentration level. Alpha Spectrometry and ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) methods for isotopic analysis are favourable in the precision and accuracy aspects. Comparison of the ICP-MS and Alpha Spectrometry methods shows that the both of methods have capability to determining of uranium and thorium isotopes content in the waste samples with results comparable very well, but the time of its analysis using ICP-MS method is faster than the Alpha Spectrometry, and also the cost of analysis for ICP-MS method is cheaper. NAA method can also be used to analyze the uranium and thorium isotopes, but this method needs the reactor facility and also the time of its analysis is very long. (author)

  13. Uranium transport to solid electrodes in pyrochemical reprocessing of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomczuk, Z.; Ackerman, J.P.; Wolson, R.D.; Miller, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    A unique pyrochemical process developed for the separation of metallic nuclear fuel from fission products by electrotransport through molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt to solid and liquid metal cathodes. The process allow for recovery and reuse of essentially all of the actinides in spent fuel from the integral fast reactor (IFR) and disposal of wastes in satisfactory forms. Electrotransport is used to minimize reagent consumption and, consequently, waste volume. In particular, electrotransport to solid cathodes is used for recovery of an essentially pure uranium product in the presence of other actinides; removal of pure uranium is used to adjust the electrolyte composition in preparation for recovery of a plutonium-rich mixture with uranium in liquid cadmium cathodes. This paper presents experiments that delineate the behavior of key actinide and rare-earth elements during electrotransport to a solid electrode over a useful range of PuCl 3 /UCl 3 ratios in the electrolyte, a thermodynamic basis for that behavior, and a comparison of the observed behavior with that calculated from a thermodynamic model. This work clearly established that recovery of nearly pure uranium can be a key step in the overall pyrochemical-fuel-processing strategy for the IFR

  14. Optimal management of fuel in nuclear reactors with slightly enriched uranium and heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serghiuta, D.

    1994-01-01

    This Ph.D. thesis presents the general principles guiding the optimal management of the fuel in CANDU type reactors with slightly enriched uranium. A method is devised which is based on the specific physical characteristics of this type of reactors and makes use of the multipurpose mathematical programming satisfying economical and nuclear safety requirements. The main goal of this work was the establishing of a refueling optimal methodology at equilibrium maintaining the reactor critical during operation. It also minimizes the fuel cycle cost through minimization of the utilized fissile material and at the same time by maximizing the reactor duty time through an optimal chain of refilling operations. This work can be considered as a contribution to a future project of CANDU type reactor core based on slightly enriched uranium. 74 Figs., 9 Tabs., 62 Refs

  15. Nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear fuel makes the rounds: choosing a closed fuel cycle, nuclear fuel cycle processes, front-end of the fuel cycle: from crude ore to enriched uranium, back-end of the fuel cycle: the second life of nuclear fuel, and tomorrow: multiple recycling while generating increasingly less waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippon, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    France has opted for a policy of processing and recycling spent fuel. This option has already been deployed commercially since the 1990's, but will reach its full potential with the fourth generation. The CEA developed the processes in use today, and is pursuing research to improve, extend, and adapt these technologies to tomorrow's challenges. France has opted for a 'closed cycle' to recycle the reusable materials in spent fuel (uranium and plutonium) and optimise ultimate waste management. France has opted for a 'closed' nuclear fuel cycle. Spent fuel is processed to recover the reusable materials: uranium and plutonium. The remaining components (fission products and minor actinides) are the ultimate waste. This info-graphic shows the main steps in the fuel cycle currently implemented commercially in France. From the mine to the reactor, a vast industrial system ensures the conversion of uranium contained in the ore to obtain uranium oxide (UOX) fuel pellets. Selective extraction, purification, enrichment - key scientific and technical challenges for the teams in the Nuclear Energy Division (DEN). The back-end stages of the fuel cycle for recycling the reusable materials in spent fuel and conditioning the final waste-forms have reached maturity. CEA teams are pursuing their research in support of industry to optimise these processes. Multi-recycle plutonium, make even better use of uranium resources and, over the longer term, explore the possibility of transmuting the most highly radioactive waste: these are the challenges facing future nuclear systems. (authors)

  16. Nuclear energy in Europe: uranium flow modeling and fuel cycle scenario trade-offs from a sustainability perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tendall, Danielle M; Binder, Claudia R

    2011-03-15

    The European nuclear fuel cycle (covering the EU-27, Switzerland and Ukraine) was modeled using material flow analysis (MFA).The analysis was based on publicly available data from nuclear energy agencies and industries, national trade offices, and nongovernmental organizations. Military uranium was not considered due to lack of accessible data. Nuclear fuel cycle scenarios varying spent fuel reprocessing, depleted uranium re-enrichment, enrichment assays, and use of fast neutron reactors, were established. They were then assessed according to environmental, economic and social criteria such as resource depletion, waste production, chemical and radiation emissions, costs, and proliferation risks. The most preferable scenario in the short term is a combination of reduced tails assay and enrichment grade, allowing a 17.9% reduction of uranium demand without significantly increasing environmental, economic, or social risks. In the long term, fast reactors could theoretically achieve a 99.4% decrease in uranium demand and nuclear waste production. However, this involves important costs and proliferation risks. Increasing material efficiency is not systematically correlated with the reduction of other risks. This suggests that an overall optimization of the nuclear fuel cycle is difficult to obtain. Therefore, criteria must be weighted according to stakeholder interests in order to determine the most sustainable solution. This paper models the flows of uranium and associated materials in Europe, and provides a decision support tool for identifying the trade-offs of the alternative nuclear fuel cycles considered.

  17. Automation of potentiometric titration for the determination of uranium in nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelkar, Anoop; Pandey, Ashish; Kapoor, Y.S.; Kumar, Manish; Singh, Mamta; Fulzele, Ajeet; Prakash, Amrit; Afzal, Mohd; Panakkal, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility is fabricating various types of mixed oxide fuels, namely for PHWR, BWR, FBTR and PFBR. Precise determination of uranium in MOX fuel sample is important to get desired burn up in the reactor. The modified Davies and Gray method is routinely used for the potentiometric titration of uranium

  18. Uranium and nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This seminar focussed on the major issues affecting the future of the entire nuclear fuel cycle. In particular it covered issues bearing on the formation of public policy in relation to the use of uranium as an energy source: economic risk, industrial risks, health effects, site selection, environmental issues, and public acceptance

  19. Method to manufacture a nuclear fuel from uranium-plutonium monocarbide or uranium-plutonium mononitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauth, A.; Mueller, N.

    1977-01-01

    Pure uranium carbide or nitride is converted with plutonium oxide and carbon (all in powder form) to uranium-plutonium monocarbide or mononitride by cold pressing and sintering at about 1600 0 C. Pure uranium carbide or uranium nitride powder is firstly prepared without extensive safety measures. The pure uranium carbide or nitride powder can also be inactivated by using chemical substances (e.g. stearic acid) and be handled in air. The sinterable uranium carbide or nitride powder (or also granulate) is then introduced into the plutonium line and mixed with a nonstoichiometrically adjusted, prereacted mixture of plutonium oxide and carbon, pressed to pellets and reaction sintered. The surface of the uranium-plutonium carbide (higher metal content) can be nitrated towards the end of the sinter process in a stream of nitrogen. The protective layer stabilizes the carbide against the water and oxygen content in air. (IHOE) [de

  20. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Guerin, Y.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, Ch.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Sollogoub, P.; Vernaz, E.; Guillet, J.L.; Ballagny, A.; Bechade, J.L.; Bonin, B.; Brachet, J.Ch.; Delpech, M.; Dubois, S.; Ferry, C.; Freyss, M.; Gilbon, D.; Grouiller, J.P.; Iracane, D.; Lansiart, S.; Lemoine, P.; Lenain, R.; Marsault, Ph.; Michel, B.; Noirot, J.; Parrat, D.; Pelletier, M.; Perrais, Ch.; Phelip, M.; Pillon, S.; Poinssot, Ch.; Vallory, J.; Valot, C.; Pradel, Ph.; Bonin, B.; Bouquin, B.; Dozol, M.; Lecomte, M.; Vallee, A.; Bazile, F.; Parisot, J.F.; Finot, P.; Roberts, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Fuel is one of the essential components in a reactor. It is within that fuel that nuclear reactions take place, i.e. fission of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium. Fuel is at the core of the reactor, but equally at the core of the nuclear system as a whole. Fuel design and properties influence reactor behavior, performance, and safety. Even though it only accounts for a small part of the cost per kilowatt-hour of power provided by current nuclear power plants, good utilization of fuel is a major economic issue. Major advances have yet to be achieved, to ensure longer in-reactor dwell-time, thus enabling fuel to yield more energy; and improve ruggedness. Aside from economics, and safety, such strategic issues as use of plutonium, conservation of resources, and nuclear waste management have to be addressed, and true technological challenges arise. This Monograph surveys current knowledge regarding in-reactor behavior, operating limits, and avenues for R and D. It also provides illustrations of ongoing research work, setting out a few noteworthy results recently achieved. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Water reactor fuel: What are the features of water reactor fuel? 9 (What is the purpose of a nuclear fuel?, Ceramic fuel, Fuel rods, PWR fuel assemblies, BWR fuel assemblies); Fabrication of water reactor fuels (Fabrication of UO 2 pellets, Fabrication of MOX (mixed uranium-plutonium oxide) pellets, Fabrication of claddings); In-reactor behavior of UO 2 and MOX fuels (Irradiation conditions during nominal operation, Heat generation, and removal, The processes involved at the start of irradiation, Fission gas behavior, Microstructural changes); Water reactor fuel behavior in loss of tightness conditions (Cladding, the first containment barrier, Causes of failure, Consequences of a failure); Microscopic morphology of fuel ceramic and its evolution under irradiation; Migration and localization of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices (The ceramic under irradiation

  1. Nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Guerin, Y.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, Ch.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Sollogoub, P.; Vernaz, E.; Guillet, J.L.; Ballagny, A.; Bechade, J.L.; Bonin, B.; Brachet, J.Ch.; Delpech, M.; Dubois, S.; Ferry, C.; Freyss, M.; Gilbon, D.; Grouiller, J.P.; Iracane, D.; Lansiart, S.; Lemoine, P.; Lenain, R.; Marsault, Ph.; Michel, B.; Noirot, J.; Parrat, D.; Pelletier, M.; Perrais, Ch.; Phelip, M.; Pillon, S.; Poinssot, Ch.; Vallory, J.; Valot, C.; Pradel, Ph.; Bonin, B.; Bouquin, B.; Dozol, M.; Lecomte, M.; Vallee, A.; Bazile, F.; Parisot, J.F.; Finot, P.; Roberts, J.F

    2009-07-01

    Fuel is one of the essential components in a reactor. It is within that fuel that nuclear reactions take place, i.e. fission of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium. Fuel is at the core of the reactor, but equally at the core of the nuclear system as a whole. Fuel design and properties influence reactor behavior, performance, and safety. Even though it only accounts for a small part of the cost per kilowatt-hour of power provided by current nuclear power plants, good utilization of fuel is a major economic issue. Major advances have yet to be achieved, to ensure longer in-reactor dwell-time, thus enabling fuel to yield more energy; and improve ruggedness. Aside from economics, and safety, such strategic issues as use of plutonium, conservation of resources, and nuclear waste management have to be addressed, and true technological challenges arise. This Monograph surveys current knowledge regarding in-reactor behavior, operating limits, and avenues for R and D. It also provides illustrations of ongoing research work, setting out a few noteworthy results recently achieved. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Water reactor fuel: What are the features of water reactor fuel? 9 (What is the purpose of a nuclear fuel?, Ceramic fuel, Fuel rods, PWR fuel assemblies, BWR fuel assemblies); Fabrication of water reactor fuels (Fabrication of UO{sub 2} pellets, Fabrication of MOX (mixed uranium-plutonium oxide) pellets, Fabrication of claddings); In-reactor behavior of UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels (Irradiation conditions during nominal operation, Heat generation, and removal, The processes involved at the start of irradiation, Fission gas behavior, Microstructural changes); Water reactor fuel behavior in loss of tightness conditions (Cladding, the first containment barrier, Causes of failure, Consequences of a failure); Microscopic morphology of fuel ceramic and its evolution under irradiation; Migration and localization of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices (The ceramic under

  2. Shock and vibration tests of uranium mononitride fuel pellets for a space power nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    Shock and vibration tests were conducted on cylindrically shaped, depleted, uranium mononitride (UN) fuel pellets. The structural capabilities of the pellets were determined under exposure to shock and vibration loading which a nuclear reactor may encounter during launching into space. Various combinations of diametral and axial clearances between the pellets and their enclosing structures were tested. The results of these tests indicate that for present fabrication of UN pellets, a diametral clearance of 0.254 millimeter and an axial clearance of 0.025 millimeter are tolerable when subjected to launch-induced loads.

  3. Nondestructive assay of special nuclear material for uranium fuel-fabrication facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.A. Jr.; Schillebeeckx, P.

    1997-01-01

    A high-quality materials accounting system and effective international inspections in uranium fuel-fabrication facilities depend heavily upon accurate nondestructive assay measurements of the facility's nuclear materials. While item accounting can monitor a large portion of the facility inventory (fuel rods, assemblies, storage items), the contents of all such items and mass values for all bulk materials must be based on quantitative measurements. Weight measurements, combined with destructive analysis of process samples, can provide highly accurate quantitative information on well-characterized and uniform product materials. However, to cover the full range of process materials and to provide timely accountancy data on hard-to-measure items and rapid verification of previous measurements, radiation-based nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques play an important role. NDA for uranium fuel fabrication facilities relies on passive gamma spectroscopy for enrichment and U isotope mass values of medium-to-low-density samples and holdup deposits; it relies on active neutron techniques for U-235 mass values of high-density and heterogeneous samples. This paper will describe the basic radiation-based nondestructive assay techniques used to perform these measurements. The authors will also discuss the NDA measurement applications for international inspections of European fuel-fabrication facilities

  4. Determination of uranium from nuclear fuel in environmental samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulyga, S.F. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Zentralabteilung fuer Chemische Analysen]|[Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Inst., Minsk (Belarus); Becker, J.S. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Zentralabteilung fuer Chemische Analysen

    2000-11-01

    As a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) the environment was contaminated with spent nuclear fuel. The {sup 236}U isotope was used in this study to monitor the spent uranium from nuclear fallout in soil samples collected in the vicinity of the Chernobyl NPP. A rapid and sensitive analytical procedure was developed for uranium isotopic ratio measurement in environmental samples based on inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry with a hexapole collision cell (HEX-ICP-QMS). The figures of merit of the HEX-ICP-QMS were studied with a plasma-shielded torch using different nebulizers (such as an ultrasonic nebulizer (USN) and Meinhard nebulizer) for solution introduction. A {sup 238}U{sup +} ion intensity of up to 27000 MHz/ppm in HEX-ICP-QMS with USN was observed by introducing helium into the hexapole collision cell as the collision gas at a flow rate of 10 ml min{sup -1}. The formation rate of uranium hydride ions UH{sup +}/U{sup +} of 2 x 10{sup -6} was obtained by using USN with a membrane desolvator. The limit of {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U ratio determination in 10 {mu}g 1{sup -1} uranium solution was 3 x 10{sup -7} corresponding to the detection limit for {sup 236}U of 3 pg 1{sup -1}. The precision of uranium isotopic ratio measurements in 10 {mu}g 1{sup -1} laboratory uranium isotopic standard solution was 0.13% ({sup 235}U/{sup 238}U) and 0.33% ({sup 236}U/{sup 238}U) using a Meinhard nebulizer and 0.45% ({sup 235}U/{sup 238}U) and 0.88% ({sup 236}U/{sup 238}U) using a USN. The isotopic composition of all investigated Chernobyl soil samples differed from those of natural uranium; i.e. in these samples the {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U ratio ranged from 10{sup -5} to 10{sup -3}. (orig.)

  5. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The nuclear fuel is one of the key component of a nuclear reactor. Inside it, the fission reactions of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium, take place. It is located in the core of the reactor, but also in the core of the whole nuclear system. Its design and properties influence the behaviour, the efficiency and the safety of the reactor. Even if it represents a weak share of the generated electricity cost, its proper use represents an important economic stake. Important improvements remain to be made to increase its residence time inside the reactor, to supply more energy, and to improve its robustness. Beyond the economical and safety considerations, strategical questions have to find an answer, like the use of plutonium, the management of resources and the management of nuclear wastes and real technological challenges have to be taken up. This monograph summarizes the existing knowledge about the nuclear fuel, its behaviour inside the reactor, its limits of use, and its R and D tracks. It illustrates also the researches in progress and presents some key results obtained recently. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - The fuel of water-cooled reactors: aspect, fabrication, behaviour of UO 2 and MOX fuels inside the reactor, behaviour in loss of tightness situation, microscopic morphology of fuel ceramics and evolution under irradiation - migration and localisation of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices, modeling of fuels behaviour - modeling of defects and fission products in the UO 2 ceramics by ab initio calculations, cladding and assembly materials, pellet-cladding interaction, advanced UO 2 and MOX ceramics, mechanical behaviour of the fuel assembly, fuel during a loss of coolant accident, fuel during a reactivity accident, fuel during a serious accident, fuel management inside reactor cores, fuel cycle materials balance, long-term behaviour of the spent fuel, fuel of boiling water reactors; 3 - the fuel of liquid metal fast reactors: fast neutrons radiation

  6. Estimates of future demand for uranium and nuclear fuel cycle services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krymm, R; Woite, G [International Atomic Energy Agency, Division of Nuclear Power and Reactors, Economic Studies Section, Vienna (Austria)

    1976-07-01

    As a review of forecasts made over the last few years amply demonstrates, projections of nuclear power capacity on a country, regional or world basis are subject to uncertainties. It summarizes the evolution of estimates made in the recent past, should provide a sobering reminder of the advisability of relying on ranges rather than on single figures. Although they are derived from a relatively narrow range of assumptions for nuclear power capacity, the alternative estimates of demands for uranium and nuclear-fuel-cycle services differ by about 50%. If plausible variations in breeder penetration, load factors, tails assays and fuel performance were taken into account, a ratio of 2 between maximum and minimum possible demands for the 2000 could easily be approached. Thus, for instance, a 15% (instead of 5%) breeder penetration by the year 2000 would decrease annual natural uranium demand by about 10%, a drop of load factor from 0.7 to 0.6 would drop the demand by another 10%, a decrease in tail assay from 0.25% to 0.2% would drop the demand by 8%. These momentous uncertainties, characteristic of medium- and long-term demand projections, offer a sharp contrast to the inflexibility of short-term requirements. Once a nuclear plant is ordered, the demand for the fuel services required for its core and for its replacement loadings is practically fixed (subject to minor trade-offs) and it can only be delayed in time by accepting exceedingly heavy additional costs. The demand for uranium can be characterized as being uncertain in the future and inelastic in the present. It faces sources of supply which, with the exception of fabrication and conversion facilities, are characterized by long planning times, lengthy prospecting and construction times, and above all by heavy capital investments. This combination offers an almost ideal framework for instability and wild price fluctuations if consumers and suppliers operate independently seeking temporary guidance in their

  7. Estimates of future demand for uranium and nuclear fuel cycle services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krymm, R.; Woite, G.

    1976-01-01

    As a review of forecasts made over the last few years amply demonstrates, projections of nuclear power capacity on a country, regional or world basis are subject to uncertainties. It summarizes the evolution of estimates made in the recent past, should provide a sobering reminder of the advisability of relying on ranges rather than on single figures. Although they are derived from a relatively narrow range of assumptions for nuclear power capacity, the alternative estimates of demands for uranium and nuclear-fuel-cycle services differ by about 50%. If plausible variations in breeder penetration, load factors, tails assays and fuel performance were taken into account, a ratio of 2 between maximum and minimum possible demands for the 2000 could easily be approached. Thus, for instance, a 15% (instead of 5%) breeder penetration by the year 2000 would decrease annual natural uranium demand by about 10%, a drop of load factor from 0.7 to 0.6 would drop the demand by another 10%, a decrease in tail assay from 0.25% to 0.2% would drop the demand by 8%. These momentous uncertainties, characteristic of medium- and long-term demand projections, offer a sharp contrast to the inflexibility of short-term requirements. Once a nuclear plant is ordered, the demand for the fuel services required for its core and for its replacement loadings is practically fixed (subject to minor trade-offs) and it can only be delayed in time by accepting exceedingly heavy additional costs. The demand for uranium can be characterized as being uncertain in the future and inelastic in the present. It faces sources of supply which, with the exception of fabrication and conversion facilities, are characterized by long planning times, lengthy prospecting and construction times, and above all by heavy capital investments. This combination offers an almost ideal framework for instability and wild price fluctuations if consumers and suppliers operate independently seeking temporary guidance in their

  8. Uranium Determination in Samples from Decommissioning of Nuclear facilities Related to the First Stage of Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, A.; Correa, E.; Navarro, N.; Sancho, C.; Angeles, A.

    2000-01-01

    An adequate workplace monitoring must be carried out during the decommissioning activities, to ensure the protection of workers involved in these tasks. In addition, a large amount of waste materials are generated during the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Clearance levels are established by regulatory authorities and are normally quite low. The determination of those activity concentration levels become more difficult when it is necessary to quantify alpha emitters such as uranium, especially when complex matrices are involved. Several methods for uranium determination in samples obtained during the decommissioning of a facility related to the first stage of the nuclear fuel cycle are presented in this work. Measurements were carried out by laboratory techniques. In situ gamma spectrometry was also used to perform measurements on site. A comparison among the different techniques was also done by analysing the results obtained in some practical applications. (Author)

  9. Nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, C.J.; Silver, J.M.

    1985-09-01

    The report provides data and assessments of the status and prospects of nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle. The report discusses the economic competitiveness of nuclear electricity generation, the extent of world uranium resources, production and requirements, uranium conversion and enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel treatment and radioactive waste management. A review is given of the status of nuclear fusion research

  10. World nuclear fuel supply and demand prospects until 2030. Analysis of demand change factor of natural uranium and uranium separation work and its influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Tomoko

    2007-01-01

    World nuclear power generation continues to spread gently until 2030 from the viewpoint of increase of the electricity demand around Asia, stable energy supply and anti-global warming measure, and the natural uranium demand is predicted to be increased from about 67 ktU in 2004 to 80-100 ktU in 2030. Steps of conversion/separation/reconversion/molding processing of the natural uranium are necessary for nuclear fuel, and the separation work of those is important because it needs high technology. There is a relation of the trade-off through the tale density (0.3% as a standard) between natural uranium and separation work demand. Therefore an analysis was performed of the influence on natural uranium and separation work demand by the change of the tale density and the influence on natural uranium supply and demand prospects by the recovery uranium use. In conclusion it was very likely that the supply and demand of separation work was tight at 0.2%-0.1% as for the cost of most suitable tale density which would appear earlier than natural uranium one and that the recovery uranium could become the backup of the natural uranium. (T. Tanaka)

  11. Present supply and demand on the world uranium market and decision of the nuclear fuel cycle policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Luqing

    1994-01-01

    The present supply and demand relationship on the world uranium market due to the change of international situation in the last years is described and the falling price on the world uranium market is estimated. It is pointed out that the falling price would continue for a long time. Based on it the three different policy decisions on the back-end of nuclear fuel cycle are analysed

  12. Operational impacts of low-enrichment uranium fuel conversion on the Ford Nuclear Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, F.E.; Brannon, C.C.; Burgard, N.E.; Burn, R.R.; Cook, G.M.; Simpson, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    The University of Michigan Department of Nuclear Engineering and the Michigan Memorial-Phoenix Project have been engaged in a cooperative effort with Argonne National Laboratory to test and analyze low-enrichment fuel in the Ford Nuclear Reactor (FNR). The effort was begun in 1979, as part of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor Program, to demonstrate on a whole-core basis the feasibility of enrichment reduction from 93% to <20% in Materials Test Reactor-type fuel designs. The first low-enrichment uranium (LEU) core was loaded into the FNR and criticality was achieved on December 8, 1981. The final LEU core was established October 11, 1984. No significant operational impacts have resulted from conversion of the FNR to LEU fuel. Thermal flux in the core has decreased slightly; thermal leakage flux has increased. Rod worths, temperature coefficient, and void coefficient have changed imperceptibly. Impressions from the operators are that power defect has increased slightly and that fuel lifetime has increased

  13. Use of depleted uranium silicate glass to minimize release of radionuclides from spent nuclear fuel waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    A Depleted Uranium Silicate Container Backfill System (DUSCOBS) is proposed that would use small, isotopically-depleted uranium silicate glass beads as a backfill material inside repository waste packages containing spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The uranium silicate glass beads would fill the void space inside the package including the coolant channels inside SNF assemblies. Based on preliminary analysis, the following benefits have been identified. DUSCOBS improves repository waste package performance by three mechanisms. First, it reduces the radionuclide releases from SNF when water enters the waste package by creating a local uranium silicate saturated groundwater environment that suppresses (a) the dissolution and/or transformation of uranium dioxide fuel pellets and, hence, (b) the release of radionuclides incorporated into the SNF pellets. Second, the potential for long-term nuclear criticality is reduced by isotopic exchange of enriched uranium in SNF with the depleted uranium (DU) in the glass. Third, the backfill reduces radiation interactions between SNF and the local environment (package and local geology) and thus reduces generation of hydrogen, acids, and other chemicals that degrade the waste package system. Finally, DUSCOBS provides a potential method to dispose of significant quantities of excess DU from uranium enrichment plants at potential economic savings. DUSCOBS is a new concept. Consequently, the concept has not been optimized or demonstrated in laboratory experiments

  14. Research of heat releasing element of an active zone of gaseous nuclear reactor with pumped through nuclear fuel - uranium hexafluoride (UF6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batyrbekov, G.; Batyrbekov, E.; Belyakova, E.; Kunakov, S.; Koltyshev, S.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the offered project is learning physics and substantiation of possibility of creation gaseous nuclear reactor with pumped through nuclear fuel-hexafluoride of uranium (Uf6).Main problems of this work are'. Determination of physic-chemical, spectral and optical properties of non-equilibrium nuclear - excited plasma of hexafluoride of uranium and its mixtures with other gases. Research of gas dynamics of laminar, non-mixing two-layer current of gases of hexafluoride of uranium and helium at availability and absence of internal energy release in hexafluoride of uranium with the purpose to determinate a possibility of isolation of hexafluoride of uranium from walls by inert helium. Creation and research of gaseous heat releasing element with pumped through fuel Uf6 in an active zone of research nuclear WWR-K reactor. Objects of a research: Non-equilibrium nuclear - excited plasma of hexafluoride of uranium and its mixtures with other gases. With use of specially created ampoules will come true in-reactor probe and spectral diagnostics of plasma. Calculations of kinetics with the account of main elementary processes proceeding in it, will be carried out. Two-layer non-mixed streams of hexafluoride of uranium and helium at availability and absence of internal energy release. Conditions of obtaining and characteristics of such streams will be investigated. Gaseous heat releasing element with pumped through fuel - Uf6 in an active zone of nuclear WWR-K reactor

  15. Development of uranium reduction system for incineration residue generated at LWR nuclear fuel fabrication plants in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampei, T.; Sato, T.; Suzuki, N.; Kai, H.; Hirata, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The major portion of combustible solid wastes generated at LWR nuclear fuel fabrication plants in Japan is incinerated and stored in a warehouse. The uranium content in the incineration residue is higher compared with other categories of wastes, although only a small amount of incineration residue is generated. Hence, in the future uranium should be removed from incineration residues before they are reduced to a level appropriate for the final disposal. A system for processing the incineration residue for uranium removal has been developed and tested based on the information obtained through laboratory experiments and engineering scale tests

  16. Nuclear power and its fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wymer, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    A series of viewgraphs describes the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear power, covering reactor types, sources of uranium, enrichment of uranium, fuel fabrication, transportation, fuel reprocessing, and radioactive wastes

  17. Comparison of the radiological impacts of thorium and uranium nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, H.R.; Witherspoon, J.P.; McBride, J.P.; Frederick, E.J.

    1982-03-01

    This report compares the radiological impacts of a fuel cycle in which only uranium is recycled, as presented in the Final Generic Environmental Statement on the Use of Recycle Plutonium in Mixed Oxide Fuel in Light Water Cooled Reactors (GESMO), with those of the light-water breeder reactor (LWBR) thorium/uranium fuel cycle in the Final Environmental Statement, Light Water Breeder Reactor Program. The significant offsite radiological impacts from routine operation of the fuel cycles result from the mining and milling of thorium and uranium ores, reprocessing spent fuel, and reactor operations. The major difference between the impacts from the two fuel cycles is the larger dose commitments associated with current uranium mining and milling operations as compared to thorium mining and milling. Estimated dose commitments from the reprocessing of either fuel type are small and show only moderate variations for specific doses. No significant differences in environmental radiological impact are anticipated for reactors using either of the fuel cycles. Radiological impacts associated with routine releases from the operation of either the thorium or uranium fuel cycles can be held to acceptably low levels by existing regulations

  18. International symposium on uranium production and raw materials for the nuclear fuel cycle - Supply and demand, economics, the environment and energy security. Extended synopses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The IAEA periodically organizes nical meetings and international symposia on all areas of the uranium production cycle. This publication contains 160 extended synopses related to the 2005 international symposium on 'Uranium Production and Raw Materials for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle - Supply and Demand, Economics, the Environment and Energy Security'. They cover all areas of natural uranium resources and production cycle including uranium supply and demand; uranium geology and deposit; uranium exploration; uranium mining and milling; waste management; and environment and regulation. Each synopsis was indexed individually.

  19. Nuclear fuel manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, J.M.

    1980-09-01

    The technologies used to manufacture nuclear fuel from uranium ore are outlined, with particular reference to the light water reactor fuel cycle. Capital and operating cost estimates for the processing stages are given, and the relevance to a developing uranium industry in Australia is discussed

  20. Environmental monitoring in the various phases of the uranium nuclear fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pego, V.D.

    1981-10-01

    To systematize the water radioactive monitoring works in the various phases of the uranium nuclear fuel production, a sequence of procedures has been worked out, for the assessment of the water radioactive contamination. This sequence is based on the determination of gross alpha and gross beta activities, on the maximum permissible concentration of radionuclides in potable water, and on previously established reference levels. The procedures will provide a mean to avoid exceeding the annual incorporation limits by ingestion, recommended by the radiation protection regulatory agencies. Accordingly, it is expected that if these recommended procedures are adequately followed, the objectives of an water environmental monitoring program will be reached in a quite efficient and economical manner. (Author) [pt

  1. Chemical analysis used in nuclear fuels reprocessing of uranium and thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schvartzman, M.M.A.M.

    1986-01-01

    An overall review of the analytical chemistry in nuclear fuel reprocessing is done. In Purex and Thorex process flowsheets, the analyses required to the control of the process, balance and accountability of fissile and fertile materials, and final product specification are pointed out. Some analytical methods applied to the determination of uranium, plutonium, thorium, nitric acid, tributylphosphate and fission products are described. Specific features of the analytical laboratories are presented. The radioactivity level of the samples requires facilities as shielded cells and glove boxes, and handling by remote control. Finally it is reported an application of one analytical method to evaluate thorium content in organic and aqueous solutions, in cold tests of Thorex process. These tests were performed at CDTN/NUCLEBRAS. (author) [pt

  2. Are world uranium resources sufficient to fuel global growth in nuclear generating capacity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.; Vance, R.E.

    2012-01-01

    Increased uranium prices since 2003 have produced more activity in the sector than the previous 20 years. Nuclear reactor construction is proceeding in some countries, ambitious expansion plans have been announced in others and several, particularly in the developing world, are considering introducing nuclear power as a means of meeting rising electricity demand without increasing greenhouse gas emissions. Others have recently decided to either withdraw from the use of nuclear power or not proceed with development plans following the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in Japan in March 2011. Since the mid-1960, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency have jointly prepared a comprehensive update of global uranium resources, production and demand (commonly known as the 'Red Book'. The Red Book is based on government responses to a questionnaire that requests information on uranium exploration and mine development activity, resources and plans for nuclear development to 2035. This presentation provides an overview of the global situation based on the recently published 2011 edition. It features a compilation of global uranium resources, projected mine development and production capability in all the countries currently producing uranium or with plans to do so in the near future. This is compared to updated, post-Fukushima demand projections, reflecting nuclear phase-out plans announced in some countries and ambitious expansion plans of others. The 2011 Red Book shows that currently defined uranium resources are sufficient to meet high case projections of nuclear power development to 2035. (authors)

  3. Evaluation of the uranium market and its consequences in the strategy of a nuclear fuel supplier that is also a uranium producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteves, R.G.

    2005-01-01

    On January 2005, the uranium spot market price reached the value of $21.00/lbU3O8. One month before, at the end of December, the average price was $20.70/lbU3O8 and in November the spot price registered $20.50. When we review this abstract, on July 2005, the price has reached $30.00/lbU3O8. In 1984, the uranium spot price dropped below the twenties and remained so reaching meanwhile even one-digit values, even considering that the uranium offer in this period was always below the demand. The main reason for that distortion in the market was and still is, the interference of the developing countries governments after the end of the cold war The Industrias Nucleares do Brasil - INB is in an odd situation in the market of fuel suppliers due to being also a uranium producer and in short future will also be an enrichment services supplier. This peculiar position brings additional advantages due to the flexibility to play with the uranium costs versus tail assay to optimize its nuclear fuel costs. That odd position, equivalent only in the market to AREVA, allows INB to exchange uranium by SWU and vice versa according to its uranium cost (not market sell price) and in the future to the SWU's costs obtaining a better margin that can not be reached by other fuel suppliers. In the first part of this paper it is evaluated, based on the recent market information, the consequences in the 2004 uranium spot price, expected to be more emphasized during 2005. This paper also evaluate the market mechanisms for expecting the price to cross the $40/lbU3O8 in short time The market supply mechanisms used up to now to fulfil the market deficit may be interrupted in case the developing countries governments stop the availability of the non civil uranium reserves from its stockpile. Different hypotheses for supplying the primary uranium deficit in this last case are analyzed in this work and evaluated its consequences. The solution of reducing the actual tails assay used aiming at

  4. Nuclear fuel technology - Determination of uranium in solutions, uranium hexafluoride and solids - Part 2: Iron(II) reduction/cerium(IV) oxidation titrimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This first edition of ISO 7097-1 together with ISO 7097-2:2004 cancels and replaces ISO 7097:1983, which has been technically revised, and ISO 9989:1996. ISO 7097 consists of the following parts, under the general title Nuclear fuel technology - Determination of uranium in solutions, uranium hexafluoride and solids: Part 1: Iron(II) reduction/potassium dichromate oxidation titrimetric method; Part 2: Iron(II) reduction/cerium(IV) oxidation titrimetric method. This part 2. of ISO 7097 describes procedures for determination of uranium in solutions, uranium hexafluoride and solids. The procedures described in the two independent parts of this International Standard are similar: this part uses a titration with cerium(IV) and ISO 7097-1 uses a titration with potassium dichromate

  5. Nuclear fuel technology - Determination of uranium in solutions, uranium hexafluoride and solids - Part 1: Iron(II) reduction/potassium dichromate oxidation titrimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This first edition of ISO 7097-1 together with ISO 7097-2:2004 cancels and replaces ISO 7097:1983, which has been technically revised, and ISO 9989:1996. ISO 7097 consists of the following parts, under the general title Nuclear fuel technology - Determination of uranium in solutions, uranium hexafluoride and solids: Part 1: Iron(II) reduction/potassium dichromate oxidation titrimetric method; Part 2: Iron(II) reduction/cerium(IV) oxidation titrimetric method. This part 1. of ISO 7097 describes procedures for the determination of uranium in solutions, uranium hexafluoride and solids. The procedures described in the two independent parts of this International Standard are similar: this part uses a titration with potassium dichromate and ISO 7097-2 uses a titration with cerium(IV)

  6. Standard guide for pyrophoricity/combustibility testing in support of pyrophoricity analyses of metallic uranium spent nuclear fuel

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers testing protocols for testing the pyrophoricity/combustibility characteristics of metallic uranium-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The testing will provide basic data for input into more detailed computer codes or analyses of thermal, chemical, and mechanical SNF responses. These analyses would support the engineered barrier system (EBS) design bases and safety assessment of extended interim storage facilities and final disposal in a geologic repository. The testing also could provide data related to licensing requirements for the design and operation of a monitored retrievable storage facility (MRS) or independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI). 1.2 This guide describes testing of metallic uranium and metallic uranium-based SNF in support of transportation (in accordance with the requirements of 10CFR71), interim storage (in accordance with the requirements of 10CFR72), and geologic repository disposal (in accordance with the requirements of 10CFR60/63). The testing described ...

  7. Safety concerning the alteration in fuel material usage (new installation of the uranium enrichment pilot plant) at Ningyo Pass Mine of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    A report of the Committee on Examination of Nuclear Fuel Safety was presented to the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan, which is concerned with the safety in the alteration of fuel material usage (new installation of the uranium enrichment pilot plant) at the Ningyo Pass Mine. Its safety was confirmed. The alteration, i.e. installation of the uranium enrichment pilot plant, is as follows. Intended for the overall test of centrifugal uranium enrichment technology, the pilot plant includes a two-storied main building of about 9,000 m 2 floor space, containing centrifuges, UF 6 equipment, etc., a uranium storage of about 1,000 m 2 floor space, and a waste water treatment facility, two-storied with about 300 m 2 floor space. The contents of the examination are safety of the facilities, criticality control, radiation control, waste treatment, and effects of accidents on the surrounding environment. (Mori, K

  8. Criticality accident in uranium fuel processing plant. Questionnaires from Research Committee of Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, Isao; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2000-01-01

    The Research Committee of Nuclear Safety carried out a research on criticality accident at the JCO plant according to statement of president of the Japan Atomic Energy Society on October 8, 1999, of which results are planned to be summarized by the constitutions shown as follows, for a report on the 'Questionnaires of criticality accident in the Uranium Fuel Processing Plant of the JCO, Inc.': general criticality safety, fuel cycle and the JCO, Inc.; elucidation on progress and fact of accident; cause analysis and problem picking-up; proposals on improvement; and duty of the Society. Among them, on last two items, because of a conclusion to be required for members of the Society at discussions of the Committee, some questionnaires were send to more than 1800 of them on April 5, 2000 with name of chairman of the Committee. As results of the questionnaires contained proposals and opinions on a great numbers of fields, some key-words like words were found on a shape of repeating in most questionnaires. As they were thought to be very important nuclei in these two items, they were further largely classified to use for summarizing proposals and opinions on the questionnaires. This questionnaire had a big characteristic on the duty of the Society in comparison with those in the other organizations. (G.K.)

  9. The uranium fuel cycle at IPEN - Energy and Nuclear Research Institute, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrao, Alcidio

    1994-09-01

    This paper summarizes the progress of research concerning the uranium fuel cycle set up at the IPEN, Sao Paulo, from the raw yellow-cake to the uranium hexafluoride. It covers the reconversion of the hexafluoride to ammonium uranyl tricarbonate and the manufacturing of the fuel elements for the swimming pool IEA-R1 reactor. This review extends the coverage of two pilot plants for uranium purification based upon ion exchange, one demonstration unity for the purification of uranyl nitrate by solvent extraction in pulsed columns, the unity of uranium tetrafluoride into moving bed reactors and a second one based upon the wet chemistry via uranium dioxide and aqueous hydrogen fluoride. The paper mentions the pilot plant for the preparation of uranium trioxide by the thermal decomposition of ammonium diuranate and a second unity by the thermal denitration of uranyl nitrate. The paper outlines the fluorine plant and the unity for the hexafluoride preparation, the unity for the conversion of the hexa to the ammonium uranyl tricarbonate and the fabrication of fuel elements for the IEA-R1 reactor. (author)

  10. The Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-08-01

    This brochure describes the nuclear fuel cycle, which is an industrial process involving various activities to produce electricity from uranium in nuclear power reactors. The cycle starts with the mining of uranium and ends with the disposal of nuclear waste. The raw material for today's nuclear fuel is uranium. It must be processed through a series of steps to produce an efficient fuel for generating electricity. Used fuel also needs to be taken care of for reuse and disposal. The nuclear fuel cycle includes the 'front end', i.e. preparation of the fuel, the 'service period' in which fuel is used during reactor operation to generate electricity, and the 'back end', i.e. the safe management of spent nuclear fuel including reprocessing and reuse and disposal. If spent fuel is not reprocessed, the fuel cycle is referred to as an 'open' or 'once-through' fuel cycle; if spent fuel is reprocessed, and partly reused, it is referred to as a 'closed' nuclear fuel cycle.

  11. Contribution to the study of nuclear fuel materials with a metallic uranium base; Contribution a l'etude des materiaux combustibles nucleaires a base d'uranium metallique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englander, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-11-15

    In a power reactor destined to supply industrially recoverable thermal energy, the most economical source of heat still consists of natural metallic uranium. However, the nuclear fuel material, most often employed in the form of rods of 20 to 40 mm diameter, is subjected to a series of stresses which lead to irreversible distortions usually incompatible with the substructure of the reactor. As a result the fuel material must possess at the outset a certain number of qualities which must be determined. Investigations have therefore been carried out, first on the technological characters peculiar to each of the three allotropic phases of pure uranium metal, and on their interactions on the stabilisation of the material which consists of either cast uranium or uranium pile-treated in the {gamma} phase. (author) [French] Dans un reacteur de puissance destine a fournir de l'energie thermique industriellement recuperable, la source de chaleur la plus economique reste constituee par de l'uranium metallique naturel. Or, le materiau combustible nucleaire, employe le plus souvent sous forme de barreaux de 20 a 40 mm de diametre, se trouve soumis a un ensemble de contraintes qui provoque des deformations irreversibles, le plus souvent incompatibles avec l'infrastructure du reacteur. Par consequent, le materiau combustible doit presenter a l'origine un certain nombre de qualites qu'il est necessaire de determiner. Aussi a-t-on d'abord etudie les caracteres technologiques propres a chacune des trois phases allotropiques de l'uranium-metal pur et leurs interactions sur la stabilisation du materiau constitue soit par de l'uranium coule, soit par de l'uranium traite en pile en phase {gamma}. (auteur)

  12. Boosting nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demarthon, F.; Donnars, O.; Dupuy-Maury, F.

    2002-01-01

    This dossier gives a broad overview of the present day status of the nuclear fuel cycle in France: 1 - the revival of nuclear power as a solution to the global warming and to the increase of worldwide energy needs; 2 - the security of uranium supplies thanks to the reuse of weapon grade highly enriched uranium; 3 - the fabrication of nuclear fuels from the mining extraction to the enrichment processes, the fabrication of fuel pellets and the assembly of fuel rods; 4 - the new composition of present day fuels (UO x and chromium-doped pellets); 5 - the consumption of plutonium stocks and the Corail and Apa fuel assemblies for the reduction of plutonium stocks and the preservation of uranium resources. (J.S.)

  13. Draft environmental statement related to the Energy Fuels Nuclear, Inc., White Mesa Uranium Project (San Juan County, Utah)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    The proposed action is the issuance of a Source Material License to Energy Fuels Nuclear, Inc., for the construction and operation of the proposed White Mesa Uranium Project (Utah) with a product (U 3 O 8 ) production limited to 7.3 x 10 5 kg (1.6 x 10 6 lb) per year. Possible environmental impacts and adverse effects were identified. Conditions for the protection of the environment are set forth before the license can be issued

  14. Nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Status of different nuclear fuel cycle phases in 1992 is discussed including the following issues: uranium exploration, resources, supply and demand, production, market prices, conversion, enrichment; reactor fuel technology; spent fuel management, as well as trends of these phases development up to the year 2010. 10 refs, 11 figs, 15 tabs

  15. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangwani, Saloni; Chakrabortty, Sumita

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear fuel is a material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned for energy. Nuclear fuels are the most dense sources of energy available. Nuclear fuel in a nuclear fuel cycle can refer to the fuel itself, or to physical objects (for example bundles composed of fuel rods) composed of the fuel material, mixed with structural, neutron moderating, or neutron reflecting materials. Long-lived radioactive waste from the back end of the fuel cycle is especially relevant when designing a complete waste management plan for SNF. When looking at long-term radioactive decay, the actinides in the SNF have a significant influence due to their characteristically long half-lives. Depending on what a nuclear reactor is fueled with, the actinide composition in the SNF will be different. The following paper will also include the uses. advancements, advantages, disadvantages, various processes and behavior of nuclear fuels

  16. Properties of low content uranium-molybdenum alloys which may be used as nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, J.; Decours, J.

    1964-01-01

    Metallurgical properties are given in this report of uranium-molybdenum alloys containing 0,5 to 3 per cent of molybdenum. Since some of these alloys are used in EDF power reactors are given: briefly the operating conditions imposed on nuclear fuels: maximum temperature, temperature gradient and external pressure. In the first part are considered the structural properties of the alloys correlation with the phase transformation kinetics; a description is given of the effects of certain physico-metallurgical factors on the morphology and the crystalline structure of the materials: - solidification conditions and the heredity of the γ structure, - cooling rate at the transformation points, - whether or not the intermediate γ → β transformation is suppressed In the second part we show how a knowledge of the phase transformation processes has made it possible to define the optimum preparation conditions for these materials in the form of fuel tubes intended for the EDF reactors: casting conditions, controlled cooling treatments, weldability. In the third part we study the thermal, stability during the long duration high temperature treatments and the cycles in the two zones of the diagram α + γ; β + γ the effects of the morphology (in particular the two types of α pseudo-grains observed) and of the cooling rate during the transformation point transitions are described. In the fourth part are discussed the mechanical properties: resistance to a tractive force, resistance to creep, resilience. These properties can also be affected by the γ structure heredity and by the cooling rate to which the alloy has been subjected. In conclusion we discuss the reasons which led to the choice of some of these alloys for the first EDF reactors in particular the advantages of their high creep resistance between 450 and 600 deg C for use in the form of tubes subjected to an external pressure. (authors) [fr

  17. Overview of the nuclear fuel resources – seawater uranium recovery program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, S.

    2014-01-01

    For nuclear energy to remain a sustainable energy source, there must be assurance that an economically viable supply of nuclear fuel is available. One major goal of the Fuel Cycle Technology Research and Development (R&D) Program in the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) is to develop sustainable fuel cycles options. The development of technology to recover uranium from seawater has the potential to fulfill this program goal. Seawater uranium recovery technology is identified in the U.S. DOE NE Roadmap as an area most appropriate for federal involvement to support long-term, “game-changing” approach. Seawater contains more than 4 billion metric tons of dissolved uranium. This unconventional uranium resource, combined with a suitable extraction cost, can potentially meet the uranium demands for centuries to come. The challenge, however, is the low concentration of uranium in seawater – approximately 3.3 ppb. A multidisciplinary team from the U.S. national laboratories, universities, and research institutes has been assembled to address this challenge. Polymeric adsorbents materials containing amidoxime ligands, developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), have demonstrated great promise for the extraction of uranium from seawater. These ORNL adsorbents showed adsorption capacities for the extraction of uranium from seawater that exceed 3 mg U/g adsorbent in testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Marine Sciences Laboratory. A key component of this novel technology lies in the unique high surface-area polyethylene fibers that considerably increase the surface area and thus the grafting yield of functional groups without compromising its mechanical properties. In addition, high surface area nanomaterial adsorbents are under development at ORNL with the goal of increasing uranium adsorption capacity by taking advantage of the high surface areas and tunable porosity of carbon-based nanomaterials

  18. Nuclear fuel banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    In december 2010 IAEA gave its agreement for the creation of a nuclear fuel bank. This bank will allow IAEA to help member countries that renounce to their own uranium enrichment capacities. This bank located on one or several member countries will belong to IAEA and will be managed by IAEA and its reserve of low enriched uranium will be sufficient to fabricate the fuel for the first load of a 1000 MW PWR. Fund raising has been successful and the running of the bank will have no financial impact on the regular budget of the IAEA. Russia has announced the creation of the first nuclear fuel bank. This bank will be located on the Angarsk site (Siberia) and will be managed by IAEA and will own 120 tonnes of low-enriched uranium fuel (between 2 and 4.95%), this kind of fuel is used in most Russian nuclear power plants. (A.C.)

  19. International symposium on uranium raw material for the nuclear fuel cycle: Exploration, mining, production, supply and demand, economics and environmental issues (URAM-2009). Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The International Symposium on Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Exploration, Mining, Production, Supply and Demand, Economics and Environmental Issues (URAM-2009) addressed all aspects of the uranium fuel cycle, from the availability of raw materials to the long-term sustainability of nuclear power. The revival of the uranium industry in recent years has caused a dramatic increase in uranium exploration and mining activities in several countries. URAM-2009 was intended to bring together scientists, exploration and mining geologists, engineers, operators, regulators and fuel cycle specialists to exchange information and discuss updated research and current issues in uranium geology and deposits, exploration, mining and processing, production economics, and environmental and legal issues. Contributed papers covered uranium markets and economics (including supply and demand); social licensing in the uranium production cycle; uranium exploration (including uranium geology and deposits); uranium mining and processing; environmental and regulatory issues; human resources development. There was a poster session throughout the symposium, as well as an exhibition of topical photographs. A workshop on recent developments in Technical Cooperation Projects relevant to the Uranium Production Cycle area was also organized. On the last day of the symposium, there was an experts' Panel Discussion. The presentations and discussions at URAM-2009 (a) led to a better understanding of the adequacy of uranium sources (both primary and secondary) to meet future demand, (b) provided information on new exploration concepts, knowledge and technologies that will potentially lead to the discovery and development of new uranium resources, (c) described new production technology having the potential to more efficiently and economically exploit new uranium resources; (d) documented the environmental compatibility of uranium production and the overall effectiveness of the final

  20. Recycling of nuclear matters. Myths and realities. Calculation of recycling rate of the plutonium and uranium produced by the French channel of spent fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coeytaux, X.; Schneider, M.

    2000-05-01

    The recycling rate of plutonium and uranium are: from the whole of the plutonium separated from the spent fuel ( inferior to 1% of the nuclear matter content) attributed to France is under 50% (under 42 tons on 84 tons); from the whole of plutonium produced in the French reactors is less than 20% (42 tons on 224 tons); from the whole of the uranium separated from spent fuels attributed to France is about 10 % (1600 tons on 16000 tons); from the whole of the uranium contained in the spent fuel is slightly over 5%. (N.C.)

  1. An evaluation of the dissolution process of natural uranium ore as an analogue of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, V.H.

    1991-08-01

    The assumption of congruent dissolution of uraninite as a mechanism for the dissolution behaviour of spent fuel was critically examined with regard to the fate of toxic radionuclides. The fission and daughter products of uranium are typically present in spent unreprocessed fuel rods in trace abundances. The principles of trace element geochemistry were applied in assessing the behaviour of these radionuclides during fluid/solid interactions. It is shown that the behaviour of radionuclides in trace abundances that reside in the crystal structure can be better predicted from the ionic properties of these nuclides rather than from assuming that they are controlled by the dissolution of uraninite. Geochemical evidence from natural uranium ore deposits (Athabasca Basin, Northern Territories of Australia, Oklo) suggests that in most cases the toxic radionuclides are released from uraninite in amounts that are independent of the solution behaviour of uranium oxide. Only those elements that have ionic and thus chemical properties similar to U 4+ , such as plutonium, americium, cadmium, neptunium and thorium can be satisfactorily modelled by the solution properties of uranium dioxide and then only if the environment is reducing. (84 refs., 7 tabs.)

  2. Uranium plutonium oxide fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, C.M.; Leggett, R.D.; Weber, E.T.

    1981-01-01

    Uranium plutonium oxide is the principal fuel material for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR's) throughout the world. Development of this material has been a reasonably straightforward evolution from the UO 2 used routinely in the light water reactor (LWR's); but, because of the lower neutron capture cross sections and much lower coolant pressures in the sodium cooled LMFBR's, the fuel is operated to much higher discharge exposures than that of a LWR. A typical LMFBR fuel assembly is shown. Depending on the required power output and the configuration of the reactor, some 70 to 400 such fuel assemblies are clustered to form the core. There is a wide variation in cross section and length of the assemblies where the increasing size reflects a chronological increase in plant size and power output as well as considerations of decreasing the net fuel cycle cost. Design and performance characteristics are described

  3. Cycle for fuel elements. Uranium production, programs for nuclear power stations and capital expenditure involved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriot, J.; Gaussens, J.

    1958-01-01

    A number of different possible programs for nuclear power stations of various types are presented in this survey. These programs are established in relation to the use of uranium and thorium in amounts similar to those that shall probably be produced in France during the next fifteen years. As it is possible to draw plans for nuclear power stations in which several processes exist simultaneously, an unlimited number of variations being thinkable, this survey is limited to successive analysis of the results obtained by use of only one of each of the following three systems: - system natural uranium-graphite, - system natural uranium-heavy water, -system enriched uranium-pressurised light water. All schemes are considered as assemblages of these three simple systems. The effects of plutonium recycling are also considered for each system. The electric power installed and the capacity of stations situated up-stream and down-stream have been calculated by this method and an attempt has been made to establish the sum to be invested during the fifteen years necessary for the launching of the programs scheduled. A table of timing for the investments groups the results obtained. Considering the fact that French availabilities in capital shall not be unlimited during the coming years, this way of presenting the results seems to be interesting. (author) [fr

  4. Recovery of uranium from (U,Gd)O{sub 2} nuclear fuel scrap using dissolution and precipitation in carbonate media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang-Wook, E-mail: nkwkim@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok daero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); KEPCO NF 1047 Daedeok daero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Hyun, Jun-Taek; Lee, Eil-Hee; Park, Geun-Il; Lee, Kune-Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok daero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Myung-June [KEPCO NF 1047 Daedeok daero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Kee-Chan; Moon, Jei-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok daero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > A treatment of (U,Gd)O{sub 2} scrap with a dissolution in carbonate solution with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. > Partial dissolution of Gd together with uranium in carbonate solution. > Solubilities of Gd in solutions with and without carbonate at several pHs. > Purification of Gd-contaminated UO{sub 4} by dissolution and precipitation of UO{sub 4}. - Abstract: This work studied a process to recover uranium from contaminated (U,Gd)O{sub 2} scraps generated from nuclear fuel fabrication processes by using the dissolution of (U,Gd)O{sub 2} scraps in a carbonate with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and the precipitation of the dissolved uranium as UO{sub 4}. The dissolution characteristics of uranium, Gd, and impurity metal oxides were tested, and the behaviors of UO{sub 4} precipitation and Gd solubility were evaluated with changes of the pH of the solution. A little Gd was entrained in the UO{sub 4} precipitate to contaminate the uranium precipitate. Below a pH of 3, the uranium dissolved in the form of uranyl peroxo-carbonato complex ions in the carbonate solution was precipitated as UO{sub 4} with a high precipitation yield, and the Gd had a very high solubility. Using these characteristics, the Gd-contaminated UO{sub 4} could be purified using dissolution in a 1-M HNO{sub 3} solution with heating and re-precipitation upon addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to the solution. Finally, an environmentally friendly and economical process to recover pure uranium from contaminated (U,Gd)O{sub 2} scraps was suggested.

  5. Study Of Thorium As A Nuclear Fuel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Humane

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional fuel sources for power generation are to be replacing by nuclear power sources like nuclear fuel Uranium. But Uranium-235 is the only fissile fuel which is in 0.72 found in nature as an isotope of Uranium-238. U-238 is abundant in nature which is not fissile while U-239 by alpha decay naturally converted to Uranium- 235. For accompanying this nuclear fuel there is another nuclear fuel Thorium is present in nature is abundant can be used as nuclear fuel and is as much as safe and portable like U-235.

  6. Experience in the development of metal uranium-base nuclear fuel for heavy-water gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashikhmin, V.P.; Vorob'ev, M.A.; Gusarov, M.S.; Davidenko, A.S.; Zelenskij, V.F.; Ivanov, V.E.; Krasnorutskij, V.S.; Petel'guzov, I.A.; Stukalov, A.I.

    1978-01-01

    Investigations were carried out to solve the problem of making the development of radiation-resistant uranium fuel for power reactors including the heavy-water gas-cooled KS-150 reactor. Factors are considered that limit the lifetime of uranium fuel elements, and the ways of suppressing them are discussed. Possible reasons of the insufficient radiation resistance of uranium rod fuel element and the progress attained are analyzed. Some general problems on the fuel manufacture processes are discussed. The main results are presented on the operation of the developed fuel in research reactor loops and the commercial heavy-water KS-150 reactor. The results confirm an exceptionally high radiation resistance of fuel to burn-ups of 1.5-2%. The successful solution of a large number of problems associated with the development of metal uranium fuel provides for new possibilities of using metal uranium in power reactors

  7. Uranium, its impact on the national and global energy mix; and its history, distribution, production, nuclear fuel-cycle, future, and relation to the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Warren Irvin

    1997-01-01

    The many aspects of uranium, a heavy radioactive metal used to generate electricity throughout the world, are briefly described in relatively simple terms intended for the lay reader. An adequate glossary of unfamiliar terms is given. Uranium is a new source of electrical energy developed since 1950, and how we harness energy from it is explained. It competes with the organic coal, oil, and gas fuels as shown graphically. Uranium resources and production for the world are tabulated and discussed by country and for various energy regions in the United States. Locations of major uranium deposits and power reactors in the United States are mapped. The nuclear fuel-cycle of uranium for a typical light-water reactor is illustrated at the front end-beginning with its natural geologic occurrence in rocks through discovery, mining, and milling; separation of the scarce isotope U-235, its enrichment, and manufacture into fuel rods for power reactors to generate electricity-and at the back end-the reprocessing and handling of the spent fuel. Environmental concerns with the entire fuel cycle are addressed. The future of the use of uranium in new, simplified, 'passively safe' reactors for the utility industry is examined. The present resource assessment of uranium in the United States is out of date, and a new assessment could aid the domestic uranium industry.

  8. Radiation heat transfer calculations for the uranium fuel-containment region of the nuclear light bulb engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, R. J.; Latham, T. S.; Krascella, N. L.

    1971-01-01

    Calculation results are reviewed of the radiant heat transfer characteristics in the fuel and buffer gas regions of a nuclear light bulb engine based on the transfer of energy by thermal radiation from gaseous uranium fuel in a neon vortex, through an internally cooled transparent wall, to seeded hydrogen propellant. The results indicate that the fraction of UV energy incident on the transparent walls increases with increasing power level. For the reference engine power level of 4600 megw, it is necessary to employ space radiators to reject the UV radiated energy absorbed by the transparent walls. This UV energy can be blocked by employing nitric oxide and oxygen seed gases in the fuel and buffer gas regions. However, this results in increased UV absorption in the buffer gas which also requires space radiators to reject the heat load.

  9. Evaluation of environmental control technologies for commercial uranium nuclear fuel fabrication facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    At present in the United States, there are seven commercial light-water reactor uranium fuel fabrication facilities. Effluent wastes from these facilities include uranium, nitrogen, fluorine, and organic-containing compounds. These effluents may be either discharged to the ambient environment, treated and recycled internally, stored or disposed of on-site, sent off-site for treatment and/or recovery, or sent off-site for disposal (including disposal in low-level waste burial sites). Quantities of waste generated and treatment techniques vary greatly depending on the facility and circuits used internally at the facility, though in general all the fluorine entering the facility as UF 6 is discharged as waste. Further studies to determine techniques and procedures that might minimize dose (ALARA) and to give data on possible long-term effects of effluent discharge and waste disposal are needed

  10. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D Hondt, P.

    1998-01-01

    The research and development programme on nuclear fuel at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is described. The objective of this programme is to enhance the quantitative prediction of the operational limits of nuclear fuel and to assess the behaviour of fuel under incidental and accidental conditions. Progress is described in different domains including the modelling of fission gas release in LWR fuel, thermal conductivity, basic physical phenomena, post-irradiation examination for fuel performance assessment, and conceptual studies of incidental and accidental fuel experiments

  11. A study on recovery of uranium in the anode basket residues delivered from the pyrochemical process of used nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, H. C.; Kim, T. J.; Jang, J. H.; Kim, G. Y.; Park, S. B.; Yoon, D. S.; Kim, S. H.; Paek, S. W.; Lee, S. J.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the chlorination of uranium oxide (UO2) using ammonium chloride and zirconium as chemical agents was conducted to recover the uranium in the anode basket residues from the pyrochemical process of used nuclear fuel. The chlorination of UO2 was predicted using thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. The experimental conditions for the chlorination were determined using a chlorination test with cerium oxide (CeO2). In the chlorination test, it was confirmed that UO2 was chlorinated into UCl3 at 320 °C, some UO2 remained without changes in the chemical form, and ZrO2, Zr2O, and ZrCl2 were generated as byproducts.

  12. Assessment of current atomic scale modelling methods for the investigation of nuclear fuels under irradiation: Example of uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolus, M.; Freyss, M.; Krack, M.; Devanathan, R.

    2015-01-01

    We focus here on the assessment of the description of interatomic interactions in uranium dioxide using, on the one hand, electronic structure methods, in particular in the Density Functional Theory (DFT) framework, and on the other hand, empirical potential methods. These two types of methods are complementary, the former enabling results to be obtained from a minimal amount of input data and further insight into the electronic and magnetic properties to be achieved, while the latter are irreplaceable for studies where a large number of atoms need to be considered. We consider basic properties as well as specific ones, which are important for the description of nuclear fuel under irradiation. These are especially energies, which are the main data passed on to higher scale models. For this exercise, we limit ourselves to uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) because of the extensive amount of studies available on this system. (authors)

  13. Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Exploration, Mining, Production, Supply and Demand, Economics and Environmental Issues (URAM-2009). Proceedings of an International Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    This IAEA symposium is a third in a series which began in 2000 to discuss issues related to uranium raw materials. The symposia covered all areas of the uranium production cycle — including uranium geology, exploration, mining; milling and refining of uranium concentrates; and safety, environmental, social, training and regulatory issues — and reported on uranium supply and demand, and market scenarios. The first symposium was held in October 2000 — a time of extremely depressed market prices for uranium and of mines being closed — and primarily addressed environmental and safety issues in the uranium production cycle. By the time the second symposium was held in June 2005, the uranium market had started to improve after nearly two decades of depressed activity because of increased demand due to rising expectations for nuclear power expansion. Since then, there has been a dramatic rise in the uranium spot price, which in turn has promoted a significant increase in uranium exploration activities all over the world. The international symposium on Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (URAM-2009) was held at the IAEA, Vienna, 22–26 June 2009, at a time when nuclear energy was emerging as a viable alternative to meet the ever increasing demand of electricity in a sustainable manner, without degrading the environment. However, the global recession and credit crunch could impact the growth of the uranium industry. Since 2000, the identified uranium resource base has grown by more than 75%, exploration efforts have continued to increase in greenfield as well as brownfield sites, annual uranium production has risen, and the issue of social licensing and uranium stewardship has become increasingly important for public acceptance of the uranium industry. Some 210 delegates from 33 States and four international organizations participated in the symposium. In total, 120 technical papers were presented in the oral and poster sessions, and an exhibition on

  14. Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Exploration, Mining, Production, Supply and Demand, Economics and Environmental Issues (URAM-2009). Proceedings of an International Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-05-15

    This IAEA symposium is a third in a series which began in 2000 to discuss issues related to uranium raw materials. The symposia covered all areas of the uranium production cycle — including uranium geology, exploration, mining; milling and refining of uranium concentrates; and safety, environmental, social, training and regulatory issues — and reported on uranium supply and demand, and market scenarios. The first symposium was held in October 2000 — a time of extremely depressed market prices for uranium and of mines being closed — and primarily addressed environmental and safety issues in the uranium production cycle. By the time the second symposium was held in June 2005, the uranium market had started to improve after nearly two decades of depressed activity because of increased demand due to rising expectations for nuclear power expansion. Since then, there has been a dramatic rise in the uranium spot price, which in turn has promoted a significant increase in uranium exploration activities all over the world. The international symposium on Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (URAM-2009) was held at the IAEA, Vienna, 22–26 June 2009, at a time when nuclear energy was emerging as a viable alternative to meet the ever increasing demand of electricity in a sustainable manner, without degrading the environment. However, the global recession and credit crunch could impact the growth of the uranium industry. Since 2000, the identified uranium resource base has grown by more than 75%, exploration efforts have continued to increase in greenfield as well as brownfield sites, annual uranium production has risen, and the issue of social licensing and uranium stewardship has become increasingly important for public acceptance of the uranium industry. Some 210 delegates from 33 States and four international organizations participated in the symposium. In total, 120 technical papers were presented in the oral and poster sessions, and an exhibition on

  15. Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Exploration, Mining, Production, Supply and Demand, Economics and Environmental Issues (URAM-2009). Proceedings of an International Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-06-01

    This IAEA symposium is a third in a series which began in 2000 to discuss issues related to uranium raw materials. The symposia covered all areas of the uranium production cycle — including uranium geology, exploration, mining; milling and refining of uranium concentrates; and safety, environmental, social, training and regulatory issues — and reported on uranium supply and demand, and market scenarios. The first symposium was held in October 2000 — a time of extremely depressed market prices for uranium and of mines being closed — and primarily addressed environmental and safety issues in the uranium production cycle. By the time the second symposium was held in June 2005, the uranium market had started to improve after nearly two decades of depressed activity because of increased demand due to rising expectations for nuclear power expansion. Since then, there has been a dramatic rise in the uranium spot price, which in turn has promoted a significant increase in uranium exploration activities all over the world. The international symposium on Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (URAM-2009) was held at the IAEA, Vienna, 22–26 June 2009, at a time when nuclear energy was emerging as a viable alternative to meet the ever increasing demand of electricity in a sustainable manner, without degrading the environment. However, the global recession and credit crunch could impact the growth of the uranium industry. Since 2000, the identified uranium resource base has grown by more than 75%, exploration efforts have continued to increase in greenfield as well as brownfield sites, annual uranium production has risen, and the issue of social licensing and uranium stewardship has become increasingly important for public acceptance of the uranium industry. Some 210 delegates from 33 States and four international organizations participated in the symposium. In total, 120 technical papers were presented in the oral and poster sessions, and an exhibition on

  16. Nuclear fuel strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rippon, S.

    1989-01-01

    The paper reports on two international meetings on nuclear fuel strategies, one organised by the World Nuclear Fuel Market in Seville (Spain) October 1988, and the other organised by the American and European nuclear societies in Washington (U.S.A.) November 1988. At the Washington meeting a description was given of the uranium supply and demand market, whereas free trade in uranium was considered in Seville. Considerable concern was expressed at both meetings on the effect on the uranium and enrichment services market of very low prices for spot deals being offered by China and the Soviet Union. Excess enrichment capacity, the procurement policies of the USA and other countries, and fuel cycle strategies, were also discussed. (U.K.)

  17. Nuclear safety analyses and core design calculations to convert the Texas A & M University Nuclear Science Center reactor to low enrichment uranium fuel. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parish, T.A.

    1995-03-02

    This project involved performing the nuclear design and safety analyses needed to modify the license issued by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to allow operation of the Texas A& M University Nuclear Science Center Reactor (NSCR) with a core containing low enrichment uranium (LEU) fuel. The specific type of LEU fuel to be considered was the TRIGA 20-20 fuel produced by General Atomic. Computer codes for the neutronic analyses were provided by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the assistance of William Woodruff of ANL in helping the NSCR staff to learn the proper use of the codes is gratefully acknowledged. The codes applied in the LEU analyses were WIMSd4/m, DIF3D, NCTRIGA and PARET. These codes allowed full three dimensional, temperature and burnup dependent calculations modelling the NSCR core to be performed for the first time. In addition, temperature coefficients of reactivity and pulsing calculations were carried out in-house, whereas in the past this modelling had been performed at General Atomic. In order to benchmark the newly acquired codes, modelling of the current NSCR core with highly enriched uranium fuel was also carried out. Calculated results were compared to both earlier licensing calculations and experimental data and the new methods were found to achieve excellent agreement with both. Therefore, even if an LEU core is never loaded at the NSCR, this project has resulted in a significant improvement in the nuclear safety analysis capabilities established and maintained at the NSCR.

  18. Uranium hexafluoride - chemistry and technology of a raw material of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, W.; Jacob, E.

    1986-01-01

    Uranium hexafluoride exhibits an unusual combination of properties: UF 6 is both a large-scale industrial product, and also one of the most reactive compounds known. Its industrial application arises from the need to use enriched uranium with up to 4% 235 U as fuel in light water reactors. Enrichment is performed in isotope separation plants with UF 6 as the working gas. Its volatility and thermal stability make UF 6 suitable for this application. UF 6 handling is difficult because of its high reactivity and its radioactivity, and special experience and equipment are required which are not commonly available in laboratories or industrial facilities. The chemical reactions of UF 6 are characterized by its marked fluorination efficiency which is similar to that of F 2 . Of special importance in connection with the handling of UF 6 is its extreme sensitivity to hydrolysis. Because they all use UF 6 , the isotope separation processes currently in use (gas diffusion, gas centrifuge, separation nozzle process) have a number of common features. For instance, they are all beset by the problem of formation of solid UF 6 decomposition products, e.g. by radiolysis of UF 6 molecules induced by its own radiation. Reconversion of UF 6 into UO 2 is achieved by three well-known methods (ADU, AUC, IDP-process). To produce uranium metal, UF 6 is first reduced to UF 4 , which is subsequently reduced by Ca 6 or Mg metal. 158 refs

  19. Microstructural evolution of a uranium-10 wt.% molybdenum alloy for nuclear reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, A.J.; Clarke, K.D.; McCabe, R.J.; Necker, C.T.; Papin, P.A.; Field, R.D.; Kelly, A.M.; Tucker, T.J.; Forsyth, R.T.; Dickerson, P.O.; Foley, J.C.; Swenson, H.; Aikin, R.M.; Dombrowski, D.E.

    2015-01-01

    Low-enriched uranium-10 wt.% molybdenum (LEU-10wt.%Mo) is of interest for the fabrication of monolithic fuels to replace highly-enriched uranium (HEU) dispersion fuels in high performance research and test reactors around the world. In this work, depleted uranium-10 wt.%Mo (DU-10wt.%Mo) is used to simulate the solidification and microstructural evolution of LEU-10wt.%Mo. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and complementary electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) reveal significant microsegregation present in the metastable γ-phase after solidification. Homogenization is performed at 800 and 1000 °C for times ranging from 1 to 32 h to explore the time–temperature combinations that will reduce the extent of microsegregation, as regions of higher and lower Mo content may influence local mechanical properties and provide preferred regions for γ-phase decomposition. We show for the first time that EBSD can be used to qualitatively assess microstructural evolution in DU-10wt.%Mo after homogenization treatments. Complementary EPMA is used to quantitatively confirm this finding. Homogenization at 1000 °C for 2–4 h may the regions that contain 8 wt.% Mo or lower, whereas homogenization at 1000 °C for longer than 8 h effectively saturates Mo chemical homogeneity, but results in substantial grain growth. The appropriate homogenization time will depend upon additional microstructural considerations, such as grain growth and intended subsequent processing. Higher carbon LEU-10wt.%Mo generally contains more inclusions within the grains and at grain boundaries after solidification. The effect of these inclusions on microstructural evolution (e.g. grain growth) during homogenization and as potential γ-phase decomposition nucleation sites is unclear, but likely requires additional study.

  20. Microstructural evolution of a uranium-10 wt.% molybdenum alloy for nuclear reactor fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, A.J., E-mail: aclarke@lanl.gov; Clarke, K.D.; McCabe, R.J.; Necker, C.T.; Papin, P.A.; Field, R.D.; Kelly, A.M.; Tucker, T.J.; Forsyth, R.T.; Dickerson, P.O.; Foley, J.C.; Swenson, H.; Aikin, R.M.; Dombrowski, D.E.

    2015-10-15

    Low-enriched uranium-10 wt.% molybdenum (LEU-10wt.%Mo) is of interest for the fabrication of monolithic fuels to replace highly-enriched uranium (HEU) dispersion fuels in high performance research and test reactors around the world. In this work, depleted uranium-10 wt.%Mo (DU-10wt.%Mo) is used to simulate the solidification and microstructural evolution of LEU-10wt.%Mo. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and complementary electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) reveal significant microsegregation present in the metastable γ-phase after solidification. Homogenization is performed at 800 and 1000 °C for times ranging from 1 to 32 h to explore the time–temperature combinations that will reduce the extent of microsegregation, as regions of higher and lower Mo content may influence local mechanical properties and provide preferred regions for γ-phase decomposition. We show for the first time that EBSD can be used to qualitatively assess microstructural evolution in DU-10wt.%Mo after homogenization treatments. Complementary EPMA is used to quantitatively confirm this finding. Homogenization at 1000 °C for 2–4 h may the regions that contain 8 wt.% Mo or lower, whereas homogenization at 1000 °C for longer than 8 h effectively saturates Mo chemical homogeneity, but results in substantial grain growth. The appropriate homogenization time will depend upon additional microstructural considerations, such as grain growth and intended subsequent processing. Higher carbon LEU-10wt.%Mo generally contains more inclusions within the grains and at grain boundaries after solidification. The effect of these inclusions on microstructural evolution (e.g. grain growth) during homogenization and as potential γ-phase decomposition nucleation sites is unclear, but likely requires additional study.

  1. NARCISS critical stand experiments for studying the nuclear safety in accident water immersion of highly enriched uranium dioxide fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev-Stepnoj, N.N.; Glushkov, E.S.; Bubelev, V.G.

    2005-01-01

    A brief description of the Topaz-2 SNPS designed under scientific supervision of RRC KI in Russia, and of the NARCISS critical facility, is given. At the NARCISS critical facility, neutronic peculiarities and nuclear safety issues of the Topaz-2 system reactor were studied experimentally. This work is devoted to a detailed description of experiments on investigation of criticality safety in accident water immersion og highly enriched uranium dioxide fuel elements, performed at the NARCISS facility. The experiments were carried out at water-moderated critical assemblies with varying height, number, and spacing of fuel elements. The results obtained in the critical experiments, computational models of the investigated critical configurations, and comparison of the computational and experimental results are given [ru

  2. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdoun, N.A.

    2007-01-01

    The article includes a historical preface about uranium, discovery of portability of sequential fission of uranium, uranium existence, basic raw materials, secondary raw materials, uranium's physical and chemical properties, uranium extraction, nuclear fuel cycle, logistics and estimation of the amount of uranium reserves, producing countries of concentrated uranium oxides and percentage of the world's total production, civilian and military uses of uranium. The use of depleted uranium in the Gulf War, the Balkans and Iraq has caused political and environmental effects which are complex, raising problems and questions about the effects that nuclear compounds left on human health and environment.

  3. Nuclear fuel cycle techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecqueur, Michel; Taranger, Pierre

    1975-01-01

    The production of fuels for nuclear power plants involves five principal stages: prospecting of uranium deposits (on the ground, aerial, geochemical, geophysical, etc...); extraction and production of natural uranium from the deposits (U content of ores is not generally high and a chemical processing is necessary to obtain U concentrates); production of 235 U enriched uranium for plants utilizing this type of fuel (a description is given of the gaseous diffusion process widely used throughout the world and particularly in France); manufacture of suitable fuel elements for the different plants; reprocessing of spent fuels for the purpose of not only recovering the fissile materials but also disposing safely of the fission products and other wastes [fr

  4. Feeding the nuclear fuel cycle with a long term view; AREVA's front-end business units, uranium mining, UF6 conversion and isotopic enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capus, G.A.P.; Autegert, R.

    2005-01-01

    As a leading provider of technological solutions for nuclear power generation and electricity transmission, the AREVA group has the unique capability of offering a fully integrated fuel supply, when requested by its customers. At the core of the AREVA group, COGEMA Front End Division is an essential part of the overall fuel supply chain. Composed of three Business Units and gathering several subsidiaries and joint 'ventures, this division enjoys several leading positions as shown by its market shares and historical production records. Current Uranium market evolutions put the natural uranium supply under focus. The uranium conversion segment also recently revealed some concerning evolutions. And no doubt, the market pressure will soon be directed also at the enrichment segment. Looking towards the long term, AREVA strongly believes that a nuclear power renewal is needed, especially to help limiting green house effect gas release. Therefore, to address future supplies needed to fuel the existing fleet of nuclear power plants, but also new ones, the AREVA group is planning very significant investments to build new facilities in all the three front-end market segments. As far as uranium mining is concerned, these new mines will be based upon uranium reserves of outstanding quality. As for uranium conversion and enrichment, two large projects will be based on the most advanced technologies. This paper is aimed at recalling COGEMA Front End Division experience, the current status of its plants and operating entities and will provide a detailed overview of its major projects. (authors)

  5. Uranium production in thorium/denatured uranium fueled PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, W.B.

    1977-01-01

    Uranium-232 buildup in a thorium/denatured uranium fueled pressurized water reactor, PWR(Th), was studied using a modified version of the spectrum-dependent zero dimensional depletion code, LEOPARD. The generic Combustion Engineering System 80 reactor design was selected as the reactor model for the calculations. Reactors fueled with either enriched natural uranium and self-generated recycled uranium or uranium from a thorium breeder and self-generated recycled uranium were considered. For enriched natural uranium, concentrations of 232 U varied from about 135 ppM ( 232 U/U weight basis) in the zeroth generation to about 260 ppM ( 232 U/U weight basis) at the end of the fifth generation. For the case in which thorium breeder fuel (with its relatively high 232 U concentration) was used as reactor makeup fuel, concentrations of 232 U varied from 441 ppM ( 232 U/U weight basis) at discharge from the first generation to about 512 ppM ( 232 U/U weight basis) at the end of the fifth generation. Concentrations in freshly fabricated fuel for this later case were 20 to 35% higher than the discharge concentration. These concentrations are low when compared to those of other thorium fueled reactor types (HTGR and MSBR) because of the relatively high 238 U concentration added to the fuel as a denaturant. Excellent agreement was found between calculated and existing experimental values. Nevertheless, caution is urged in the use of these values because experimental results are very limited, and the relevant nuclear data, especially for 231 Pa and 232 U, are not of high quality

  6. Present state and problems of uranium fuel fabrication businesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuki, Akio

    1981-01-01

    The businesses of uranium fuel fabrication converting uranium hexafluoride to uranium dioxide powder and forming fuel assemblies are the field of most advanced industrialization among nuclear fuel cycle industries in Japan. At present, five plants of four companies engage in this business, and their yearly sales exceeded 20 billion yen. All companies are planning the augmentation of installation capacity to meet the growth of nuclear power generation. The companies of uranium fuel fabrication make the nuclear fuel of the specifications specified by reactor manufacturers as the subcontractors. In addition to initially loaded fuel, the fuel for replacement is required, therefore the demand of uranium fuel is relatively stable. As for the safety of enriched uranium flowing through the farbicating processes, the prevention of inhaling uranium powder by workers and the precaution against criticality are necessary. Also the safeguard measures are imposed so as not to convert enriched uranium to other purposes than peacefull ones. The strict quality control and many times of inspections are carried out to insure the soundness of nuclear fuel. The growth of the business of uranium fuel fabrication and the regulation of the businesses by laws are described. As the problems for the future, the reduction of fabrication cost, the promotion of research and development and others are pointed out. (Kako, I.)

  7. Nuclear weapon relevant materials and preventive arms control. Uranium-free fuels for plutonium elimination and spallation neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebert, Wolfgang; Englert, Matthias; Pistner, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Today, the most significant barrier against the access to nuclear weapons is to take hold on sufficient amounts of nuclear weapon-relevant nuclear materials. It is mainly a matter of fissionable materials (like highly enriched uranium and plutonium) but also of fusionable tritium. These can be used as reactor fuel in civil nuclear programmes but also in nuclear weapon programmes. To stop or to hinder nuclear proliferation, in consequence, there is not only a need to analyse open or covered political objectives and intentions. In the long term, it might be more decisive to analyse the intrinsic civil-military ambivalence of nuclear materials and technologies, which are suitable for sensitive material production. A farsighted strategy to avoid proliferation dangers should take much more account to technical capabilities as it is done in the political debate on nuclear non-proliferation so far. If a technical option is at a state's disposal, it is extremely difficult and lengthy to revert that again. The dangers, which one has to react to, are stemming from already existing stocks of nuclear weapon-relevant materials - in the military as well as in the civil realm - and from existing or future technologies, which are suitable for the production of such materials (cf. info 1 and 2). Therefore, the overall approach of this research project is to strive for a drastic reduction of the access to nuclear weapon-relevant material and its production capabilities. Thus, on one hand the nuclear proliferation by state actors could be answered more effectively, on the other hand by that approach a decisive barrier against the access on nuclear weapons by sub-national groups and terrorists could also be erected. For this purpose, safeguards of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and other measures of physical accountancy will remain indispensable elements of arms control. However, one has to consider that the goal of nuclear non-proliferation could not be achieved and

  8. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinauk, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Since 1985, Fragema has been marketing and selling the Advanced Fuel Assemby AFA whose main features are its zircaloy grids and removable top and bottom nozzles. It is this product, which exists for several different fuel assembly arrays and heights, that will be employed in the reactors at Daya Bay. Fragema employs gadolinium as the consumable poison to enable highperformance fuel management. More recently, the company has supplied fuel assemblies of the mixed-oxide(MOX) and enriched reprocessed uranium type. The reliability level of the fuel sold by Fragema is one of the highest in the world, thanks in particular to the excellence of the quality assurance and quality control programs that have been implemented at all stages of its design and manufacture

  9. Nuclear fuel brokerage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, J.; Schreiber, K.

    1985-01-01

    Making available nuclear fuels on the spot market, especially uranium in various compounds and processing stages, has become an important service rendered nuclear power plant operators. A secondary market has grown, both for natural uranium and for separative work, the conditions and transactions of which require a comprehensive overview of what is going on, especially also in connection with possibilities to terminate in a profitable manner existing contracts. This situation has favored the activity of brokers with excellent knowledge of the market, who are able to handle the complicated terms and conditions in an optimum way. (orig.) [de

  10. Nuclear power generation and nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Yasujiro

    1985-01-01

    As of June 30, 1984, in 25 countries, 311 nuclear power plants of about 209 million kW were in operation. In Japan, 27 plants of about 19 million kW were in operation, and Japan ranks fourth in the world. The present state of nuclear power generation and nuclear fuel cycle is explained. The total uranium resources in the free world which can be mined at the cost below $130/kgU are about 3.67 million t, and it was estimated that the demand up to about 2015 would be able to be met. But it is considered also that the demand and supply of uranium in the world may become tight at the end of 1980s. The supply of uranium to Japan is ensured up to about 1995, and the yearly supply of 3000 st U 3 O 8 is expected in the latter half of 1990s. The refining, conversion and enrichment of uranium are described. In Japan, a pilot enrichment plant consisting of 7000 centrifuges has the capacity of about 50 t SWU/year. UO 2 fuel assemblies for LWRs, the working of Zircaloy, the fabrication of fuel assemblies, the quality assurance of nuclear fuel, the behavior of UO 2 fuel, the grading-up of LWRs and nuclear fuel, and the nuclear fuel business in Japan are reported. The reprocessing of spent fuel and plutonium fuel are described. (Kako, I.)

  11. The nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The papers presented at the International Conference on The Nuclear Fuel Cycle, held at Stockholm, 28 to 31 October 1975, are reviewed. The meeting, organised by the U.S. Atomic Industrial Forum, and the Swedish Nuclear Forum, was concerned more particularly with economic, political, social and commercial aspects than with tecnology. The papers discussed were considered under the subject heading of current status, uranium resources, enrichment, and reprocessing. (U.K.)

  12. Nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-12-01

    The papers presented at the International Conference on The Nuclear Fuel Cycle, held at Stockholm, 28 to 31 October 1975, are reviewed. The meeting, organised by the U.S. Atomic Industrial Forum, and the Swedish Nuclear Forum, was concerned more particularly with economic, political, social and commercial aspects than with tecnology. The papers discussed were considered under the subject heading of current status, uranium resources, enrichment, and reprocessing.

  13. Allocation of uranium enrichment services to fuel foreign and domestic nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This interim report was made in response to a request for information concerning the sale of U.S. uranium enrichment services to foreign countries and its effect on AEC's ability to meet domestic demands. Long-term enrichment services (June 30, 1974), both domestic and foreign, totaled 364,000 MW, or 44,000 MW more than its available capability. The first-come-first-served policy was modified to give preferential treatment to Yugoslav and Mexican requests because of IAEA commitments, and to shift six standard contracts from Japan. From Aug. to Sept. 1974, standard contracts were signed for all 15 pending domestic requests and for 33 pending foreign requests, with the remaining 45 foreign requests depending on NRC's approval of Pu recycle, although private enrichment or stockpile enriched U could meet these needs. There is no firm commitment in the private sector to build and operate the needed enrichment plant. The acceleration of foreign nuclear programs coupled with ERDA's termination of further long-term contracts, may lead to the emergence of foreign supply sources, and U.S. may lose its favorable balance-of-payments and its influence on international nuclear policies

  14. Loading ion exchange resins with uranium for HTGR fuel kernels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.; Greene, C.W.

    1976-12-01

    Uranium-loaded ion exchange beads provide an excellent starting material in the production of uranium carbide microspheres for nuclear fuel applications. Both strong-acid (sulfonate) and weak-acid (carboxylate) resins can be fully loaded with uranium from a uranyl nitrate solution utilizing either a batch method or a continuous column technique

  15. The nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter explains the distinction between fissile and fertile materials, examines briefly the processes involved in fuel manufacture and management, describes the alternative nuclear fuel cycles and considers their advantages and disadvantages. Fuel management is usually divided into three stages; the front end stage of production and fabrication, the back end stage which deals with the fuel after it is removed from the reactor (including reprocessing and waste treatment) and the stage in between when the fuel is actually in the reactor. These stages are illustrated and explained in detail. The plutonium fuel cycle and thorium-uranium-233 fuel cycle are explained. The differences between fuels for thermal reactors and fast reactors are explained. (U.K.)

  16. The nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patarin, L.

    2002-01-01

    This book treats of the different aspects of the industrial operations linked with the nuclear fuel, before and after its use in nuclear reactors. The basis science of this nuclear fuel cycle is chemistry. Thus a recall of the elementary notions of chemistry is given in order to understand the phenomena involved in the ore processing, in the isotope enrichment, in the fabrication of fuel pellets and rods (front-end of the cycle), in the extraction of recyclable materials (residual uranium and plutonium), and in the processing and conditioning of wastes (back-end of the fuel cycle). Nuclear reactors produce about 80% of the French electric power and the Cogema group makes 40% of its turnover at the export. Thus this book contains also some economic and geopolitical data in order to clearly position the stakes. The last part, devoted to the management of wastes, presents the solutions already operational and also the research studies in progress. (J.S.)

  17. Epidemiological study of workers employed in the French nuclear fuel industry and analysis of the health effects of uranium compounds according to their solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhivin, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    External γ-radiation exposure has been shown to be associated with mortality risk due to leukemia, solid cancer, and, possibly, circulatory diseases (CSD). By contrast, little information is available on health risks following the internal contamination, especially the inhalation of uranium compounds with respect to their physicochemical properties (PCP), such as solubility, isotopic composition and others. The aim of this PhD thesis was to estimate mortality risk of cancer and non-cancer diseases in French nuclear fuel cycle workers and comprises three objectives: (1) evaluation of the impact of uranium on mortality through a critical literature review, (2) analysis of cancer and non-cancer mortality in a cohort of uranium enrichment workers, (3) analysis of the relationship between CSD mortality and internal uranium dose in AREVA NC Pierrelatte workers. Existing epidemiological data on uranium PCP and associated health outcomes are scarce. Studies of nuclear fuel cycle workers by sub-groups within the specific stage of the cycle (e.g., uranium enrichment and fuel fabrication) are considered the most promising to shed light on the possible associations, given that such sub-groups present the advantage of a more homogenous uranium exposure. To study the mortality risk associated with exposure to rapidly soluble uranium compounds, we set up a cohort of 4,688 uranium enrichment workers with follow-up between 1968 and 2008. Individual annual exposure to uranium, external γ-radiation, and other non-radiological hazards (trichloroethylene, heat, and noise) were reconstructed from job-exposure matrixes (JEM) and dosimetry records. Over the follow-up period, 131,161 person-years at risk were accrued and 21% of the subjects had die. Analysis of Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMR) showed a strong healthy worker effect (SMR all deaths 0.69, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.65 to 0.74; n=1,010). Exposures to uranium and external γ-radiation were not significantly associated

  18. Determination of uranium traces in nuclear cans of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta L, E.; Benavides M, A.M.; Sanchez P, L.

    1996-01-01

    To quantify the uranium content as impurity can be found in zirconium alloys and zircaloy, utilized to construct the sheaths containing fuels of the reactors of nuclear plants. The determination by fluorescence spectroscopy was employed as quality control measurement, at once the corrosion resistance, diminish with the increase of the uranium content in the alloys. (Author)

  19. Chemical aspects of nuclear fuel fabrication processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naylor, A; Ellis, J F; Watson, R H

    1986-04-01

    Processes used by British Nuclear Fuels plc for the conversion of uranium ore concentrates to uranium metal and uranium hexafluoride, are reviewed. Means of converting the latter compound, after enrichment, to sintered UO/sub 2/ fuel bodies are also described. An overview is given of the associated chemical engineering technology.

  20. Standard test method for analysis of isotopic composition of uranium in nuclear-grade fuel material by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This test method is applicable to the determination of the isotopic composition of uranium (U) in nuclear-grade fuel material. The following isotopic weight percentages are determined using a quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (Q-ICP-MS): 233U, 234U, 235U, 236U, and 238U. The analysis can be performed on various material matrices after acid dissolution and sample dilution into water or dilute nitric (HNO3) acid. These materials include: fuel product, uranium oxide, uranium oxide alloys, uranyl nitrate (UNH) crystals, and solutions. The sample preparation discussed in this test method focuses on fuel product material but may be used for uranium oxide or a uranium oxide alloy. Other preparation techniques may be used and some references are given. Purification of the uranium by anion-exchange extraction is not required for this test method, as it is required by other test methods such as radiochemistry and thermal ionization mass spectroscopy (TIMS). This test method is also described i...

  1. Nuclear-fuel-cycle education: Module 10. Environmental consideration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wethington, J.A.; Razvi, J.; Grier, C.; Myrick, T.

    1981-12-01

    This educational module is devoted to the environmental considerations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Eight chapters cover: National Environmental Policy Act; environmental impact statements; environmental survey of the uranium fuel cycle; the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant; transport mechanisms; radiological hazards in uranium mining and milling operations; radiological hazards of uranium mill tailings; and the use of recycle plutonium in mixed oxide fuel

  2. Increase of thermal conductivity of uranium dioxide nuclear fuel pellets with beryllium oxide addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camarano, D.M.; Mansur, F.A.; Santos, A.M.M. dos; Ferraz, W.B.

    2016-01-01

    The UO_2 fuel is one of the most used nuclear fuel in thermal reactors and has many advantages such as high melting point, chemical compatibility with cladding, etc. However, its thermal conductivity is relatively low, which leads to a premature degradation of the fuel pellets due to a high radial temperature gradient during reactor operation. An alternative to avoid this problem is to increase the thermal conductivity of the fuel pellets, by adding beryllium oxide (BeO). Pellets of UO_2 and UO_2-BeO were obtained from a homogenized mixture of powders of UO_2 and BeO, containing 2% and 3% by weight of BeO and sintering at 1750 °C for 3 h under H_2 atmosphere after uniaxial pressing at 400 MPa. The pellet densities were obtained by xylol penetration-immersion method and the thermal diffusivity, specific heat and thermal conductivity were determined according to ASTM E-1461 at room temperature (25 deg C) and 100 deg C. The thermal diffusivity measurements were carried out employing the laser flash method. The thermal conductivity obtained at 25 deg C showed an increase with the addition of 2% and 3% of BeO corresponding to 19% and 28%, respectively. As for the measurements carried out at 100 deg C, there was an increase in the thermal conductivity for the same BeO contents of 20% and 31%. These values as a percentage of increased conductivity were obtained in relation to the UO_2 pellets. (author)

  3. Nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-07-01

    The IAEA is organizing a major conference on nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle, which is to be held from 2 to 13 May 1977 in Salzburg, Austria. The programme for the conference was published in the preceding issue of the IAEA Bulletin (Vol.18, No. 3/4). Topics to be covered at the conference include: world energy supply and demand, supply of nuclear fuel and fuel cycle services, radioactivity management (including transport), nuclear safety, public acceptance of nuclear power, safeguarding of nuclear materials, and nuclear power prospects in developing countries. The articles in the section that follows are intended to serve as an introduction to the topics to be discussed at the Salzburg Conference. They deal with the demand for uranium and nuclear fuel cycle services, uranium supplies, a computer simulation of regional fuel cycle centres, nuclear safety codes, management of radioactive wastes, and a pioneering research project on factors that determine public attitudes toward nuclear power. It is planned to present additional background articles, including a review of the world nuclear fuel reprocessing situation and developments in the uranium enrichment industry, in future issues of the Bulletin. (author)

  4. Depleted uranium oxides as spent-nuclear-fuel waste-package fill materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1997-01-01

    Depleted uranium dioxide fill inside the waste package creates the potential for significant improvements in package performance based on uranium geochemistry, reduces the potential for criticality in a repository, and consumes DU inventory. As a new concept, significant uncertainties exist: fill properties, impacts on package design, post- closure performance

  5. World nuclear fuel cycle requirements 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-10

    The nuclear fuel cycle consists of mining and milling uranium ore, processing the uranium into a form suitable for generating electricity, burning'' the fuel in nuclear reactors, and managing the resulting spent nuclear fuel. This report presents projections of domestic and foreign requirements for natural uranium and enrichment services as well as projections of discharges of spent nuclear fuel. These fuel cycle requirements are based on the forecasts of future commercial nuclear power capacity and generation published in a recent Energy Information Administration (EIA) report. Also included in this report are projections of the amount of spent fuel discharged at the end of each fuel cycle for each nuclear generating unit in the United States. The International Nuclear Model is used for calculating the projected nuclear fuel cycle requirements. 14 figs., 38 tabs.

  6. World nuclear fuel cycle requirements 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle consists of mining and milling uranium ore, processing the uranium into a form suitable for generating electricity, ''burning'' the fuel in nuclear reactors, and managing the resulting spent nuclear fuel. This report presents projections of domestic and foreign requirements for natural uranium and enrichment services as well as projections of discharges of spent nuclear fuel. These fuel cycle requirements are based on the forecasts of future commercial nuclear power capacity and generation published in a recent Energy Information Administration (EIA) report. Also included in this report are projections of the amount of spent fuel discharged at the end of each fuel cycle for each nuclear generating unit in the United States. The International Nuclear Model is used for calculating the projected nuclear fuel cycle requirements. 14 figs., 38 tabs

  7. Separation method for uranium, plutonium, and neptunium with each other from spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Gunzo; Hotoku, Shinobu; Fujine, Sachio; Maeda, Mitsuru.

    1994-01-01

    In a nuclear fuel reprocessing step of the present invention, an Np oxidation step is provided on a high level side of a co-contamination step, and an Np separation step and a U/Pu recovering step provided preceding to a U/Pu distribution step. Np oxidation step uses an oxidizer which is not extracted by an organic solvent such as ammonium vanadate for oxidizing Np from pentavalence to hexavalence. The Np separation step uses n-butylaldehyde for selectively reducing only hexavalent Np into pentavalent Np in a system in which hexavalent Np and tetravalent Pu are present together. In the U/Pu recovering step, pentavalent U and tetravalent Pu which shift by so much as distribution equilibrium are extracted together with pentavalent Np by using an organic solvent. The U/Pu distribution step uses iso-butylaldehyde as a reagent for selectively reducing only tetravalent Pu present together with hexavalent U into trivalent. With such procedures, U, Pu and Np can be separated with each other by more simplified fuel processing process. (T.M.)

  8. On the Potential of Nuclear Fission Energy for Effective Reduction of Carbon Emission under the Constraint of Uranium Resources Use without Spent Fuel Reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, V.; Pevec, D.; Matijevic, M.

    2010-01-01

    Urgency to stop further increase of greenhouse gases emissions and reverse the trends, as stated in the Fourth Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPPC) Report and in Copenhagen discussions, limits the realistic choice of energy technologies to those available now or in the near future of few decades. In the coming fifty years neither nuclear fusion nor carbon capture and storage (CCS) can be expected to give a significant contribution to world energy production. Two perspective intermittent sources such as wind and solar together with nuclear fission energy covering the base load consumption appears to be a combination with a potential to produce a large share of carbon free energy in the total world energy production. This contribution considers the issues, associated with required large scale deployment of nuclear fission energy. A serious question associated with nuclear energy is nuclear proliferation. Spread of uranium enrichment and spent fuel reprocessing installations in many new countries constructing nuclear reactors would be a major concern in present political environment. We investigate whether uranium resources would be sufficient to support nuclear build-up in next 50-60 years sufficiently large to significantly reduce carbon emission without reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. A positive answer would mean that 50-60 years can be available to develop effective international control of nuclear fuel cycle installations. Our results show that a maximum nuclear build-up which would consume currently estimated uranium resources by 2065 without reprocessing could reduce by 2065 carbon emission by 39.6% of the total reduction needed to bring the WEO 2009 Reference Scenario prediction of total GHG emissions in 2065 to the level of the WEO 450 Scenario limiting global temperature increase to 2 degrees of C. The less demanding strategy of the nuclear replacement of all non-CCS coal power plants retiring during the 2025-2065 period would reduce emission

  9. Chemical aspects of the precise and accurate determination of uranium and plutonium from nuclear fuel solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinonen, O.J.

    1981-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous or separate determination of uranium and plutonium has been developed. The method is based on the sorption of uranium and plutonium as their chloro complexes on Dowex 1x10 column. When separate uranium and plutonium fractions are desired, plutonium ions are reduced to Pu (III) and eluted, after which the uranium ions are eluted with dilute HCl. Simultaneous stripping of a mass ratio U/Pu approximately 1 fraction for mass spectrometric measurements is achieved by proper choice of eluant HC1 concentration. Special attention was paid to the obtaining of americium free plutonium fractions. The distribution coefficient measurements showed that at 12.5-M HCl at least 30 % of americium ions formed anionic chloro complexes. The chemical aspects of isotopic fractionation in a multiple filament thermal ionization source were also investigated. Samples of uranium were loaded as nitrates, chlorides, and sulphates and the dependence of the measured uranium isotopic ratios on the chemical form of the loading solution as well as on the filament material was studied. Likewise the dependence of the formation of uranium and its oxide ions on various chemical and instrumental conditions was investigated using tungsten and rhenium filaments. Systematic errors arising from the chemical conditions are compared with errors arising from the automatic evaluation of of spectra. (author)

  10. Discrimination of source reactor type by multivariate statistical analysis of uranium and plutonium isotopic concentrations in unknown irradiated nuclear fuel material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robel, Martin; Kristo, Michael J

    2008-11-01

    The problem of identifying the provenance of unknown nuclear material in the environment by multivariate statistical analysis of its uranium and/or plutonium isotopic composition is considered. Such material can be introduced into the environment as a result of nuclear accidents, inadvertent processing losses, illegal dumping of waste, or deliberate trafficking in nuclear materials. Various combinations of reactor type and fuel composition were analyzed using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLSDA) of the concentrations of nine U and Pu isotopes in fuel as a function of burnup. Real-world variation in the concentrations of (234)U and (236)U in the fresh (unirradiated) fuel was incorporated. The U and Pu were also analyzed separately, with results that suggest that, even after reprocessing or environmental fractionation, Pu isotopes can be used to determine both the source reactor type and the initial fuel composition with good discrimination.

  11. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Satoshi; Kawada, Toshiyuki; Matsuzaki, Masayoshi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a fuel element for reducing the mechanical interactions between a fuel-cladding tube and the fuel element and for alleviating the limits of the operating conditions of a reactor. Constitution: A fuel element having mainly uranium dioxide consists of a cylindrical outer pellet and cylindrical inner pellet inserted into the outer pellet. The outer pellet contains two or more additives selected from aluminium oxide, beryllium oxide, magnesium oxide, silicon oxide, sodium oxide, phosphorus oxide, calcium oxide and iron oxide, and the inner pellet contains nuclear fuel substance solely or one additive selected from calcium oxide, silicon oxide, aluminium oxide, magnesium oxide, zirconium oxide and iron oxide. The outer pellet of the fuel thus constituted is reduced in mechanical strength and also in the mechanical interactions with the cladding tube, and the plastic fluidity of the entire pellet is prevented by the inner pellet increased in the mechanical strength. (Kamimura, M.)

  12. World's trend of national nuclear power policy and long-term perspective of nuclear power and supply and demand of uranium fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuji; Nishida, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Shimogoori, Kei; Murakami, Tomoko

    2013-01-01

    Based on perspective of nuclear power reflecting latest trend of national nuclear policy, supply and demand of uranium resources until 2035 was evaluated based on latest data. After the Fukushima nuclear accident, Germany and Italy dramatically changed nuclear power to phase out, while United States, Russia, France and Korea as well as China and India continued to promote nuclear power with no essential change of policy. Thus world's nuclear power capacity was foreseen to expand from 389 GW (2010) to 471 GW (2035, low growth case) and 760 GW (2035, high growth case). Following sharp increase of uranium cost after 2005, investment on natural uranium development became active and new operation start of uranium enrichment plants was anticipated in US and Europe, and then both supply and demand of natural uranium and uranium enrichment service would tend to relax until around 2020 and until 2035 extreme tightness of supply and demand might not occur even for high growth case. Uranium demand of Asian region including China and India would be largely expanded with natural uranium from Africa and Australia and uranium enrichment services from US, and Asian high overseas dependence would be continued. (T. Tanaka)

  13. Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, Michael F.; Law, Jack D.

    2010-01-01

    This is a submission for the Encyclopedia of Sustainable Technology on the subject of Reprocessing Spent Nuclear Fuel. Nuclear reprocessing is the chemical treatment of spent fuel involving separation of its various constituents. Principally, it is used to recover useful actinides from the spent fuel. Radioactive waste that cannot be re-used is separated into streams for consolidation into waste forms. The first known application of nuclear reprocessing was within the Manhattan Project to recover material for nuclear weapons. Currently, reprocessing has a peaceful application in the nuclear fuel cycle. A variety of chemical methods have been proposed and demonstrated for reprocessing of nuclear fuel. The two most widely investigated and implemented methods are generally referred to as aqueous reprocessing and pyroprocessing. Each of these technologies is described in detail in Section 3 with numerous references to published articles. Reprocessing of nuclear fuel as part of a fuel cycle can be used both to recover fissionable actinides and to stabilize radioactive fission products into durable waste forms. It can also be used as part of a breeder reactor fuel cycle that could result in a 14-fold or higher increase in energy utilization per unit of natural uranium. Reprocessing can also impact the need for geologic repositories for spent fuel. The volume of waste that needs to be sent to such a repository can be reduced by first subjecting the spent fuel to reprocessing. The extent to which volume reduction can occur is currently under study by the United States Department of Energy via research at various national laboratories and universities. Reprocessing can also separate fissile and non-fissile radioactive elements for transmutation.

  14. Uranium as Raw Material for Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelek, V.

    2006-01-01

    There is lot of information bringing our attention to the problem of limited raw material resources. Fortunately uranium for nuclear energy is very concentrated source and that is why its transport brings no problems and could be realized from anywhere. Second question is if overall resources are available for current nuclear energy development. Data documenting reasons for nowadays price growth are presenting and it is clearly shown that the most probable explanation is that there is gap in new uranium mines preparation and the lot of smaller mines were closed in the period of low uranium prices. Conclusion is that there is at least for the first half of this century even for thermal reactors enough uranium. Situation could be changed if there will massive production of liquid fuel using hydrogen, produced through nuclear heating. Public information about former military uranium resources are also included. Contemporary about one half of US nuclear power-stations is using high enriched uranium diluted with natural uranium - it is expected to continue this way up to 2012. Uranium is complicated market (Authors)

  15. Determination of plutonium and uranium in mixed nuclear fuel by means of potentiostatic and amperostatic coulometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuperman, A.Ya.; Moiseev, I.V.; Galkina, V.N.; Yakushina, G.S.; Nikitskaya, V.N.

    1977-01-01

    Product solution occurs in HClO 4 + HNO 3 mixing. In prepared plutonium (6) and uranium (6) perchloric acid solution Cl and Cr (6), Mn (7,6,3) foreign oxidizers are selectively reduced with formic and malonic acids. Potentiostatic variant of method is based on successive reduction of Pu(6) to Pu(3) and U(6) to U(4) in 4.5M HCl, containing 5x10 -4 M bismuth (3). In using amperostatic variant of method plutonium and uranium are determined separately. In sulfur-phosphoric acid media plutonium (6) is titrated to Pu(4) with continuously generated iron (2) ions. Uranium (6) in phosphoric acid media is initially reduced to U(4) with Fe(2), and then after Fe(2) excess reduction with nitric acid it is titrated to uranium (6) with continuously electrogenerated manganese (3) ions or vanadium (5). To obtain equivalent point in plutonium (6) and uranium (4) titration amperometric method is used. Coefficient of variation is 0.2-0.3 % rel

  16. World nuclear-fuel procurement: relationships between uranium and enrichment markets. Final report. International energies studies program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, T.L.

    1982-03-01

    This article explores the relationships between international uranium and enrichment markets under current contracting and equity arrangements and in comparison with actual feed requirements for existing and committed reactors. We begin with an overview of the world situation, examining current and prospective conditions. We then consider enrichment and uranium supply and demand situations of the three consumer nations outside the United States with the largest nuclear programs: France, Japan, and the Federal Republic of Germany. We conclude with an evaluation of likely directions of change in the coupled markets for uranium and enrichment services

  17. Nuclear power fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havelka, S.; Jakesova, L.

    1982-01-01

    Economic problems are discussed of the fuel cycle (cost of the individual parts of the fuel cycle and the share of the fuel cycle in the price of 1 kWh), the technological problems of the fuel cycle (uranium ore mining and processing, uranium isotope enrichment, the manufacture of fuel elements, the building of long-term storage sites for spent fuel, spent fuel reprocessing, liquid and gaseous waste processing), and the ecologic aspects of the fuel cycle. (H.S.)

  18. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies of uranium minerals. Assessment of the long-term evolution of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casas, I; Bruno, J; Cera, E [MBT Tecnologia Ambiental, Cerdanyola (Spain); Finch, R J; Ewing, R C [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-10-01

    We have studied the dissolution behavior of uraninite, becquerelite, schoepite and uranophane. The information obtained under a variety of experimental conditions has been combined with extensive solid phase characterizations, performed in both leached and unleached samples. The overall objective is to construct a thermodynamic and kinetic model for the long-term oxidation alteration of UO{sub 2}(s), as an analogy of the spent nuclear fuel matrix. We have determined the solubility product for becquerelite (logK{sub s0} 32.7{+-}1.3) and uranophane (logK{sub s0} = 7.8{+-}0.8). In some experiments, the reaction progress has shown initial dissolution of uranophane followed by precipitation of a secondary solid phase, characterized as soddyite. The solubility production for this phase has been determined (logK{sub s0} = 3.0{+-}2.9). We have studied the kinetics of dissolution of uraninite, uranophane and schoepite under oxidizing conditions in synthetic granitic groundwater. BET measurements have been performed for uraninite and uranophane. For schoepite, the measurement has not been performed due to lack of sufficient amount of sample. The normalized rates of dissolution of uraninite and uranophane have been calculated referred to the uranium release, as 1.97x10{sup -8} moles h{sup -1} m{sup -2} and 4.0x 10{sup -9} moles h{sup -1} m{sup -2}, respectively. For schoepite, the dissolution process has shown two different rates, with a relatively fast initial dissolution rate of 1.97x10{sup -8} moles h{sup -1} followed, after approximately 1000 hours, by a slower one of 1.4x10{sup -9} moles h{sup -1}. No formation of secondary phases has been observed in those experiments, although final uranium concentrations have in all cases exceeded the solubility of uranophane, the thermodynamically more stable phase under the experimental conditions. 24 refs, 45 figs.

  19. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies of uranium minerals. Assessment of the long-term evolution of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas, I.; Bruno, J.; Cera, E.; Finch, R.J.; Ewing, R.C.

    1994-10-01

    We have studied the dissolution behavior of uraninite, becquerelite, schoepite and uranophane. The information obtained under a variety of experimental conditions has been combined with extensive solid phase characterizations, performed in both leached and unleached samples. The overall objective is to construct a thermodynamic and kinetic model for the long-term oxidation alteration of UO 2 (s), as an analogy of the spent nuclear fuel matrix. We have determined the solubility product for becquerelite (logK s0 32.7±1.3) and uranophane (logK s0 = 7.8±0.8). In some experiments, the reaction progress has shown initial dissolution of uranophane followed by precipitation of a secondary solid phase, characterized as soddyite. The solubility production for this phase has been determined (logK s0 = 3.0±2.9). We have studied the kinetics of dissolution of uraninite, uranophane and schoepite under oxidizing conditions in synthetic granitic groundwater. BET measurements have been performed for uraninite and uranophane. For schoepite, the measurement has not been performed due to lack of sufficient amount of sample. The normalized rates of dissolution of uraninite and uranophane have been calculated referred to the uranium release, as 1.97x10 -8 moles h -1 m -2 and 4.0x 10 -9 moles h -1 m -2 , respectively. For schoepite, the dissolution process has shown two different rates, with a relatively fast initial dissolution rate of 1.97x10 -8 moles h -1 followed, after approximately 1000 hours, by a slower one of 1.4x10 -9 moles h -1 . No formation of secondary phases has been observed in those experiments, although final uranium concentrations have in all cases exceeded the solubility of uranophane, the thermodynamically more stable phase under the experimental conditions. 24 refs, 45 figs

  20. The nuclear fuel cycle; Le cycle du combustible nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    After a short introduction about nuclear power in the world, fission physics and the French nuclear power plants, this brochure describes in a digest way the different steps of the nuclear fuel cycle: uranium prospecting, mining activity, processing of uranium ores and production of uranium concentrates (yellow cake), uranium chemistry (conversion of the yellow cake into uranium hexafluoride), fabrication of nuclear fuels, use of fuels, reprocessing of spent fuels (uranium, plutonium and fission products), recycling of energetic materials, and storage of radioactive wastes. (J.S.)

  1. Refining of crude uranium by solvent extraction for production of nuclear pure uranium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.; Manna, S.; Singha, M.; Hareendran, K.N.; Chowdhury, S.; Satpati, S.K.; Kumar, K.

    2007-01-01

    Uranium is the primary fuel material for any nuclear fission energy program. Natural uranium contains only 0.712% of 235 U as fissile constituent. This low concentration of fissile isotope in natural uranium calls for a very high level of purity, especially with respect to neutron poisons like B, Cd, Gd etc. before it can be used as nuclear fuel. Solvent extraction is a widely used technique by which crude uranium is purified for reactor use. Uranium metal plant (UMP), BARC, Trombay is engaged in refining of uranium concentrate for production of nuclear pure uranium metal for fabrication of fuel for research reactors. This paper reviews some of the fundamental aspects of this refining process with some special references to UMP, BARC. (author)

  2. Thorium in nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankevicius, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    We revise the advantages and possible problems on the use of thorium as a nuclear fuel instead of uranium. The following aspects are considered: 1) In the world there are three times more thorium than uranium 2) In spite that thorium in his natural form it is not a fisil, under neutron irradiation, is possible to transform it to uranium 233, a fisil of a high quality. 3) His ceramic oxides properties are superior to uranium or plutonium oxides. 4) During the irradiation the U 233 due to n,2n reaction produce small quantities of U 232 and his decay daughters' bismuth 212 and thallium 208 witch are strong gamma source. In turn thorium 228 and uranium 232 became, in time anti-proliferate due to there radiation intensity. 5) As it is described in here and experiments done in several countries reactors PHWR can be adapted to the use of thorium as a fuel element 6) As a problem we should mentioned that the different steps in the process must be done under strong radiation shielding and using only automatized equipment s (author)

  3. Uranium, a factor limiting nuclear energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnemus, J.

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear power has been back as a topic of public debate since early this year. A special subject under discussion is the extension of nuclear power plant life. Hardly had it been on the agenda, when interested parties announced that this step was impossible because uranium reserves were no longer sufficient. A variety of terms are being used in this discussion without their meaning being taken into account: stocks, resources, and reserves. To clarify the situation, this article outlines important aspects of short and long term uranium supplies, and analyzes their meaning. Here are some of the most important issues under consideration: - For what period of time is there really enough uranium? - Is uranium becoming the limiting factor in the use of nuclear power? - Is uranium really a 'sustainable' energy resource? - Will higher prices extend the range? - What is the influence of the price of uranium on the cost of electricity generation? Among other results, it is found that comprehensive sources of low-price uranium and nuclear fuels are, or can be made, available worldwide. Consequently, the 'range' is beyond the time frames currently mentioned, also as a function of technological factors, i.e. reaching several hundred years. It is also important to note that nuclear power - ensures greater independence of volatile imported sources, - guarantees reliably low electricity prices, - has a huge potential of environmental protection, and - is a clean source of energy. (orig.)

  4. Uranium, a factor limiting nuclear energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear power has been back as a topic of public debate since early this year. A special subject under discussion is the extension of nuclear power plant life. Hardly had it been on the agenda, when interested parties announced that this step was impossible because uranium reserves were no longer sufficient. A variety of terms are being used in this discussion without their meaning being taken into account: stocks, resources, and reserves. To clarify the situation, this article outlines important aspects of short and long term uranium supplies, and analyzes their meaning. Here are some of the most important issues under consideration: - For what period of time is there really enough uranium? - Is uranium becoming the limiting factor in the use of nuclear power? - Is uranium really a 'sustainable' energy resource? - Will higher prices extend the range? - What is the influence of the price of uranium on the cost of electricity generation? Among other results, it is found that comprehensive sources of low-price uranium and nuclear fuels are, or can be made, available worldwide. Consequently, the 'range' is beyond the time frames currently mentioned, also as a function of technological factors, i.e. reaching several hundred years. It is also important to note that nuclear power - ensures greater independence of volatile imported sources, - guarantees reliably low electricity prices, - has a huge potential of environmental protection, and - is a clean source of energy. (orig./GL)

  5. Development of metal uranium fuel and testing of construction materials (I-VI); Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihajlovic, A.

    1965-11-01

    This project includes the following tasks: Study of crystallisation of metal melt and beta-alpha transforms in uranium and uranium alloys; Study of the thermal treatment influence on phase transformations and texture in uranium alloys; Radiation damage of metal uranium; Project related to irradiation of metal uranium in the reactor; Development of fuel element for nuclear reactors

  6. The nuclear fuel cycle: (2) fuel element manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, J.

    1976-01-01

    Large-scale production of nuclear fuel in the United Kingdom is carried out at Springfields Works of British Nuclear Fuels Ltd., a company formed from the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority in 1971. The paper describes in some detail the Springfields Works processes for the conversion of uranium ore concentrate to uranium tetrafluoride, then conversion of the tetrafluoride to either uranium metal for cladding in Magnox to form fuel for the British Mk I gas-cooled reactors, or to uranium hexafluoride for enrichment of the fissile 235 U isotope content at the Capenhurst Works of BNFL. Details are given of the reconversion at Springfields Works of this enriched uranium hexafluoride to uranium dioxide, which is pelleted and then clad in either stainless steel or zircaloy containers to form the fuel assemblies for the British Mk II AGR or advanced gas-cooled reactors or for the water reactor fuels. (author)

  7. Design and installation of high-temperature ultrasonic measuring system and grinder for nuclear fuel containing trans-uranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serizawa, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Hironobu; Iwai, Takashi; Arai, Yasuo; Kurosawa, Makoto; Mimura, Hideaki; Abe, Jiro

    2005-07-01

    A high-temperature ultrasonic measuring system had been designed and installed in a glovebox (711-DGB) to study a mechanical property of nuclear fuel containing trans-uranium (TRU) elements. A figuration apparatus for the cylinder-type sample preparation had also been modified and installed in an established glovebox (142-D). The system consists of an ultrasonic probe, a heating furnace, cooling water-circulating system, a cooling air compressor, vacuum system, gas supplying system and control system. An A/D converter board and an pulsar/receiver board for the measurement of wave velocity were installed in a personal computer. The apparatus was modified to install into the glovebox. Some safety functions were supplied to the control system. The shape and size of the sample was revised to minimize the amount of TRU elements for the use of the measurement. The maximum sample temperature is 1500degC. The performance of the installed apparatuses and the glovebox were confirmed through a series of tests. (author)

  8. Proposal of new 235U nuclear data to improve keff biases on 235U enrichment and temperature for low enriched uranium fueled lattices moderated by light water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Haicheng; Okumura, Keisuke; Shibata, Keiichi

    2005-06-01

    The under prediction of k eff depending on 235 U enrichment in low enriched uranium fueled systems, which had been a long-standing puzzle especially for slightly enriched ones, was studied in this report. Benchmark testing was carried out with several evaluated nuclear data files, including the new uranium evaluations from preliminary ENDF/B-VII and CENDL-3.1. Another problem reviewed here was k eff underestimation vs. temperature increase, which was observed in the sightly enriched system with recent JENDL and ENDF/B uranium evaluations. Through the substitute analysis of nuclear data of 235 U and 238 U, we propose a new evaluation of 235 U data to solve both of the problems. The new evaluation was tested for various uranium fueled systems including low or highly enriched metal and solution benchmarks in the ICSBEP handbook. As a result, it was found that the combination of the new evaluation of 235 U and the 238 U data from the preliminary ENDF/B-VII gives quite good results for most of benchmark problems. (author)

  9. Nuclear fuel and energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.B.

    1979-01-01

    This book examines the uranium resource situation in relation to the future needs of the nuclear economy. Currently the United States is the world's leading producer and consumer of nuclear fuels. In the future US nuclear choices will be highly interdependent with the rest of the world as other countries begin to develop their own nuclear programs. Therefore the world's uranium resource availability has also been examined in relation to the expected growth in the world nuclear industry. Based on resource evaluation, the study develops an economic framework for analyzing and describing the behavior of the US uranium mining and milling industry. An econometric model designed to reflect the underlying structure of the physical processes of the uranium mining and milling industry has been developed. The purpose of this model is to forecast uranium prices and outputs for the period 1977 to 2000. Because uncertainty has sometimes surrounded the economic future of the uranium markets, the results of the econometric modeling should be interpreted with great care and restrictive assumptions. Another aspect of this study is to provide much needed information on the operations of government-owned enrichment plants and the practices used by the government in the determination of fuel enrichment costs. This study discusses possible future developments in enrichment supply and technologies and their implications for future enrichment costs. A review of the operations involving the uranium concentrate conversion to uranium hexafluoride and fuel fabrication is also provided. An economic analysis of these costs provides a comprehensive view of the front-end costs of the nuclear fuel cycle

  10. Uranium - a factor limiting nuclear energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnemus, J.

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear power has been back as a topic of public debate since early this year. A special subject under discussion is the extension of nuclear power plant life. Hardly had it been on the agenda, when interested parties announced that this st ep was impossible because uranium reserves were no longer sufficient. A variety of terms are being used in this discussion without their meaning being taken int o account: stocks, resources, and reserves. To clarify the situation, this artic le outlines important aspects of short and long term uranium supplies, and analy zes their meaning. Here are some of the most important issues under consideration: - For what period of time is there really enough uranium? - Is uranium becoming the limiting factor in the use of nuclear power? - Is uranium really a 'sustainable' energy resource? - Will higher prices extend the range? - What is the in fluence of the price of uranium on the cost of electricity generation? Among oth er results, it is found that comprehensive sources of low-price uranium and nucl ear fuels are, or can be made, available worldwide. Consequently, the 'range' is beyond the time frames currently mentioned, also as a function of technological factors, i.e. reaching several hundred years. It is also important to note that nuclear power - ensures greater independence of volatile imported sources, - guarantees reliably low electricity prices, - has a huge potential of environmental protection, and - is a clean source of energy. (orig.)

  11. Nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scurr, I.F.; Silver, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization maintains an ongoing assessment of the world's nuclear technology developments, as a core activity of its Strategic Plan. This publication reviews the current status of the nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle in Australia and around the world. Main issues discussed include: performances and economics of various types of nuclear reactors, uranium resources and requirements, fuel fabrication and technology, radioactive waste management. A brief account of the large international effort to demonstrate the feasibility of fusion power is also given. 11 tabs., ills

  12. Low content uranium alloys for nuclear fuels; Alliages d'uranium a faible teneur pour elements combustibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, H.; Laniesse, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    A description is given of the structure and the properties of low content alloys containing from 0.1 to 0.5 per cent by weight of Al, Fe, Cr, Si, Mo or a combination of these elements. A study of the kinetics and of the mode of transformation has made it possible to choose the most satisfactory thermal treatment. An attempt has been made to prepare alloys suitable for an economical industrial development having a small {alpha} grain structure without marked preferential orientation, with very fine and stable precipitates as well as a high creep-resistance. The physical properties and the mechanical strength of these alloys are given for temperatures of 20 to 600 deg C. These alloys proved very satisfactory when irradiated in the form of normal size fuel elements. (authors) [French] Sont decrits la structure et les proprietes d'alliages a faible teneur, contenant de 0,1 a 0,5 pour cent en poids de Al, Fe, Cr, Si, Mo ou une combinaison de ces elements. L'etude des cinetiques et du mode de transformation permet de choisir le traitement thermique le plus favorable. On a cherche a mettre, au point des alliages se pretant a une mise en oeuvre industrielle economique et presentant une structure a petits grains {alpha}, sans orientation preferentielle marquee, avec des precipites tres fins et stables ainsi qu'une bonne resistance au fluage. Les proprietes physiques et la resistance mecanique de ces alliages sont decrites entre la temperature ambiante et 600 deg C. Irradies sous forme d'elements combustibles de dimensions normales, ces alliages ont montre un bon comportement. (auteurs)

  13. Low content uranium alloys for nuclear fuels; Alliages d'uranium a faible teneur pour elements combustibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, H; Laniesse, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    A description is given of the structure and the properties of low content alloys containing from 0.1 to 0.5 per cent by weight of Al, Fe, Cr, Si, Mo or a combination of these elements. A study of the kinetics and of the mode of transformation has made it possible to choose the most satisfactory thermal treatment. An attempt has been made to prepare alloys suitable for an economical industrial development having a small {alpha} grain structure without marked preferential orientation, with very fine and stable precipitates as well as a high creep-resistance. The physical properties and the mechanical strength of these alloys are given for temperatures of 20 to 600 deg C. These alloys proved very satisfactory when irradiated in the form of normal size fuel elements. (authors) [French] Sont decrits la structure et les proprietes d'alliages a faible teneur, contenant de 0,1 a 0,5 pour cent en poids de Al, Fe, Cr, Si, Mo ou une combinaison de ces elements. L'etude des cinetiques et du mode de transformation permet de choisir le traitement thermique le plus favorable. On a cherche a mettre, au point des alliages se pretant a une mise en oeuvre industrielle economique et presentant une structure a petits grains {alpha}, sans orientation preferentielle marquee, avec des precipites tres fins et stables ainsi qu'une bonne resistance au fluage. Les proprietes physiques et la resistance mecanique de ces alliages sont decrites entre la temperature ambiante et 600 deg C. Irradies sous forme d'elements combustibles de dimensions normales, ces alliages ont montre un bon comportement. (auteurs)

  14. Nuclear fuels and development of nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaram, C.V.; Mannan, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    Safe, reliable and economic operation of nuclear fission reactors, the source of nuclear power at present, requires judicious choice, careful preparation and specialised fabrication procedures for fuels and fuel element structural materials. These aspects of nuclear fuels (uranium, plutonium and their oxides and carbides), fuel element technology and structural materials (aluminium, zircaloy, stainless steel etc.) are discussed with particular reference to research and power reactors in India, e.g. the DHRUVA research reactor at BARC, Trombay, the pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWR) at Rajasthan and Kalpakkam, and the Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) at Kalpakkam. Other reactors like the gas-cooled reactors operating in UK are also mentioned. Because of the limited uranium resources, India has opted for a three-stage nuclear power programme aimed at the ultimate utilization of her abundant thorium resources. The first phase consists of natural uranium dioxide-fuelled, heavy water-moderated and cooled PHWR. The second phase was initiated with the attainment of criticality in the FBTR at Kalpakkam. Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR) utilize the plutonium and uranium by-products of phase 1. Moreover, FBR can convert thorium into fissile 233 U. They produce more fuel than is consumed - hence, the name breeders. The fuel parameters of some of the operating or proposed fast reactors in the world are compared. FBTR is unique in the choice of mixed carbides of plutonium and uranium as fuel. Factors affecting the fuel element performance and life in various reactors e.g. hydriding of zircaloys, fuel pellet-cladding interaction etc. in PHWR and void swelling; irradiation creep and helium embrittlement of fuel element structural materials in FBR are discussed along with measures to overcome some of these problems. (author). 15 refs., 9 tabs., 23 figs

  15. Contribution to the study of nuclear fuel materials with a metallic uranium base; Contribution a l'etude des materiaux combustibles nucleaires a base d'uranium metallique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englander, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-11-15

    In a power reactor destined to supply industrially recoverable thermal energy, the most economical source of heat still consists of natural metallic uranium. However, the nuclear fuel material, most often employed in the form of rods of 20 to 40 mm diameter, is subjected to a series of stresses which lead to irreversible distortions usually incompatible with the substructure of the reactor. As a result the fuel material must possess at the outset a certain number of qualities which must be determined. Investigations have therefore been carried out, first on the technological characters peculiar to each of the three allotropic phases of pure uranium metal, and on their interactions on the stabilisation of the material which consists of either cast uranium or uranium pile-treated in the {gamma} phase. (author) [French] Dans un reacteur de puissance destine a fournir de l'energie thermique industriellement recuperable, la source de chaleur la plus economique reste constituee par de l'uranium metallique naturel. Or, le materiau combustible nucleaire, employe le plus souvent sous forme de barreaux de 20 a 40 mm de diametre, se trouve soumis a un ensemble de contraintes qui provoque des deformations irreversibles, le plus souvent incompatibles avec l'infrastructure du reacteur. Par consequent, le materiau combustible doit presenter a l'origine un certain nombre de qualites qu'il est necessaire de determiner. Aussi a-t-on d'abord etudie les caracteres technologiques propres a chacune des trois phases allotropiques de l'uranium-metal pur et leurs interactions sur la stabilisation du materiau constitue soit par de l'uranium coule, soit par de l'uranium traite en pile en phase {gamma}. (auteur)

  16. Financing the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephany, M.

    1975-01-01

    While conventional power stations usually have fossil fuel reserves for only a few weeks, nuclear power stations, because of the relatively long time required for uranium processing from ore extraction to the delivery of the fuel elements and their prolonged in-pile time, require fuel reserves for a period of several years. Although the specific fuel costs of nuclear power stations are much lower than those of conventional power stations, this results in consistently higher financial requirements. But the problems involved in financing the nuclear fuel do not only include the aspect of financing the requirements of reactor operators, but also of financing the facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle. As far as the fuel supply is concerned, the true financial requirements greatly exceed the mere purchasing costs because the costs of financing are rather high as a consequence of the long lead times. (orig./UA) [de

  17. Properties of low content uranium-molybdenum alloys which may be used as nuclear fuels; Proprietes des alliages uranium-molybdene de faibles teneurs utilisables comme materiaux combustibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, J; Decours, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Metallurgical properties are given in this report of uranium-molybdenum alloys containing 0,5 to 3 per cent of molybdenum. Since some of these alloys are used in EDF power reactors are given: briefly the operating conditions imposed on nuclear fuels: maximum temperature, temperature gradient and external pressure. In the first part are considered the structural properties of the alloys correlation with the phase transformation kinetics; a description is given of the effects of certain physico-metallurgical factors on the morphology and the crystalline structure of the materials: - solidification conditions and the heredity of the {gamma} structure, - cooling rate at the transformation points, - whether or not the intermediate {gamma} {yields} {beta} transformation is suppressed In the second part we show how a knowledge of the phase transformation processes has made it possible to define the optimum preparation conditions for these materials in the form of fuel tubes intended for the EDF reactors: casting conditions, controlled cooling treatments, weldability. In the third part we study the thermal, stability during the long duration high temperature treatments and the cycles in the two zones of the diagram {alpha} + {gamma}; {beta} + {gamma} the effects of the morphology (in particular the two types of {alpha} pseudo-grains observed) and of the cooling rate during the transformation point transitions are described. In the fourth part are discussed the mechanical properties: resistance to a tractive force, resistance to creep, resilience. These properties can also be affected by the {gamma} structure heredity and by the cooling rate to which the alloy has been subjected. In conclusion we discuss the reasons which led to the choice of some of these alloys for the first EDF reactors in particular the advantages of their high creep resistance between 450 and 600 deg C for use in the form of tubes subjected to an external pressure. (authors) [French] Dans ce rapport

  18. Uranium Determination in Samples from Decommissioning of Nuclear facilities Related to the First Stage of Nuclear Fuel Cycle; Determinacion de Uranio en Muestras Procedentes del Desmantelamiento de Instalaciones de la Primera Parte del Cielo del Combustible Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, A; Correa, E; Navarro, N; Sancho, C [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain); Angeles, A

    2000-07-01

    An adequate workplace monitoring must be carried out during the decommissioning activities, to ensure the protection of workers involved in these tasks. In addition, a large amount of waste materials are generated during the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Clearance levels are established by regulatory authorities and are normally quite low. The determination of those activity concentration levels become more difficult when it is necessary to quantify alpha emitters such as uranium, especially when complex matrices are involved. Several methods for uranium determination in samples obtained during the decommissioning of a facility related to the first stage of the nuclear fuel cycle are presented in this work. Measurements were carried out by laboratory techniques. In situ gamma spectrometry was also used to perform measurements on site. A comparison among the different techniques was also done by analysing the results obtained in some practical applications. (Author)

  19. Assuaging Nuclear Energy Risks: The Angarsk International Uranium Enrichment Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Astasia

    2011-01-01

    The recent nuclear renaissance has motivated many countries, especially developing nations, to plan and build nuclear power reactors. However, domestic low enriched uranium demands may trigger nations to construct indigenous enrichment facilities, which could be redirected to fabricate high enriched uranium for nuclear weapons. The potential advantages of establishing multinational uranium enrichment sites are numerous including increased low enrichment uranium access with decreased nuclear proliferation risks. While multinational nuclear initiatives have been discussed, Russia is the first nation to actualize this concept with their Angarsk International Uranium Enrichment Center (IUEC). This paper provides an overview of the historical and modern context of the multinational nuclear fuel cycle as well as the evolution of Russia's IUEC, which exemplifies how international fuel cycle cooperation is an alternative to domestic facilities.

  20. Sufficiency of the Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pevec, D.; Knapp, V.; Matijevic, M.

    2008-01-01

    Estimation of the nuclear fuel sufficiency is required for rational decision making on long-term energy strategy. In the past an argument often invoked against nuclear energy was that uranium resources are inadequate. At present, when climate change associated with CO 2 emission is a major concern, one novel strong argument for nuclear energy is that it can produce large amounts of energy without the CO 2 emission. Increased interest in nuclear energy is evident, and a new look into uranium resources is relevant. We examined three different scenarios of nuclear capacity growth. The low growth of 0.4 percent per year in nuclear capacity is assumed for the first scenario. The moderate growth of 1.5 percent per year in nuclear capacity preserving the present share in total energy production is assumed for the second scenario. We estimated draining out time periods for conventional resources of uranium using once through fuel cycle for the both scenarios. For the first and the second scenario we obtained the draining out time periods for conventional uranium resources of 154 years and 96 years, respectively. These results are, as expected, in agreement with usual evaluations. However, if nuclear energy is to make a major impact on CO 2 emission it should contribute much more in the total energy production than at present level of 6 percent. We therefore defined the third scenario which would increase nuclear share in the total energy production from 6 percent in year 2020 to 30 percent by year 2060 while the total world energy production would grow by 1.5 percent per year. We also looked into the uranium requirement for this scenario, determining the time window for introduction of uranium or thorium reprocessing and for better use of uranium than what is the case in the once through fuel cycle. The once through cycle would be in this scenario sustainable up to about year 2060 providing most of the expected but undiscovered conventional uranium resources were turned

  1. Measurement of enriched uranium and uranium-aluminum fuel materials with the AWCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krick, M.S.; Menlove, H.O.; Zick, J.; Ikonomou, P.

    1985-05-01

    The active well coincidence counter (AWCC) was calibrated at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL) for the assay of 93%-enriched fuel materials in three categories: (1) uranium-aluminum billets, (2) uranium-aluminum fuel elements, and (3) uranium metal pieces. The AWCC was a standard instrument supplied to the International Atomic Energy Agency under the International Safeguards Project Office Task A.51. Excellent agreement was obtained between the CRNL measurements and previous Los Alamos National Laboratory measurements on similar mockup fuel material. Calibration curves were obtained for each sample category. 2 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs

  2. Metallic uranium as fuel for fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura Neto, C. de

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a first overview of the use of metallic uranium and its alloys as an option for fuel for rapid reactors. Aspects are discussed concerning uranium alloys which present high solubility in the gamma phase. (author)

  3. Fuel and nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prunier, C.

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear fuel is studied in detail, the best choice and why in relation with the type of reactor, the properties of the fuel cans, the choice of fuel materials. An important part is granted to the fuel assembly of PWR type reactor and the performances of nuclear fuels are tackled. The different subjects for research and development are discussed and this article ends with the particular situation of mixed oxide fuels ( materials, behavior, efficiency). (N.C.)

  4. Uranium Fuel Plant. Applicants environmental report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-05-01

    The Uranium Fuel Plant, located at the Cimarron Facility, was constructed in 1964 with operations commencing in 1965 in accordance with License No. SNM-928, Docket No. 70-925. The plant has been in continuous operation since the issuance of the initial license and currently possesses contracts extending through 1978, for the production of nuclear fuels. The Uranium Plant is operated in conjunction with the Plutonium Facility, each sharing common utilities and sanitary wastes disposal systems. The operation has had little or no detrimental ecological impact on the area. For the operation of the Uranium Fuel Fabrication Plant, initial equipment provided for the production of UO 2 , UF 4 , uranium metal and recovery of scrap materials. In 1968, the plant was expanded by increasing the UO 2 and pellet facilities by the installation of another complete production line for the production of fuel pellets. In 1969, fabrication facilities were added for the production of fuel elements. Equipment initially installed for the recovery of fully enriched scrap has not been used since the last work was done in 1970. Economically, the plant has benefited the Logan County area, with approximately 104 new jobs with an annual payroll of approximately $1.3 million. In addition, $142,000 is annually paid in taxes to state, local and federal governments, and local purchases amount to approximately $1.3 million. This was all in land that was previously used for pasture land, with a maximum value of approximately 37,000 dollars. Environmental effects of plant operation have been minimal. A monitoring and measurement program is maintained in order to ensure that the ecology of the immediate area is not affected by plant operations

  5. Uranium dioxide Caramel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J.P.

    The work performed in France on Caramel fuels for research reactors reflects the reality of a program based on non proliferation criteria, as they have already appeared several years ago. This work actually includes the following different aspects: identification of the non proliferation criterion defining this action; determination of the economical and technical goals to be reached; realization of research and development studies finalized in a full scale demonstration; transposition to an industrial and commercial level

  6. World nuclear fuel market. Eighteenth annual meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The papers presented at the eighteenth World Nuclear Fuels Market meeting are cataloged separately. This volume includes information on the following areas of interest: world uranium enrichment capacity and enriched uranium inventories; the impact of new enrichment technologies; predictions of future market trends; non-proliferation aspects of nuclear trade; and a debate as to whether uranium can be successfully traded on a commodities exchange

  7. Solvent extraction in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eccles, H.; Naylor, A.

    1987-01-01

    Solvent extraction techniques have been used in the uranium nuclear fuel cycle in three main areas; concentration of uranium from ore leach liquor, purification of ore concentrates and fuel reprocessing. Solvent extraction has been extended to the removal of transuranic elements from active waste liquor, the recovery of uranium from natural sources and the recovery of noble metals from active waste liquor. Schemes are presented for solvent extraction of uranium using the Amex or Dapex process; spent fuel reprocessing and the Purex process. Recent and future developments of the techniques are outlined. (UK)

  8. Nuclear reactors and fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Center (CCN) of IPEN produces nuclear fuel for the continuous operation of the IEA-R1 research reactor of IPEN. The serial production started in 1988, when the first nuclear fuel element was delivered for IEA-R1. In 2011, CCN proudly presents the 100{sup th} nuclear fuel element produced. Besides routine production, development of new technologies is also a permanent concern at CCN. In 2005, U{sub 3}O{sub 8} were replaced by U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-based fuels, and the research of U Mo is currently under investigation. Additionally, the Brazilian Multipurpose Research Reactor (RMB), whose project will rely on the CCN for supplying fuel and uranium targets. Evolving from an annual production from 10 to 70 nuclear fuel elements, plus a thousand uranium targets, is a huge and challenging task. To accomplish it, a new and modern Nuclear Fuel Factory is being concluded, and it will provide not only structure for scaling up, but also a safer and greener production. The Nuclear Engineering Center has shown, along several years, expertise in the field of nuclear, energy systems and correlated areas. Due to the experience obtained during decades in research and technological development at Brazilian Nuclear Program, personnel has been trained and started to actively participate in design of the main system that will compose the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) which will make Brazil self-sufficient in production of radiopharmaceuticals. The institution has participated in the monitoring and technical support concerning the safety, licensing and modernization of the research reactors IPEN/MB-01 and IEA-R1. Along the last two decades, numerous specialized services of engineering for the Brazilian nuclear power plants Angra 1 and Angra 2 have been carried out. The contribution in service, research, training, and teaching in addition to the development of many related technologies applied to nuclear engineering and correlated areas enable the institution to

  9. Nuclear reactors and fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Center (CCN) of IPEN produces nuclear fuel for the continuous operation of the IEA-R1 research reactor of IPEN. The serial production started in 1988, when the first nuclear fuel element was delivered for IEA-R1. In 2011, CCN proudly presents the 100 th nuclear fuel element produced. Besides routine production, development of new technologies is also a permanent concern at CCN. In 2005, U 3 O 8 were replaced by U 3 Si 2 -based fuels, and the research of U Mo is currently under investigation. Additionally, the Brazilian Multipurpose Research Reactor (RMB), whose project will rely on the CCN for supplying fuel and uranium targets. Evolving from an annual production from 10 to 70 nuclear fuel elements, plus a thousand uranium targets, is a huge and challenging task. To accomplish it, a new and modern Nuclear Fuel Factory is being concluded, and it will provide not only structure for scaling up, but also a safer and greener production. The Nuclear Engineering Center has shown, along several years, expertise in the field of nuclear, energy systems and correlated areas. Due to the experience obtained during decades in research and technological development at Brazilian Nuclear Program, personnel has been trained and started to actively participate in design of the main system that will compose the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) which will make Brazil self-sufficient in production of radiopharmaceuticals. The institution has participated in the monitoring and technical support concerning the safety, licensing and modernization of the research reactors IPEN/MB-01 and IEA-R1. Along the last two decades, numerous specialized services of engineering for the Brazilian nuclear power plants Angra 1 and Angra 2 have been carried out. The contribution in service, research, training, and teaching in addition to the development of many related technologies applied to nuclear engineering and correlated areas enable the institution to fulfill its mission that is

  10. Nuclear-fuel-cycle education: Module 2. Exploration, reserve estimation, mining, milling, conversion, and properties of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookins, D.G.

    1981-12-01

    In this module geological and geochemical data pertinent to locating, mining, and milling of uranium are examined. Chapters are devoted to: uranium source characteristics; uranium ore exploration methods; uranium reserve estimation for sandstone deposits; mining; milling; conversion processes for uranium; and properties of uranium, thorium, plutonium and their oxides and carbides

  11. PHWR fuel fabrication with imported uranium - procedures and processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R.V.R.L.V.; Rameswara Rao, A.; Hemantha Rao, G.V.S.; Jayaraj, R.N.

    2010-01-01

    Following the 123 agreement and subsequent agreements with IAEA & NSG, Government of India has entered into bilateral agreements with different countries for nuclear trade. Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), Government of India, has entered into contract with few countries for supply of uranium material for use in the safeguarded PHWRs. Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC), an industrial unit of DAE, established in the early seventies, is engaged in the production of Nuclear Fuel and Zircaloy items required for Nuclear Power Reactors operating in the country. NFC has placed one of its fuel fabrication facilities (NFC, Block-A, INE-) under safeguards. DAE has opted to procure uranium material in the form of ore concentrate and fuel pellets. Uranium ore concentrate was procured as per the ASTM specifications. Since no international standards are available for PHWR fuel pellets, Specifications have to be finalized based on the present fabrication and operating experience. The process steps have to be modified and fine tuned for handling the imported uranium material especially for ore concentrate. Different transportation methods are to be employed for transportation of uranium material to the facility. Cost of the uranium material imported and the recoveries at various stages of fuel fabrication have impact on the fuel pricing and in turn the unit energy costs. Similarly the operating procedures have to be modified for safeguards inspections by IAEA. NFC has successfully manufactured and supplied fuel bundles for the three 220 MWe safeguarded PHWRs. The paper describes various issues encountered while manufacturing fuel bundles with different types of nuclear material. (author)

  12. Nuclear fuel control in fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Yoshitatsu

    1976-01-01

    The basic control problems of measuring uranium and of the environment inside and outside nuclear fuel fabrication plants are reviewed, excluding criticality prevention in case of submergence. The occurrence of loss scraps in fabrication and scrap-recycling, the measuring error, the uranium going cut of the system, the confirmation of the presence of lost uranium and the requirement of the measurement control for safeguard make the measurement control very complicated. The establishment of MBA (material balance area) and ICA (item control area) can make clearer the control of inventories, the control of loss scraps and the control of measuring points. Besides the above basic points, the following points are to be taken into account: 1) the method of confirmation of inventories, 2) the introduction of reliable NDT instruments for the rapid check system for enrichment and amount of uranium, 3) the introduction of real time system, and 4) the clarification of MUF analysis and its application to the reliability check of measurement control system. The environment control includes the controls of the uranium concentration in factory atmosphere, the surface contamination, the space dose rate, the uranium concentration in air and water discharged from factories, and the uranium in liquid wastes. The future problems are the practical restudy of measurement control under NPT, the definite plan of burglary protection and the realization of the disposal of solid wastes. (Iwakiri, K.)

  13. The uranium-plutonium breeder reactor fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, A.; Allardice, R.H.

    1979-01-01

    All power-producing systems have an associated fuel cycle covering the history of the fuel from its source to its eventual sink. Most, if not all, of the processes of extraction, preparation, generation, reprocessing, waste treatment and transportation are involved. With thermal nuclear reactors more than one fuel cycle is possible, however it is probable that the uranium-plutonium fuel cycle will become predominant; in this cycle the fuel is mined, usually enriched, fabricated, used and then reprocessed. The useful components of the fuel, the uranium and the plutonium, are then available for further use, the waste products are treated and disposed of safely. This particular thermal reactor fuel cycle is essential if the fast breeder reactor (FBR) using plutonium as its major fuel is to be used in a power-producing system, because it provides the necessary initial plutonium to get the system started. In this paper the authors only consider the FBR using plutonium as its major fuel, at present it is the type envisaged in all, current national plans for FBR power systems. The corresponding fuel cycle, the uranium-plutonium breeder reactor fuel cycle, is basically the same as the thermal reactor fuel cycle - the fuel is used and then reprocessed to separate the useful components from the waste products, the useful uranium and plutonium are used again and the waste disposed of safely. However the details of the cycle are significantly different from those of the thermal reactor cycle. (Auth.)

  14. Nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Hiroshi.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To suppress iodine release thereby prevent stress corrosion cracks in fuel cans by dispersing ferrous oxide at the outer periphery of sintered uranium dioxide pellets filled and sealed within zirconium alloy fuel cans of fuel elements. Constitution: Sintered uranium dioxide pellets to be filled and sealed within a zirconium alloy fuel can are prepared either by mixing ferric oxide powder in uranium dioxide powder, sintering and then reducing at low temperature or by mixing iron powder in uranium dioxide powder, sintering and then oxidizing at low temperature. In this way, ferrous oxide is dispersed on the outer periphery of the sintered uranium dioxide pellets to convert corrosive fission products iodine into iron iodide, whereby the iodine release is suppressed and the stress corrosion cracks can be prevented in the fuel can. (Moriyama, K.)

  15. Modification in fuel processing of Mitsubishi Nuclear Fuel's Tokai Works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Results of the study by the Committee for Examination of Fuel Safety, reported to the AEC of Japan, are presented, concerning safety of the modifications of Tokai Works, Mitsubishi Nuclear Fuel Co., Ltd. Safety has been confirmed thereof. The modifications covered are the following: storage facility of nuclear fuel in increase, analytical facility in transfer, fuel assemblage equipment in addition, incineration facility of combustible solid wastes in installation, experimental facility of uranium recovery in installation, and warehouse in installation. (Mori, K.)

  16. The current and perspective problems of nuclear power fuel supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solonin, M.I.; Konovalov, I.I.

    2003-01-01

    Conception of fuel supply is comprised of supplying of natural uranium resources, nuclear fuel production including engineering stages of refining, enriching, production, use of secondary uranium and plutonium raw materials. The structure of nuclear fuel cycle is considered. Enterprises of the Russian nuclear fuel cycle, world recourses and fundamental producers of uranium are performed, demands in natural uranium of Russian and frontier NPP to 2010 are demonstrated. Dynamics of the development of separate methods - diffusion and centrifugal is presented as well as parameters of fuel supply at Russian and frontier NPP are compared [ru

  17. Impact of fuel fabrication and fuel management technologies on uranium management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnsberger, P.L.; Stucker, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    Uranium utilization in commercial pressurized water reactors is a complex function of original NSSS design, utility energy requirements, fuel assembly design, fuel fabrication materials and fuel fabrication materials and fuel management optimization. Fuel design and fabrication technologies have reacted to the resulting market forcing functions with a combination of design and material changes. The technologies employed have included ever-increasing fuel discharge burnup, non-parasitic structural materials, burnable absorbers, and fissile material core zoning schemes (both in the axial and radial direction). The result of these technological advances has improved uranium utilization by roughly sixty percent from the infancy days of nuclear power to present fuel management. Fuel management optimization technologies have also been developed in recent years which provide fuel utilization improvements due to core loading pattern optimization. This paper describes the development and impact of technology advances upon uranium utilization in modern pressurized water reactors. 10 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs

  18. Determination of uranium traces in fuel cans of nuclear reactors; Determinacion de trazas de uranio en vainas de combustible de reactores nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta L, C.E.; Benavides M, A.M.; Sanchez P, L.A.; Nava S, G.F. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    The objective of this work is to quantify the uranium content that as impurity can be found in zircon and zircaloy alloys which are used in the construction of fuel cans. The determination of this serves as a quality control measure due to that the increment of uranium content in alloy, diminishing the corrosion resistance. The fluorimetric method was used to do this determination. It is a very sensitive, reliable, rapid method also high reproducibility and repeatability as well as low detection limits (0.25 mg/kg). (Author)

  19. Optimization of enrichment distributions in nuclear fuel assemblies loaded with Uranium and Plutonium via a modified linear programming technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuevas Vivas, Gabriel Francisco

    1999-12-01

    A methodology to optimize enrichment distributions in Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel assemblies is developed and tested. The optimization technique employed is the linear programming revised simplex method, and the fuel assembly's performance is evaluated with a neutron transport code that is also utilized in the calculation of sensitivity coefficients. The enrichment distribution optimization procedure begins from a single-value (flat) enrichment distribution until a target, maximum local power peaking factor, is achieved. The optimum rod enrichment distribution, with 1.00 for the maximum local power peaking factor and with each rod having its own enrichment, is calculated at an intermediate stage of the analysis. Later, the best locations and values for a reduced number of rod enrichments is obtained as a function of a target maximum local power peaking factor by applying sensitivity to change techniques. Finally, a shuffling process that assigns individual rod enrichments among the enrichment groups is performed. The relative rod power distribution is then slightly modified and the rod grouping redefined until the optimum configuration is attained. To verify the accuracy of the relative rod power distribution, a full computation with the neutron transport code using the optimum enrichment distribution is carried out. The results are compared and tested for assembly designs loaded with fresh Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) and plutonium Mixed Oxide (MOX) isotopics for both reactor-grade and weapons-grade plutonium were utilized to demonstrate the wide range of applicability of the optimization technique. The feature of the assembly designs used for evaluation purposes included burnable absorbers and internal water regions, and were prepared to resemble the configurations of modern assemblies utilized in commercial Boiling Water Reactor (BWRs) and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). In some cases, a net improvement in the relative rod power distribution or in the

  20. Regulation at nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This bulletin contains information about activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD). In this leaflet the role of the UJD in regulation at nuclear fuel cycle is presented. The Nuclear Fuel Cycle (NFC) is a complex of activities linked with production of nuclear fuel for nuclear reactors as a source of energy used for production of electricity and heat, and of activities linked with spent nuclear fuel handling. Activities linked with nuclear fuel (NF) production, known as the Front-End of Nuclear Fuel Cycle, include (production of nuclear fuel from uranium as the most frequently used element). After discharging spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from nuclear reactor the activities follow linked with its storage, reprocessing and disposal known as the Back-End of Nuclear Fuel Cycle. Individual activity, which penetrates throughout the NFC, is transport of nuclear materials various forms during NF production and transport of NF and SNF. Nuclear reactors are installed in the Slovak Republic only in commercial nuclear power plants and the NFC is of the open type is imported from abroad and SNF is long-term supposed without reprocessing. The main mission of the area of NFC is supervision over: - assurance of nuclear safety throughout all NFC activities; - observance of provisions of the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons during nuclear material handling; with an aim to prevent leakage of radioactive substances into environment (including deliberated danage of NFC sensitive facilities and misuse of nuclear materials to production of nuclear weapons. The UJD carries out this mission through: - assessment of safety documentation submitted by operators of nuclear installations at which nuclear material, NF and SNF is handled; - inspections concentrated on assurance of compliance of real conditions in NFC, i.e. storage and transport of NF and SNF; storage, transport and disposal of wastes from processing of SNF; with assumptions of the safety

  1. The use of medium enriched uranium fuel for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The evaluation described in the present paper concerns the use of medium enriched uranium fuel for our research reactors. The underlying assumptions set up for the evaluation are as follows: (1) At first, the use of alternative fuel should not affect, even to a small extent, research and development programs in nuclear energy utilization, which were described in the previous paper. Hence the use of lower enrichment fuel should not cause any reduction in reactor performances. (2) The fuel cycle cost for operating research reactors with alternative fuel, excepting R and D cost for such fuel, should not increase beyond an acceptable limit. (3) The use of alternative fuel should be satisfactory with respect to non-proliferation purposes, to the almost same degree as the use of 20% enriched uranium fuel

  2. Fuel powder production from ductile uranium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, C.R.; Meyer, M.K.

    1998-01-01

    Metallic uranium alloys are candidate materials for use as the fuel phase in very-high-density LEU dispersion fuels. These ductile alloys cannot be converted to powder form by the processes routinely used for oxides or intermetallics. Three methods of powder production from uranium alloys have been investigated within the US-RERTR program. These processes are grinding, cryogenic milling, and hydride-dehydride. In addition, a gas atomization process was investigated using gold as a surrogate for uranium. (author)

  3. The low enriched uranium fuel cycle in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archinoff, G.H.

    1979-02-01

    Six fuel-cycle strategies for use in CANDU reactors are examined in terms of their uranium-conserving properties and their ease of commercialization for three assumed growth rates of installed nuclear capacity in Ontario. The fuel cycle strategies considered assume the continued use of the natural uranium cycle up to the mid-1990's. At that time, the low-enriched uranium (LEU) cycle is gradually introduced into the existing power generation grid. In the mid-2020's one of four advanced cycles is introduced. The advanced cycles considered are: mixed oxide, intermediate burn-up thorium (Pu topping), intermediate burn-up thorium (U topping), and LMFBR. For comparison purposes an all natural uranium strategy and a natural uranium-LEU strategy (with no advanced cycle) are also included. None of the strategies emerges as a clear, overall best choice. (LL)

  4. Operational experience with the first eighteen slightly enriched uranium fuel assemblies in the Atucha-1 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higa, M.; Perez, R.; Pineyro, J.; Sidelnik, J.; Fink, J.; Casario, J.A.; Alvarez, L.

    1997-01-01

    Atucha I is a 357 Mwe nuclear station, moderated and cooled with heavy water, pressure vessel type of German design, located in Argentina. Fuel assemblies (FA) are 36 active natural UO2 rod clusters, 5.3 meters long and fuel is on power. Average FA exit burnup is 6 MWd/kg U. The reactor core contains 252 FA. To reduce the fuel costs about 6 MU$S/yr a program of utilization of SEU (0.85 %w U235) fuel was started at the beginning of 1995 with the introduction of 12 FA in the first step. The exit burnup of FA is approx. 10 MWd/kgU. It is planned to increase gradually the number of them up to having a full core with SEU fuel with an expected FA average exit burnup of 11 MWd/kgU. The SEU program has also the advantage of a strong reduction of spent fuel volume, and a moderate reduction of fuelling machine use. This paper presents the satisfactory operation experience with the introduction of the first 12 SEU fuel assemblies and the planned activities for the future. The fresh SEU fuel assemblies were introduced in six fuel channels located in an intermediate zone located 136 cm from the center of the reactor and selected because they have higher margins to the channel powers limits to accommodate the initial 15 to 20 % relative channel power increase. To verify the design and fuel management calculations, comparisons have been made of the calculated and measured values of the variation of channel ΔT, regulating rods insertion and flux reading in in-core detectors near to the refueled channel. The agreement was good and in most of the cases within the measurement errors. Cell calculations were made with WIMS-D4, and reactor calculations with PUMA. a fuel management 3D diffusion program developed in Argentina. With SEU fuel with a greater burnup in the central high power core region, new operating procedures were developed to prevent PCI failures in fuel power ramps that arise during operation. Some fuel rod and structural assembly design changes were introduced on the

  5. Nuclear fuel management in JMTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naka, Michihiro; Miyazawa, Masataka; Sato, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Fusao; Ito, Haruhiko

    1999-01-01

    The Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) is the largest scale materials (author)ted the fission gas release compared with the steady state opkW/l in Japan. JMTR as a multi-purpose reactor has been contributing to research and development on nuclear field with a wide variety of irradiation for performing engineering tests and safety research on fuel and component for light water reactor as well as fast breeder reactor, high temperature gas-cooled reactor etc., for research and development on blanket material for fusion reactor, for fundamental research, and for radio-isotope (RI) production. The driver nuclear fuel used in JMTR is aluminum based MTR type fuel. According to the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program, the JMTR fuel elements had been converted from 93% high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to 45% medium enriched uranium (MEU) fuel in 1986, and then to 20% low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel in 1994. The cumulative operation cycles until March 1999 reached to 127 cycles since the first criticality in 1968. JMTR has used 1,628 HEU, 688 MEU and 308 LEU fuel elements for these operation cycles. After these spent fuel elements were cooled in the JMTR water canal more than one year after discharged from the JMTR core, they had been transported to reprocessing plants in Europe, and then to plants in USA in order to extract the uranium remaining in the spent fuel. The JMTR spent fuel transportation for reprocessing had been continued until the end of 1988. However, USA had ceased spent fuel reprocessing in 1989, while USDOE committed to prepare an environmental review of the impacts of accepting spent fuels from foreign research reactors. After that, USDOE decided to implement a new acceptance policy in 1996, the spent fuel transportation from JMTR to Savannah River Site was commenced in 1997. It was the first transportation not only in Japan but in Asia also. Until resuming the transportation, the spent fuel elements stored in JMTR

  6. Analytical method development and validation for quantification of uranium in compounds of the nuclear fuel cycle by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a low cost, simple and new methodology for direct quantification of uranium in compounds of the nuclear fuel cycle, based on Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy using KBr pressed discs technique. Uranium in different matrices were used to development and validation: UO 2 (NO 3 )2.2TBP complex (TBP uranyl nitrate complex) in organic phase and uranyl nitrate (UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 ) in aqueous phase. The parameters used in the validation process were: linearity, selectivity, accuracy, limits of detection (LD) and quantitation (LQ), precision (repeatability and intermediate precision) and robustness. The method for uranium in organic phase (UO 2 (NO 3 )2.2TBP complex in hexane/embedded in KBr) was linear (r = 0.9980) over the range of 0.20% 2.85% U/ KBr disc, LD 0.02% and LQ 0.03%, accurate (recoveries were over 101.0%), robust and precise (RSD < 1.6%). The method for uranium aqueous phase (UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 /embedded in KBr) was linear (r = 0.9900) over the range of 0.14% 1.29% U/KBr disc, LD 0.01% and LQ 0.02%, accurate (recoveries were over 99.4%), robust and precise (RSD < 1.6%). Some process samples were analyzed in FTIR and compared with gravimetric and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses showing similar results in all three methods. The statistical tests (t-Student and Fischer) showed that the techniques are equivalent. The validated method can be successfully employed for routine quality control analysis for nuclear compounds. (author)

  7. Uranium and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Basic principles and definitions of reactor technology, biological radiation effects in man, and radioactive wastes are outlined. An argument is presented against Australia exploiting its uranium resources. (R.L.)

  8. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poty, B.; Cuney, M.; Bruneton, P.; Virlogeux, D.; Capus, G.

    2010-01-01

    With the worldwide revival of nuclear energy comes the question of uranium reserves. For more than 20 years, nuclear energy has been neglected and uranium prospecting has been practically abandoned. Therefore, present day production covers only 70% of needs and stocks are decreasing. Production is to double by 2030 which represents a huge industrial challenge. The FBR-type reactors technology, which allows to consume the whole uranium content of the fuel, is developing in several countries and will ensure the long-term development of nuclear fission. However, the implementation of these reactors (the generation 4) will be progressive during the second half of the 21. century. For this reason an active search for uranium ores will be necessary during the whole 21. century to ensure the fueling of light water reactors which are huge uranium consumers. This dossier covers all the aspects of natural uranium production: mineralogy, geochemistry, types of deposits, world distribution of deposits with a particular attention given to French deposits, the exploitation of which is abandoned today. Finally, exploitation, ore processing and the economical aspects are presented. Contents: 1 - the uranium element and its minerals: from uranium discovery to its industrial utilization, the main uranium minerals (minerals with tetravalent uranium, minerals with hexavalent uranium); 2 - uranium in the Earth's crust and its geochemical properties: distribution (in sedimentary rocks, in magmatic rocks, in metamorphic rocks, in soils and vegetation), geochemistry (uranium solubility and valence in magmas, uranium speciation in aqueous solution, solubility of the main uranium minerals in aqueous solution, uranium mobilization and precipitation); 3 - geology of the main types of uranium deposits: economical criteria for a deposit, structural diversity of deposits, classification, world distribution of deposits, distribution of deposits with time, superficial deposits, uranium

  9. Method of manufacturing nuclear fuel pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguma, Masaomi; Masuda, Hiroshi; Hirai, Mutsumi; Tanabe, Isami; Yuda, Ryoichi.

    1989-01-01

    In a method of manufacturing nuclear fuel pellets by compression molding an oxide powder of nuclear fuel material followed by sintering, a metal nuclear material is mixed with an oxide powder of the nuclear fuel material. As the metal nuclear fuel material, whisker or wire-like fine wire or granules of metal uranium can be used effectively. As a result, a fuel pellet in which the metal nuclear fuel is disposed in a network-like manner can be obtained. The pellet shows a great effect of preventing thermal stress destruction of pellets upon increase of fuel rod power as compared with conventional pellets. Further, the metal nuclear fuel material acts as an oxygen getter to suppress the increase of O/M ratio of the pellets. Further, it is possible to reduce the swelling of pellet at high burn-up degree. (T.M.)

  10. Slightly enriched uranium fuel for a PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notari, C.; Marajofsky, A.

    1997-01-01

    An improved fuel element design for a PHWR using slightly enriched uranium fuel is presented. It maintains the general geometric disposition of the currently used in the argentine NPP's reactors, replacing the outer ring of rods by rods containing annular pellets. Power density reduction is achieved with modest burnup losses and the void volume in the pellets can be used to balance these two opposite effects. The results show that with this new design, the fuel can be operated at higher powers without violating thermohydraulic limits and this means an improvement in fuel management flexibility, particularly in the transition from natural uranium to slightly enriched uranium cycle. (author)

  11. Opening Address [URAM-2009: 3. International Symposium on Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Exploration, Mining, Production, Supply and Demand, Economics and Environmental Issues, Vienna (Austria), 22-26 June 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, Y. A. [Department of Nuclear Energy, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-05-15

    The objective of the IAEA’s programme on nuclear power and related nuclear fuel cycle activities is to promote the development of nuclear power and fuel cycle technologies that are economically viable, safe, environmentally friendly, proliferation–resistant and sustainable. Natural uranium is one of the basic raw materials for nuclear fuel. And so with this in mind we have come together here to participate in the 2009 International Symposium on Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle, URAM- 2009. This is the latest in a series of symposia devoted to issues relating to the Uranium Production Cycle (UPC) and many of you will have been at the two previous meetings in 2000 and 2005. Looking back on those meetings we should remember how the intensity and scale of activity in the uranium production cycle has changed since 2000. At that symposium we were looking at how to keep the industry going whilst cleaning up the legacies of the past, ensuring minimal environmental problems for operating mines then and into the future and working out how the long term future of the industry would look. In addition we also considered the issues of maintaining our skills base and ensuring that exploration would continue so we might be prepared for the future.

  12. Improved nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The invention is of a nuclear fuel element which comprises a central core of a body of nuclear fuel material selected from the group consisting of compounds of uranium, plutonium, thorium and mixtures thereof, and an elongated composite cladding container comprising a zirconium alloy tube containing constituents other than zirconium in an amount greater than about 5000 parts per million by weight and an undeformed metal barrier of moderate purity zirconium bonded to the inside surface of the alloy tube. The container encloses the core so as to leave a gap between the container and the core during use in a nuclear reactor. The metal barrier is of moderate purity zirconium with an impurity level on a weight basis of at least 1000ppm and less than 5000ppm. Impurity levels of specific elements are given. Variations of the invention are also specified. The composite cladding reduces chemical interaction, minimizes localized stress and strain corrosion and reduces the likelihood of a splitting failure in the zirconium alloy tube. Other benefits are claimed. (U.K.)

  13. Method of reprocessing spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiyama, Hiroaki; Inoue, Tadashi; Miyashiro, Hajime.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate the storage management for the wastes resulting from reprocessing by chemically separating transuranium elements such as actionoid elements together with uranium and plutonium. Method: Spent fuels from a nuclear reactor are separated into two groups, that is, a mixture of uranium, plutonium and transuranium elements and cesium, strontium and other nuclear fission products. Virgin uranium is mixed to adjust the mixture of uranium, plutonium and transuranium elements in the first group, which is used as the fuels for the nuclear reactor. After separating to recover useful metals such as cesium and strontium are separated from short half-decay nuclear fission products of the second group, other nuclear fission products are stored and managed. This enables to shorten the storage period and safety storage and management for the wastes. (Takahashi, M.)

  14. Nuclear fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Toyoji.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To remove failures caused from combination of fuel-cladding interactions, hydrogen absorptions, stress corrosions or the likes by setting the quantity ratio of uranium or uranium and plutonium relative to oxygen to a specific range in fuel pellets and forming a specific size of a through hole at the center of the pellets. Constitution: In a fuel rods of a structure wherein fuel pellets prepared by compacting and sintering uranium dioxide, or oxide mixture consisting of oxides of plutonium and uranium are sealed with a zirconium metal can, the ratio of uranium or uranium and plutonium to oxygen is specified as 1 : 2.01 - 1 : 2.05 in the can and a passing hole of a size in the range of 15 - 30% of the outer diameter of the fuel pellet is formed at the center of the pellet. This increases the oxygen partial pressure in the fuel rod, oxidizes and forms a protection layer on the inner surface of the can to control the hydrogen absorption and stress corrosion. Locallized stress due to fuel cladding interaction (PCMI) can also be moderated. (Horiuchi, T.)

  15. Contracting for nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuessler, C.M.

    1981-10-01

    This paper deals with uranium sales contracts, i.e. with contractual arrangements in the first steps of the fuel cycle, which cover uranium production and conversion. The various types of contract are described and, where appropriate, their underlying business philosophy and their main terms and conditions. Finally, the specific common features of such contracts are reviewed. (NEA) [fr

  16. Development of nuclear fuel cycle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuoki, Akira; Matsumoto, Takashi; Suzuki, Kazumichi; Kawamura, Fumio

    1995-01-01

    In the long term plan for atomic energy that the Atomic Energy Commission decided the other day, the necessity of the technical development for establishing full scale fuel cycle for future was emphasized. Hitachi Ltd. has engaged in technical development and facility construction in the fields of uranium enrichment, MOX fuel fabrication, spent fuel reprocessing and so on. In uranium enrichment, it took part in the development of centrifuge process centering around Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC), and took its share in the construction of the Rokkasho uranium enrichment plant of Japan Nuclear Fuel Service Co., Ltd. Also it cooperates with Laser Enrichment Technology Research Association. In Mox fuel fabrication, it took part in the construction of the facilities for Monju plutonium fuel production of PNC, for pellet production, fabrication and assembling processes. In spent fuel reprocessing, it cooperated with the technical development of maintenance and repair of Tokai reprocessing plant of PNC, and the construction of spent fuel stores in Rokkasho reprocessing plant is advanced. The centrifuge process and the atomic laser process of uranium enrichment are explained. The high reliability of spent fuel reprocessing plants and the advancement of spent fuel reprocessing process are reported. Hitachi Ltd. Intends to exert efforts for the technical development to establish nuclear fuel cycle which increases the importance hereafter. (K.I.)

  17. Australia: uranium and nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crick, R.

    1991-01-01

    Australia's uranium and nuclear policies have gone through several stages of development since the commercialisation of the industry. The early stages laid the foundations and built the superstructure of Australia's uranium development, export and safeguards policies. The uranium industry and other governments have understood the nature and operation of these policies. An important aim of this paper will be to explain the design and current construction stage of policies. This needs to be done against the background of broader industry developments. Within the past twelve months (1989/90) there have been dramatic changes, both within Australia and internationally, which have affected the uranium market. Internationally, we have seen the spot price indicators for uranium fall to an all time low. Within Australia, we have seen the removal of the fixed floor price requirement for the sale of Australia uranium. This was replaced by a requirement that contract prices reflect the market. This change in policy allowed the outcome of several major long-term contract renegotiations to be approved. It also allowed Australian producers to secure several new long-term contracts, despite the overall depressed state of the market. The 'three mines' policy remains in place although only two, Ranger in Northern Territory and Olympic Dare in Southern Australia are currently operating. The biggest unknown is the extent of future uranium demand. (author)

  18. Extending the world's uranium resources through advanced CANDU fuel cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vuono, Tony; Yee, Frank; Aleyaseen, Val; Kuran, Sermet; Cottrell, Catherine

    2010-09-15

    The growing demand for nuclear power will encourage many countries to undertake initiatives to ensure a self-reliant fuel source supply. Uranium is currently the only fuel utilized in nuclear reactors. There are increasing concerns that primary uranium sources will not be enough to meet future needs. AECL has developed a fuel cycle vision that incorporates other sources of advanced fuels to be adaptable to its CANDU technology.

  19. Fuel Fabrication and Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-02

    The uranium from the enrichment plant is still in the form of UF6. UF6 is not suitable for use in a reactor due to its highly corrosive chemistry as well as its phase diagram. UF6 is converted into UO2 fuel pellets, which are in turn placed in fuel rods and assemblies. Reactor designs are variable in moderators, coolants, fuel, performance etc.The dream of energy ‘too-cheap to meter’ is no more, and now the nuclear power industry is pushing ahead with advanced reactor designs.

  20. World nuclear fuel market. Seventeenth annual meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The papers presented at the seventeenth World Nuclear Fuels Market meeting are cataloged individually. This volume includes information on the following areas of interest: historical and current aspects of the uranium and plutonium market with respect to supply and demand, pricing, spot market purchasing, and other market phenomena; impact of reprocessing and recycling uranium, plutonium, and mixed oxide fuels; role of individual countries in the market: Hungary, Germany, the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, France, and the US; the impact of public opinion and radioactive waste management on the nuclear industry, and a debate regarding long term versus short term contracting by electric utilities for uranium and enrichment services

  1. Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidd, S.

    2008-01-01

    The closed fuel cycle is the most sustainable approach for nuclear energy, as it reduces recourse to natural uranium resources and optimises waste management. The advantages and disadvantages of used nuclear fuel reprocessing have been debated since the dawn of the nuclear era. There is a range of issues involved, notably the sound management of wastes, the conservation of resources, economics, hazards of radioactive materials and potential proliferation of nuclear weapons. In recent years, the reprocessing advocates win, demonstrated by the apparent change in position of the USA under the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program. A great deal of reprocessing has been going on since the fourties, originally for military purposes, to recover plutonium for weapons. So far, some 80000 tonnes of used fuel from commercial power reactors has been reprocessed. The article indicates the reprocessing activities and plants in the United Kigdom, France, India, Russia and USA. The aspect of plutonium that raises the ire of nuclear opponents is its alleged proliferation risk. Opponents of the use of MOX fuels state that such fuels represent a proliferation risk because the plutonium in the fuel is said to be 'weapon-use-able'. The reprocessing of used fuel should not give rise to any particular public concern and offers a number of potential benefits in terms of optimising both the use of natural resources and waste management.

  2. Uranium and nuclear energy: 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The papers (25 in all) cover energy policy issues (5 papers), uranium mining safety (4 papers), uranium production (3 papers), public attitudes and waste management (4 papers), advancing enrichment technology especially laser-based techniques (4 papers) and the uranium market (5 papers). The address by Lord Marshall, chairman of the Central Electricity Generating Board, which explains why an accident like the one at Chernobyl could not happen in a British reactor is also reprinted. All are indexed separately. The first appendix lists the nuclear power plants in the world, country by country, and gives details of type, supplier and commercial operation. The second appendix lists the uranium production facilities in the world country by country giving their status, ownership and some brief comments. (U.K.)

  3. Uranium and nuclear energy: 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Since the last Symposium of the Uranium Institute in 1989 several major world events have occurred. First there has been an energy glut characterized by low and fairly stable oil prices. Secondly there have been important political developments in Eastern Europe. There are twenty-six papers included in this book; all are indexed separately. The discussions following each session are included in the book but not indexed. The keynote address considers the prospects and challenges for nuclear power. There are three papers on the factors affecting electricity demand and supply, three on the market for uranium, papers on Canadian and Australian uranium policies, five papers on recycling, four on the evolving attitudes to nuclear power especially in the United Kingdom and Japan, three papers on the economics of nuclear power, two on regulatory developments and three on future investment in nuclear power in the USSR, Hungary and Ontario. As well as a symposium summary and list of participants there are two annexes, the first a list of nuclear power plants worldwide, the second a list of uranium production facilities. (UK)

  4. Romania, producer and consumer of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iuhas, Tiberius

    1998-01-01

    A historical sketch of the activity of Romanian Rare Metals Enterprises is presented stressing the valorization of rare metals like: - radioactive metals, uranium and thorium; - dispersed rare metals, molybdenum, monazite; - heavy and refractory metals, titanium and zirconium; rare earths, lanthanides and yttrics. The beginning and developing of research in the nuclear field is in closed relation to the existence on the domestic territory of important uranium ores the mining of which begun early in 1954. The exploitation of Baita-Bihor orebody was followed by that at Ciudanovita, Natra and Dobrei ores in Caras-Severin county. Concomitantly with the ore mining, geological research was developed covering vast areas of country's surface and using advanced investigation tools suitable for increasing depths. The next step in the nuclear fuel program was made by building a uranium concentrate (as ammonium or sodium diuranate) plant. Two purification units for processing the uranium concentrate to sintered uranium dioxide powder were completed and commissioned at Feldioara in 1986. The quality of the uranium dioxide product meets the quality standards requirements for CANDU type nuclear fuel as certified in 1994. Currently, part of the fuel load of Cernavoda reactor is fuel element clusters produced by Nuclear Fuel Plant at Pitesti of sintered powder processed at Feldioara. A list of strategic objectives of the Uranium National Company is presented among which: - maintaining the uranium mining and milling activities in close relation with the fuel requirements of Cernavoda NPP; continuing geological research in promising zones, to find new uranium orebodies, easy to mill cost effectively; decreasing the environmental impact in the geological research areas, in mining and transport affected areas and in the processing plants. The fuel demand of current operation of Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 as well as of future Unit 2 after commissioning are and will be satisfied by the

  5. Transparency associated with the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The author first recalls that the French nuclear industry works within the frame defined by international treaties and laws which ensure rigor and transparency. He gives some explanations for the resorting to Russian installations and for reprocessed uranium recycling (among them: supply security for the French nuclear industry, strategy of complete use of uranium energetic potential). Then, he outlines how the French State must further improve transparency and pedagogy about radioactive waste and material management. A technical appendix is provided, describing the fuel cycle (natural uranium extraction, conversion and enrichment, fuel fabrication, irradiation, used fuel processing, reprocessed uranium recycling, plutonium recycling in MOX, waste storage), giving an overview of the international supply context (concurrence and security needs), discussing valorization perspectives for materials which are not used in the current fuel cycle, describing the various aspects of radioactive waste management for the various types of wastes (long life, low or high activity for example), describing the control performed by public authorities and organisations

  6. Linking fuel design features ampersand plant management to uranium, SWU savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This article, contributed by Scott Garrett, Manager of Planning and Uranium Operations for Siemens Power Corporation in Bellevue, Washington, explores the impact of advances in fuel design and fuel management strategies on uranium utilization in the United States. Nuclear plant operators are deriving substantial benefits from these changes, including longer fuel cycle lengths, increased burnup, and added capacity - and experiencing cost savings in both uranium and enrichment services at the same time

  7. Galvanic cell for processing of used nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.; Martinez-Rodriguez, Michael J.; Gray, Joshua R.; Olson, Luke C.

    2017-02-07

    A galvanic cell and methods of using the galvanic cell is described for the recovery of uranium from used nuclear fuel according to an electrofluorination process. The galvanic cell requires no input energy and can utilize relatively benign gaseous fluorinating agents. Uranium can be recovered from used nuclear fuel in the form of gaseous uranium compound such as uranium hexafluoride, which can then be converted to metallic uranium or UO.sub.2 and processed according to known methodology to form a useful product, e.g., fuel pellets for use in a commercial energy production system.

  8. Electrochemical fluorination for processing of used nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.; Martinez-Rodriguez, Michael J.; Gray, Joshua R.; Olson, Luke C.

    2016-07-05

    A galvanic cell and methods of using the galvanic cell is described for the recovery of uranium from used nuclear fuel according to an electrofluorination process. The galvanic cell requires no input energy and can utilize relatively benign gaseous fluorinating agents. Uranium can be recovered from used nuclear fuel in the form of gaseous uranium compound such as uranium hexafluoride, which can then be converted to metallic uranium or UO.sub.2 and processed according to known methodology to form a useful product, e.g., fuel pellets for use in a commercial energy production system.

  9. Nuclear fuels for very high temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, L.B.; Hobbins, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    The success of the development of nuclear thermal propulsion devices and thermionic space nuclear power generation systems depends on the successful utilization of nuclear fuel materials at temperatures in the range 2000 to 3500 K. Problems associated with the utilization of uranium bearing fuel materials at these very high temperatures while maintaining them in the solid state for the required operating times are addressed. The critical issues addressed include evaporation, melting, reactor neutron spectrum, high temperature chemical stability, fabrication, fission induced swelling, fission product release, high temperature creep, thermal shock resistance, and fuel density, both mass and fissile atom. Candidate fuel materials for this temperature range are based on UO 2 or uranium carbides. Evaporation suppression, such as a sealed cladding, is required for either fuel base. Nuclear performance data needed for design are sparse for all candidate fuel forms in this temperature range, especially at the higher temperatures

  10. Nuclear fuel fabrication in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondal Rao, N

    1975-01-01

    The important role of a nuclear power program in meeting the growing needs of power in India is explained. The successful installation of Tarapur Atomic Power Station and Rajasthan Atomic Power Station as well as the work at Madras Atomic Power Station are described. The development of the Atomic Fuels Division and the Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad which is mainly concerned with the fabrication of fuel elements and the reprocessing of fuels are explained. The N.F.C. essentially has the following constituent units : Zirconium Plant (ZP) comprising of Zirconium Oxide Plant, Zirconium Sponge Plant and Zirconium Fabrication Plant; Natural Uranium Oxide Plant (UOP); Ceramic Fuel Fabrication Plant (CFFP); Enriched Uranium Oxide Plant (EUOP); Enriched Fuel Fabrication Plant (EEFP) and Quality Control Laboratory for meeting the quality control requirements of all plants. The capacities of various plants at the NFC are mentioned. The work done on mixed oxide fuels and FBTR core with blanket assemblies, nickel and steel assemblies, thermal research reactor of 100 MW capacity, etc. are briefly mentioned.

  11. Nuclear fuel fabrication in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondal Rao, N.

    1975-01-01

    The important role of a nuclear power programme in meeting the growing needs of power in India is explained. The successful installation of Tarapur Atomic Power Station and Rajasthan Atomic Power Station as well as the work at Madras Atomic Power Station are described. The development of the Atomic Fuels Division and the Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad which is mainly concerned with the fabrication of fuel elements and the reprocessing of fuels are explained. The N.F.C. essentially has the following constituent units : Zirconium Plant (ZP) comprising of Zirconium Oxide Plant, Zirconium Sponge Plant and Zirconium Fabrication Plant; Natural Uranium Oxide Plant (UOP); Ceramic Fuel Fabrication Plant (CFFP); Enriched Uranium Oxide Plant (EUOP); Enriched Fuel Fabrication Plant (EEFP) and Quality Control Laboratory for meeting the quality control requirements of all plants. The capacities of various plants at the NFC are mentioned. The work done on mixed oxide fuels and FBTR core with blanket assemblies, nickel and steel assemblies, thermal research reactor of 100 MW capacity, etc. are briefly mentioned. (K.B.)

  12. Commercialization of nuclear fuel cycle business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakabe, Hideo

    1998-01-01

    Japan depends on foreign countries almost for establishing nuclear fuel cycle. Accordingly, uranium enrichment, spent fuel reprocessing and the safe treatment and disposal of radioactive waste in Japan is important for securing energy. By these means, the stable supply of enriched uranium, the rise of utilization efficiency of uranium and making nuclear power into home-produced energy can be realized. Also this contributes to the protection of earth resources and the preservation of environment. Japan Nuclear Fuel Co., Ltd. operates four business commercially in Rokkasho, Aomori Prefecture, aiming at the completion of nuclear fuel cycle by the technologies developed by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation and the introduction of technologies from foreign countries. The conditions of location of nuclear fuel cycle facilities and the course of the location in Rokkasho are described. In the site of about 740 hectares area, uranium enrichment, burying of low level radioactive waste, fuel reprocessing and high level waste control have been carried out, and three businesses except reprocessing already began the operation. The state of operation of these businesses is reported. Hereafter, efforts will be exerted to the securing of safety through trouble-free operation and cost reduction. (K.I.)

  13. The Nuclear Fuel Cycle Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Cycle Information System (NFCIS) is an international directory of civilian nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Its purpose is to identify existing and planned nuclear fuel cycle facilities throughout the world and to indicate their main parameters. It includes information on facilities for uranium ore processing, refining, conversion and enrichment, for fuel fabrication, away-from-reactor storage of spent fuel and reprocessing, and for the production of zirconium metal and Zircaloy tubing. NFCIS currently covers 271 facilities in 32 countries and includes 171 references

  14. Overview of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knief, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle is substantially more complicated than the energy production cycles of conventional fuels because of the very low abundance of uranium 235, the presence of radioactivity, the potential for producing fissile nuclides from irradiation, and the risk that fissile materials will be used for nuclear weapons. These factors add enrichment, recycling, spent fuel storage, and safeguards to the cycle, besides making the conventional steps of exploration, mining, processing, use, waste disposal, and transportation more difficult

  15. Financial aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lurf, G.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear power plant has a forward supply of several years as a consequence of the long processing time of the uranium from mining to delivery of fabricated fuel elements and of the long insertion time in the reactor. This leads to a considerable capital requirement although the specific fuel costs for nuclear fuel are considerably lower then for a conventional power plant and present only 15% of the total generating costs. (orig./RW) [de

  16. Optimization of fuel cycle strategies with constraints on uranium availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvennoinen, P.; Vira, J.; Westerberg, R.

    1982-01-01

    Optimization of nuclear reactor and fuel cycle strategies is studied under the influence of reduced availability of uranium. The analysis is separated in two distinct steps. First, the global situation is considered within given high and low projections of the installed capacity up to the year 2025. Uranium is regarded as an exhaustible resource whose production cost would increase proportionally to increasing cumulative exploitation. Based on the estimates obtained for the uranium cost, a global strategy is derived by splitting the installed capacity between light water reactor (LWR) once-through, LWR recycle, and fast breeder reactor (FBR) alternatives. In the second phase, the nuclear program of an individual utility is optimized within the constraints imposed from the global scenario. Results from the global scenarios indicate that in a reference case the uranium price would triple by the year 2000, and the price escalation would continue throughout the planning period. In a pessimistic growth scenario where the global nuclear capacity would not exceed 600 GW(electric) in 2025, the uranium price would almost double by 2000. In both global scenarios, FBRs would be introduced, in the reference case after 2000 and in the pessimistic case after 2010. In spite of the increases in the uranium prices, the levelized power production cost would increase only by 45% up to 2025 in the utility case provided that the plutonium is incinerated as a substitute fuel

  17. Natural uranium equivalent fuel. An innovative design for proven CANDU technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineiro, F.; Ho, K.; Khaial, A.; Boubcher, M.; Cottrell, C.; Kuran, S. [Candu Energy Inc., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Zhenhua, Z.; Zhiliang, M. [Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Co., Haiyan, Zhejiang (China)

    2015-09-15

    The high neutron economy, on-power refuelling capability and fuel bundle design simplicity in CANDU® reactors allow for the efficient utilization of alternative fuels. Candu Energy Inc. (Candu), in collaboration with the Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Company (TQNPC), the China North Nuclear Fuel Corporation (CNNFC), and the Nuclear Power Institute of China (NPIC), has successfully developed an advanced fuel called Natural Uranium Equivalent (NUE). This innovative design consists of a mixture of recycled and depleted uranium, which can be implemented in existing CANDU stations thereby bringing waste products back into the energy stream, increasing fuel resources diversity and reducing fuel costs. (author)

  18. Natural uranium equivalent fuel an innovative design for proven CANDU technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineiro, F.; Ho, K.; Khaial, A.; Boubcher, M.; Cottrell, C.; Kuran, S., E-mail: fabricia.pineiro@candu.com [Candu Energy Inc., Mississauga, ON (Canada); Zhenhua, Z.; Zhiliang, M. [Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Company, Haiyan, Zhejiang (China)

    2015-07-01

    The high neutron economy, on-power refuelling capability and fuel bundle design simplicity in CANDU reactors allow for the efficient utilization of alternative fuels. Candu Energy Inc. (Candu), in collaboration with the Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Company (TQNPC), the China North Nuclear Fuel Corporation (CNNFC), and the Nuclear Power Institute of China (NPIC), has successfully developed an advanced fuel called Natural Uranium Equivalent (NUE). This innovative design consists of a mixture of recycled and depleted uranium, which can be implemented in existing CANDU stations thereby bringing waste products back into the energy stream, increasing fuel resources diversity and reducing fuel costs. (author)

  19. Radiation protection training at uranium hexafluoride and fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, A.; Soong, A.L.; Bell, J.

    1985-05-01

    This report provides general information and references useful for establishing or operating radiation safety training programs in plants that manufacture nuclear fuels, or process uranium compounds that are used in the manufacture of nuclear fuels. In addition to a brief summary of the principles of effective management of radiation safety training, the report also contains an appendix that provides a comprehensive checklist of scientific, safety, and management topics, from which appropriate topics may be selected in preparing training outlines for various job categories or tasks pertaining to the uranium nuclear fuels industry. The report is designed for use by radiation safety training professionals who have the experience to utilize the report to not only select the appropriate topics, but also to tailor the specific details and depth of coverage of each training session to match both employee and management needs of a particular industrial operation. 26 refs., 3 tabs

  20. Nuclear fuel recycling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.R.; Koch, A.K.; Krawczyk, A.

    1981-01-01

    A process is provided for recycling sintered uranium dioxide fuel pellets rejected during fuel manufacture and the swarf from pellet grinding. The scrap material is prepared mechanically by crushing and milling as a high solids content slurry, using scrap sintered UO 2 pellets as the grinding medium under an inert atmosophere

  1. Highlights of 50 years of nuclear fuel development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simnad, M.T.

    1989-01-01

    The development of nuclear fuels since the discovery of nuclear fission is briefly surveyed in this paper. The fabrication of the uranium fuel for the first nuclear pile, CP-1, is described. The research and development studies and fabrication of the different types of nuclear fuels for the variety of research and power reactors are reviewed. The important factors involved to achieve low fuel-cycle costs and reliable performance in the fuel elements are discussed in the historical context. 10 refs

  2. Highlights of 50 years of nuclear fuels developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simnad, M.T.

    1989-01-01

    The development of nuclear fuels since the discovery of nuclear fission is briefly surveyed in this paper. The fabrication of the uranium fuel for the first nuclear pile, CP-1, is described. The research and development studies and fabrication of the different types of nuclear fuels for the variety of research and power reactors are reviewed. The important factors involved to achieve low fuel cycle costs and reliable performance in the fuel elements are discussed in the historical context

  3. Uranium Mining and Nuclear Facilities (Prohibitions) Act 1986 No. 194

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this Act is to protect the health and safety of the people of New South Wales and its environment. Accordingly it prohibits prospecting or mining for uranium and the construction and operation of nuclear reactors and other facilities in the nuclear fuel cycle. (NEA) [fr

  4. Nuclear fuel preheating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrea, C.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear reactor new fuel handling system which conveys new fuel from a fuel preparation room into the reactor containment boundary is described. The handling system is provided with a fuel preheating station which is adaptd to heat the new fuel to reactor refueling temperatures in such a way that the fuel is heated from the top down so that fuel element cladding failure due to thermal expansions is avoided. (U.S.)

  5. Energy Fuels Nuclear, Inc. Arizona Strip Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, T.C.

    1993-01-01

    Founded in 1975 by uranium pioneer, Robert W. Adams, Energy Fuels Nuclear, Inc. (EFNI) emerged as the largest US uranium mining company by the mid-1980s. Confronting the challenges of declining uranium market prices and the development of high-grade ore bodies in Australia and Canada, EFNI aggressively pursued exploration and development of breccia-pipe ore bodies in Northwestern Arizona. As a result, EFNI's production for the Arizona Strip of 18.9 million pounds U 3 O 8 over the period 1980 through 1991, maintained the company's status as a leading US uranium producer

  6. Extraction of Uranium Using Nitrogen Dioxide and Carbon Dioxide for Spent Fuel Reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayo Sawada; Daisuke Hirabayashi; Youichi Enokida [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Nagoya, 464-8603 (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    For the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels, a new method to extract actinides from spent fuel using highly compressed gases, nitrogen dioxide and carbon dioxide was proposed. Uranium extraction from broken pieces, whose average grain size was 5 mm, of uranium dioxide pellet with nitrogen dioxide and carbon dioxide was demonstrated in the present study. (authors)

  7. Challenges in the front end of the uranium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, Ken

    2010-01-01

    The long-term fundamentals for nuclear remain strong. Climate change and clean air concerns remain high on the agenda of national energy policies, as both developing and developed economies pursue a strategy of energy diversity and energy security. A global industry of 435 reactors is expected to grow to more than 639 reactors within the next 20 years with the potential for even more rapid expansion. This nuclear generating capacity relies on an international fuel cycle that can ensure stable and secure supply for decades to come. As the first step in the fuel cycle, the uranium industry has received various price signals over the past 5 decades, from the birth of an industry with strong demand and stock pile building and the associated robust pricing and new production stimulation, to an industry in decline and a period marked by liquidation of large inventories, to the recent resurgence of nuclear and the associated uranium price signals. In many ways, understanding the current uranium environment and the outlook for the industry requires some understanding of these phases of nuclear. The global nuclear fleet today needs about 65,000 tonnes of uranium per year to meet reactor feed requirements. Primary production meets about two thirds of this requirement while the remainder is drawn from secondary supply. Secondary supply can essentially be described as stockpiles of previously produced uranium. However, secondary supplies are finite and more primary production will be needed. From a long-term perspective, there is no question that there are sufficient uranium resources to support the nuclear industry for many years to come. The IAEA's 'Red Book' estimates that more than 5 million tonnes of known resources could potentially be developed at today's prices. This is enough to supply the global reactor fleet for almost 80 years at current usage rates. Recently higher uranium prices have resulted in some production increases although the rate of growth has been held

  8. Nuclear fuel financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lurf, G.

    1975-01-01

    Fuel financing is only at its beginning. A logical way of developing financing model is a step by step method starting with the financing of pre-payments. The second step will be financing of natural uranium and enrichment services to the point where the finished fuel elements are delivered to the reactor operator. The third step should be the financing of fuel elements during the time the elements are inserted in the reactor. (orig.) [de

  9. Independent assessment of forseeable problems in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Information is presented concerning the U. S. nuclear fuel cycle business including investment requirements; nuclear power growth projection; reliability of uranium supply; enrichment facilities; plutonium recycle; safeguards; and insurance

  10. Nuclear design of APSARA reload-2 fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nath, M.; Veeraraghavan, N.

    1978-01-01

    In view of the satisfactory operating performance of initial and reload-1 fuel designs of Apsara reactor, it was felt desirable to adopt a basically similar design for reload-2 fuel, i.e. the fuel assembly should consist of equally spaced parallel fuel plates in which highly enriched uranium, alloyed with aluminium, is employed as fuel. However, because of fabricational constraints, certain modifications were necessary and were incorporated in the proposed reload design to cater to the multiple needs of operational requirements, improved fuel utilization and inherent reactor safety. The salient features of the nuclear design of reload-2 fuel for the Apsara reactor are discussed. (author)

  11. Ceramics as nuclear reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeve, K.D.

    1975-01-01

    Ceramics are widely accepted as nuclear reactor fuel materials, for both metal clad ceramic and all-ceramic fuel designs. Metal clad UO 2 is used commercially in large tonnages in five different power reactor designs. UO 2 pellets are made by familiar ceramic techniques but in a reactor they undergo complex thermal and chemical changes which must be thoroughly understood. Metal clad uranium-plutonium dioxide is used in present day fast breeder reactors, but may eventually be replaced by uranium-plutonium carbide or nitride. All-ceramic fuels, which are necessary for reactors operating above about 750 0 C, must incorporate one or more fission product retentive ceramic coatings. BeO-coated BeO matrix dispersion fuels and silicate glaze coated UO 2 -SiO 2 have been studied for specialised applications, but the only commercial high temperature fuel is based on graphite in which small fuel particles, each coated with vapour deposited carbon and silicon carbide, are dispersed. Ceramists have much to contribute to many aspects of fuel science and technology. (author)

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions from the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, M.

    1996-01-01

    Emissions of carbon dioxide and methane from the whole fuel-cycle of nuclear power generation are discussed. The low-cost, and therefore low-energy-using, uranium resources suffice to provide a large worldwide nuclear programme with fuel without producing substantial carbon dioxide. Very lower emissions of carbon dioxide can be achieved if uranium enrichment is carried out by centrifuging. Methane emissions from uranium mining are negligible or in almost any case virtually zero. (author). 9 refs, 1 tab

  13. International Symposium on Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Exploration, Mining, Production, Supply and Demand, Economics and Environmental Issues. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The long term sustainability of nuclear power will depend on, among several factors, an adequate supply of uranium resources that can be delivered to the marketplace at competitive prices. New exploration technologies and a better understanding of the genesis of uranium ores will be required to discover often deep-seated and increasingly hard to find uranium deposits. Exploration, mining and milling technologies should be environmentally benign, and site decommissioning plans should meet the requirements of increasingly stringent environmental regulations and societal expectations. The purpose of this symposium is to analyse uranium supply–demand scenarios and to present and discuss new developments in uranium geology, exploration, mining and processing, as well as in environmental requirements for uranium operations and site decommissioning. The presentations and discussions at URAM-2014 will: - Lead to a better understanding of the adequacy of uranium sources (both primary and secondary) to meet future demand; - Provide information on geological models, new exploration concepts, knowledge and technologies that will potentially lead to the discovery and development of new uranium resources; - Describe new production technologies that have the potential to more efficiently and sustainably develop new uranium resources; and - Document the environmental compatibility of uranium production and the overall effectiveness of progressive final decommissioning and, where required, remediation of production facilities.

  14. International Symposium on Uranium Raw Material for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Exploration, Mining, Production, Supply and Demand, Economics and Environmental Issues. Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The long term sustainability of nuclear power will depend on, among several factors, an adequate supply of uranium resources that can be delivered to the marketplace at competitive prices. New exploration technologies and a better understanding of the genesis of uranium ores will be required to discover often deep-seated and increasingly hard to find uranium deposits. Exploration, mining and milling technologies should be environmentally benign, and site decommissioning plans should meet the requirements of increasingly stringent environmental regulations and societal expectations. The purpose of this symposium is to analyse uranium supply–demand scenarios and to present and discuss new developments in uranium geology, exploration, mining and processing, as well as in environmental requirements for uranium operations and site decommissioning. The presentations and discussions at URAM-2014 will: - Lead to a better understanding of the adequacy of uranium sources (both primary and secondary) to meet future demand; - Provide information on geological models, new exploration concepts, knowledge and technologies that will potentially lead to the discovery and development of new uranium resources; - Describe new production technologies that have the potential to more efficiently and sustainably develop new uranium resources; and - Document the environmental compatibility of uranium production and the overall effectiveness of progressive final decommissioning and, where required, remediation of production facilities.

  15. The status of nuclear fuel cycle system analysis for the development of advanced nuclear fuel cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Won Il; Kim, Seong Ki; Lee, Hyo Jik; Chang, Hong Rae; Kwon, Eun Ha; Lee, Yoon Hee; Gao, Fanxing [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    The system analysis has been used with different system and objectives in various fields. In the nuclear field, the system can be applied from uranium mining to spent fuel reprocessing or disposal which is called the nuclear fuel cycle. The analysis of nuclear fuel cycle can be guideline for development of advanced fuel cycle through integrating and evaluating the technologies. For this purpose, objective approach is essential and modeling and simulation can be useful. In this report, several methods which can be applicable for development of advanced nuclear fuel cycle, such as TRL, simulation and trade analysis were explained with case study

  16. Romanian nuclear fuel program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budan, O.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents and comments the policy adopted in Romania for the production of CANDU-6 nuclear fuel before and after 1990. The CANDU-6 nuclear fuel manufacturing started in Romania in December 1983. Neither AECL nor any Canadian nuclear fuel manufacturer were involved in the Romanian industrial nuclear fuel production before 1990. After January 1990, the new created Romanian Electricity Authority (RENEL) assumed the responsibility for the Romanian Nuclear Power Program. It was RENEL's decision to stop, in June 1990, the nuclear fuel production at the Institute for Nuclear Power Reactors (IRNE) Pitesti. This decision was justified by the Canadian specialists team findings, revealed during a general, but well enough technically founded analysis performed at IRNE in the spring of 1990. All fuel manufactured before June 1990 was quarantined as it was considered of suspect quality. By that time more than 31,000 fuel bundles had already been manufactured. This fuel was stored for subsequent assessment. The paper explains the reasons which provoked this decision. The paper also presents the strategy adopted by RENEL after 1990 regarding the Romanian Nuclear Fuel Program. After a complex program done by Romanian and Canadian partners, in November 1994, AECL issued a temporary certification for the Romanian nuclear fuel plant. During the demonstration manufacturing run, as an essential milestone for the qualification of the Romanian fuel supplier for CANDU-6 reactors, 202 fuel bundles were produced. Of these fuel bundles, 66 were part of the Cernavoda NGS Unit 1 first fuel load (the balance was supplied by Zircatec Precision Industries Inc. ZPI). The industrial nuclear fuel fabrication re-started in Romania in January 1995 under AECL's periodical monitoring. In December 1995, AECL issued a permanent certificate, stating the Romanian nuclear fuel plant as a qualified and authorised CANDU-6 fuel supplier. The re-loading of the Cernavoda NGS Unit 1 started in the middle

  17. Uranium resources and the scope for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the following headings: uranium resources, forecast on nuclear programme, avenues for reduction in uranium consumption, uranium consumption for fixed programme with various breeders, possible nuclear growth determined by uranium supply. (U.K.)

  18. Method for processing spent nuclear reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levenson, M.; Zebroski, E.L.

    1981-01-01

    A method and apparatus are claimed for processing spent nuclear reactor fuel wherein plutonium is continuously contaminated with radioactive fission products and diluted with uranium. Plutonium of sufficient purity to fabricate nuclear weapons cannot be produced by the process or in the disclosed reprocessing plant. Diversion of plutonium is prevented by radiation hazards and ease of detection

  19. Nuclear fuel conversion and fabrication chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.E.; Norman, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    Following irradiation and reprocessing of nuclear fuel, two operations are performed to prepare the fuel for subsequent reuse as fuel: fuel conversion, and fuel fabrication. These operations complete the classical nuclear fuel cycle. Fuel conversion involves generating a solid form suitable for fabrication into nuclear fuel. For plutonium based fuels, either a pure PuO 2 material or a mixed PuO 2 -UO 2 fuel material is generated. Several methods are available for preparation of the pure PuO 2 including: oxalate or peroxide precipitation; or direct denitration. Once the pure PuO 2 is formed, it is fabricated into fuel by mechanically blending it with ceramic grade UO 2 . The UO 2 can be prepared by several methods which include direct denitration. ADU precipitation, AUC precipitation, and peroxide precipitation. Alternatively, UO 2 -PuO 2 can be generated directly using coprecipitation, direct co-denitration, or gel sphere processes. In coprecipitation, uranium and plutonium are either precipitated as ammonium diuranate and plutonium hydroxide or as a mixture of ammonium uranyl-plutonyl carbonate, filtered and dried. In direct thermal denitration, solutions of uranium and plutonium nitrates are heated causing concentration and, subsequently, direct denitration. In gel sphere conversion, solutions of uranium and plutonium nitrate containing additives are formed into spherical droplets, gelled, washed and dried. Refabrication of these UO 3 -PuO 2 starting materials is accomplished by calcination-reduction to UO 2 -PuO 2 followed by pellet fabrication. (orig.)

  20. Nuclear fuel lease accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielson, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    The subject of nuclear fuel lease accounting is a controversial one that has received much attention over the years. This has occurred during a period when increasing numbers of utilities, seeking alternatives to traditional financing methods, have turned to leasing their nuclear fuel inventories. The purpose of this paper is to examine the current accounting treatment of nuclear fuel leases as prescribed by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC's) Uniform System of Accounts. Cost accounting for leased nuclear fuel during the fuel cycle is also discussed

  1. Trace metal assay of uranium silicide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, M.J.; Argekar, A.A.; Thulasidas, S.K.; Dhawale, B.A.; Rajeswari, B.; Adya, V.C.; Purohit, P.J.; Neelam, G.; Bangia, T.R.; Page, A.G.; Sastry, M.D.; Iyer, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive trace metal assay of uranium silicide, a fuel for nuclear research reactors that employs low-enrichment uranium, is carried out by atomic spectrometry. Of the list of specification elements, 21 metallic elements are determined by a direct current (dc) arc carrier distillation technique; the rare earths yttrium and zirconium are chemically separated from the major matrix followed by a dc arc/inductively coupled argon plasma (ICP) excitation technique in atomic emission spectrometry (AES); silver is determined by electrothermal atomization-atomic absorption spectrometry (ETA-AAS) without prior chemical separation of the major matrix. Gamma radioactive tracers are used to check the recovery of rare earths during the chemical separation procedure. The detection limits for trace metallics vary in the 0.1- to 40-ppm range. The precision of the determinations as evaluated from the analysis of the synthetic sample with intermediate range analyte concentration is better than 25% relative standard deviation (RSD) for most of the elements employing dc arc-AES, while that for silver determination by ETS-AAS is 10% RSD. The precision of the determinations for four crucially important rare earths by ICP-AES is better than 3% RSD

  2. Nuclear fuel supply: challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowen, S.

    2006-01-01

    Prices of uranium, conversion services and enrichment services have all significantly increased in the last few years. These price increases have generally been driven by a tightening in the supply of these products and services, mostly due to long lead times required to bring these products and services to the market. This paper will describe the various steps in the nuclear fuel cycle for natural and enriched uranium fuel, will discuss the development of the front-end fuel cycle for low void reactivity fuel, and will address the challenges faced in the long-term supply of each component, particularly in the light of potential demand increases as a result of a nuclear renaissance. The opportunities for new capacity and uranium production will be outlined and the process required to achieve sufficient new supply will be discussed. (author)

  3. Nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Keiichi

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the tensile stresses resulted in a fuel can as well as prevent decladding of fuel pellets into the bore holes by decreasing the inner pressure within the nuclear fuel element. Constitution: A fuel can is filled with hollow fuel pellets, inserted with a spring for retaining the hollow fuel pellets with an appropriate force and, thereafter, closely sealed at the both ends with end plugs. A cylindrical body is disposed into the bore holes of the hollow fuel pellets. Since initial sealing gases and/or gaseous nuclear fission products can thus be excluded from the bore holes where the temperature is at the highest level, the inner pressure of the nuclear fuel element can be reduced to decrease the tensile strength resulted to the fuel can. Furthermore, decladding of fuel pellets into the bore holes can be prevented. (Moriyama, K.)

  4. Nuclear fuel replacement device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritz, W.C.; Robey, R.M.; Wett, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    A fuel handling arrangement for a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a single rotating plug eccentric to the fuel core and a fuel handling machine radially movable along a slot in the plug with a transfer station disposed outside the fuel core but covered by the eccentric plug and within range of movement of said fuel handling machine to permit transfer of fuel assemblies between the core and the transfer station. (author)

  5. Research Establishment progress report 1978 - uranium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    A report of research programs continuing in the following areas is presented: mining and treatment of uranium ores, uranium enrichment, waste treatment, reprocessing and the uranium fuel cycle. Staff responsible for each project are indicated

  6. Science communication from women in nuclear fuel development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S.B.

    2013-01-01

    In India, nuclear fuel is required for operating both nuclear research reactors and power reactors. Indian women are extensively involved in nuclear fuel research and production activities. However, the nature and extent of their involvement differs based only on the job required and not on any gender basis. Excluding a few specific safety and security issues, therefore, science and technology communication really does not change according to the gender of the scientist or technologist. Presently in India, nuclear grade uranium metal is required for fuelling research reactors and nuclear grade uranium oxide is being utilized as fuel for power reactors. Hydrometallurgical operations using specific solvents are being used for achieving 'nuclear grade' in both sectors. For production of uranium oxide, purified uranium compounds need to get calcined and reduced for obtaining uranium dioxide of various qualities

  7. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    An array of rods comprising zirconium alloy sheathed nuclear fuel pellets assembled to form a fuel element for a pressurised water reactor is claimed. The helium gas pressure within each rod differs substantially from that of its closest neighbours

  8. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, E.D.

    1984-01-01

    The fuel elements for a pressurised water reactor comprise arrays of rods of zirconium alloy sheathed nuclear fuel pellets. The helium gas pressure within each rod differs substantially from that of its closest neighbours

  9. Fuel element for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linning, D.L.

    1977-01-01

    An improvement of the fuel element for a fast nuclear reactor described in patent 15 89 010 is proposed which should avoid possible damage due to swelling of the fuel. While the fuel element according to patent 15 89 010 is made in the form of a tube, here a further metal jacket is inserted in the centre of the fuel rod and the intermediate layer (ceramic uranium compound) is provided on both sides, so that the nuclear fuel is situated in the centre of the annular construction. Ceramic uranium or plutonium compounds (preferably carbide) form the fuel zone in the form of circular pellets, which are surrounded by annular gaps, so that gaseous fission products can escape. (UWI) [de

  10. Fossile fuel and uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorkum, A.A. van.

    1975-01-01

    The world's resources of coal, lignite, oil, natural gas, shale oil and uranium are reviewed. These quantities depend on the prices which make new resources exploitable. Uranium resources are given exclusively for the USSR, Eastern Europe and China. Their value in terms of energy depends heavily on the reactor type used. All figures given are estimated to be conservative

  11. Perspective of nuclear fuel cycle for sustainable nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, K.; Bonne, A.; Kagramanian, V.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear power, on a life-cycle basis, emits about the same level of carbon per unit of electricity generated as wind and solar power. Long-term energy demand and supply analysis projects that global nuclear capacities will expand substantially, i.e. from 350 GW today to more than 1,500 GW by 2050. Uranium supply, spent fuel and waste management, and a non-proliferation nuclear fuel cycle are essential factors for sustainable nuclear power growth. An analysis of the uranium supply up to 2050 indicates that there is no real shortage of potential uranium available if based on the IIASA/WEC scenario on medium nuclear energy growth, although its market price may become more volatile. With regard to spent fuel and waste management, the short term prediction foresees that the amount of spent fuel will increase from the present 145,000 tHM to more than 260,000 tHM in 2015. The IPCC scenarios predicted that the spent fuel quantities accumulated by 2050 will vary between 525 000 tHM and 3 210 000 tHM. Even according to the lowest scenario, it is estimated that spent fuel quantity in 2050 will be double the amount accumulated by 2015. Thus, waste minimization in the nuclear fuel cycle is a central tenet of sustainability. The proliferation risk focusing on separated plutonium and resistant technologies is reviewed. Finally, the IAEA Project INPRO is briefly introduced. (author)

  12. Nuclear fuel accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisch, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    After a nuclear power plant has started commercial operation the actual nuclear fuel costs have to be demonstrated in the rate making procedure. For this purpose an accounting system has to be developed which comprises the following features: 1) All costs associated with nuclear fuel shall be correctly recorded; 2) it shall be sufficiently flexible to cover also deviations from proposed core loading patterns; 3) it shall be applicable to different fuel cycle schemes. (orig./RW) [de

  13. Uranium supply of the Swiss nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, A.

    1991-01-01

    Securing the supply to Swiss nuclear power stations takes into account the fact that finished fuel elements must be introduced. The situation is, however, relieved by the fact there are excess capacities both in the amount of natural uranium available as well as in all processing stages. As further security, each nuclear power station keeps a reload of fuel elements in stock, so that if supplies are disrupted, continued operation is guaranteed for 1-2 years. Political influences should be taken into account, as should any repercussions that fuel disposal may have on fuel supply. 3 figs

  14. International issue: the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    In this special issue a serie of short articles of informations are presented on the following topics: the EEC's medium term policy regarding the reprocessing and storage of spent fuel, France's natural uranium supply, the Pechiney Group in the nuclear field, zircaloy cladding for nuclear fuel elements, USSI: a major French nuclear engineering firm, gaseous diffusion: the only commercial enrichment process, the transport of nuclear materials in the fuel cycle, Cogema and spent fuel reprocessing, SGN: a leader in the fuel cycle, quality control of mechanical, thermal and termodynamic design in nuclear engineering, Sulzer's new pump testing station in Mantes, the new look of the Ateliers et Chantiers de Bretagne, tubes and piping in nuclear power plants, piping in pressurized water reactor. All these articles are written in English and in French [fr

  15. Fuel cycle and waste management: A perspective from British nuclear fuels plc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, R.G.G.; Fairhall, G.A.; Robbins, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The phrase fuel cycle and waste management implies two separate and distinct activities. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) has adopted a holistic approach to the fuel cycle that integrates the traditional fuel cycle activities of conversion to uranium hexafluoride, fuel fabrication, power generation, and reprocessing with waste arisings, its subsequent treatment, and disposal

  16. Recent situation of the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshiba, Shizuo

    1982-01-01

    In Japan, the development of nuclear power as principal petroleum substitute is actively pursued. Nuclear power generation now accounts for about 17 % of the total power generation in Japan. The business related to nuclear fuel cycle should be established by private enterprises. The basic policy in the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle is the stabilized supply of natural uranium, raise in domestic production of enriched uranium, dFomestic fuel reprocessing in principle, positive plutonium utilization, and so on. After explaining this basic policy, the present situation and problems in the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle are described: securing of uranium resources, securing of enriched uranium, reprocessing of used fuel, utilization of plutonium, management of radioactive wastes. (Mori, K.)

  17. Determination of uranium self-diffusion coefficients in the U O2 nuclear fuel by secondary ion mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraz, Wilmar Barbosa

    1998-01-01

    This study of uranium self-diffusion in UO 2 presents a great technological interest because its knowledge is necessary to interpret the mechanism of many important processes like, for example, sintering, creep, grain growth, in-reactor densification and others. The present work deals with new measurements of uranium diffusion in UO 2 single crystals and polycrystals through an original mythology based on the utilization of 235 U as tracer and depth profiling by secondary ions mass spectrometry (SIMS). The diffusion experiments were performed between 1498 and 1697 deg C, in H 2 atmosphere. In our experimental conditions, the uranium volume diffusion coefficients measured in UO 2 single crystals can be described by the following Arrhenius relation: D(cm 2 /s) = 8.54x10 -7 exp[-4.4(eV)/K T]. The uranium grain-boundary diffusion experiments performed in UO 2 polycrystals corresponded to the type-B diffusion. In this case, it was possible to determine the product D'δ, where D is the grain-boundary diffusion and is the width of the grain-boundary. In our experimental conditions, the product D'δ can be described by the following relation: D'δ (cm 3 /s) = 1.62x10 -5 exp[-5.6(eV)/K T]. These results that the uranium volume diffusion coefficients, measured in UO 2 single crystals, are 5 orders of magnitude lower than the uranium grain boundary diffusion coefficients measured in UO 2 polycrystalline pellets, in the same experimental conditions. This large difference between these two types of diffusivities indicates that the grain boundary is a preferential via for uranium diffusion in UO 2 polycrystalline pellet. (author)

  18. World nuclear fuel cycle requirements 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This analysis report presents the projected requirements for uranium concentrate and uranium enrichment services to fuel the nuclear power plants expected to be operating under three nuclear supply scenarios. Two of these scenarios, the Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases, apply to the United States, Canada, Europe, the Far East, and other countries with free market economies (FME countries). A No New Orders scenario is presented only for the United States. These nuclear supply scenarios are described in Commercial Nuclear Power 1990: Prospects for the United States and the World (DOE/EIA-0438(90)). This report contains an analysis of the sensitivities of the nuclear fuel cycle projections to different levels and types of projected nuclear capacity, different enrichment tails assays, higher and lower capacity factors, changes in nuclear fuel burnup levels, and other exogenous assumptions. The projections for the United States generally extend through the year 2020, and the FME projections, which include the United States, are provided through 2010. The report also presents annual projections of spent nuclear fuel discharges and inventories of spent fuel. Appendix D includes domestic spent fuel projections through the year 2030 for the Lower and Upper Reference cases and through 2040, the last year in which spent fuel is discharged, for the No New Orders case. These disaggregated projections are provided at the request of the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management

  19. Report of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Study Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    In order to establish the nuclear fuel cycle in nuclear power generation, the study group has discussed necessary measures. Japan's attitudes to the recent international situation are first expounded. Then, the steps to be taken by the Government and private enterprises respectively are recommended regarding acquisition of natural uranium, acquisition of enriched uranium, establishment of fuel reprocessing system, utilization of plutonium, management of radioactive wastes, and transport system of spent fuel. (Mori, K.)

  20. Nuclear fuel rod with burnable plate and pellet-clad interaction fix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear fuel rod comprising a metallic tubular cladding containing nuclear fuel pellets, the pellets containing enriched uranium-235. The improvement described here comprises: ceramic wafers, each wafter comprising a sintered mixture of gadolinium oxide and uranium dioxide, the uranium oxide having no more uranium-235 than is present in natural uranium dioxide. Each of the wafers is axially disposed between a major portion of adjacent the nuclear fuel pellets, whereby the wafers freeze out volatile fission products produced by the nuclear fuel and prevent interaction of the fission products with the metallic tubing cladding

  1. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. A heat conducting fission product retaining metal liner of a refractory metal is incorporated in the fuel element between the cladding and the nuclear fuel to inhibit mechanical interaction between the nuclear fuel and the cladding, to isolate fission products and nuclear fuel impurities from contacting the cladding, and to improve the axial thermal peaking gradient along the length of the fuel rod. The metal liner can be in the form of a tube or hollow cylindrical column, a foil of single or multiple layers in the shape of a hollow cylindrical column, or a coating on the internal surface of the cladding. Preferred refractory metal materials are molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, niobium and alloys of the foregoing metals

  2. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.R.; Rowland, T.C.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. A heat conducting, fission product retaining metal liner of a refractory metal is incorporated in the fuel element between the cladding and the nuclear fuel to inhibit mechanical interaction between the nuclear fuel and the cladding, to isolate fission products and nuclear fuel impurities from contacting the cladding and to improve the axial thermal peaking gradient along the length of the fuel rod. The metal liner can be in the form of a tube or hollow cylindrical column, a foil of single or multiple layers in the shape of a hollow cylindrical column, or a coating on the internal surface of the cladding. Preferred refractory metal materials are molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, niobium and alloys of the foregoing metals

  3. World nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    A coloured pull-out wall chart is presented showing the fuel cycle interests of the world. Place names are marked and symbols are used to indicate regions associated with uranium or thorium deposits, mining, milling, enrichment, reprocessing and fabrication. (UK)

  4. Contribution to the study of mechanical properties of nuclear fuel: atomistic modelling of the deformation of uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossati, P.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical properties of nuclear fuel are a complex problem, involving many coupled mechanisms occurring at different length scales. We used Molecular Dynamics models to bring some light on some of these mechanisms at the atomic scale. We devised a procedure to calculate transition pathways between some UO 2 polymorphs, and then carried out dynamics simulations of these transitions. We confirmed the stability of the cotunnite structure at high pressure using various empirical potentials, the fluorite structure being the most stable at room pressure. Moreover, we showed a reconstructive phase transition between the fluorite and cotunnite structures. We also showed the importance of the major deformation axis on the kind of transition that occur under tensile conditions. Depending on the loading direction, a scrutinyite or rutile phase can appear. We then calculated the elastic behaviour of UO 2 using different potentials. The relative agreement between them was used to produce a set of parameters to be used as input in mesoscale models. We also simulated crack propagation in UO 2 single crystals. These simulations showed secondary phases nucleation at crack tips, and hinted at the importance thereof on crack propagation at higher length-scales. We then described some properties of edge dislocations in UO 2 . The core structures were compared for various glide planes. The critical resolved shear stress was calculated for temperatures up to 2000 K. These calculations showed a link between lattice disorder at the dislocations core and the dislocations mobility. (author)

  5. High Frequency Acoustic Microscopy for the Determination of Porosity and Young's Modulus in High Burnup Uranium Dioxide Nuclear Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Mara; Laux, Didier; Cappia, Fabiola; Laurie, M.; Van Uffelen, P.; Rondinella, V. V.; Wiss, T.; Despaux, G.

    2016-06-01

    During irradiation UO2 nuclear fuel experiences the development of a non-uniform distribution of porosity which contributes to establish varying mechanical properties along the radius of the pellet. Radial variations of both porosity and elastic properties in high burnup UO2 pellet can be investigated via high frequency acoustic microscopy. For this purpose ultrasound waves are generated by a piezoelectric transducer and focused on the sample, after having travelled through a coupling liquid. The elastic properties of the material are related to the velocity of the generated Rayleigh surface wave (VR). A UO2 pellet with a burnup of 67 GWd/tU was characterized using the acoustic microscope installed in the hot cells of the JRC-ITU at a 90 MHz frequency, with methanol as coupling liquid. VR was measured at different radial positions. A good agreement was found, when comparing the porosity values obtained via acoustic microscopy with those determined using SEM image analysis, especially in the areas close to the centre. In addition, Young's modulus was calculated and its radial profile was correlated to the corresponding burnup profile and to the hardness radial profile data obtained by Vickers micro-indentation.

  6. Spectrophotometric determination of trace amount of uranium (VI) in different aqueous and organic streams of nuclear fuel processing using 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo-5-diethylaminophenol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.K.; Kedari, C.S.; Tripathi, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    Present investigation describes the development of a spectrophotometric method for trace level determination of U(VI) encountered during the process of nuclear fuel fabrication and reprocessing industries. A chromogenic reagent, 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo-5-diethylaminophenol) (Br-PADAP) is used to complex with U(VI) under optimized solution conditions. The absorption maxima of the uranyl Br-PADAP complex at 578 nm is computed to be 73540 ± 1438 for U-Br-PADAP solution containing 20% ethanol (in aqueous sample media) and 58216 ± 1208 for U-Br-PADAP solution containing 80% ethanol (for organic sample media). Employing suitable sample treatment methods, the scope of analytical method has been widened to permit accurate determination of U(VI) in the samples with variation in the relative compositions of Th(IV), Pu(IV) and Fe(III). The method is applicable to samples matrices with, acidic, alkaline highly salted media. Effect of commonly associated ionic species on the optical density of U-Br-PADAP is determined. Depending on the extent of the interfering impurities present, the method permits estimation of U(VI) either direct or after its selective extraction into tri-octyl phosphine oxide dissolved in cyclohexane. The method is precise with <5% standard error and can be used for the estimation of uranium in organic as well as in aqueous samples. The method has been validated for quantitative determination of uranium extracted in the organic phase comprising of heavy metal extractants like TBP, HDEHP, PC-88A and Aliquot 336. (author)

  7. Correlation of radioactive waste treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: fabrication of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel containing uranium-233 and thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roddy, J.W.; Blanco, R.E.; Hill, G.S.; Moore, R.E.; Seagren, R.D.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1976-06-01

    A cost/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of various radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials from model High-Temperature Gas-Cooled (HTGR) fuel fabrication plants and to determine the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the released materials on the environment. The study is designed to assist in defining the term ''as low as reasonably achievable'' as it applies to these nuclear facilities. The base cases of the two model plants, a fresh fuel fabrication plant and a refabrication plant, are representative of current proposed commercial designs or are based on technology that is being developed to fabricate uranium, thorium, and graphite into fuel elements. The annual capacities of the fresh fuel plant and the refabrication plant are 450 and 245 metric tons of heavy metal (where heavy metal is uranium plus thorium), as charged to about fifty 1000-MW(e) HTGRs. Additional radwaste treatment systems are added to the base case plants in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The capital and annual costs for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding reductions in dose commitments are calculated for each case. In the final analysis, the cost/benefit of each case, calculated as additional cost of radwaste system divided by the reduction in dose commitment, is tabulated or the dose commitment is plotted with cost as the variable. The status of each of the radwaste treatment methods is discussed. 48 figures, 74 tables

  8. Quantities of actinides in nuclear reactor fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, K.P.

    1975-01-01

    The quantities of plutonium and other fuel actinides have been calculated for equilibrium fuel cycles for 1000 MW reactors of the following types: water reactors fueled with slightly enriched uranium, water reactors fueled with plutonium and natural uranium, fast-breeder reactors, gas-cooled reactors fueled with thorium and highly enriched uranium, and gas-cooled reactors fueled with thorium, plutonium, and recycled uranium. The radioactivity levels of plutonium, americium, and curium processed yearly in these fuel cycles are greatest for the water reactors fueled with natural uranium and recycled plutonium. The total amount of actinides processed is calculated for the predicted future growth of the United States nuclear power industry. For the same total installed nuclear power capacity, the introduction of the plutonium breeder has little effect upon the total amount of plutonium processed in this century. The estimated amount of plutonium in the low-level process wastes in the plutonium fuel cycles is comparable to the amount of plutonium in the high-level fission product wastes. The amount of plutonium processed in the nuclear fuel cycles can be considerably reduced by using gas-cooled reactors to consume plutonium produced in uranium-fueled water reactors. These, and other reactors dedicated for plutonium utilization, could be co-located with facilities for fuel reprocessing and fuel fabrication to eliminate the off-site transport of separated plutonium. (U.S.)

  9. The use of uranium isotopes and the U/Th ratio to evaluate the fingerprint of plants following uranium releases from fuel cycle settlements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourcelot, L.; Boulet, B.; Cariou, N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses data from the environmental monitoring of fuel cycle settlements. It aims to evaluate uranium released into the terrestrial environment. Measurement of uranium isotopes in terrestrial plants allows illustrating the consequences of chronic and incidental releases of depleted uranium into the atmosphere. However, such an analytical approach reaches its limits when natural uranium is released. Indeed, distinguishing natural uranium from releases and uranium from the radiological background is difficult. For this reason, we propose normalizing uranium activity measured in plants taken in the surroundings of nuclear sites with respect to 232 Th, considering that the source of this latter is the background. (authors)

  10. Development of metal uranium fuel and testing of construction materials (I-VI); Part I; Razvoj metalnog goriva i ispitivanje konstrukcionih materijala (I-VI deo); I deo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihajlovic, A [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1965-11-15

    This project includes the following tasks: Study of crystallisation of metal melt and beta-alpha transforms in uranium and uranium alloys; Study of the thermal treatment influence on phase transformations and texture in uranium alloys; Radiation damage of metal uranium; Project related to irradiation of metal uranium in the reactor; Development of fuel element for nuclear reactors.

  11. Nuclear fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randol, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    The production of new fuel for a power plant reactor and its disposition following discharge from the power plant is usually referred to as the ''nuclear fuel cycle.'' The processing of fuel is cyclic in nature since sometime during a power plant's operation old or ''depleted'' fuel must be removed and new fuel inserted. For light water reactors this step typically occurs once every 12-18 months. Since the time required for mining of the raw ore to recovery of reusable fuel materials from discharged materials can span up to 8 years, the management of fuel to assure continuous power plant operation requires simultaneous handling of various aspects of several fuel cycles, for example, material is being mined for fuel to be inserted in a power plant 2 years into the future at the same time fuel is being reprocessed from a discharge 5 years prior. Important aspects of each step in the fuel production process are discussed

  12. Uranium from German nuclear power projects of the 1940s - a nuclear forensic investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Klaus; Wallenius, Maria; Luetzenkirchen, Klaus; Horta, Joan; Nicholl, Adrian; Rasmussen, Gert; Belle, Pieter van; Varga, Zsolt [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Karlsruhe (Germany); Buda, Razvan; Erdmann, Nicole [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Karlsruhe (Germany); Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Kratz, Jens-Volker; Trautmann, Norbert [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Fifield, L. Keith; Tims, Stephen G. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia); Froehlich, Michaela B. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia); Universitaet Wien, Fakultaet fuer Chemie, Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Vienna (Austria); Steier, Peter [Universitaet Wien, Fakultaet fuer Physik, Isotopenforschung und Kernphysik, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-11-02

    Here we present a nuclear forensic study of uranium from German nuclear projects which used different geometries of metallic uranium fuel. Through measurement of the {sup 230}Th/{sup 234}U ratio, we could determine that the material had been produced in the period from 1940 to 1943. To determine the geographical origin of the uranium, the rare-earth-element content and the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio were measured. The results provide evidence that the uranium was mined in the Czech Republic. Trace amounts of {sup 236}U and {sup 239}Pu were detected at the level of their natural abundance, which indicates that the uranium fuel was not exposed to any major neutron fluence. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Uranium from German nuclear power projects of the 1940s - a nuclear forensic investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, Klaus; Wallenius, Maria; Luetzenkirchen, Klaus; Horta, Joan; Nicholl, Adrian; Rasmussen, Gert; Belle, Pieter van; Varga, Zsolt; Buda, Razvan; Erdmann, Nicole; Kratz, Jens-Volker; Trautmann, Norbert; Fifield, L. Keith; Tims, Stephen G.; Froehlich, Michaela B.; Steier, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a nuclear forensic study of uranium from German nuclear projects which used different geometries of metallic uranium fuel. Through measurement of the 230 Th/ 234 U ratio, we could determine that the material had been produced in the period from 1940 to 1943. To determine the geographical origin of the uranium, the rare-earth-element content and the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio were measured. The results provide evidence that the uranium was mined in the Czech Republic. Trace amounts of 236 U and 239 Pu were detected at the level of their natural abundance, which indicates that the uranium fuel was not exposed to any major neutron fluence. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Uranium Enrichment Determination of the InSTEC Sub Critical Ensemble Fuel by Gamma Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrell Munnoz, Jose L.; LopezPino, Neivy; Diaz Rizo, Oscar; D'Alessandro Rodriguez, Katia; Padilla Cabal, Fatima; Arbelo Penna, Yunieski; Garcia Rios, Aczel R.; Quintas Munn, Ernesto L.; Casanova Diaz, Amaya O.

    2009-01-01

    Low background gamma spectrometry was applied to analyze the uranium enrichment of the nuclear fuel used in the InSTEC Sub Critical ensemble. The enrichment was calculated by two variants: an absolute method using the Monte Carlo method to simulated detector volumetric efficiency, and an iterative procedure without using standard sources. The results confirm that the nuclear fuel of the ensemble is natural uranium without any additional degree of enrichment. (author)

  15. Vertical integration in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mommsen, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    Vertical integration in the nuclear fuel cycle and its contribution to market power of integrated fuel suppliers were studied. The industry subdivision analyzed is the uranium raw materials sector. The hypotheses demonstrated are that (1) this sector of the industry is trending toward vertical integration between production of uranium raw materials and the manufacture of nuclear fuel elements, and (2) this vertical integration confers upon integrated firms a significant market advantage over non-integrated fuel manufacturers. Under microeconomic concepts the rationale for vertical integration is the pursuit of efficiency, and it is beneficial because it increases physical output and decreases price. The Market Advantage Model developed is an arithmetical statement of the relative market power (in terms of price) between non-integrated nuclear fuel manufacturers and integrated raw material/fuel suppliers, based on the concept of the ''squeeze.'' In operation, the model compares net profit and return on sales of nuclear fuel elements between the competitors, under different price and cost circumstances. The model shows that, if integrated and non-integrated competitors sell their final product at identical prices, the non-integrated manufacturer returns a net profit only 17% of the integrated firm. Also, the integrated supplier can price his product 35% below the non-integrated producer's price and still return the same net profit. Vertical integration confers a definite market advantage to the integrated supplier, and the basic source of that advantage is the cost-price differential of the raw material, uranium

  16. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogard, J.H.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element is disclosed for use in power producing nuclear reactors, comprising a plurality of axially aligned ceramic cylindrical fuel bodies of the sintered type, and a cladding tube of metal or metal alloys, wherein said cladding tube on its cylindrical inner surface is provided with a plurality of slightly protruding spacing elements distributed over said inner surface

  17. Electrochemical reprocessing of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, G.; Sartorelli, A.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel which is particularly suitable for use with fuel from fast reactors and has the advantage of being a dry process in which there is no danger of radiation damage to a solvent medium as in a wet process. It comprises the steps of dissolving the fuel in a salt melt under such conditions that uranium and plutonium therein are converted to sulphate form. The plutonium sulphate may then be thermally decomposed to PuO 2 and removed. The salt melt is then subjected to electrolysis conditions to achieve cathodic deposition of UO 2 (and possibly PuO 2 ). The salt melt can then be recycled or conditioned for final disposal. (author)

  18. Nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Y.; Tashima, J.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of nuclear reactor fuel assemblies arranged in the form of a lattice wherein there is attached to the interface of one of two adjacent fuel assemblies a plate spring having a concave portion curved toward said interface and to the interface of the other fuel assembly a plate spring having a convex portion curved away from said interface

  19. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    A bimetallic spacer means is cooperatively associated with a nuclear fuel assembly and operative to resist the occurrence of in-reactor bowing of the nuclear fuel assembly. The bimetallic spacer means in one embodiment of the invention includes a space grid formed, at least principally, of zircaloy to the external surface of which are attached a plurality of stainless steel strips. In another embodiment the strips are attached to fuel pins. In each of the embodiments, the stainless steel strips during power production expand outwardly to a greater extent than do the members to which the stainless steel strips are attached, thereby forming stiff springs which abut against like bimetallic spacer means with which the other nuclear fuel assemblies are provided in a given nuclear reactor core to thus prevent the occurrence of in-reactor bowing of the nuclear fuel assemblies. (author)

  20. Reactivity feedbacks of a material test research reactor fueled with various low enriched uranium dispersion fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, Farhan; Majid, Asad

    2009-01-01

    The reactivity feedbacks of a material test research reactor using various low enriched uranium fuels, having same uranium density were calculated. For this purpose, the original aluminide fuel (UAl x -Al) containing 4.40 gU/cm 3 of an MTR was replaced with silicide (U 3 Si-Al and U 3 Si 2 -Al) and oxide (U 3 O 8 -Al) dispersion fuels having the same uranium density as of the original fuel. Calculations were carried out to find the fuel temperature reactivity feedback, moderator temperature reactivity feedback, moderator density reactivity feedback and moderator void reactivity feedback. Nuclear reactor analysis codes including WIMS-D4 and CITATION were employed to carry out these calculations. It was observed that the magnitudes all the respective reactivity feedbacks from 38 deg. C to 50 deg. C and 100 deg. C, at the beginning of life, of all the fuels were very close to each other. The fuel temperature reactivity feedback of the U 3 O 8 -Al was about 2% more than the original UAl x -Al fuel. The magnitudes of the moderator temperature, moderator density and moderator void reactivity feedbacks of all the fuels, showed very minor variations from the original aluminide fuel.

  1. Development of nuclear fuel cycle in Bulgaria and worldwide experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nochev, T.; Madolev, T.

    2002-01-01

    A survey is made of the natural and enriched uranium market situation, as well as the possible options for resolving the issue of spent nuclear fuel. At present the best economical solution for the spent fuel is considered to be interim storage. A assessment of the Bulgarian deposits of natural uranium is recommended and the possibility for partial recovery of the uranium extraction in Bulgaria is considered

  2. Nuclear fuel storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Takashi; Isaka, Shinji.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the spent fuel storage capacity and reduce the installation cost in a nuclear fuel storage facility. Constitution: Fuels handled in the nuclear fuel storage device of the present invention include the following four types: (1) fresh fuels, (2) 100 % reactor core charged fuels, (3) spent fuels just after taking out and (4) fuels after a certain period (for example one half-year) from taking out of the reactor. Reactivity is high for the fuels (1), and some of fuels (2), while low in the fuels (3) (4), Source intensity is strong for the fuels (3) and some of the fuels (2), while it is low for the fuels (1) and (4). Taking notice of the fact that the reactivity, radioactive source intensity and generated after heat are different in the respective fuels, the size of the pool and the storage capacity are increased by the divided storage control. While on the other hand, since the division is made in one identical pool, the control method becomes important, and the working range is restricted by means of a template, interlock, etc., the operation mode of the handling machine is divided into four, etc. for preventing errors. (Kamimura, M.)

  3. Kinetic parameters of a material test research reactor fueled with various low enriched uranium dispersion fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, Farhan; Majid, Asad

    2009-01-01

    The effects of using different low enriched uranium fuels, having same uranium density, on the kinetic parameters of a material test research reactor were studied. For this purpose, the original aluminide fuel (UAl x -Al) containing 4.40 gU/cm 3 of an MTR was replaced with silicide (U 3 Si-Al and U 3 Si 2 -Al) and oxide (U 3 O 8 -Al) dispersion fuels having the same uranium density as of the original fuel. Simulations were carried out to calculate prompt neutron generation time, effective delayed-neutron fraction, core excess reactivity and neutron flux spectrum. Nuclear reactor analysis codes including WIMS-D4 and CITATION were used to carry out these calculations. It was observed that both the silicide fuels had the same prompt neutron generation time 0.02% more than that of the original aluminide fuel, while the oxide fuel had a prompt neutron generation time 0.05% less than that of the original aluminide fuel. The effective delayed-neutron fraction decreased for all the fuels; the decrease was maximum at 0.06% for U 3 Si 2 -Al followed by 0.03% for U 3 Si-Al, and 0.01% for U 3 O 8 -Al fuel. The U 3 O 8 -Al fueled reactor gave the maximum ρ excess at BOL which was 21.67% more than the original fuel followed by U 3 Si-Al which was 2.55% more, while that of U 3 Si 2 -Al was 2.50% more than the original UAl x -Al fuel. The neutron flux of all the fuels was more thermalized, than in the original fuel, in the active fuel region of the core. The thermalization was maximum for U 3 O 8 -Al followed by U 3 Si-Al and then U 3 Si 2 -Al fuel.

  4. Feasibility study of the design of homogeneously mixed thorium-uranium oxide and all-uranium fueled reactor cores for civil nuclear marine propulsion - 15082

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, S.B.; Lindley, B.A.; Parks, G.T.

    2015-01-01

    In this reactor physics study, we attempt to design a civil marine reactor core that can operate over a 10 effective-full-power-years life at 333 MWth using ThUO 2 and all-UO 2 fuel. We use WIMS to develop subassembly designs and PANTHER to examine whole-core arrangements, optimizing: subassembly and core geometry; fuel enrichment; burnable and moveable poison design; and whole-core loading patterns. We compare designs with a 14% fissile loading for ThUO 2 and all-UO 2 fuel in 13*13 assemblies with ZrB 2 integral fuel burnable absorber pins for reactivity control. Taking advantage of self-shielding effects, the ThUO 2 option shows greater promise in the final burnable poison design while maintaining low, stable reactivity with minimal burnup penalty. For the final poisoning design with ZrB 2 , ThUO 2 contributes 2.5% more initial reactivity suppression, although the all-UO 2 design exhibits lower reactivity swing. All the candidate materials show greater rod worth for the ThUO 2 design. For both fuels, B 4 C has the highest reactivity worth, providing 10% higher control rod worth for ThUO 2 fuel than all-UO 2 . Finally, optimized assemblies were loaded into a 3D reactor model in PANTHER. The PANTHER results show that after 10 years, the core is on the border of criticality, confirming the fissile loading is well-designed. (authors)

  5. Minimization of waste from uranium purification, enrichment and fuel fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    As any industry, nuclear industry generates a diverse range of waste which has to be managed in a safe manner to be acceptable to the public and the environment. The cost of waste management, the risks to the public and employees, and the detriment to the environment are dependent on the quantity and radioactive content of the waste generated. Waste minimization is a necessary activity needed to reduce the impact from nuclear fuel cycle operations and it is included in the national policy of some countries. In recognition of the importance of the subject, the IAEA has decided to review the current status of the work aimed at waste minimization in the nuclear fuel cycle. The waste minimization issues related to the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle are covered in Technical Reports Series No. 377 'Minimization of Radioactive Waste from Nuclear Power Plants and the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle' published in 1995. The present report deals with the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle, including existing options, approaches, developments and some specific considerations to be taken into account in decision making on waste minimization. It has been recognized that, in comparison with the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle, much less information is available, and this report should be considered as a first attempt to analyse waste minimization practices and opportunities in uranium purification, conversion, enrichment and fuel fabrication. Although mining and milling is an important part of the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle, these activities are excluded from consideration since relevant activities are covered in other IAEA publications.

  6. Minimization of waste from uranium purification, enrichment and fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    As any industry, nuclear industry generates a diverse range of waste which has to be managed in a safe manner to be acceptable to the public and the environment. The cost of waste management, the risks to the public and employees, and the detriment to the environment are dependent on the quantity and radioactive content of the waste generated. Waste minimization is a necessary activity needed to reduce the impact from nuclear fuel cycle operations and it is included in the national policy of some countries. In recognition of the importance of the subject, the IAEA has decided to review the current status of the work aimed at waste minimization in the nuclear fuel cycle. The waste minimization issues related to the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle are covered in Technical Reports Series No. 377 'Minimization of Radioactive Waste from Nuclear Power Plants and the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle' published in 1995. The present report deals with the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle, including existing options, approaches, developments and some specific considerations to be taken into account in decision making on waste minimization. It has been recognized that, in comparison with the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle, much less information is available, and this report should be considered as a first attempt to analyse waste minimization practices and opportunities in uranium purification, conversion, enrichment and fuel fabrication. Although mining and milling is an important part of the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle, these activities are excluded from consideration since relevant activities are covered in other IAEA publications

  7. Supply and demand estimates for the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haussermann, W.; Hogroian, P.; Krymm, R.; Cameron, J.

    1977-01-01

    Based on the nuclear power growth forecasts described in the papers for Session I.B., estimates of requirements in the nuclear fuel cycle are given, notably concerning: - natural uranium, - enriched uranium, - fuel fabrication services, and - reprocessing services. The influence of realistic scenarios of uranium and plutonium recycling on fuel cycle requirements is discussed. Furthermore, the known plans for uranium and related fuel cycle production capacities are compared with the foreseeable demand. These estimates cover the period between now and the year 2000. However, in order to determine the influence of possible variations in reactor strategies on uranium demand, notably the introduction of breeder reactors, power growth projections and resulting fuel cycle requirements beyond the year 2000 are also briefly considered [fr

  8. Nuclear fuel supply view in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirimello, R.O.

    1997-01-01

    The Argentine Atomic Energy Commission promoted and participated in a unique achievement in the R and D system in Argentina: the integration of science technology and production based on a central core of knowledge for the control and management of the nuclear fuel cycle technology. CONUAR SA, as a fuel manufacturer, FAE SA, the manufacturer of Zircaloy tubes, CNEA and now DIOXITEC SA producer of Uranium Dioxide, have been supply, in the last ten years, the amount of products required for about 1300 Tn of equivalent U content in fuels. The most promising changes for the fuel cycle economy is the Slight Enriched Uranium project which begun in Atucha I reactor. In 1997 seventy five fuel assemblies, equivalent to 900 Candu fuel bundles, will complete its irradiation. (author)

  9. Material input of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rissanen, S.; Tarjanne, R.

    2001-01-01

    of the material input coefficient of nuclear fuel depends largely on the mining method used and on the concentration of the uranium ore. The lowest material input coefficient in the study, about 760, is calculated by using the data of McArthur River mine, which is a high grade underground mine. Correspondingly by using the data of Arlit mine in Niger, which is a low grade open pit mine, the material input coefficient is even 68 800. On the other hand, this material input is composed greatly of waste rock (sand), which has no serious environmental impact. The material input coefficient of TVO's nuclear fuel is 7 000. Without waste rock it would be only 800. The material input coefficients of natural gas and coal are presented for comparison. The material input coefficient of natural gas is 1,28 and that of coal amounts to 3,38. These are substantially smaller than the coefficient of nuclear fuel. On the other hand, the energy contents of nuclear fuel is over 120 000-fold compared to that of coal, and over 60 000-fold compared to gas. Therefore, the material input in proportion to the amount of generated electricity (MIPS) is smaller for nuclear power than for coal or gas power. The MIPS of coal is equal to 1160 kg/MWh, that of gas equals to 170 kg/MWh and the MIPS of nuclear fuel, calculated on the basis of the fuel supply of TVO, amounts only to 42 kg/MWh. Consequently, the MIPS comparison ranks the nuclear alternative as the best one, causing the smallest environmental load. (orig.)

  10. World nuclear fuel cycle requirements 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This analysis report presents the projected requirements for uranium concentrate and uranium enrichment services to fuel the nuclear power plants expected to be operating under two nuclear supply scenarios. These two scenarios, the Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases, apply to the United States, Canada, Europe, the Far East, and other countries in the World Outside Centrally Planned Economic Areas (WOCA). A No New Orders scenarios is also presented for the Unites States. This report contains an analysis of the sensitivities of the nuclear fuel cycle projections to different levels and types of projected nuclear capacity, different enrichment tails assays, higher and lower capacity factors, changes in nuclear fuel burnup levels, and other exogenous assumptions. The projections for the United States generally extend through the year 2020, and the WOCA projections, which include the United States, are provided through 2010. The report also presents annual projections of spent nuclear fuel; discharges and inventories of spent fuel. Appendix D includes domestic spent fuel projections through the year 2020 for the Lower and Upper Reference cases and through 2036, the last year in which spent fuel is discharged, for the No New Orders case

  11. Fabrication procedures for manufacturing high uranium concentration dispersion fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Jose Antonio Batista de

    2011-01-01

    IPEN-CNEN/SP developed the technology to produce the dispersion type fuel elements for research reactors and made it available for routine production. Today, the fuel produced in IPEN-CNEN/SP is limited to the uranium concentration of 3.0 gU/cm 3 for U 3 Si 2 -Al dispersion-based and 2.3 gU/cm 3 for U 3 O 8 -Al dispersion. The increase of uranium concentration in fuel plates enables the reactivity of the reactor core reactivity to be higher and extends the fuel life. Concerning technology, it is possible to increase the uranium concentration in the fuel meat up to the limit of 4.8 gU/cm 3 in U 3 Si 2 -Al dispersion and 3.2 gU/cm 3 U 3 O 8 -Al dispersion. These dispersions are well qualified worldwide. This work aims to develop the manufacturing process of both fuel meats with high uranium concentrations, by redefining the manufacturing procedures currently adopted in the Nuclear Fuel Center of IPEN-CNEN/SP. Based on the results, it was concluded that to achieve the desired concentration, it is necessary to make some changes in the established procedures, such as in the particle size of the fuel powder and in the feeding process inside the matrix, before briquette pressing. These studies have also shown that the fuel plates, with a high concentration of U 3 Si 2 -Al, met the used specifications. On the other hand, the appearance of the microstructure obtained from U 3 O 8 -Al dispersion fuel plates with 3.2 gU/cm 3 showed to be unsatisfactory, due to the considerably significant porosity observed. The developed fabrication procedure was applied to U 3 Si 2 production at 4.8 gU/cm 3 , with enriched uranium. The produced plates were used to assemble the fuel element IEA-228, which was irradiated in order to check its performance in the IEA-R1 reactor at IPEN-CNEN/SP. These new fuels have potential to be used in the new Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor - RMB. (author)

  12. The use of thorium as an alternative nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.J.

    1982-04-01

    The use of thorium as an alternative or supplementary nuclear fuel is examined and compared with uranium. A description of various reactor types and their suitability to thorium fuel, and a description of various aspects of the fuel cycle from mining to waste disposal, are included. Comments are made on the safety and economics of each aspect of the fuel cycle and the extension of the lifetime of nuclear fuel

  13. Wrapping up the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueth, N.

    1976-01-01

    Reprocessing basically entails recovering uranium and plutonium from spent fuel for reuse in light water reactors (LWRs). The wastes resulting from this process are transformed to products suitable for disposal. These endeavors extend uranium supplies and also reduce the size and amount of nuclear waste that must be stored. Reprocessing, however, also ''unlocks'' the fuel rods that currently imprison radioactive substances. If great care is not taken, it could rip open a Pandora's box, exposing reprocessing plant workers, the general public, and the environment to deadly radioactive substances. While no commercial reprocessing plants are currently operating in the U.S., a scenario for such efforts has been mapped out. The first step is to chop the fuel elements into small pieces so that the fuel is no longer protected by its corrosion-resistant cladding. The fuel is then dissolved away from the cladding with nitric acid. An organic solvent extracts plutonium and uranium, and additional solvent extraction or ion exchange operations separate the two substances. Plutonium is converted to plutonium oxide; uranium 235 is converted to uranium oxide. They can then be combined to a make mixed oxide fuel, and formed into fuel elements for use in nuclear reactors. Various wastes with varied levels of radioactivity are generated during these operations. All demand attention. Radioactive gaseous waste most often is filtered before release through tall stacks. Metal solid waste--debris, fuel claddings, and hulls--may be compacted or cryogenically crushed and stored at specially designed storage sites. Contaminated combustibles, such as paper and resins, are incinerated and the ash is fixed and packaged for storage. The plans of Allied-General Nuclear Services (AGNS), which claims to have the closest thing in the United States to a ready reprocessor are described

  14. Nuclear fuel activities in Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bairiot, H

    1997-12-01

    In his presentation on nuclear fuel activities in belgium the author considers the following directions of this work: fuel fabrication, NPP operation, fuel performance, research and development programmes.

  15. German nuclear fuel exports and imports 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The statistics compiled by the German Federal Office for Trade and Industry (Bundesamt fuer Wirtschaft) for the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Conservation of Nature, and Reactor Safety of imports and exports of nuclear fuels and source materials in 1991 show a major drop by 33.8% in imports and a pronounced rise by 191.5% in exports, compared to the levels in the previous year. Source material for the purposes of these statistics refers only to uranium concentrate. Quantitatively, the biggest import items are source materials, depleted uranium, and uranium enriched up to 3%. Exports of unirradiated material quantitatively comprise mainly depleted uranium, source material, and uranium enriched up to 10%. (orig.) [de

  16. Fuel loading and homogeneity analysis of HFIR design fuel plates loaded with uranium silicide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, P.E.

    1995-08-01

    Twelve nuclear reactor fuel plates were analyzed for fuel loading and fuel loading homogeneity by measuring the attenuation of a collimated X-ray beam as it passed through the plates. The plates were identical to those used by the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) but were loaded with uranium silicide rather than with HFIR's uranium oxide fuel. Systematic deviations from nominal fuel loading were observed as higher loading near the center of the plates and underloading near the radial edges. These deviations were within those allowed by HFIR specifications. The report begins with a brief background on the thermal-hydraulic uncertainty analysis for the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Reactor that motivated a statistical description of fuel loading and homogeneity. The body of the report addresses the homogeneity measurement techniques employed, the numerical correction required to account for a difference in fuel types, and the statistical analysis of the resulting data. This statistical analysis pertains to local variation in fuel loading, as well as to ''hot segment'' analysis of narrow axial regions along the plate and ''hot streak'' analysis, the cumulative effect of hot segment loading variation. The data for all twelve plates were compiled and divided into 20 regions for analysis, with each region represented by a mean and a standard deviation to report percent deviation from nominal fuel loading. The central regions of the plates showed mean values of about +3% deviation, while the edge regions showed mean values of about -7% deviation. The data within these regions roughly approximated random samplings from normal distributions, although the chi-square (χ 2 ) test for goodness of fit to normal distributions was not satisfied

  17. Fossil fuels, uranium, and the energy crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Playford, P E

    1977-01-01

    Relevant data on the world energy picture are presented to indicate present energy sources and resources, especially fossil fuels and the role of uranium in energy production, with some predictions for the future. World energy is presently being derived from petroleum (some 62%), coal (31%), hydropower (6%), and nuclear (1%). The fundamental cause of the present world energy crisis is attributed to the increase in consumption of petroleum over the past 20 yr, compared with the relatively small size and unequal distribution of the world's remaining reserves. The reserves/production ratio for petroleum has fallen steadily from a general level of 60 to 80 yr from 1920 to 1955, to about 31 yr today. New oil is becoming harder and more expensive to find and produce, the size of discoveries is declining. There is no reason to believe that this trend will be substantially altered, and production is expected to begin to decline between 1985 and 1990. Gas resources also are expected to fall short after the mid-1980s. Coal reserves are enormous, but their full utilization is doubtful because of economic and environmental problems. Tar sands and oil shale resources are potentially major sources of oil, and they are expected to become more competitive with petroleum as higher oil prices occur.

  18. 78 FR 23312 - Uranium Enrichment Fuel Cycle Inspection Reports Regarding Louisiana Energy Services, National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 70-3103; NRC-2010-0264] Uranium Enrichment Fuel Cycle Inspection Reports Regarding Louisiana Energy Services, National Enrichment Facility, Eunice, New Mexico..., National Enrichment Facility in Eunice, New Mexico, and has authorized the introduction of uranium...

  19. Improved nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepfer, H.H.

    1974-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element is described which comprises: 1) an elongated clad container, 2) a layer of high lubricity material being disposed in and adjacent to the clad container, 3) a low neutron capture cross section metal liner being disposed in the clad container and adjacent to the layer, 4) a central core of a body of nuclear fuel material disposed in and partially filling the container and forming an internal cavity in the container, 5) an enclosure integrally secured and sealed at each end of the container, and a nuclear fuel material retaining means positioned in the cavity. (author)

  20. Conversion of research reactors to low-enrichment uranium fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muranaka, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    There are at present approximately 350 research reactors in 52 countries ranging in power from less than 1 watt to 100 Megawatt and over. In the 1970's, many people became concerned about the possibility that some fuels and fuel cycles could provide an easy route to the acquisition of nuclear weapons. Since enrichment to less than 20% is internationally recognized as a fully adequate barrier to weapons usability, certain Member States have moved to minimize the international trade in highly enriched uranium and have established programmes to develop the technical means to help convert research reactors to the use of low-enrichment fuels with minimum penalties. This could involve modifications in the design of the reactor and development of new fuels. As a result of these programmes, it is expected that most research reactors can be converted to the use of low-enriched fuel

  1. Nuclear fuel elements and assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Shozo; Maki, Hideo.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate the attainment of the uranium enrichment or gadolinia enrichment of a pellet filled in a fuel element. Constitution: The axial length of a pellet filled in a fuel element is set to predetermined sizes according to the uranium enrichment factor, gadolinia enrichment or their combination. Thus, the uranium enrichment factor or gadolinia enrichment can be identified by attaining the axial length of the pellet by using such a pellt. (Kamimura, M.)

  2. Advances in nuclear fuel technology. 3. Development of advanced nuclear fuel recycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arie, Kazuo; Abe, Tomoyuki; Arai, Yasuo

    2002-01-01

    Fast breeder reactor (FBR) cycle technology has a technical characteristics flexibly easy to apply to diverse fuel compositions such as plutonium, minor actinides, and so on and fuel configurations. By using this characteristics, various feasibilities on effective application of uranium resources based on breeding of uranium of plutonium for original mission of FBR, contribution to radioactive wastes problems based on amounts reduction of transuranium elements (TRU) in high level radioactive wastes, upgrading of nuclear diffusion resistance, extremely upgrading of economical efficiency, and so on. In this paper, were introduced from these viewpoints, on practice strategy survey study on FBR cycle performed by cooperation of the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) with electric business companies and so on, and on technical development on advanced nuclear fuel recycle systems carried out at the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, and so on. Here were explained under a vision on new type of fuels such as nitride fuels, metal fuels, and so on as well as oxide fuels, a new recycle system making possible to use actinides except uranium and plutonium, an 'advanced nuclear fuel cycle technology', containing improvement of conventional wet Purex method reprocessing technology, fuel manufacturing technology, and so on. (G.K.)

  3. Comparison of the Environment, Health, And Safety Characteristics of Advanced Thorium- Uranium and Uranium-Plutonium Fuel Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Timothy M.

    The environment, health, and safety properties of thorium-uranium-based (''thorium'') fuel cycles are estimated and compared to those of analogous uranium-plutonium-based (''uranium'') fuel cycle options. A structured assessment methodology for assessing and comparing fuel cycle is refined and applied to several reference fuel cycle options. Resource recovery as a measure of environmental sustainability for thorium is explored in depth in terms of resource availability, chemical processing requirements, and radiological impacts. A review of available experience and recent practices indicates that near-term thorium recovery will occur as a by-product of mining for other commodities, particularly titanium. The characterization of actively-mined global titanium, uranium, rare earth element, and iron deposits reveals that by-product thorium recovery would be sufficient to satisfy even the most intensive nuclear demand for thorium at least six times over. Chemical flowsheet analysis indicates that the consumption of strong acids and bases associated with thorium resource recovery is 3-4 times larger than for uranium recovery, with the comparison of other chemical types being less distinct. Radiologically, thorium recovery imparts about one order of magnitude larger of a collective occupational dose than uranium recovery. Moving to the entire fuel cycle, four fuel cycle options are compared: a limited-recycle (''modified-open'') uranium fuel cycle, a modified-open thorium fuel cycle, a full-recycle (''closed'') uranium fuel cycle, and a closed thorium fuel cycle. A combination of existing data and calculations using SCALE are used to develop material balances for the four fuel cycle options. The fuel cycle options are compared on the bases of resource sustainability, waste management (both low- and high-level waste, including used nuclear fuel), and occupational radiological impacts. At steady-state, occupational doses somewhat favor the closed thorium option while low

  4. Phase relations, crystal structures and physical properties of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, Hiroaki; Fujino, Takeo; Tateno, Jun

    1975-07-01

    Phase relations, crystal structures and physical properties of the compounds for nuclear fuels are presented, including melting point, thermal expansion, diffusion and magnetic and electric properties. Emphasis is on oxides, carbides and nitrides of thorium, uranium and plutonium. (auth.)

  5. World market of nuclear fuel: new capabilities and difficulties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maks, A.; Kening, R.

    1992-01-01

    History of beginning, state and development prospects of the world market of nuclear fuel are considered. In detail is discussed the role of countries, being at the former USSR territory, in the uranium production and its market deliveries

  6. Spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanato, Luiz Sergio

    2005-01-01

    When a country becomes self-sufficient in part of the nuclear cycle, as production of fuel that will be used in nuclear power plants for energy generation, it is necessary to pay attention for the best method of storing the spent fuel. Temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel is a necessary practice and is applied nowadays all over the world, so much in countries that have not been defined their plan for a definitive repository, as well for those that already put in practice such storage form. There are two main aspects that involve the spent fuels: one regarding the spent nuclear fuel storage intended to reprocessing and the other in which the spent fuel will be sent for final deposition when the definitive place is defined, correctly located, appropriately characterized as to several technical aspects, and licentiate. This last aspect can involve decades of studies because of the technical and normative definitions at a given country. In Brazil, the interest is linked with the storage of spent fuels that will not be reprocessed. This work analyses possible types of storage, the international panorama and a proposal for future construction of a spent nuclear fuel temporary storage place in the country. (author)

  7. Uranium density reduction on fuel element side plates assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, Ilka A.; Andrade, Delvonei A.; Domingos, Douglas B.; Umbehaun, Pedro E.

    2011-01-01

    During operation of IEA-R1 research reactor, located at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN - CNEN/SP, an abnormal oxidation on some fuel elements was noted. It was also verified, among the possible causes of the problem, that the most likely one was insufficient cooling of the elements in the core. One of the propositions to solve or minimize the problem is to reduce uranium density on fuel elements side plates. In this paper, the influence of this change on neutronic and thermal hydraulic parameters for IEA-R1 reactor is verified by simulations with the codes HAMMER and CITATION. Results are presented and discussed. (author)

  8. Uranium density reduction on fuel element side plates assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Ilka A. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Andrade, Delvonei A.; Domingos, Douglas B.; Umbehaun, Pedro E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    During operation of IEA-R1 research reactor, located at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN - CNEN/SP, an abnormal oxidation on some fuel elements was noted. It was also verified, among the possible causes of the problem, that the most likely one was insufficient cooling of the elements in the core. One of the propositions to solve or minimize the problem is to reduce uranium density on fuel elements side plates. In this paper, the influence of this change on neutronic and thermal hydraulic parameters for IEA-R1 reactor is verified by simulations with the codes HAMMER and CITATION. Results are presented and discussed. (author)

  9. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Seigoro.

    1994-01-01

    Ultrafine particles of a thermal neutron absorber showing ultraplasticity is dispersed in oxide ceramic fuels by more than 1% to 10% or lower. The ultrafine particles of the thermal neutron absorber showing ultrafine plasticity is selected from any one of ZrGd, HfEu, HfY, HfGd, ZrEu, and ZrY. The thermal neutron absorber is converted into ultrafine particles and solid-solubilized in a nuclear fuel pellet, so that the dispersion thereof into nuclear fuels is made uniform and an absorbing performance of the thermal neutrons is also made uniform. Moreover, the characteristics thereof, for example, physical properties such as expansion coefficient and thermal conductivity of the nuclear fuels are also improved. The neutron absorber, such as ZrGd or the like, can provide plasticity of nuclear fuels, if it is mixed into the nuclear fuels for showing the plasticity. The nuclear fuel pellets are deformed like an hour glass as burning, but, since the end portion thereof is deformed plastically within a range of a repulsive force of the cladding tube, there is no worry of damaging a portion of the cladding tube. (N.H.)

  10. Safety in manufacturing of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daste, Bernard

    1980-01-01

    Production of low enriched uranium fuel raises specific safety problems resulting from the very nature of the manufacturing process as from the industrial size generally given to the new facilities for this kind of production. The author exposes the experience so far acquired by F.B.F.C. (Societe franco-belge de fabrication du combustible) which is making important investments in order to meet the fuel needs of the French nuclear programme. After a short description of the fuel and the principal stages of its production, he analyses the potential nuclear hazards of the F.B.F.C. facilities operation and the adequate safety measures taken [fr

  11. FY16 Status Report for the Uranium-Molybdenum Fuel Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Wendy D.; Doherty, Ann L.; Henager, Charles H.; Lavender, Curt A.; Montgomery, Robert O.; Omberg, Ronald P.; Smith, Mark T.; Webster, Ryan A.

    2016-01-01

    The Fuel Cycle Research and Development program of the Office of Nuclear Energy has implemented a program to develop a Uranium-Molybdenum metal fuel for light water reactors. Uranium-Molybdenum fuel has the potential to provide superior performance based on its thermo-physical properties. With sufficient development, it may be able to provide the Light Water Reactor industry with a melt-resistant, accident-tolerant fuel with improved safety response. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been tasked with extrusion development and performing ex-reactor corrosion testing to characterize the performance of Uranium-Molybdenum fuel in both these areas. This report documents the results of the fiscal year 2016 effort to develop the Uranium-Molybdenum metal fuel concept for light water reactors.

  12. FY16 Status Report for the Uranium-Molybdenum Fuel Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Wendy D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Doherty, Ann L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Henager, Charles H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Montgomery, Robert O. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Omberg, Ronald P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, Mark T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Webster, Ryan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-22

    The Fuel Cycle Research and Development program of the Office of Nuclear Energy has implemented a program to develop a Uranium-Molybdenum metal fuel for light water reactors. Uranium-Molybdenum fuel has the potential to provide superior performance based on its thermo-physical properties. With sufficient development, it may be able to provide the Light Water Reactor industry with a melt-resistant, accident-tolerant fuel with improved safety response. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been tasked with extrusion development and performing ex-reactor corrosion testing to characterize the performance of Uranium-Molybdenum fuel in both these areas. This report documents the results of the fiscal year 2016 effort to develop the Uranium-Molybdenum metal fuel concept for light water reactors.

  13. Transportation of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prowse, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    Shipment of used fuel from nuclear reactors to a central fuel management facility is discussed with particular emphasis on the assessment of the risk to the public due to these shipments. The methods of transporting used fuel in large shipping containers is reviewed. In terms of an accident scenario, it is demonstrated that the primary risk of transport of used fuel is due to injury and death in common road accidents. The radiological nature of the used fuel cargo is, for all practical purposes, an insignificant factor in the total risk to the public. (author)

  14. Low enrichment of uranium in the light of the nuclear weapon problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barstad, G.

    1979-09-01

    A difficult problem in the immediate future will be to direct civil nuclear technology in such a way that the ability to produce nuclear weapons by additional countries is prevented. There are two main problems. First, enrichment plants can be used to produce high enriched uranium, which can be used in nuclear weapons, as well as low enriched reactor fuel. Second, plutonium produced during reactor operation can be used as nuclear weapon material, as well as for nuclear fuel. The problem discussed here is particularly the development of an enrichment process which is economic for low enriched reactor fuel, but which may not easily be adapted to produce high enriched uranium. (JIW)

  15. Nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrett, G.J.; Gillespie, P.A.

    1983-07-01

    This report discusses events and processes that could adversely affect the long-term stability of a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault or the regions of the geosphere and the biosphere to which radionuclides might migrate from such a vault

  16. Nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.

    1981-01-01

    A simple friction device for cutting nuclear fuel wrappers comprising a thin metal disc clamped between two large diameter clamping plates. A stream of gas ejected from a nozzle is used as coolant. The device may be maintained remotely. (author)

  17. Uranium chloride extraction of transuranium elements from LWR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.E.; Ackerman, J.P.; Battles, J.E.; Johnson, T.R.; Pierce, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    A process of separating transuranium actinide values from uranium values present in spent nuclear oxide fuels containing rare earth and noble metal fission products as well as other fission products is disclosed. The oxide fuel is reduced with Ca metal in the presence of Ca chloride and a U-Fe alloy which is liquid at about 800 C to dissolve uranium metal and the noble metal fission product metals and transuranium actinide metals and rare earth fission product metals leaving Ca chloride having CaO and fission products of alkali metals and the alkali earth metals and iodine dissolved therein. The Ca chloride and CaO and the fission products contained therein are separated from the U-Fe alloy and the metal values dissolved therein. The U-Fe alloy having dissolved therein reduced metals from the spent nuclear fuel is contacted with a mixture of one or more alkali metal or alkaline earth metal halides selected from the class consisting of alkali metal or alkaline earth metal and Fe or U halide or a combination thereof to transfer transuranium actinide metals and rare earth metals to the halide salt leaving the uranium and some noble metal fission products in the U-Fe alloy and thereafter separating the halide salt and the transuranium metals dissolved therein from the U-Fe alloy and the metals dissolved therein. 1 figure

  18. Dissolution of nuclear fuel samples for analytical purposes. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krtil, J.

    1983-01-01

    Main attention is devoted to procedures for dissolving fuels based on uranium metal and its alloys, uranium oxides and carbides, plutonium metal, plutonium dioxide, plutonium carbides, mixed PuC-UC carbides and mixed oxides (PuU)O 2 . Data from the literature and experience gained with the dissolution of nuclear fuel samples at the Central Control Laboratory of the Nuclear Research Institute at Rez are given. (B.S.)

  19. Development on nuclear fuel cycle business in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usami, Kogo

    2002-01-01

    The Japan Nuclear Fuel Co., Ltd. (JNF) develops five businesses on nuclear fuel cycle such as uranium concentration, storage and administration of high level radioactive wastes, disposition of low level radioactive wastes, used fuel reprocessing, MOX fuel, at Rokkasho-mura in Aomori prefecture. Here were introduced on outline, construction and operation in reprocessing and MOX fuel works, outline, present state and future subjects on technical development of uranium concentration, outline and safety of disposition center on low level radioactive wastes, and storage and administration of high level radioactive wastes. (G.K.)

  20. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Hiroshi; Watari, Yoshio; Hizahara, Hiroshi; Masuoka, Ryuzo.

    1970-01-01

    When exchanging nuclear fuel assemblies during the operation of a nuclear reactor, melting of fuel bodies, and severence of tubular claddings is halted at the time of insertion by furnishing a neutron absorbing material such as B 10 , Cd, Gd or the like at the forward end of the fuel assembly to thereby lower the power peak at the forward ends of the fuel elements to within tolerable levels and thus prevent both fuel liquification and excessive expansion. The neutron absorbing material may be attached in the form of a plate to the fuel assembly forward tie plate, or may be inserted as a pellet into the front end of the tubular cladding. (Owens, K.J.)

  1. Nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, K.F.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element is described having a cluster of nuclear fuel pins supported in parallel, spaced apart relationship by transverse cellular braces within coaxial, inner and outer sleeves, the inner sleeve being in at least two separate axial lengths, each of the transverse braces having a peripheral portion which is clamped peripherally between the ends of the axial lengths of the inner sleeve. (author)

  2. Uranium-fuel thermal reactor benchmark testing of CENDL-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ping

    2001-01-01

    CENDL-3, the new version of China Evaluated Nuclear Data Library are being processed, and distributed for thermal reactor benchmark analysis recently. The processing was carried out using the NJOY nuclear data processing system. The calculations and analyses of uranium-fuel thermal assemblies TRX-1,2, BAPL-1,2,3, ZEEP-1,2,3 were done with lattice code WIMSD5A. The results were compared with the experimental results, the results of the '1986'WIMS library and the results based on ENDF/B-VI. (author)

  3. World nuclear capacity and fuel cycle requirements, November 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This analysis report presents the current status and projections of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, fuel cycle requirements, and spent fuel discharges for three different scenarios through 2030 are provided in support of the Department of Energy's activities pertaining to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987). The projections of uranium requirements also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment

  4. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterfield, C.E.; Waite, E.

    1982-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element comprising a column of vibration compacted fuel which is retained in consolidated condition by a thimble shaped plug. The plug is wedged into gripping engagement with the wall of the sheath by a wedge. The wedge material has a lower coefficient of expansion than the sheath material so that at reactor operating temperature the retainer can relax sufficient to accommodate thermal expansion of the column of fuel. (author)

  5. Nuclear fuel pellet loading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerkey, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    An automatic apparatus for loading a predetermined amount of nuclear fuel pellets into a nuclear fuel element to be used in a nuclear reactor is described. The apparatus consists of a vibratory bed capable of supporting corrugated trays containing rows of nuclear fuel pellets and arranged in alignment with the open ends of several nuclear fuel elements. A sweep mechanism is arranged above the trays and serves to sweep the rows of fuel pellets onto the vibratory bed and into the fuel element. A length detecting system, in conjunction with a pellet stopping mechanism, is also provided to assure that a predetermined amount of nuclear fuel pellets are loaded into each fuel element

  6. Nuclear Fuel Complex - a landmark of indigenous nuclear technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katiyar, H C [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad (India)

    1977-01-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC) set up in India for manufacturing fuel and related hardware has proved to be a significant step towards self-sufficiency and saving of foreign exchange. The complex is involved in the entire operations starting from processing of raw material concentrates to finishing of fuel assemblies and other zircaloy reactor components. The complex consists of the following units : (1) Zirconium Oxide Plant, (2) Zirconium Sponge Plant, (3) Zircaloy Fabrication Plant, (4) Uranium Oxide Plant, (5) Ceramic Fabrication Plant, (6) Enriched Uranium Oxide Plant, (7) Enriched Fuel Fabrication Plant, (8) Special Materials Plant and (9) Titanium Plant. A brief description of the activities of the various units of the complex are given. The effluent management scheme is outlined. The requirements and cost of fuel and zircaloy components for the power stations at Tarapur, Kota and Kalpakkam are mentioned.

  7. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    . The four Objectives publications include Nuclear General Objectives, Nuclear Power Objectives, Nuclear Fuel Cycle Objectives, and Radioactive Waste management and Decommissioning Objectives. This publication sets out the objectives that need to be achieved in the area of the nuclear fuel cycle to ensure that the Nuclear Energy Basic Principles are satisfied. Within each of these four Objectives publications, the individual topics that make up each area are addressed. The five topics included in this publication are: resources; fuel engineering and performance; spent fuel management and reprocessing; fuel cycles; and the research reactor nuclear fuel cycle

  8. Uranium, fuel for thought - discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    Some of the arguments in a paper by R. Phillips on the safety of the nuclear industry are criticised. Areas covered include reactor safety and radiation hazards. The author considers that a choice should be made on economic grounds which point to coal and nuclear being used as complimentary energy sources

  9. Sustainability Features of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Passerini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear fuel cycle is the series of stages that nuclear fuel materials go through in a cradle to grave framework. The Once Through Cycle (OTC is the current fuel cycle implemented in the United States; in which an appropriate form of the fuel is irradiated through a nuclear reactor only once before it is disposed of as waste. The discharged fuel contains materials that can be suitable for use as fuel. Thus, different types of fuel recycling technologies may be introduced in order to more fully utilize the energy potential of the fuel, or reduce the environmental impacts and proliferation concerns about the discarded fuel materials. Nuclear fuel cycle systems analysis is applied in this paper to attain a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of fuel cycle alternatives. Through the use of the nuclear fuel cycle analysis code CAFCA (Code for Advanced Fuel Cycle Analysis, the impact of a number of recycling technologies and the associated fuel cycle options is explored in the context of the U.S. energy scenario over 100 years. Particular focus is given to the quantification of Uranium utilization, the amount of Transuranic Material (TRU generated and the economics of the different options compared to the base-line case, the OTC option. It is concluded that LWRs and the OTC are likely to dominate the nuclear energy supply system for the period considered due to limitations on availability of TRU to initiate recycling technologies. While the introduction of U-235 initiated fast reactors can accelerate their penetration of the nuclear energy system, their higher capital cost may lead to continued preference for the LWR-OTC cycle.

  10. Nuclear fuel for light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etemad, A.

    1976-01-01

    The goal of the present speech is to point out some of the now-a-day existing problems related to the fuel cycle of light water reactors and to foresee their present and future solutions. Economical aspects of nuclear power generation have been considerably improving, partly through technological advancements and partly due to the enlargement of unit capacity. The fuel cycle, defined in the course of this talk, discusses the exploration, mining, ore concentration, purification, conversion, enrichment, manufacturing of fuel elements, their utilization in a reactor, their discharge and subsequent storage, reprocessing, and their re-use or disposal. Uranium market in the world and the general policy of several uranium owning countries are described. The western world requirement for uranium until the year 2000, uranium resources and the nuclear power programs in the United States, Australia, Canada, South Africa, France, India, Spain, and Argentina are discussed. The participation of Iran in a large uranium enrichment plant based on French diffusion technology is mentioned

  11. Correlation of radioactive waste treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle for use in establishing ''as low as practicable'' guides: fabrication of light-water reactor fuel from enriched uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pechin, W.H.; Blanco, R.E.; Dahlman, R.C.; Finney, B.C.; Lindauer, R.B.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1975-05-01

    A cost-benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials from a model enriched-uranium, light-water reactor (LWR) fuel fabrication plant, and to determine the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the released materials on the environment. The study is designed to assist in defining the term ''as low as practicable'' in relation to limiting the release of radioactive materials from nuclear facilities. The base case model plant is representative of current plant technology and has an annual capacity of 1500 metric tons of LWR fuel. Additional radwaste treatment equipment is added to the base case plants in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The cost for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding dose commitment are calculated for each case. In the final analysis, radiological dose is plotted vs the annual cost for treatment of the radwastes. The status of the radwaste treatment methods used in the case studies is discussed. Some of the technology used in the advanced cases is in an early stage of development and is not suitable for immediate use. The methodology used in estimating the costs and the radiological doses, detailed calculations, and tabulations are presented in Appendix A and ORNL-4992. (U.S.)

  12. Ion exchange technology in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    The application of ion exchange has been expanded to various parts of the nuclear fuel cycle. Major applications are in uranium production facilities, nuclear power plants, spent fuel reprocessing and waste treatment. Furthermore, application to isotope separation has been under development. The appendix contains a compilation of resin data. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 6 chapters in this technical document

  13. Improved nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed and has a metal liner disposed between the cladding and the nuclear fuel material and a high lubricity material in the form of a coating disposed between the liner and the cladding. The liner preferably has a thickness greater than the longest fission product recoil distance and is composed of a low neutron capture cross-section material. The liner is preferably composed of zirconium, an alloy of zirconium, niobium or an alloy of niobium. The liner serves as a preferential reaction site for volatile impurities and fission products and protects the cladding from contact and reaction with such impurities and fission products. The high lubricity material acts as an interface between the liner and the cladding and reduces localized stresses on the cladding due to fuel expansion and cracking of the fuel

  14. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakamatsu, Mitsuo.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To improve a circulating flow passage of coolant so as to be able to accurately detect the temperature of coolant, rare gases contained, and the like. Structure: A fuel assembly comprising a flow regulating lattice provided with a plurality of communication holes in an axial direction, said lattice being positioned at the upper end of an outer tube in which nuclear fuel elements are received, and a neutron shielding body having a plurality of spiral coolant flow passages disposed between the lattice and the nuclear fuel elements, whereby a coolant comprised of liquid sodium or the like, which moves up passing through the coolant flow passages and the flow regulating passage, is regulated and passed through a detector mounted at the upper part of the flow regulating lattice to detect coolant temperature, flow rate, and rare gases or the like as the origin of nuclear fission contained in the coolant due to breakage of fuel elements. (Kamimura, M.)

  15. Corrosion testing of uranium silicide fuel specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourns, W.T.

    1968-09-01

    U 3 Si is the most promising high density natural uranium fuel for water-cooled power reactors. Power reactors fuelled with this material are expected to produce cheaper electricity than those fuelled with uranium dioxide. Corrosion tests in 300 o C water preceded extensive in-reactor performance tests of fuel elements and bundles. Proper heat-treatment of U-3.9 wt% Si gives a U 3 5i specimen which corrodes at less than 2 mg/cm 2 h in 300 o C water. This is an order of magnitude lower than the maximum corrosion rate tolerable in a water-cooled reactor. U 3 Si in a defected unbonded Zircaloy-2 sheath showed only a slow uniform sheath expansion in 300 o C water. All tests were done under isothermal conditions in an out-reactor loop. (author)

  16. Corrosion testing of uranium silicide fuel specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourns, W T

    1968-09-15

    U{sub 3}Si is the most promising high density natural uranium fuel for water-cooled power reactors. Power reactors fuelled with this material are expected to produce cheaper electricity than those fuelled with uranium dioxide. Corrosion tests in 300{sup o}C water preceded extensive in-reactor performance tests of fuel elements and bundles. Proper heat-treatment of U-3.9 wt% Si gives a U{sub 3}5i specimen which corrodes at less than 2 mg/cm{sup 2} h in 300{sup o}C water. This is an order of magnitude lower than the maximum corrosion rate tolerable in a water-cooled reactor. U{sub 3}Si in a defected unbonded Zircaloy-2 sheath showed only a slow uniform sheath expansion in 300{sup o}C water. All tests were done under isothermal conditions in an out-reactor loop. (author)

  17. Nuclear fuel quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Full text: Quality assurance is used extensively in the design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants. This methodology is applied to all activities affecting the quality of a nuclear power plant in order to obtain confidence that an item or a facility will perform satisfactorily in service. Although the achievement of quality is the responsibility of all parties participating in a nuclear power project, establishment and implementation of the quality assurance programme for the whole plant is a main responsibility of the plant owner. For the plant owner, the main concern is to achieve control over the quality of purchased products or services through contractual arrangements with the vendors. In the case of purchase of nuclear fuel, the application of quality assurance might be faced with several difficulties because of the lack of standardization in nuclear fuel and the proprietary information of the fuel manufacturers on fuel design specifications and fuel manufacturing procedures. The problems of quality assurance for purchase of nuclear fuel were discussed in detail during the seminar. Due to the lack of generally acceptable standards, the successful application of the quality assurance concept to the procurement of fuel depends on how much information can be provided by the fuel manufacturer to the utility which is purchasing fuel, and in what form and how early this information can be provided. The extent of information transfer is basically set out in the individual vendor-utility contracts, with some indirect influence from the requirements of regulatory bodies. Any conflict that exists appears to come from utilities which desire more extensive control over the product they are buying. There is a reluctance on the part of vendors to permit close insight of the purchasers into their design and manufacturing procedures, but there nevertheless seems to be an increasing trend towards release of more information to the purchasers. It appears that

  18. Reprocessing of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatfield, G.W.

    1960-11-01

    One of the persistent ideas concerning nuclear power is that the fuel costs are negligible. This, of course, is incorrect and, in fact, one of the major problems in the development of economic nuclear power is to get the cost of the fuel cycles down to an acceptable level. The irradiated fuel removed from the nuclear power reactors must be returned as fresh fuel into the system. Aside from the problems of handling and shipping involved in the reprocessing cycles, the two major steps are the chemical separation and the refabrication. The chemical separation covers the processing of the spent fuel to separate and recover the unburned fuel as well as the new fuel produced in the reactor. This includes the decontamination of these materials from other radioactive fission products formed in the reactor. Refabrication involves the working and sheathing of recycled fuel into the shapes and forms required by reactor design and the economics of the fabrication problem determines to a large extent the quality of the material required from the chemical treatment. At present there appear to be enough separating facilities in the United States and the United Kingdom to handle the recycling of fuel from power reactors for the next few years. However, we understand the costs of recycling fuel in these facilities will be high or low depend ing on whether or not the capital costs of the plant are included in the processing cost. Also, the present plants may not be well adapted to carry out the chemical processing of the very wide variety of power reactor fuel elements which are being considered and will continue to be considered over the years to come. (author)

  19. 3D Microstructural Characterization of Uranium Oxide as a Surrogate Nuclear Fuel: Effect of Oxygen Stoichiometry on Grain Boundary Distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudman, K. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Dickerson, P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Byler, Darrin David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Peralta, P. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Lim, H. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); McDonald, R. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Dickerson, R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mcclellan, Kenneth James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-06

    The initial microstructure of an oxide fuel can play a key role in its performance. At low burn-ups, the diffusion of fission products can depend strongly on grain size and grain boundary (GB) characteristics, which in turn depend on processing conditions and oxygen stoichiometry. Serial sectioning techniques using Focused Ion Beam were developed to obtain Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) data for depleted UO2 pellets that were processed to obtain 3 different oxygen stoichiometries. The EBSD data were used to create 3D microstructure reconstructions and to gather statistical information on the grain and GB crystallography, with emphasis on identifying the character (twist, tilt, mixed) for GBs that meet the Coincident Site Lattice (CSL) criterion as well as GBs with the most common misorientation angles. Data on dihedral angles at triple points were also collected. The results were compared across different samples to understand effects of oxygen content on microstructure evolution.

  20. Production of nuclear ceramic fuel for nuclear power plants at 'Ulba metallurgical plant' OSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khadeev, V.G.

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes the flow-sheet of production of uranium dioxide powders and nuclear ceramic fuel pellets of them existing at the facility. 'UMP' OSC applies ADU extraction process of UO2 powders production. An indisputable success of the process is the possibility of use of the wide range of raw materials. Uranium hexafluoride, uranium oxides, uranium metal, uranium tetrafluoride, uranyl salts, uranium ore concentrates, all possible types of uranium-containing materials the processing of which by routine methods is difficult (ashes, scraps, etc.) are used as the raw materials. In addition, a reprocessed nuclear fuel can be used for fuel production. The quality of uranium dioxide powder produced does not depend on the type of uranium raw material used. High selectivity of extraction refining makes possible to obtain material with rather low impurities content that meets practically all specifications for uranium dioxide known to us. Ceramic and process features of uranium dioxide powders, namely, specific surface, bulk density, grain size and sinterability make possible to produce nuclear ceramic fuel with specified features. Quality of uranium dioxide powders produced by 'UMP' OSC was highly rated by General Electric company that is one of the leading companies from fuel manufactures in the USA market . It has certified 'UMP' OSC as its supplier. Currently, our company makes great efforts on establishing production of uranium dioxide powders with natural isotopes content for production of fuel for CANDU reactors. Trial lots of such powders are under tests at some companies manufacturing fuel for this type reactors in Canada, USA and Corea

  1. Isotopic composition and radiological properties of uranium in selected fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischman, R.M.; Liikala, R.C.

    1975-04-01

    Three major topic areas are discussed: First, the properties of the uranium isotopes are defined relative to their respective roles in the nuclear fuel cycle. Secondly, the most predominant fuel cycles expected in the U. S. are described. These are the Light Water Reactor (LWR), High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR), and Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) fuel cycles. The isotopic compositions of uranium and plutonium fuels expected for these fuel cycles are given in some detail. Finally the various waste streams from these fuel cycles are discussed in terms of their relative toxicity. Emphasis is given to the high level waste streams from reprocessing of spent fuel. Wastes from the various fuel cycles are compared based on projected growth patterns for nuclear power and its various components. (U.S.)

  2. Nuclear fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterfield, R.S.; Garner, D.L.M.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to nuclear fuel assemblies designed for cooling on the 'tube-in-shell' principle in which the fuel is contained by a shell and is cooled by coolant passed through tubes extending through the shell. It has been proposed to employ coated particle fuel as a porous bed on the tube side and the bleed coolant from the tubes into direct contact with the fuel particles. In this way heat is extracted both by direct contact with the fuel and by heat transfer through the coolant tube walls. The system described aims to provide an improved structure of tube and shell for a fuel assembly of this kind and is particularly suitable for use in a gas cooled fast reactor, being able to withstand the neutron flux and high temperature conditions in these reactors. Constructional details are given. (U.K.)

  3. Transport of high enriched uranium fresh fuel from Yugoslavia to the Russian federation

    OpenAIRE

    Pešić Milan P.; Šotić Obrad; Hopwood William H.Jr

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the relevant data related to the recent shipment (August 2002) of fresh highly enriched uranium fuel elements from Yugoslavia back to the Russian Federation for uranium down blending. In this way, Yugoslavia gave its contribution to the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program and to the world's joint efforts to prevent possible terrorist actions against nuclear material potentially usable for the production of nuclear weapons.

  4. Transport of high enriched uranium fresh fuel from Yugoslavia to the Russian federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Milan P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the relevant data related to the recent shipment (August 2002 of fresh highly enriched uranium fuel elements from Yugoslavia back to the Russian Federation for uranium down blending. In this way, Yugoslavia gave its contribution to the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR Program and to the world's joint efforts to prevent possible terrorist actions against nuclear material potentially usable for the production of nuclear weapons.

  5. Nuclear fuel deformation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Brutzel, L.; Dingreville, R.; Bartel, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear fuel encounters severe thermomechanical environments. Its mechanical response is profoundly influenced by an underlying heterogeneous microstructure but also inherently dependent on the temperature and stress level histories. The ability to adequately simulate the response of such microstructures, to elucidate the associated macroscopic response in such extreme environments is crucial for predicting both performance and transient fuel mechanical responses. This chapter discusses key physical phenomena and the status of current modelling techniques to evaluate and predict fuel deformations: creep, swelling, cracking and pellet-clad interaction. This chapter only deals with nuclear fuel; deformations of cladding materials are discussed elsewhere. An obvious need for a multi-physics and multi-scale approach to develop a fundamental understanding of properties of complex nuclear fuel materials is presented. The development of such advanced multi-scale mechanistic frameworks should include either an explicit (domain decomposition, homogenisation, etc.) or implicit (scaling laws, hand-shaking,...) linkage between the different time and length scales involved, in order to accurately predict the fuel thermomechanical response for a wide range of operating conditions and fuel types (including Gen-IV and TRU). (authors)

  6. Nuclear fuels - swords and ploughshares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklin, N.L.

    1986-05-01

    In 1986 the problems associated with the implementation of nuclear power programmes mainly arise from difficulties of social acceptability. The scientific and technological achievements are no longer a source of wonder and are taken for granted by a public which has become accustomed to such achievements in other fields. This lecture recounts the history of the nuclear fuel cycle starting around 1955 but continuing, to look at future prospects. The problems are discussed. The technical improvements that have occurred over the years mean that, currently it is possible for all the problems to be overcome technically. Although there is always room for improvements in endurance, design etc. commercial and safety requirements can be met. In economic terms, the real costs of the fuel cycle have reached a plateau and should decrease as the result of lower cost for enriched uranium, lower reprocessing costs and better fuel management. However, in social and political terms, the position is not so certain because of public concern about reprocessing plants and the disposal of radioactive wastes. (U.K.).

  7. Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, D.

    1985-01-01

    How should the decision in favour of reprocessing and against alternative waste management concepts be judged from an economic standpoint. Reprocessing is not imperative neither for resource-economic reasons nor for nuclear energy strategy reasons. On the contrary, the development of an ultimate storage concept representing a real alternative promising to close, within a short period of time, the nuclear fuel cycle at low cost. At least, this is the result of an extensive economic efficiency study recently submitted by the Energy Economics Institute which investigated all waste management concepts relevant for the Federal Republic of Germany in the long run, i.e. direct ultimate storage of spent fuel elements (''Other waste disposal technologies'' - AE) as well as reprocessing of spent fuel elements where re-usable plutonium and uranium are recovered and radioactive waste goes to ultimate storage (''Integrated disposal'' - IE). Despite such fairly evident results, the government of the Federal Republic of Germany has favoured the construction of a reprocessing plant. From an economic point of view there is no final answer to the question whether or not the argumentation is sufficient to justify the decision to construct a reprocessing plant. This is true for both the question of technical feasibility and issues of overriding significance of a political nature. (orig./HSCH) [de

  8. Prospects for Australian involvement in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, S.; Hallenstein, C.

    1988-05-01

    A review of recent overseas developments in the nuclear industry by The Northern Territory Department of Mines and Energy suggests that there are market prospects in all stages of the fuel cycle. Australia could secure those markets through aggressive marketing and competitive prices. This report gives a profile of the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear fuel cycle technologies, and describes the prospects of Australian involvement in the nuclear fuel cycle. It concludes that the nuclear fuel cycle industry has the potential to earn around $10 billion per year in export income. It recommend that the Federal Government: (1) re-examines its position on the Slayter recommendation (1984) that Australia should develop new uranium mines and further stages of the nuclear fuel cycle, and (2) gives it's in-principle agreement to the Northern Territory to seek expressions of interest from the nuclear industry for the establishment of an integrated nuclear fuel cycle industry in the Northern Territory

  9. Nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear fuel storage apparatus for use in a water-filled pool is fabricated of a material such as stainless steel in the form of an egg crate structure having vertically extending openings. Fuel may be stored in this basic structure in a checkerboard pattern with high enrichment fuel, or in all openings when the fuel is of low effective enrichment. Inserts of a material such as stainless steel are adapted to fit within these openings so that a water gap and, therefore, a flux trap is formed between adjacent fuel storage locations. These inserts may be added at a later time and fuel of a higher enrichment may be stored in each opening. When it is desired to store fuel of still greater enrichment, poison plates may be added to the water gap formed by the installed insert plates, or substituted for the insert plates. Alternately, or in addition, fuel may be installed in high neutron absorption poison boxes which surround the fuel assembly. The stainless steel inserts and the poison plates are each not required until the capacity of the basic egg crate structure is approached. Purchase of these items can, therefore, be deferred for many years. Should the fuel to be stored be of higher enrichment than initially forecast, the deferred decision on the poison plates makes it possible to obtain increased poison in the plates to satisfy the newly discovered requirement

  10. Review of oxidation rates of DOE spent nuclear fuel : Part 1 : nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, B.A.

    2000-01-01

    The long-term performance of Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a mined geologic disposal system depends highly on fuel oxidation and subsequent radionuclide release. The oxidation rates of nuclear fuels are reviewed in this two-volume report to provide a baseline for comparison with release rate data and technical rationale for predicting general corrosion behavior of DOE SNF. The oxidation rates of nuclear fuels in the DOE SNF inventory were organized according to metallic, Part 1, and non-metallic, Part 2, spent nuclear fuels. This Part 1 of the report reviews the oxidation behavior of three fuel types prototypic of metallic fuel in the DOE SNF inventory: uranium metal, uranium alloys and aluminum-based dispersion fuels. The oxidation rates of these fuels were evaluated in oxygen, water vapor, and water. The water data were limited to pure water corrosion as this represents baseline corrosion kinetics. Since the oxidation processes and kinetics discussed in this report are limited to pure water, they are not directly applicable to corrosion rates of SNF in water chemistry that is significantly different (such as may occur in the repository). Linear kinetics adequately described the oxidation rates of metallic fuels in long-term corrosion. Temperature dependent oxidation rates were determined by linear regression analysis of the literature data. As expected the reaction rates of metallic fuels dramatically increase with temperature. The uranium metal and metal alloys have stronger temperature dependence than the aluminum dispersion fuels. The uranium metal/water reaction exhibited the highest oxidation rate of the metallic fuel types and environments that were reviewed. Consequently, the corrosion properties of all DOE SNF may be conservatively modeled as uranium metal, which is representative of spent N-Reactor fuel. The reaction rate in anoxic, saturated water vapor was essentially the same as the water reaction rate. The long-term intrinsic

  11. Technology Insights and Perspectives for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bays; S. Piet; N. Soelberg; M. Lineberry; B. Dixon

    2010-09-01

    The following report provides a rich resource of information for exploring fuel cycle characteristics. The most noteworthy trends can be traced back to the utilization efficiency of natural uranium resources. By definition, complete uranium utilization occurs only when all of the natural uranium resource can be introduced into the nuclear reactor long enough for all of it to undergo fission. Achieving near complete uranium utilization requires technologies that can achieve full recycle or at least nearly full recycle of the initial natural uranium consumed from the Earth. Greater than 99% of all natural uranium is fertile, and thus is not conducive to fission. This fact requires the fuel cycle to convert large quantities of non-fissile material into fissile transuranics. Step increases in waste benefits are closely related to the step increase in uranium utilization going from non-breeding fuel cycles to breeding fuel cycles. The amount of mass requiring a disposal path is tightly coupled to the quantity of actinides in the waste stream. Complete uranium utilization by definition means that zero (practically, near zero) actinide mass is present in the waste stream. Therefore, fuel cycles with complete (uranium and transuranic) recycle discharge predominately fission products with some actinide process losses. Fuel cycles without complete recycle discharge a much more massive waste stream because only a fraction of the initial actinide mass is burned prior to disposal. In a nuclear growth scenario, the relevant acceptable frequency for core damage events in nuclear reactors is inversely proportional to the number of reactors deployed in a fuel cycle. For ten times the reactors in a fleet, it should be expected that the fleet-average core damage frequency be decreased by a factor of ten. The relevant proliferation resistance of a fuel cycle system is enhanced with: decreasing reliance on domestic fuel cycle services, decreasing adaptability for technology misuse

  12. Nuclear energy and its fuel cycle, prospects to 2025

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear power will supply an increasing share of the world's electricity but will expand more slowly than had been expected, and no shortages of uranium or other fuel cycle services are foreseen before the end of the century. While exploration for new uranium deposits should continue to ensure long-term supplies, advances in reactor design and enrichment and reprocessing techniques could achieve reductions in uranium demand

  13. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, A.N.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear fuel-containing body for a high temperature gas cooled nuclear reactor is described which comprises a flat plate in which the nuclear fuel is contained as a dispersion of fission product-retaining coated fuel particles in a flat sheet of graphitic or carbonaceous matrix material. The flat sheet is clad with a relatively thin layer of unfuelled graphite bonded to the sheet by being formed initially from a number of separate preformed graphitic artefacts and then platen-pressed on to the exterior surfaces of the flat sheet, both the matrix material and the artefacts being in a green state, to enclose the sheet. A number of such flat plates are supported edge-on to the coolant flow in the bore of a tube made of neutron moderating material. Where a number of tiers of plates are superimposed on one another, the abutting edges are chamfered to reduce vibration. (author)

  14. Computational Design of Advanced Nuclear Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savrasov, Sergey; Kotliar, Gabriel; Haule, Kristjan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the project was to develop a method for theoretical understanding of nuclear fuel materials whose physical and thermophysical properties can be predicted from first principles using a novel dynamical mean field method for electronic structure calculations. We concentrated our study on uranium, plutonium, their oxides, nitrides, carbides, as well as some rare earth materials whose 4f eletrons provide a simplified framework for understanding complex behavior of the f electrons. We addressed the issues connected to the electronic structure, lattice instabilities, phonon and magnon dynamics as well as thermal conductivity. This allowed us to evaluate characteristics of advanced nuclear fuel systems using computer based simulations and avoid costly experiments.

  15. Long island to Limerick, nuclear fuel transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Bill

    1999-01-01

    The issue described is: how to move 33 shipments of radioactive nuclear fuel - 200 tons of enriched uranium pellets - on rail cars through the heart of Philadelphia, without upsetting politicians, the media and anti-nuclear activists, after a similar plan to move the fuel through New York City had been rejected in a political disaster. The answer to this is: Strategic Communications Planning. At PECO Energy's department of Corporate and Public Affairs, the research is quite clear that in risk management situations like this, the side that gets out front with the most credible information inevitably wins. That is exactly what was set out to do

  16. Present situation of unused uranium fuel in Tokyo Institute of Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, T.; Ogawa, M.

    2008-01-01

    Present situation of unused enriched uranium fuel in Tokyo Institute of Technology is described. The fuels were for sub-critical experiments. There is no special facility for transportation in the site. But there is no technical problem for it. One of the important issues to be done is a duty by national regulation against nuclear disaster. (author)

  17. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, R.T.; Thompson, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    A method of protecting the cladding of a nuclear fuel element from internal attack and a nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor are disclosed. The nuclear fuel element has disposed therein an additive of a barium-containing material and the barium-containing material collects reactive gases through chemical reaction or adsorption at temperatures ranging from room temperature up to fuel element plenum temperatures. The additive is located in the plenum of the fuel element and preferably in the form of particles in a hollow container having a multiplicity of gas permeable openings in one portion of the container with the openings being of a size smaller than the size of the particles. The openings permit gases and liquids entering the plenum to contact the particles. The additive is comprised of elemental barium or a barium alloy containing one or more metals in addition to barium such as aluminum, zirconium, nickel, titanium and combinations thereof. 6 claims, 3 drawing figures

  18. Approach to securing of stable nuclear fuel supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Kunihisa; Imamura, Isao; Noda, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    With the dual objectives of not only ensuring stable electric power supplies but also preventing global warming, the construction of new nuclear power plants is being planned in many countries throughout the world. Toshiba and Westinghouse Electric Company (WEC), a member of the Toshiba Group, are capable of supplying both boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants to satisfy a broad range of customer requirements. Furthermore, to meet the growing demand for the securing of nuclear fuel supplies, Toshiba and WEC have been promoting the strengthening and further expansion of supply chains in the fields of uranium production, uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) conversion, uranium enrichment, and fuel fabrication. (author)

  19. On recycling of nuclear fuel in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In Japan, atomic energy has become to accomplish the important role in energy supply. Recently the interest in the protection of global environment heightened, and the anxiety on oil supply has been felt due to the circumstances in Mideast. Therefore, the importance of atomic energy as an energy source for hereafter increased, and the future plan of nuclear fuel recycling in Japan must be promoted on such viewpoint. At present in Japan, the construction of nuclear fuel cycle facilities is in progress in Rokkasho, Aomori Prefecture. The prototype FBR 'Monju' started the general functional test in May, this year. The transport of the plutonium reprocessed in U.K. and France to Japan will be carried out in near future. This report presents the concrete measures of nuclear fuel recycling in Japan from the long term viewpoint up to 2010. The necessity and meaning of nuclear fuel recycling in Japan, the effort related to nuclear nonproliferation, the plan of nuclear fuel recycling for hereafter in Japan, the organization of MOX fuel fabrication in Japan and abroad, the method of utilizing recovered uranium and the reprocessing of spent MOX fuel are described. (K.I.)

  20. Nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedrig, T.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear fuel supply is viewed as a buyer's market of assured medium-term stability. Even on a long-term basis, no shortage is envisaged for all conceivable expansion schedules. The conversion and enrichment facilities developed since the mid-seventies have done much to stabilize the market, owing to the fact that one-sided political decisions by the USA can be counteracted efficiently. In view of the uncertainties concerning realistic nuclear waste management strategies, thermal recycling and mixed oxide fuel elements might increase their market share in the future. Capacities are being planned accordingly. (orig.) [de

  1. Nuclear reactor fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Eye, R.W.M.; Shennan, J.V.; Ford, L.H.

    1977-01-01

    Fuel element with particles from ceramic fissionable material (e.g. uranium carbide), each one being coated with pyrolitically deposited carbon and all of them being connected at their points of contact by means of an individual crossbar. The crossbar consists of silicon carbide produced by reaction of silicon metal powder with the carbon under the influence of heat. Previously the silicon metal powder together with the particles was kneaded in a solvent and a binder (e.g. epoxy resin in methyl ethyl ketone plus setting agent) to from a pulp. The reaction temperature lies at 1750 0 C. The reaction itself may take place in a nitrogen atmosphere. There will be produced a fuel element with a high overall thermal conductivity. (DG) [de

  2. Uranium in phosphate rocks and future nuclear power fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, S.; Baschwitz, A.; Mathonniere, G.

    2014-01-01

    According to almost all forward-looking studies, the world’s energy consumption will increase in the future decades, mostly because of the growing world population and the long-term development of emerging countries. The effort to contain global warming makes it hard to exclude nuclear energy from the global energy mix. Current light water reactors (LWR) burn fissile uranium (a natural, finite resource), whereas some future Generation IV reactors, as Sodium fast reactors (SFR), starting with an initial fissile load, will be capable of recycling their own plutonium and already-extracted depleted uranium. This makes them a feasible solution for the sustainable development of nuclear energy. Nonetheless, a sufficient quantity of plutonium is needed to start up an SFR, with the plutonium already being produced in LWR. The availability of natural uranium therefore has a direct impact on the capacity of the reactors (both LWR and SFR) that we can build. This paper discusses the correspondence between the resources and the nuclear power demand as estimated by various international organisations. Uranium is currently produced from conventional sources. The estimated quantities of uranium evolve over time in relation to their rate of extraction and the discovery of new deposits. Contrary to conventional resources, unconventional resources – because they are hardly used – also exist. These resources are more uncertain both in terms of their quantities and the feasibility of recovering them. Recovering uranium from seawater would guarantee a virtually infinite resource of nuclear fuel, but its technical and economic feasibility has yet to be demonstrated, and huge advances need to be achieved in this direction. According to different publications on phosphate reserves, the potential amount of uranium recoverable from phosphates can be estimated at around 4 MtU. Furthermore, the production of uranium as a by-product of phosphate is determined by the world production of

  3. Nuclear-fuel-cycle optimization: methods and modelling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvennoinen, P.

    1982-01-01

    This book present methods applicable to analyzing fuel-cycle logistics and optimization as well as in evaluating the economics of different reactor strategies. After an introduction to the phases of a fuel cycle, uranium cost trends are assessed in a global perspective. Subsequent chapters deal with the fuel-cycle problems faced by a power utility. The fuel-cycle models cover the entire cycle from the supply of uranium to the disposition of spent fuel. The chapter headings are: Nuclear Fuel Cycle, Uranium Supply and Demand, Basic Model of the LWR (light water reactor) Fuel Cycle, Resolution of Uncertainties, Assessment of Proliferation Risks, Multigoal Optimization, Generalized Fuel-Cycle Models, Reactor Strategy Calculations, and Interface with Energy Strategies. 47 references, 34 figures, 25 tables

  4. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, L.N.; Levin, H.A.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element has disposed therein an alloy having the essential components of nickel, titanium and zirconium, and the alloy reacts with water, water vapor and reactive gases at reactor ambient temperatures. The alloy is disposed in the plenum of the fuel element in the form of particles in a hollow gas permeable container having a multiplicity of openings of size smallr than the size of the particles. The container is preferably held in the spring in the plenum of the fuel element. (E.C.B.)

  5. Canada's nuclear fuel industry: An overview. Background paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, A.

    1993-11-01

    Canada was among the first countries to mine and process uranium-bearing ores. Such ores contain trace amounts of radium, which was in great demand for medical treatment and for use by research laboratories in the early part of the century. For the last half century, the same basic processes have been used to extract uranium from its ores and convert it to a form suitable for use in nuclear reactors. The process described here is that currently in use in Canada. Mining can take a variety of forms, from open-pit to deep, hard-rock. Mining is typically the most costly step in the process, particularly for lower-grade ores. The ore is crushed and ground in the mill to the consistency of fine sand from which the uranium is extracted chemically to produce the impure concentrate known as yellowcake. In the next step, the impure uranium concentrate is chemically refined into highly purified, nuclear-grade, uranium trioxide (UO 3 ). Uranium trioxide is then converted, in two separate chemical processes, into uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) which is destined for domestic consumption and uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) which is exported. In Canada, fabrication is the final step of the fuel production process. Uranium dioxide powder is compressed and sintered into very dense ceramic pellets which are then sealed in zirconium tubes and assembled into fuel bundles for Candu reactors. This background paper will review the Canadian nuclear fuels industry. 1 fig

  6. Nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawada, Toshiyuki; Hirayama, Satoshi; Yoneya, Katsutoshi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To enable load-depending operation as well as moderation for the restriction of operation conditions in the present nuclear reactors, by specifying the essential ingredients and the total weight of the additives to UO 2 fuel substances. Constitution: Two or more additives selected from Al 2 O 3 , B 2 O, CaO, MgO, SiO 2 , Na 2 O and P 2 O 5 are added by the total weight of 2 - 5% to fuel substances consisting of UO 2 or a mixture of UO 2 and PuO 2 . When the mixture is sintered, the strength of the fuel elements is decreased and the fuel-cladding interactions due to the difference in the heat expansion coefficients between the ceramic fuel elements and the metal claddings are decreased to a substantially harmless degree. (Horiuchi, T.)

  7. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domoto, Noboru; Masuda, Hiroyuki

    1989-01-01

    In a nuclear fuel assembly loaded with a plurality of fuel rods, the inside of a fuel rod disposed at a high neutron flux region is divided into an inner region and an outer region, and more burnable poisons are mixed in the inner region than in the outer region. Alternatively, the central portion of a pellet disposed in a high neutron flux region is made hollow, in which burnable poisons are charged. This can prevent neutron infinite multiplication factor from decreasing extremely at the initial burning stage. Further, the burnable poisons are not rapidly burnt completely and local peaking coefficient can be controlled. Accordingly, in a case of suppressing a predetermined excess reactivity by using a fuel rod incorporated with the burnable poison, the fuel economy can be improved more and the reactor core controllability can also be improved as compared with the usual case. (T.M.)

  8. The industrial nuclear fuel cycle in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koll, J.H.; Kittl, J.E.; Parera, C.A.; Coppa, R.C.; Aguirre, E.J.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear power program of Argentina for the period 1976-85 is described, as a basis to indicate fuel requirements and the consequent implementation of a national fuel cycle industry. Fuel cycle activities in Argentina were initiated as soon as 1951-2 in the prospection and mining activities through the country. Following this step, yellow-cake production was initiated in plants of limited capacity. National production of uranium concentrate has met requirements up to the present time, and will continue to do so until the Sierra Pintada Industrial Complex starts operation in 1979. Presently, there is a gap in local production of uranium dioxide and fuel elements for the Atucha power station, which are produced abroad using Argentine uranium concentrate. With its background, the argentine program for the installation of nuclear fuel cycle industries is described, and the techno-economical implications considered. Individual projects are reviewed, as well as the present and planned infrastructure needed to support the industrial effort [es

  9. Fabrication routes for Thorium and Uranium233 based AHWR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danny, K.M.; Saraswat, Anupam; Chakraborty, S.; Somayajulu, P.S.; Kumar, Arun

    2011-01-01

    India's economic growth is on a fast growth track. The growth in population and economy is creating huge demand for energy which has to be met with environmentally benign technologies. Nuclear Energy is best suited to meet this demand without causing undue environmental impact. Considering the large thorium reserves in India, the future nuclear power program will be based on Thorium- Uranium 233 fuel cycle. The major characteristic of thorium as the fuel of future comes from its superior fuel utilization. 233 U produced in a reactor is always contaminated with 232 U. This 232 U undergoes a decay to produce 228 Th and it is followed by decay chain including 212 Bi and 208 Tl. Both 212 Bi and 208 Tl are hard gamma emitters ranging from 0.6 MeV-1.6 MeV and 2.6 MeV respectively, which necessitates its handling in hot cell. The average concentration of 232 U is expected to exceed 1000 ppm after a burn-up of 24,000 MWD/t. Work related to developing the fuel fabrication technology including automation and remotization needed for 233 U based fuels is in progress. Various process for fuel fabrication have been developed i.e. Coated Agglomerate Pelletisation (CAP), impregnation technique (Pellet/Gel), Sol Gel Micro-sphere Pelletisation (SGMP) apart from Powder to Pellet (POP) route. This paper describes each process with respect to its advantages, disadvantages and its amenability to automation and remotisation. (author)

  10. Encapsulating spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, L.R.; Gunasekaran, M.

    1979-01-01

    A system is described for encapsulating spent nuclear fuel discharged from nuclear reactors in the form of rods or multi-rod assemblies. The rods are completely and contiguously enclosed in concrete in which metallic fibres are incorporated to increase thermal conductivity and polymers to decrease fluid permeability. This technique provides the advantage of acceptable long-term stability for storage over the conventional underwater storage method. Examples are given of suitable concrete compositions. (UK)

  11. Report of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Subcommittee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    In order to secure stable energy supply over a long period of time, the development and utilization of atomic energy have been actively promoted as the substitute energy for petroleum. Accordingly, the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle is indispensable to support this policy, and efforts have been exerted to promote the technical development and to put it in practical use. The Tokai reprocessing plant has been in operation since the beginning of 1981, and the pilot plant for uranium enrichment is about to start the full scale operation. Considering the progress in the refining and conversion techniques, plutonium fuel fabrication and son on, the prospect to technically establish the nuclear fuel cycle in Japan has been bright. The important problem for the future is to put these techniques in practical use economically. The main point of technical development hereafter is the enlargement and rationalization of the techniques, and the cooperation of the government and the people, and the smooth transfer of the technical development results in public corporations to private organization are necessary. The important problems for establishing the nuclear fuel cycle, the securing of enriched uranium, the reprocessing of spent fuel, unused resources, and the problems related to industrialization, location and fuel storing are reported. (Kako, I.)

  12. Ternary carbide uranium fuels for advanced reactor design applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, Travis; Anghaie, Samim

    1999-01-01

    Solid-solution mixed uranium/refractory metal carbides such as the pseudo-ternary carbide, (U, Zr, Nb)C, hold significant promise for advanced reactor design applications because of their high thermal conductivity and high melting point (typically greater than 3200 K). Additionally, because of their thermochemical stability in a hot-hydrogen environment, pseudo-ternary carbides have been investigated for potential space nuclear power and propulsion applications. However, their stability with regard to sodium and improved resistance to attack by water over uranium carbide portends their usefulness as a fuel for advanced terrestrial reactors. An investigation into processing techniques was conducted in order to produce a series of (U, Zr, Nb)C samples for characterization and testing. Samples with densities ranging from 91% to 95% of theoretical density were produced by cold pressing and sintering the mixed constituent carbides at temperatures as high as 2650 K. (author)

  13. Feasibility study on AFR-100 fuel conversion from uranium-based fuel to thorium-based fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidet, F.; Kim, T.; Grandy, C. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2012-07-30

    Although thorium has long been considered as an alternative to uranium-based fuels, most of the reactors built to-date have been fueled with uranium-based fuel with the exception of a few reactors. The decision to use uranium-based fuels was initially made based on the technology maturity compared to thorium-based fuels. As a result of this experience, lot of knowledge and data have been accumulated for uranium-based fuels that made it the predominant nuclear fuel type for extant nuclear power. However, following the recent concerns about the extent and availability of uranium resources, thorium-based fuels have regained significant interest worldwide. Thorium is more abundant than uranium and can be readily exploited in many countries and thus is now seen as a possible alternative. As thorium-based fuel technologies mature, fuel conversion from uranium to thorium is expected to become a major interest in both thermal and fast reactors. In this study the feasibility of fuel conversion in a fast reactor is assessed and several possible approaches are proposed. The analyses are performed using the Advanced Fast Reactor (AFR-100) design, a fast reactor core concept recently developed by ANL. The AFR-100 is a small 100 MW{sub e} reactor developed under the US-DOE program relying on innovative fast reactor technologies and advanced structural and cladding materials. It was designed to be inherently safe and offers sufficient margins with respect to the fuel melting temperature and the fuel-cladding eutectic temperature when using U-10Zr binary metal fuel. Thorium-based metal fuel was preferred to other thorium fuel forms because of its higher heavy metal density and it does not need to be alloyed with zirconium to reduce its radiation swelling. The various approaches explored cover the use of pure thorium fuel as well as the use of thorium mixed with transuranics (TRU). Sensitivity studies were performed for the different scenarios envisioned in order to determine the

  14. Nuclear fuel cycle information workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This overview of the nuclear fuel cycle is divided into three parts. First, is a brief discussion of the basic principles of how nuclear reactors work; second, is a look at the major types of nuclear reactors being used and world-wide nuclear capacity; and third, is an overview of the nuclear fuel cycle and the present industrial capability in the US

  15. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Yasushi; Hirukawa, Koji; Sakurada, Koichi.

    1994-01-01

    A bundle of fuel rods is divided into four fuel rod group regions of small fuel rod bundles by a cross-shaped partitioning structure consisting of paired plate-like structures which connect two opposing surfaces of a channel box. A water removing material with less neutron absorption (for example, Zr or a Zr alloy) or a solid moderator is inserted and secured to a portion of a non-boiling water region interposed between the paired plate-like structure. It has a structure that light water flows to the region in the plate-like structure. The volume, density or composition of the water removing material is controlled depending on the composition of the fuels, to change the moderating characteristics of neutrons in the non-boiling water region. This can easily moderate the difference of nuclear characteristics between each of fuel assemblies using fuel materials of different fuel compositions. Further, the reactivity control effect of the burnable poisons can be enhanced without worsening fuel economy or linear power density. (I.N.)

  16. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delafosse, Jacques.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to a nuclear fuel assembly for a light or heavy water reactor, or for a fast reactor of the kind with a bundle of cladded pins, maintained parallel to each other in a regular network by an assembly of separate supporting grids, fitted with elastic bearing surfaces on these pins [fr

  17. Nuclear fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, R.I.; Brassfield, H.C.

    1981-01-01

    Increased strength and physical durability in green bodies or pellets formed of particulate nuclear fuel oxides is achieved by inclusion of a fugitive binder which is ammonium bicarbonate, bicarbonate carbomate, carbomate, sesquicarbonate or mixtures thereof. Ammonium oxadate may be included as pore former. (author)

  18. Introduction to Exxon nuclear fuel fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Exxon Nuclear low-enriched uranium fuel fabrication plant in Richland, Washington produces fuel assemblies for both pressurized water and boiling water reactors. The Richland plant was the first US bulk-handling facility selected by the IAEA for inspection under the US-IAEA Safeguards Agreement. The plant was under IAEA inspection from March 1981 through October 1983. This text provides a written description of the plant layout, operation and process. The text also includes a one ton-a-day model (or reference) plant which was adapted from the Exxon Nuclear plant. The Model Plant provides a generic example of a low-enriched uranium (LEU) bulk-handling facility. The Model Plant is used to illustrate in a more quantitative way some of the key safeguards requirements for a bulk-handling facility

  19. Exploration for uranium and other nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, E.C.

    1975-05-01

    Prospecting and exploration for uranium and other nuclear minerals have one advantage over prospecting for other metals because of their inherent radioactivity. Radioactivity in the earth is not confined solely to these elements but also to radiations coming from cosmic rays and from fallouts from large-scale atomic and nuclear explosions. The primary uranium mineral is uranimite, however, concentrations of other uranium minerals may also lead to an economic deposit. Thorium is about three times more abundant than uranium in the earth's crust. Uranium is practically found in many types of geologic environment it being ubiquitous and very mobile. Uranium deposits are classified in a descriptive manner, owing to lack of basic information as to its origin. These classifications are peneconcordant, for deposits as conglomerates and sandstones, discordant for vein pegmatite and contact metamorphic deposits, concordant for deposits in shales and phosphate rocks, and miscellaneous for deposits in beach and placer sands containing mostly thorium minerals. The different exploration techniques and their associated instrumentations are discussed from a regional scale survey to a detailed survey. To date, only the Larap copper-molybdenum-magnetite deposit at the Paracale district, Camarines Norte in the Philippines, has been found to contain uranium as discrete uraninite grains in the ore mineral assemblage of the deposit

  20. The assessment of the long-term evolution of the spent nuclear fuel matrix by kinetic, thermodynamic and spectroscopic studies of uranium minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, J.; Casas, I.; Cera, E.; Ewing, R.C.; Finch, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    The long term behavior of spent nuclear fuel is discussed in the light of recent thermodynamic and kinetic data on mineralogical analogues related to the key phases in the oxidative alteration of uraninite. The implications for the safety assessment of a repository of the established oxidative alteration sequence of the spent fuel matrix are illustrated with Pagoda calculations. The application to the kinetic and thermodynamic data to source term calculations indicates that the appearance and duration of the U(VI) oxyhydroxide transient is critical for the stability of the fuel matrix

  1. Approaches for Securing the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae San; Kim, Min Su; Jo, Seong Youn

    2007-01-01

    The greatest challenge to international nuclear nonproliferation regime is posed by nuclear energy's dual nature for both peaceful and military purposes. Uranium enrichment and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing (sensitive nuclear technologies) are critical from the non-proliferation viewpoint because they may be used to produce weapons-grade nuclear materials. Therefore, since 1970s the world community started to develop further measures to curb the spread of sensitive nuclear technologies. The establishment of a Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) in 1975 was one such measure. The NSG united countries which voluntarily agreed to coordinate their legislation regarding export of nuclear materials, equipment and technologies to countries not possessing nuclear weapons. Alongside measures to limit the spread of sensitive nuclear technologies, multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) started to be discussed. It's becoming increasingly important to link the objective need for an expanded use of nuclear energy with strengthening nuclear non-proliferation by preventing the spread of sensitive nuclear technologies and securing access for interested countries to NFC products and services

  2. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Arata; Wakamatsu, Mitsuo.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To permit the coolant in an FBR type reactor to enter from the entrance nozzle into a nuclear fuel assembly without causing cavitation. Structure: In a nuclear fuel assembly, which comprises a number of thin fuel pines bundled together at a uniform spacing and enclosed within an outer cylinder, with a handling head connected to an upper portion of the outer cylinder and an entrance nozzle connected to a lower portion of the cylinder, the inner surface of the entrance nozzle is provided with a buffer member and an orifice successively in the direction of flow of the coolant. The coolant entering from a low pressure coolant chamber into the entrance nozzle strikes the buffer member and is attenuated, and thereafter flows through an orifice into the outer cylinder. (Horiuchi, T.)

  3. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirama, H.

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element comprises an elongated tube having upper and lower end plugs fixed to both ends thereof and nuclear fuel pellets contained within the tube. The fuel pellets are held against the lower end plug by a spring which is supported by a setting structure. The setting structure is maintained at a proper position at the middle of the tube by a wedge effect caused by spring force exerted by the spring against a set of balls coacting with a tapered member of the setting structure thereby wedging the balls against the inner wall of the tube, and the setting structure is moved free by pushing with a push bar against the spring force so as to release the wedge effect

  4. Nuclear-fuel-cycle costs. Consolidated Fuel-Reprocessing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, W.D.; Haire, M.J.; Rainey, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    The costs for the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, which were developed as part of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP), are presented. Total fuel-cycle costs are given for the pressurized-water reactor once-through and fuel-recycle systems, and for the liquid-metal fast-breeder-reactor system. These calculations show that fuel-cycle costs are a small part of the total power costs. For breeder reactors, fuel-cycle costs are about half that of the present once-through system. The total power cost of the breeder-reactor system is greater than that of light-water reactor at today's prices for uranium and enrichment

  5. Population exposure from the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpen, E.L.; Chester, R.O.; Fisher, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    The papers in this volume reflect the latest research on the nature and degree of exposure to human populations from ionizing radiation that results from the production of commercial nuclear power. The conference comprised representatives from such notable organizations as Brookhaven National Laboratory, the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute and Pacific Northwest Laboratories. Issues addressed include the effects on humans of the mining and extraction of uranium and the fabrication of fuel for nuclear reactors, the decommissioning and disposal of facilities that are no longer useful or efficient and the likelihood of major nuclear accidents. Each document will have to be cataloged separately

  6. Porous nuclear fuel element with internal skeleton for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Williams, Brian E.; Benander, Robert E.

    2013-09-03

    Porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's), and to processes for fabricating them. Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, the nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made of, for example, reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  7. Porous nuclear fuel element for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youchison, Dennis L [Albuquerque, NM; Williams, Brian E [Pacoima, CA; Benander, Robert E [Pacoima, CA

    2011-03-01

    Porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's), and to processes for fabricating them. Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, the nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made of, for example, reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  8. Distribution of equilibrium burnup for an homogeneous core with fuel elements of slightly enriched uranium (0.85% U-235) at Atucha I nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidelnik, J.I.; Perez, R.A.; Salom, G.F.

    1987-01-01

    At Atucha I, the present fuel management with natural uranium comprises three burnup areas and one irradiation path, sometimes performing four steps in the reactor core, according to the requirements. The discharge burnup is 6.0 Mw d/kg U for a waste reactivity of 6.5 m k and a heavy water purity of 99.75%. This is a preliminary study to obtain the distribution of equilibrium burnup of an homogeneous core with slightly enriched uranium (0.85% by weight U-235), using the time-averaged method implemented in the code PUMA and a representative model of one third of core and fixed rod position. It was found a strategy of three areas and two paths that agrees with the present limits of channel power and specific power in fuel rod. The discharge burnup obtained is 11.6 Mw d/kg U. This strategy is calculated with the same method and a full core representation model is used to verify the obtained results. (Author)

  9. Integral nuclear fuel element assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schluderberg, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    An integral nuclear fuel element assembly utilizes longitudinally finned fuel pins. The continuous or interrupted fins of the fuel pins are brazed to fins of juxtaposed fuel pins or directly to the juxtaposed fuel pins or both. The integrally brazed fuel assembly is designed to satisfy the thermal and hydraulic requirements of a fuel assembly lattice having moderator to fuel atom ratios required to achieve high conversion and breeding ratios

  10. Nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikhorev, Yu.V.; Biryukov, G.I.; Kirilyuk, N.A.; Lobanov, V.N.

    1977-01-01

    A fuel assembly is proposed for nuclear reactors allowing remote replacement of control rod bundles or their shifting from one assembly to another, i.e., their multipurpose use. This leads to a significant increase in fuel assembly usability. In the fuel assembly the control rod bundle is placed in guide tube channels to which baffles are attached for fuel element spacing. The remote handling of control rods is provided by a hollow cylinder with openings in its lower bottom through which the control rods pass. All control rods in a bundle are mounted to a cross beam which in turn is mounted in the cylinder and is designed for grasping the whole rod bundle by a remotely controlled telescopic mechanism in bundle replacement or shifting. (Z.M.)

  11. Experience with nuclear fuel utilization in Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harizanov, Y [Committee on the Use of Atomic Energy for Peaceful Purposes, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1997-12-01

    The presentation on experience with nuclear fuel utilization in Bulgaria briefly reviews the situation with nuclear energy in Bulgaria and then discusses nuclear fuel performance (amount of fuel loaded, type of fuel, burnup, fuel failures, assemblies deformation). 2 tabs.

  12. Nuclear fuel cycle system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, W. I.; Kwon, E. H.; Kim, S. G.; Park, B. H.; Song, K. C.; Song, D. Y.; Lee, H. H.; Chang, H. L.; Jeong, C. J.

    2012-04-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle system analysis method has been designed and established for an integrated nuclear fuel cycle system assessment by analyzing various methodologies. The economics, PR(Proliferation Resistance) and environmental impact evaluation of the fuel cycle system were performed using improved DB, and finally the best fuel cycle option which is applicable in Korea was derived. In addition, this research is helped to increase the national credibility and transparency for PR with developing and fulfilling PR enhancement program. The detailed contents of the work are as follows: 1)Establish and improve the DB for nuclear fuel cycle system analysis 2)Development of the analysis model for nuclear fuel cycle 3)Preliminary study for nuclear fuel cycle analysis 4)Development of overall evaluation model of nuclear fuel cycle system 5)Overall evaluation of nuclear fuel cycle system 6)Evaluate the PR for nuclear fuel cycle system and derive the enhancement method 7)Derive and fulfill of nuclear transparency enhancement method The optimum fuel cycle option which is economical and applicable to domestic situation was derived in this research. It would be a basis for establishment of the long-term strategy for nuclear fuel cycle. This work contributes for guaranteeing the technical, economical validity of the optimal fuel cycle option. Deriving and fulfillment of the method for enhancing nuclear transparency will also contribute to renewing the ROK-U.S Atomic Energy Agreement in 2014

  13. Correlation of radioactive waste treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: conversion of recycle uranium to UF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roddy, J.W.; Blanco, R.E.; Finney, B.C.; Hill, G.S.; Moore, R.E.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1977-04-01

    A cost/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of various radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the amount of radioactive materials released from a model recycle uranium conversion and uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) production plant and to determine the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the released radioactive materials on the environment. This study is designed to assist the US NRC in defining the term ''as low as reasonably achievable'' as it applies to these nuclear facilities. The base case model plant is representative of a licensable UF 6 production plant and has an annual capacity of 1500 metric tons of uranium. Additional radwaste treatment systems are added to the base case plant in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The cost for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding dose commitments is calculated for each case. In the final analysis, radiological dose is plotted vs the annual cost for treatment of the radwastes. The status of the radwaste treatment methods used in the case studies is discussed. The methodology used in estimating the costs is presented

  14. Uranium in the shadow of the worldwide nuclear power crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the world market for uranium, particularly as it relates to the production of nuclear power. The major characteristics of the uranium market are first described in detail: the geographic concentration of uranium ore and production; the oligopolistic structure of the market; the nature of contracts; the unusual links between buyers and sellers in a large portion of the market created by governmental action; and the role of other political factors. The period of declining average prices and excess capacity that began in 1981 is then discussed and the future of the uranium market is considered. The author shows how the market is evolving into a form somewhat closer to that of markets for other minerals and fuels; henceforth the delivery price of uranium will play a normal role in adjusting supply to the demand conditions that prevail in the uranium market. He also believes that, contrary, the market is not likely to attain an equilibrium before the latter years of the next decade

  15. The cycle of the nuclear fuel used in EDF power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-11-01

    This document briefly indicates the different stages of the nuclear fuel cycle, from the purchase of natural uranium to waste storage. It also indicates the main responsibilities of EDF regarding this fuel cycle (to secure supplies, to organise material transportation, to process and store used fuels and associated wastes). It presents the different associated processes: uranium extraction, purification and concentration, conversion or fluoridation, enrichment. It briefly describes the fuel assembly fabrication, and indicates the main uranium producers in the world. Other addressed steps are: the transportation of fuel assembly, fuel loading, and spent fuel management, the processing of spent fuel and radioactive wastes

  16. Use of enriched uranium as a fuel in CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zech, H.J.

    1976-08-01

    The use of slightly enriched uranium as a fuel in CANDU-reactors is studied in a simple parametric way. The results show the possibility of 1) about 30% savings in natural uranium consumption 2) about 35% increase in the utilization of the natural uranium 3) a decrease in fuelling costs to about 70 - 80% of the normal case of natural uranium fuelling. (orig.) [de

  17. Analysis of the Reuse of Uranium Recovered from the Reprocessing of Commercial LWR Spent Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DelCul, Guillermo Daniel [ORNL; Trowbridge, Lee D [ORNL; Renier, John-Paul [ORNL; Ellis, Ronald James [ORNL; Williams, Kent Alan [ORNL; Spencer, Barry B [ORNL; Collins, Emory D [ORNL

    2009-02-01

    This report provides an analysis of the factors involved in the reuse of uranium recovered from commercial light-water-reactor (LWR) spent fuels (1) by reenrichment and recycling as fuel to LWRs and/or (2) by recycling directly as fuel to heavy-water-reactors (HWRs), such as the CANDU (registered trade name for the Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor). Reuse is an attractive alternative to the current Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) baseline plan, which stores the reprocessed uranium (RU) for an uncertain future or attempts to dispose of it as 'greater-than-Class C' waste. Considering that the open fuel cycle currently deployed in the United States already creates a huge excess quantity of depleted uranium, the closed fuel cycle should enable the recycle of the major components of spent fuel, such as the uranium and the hazardous, long-lived transuranic (TRU) actinides, as well as the managed disposal of fission product wastes. Compared with the GNEP baseline scenario, the reuse of RU in the uranium fuel cycle has a number of potential advantages: (1) avoidance of purchase costs of 11-20% of the natural uranium feed; (2) avoidance of disposal costs for a large majority of the volume of spent fuel that is reprocessed; (3) avoidance of disposal costs for a portion of the depleted uranium from the enrichment step; (4) depending on the {sup 235}U assay of the RU, possible avoidance of separative work costs; and (5) a significant increase in the production of {sup 238}Pu due to the presence of {sup 236}U, which benefits somewhat the transmutation value of the plutonium and also provides some proliferation resistance.

  18. Analysis of the Reuse of Uranium Recovered from the Reprocessing of Commercial LWR Spent Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DelCul, Guillermo D.; Trowbridge, Lee D.; Renier, John-Paul; Ellis, Ronald James; Williams, Kent Alan; Spencer, Barry B.; Collins, Emory D.

    2009-01-01

    This report provides an analysis of the factors involved in the reuse of uranium recovered from commercial light-water-reactor (LWR) spent fuels (1) by reenrichment and recycling as fuel to LWRs and/or (2) by recycling directly as fuel to heavy-water-reactors (HWRs), such as the CANDU (registered trade name for the Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor). Reuse is an attractive alternative to the current Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) baseline plan, which stores the reprocessed uranium (RU) for an uncertain future or attempts to dispose of it as 'greater-than-Class C' waste. Considering that the open fuel cycle currently deployed in the United States already creates a huge excess quantity of depleted uranium, the closed fuel cycle should enable the recycle of the major components of spent fuel, such as the uranium and the hazardous, long-lived transuranic (TRU) actinides, as well as the managed disposal of fission product wastes. Compared with the GNEP baseline scenario, the reuse of RU in the uranium fuel cycle has a number of potential advantages: (1) avoidance of purchase costs of 11-20% of the natural uranium feed; (2) avoidance of disposal costs for a large majority of the volume of spent fuel that is reprocessed; (3) avoidance of disposal costs for a portion of the depleted uranium from the enrichment step; (4) depending on the 235 U assay of the RU, possible avoidance of separative work costs; and (5) a significant increase in the production of 238 Pu due to the presence of 236 U, which benefits somewhat the transmutation value of the plutonium and also provides some proliferation resistance

  19. Supply assurance in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, T.L.; Jacoby, H.D.

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear fuel assurance, in the face of world and political uncertainties, is interrelated with nuclear technology development plans and international safeguards considerations. This has led some countries to accelerate their commitments to nuclear commercialization faster than necessary and has made non-proliferation policies harder to enforce. Fuel assurance is described on a national basis in three time scales: short-term, or resilience to supply interruptions; mid-term, or contract conditions in which governments make commitments to purchase or deliver; and long-term, or resource adequacy. A review of former assurance problems and current trends in the enrichment and uranium markets indicates that supplier concentration is no longer the major problem so much as non-proliferation actions. The present state of unstable equilibrium is expected to move in the direction of less fuel-supply assurance for countries having a small market or not subscribing to non-proliferation criteria. The authors, while generally optimistic that the fuel-supply system will function, express concern that policies for fuel stockpiles and the condition of uranium markets need improvement. 21 references

  20. Problems relating to international transport of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timm, U.E.

    1985-01-01

    Owing to the tremendous geographic distances between uranium deposits of interest, to the various degrees of sophistication of nuclear industry in industrialized countries and to the close international cooperation in the field of nuclear energy, safe international transports, physical protection and transport handling play an important role. It is suggested to better coordinate the activities of nuclear power plant operators, the nuclear industry and specialized transport companies with respect to all national and international issues of nuclear fuel transports. (DG) [de

  1. Nuclear fuel cycle: international market, international constraints and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, R.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the constraints on the nuclear fuel cycle are ones arising from economic and financial reasons, those caused by uranium resources and their distribution, those arising from technical reasons, issues of public acceptance, and those quite independent of normal industrial considerations, but caused by elements of international politics. The nuclear fuel cycle and the international market, matters of nuclear non-proliferation, and international cooperation are discussed

  2. Radiation Re-solution Calculation in Uranium-Silicide Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Christopher; Andersson, Anders David Ragnar; Unal, Cetin

    2017-01-01

    The release of fission gas from nuclear fuels is of primary concern for safe operation of nuclear power plants. Although the production of fission gas atoms can be easily calculated from the fission rate in the fuel and the average yield of fission gas, the actual diffusion, behavior, and ultimate escape of fission gas from nuclear fuel depends on many other variables. As fission gas diffuses through the fuel grain, it tends to collect into intra-granular bubbles, as portrayed in Figure 1.1. These bubbles continue to grow due to absorption of single gas atoms. Simultaneously, passing fission fragments can cause collisions in the bubble that result in gas atoms being knocked back into the grain. This so called ''re-solution'' event results in a transient equilibrium of single gas atoms within the grain. As single gas atoms progress through the grain, they will eventually collect along grain boundaries, creating inter-granular bubbles. As the inter-granular bubbles grow over time, they will interconnect with other grain-face bubbles until a pathway is created to the outside of the fuel surface, at which point the highly pressurized inter-granular bubbles will expel their contents into the fuel plenum. This last process is the primary cause of fission gas release. From the simple description above, it is clear there are several parameters that ultimately affect fission gas release, including the diffusivity of single gas atoms, the absorption and knockout rate of single gas atoms in intra-granular bubbles, and the growth and interlinkage of intergranular bubbles. Of these, the knockout, or re-solution rate has an particularly important role in determining the transient concentration of single gas atoms in the grain. The re-solution rate will be explored in the following sections with regards to uranium-silicide fuels in order to support future models of fission gas bubble behavior.

  3. Australia's uranium and the international nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringwood, A.E.

    1983-11-01

    A disposal strategy for high-level radioactive waste is presented. The waste is incorporated in SYNROC which is then buried in deep drill holes in a stable geological environment. It is suggested that acceptance of the safety of this strategy would remove a primary objection to the mining of Australian uranium. Further Australian involvement in the fuel cycle is advocated

  4. High performance nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mordarski, W.J.; Zegler, S.T.

    1980-01-01

    A fuel-pellet composition is disclosed for use in fast breeder reactors. Uranium carbide particles are mixed with a powder of uraniumplutonium carbides having a stable microstructure. The resulting mixture is formed into fuel pellets. The pellets thus produced exhibit a relatively low propensity to swell while maintaining a high density

  5. Securing the nuclear fuel cycle: What next?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruchkin, S.V.; Loginov, V.Y.

    2006-01-01

    The greatest challenge to the international nuclear non-proliferation regime is posed by nuclear energy's dual nature for both peaceful and military purposes. Uranium enrichment and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing (here after called s ensitive nuclear technologies ) are critical from the non-proliferation viewpoint because they may be used to produce weapons-grade nuclear materials: highly enriched uranium and separated plutonium. Alongside measures to limit the spread of sensitive nuclear technologies, multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) started to be discussed. Spiralling prices for hydrocarbons and prospects of their imminent extinction are encouraging more and more countries to look at nuclear energy as an alternative means to ensure their sustainable development. To this end, it's becoming increasingly important to link the objective need for an expanded use of nuclear energy with strengthening nuclear non-proliferation by, in particular, preventing the spread of sensitive nuclear technologies and securing access for interested countries to NFC products and services. With this in mind, at the IAEA General Conference in 2003, IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei called for establishing an international experts group on multilateral nuclear approaches. The proposal was supported, and in February 2005 the international experts, headed by Bruno Pellaud, issued a report (published by the IAEA as INFCIRC-640; see www.iaea.org) with recommendations on different multilateral approaches. The recommendations can be generalized as follows: reinforcement of existing market mechanisms; involvement of governments and the IAEA in the assurance of supply, including the establishment of low-enriched uranium (LEU) stocks as reserves; conversion of existing national uranium enrichment and SNF reprocessing enterprises into multilateral ones under international management and control, and setting up new multilateral enterprises on regional and

  6. Nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This film for a general audience deals with nuclear fuel waste management in Canada, where research is concentrating on land based geologic disposal of wastes rather than on reprocessing of fuel. The waste management programme is based on cooperation of the AECL, various universities and Ontario Hydro. Findings of research institutes in other countries are taken into account as well. The long-term effects of buried radioactive wastes on humans (ground water, food chain etc.) are carefully studied with the help of computer models. Animated sequences illustrate the behaviour of radionuclides and explain the idea of a multiple barrier system to minimize the danger of radiation hazards

  7. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, E. D.

    1984-01-01

    An array of rods is assembled to form a fuel element for a pressurized water reactor, the rods comprising zirconium alloy sheathed nuclear fuel pellets and containing helium. The helium gas pressure is selected for each rod so that it differs substantially from the helium gas pressure in its closest neighbors. In a preferred arrangement the rods are arranged in a square lattice and the helium gas pressure alternates between a relatively high value and a relatively low value so that each rod has as its closest neighbors up to four rods containing helium gas at the other pressure value

  8. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, E. D.

    1984-10-16

    An array of rods is assembled to form a fuel element for a pressurized water reactor, the rods comprising zirconium alloy sheathed nuclear fuel pellets and containing helium. The helium gas pressure is selected for each rod so that it differs substantially from the helium gas pressure in its closest neighbors. In a preferred arrangement the rods are arranged in a square lattice and the helium gas pressure alternates between a relatively high value and a relatively low value so that each rod has as its closest neighbors up to four rods containing helium gas at the other pressure value.

  9. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The nuclear fuel assembly described includes a cluster of fuel elements supported at a distance from each other so that their axes are parallel in order to establish secondary channels between them reserved for the coolant. Several ducts for an auxiliary cooling fluid are arranged in the cluster. The wall of each duct is pierced with coolant ejection holes which are placed circumferentially to a pre-determined pattern established according to the position of the duct in the cluster and by the axial distance of the ejection hole along the duct. This assembly is intended for reactors cooled by light or heavy water [fr

  10. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Strategy For Developing Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Hyo

    1987-01-01

    The world's uranium market is very uncertain at the moment while other front-end fuel cycle services including enrichment show a surplus of supply. Therefore, a current concern of developing countries is how to assure a long-term stable supply of uranium, so far as front-end fuel cycle operation is concerned. So, as for the front-end fuel cycle strategy, I would like to comment only on uranium procurement strategy. I imagine that you are familiar with, yet let me begin my talk by having a look at, the nuclear power development program and current status of fuel cycle technology of developing countries. It is a nice thing to achieve the full domestic control of fuel cycle operation. The surest way to do so is localization of related technology. Nevertheless, developing at a time due to enormous capital requirements, not to mention the non-proliferation restrictions. Therefore, the important which technology to localize prior to other technology and how to implement. The non-proliferation restriction excludes the enrichment and reprocessing technology for the time being. As for the remaining technology the balance between the capital costs and benefits must dictate the determination of the priority as mentioned previously. As a means to reduce the commercial risk and heavy financial burdens, the multi-national joint venture of concerned countries is desirable in implementing the localization projects

  11. Nuclear fuel activities in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, D S [Fuel Development Branch, Chalk River Labs., AECL (Canada)

    1997-12-01

    Nuclear fuel activities in Canada are considered in the presentation on the following directions: Canadian utility fuel performance; CANDU owner`s group fuel programs; AECL advanced fuel program (high burnup fuel behaviour and development); Pu dispositioning (MOX) activities. 1 tab.

  12. Environmental radiation monitoring around Korea Nuclear Fuel Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myung Ho; Lee, Chang Woo; Choi, Yong Ho; Cho, Yueng Hyun; Choi, Gyun Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    Environmental Radiation Monitoring was carried out with measurement of environmental radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis around Korea Nuclear Fuel Company. Environmental Radiation rates measured by Portable ERM and accumulated dose rates measured by TLD were same level compared with past years. Total alpha and beta concentrations in the air particulates showed the similar values in all sampling points. The concentration of uranium isotopes in soils and underground waters were measured similar to natural uranium values. The concentration of uranium isotopes in surface waters and sediments decreased with increasing distances from the point of discharge. The concentrations of uranium isotopes in rain water and foods such as rices and vegetables were not detected or measured similar to natural uranium level. Hence, the environment around the nuclear facilities in Korea has been contaminated only to an insignificant extent, although a small amount of disequilibated uranium was detected within 4 km downstream of the point of discharge of KNFC. 31 refs., 26 figs., 42 tabs. (Author)

  13. Fabrication of Uranium Oxycarbide Kernels for HTR Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Charles; Richardson, Clay; Nagley, Scott; Hunn, John; Shaber, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) has been producing high quality uranium oxycarbide (UCO) kernels for Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) fuel tests at the Idaho National Laboratory. In 2005, 350-(micro)m, 19.7% 235U-enriched UCO kernels were produced for the AGR-1 test fuel. Following coating of these kernels and forming the coated-particles into compacts, this fuel was irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) from December 2006 until November 2009. B and W produced 425-(micro)m, 14% enriched UCO kernels in 2008, and these kernels were used to produce fuel for the AGR-2 experiment that was inserted in ATR in 2010. B and W also produced 500-(micro)m, 9.6% enriched UO2 kernels for the AGR-2 experiments. Kernels of the same size and enrichment as AGR-1 were also produced for the AGR-3/4 experiment. In addition to fabricating enriched UCO and UO2 kernels, B and W has produced more than 100 kg of natural uranium UCO kernels which are being used in coating development tests. Successive lots of kernels have demonstrated consistent high quality and also allowed for fabrication process improvements. Improvements in kernel forming were made subsequent to AGR-1 kernel production. Following fabrication of AGR-2 kernels, incremental increases in sintering furnace charge size have been demonstrated. Recently small scale sintering tests using a small development furnace equipped with a residual gas analyzer (RGA) has increased understanding of how kernel sintering parameters affect sintered kernel properties. The steps taken to increase throughput and process knowledge have reduced kernel production costs. Studies have been performed of additional modifications toward the goal of increasing capacity of the current fabrication line to use for production of first core fuel for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) and providing a basis for the design of a full scale fuel fabrication facility.

  14. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation and Real Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Havlíček

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this paper describes the nuclear fuel cycle. It is divided into three parts. The first part, called Front-End, covers all activities connected with fuel procurement and fabrication. The middle part of the cycle includes fuel reload design activities and the operation of the fuel in the reactor. Back-End comprises all activities ensuring safe separation of spent fuel and radioactive waste from the environment. The individual stages of the fuel cycle are strongly interrelated. Overall economic optimization is very difficult. Generally, NPV is used for an economic evaluation in the nuclear fuel cycle. However the high volatility of uranium prices in the Front-End, and the large uncertainty of both economic and technical parameters in the Back-End, make the use of NPV difficult. The real option method is able to evaluate the value added by flexibility of decision making by a company under conditions of uncertainty. The possibility of applying this method to the nuclear fuel cycle evaluation is studied. 

  15. Mixing of Al into uranium silicides reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, F.R.; Birtcher, R.C.; Kestel, B.J.; Baldo, P.M.

    1996-11-01

    SEM observations have shown that irradiation induced interaction of the aluminum cladding with uranium silicide reactor fuels strongly affects both fission gas and fuel swelling behaviors during fuel burn-up. The authors have used ion beam mixing, by 1.5 MeV Kr, to study this phenomena. RBS and the 27 Al(p, γ) 28 Si resonance nuclear reaction were used to measure radiation induced mixing of Al into U 3 Si and U 3 Si 2 after irradiation at 300 C. Initially U mixes into the Al layer and Al mixes into the U 3 Si. At a low dose, the Al layer is converted into UAl 4 type compound while near the interface the phase U(Al .93 Si .07 ) 3 grows. Under irradiation, Al diffuses out of the UAl 4 surface layer, and the lower density ternary, which is stable under irradiation, is the final product. Al mixing into U 3 Si 2 is slower than in U 3 Si, but after high dose irradiation the Al concentration extends much farther into the bulk. In both systems Al mixing and diffusion is controlled by phase formation and growth. The Al mixing rates into the two alloys are similar to that of Al into pure uranium where similar aluminide phases are formed

  16. Back-end fuel cycle efficiencies with respect to improved uranium utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuczera, B.; Hennies, H.H.

    1983-01-01

    The world-wide nuclear power plant (NPP) capacity is at present 160 GW(e). If one adds the power stations under construction and ordered, a plant capacity of approximately 480 GW(e) is obtained for 1990, with the share of LWRs making up more than 80%. A modern LWR consumes in the open fuel cycle about 4400 metric tonnes of natural uranium per GW(e), assuming a lifetime of 30 years and a load factor of 70%. Considering the natural uranium reserves known at present and exploitable under economic conditions, it can be conveniently estimated that, with the present NPP capacity extension perspective, the natural uranium resources may be exhausted in a few decades. This trend can be counteracted in a flexible manner by various approaches in fuel cycle technology and strategy: (i) by steady further development of the established LWR technology the uranium consumption can be reduced by about 15%; (ii) closing the nuclear fuel cycle on the basis of LWRs (i.e. thermal uranium and plutonium recycling) implies up to 40% savings in natural uranium consumption; (iii) more recent considerations include the advanced pressurized water reactor (APWR). The APWR combines the proven PWR technology with a newly developed tight lattice core with greatly improved conversion characteristics (conversion ratio = 0.90 to 0.95). In terms of uranium utilization, the APWR has an efficiency three to five times higher than a PWR; (iv) Commercial introduction of FBR systems results in an optimal utilization of uranium which, at the same time, guarantees the supply of nuclear fuel well beyond the present century. For a corresponding transition period an energy supply system can be conceived which relies essentially on extended back-end fuel cycle capacities. These would facilitate a symbiosis of PWR, APWR and FBR, characterized by high flexibility with respect to long-term developments on the energy market. (author)

  17. Nuclear fuel, with emphasis on its utilization in pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khazaneh, R.; Roshanzamir, M.

    1997-01-01

    Production processes of nuclear fuel on one hand and using nuclear fuels in reactors, particularly PWR Type reactors on the other hand is investigated. The first chapter reviews the relationship between fuel and reactors; The principals of reactor physics in relation with fuel are described shortly. The second chapter reviews uranium exploration and extraction as well as production of uranium concentrate and uranium dioxides. The third chapter is specified to the different procedures of uranium enrichment. In the fourth chapter, processing of uranium dioxide powder and fuel pellet is described. In the fifth chapter fabrication of fuel rod and fuel assemblies is explained thoroughly. The sixth chapter devoted to the different phenomena which occur ed in fuel structure and can during operational time of reactor; damage to fuel rods and developing theoretical models to describe these phenomena and analysis of fuel structure. The seventh chapter discusses how fuel rods are to be experimented during fabrication, operation and development of technology. The eighth chapter explains different fuels such as uranium compounds and mixed oxide fuel of uranium Gadolinium and uranium plutonium and the process of fabrication of zircaloy. In the tenth chapter, fuel reprocessing is investigated and the difficulties of developing this technology is referred

  18. Compact nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, V.V.; Churakov, Yu.A.; Danchenko, Yu.V.; Bylkin, B.K.; Tsvetkov, S.V.

    1983-01-01

    Different constructions of racks for compact storage of spent fuel assemblies (FA) in ''coolin''g pools (CP) of NPPs with the BWR and PWR type reactors are described. Problems concerning nuclear and radiation safety and provision of necessary thermal conditions arising in such rack design are discussed. It is concluded that the problem of prolonged fuel storage at NPPs became Very actual for many countries because of retapdation of the rates of fuel reprocessing centers building. Application of compact storage racks is a promising solution of the problem of intermediate FA storage at NPPs. Such racks of stainless boron steel and with neutron absorbers in the from of boron carbide panels enable to increase the capacity of the present CP 2-2.6 times, and the period of FA storage in them up to 5-10 years

  19. Nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a nuclear reactor fuel assembly comprising a cluster of fuel elements supported by transversal grids so that their axes are parallel to and at a distance from each other, in order to establish interstices for the axial flow of a coolant. At least one of the interstices is occupied by an axial duct reserved for an auxiliary cooling fluid and is fitted with side holes through which the auxiliary cooling fluid is sprayed into the cluster. Deflectors extend as from a transversal grid in a position opposite the holes to deflect the cooling fluid jet towards those parts of the fuel elements that are not accessible to the auxiliary coolant. This assembly is intended for reactors cooled by light or heavy water [fr

  20. Nuclear fuel pin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, Kenneth; Moulding, T.L.J.; Rostron, Norman.

    1979-01-01

    Fuel pin for use in fast breeder nuclear reactors containing fissile and fertile areas of which the fissile and fertile materials do not mix. The fissile material takes the shape of large and small diameter microspheres (the small diameter microspheres can pass through the interstices between the large microspheres). The barrier layers being composed of microspheres with a diameter situated between those of the large and small microspheres ensure that the materials do not mix [fr

  1. Alternative nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    This diffuse subject involves value judgments that are political as well as technical, and is best understood in that context. The four questions raised here, however, are mostly from the technical viewpoints: (1) what are alternative nuclear fuel cycles; (2) what generalizations are possible about their characteristics; (3) what are the major practical considerations; and (4) what is the present situation and what can be said about the outlook for the future

  2. Vented nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguma, M.; Hirose, Y.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of a vented nuclear fuel element having a plenum for accumulation of fission product gases and plug means for delaying the release of the fission product gases from the plenum, the plug means comprising a first porous body wettable with a liquid metal and a second porous body non-wettable with the liquid metal, the first porous body being impregnated with the liquid metal and in contact with the liquid metal

  3. The measurements of critical mass with uranium fuel elements and thorium rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Zhiquan; Chen Zhicheng; Yao Zewu; Ji Huaxiang; Bao Borong; Zhang Jiahua

    1991-01-01

    The critical experiments with uranium elements and Thorium rods have been performed in zero power reactor at Shanghai Institute of Nuclear Research. The critical masses have been measured in various U/Th ratios. The fuels are 3% 235 U-enriched uranium. The Thorium rods are made from power of ThF 4 . Ratios of calculated values to experimental values are nearly constant at 0.995

  4. Nuclear reactor fuel element splitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, D.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for removing nuclear fuel from a clad fuel element. The fuel element is power driven past laser beams which simultaneously cut the cladding lengthwise into at least two longitudinal pieces. The axially cut lengths of cladding are then separated, causing the nuclear fuel contained therein to drop into a receptacle for later disposition. The cut lengths of cladding comprise nuclear waste which is disposed of in a suitable manner. 6 claims, 10 drawing figures

  5. Environmental impact of nuclear fuel cycle operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, W.L.

    1989-09-01

    This paper considers the environmental impact of nuclear fuel cycle operations, particularly those operated by British Nuclear Fuels plc, which include uranium conversion, fuel fabrication, uranium enrichment, irradiated fuel transport and storage, reprocessing, uranium recycle and waste treatment and disposal. Quantitative assessments have been made of the impact of the liquid and gaseous discharges to the environment from all stages in the fuel cycle. An upper limit to the possible health effects is readily obtained using the codified recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. This contrasts with the lack of knowledge concerning the health effects of many other pollutants, including those resulting from the burning of fossil fuels. Most of the liquid and gaseous discharges result at the reprocessing stage and although their impact on the environment and on human health is small, they have given rise to much public concern. Reductions in discharges at Sellafield over the last few years have been quite dramatic, which shows what can be done provided the necessary very large investment is undertaken. The cost-effectiveness of this investment must be considered. Some of it has gone beyond the point of justification in terms of health benefit, having been undertaken in response to public and political pressure, some of it on an international scale. The potential for significant off-site impact from accidents in the fuel cycle has been quantitatively assessed and shown to be very limited. Waste disposal will also have an insignificant impact in terms of risk. It is also shown that it is insignificant in relation to terrestrial radioactivity and therefore in relation to the human environment. 14 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  6. International symposium concluded that uranium supply for nuclear power is secure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document informs that stable uranium supply to fuel nuclear power plants will continue to be available according to the conclusion reached at the International Symposium on the Uranium Production Cycle and the Environment held from 2 to 6 October 2000 at the IAEA in Vienna. The meeting included specialists from about 40 countries, in addition to the Arab Atomic Energy Agency, European Commission, OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), Office of Supervising Scientist (OSS)/Environment Australia, United Nations, Uranium Institute, World Bank, the World Energy Council and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI)

  7. Fugitive binder for nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallivan, T.J.

    1980-01-01

    A compound consisting of ammonium cations and carbonate, bicarbonate, or carbamate anions, or a mixture of such compounds, is useful as a binder for uranium dioxide fuel pellets for which it is desired to maintain a certain degree of porosity, uniformity of pore size, a lack of interconnections between the pores, and the shape or configuration of the base material particles in the final article after sintering. Upon heating, these binders decompose into gases and leave substantially no impurities. A process for sintering green nuclear fuel pellets using these binders is provided. (LL)

  8. Handbook on process and chemistry of nuclear fuel reprocessing. 3rd edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-03-01

    The fundamental data on spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and related chemistry was collected and summarized as a new edition of 'Handbook on Process and Chemistry of Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing'. The purpose of this handbook is contribution to development of the fuel reprocessing and fuel cycle technology for uranium fuel and mixed oxide fuel utilization. Contents in this book was discussed and reviewed by specialists of science and technology on fuel reprocessing in Japan. (author)

  9. The structure and economics of the nuclear fuel cycle service industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyett, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled; introduction; mining and milling of uranium ore; the nuclear energy process; enrichment; burnup; reprocessing; fast reactors; waste disposal; international aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle (international trade). (U.K.)

  10. Environmental radiation monitoring around Korea nuclear fuel company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myung Ho; Lee, Chang Woo; Choi, Gyun Sik; Lee, Won Yun; Park, Hyu Gok; Park, Do Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-01-01

    Environmental Radiation Monitoring was carried out with measurement of environmental radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis around Korea Nuclear Fuel Company. Environmental Radiation rates measured by portable ERM and accumulated dose rates measured by TLD were on the same level as those measured in the previous years. Total alpha and beta concentrations in the air particulates showed the similar values in all sampling points. The concentration of uranium isotopes in soils and underground waters were measured similar to natural uranium values. The concentration of uranium isotopes in surface waters and sediments around the nuclear facilities were somewhat higher than those from reference site. The concentrations of uranium isotopes in rain water and foods such as rices and vegetables were similar to natural uranium level, the environment around the nuclear facilities has been contaminated only to an insignificant extent. It is estimated that the environmental impact resulting from the operation of KNFC in 2001 was negligible. 31 refs., 30 figs., 41 tabs. (Author)

  11. Cycle for fuel elements. Uranium production, programs for nuclear power stations and capital expenditure involved; Cycles de combustibles. Production d'uranium, programme de centrales electriques et effort financier correspondant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriot, J; Gaussens, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    A number of different possible programs for nuclear power stations of various types are presented in this survey. These programs are established in relation to the use of uranium and thorium in amounts similar to those that shall probably be produced in France during the next fifteen years. As it is possible to draw plans for nuclear power stations in which several processes exist simultaneously, an unlimited number of variations being thinkable, this survey is limited to successive analysis of the results obtained by use of only one of each of the following three systems: - system natural uranium-graphite, - system natural uranium-heavy water, -system enriched uranium-pressurised light water. All schemes are considered as assemblages of these three simple systems. The effects of plutonium recycling are also considered for each system. The electric power installed and the capacity of stations situated up-stream and down-stream have been calculated by this method and an attempt has been made to establish the sum to be invested during the fifteen years necessary for the launching of the programs scheduled. A table of timing for the investments groups the results obtained. Considering the fact that French availabilities in capital shall not be unlimited during the coming years, this way of presenting the results seems to be interesting. (author)Fren. [French] L'etude presentee comporte l'examen d'un certain nombre d'hypotheses de programmes de centrales nucleaires de types differents. Ces programmes correspondent a l'utilisation de tonnages d'uranium et de thorium de l'ordre de grandeur de ceux qui seront probablement produits par la France dans les quinze prochaines annees. Comme il est possible de batir un programme de centrales nucleaires, comportant a la fois plusieurs filieres suivant des variantes en nombre infini, on s'est contente d'examiner successivement les resultats ous si on utilisait exclusivement l'une des trois filieres suivantes: - filiere uranium

  12. Cycle for fuel elements. Uranium production, programs for nuclear power stations and capital expenditure involved; Cycles de combustibles. Production d'uranium, programme de centrales electriques et effort financier correspondant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriot, J.; Gaussens, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    A number of different possible programs for nuclear power stations of various types are presented in this survey. These programs are established in relation to the use of uranium and thorium in amounts similar to those that shall probably be produced in France during the next fifteen years. As it is possible to draw plans for nuclear power stations in which several processes exist simultaneously, an unlimited number of variations being thinkable, this survey is limited to successive analysis of the results obtained by use of only one of each of the following three systems: - system natural uranium-graphite, - system natural uranium-heavy water, -system enriched uranium-pressurised light water. All schemes are considered as assemblages of these three simple systems. The effects of plutonium recycling are also considered for each system. The electric power installed and the capacity of stations situated up-stream and down-stream have been calculated by this method and an attempt has been made to establish the sum to be invested during the fifteen years necessary for the launching of the programs scheduled. A table of timing for the investments groups the results obtained. Considering the fact that French availabilities in capital shall not be unlimited during the coming years, this way of presenting the results seems to be interesting. (author)Fren. [French] L'etude presentee comporte l'examen d'un certain nombre d'hypotheses de programmes de centrales nucleaires de types differents. Ces programmes correspondent a l'utilisation de tonnages d'uranium et de thorium de l'ordre de grandeur de ceux qui seront probablement produits par la France dans les quinze prochaines annees. Comme il est possible de batir un programme de centrales nucleaires, comportant a la fois plusieurs filieres suivant des variantes en nombre infini, on s'est contente d'examiner successivement les resultats ous si on utilisait exclusivement l

  13. Operating experience with Exxon nuclear advanced fuel assembly and fuel cycle designs in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skogen, F.B.; Killgore, M.R.; Holm, J.S.; Brown, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Exxon Nuclear Company (ENC) has achieved a high standard of performance in its supply of fuel reloads for both BWRs and PWRs, while introducing substantial innovations aimed at realization of improved fuel cycle costs. The ENC experience with advanced design features such as the bi-metallic spacer, the dismountable upper tie plate, natural uranium axial blankets, optimized water-to-fuel designs, annular pellets, gadolinia burnable absorbers, and improved fuel management scenarios, is summarized

  14. Survey of the market situation within the nuclear fuels cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-05-01

    A brief survey of the global situation in 1983 regarding resources, production costs, supply of, and demand for, uranium including a prognosis of the nuclear effect and the capacity of the western countries for conversion, with emphasis on the Scandinavian countries. The situation concerning management of spent nuclear fuels is also elaborated. (AB)

  15. The development of the uranium and nuclear industry in South Africa, 1945 - 1970 : a historical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janson, E.J.G.

    1995-12-01

    This thesis traces the historical development of nuclear research in South Africa between 1945 and 1970, starting with the efforts of metallurgists of South Africa and the Allied Nations to extract uranium from the gold ores of the Witwatersrand. During the 1950's seventeen uranium extraction plants formed a very important part of the country's industrial activity. The prospect of using South African uranium for nuclear power production (in the Western Cape area), led to the Atomic Energy Research and Development Programme investigation into nuclear energy production in South Africa. The programme provided for the refining of uranium for nuclear fuel, the establishment of a nuclear research centre at Pelindaba, the acquisition of a research reactor, and facilities for nuclear reactor research and uranium enrichment experiments. The two major projects that were initiated in the 1960's were the Pelinduna nuclear reactor project and experimentation on the vortex tube method for uranium enrichment (the Gas Cooling Project). An Investigation Committee was appointed by the Government to assess the viability of a pilot uranium enrichment plant. In 1970 it was announced that a process had been developed that was a combination of the separating element using uranium hexafluoride in hydrogen as the process fluid and a new cascade technique. 331 refs., 19 figs

  16. Environmental management at Nuclear Fuel Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhary, S.; Kalidas, R.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC) a unit of Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) is manufacturing and supplying fuel assemblies and structurals for Atomic Power Reactors, Seamless Stainless Steel/ Special Alloy Tubes and high purity/special materials for various industries including Atomic Energy, Space and Electronics. NFC is spread over about 200 acres area. It consists of various chemical, metallurgical, fabrication and assembly plants engaged in processing uranium from concentrate to final fuel assembly, processing zirconium from ore to metallic products and processing various special high purity materials from ore or intermediate level to the final product. The plants were commissioned in the early seventies and capacities of these plants have been periodically enhanced to cater to the growing demands of the Indian Nuclear Industry. In the two streams of plants processing Uranium and zirconium, various types and categories including low level radioactive wastes are generated. These require proper handling and disposal. The overall management of radioactive and other waste aims at minimizing the generation and release to the environment. In this presentation, the environment management methodologies as practiced in Nuclear Fuel Complex are discussed. (author)

  17. Nuclear fuel handling apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrea, C.; Dupen, C.F.G.; Noyes, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    A fuel handling machine for a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor in which a retractable handling tube and gripper are lowered into the reactor to withdraw a spent fuel assembly into the handling tube. The handling tube containing the fuel assembly immersed in liquid sodium is then withdrawn completely from the reactor into the outer barrel of the handling machine. The machine is then used to transport the spent fuel assembly directly to a remotely located decay tank. The fuel handling machine includes a decay heat removal system which continuously removes heat from the interior of the handling tube and which is capable of operating at its full cooling capacity at all times. The handling tube is supported in the machine from an articulated joint which enables it to readily align itself with the correct position in the core. An emergency sodium supply is carried directly by the machine to provide make up in the event of a loss of sodium from the handling tube during transport to the decay tank. 5 claims, 32 drawing figures

  18. How can Korea secure uranium enrichment and spent fuel reprocessing rights?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Seungkook; Kim, Wonjoon

    2014-01-01

    South Korea is heavily dependent on energy resources from other countries and nuclear energy accounts for 31% of Korea's electric power generation as a major energy. However, Korea has many limitations in uranium enrichment and spent fuel reprocessing under the current Korea-U.S. nuclear agreement, although they are economically and politically important to Korea due to a significant problems in nuclear fuel storages. Therefore, in this paper, we first examine those example countries – Japan, Vietnam, and Iran – that have made nuclear agreements with the U.S. or have changed their agreements to allow the enrichment of uranium and the reprocessing of spent fuel. Then, we analyze those countries' nuclear energy policies and review their strategic repositioning in the relationship with the U.S. We find that a strong political stance for peaceful usage of nuclear energy including the legislation of nuclear laws as was the case of Japan. In addition, it is important for Korea to acquire advanced technological capability such as sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) because SFR technologies require plutonium to be used as fuel rather than uranium-235. In addition, Korea needs to leverage its position in nuclear agreement between China and the U.S. as was the case of Vietnam

  19. Crushing method for nuclear fuel powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Shin-ichi; Tsuchiya, Haruo.

    1997-01-01

    A crushing medium is contained in mill pots disposed at the circumferential periphery of a main axis. The diameter of each mill pot is determined such that powdery nuclear fuels containing aggregated powders and ground and mixed powders do not reach criticality. A plurality of mill pots are revolved in the direction of the main axis while each pots rotating on its axis. Powdery nuclear fuels containing aggregated powders are conveyed to a supply portion of the moll pot, and an inert gas is supplied to the supply portion. The powdery nuclear fuels are supplied from the supply portion to the inside of the mill pots, and the powdery nuclear fuels containing aggregated powders are crushed by centrifugal force caused by the rotation and the revolving of the mill pots by means of the crushing medium. UO 2 powder in uranium oxide fuels can be crushed continuously. PuO 2 powder and UO 2 powder in MOX fuels can be crushed and mixed continuously. (I.N.)

  20. Uranium-thorium fuel cycle in a very high temperature hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, C.R.G.; Oliva, A.M.; Fajardo, L.G.; Garcia, J.A.R.; Curbelo, J.P.; Abadanes, A.

    2011-01-01

    Thorium is a potentially valuable energy source since it is about three to four times as abundant as Uranium. It is also a widely distributed natural resource readily accessible in many countries. Therefore, Thorium fuels can complement Uranium fuels and ensure long term sustainability of nuclear power. The main advantages of the use of a hybrid system formed by a Pebble Bed critical nuclear reactor and two Pebble Bed Accelerator Driven Systems (ADSs) using a Uranium-Thorium (U + Th) fuel cycle are shown in this paper. Once-through and two step U + Th fuel cycle was evaluated. With this goal, a preliminary conceptual design of a hybrid system formed by a Graphite Moderated Gas-Cooled Very High Temperature Reactor and two ADSs is proposed. The main parameters related to the neutronic behavior of the system in a deep burn scheme are optimized. The parameters that describe the nuclear fuel breeding and Minor Actinide stockpile are compared with those of a simple Uranium fuel cycle. (author)

  1. South Korea's nuclear fuel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    March 1990 marked a major milestone for South Korea's nuclear power program, as the country became self-sufficient in nuclear fuel fabrication. The reconversion line (UF 6 to UO 2 ) came into full operation at the Korea Nuclear Fuel Company's fabrication plant, as the last step in South Korea's program, initiated in the mid-1970s, to localize fuel fabrication. Thus, South Korea now has the capability to produce both CANDU and pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies. This article covers the nuclear fuel industry in South Korea-how it is structures, its current capabilities, and its outlook for the future

  2. Resources of nuclear fuels and materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, K [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan); Kamiyama, Teiji; Hayashi, S; Hida, Noboru; Okano, T

    1974-11-01

    In this explanatory article, data on the world resources of nuclear fuels and materials, their production, and the present state of utilization are presented by specialists in varied fields. Main materials taken up are uranium, thorium, beryllium, zirconium, niobium, rare earth elements, graphite, and materials for nuclear fusion (heavy hydrogen and tritium). World reserves and annual production of these materials listed in a number of tables are cited from statistics of the period 1970-1973 or given by estimation. These data may be used as valuable numerical data for various projects and problems of atomic power industries.

  3. Nuclear fuel reprocessing: A time for decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, A.J.; Sandbery, R.O.

    1983-01-01

    Availability of adequate supplies of energy at an affordable cost is essential to continued growth of the world's economics. The tie between economic growth and electricity usage is particularly strong and the pervasive wordwide trend toward increasing electrification shows no signs of abating. Very few viable alternatives are available for supplying the projected increase in baseload electric generating capacity in the next several decades, and most industrialized nations have chosen nuclear power to play a major role. Sustained growth of nuclear power can only be achieved, however, by reprocessing spent fuel to recover and utilize the residual uranium and plutonium energy values

  4. Development of nuclear fuel cycle technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahara, Akira; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Shibata, Satoshi; Ikeda, Takashi; Suzuki, Kazumichi; Miki, Atsushi.

    1990-01-01

    In order to establish the stable supply of nuclear fuel as an important energy source, Hitachi ltd. has advanced the technical development aiming at the heightening of reliability, the increase of capacity, upgrading and the heightening of performance of the facilities related to nuclear fuel cycle. As for fuel reprocessing, Japan Nuclear Fuel Service Ltd. is promoting the construction of a commercial fuel reprocessing plant which is the first in Japan. The verification of the process performance, the ensuring of high reliability accompanying large capacity and the technical development for recovering effective resources from spent fuel are advanced. Moreover, as for uranium enrichment, Laser Enrichment Technology Research Association was founded mainly by electric power companies, and the development of the next generation enrichment technology using laser is promoted. The development of spent fuel reprocessing technology, the development of the basic technology of atomic process laser enrichment and so on are reported. In addition to the above technologies recently developed by Hitachi Ltd., the technology of reducing harm and solidification of radioactive wastes, the molecular process laser enrichment and others are developed. (K.I.)

  5. The nuclear fuel cycle, an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballery, J.L.; Cazalet, J.; Hagemann, R.

    1995-01-01

    Because uranium is widely distributed on the face of the Earth, nuclear energy has a very large potential as an energy source in view of future depletion of fossil fuel reserves. Also future energy requirements will be very sizeable as populations of developing countries are often growing and make the energy question one of the major challenges for the coming decades. Today, nuclear contributes some 340 GWe to the energy requirements of the world. Present and future nuclear programs require an adequate fuel cycle industry, from mining, refining, conversion, enrichment, fuel fabrication, fuel reprocessing and the storage of the resulting wastes. The commercial fuel cycle activities amount to an annual business in the 7-8 billions of US Dollars in the hands of a large number of industrial operators. This paper gives details about companies and countries involved in each step of the fuel cycle and about the national strategies and options chosen regarding the back end of the fuel cycle (waste storage and reprocessing). These options are illustrated by considering the policy adopted in three countries (France, United Kingdom, Japan) versed in reprocessing. (J.S.). 13 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    The percentage of electricity generated by nuclear energy in each of the 26 countries that operated nuclear power plants in 1987 is given. The current policy and programs of some of these countries is described. News concerning uranium mining, enrichment, reprocessing and waste management is also included. Data in the form of a generalized status summary for all power reactors (> 30 MWEN) prepared from the nuclear power reactor data files of ANSTO is shown

  7. Nuclear fuel rod loading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, H.B.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear fuel loading apparatus, incorporating a microprocessor control unit, is described which automatically loads nuclear fuel pellets into dual fuel rods with a minimum of manual involvement and in a manner and sequence to ensure quality control and accuracy. (U.K.)

  8. Development of IAEA safeguards at low enrichment uranium fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawy, I.

    1988-01-01

    In this report the nuclear material at low enrichment uranium fuel fabrication plants under IAEA safeguards is studied. The current verification practices of the nuclear material and future improvements are also considered. The problems met during the implementation of the the verification measures of the nuclear material - particularly for the fuel assemblies are discussed. The additional verification activities as proposed for future improvements are also discussed including the physical inventory verification and the verification of receipts and shipments. It is concluded that the future development of the present IAEA verification practices at low enrichment uranium fuel fabrication plants would necessitate the application of quantitative measures of the nuclear material and the implementation of advanced measurement techniques and instruments. 2 fig., 4 tab

  9. Nuclear instrumentation for uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, Ch. V.N.; Sarma, C.V.R.; Sreehari, R.

    1999-01-01

    Instrumentation required for uranium exploration may be broadly classified based on surface and sub-surface measurement of gamma-ray intensity. Surface measurement of gross and spectral gamma intensity are carried out by employing portable Geiger Mueller/scintillation counters and four-channel spectrometers. Measurement of thoron ( 220 Rn) and radon ( 222 Rn) in the soil gas is being carried out by closed circuit technique using radon measuring system. Radiometric mapping of trenches, pits and mine-faces are carried out using shielded probe with 2π source geometry, whereas logging sonde with instruments through the steel armoured cable are employed for point to 4π geometry. Spectral borehole logging system with built-in multi-channel analyser (MCA) has been developed for the uranium exploration programme for AMD. Note-book PC based high sensitivity air-borne gamma-ray spectrometric survey system has been designed, developed and test flown. (author)

  10. Quantitative determination of uranium distribution homogeneity in MTR fuel type plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrufino, Felipe Bonito Jaldin

    2011-01-01

    IPEN/CNEN-SP produces the fuel to supply its nuclear research reactor IEA-R1. The fuel is assembled with fuel plates containing an U 3 Si 2 -Al composite meat. A good homogeneity in the uranium distribution inside the fuel plate meat is important from the standpoint of irradiation performance. Considering the lower power of reactor IEA-R1, the uranium distribution in the fuel plate has been evaluated only by visual inspection of radiographs. However, with the possibility of IPEN to manufacture the fuel for the new Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB), with higher power, it urges to develop a methodology to determine quantitatively the uranium distribution into the fuel. This paper presents a methodology based on X-ray attenuation, in order to quantify the uranium concentration distribution in the meat of the fuel plate by using optical densities in radiographs and comparison with standards. The results demonstrated the inapplicability of the method, considering the current specification for the fuel plates due to the high intrinsic error to the method. However, the study of the errors involved in the methodology, seeking to increase their accuracy and precision, can enable the application of the method to qualify the final product. (author)

  11. Conversion of research and test reactors to low enriched uranium fuel: technical overview and program status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roglans-Ribas, J.

    2008-01-01

    Many of the nuclear research and test reactors worldwide operate with high enriched uranium fuel. In response to worries over the potential use of HEU from research reactors in nuclear weapons, the U.S Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a program - the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) - in 1978 to develop the technology necessary to reduce the use of HEU fuel by converting research reactors to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The Reactor Conversion program is currently under the DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration's Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI). 55 of the 129 reactors included in the scope have been already converted to LEU fuel or have shutdown prior to conversion. The major technical activities of the Conversion Program include: (1) the development of advanced LEU fuels; (2) conversion analysis and conversion support; and (3) technology development for the production of Molybdenum-99 (Mo 99 ) with LEU targets. The paper provides an overview of the status of the program, the technical challenges and accomplishments, and the role of international collaborations in the accomplishment of the Conversion Program objectives. Nuclear research and test reactors worldwide have been in operation for over 60 years. Many of these facilities operate with high enriched uranium fuel. In response to increased worries over the potential use of HEU from research reactors in the manufacturing of nuclear weapons, the U.S Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a program - the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) - in 1978 to develop the technology necessary to reduce the use of HEU fuel in research reactors by converting them to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The reactor conversion program was initially focused on U.S.-supplied reactors, but in the early 1990s it expanded and began to collaborate with Russian institutes with the objective of converting Russian supplied reactors to the use of LEU fuel.

  12. Economic Analysis of Several Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Won Il; Gao, Fanxing; Kim, Sung Ki

    2012-01-01

    Economics is one of the essential criteria to be considered for the future deployment of the nuclear power. With regard to the competitive power market, the cost of electricity from nuclear power plants is somewhat highly competitive with those from the other electricity generations, averaging lower in cost than fossil fuels, wind, or solar. However, a closer look at the nuclear power production brings an insight that the cost varies within a wide range, highly depending on a nuclear fuel cycle option. The option of nuclear fuel cycle is a key determinant in the economics, and therefrom, a comprehensive comparison among the proposed fuel cycle options necessitates an economic analysis for thirteen promising options based on the material flow analysis obtained by an equilibrium model as specified in the first article (Modeling and System Analysis of Different Fuel Cycle Options for Nuclear Power Sustainability (I): Uranium Consumption and Waste Generation). The objective of the article is to provide a systematic cost comparison among these nuclear fuel cycles. The generation cost (GC) generally consists of a capital cost, an operation and maintenance cost (O and M cost), a fuel cycle cost (FCC), and a decontaminating and decommissioning (D and D) cost. FCC includes a frontend cost and a back-end cost, as well as costs associated with fuel recycling in the cases of semi-closed and closed cycle options. As a part of GC, the economic analysis on FCC mainly focuses on the cost differences among fuel cycle options considered and therefore efficiently avoids the large uncertainties of the Generation-IV reactor capital costs and the advanced reprocessing costs. However, the GC provides a more comprehensive result covering all the associated costs, and therefrom, both GC and FCC have been analyzed, respectively. As a widely applied tool, the levelized cost (mills/KWh) proves to be a fundamental calculation principle in the energy and power industry, which is particularly

  13. Profileration-proof uranium/plutonium and thorium/uranium fuel cycles. Safeguards and non-profileration. 2. rev. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessler, G.

    2017-07-01

    A brief outline of the historical development of the proliferation problem is followed by a description of the uranium-plutonium nuclear fuel cycle with uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, the light-water reactors mainly in operation, and the breeder reactors still under development. The next item discussed is reprocessing of spent fuel with plutonium recycling and the future possibility to incinerate plutonium and the minor actinides: neptunium, americium, and curium. Much attention is devoted to the technical and scientific treatment of the IAEA surveillance concept of the uranium-plutonium fuel cycle. In this context, especially the physically possible accuracy of measuring U/Pu flow in the fuel cycle, and the criticism expressed of the accuracy in measuring the plutonium balance in large reprocessing plants of non-nuclear weapon states are analyzed. The second part of the book initially examines the assertion that reactor-grade plutonium could be used to build nuclear weapons whose explosive yield cannot be predicted accurately, but whose minimum explosive yield is still far above that of chemical explosive charges. Methods employed in reactor physics are used to show that such hypothetical nuclear explosive devices (HNEDs) would attain too high temperatures in the required implosion lenses as a result of the heat generated by the Pu-238 isotope always present in reactor plutonium of current light-water reactors. These lenses would either melt or tend to undergo chemical auto-explosion. Limits to the content of the Pu-238 isotope are determined above which such hypothetical nuclear weapons are not feasible on technical grounds. This situation is analyzed for various possibilities of the technical state of the art of making implosion lenses and various ways of cooling up to the use of liquid helium. The outcome is that, depending on the existing state of the art, reactor-grade plutonium from spent fuel elements of light-water reactors with a burnup of 35 to 58

  14. Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Recent decisions by the Australian Government will ensure a significant expansion of the uranium industry. Development at Roxby Downs may proceed and Ranger may fulfil two new contracts but the decision specifies that apart from Roxby Downs, no new mines should be approved. The ACTU maintains an anti-uranium policy but reaction to the decision from the trade union movement has been muted. The Australian Science and Technology Council (ASTEC) has been asked by the Government to conduct an inquiry into a number of issues relating to Australia's role in the nuclear fuel cycle. The inquiry will examine in particular Australia's nuclear safeguards arrangements and the adequacy of existing waste management technology. In two additional decisions the Government has dissociated itself from a study into the feasibility of establishing an enrichment operation and has abolished the Uranium Advisory Council. Although Australian reserves account for 20% of the total in the Western World, Australia accounts for a relatively minor proportion of the world's uranium production

  15. Evaluation of thorium based nuclear fuel. Extended summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franken, W.M.P.; Bultman, J.H.; Konings, R.J.M.; Wichers, V.A.

    1995-04-01

    Application of thorium based nuclear fuels has been evaluated with emphasis on possible reduction of the actinide waste. As a result three ECN-reports are published, discussing in detail: - The reactor physics aspects, by comparing the operation characteristics of the cores of Pressurized Water Reactors and Heavy Water Reactors with different fuel types, including equilibrium thorium/uranium free, once-through uranium fuel and equilibrium uranium/plutonium fuel, - the chemical aspects of thorium based fuel cycles with emphasis on fuel (re)fabrication and fuel reprocessing, - the possible reduction in actinide waste as analysed for Heavy Water Reactors with various types of thorium based fuels in once-through operation and with reprocessing. These results are summarized in this report together with a short discussion on non-proliferation and uranium resource utilization. It has been concluded that a substantial reduction of actinide radiotoxicity of the disposed waste may be achieved by using thorium based fuels, if very efficient partitioning and multiple recycling of uranium and thorium can be realized. This will, however, require large efforts to develop the technology to the necessary industrial scale of operation. (orig.)

  16. Fabrication of Cerium Oxide and Uranium Oxide Microspheres for Space Nuclear Power Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey A. Katalenich; Michael R. Hartman; Robert C. O' Brien

    2013-02-01

    Cerium oxide and uranium oxide microspheres are being produced via an internal gelation sol-gel method to investigate alternative fabrication routes for space nuclear fuels. Depleted uranium and non-radioactive cerium are being utilized as surrogates for plutonium-238 (Pu-238) used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators and for enriched uranium required by nuclear thermal rockets. While current methods used to produce Pu-238 fuels at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) involve the generation of fine powders that pose a respiratory hazard and have a propensity to contaminate glove boxes, the sol-gel route allows for the generation of oxide microsphere fuels through an aqueous route. The sol-gel method does not generate fine powders and may require fewer processing steps than the LANL method with less operator handling. High-quality cerium dioxide microspheres have been fabricated in the desired size range and equipment is being prepared to establish a uranium dioxide microsphere production capability.

  17. Future trends in nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guitierrez, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    This series of transparencies presents: the fuel management cycle and key areas (security of supplies, strategies and core management, reliability, spent fuel management), the world nuclear generating capacity, concentrate capacity, enrichment capacity, and manufacturing capacity forecasts, the fuel cycle strategies and core management (longer cycles, higher burnups, power up-rates, higher enrichments), the Spanish nuclear generation cost, the fuel reliability (no defects, robust designs, operational margins, integrated fuel and core design), spent fuel storage (design and safety criteria, fuel performance and integrity). (J.S.)

  18. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwano, Yoshihiko.

    1993-01-01

    Microfine cracks having a depth of less than 10% of a pipe thickness are disposed radially from a central axis each at an interval of less than 100 micron over the entire inner circumferential surface of a zirconium alloy fuel cladding tube. For manufacturing such a nuclear fuel element, the inside of the cladding tube is at first filled with an electrolyte solution of potassium chloride. Then, electrolysis is conducted using the cladding tube as an anode and the electrolyte solution as a cathode, and the inner surface of the cladding tube with a zirconium dioxide layer having a predetermined thickness. Subsequently, the cladding tube is laid on a smooth steel plate and lightly compressed by other smooth steel plate to form microfine cracks in the zirconium dioxide layer on the inner surface of the cladding tube. Such a compressing operation is continuously applied to the cladding tube while rotating the cladding tube. This can inhibit progress of cracks on the inner surface of the cladding tube, thereby enabling to prevent failure of the cladding tube even if a pellet/cladding tube mechanical interaction is applied. Accordingly, reliability of the nuclear fuel elements is improved. (I.N.)

  19. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armijo, J.S.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed which has a composite cladding having a substrate, a metal barrier metallurgically bonded to the inside surface of the substrate and an inner layer metallurgically bonded to the inside surface of the metal barrier. In this composite cladding, the inner layer and the metal barrier shield the substrate from any impurities or fission products from the nuclear fuel material held within the composite cladding. The metal barrier forms about 1 to about 4 percent of the thickness of the cladding and is comprised of a metal selected from the group consisting of niobium, aluminum, copper, nickel, stainless steel, and iron. The inner layer and then the metal barrier serve as reaction sites for volatile impurities and fission products and protect the substrate from contact and reaction with such impurities and fission products. The substrate and the inner layer of the composite cladding are selected from conventional cladding materials and preferably are a zirconium alloy. Also in a preferred embodiment the substrate and the inner layer are comprised of the same material, preferably a zirconium alloy. 19 claims, 2 figures

  20. Nuclear criticality safety parameter evaluation for uranium metallic alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Andrea; Abe, Alfredo, E-mail: andreasdpz@hotmail.com, E-mail: abye@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Energia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear criticality safety during fuel fabrication process, transport and storage of fissile and fissionable materials requires criticality safety analysis. Normally the analysis involves computer calculations and safety parameters determination. There are many different Criticality Safety Handbooks where such safety parameters for several different fissile mixtures are presented. The handbooks have been published to provide data and safety principles for the design, safety evaluation and licensing of operations, transport and storage of fissile and fissionable materials. The data often comprise not only critical values, but also subcritical limits and safe parameters obtained for specific conditions using criticality safety calculation codes such as SCALE system. Although many data are available for different fissile and fissionable materials, compounds, mixtures, different enrichment level, there are a lack of information regarding a uranium metal alloy, specifically UMo and UNbZr. Nowadays uranium metal alloy as fuel have been investigated under RERTR program as possible candidate to became a new fuel for research reactor due to high density. This work aim to evaluate a set of criticality safety parameters for uranium metal alloy using SCALE system and MCNP Monte Carlo code. (author)