WorldWideScience

Sample records for nuclear explosion detection

  1. System for detecting nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawls, L.E.

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus for detecting underground nuclear explosions is described that is comprised of an antenna located in the dielectric substance of a deep waveguide in the earth and adapted to detect low frequency electromagnetic waves generated by a nuclear explosion, the deep waveguide comprising the high conductivity upper sedimentary layers of the earth, the dielectric basement rock, and a high conductivity layer of basement rock due to the increased temperature thereof at great depths, and means for receiving the electromagnetic waves detected by said antenna means

  2. Better to detect nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    North, Bob

    1987-01-01

    In a 150 km 2 reserve just west of Yellowknife in the Northwest Territories, three GSC employees operate one of the most sensitive seismic arrays in existence for locating ground movement around the world. The array station is staffed year round despite the harsh climate. Since 1963 the Yellowknife seismic array has contributed data which will significantly aid international efforts to achieve a nuclear test ban treaty

  3. Detecting and identifying underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiliopoulos, S.

    1996-01-01

    The monitoring of underground nuclear explosions involves, first determining that the signals have originated from a test site and if so, then a pattern recognition analysis is undertaken to determine whether the signals originate from an explosion rather than an earthquake. In this we are aided by seismic observations of previous explosions from each test site. To determine the origin of a signal use is first made of the two seismic arrays in central Australia. Each of these arrays consists of 20 spatially separated sensors (seismometers), and each of which can provide a preliminary estimate of the location of the source. In practice this is done automatically by inserting delays into the output of each of the sensors to compensate for a seismic signal taking a finite time to cross the array, and then adding the output of each sensor to form what are called 'array beams'. When the correct delays for a particular azimuth and wavespeed (corresponding to a particular source location) have been inserted, the signals recorded by each sensor will be in phase and the energy in the array beam will be a maximum. Because the seismic background noise at each sensor is not correlated, this beam forming also improves the signal-to-noise ratio. In this sense a seismic array is equivalent to other arrays of sensors - e.g. a radar antenna. Having determined that a signal originates from somewhere near a test site a more precise location can be obtained from the times that the signal arrives at different seismic stations

  4. Detecting and identifying underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiliopoulos, S. [Australian Geological Survey Organisation, Anzac Park, Canberra, ACT (Australia). Department of Primary Industry

    1996-12-31

    The monitoring of underground nuclear explosions involves, first determining that the signals have originated from a test site and if so, then a pattern recognition analysis is undertaken to determine whether the signals originate from an explosion rather than an earthquake. In this we are aided by seismic observations of previous explosions from each test site. To determine the origin of a signal use is first made of the two seismic arrays in central Australia. Each of these arrays consists of 20 spatially separated sensors (seismometers), and each of which can provide a preliminary estimate of the location of the source. In practice this is done automatically by inserting delays into the output of each of the sensors to compensate for a seismic signal taking a finite time to cross the array, and then adding the output of each sensor to form what are called `array beams`. When the correct delays for a particular azimuth and wavespeed (corresponding to a particular source location) have been inserted, the signals recorded by each sensor will be in phase and the energy in the array beam will be a maximum. Because the seismic background noise at each sensor is not correlated, this beam forming also improves the signal-to-noise ratio. In this sense a seismic array is equivalent to other arrays of sensors - e.g. a radar antenna. Having determined that a signal originates from somewhere near a test site a more precise location can be obtained from the times that the signal arrives at different seismic stations

  5. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Explosives Detection Using Magnetic and Nuclear Resonance Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Fraissard, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) a highly promising new technique for bulk explosives detection: relatively inexpensive, more compact than NMR, but with considerable selectivity. Since the NQR frequency is insensitive to long-range variations in composition, mixing explosives with other materials, such as the plasticizers in plastic explosives, makes no difference. The NQR signal strength varies linearly with the amount of explosive, and is independent of its distribution within the volume monitored. NQR spots explosive types in configurations missed by the X-ray imaging method. But if NQR is so good, why it is not used everywhere? Its main limitation is the low signal-to-noise ratio, particularly with the radio-frequency interference that exists in a field environment, NQR polarization being much weaker than that from an external magnetic field. The distinctive signatures are there, but are difficult to extract from the noise. In addition, the high selectivity is partly a disadvantage, as it is hard to bui...

  6. Prototype explosives detection system based on nuclear resonance absorption in nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgado, R.E.; Arnone, G.J.; Cappiello, C.C.

    1996-01-01

    A laboratory prototype system has been developed for the experimental evaluation of an explosives detection technique based on nuclear resonance absorption of gamma rays in nitrogen. Major subsystems include a radiofrequency quadrupole proton accelerator and associated beam transport system, a high-power gamma-ray production target, an airline-luggage tomographic inspection system, and an image- processing/detection-alarm subsystem. The detection system performance, based on a limited experimental test, is reported

  7. Nuclear explosives and hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, P

    1971-10-01

    A nuclear explosive 12 in. in diam and producing very little tritium is feasible in France. Such a device would be well adapted for contained nuclear explosions set off for the purpose of hydrocarbon storage or stimulation. The different aspects of setting off the explosive are reviewed. In the particular case of gas storage in a nuclear cavity in granite, it is demonstrated that the dose of irradiation received is extremely small. (18 refs.)

  8. APSTNG: Neutron interrogation for detection of nuclear and CW weapons, explosives, and drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, E.; Dickerman, C.E.; De Volpi, A.; Peters, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    A recently developed neutron diagnostic probe system has the potential to satisfy a significant number of van-mobile and fixed- portal requirements for nondestructive verification of sealed munitions and detection of contraband explosives and drugs. The probe is based on a unique associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG) that interrogates the object of interest with a low-intensity beam of 14-MeV neutrons generated from the deuterium-tritium reaction and that detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron. Gamma-ray spectra of resulting neutron inelastic scattering and fission reactions identify nuclides associated with all major chemicals in chemical warfare agents, explosives, and drugs, as well as many pollutants and fissile and fertile special nuclear material. Flight times determined from determined from detection times of the gamma-rays and alpha-particles yield a separate tomographic image of each identified nuclide. The APSTNG also forms the basis for a compact fast-neutron transmission imaging system that can be used along with or instead of the emission imaging system; a collimator is not required since scattered neutrons are removed by ''electronic collimation'' (detected neutrons not having the proper flight time to be uncollided are discarded). The small and relatively inexpensive APSTNG exhibits high reliability and can be quickly replaced. Proof-of-concept experiments have been performed under laboratory conditions for simulated nuclear and chemical warfare munitions and for explosives and drugs

  9. APSTNG: Neutron interrogation for detection of explosives and drugs and nuclear and CW materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, E.; Peters, C.W.

    1993-01-01

    A recently developed neutron diagnostic probe system has the potential to satisfy a significant number of van-mobile and fixed-portal requirements for nondestructive detection, including monitoring of contraband explosives, drugs, and weapon materials, and treaty verification of sealed munitions. The probe is based on a unique associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG) that interrogates the object of interest with a low-intensity beam of 14-MeV neutron generated from the deuterium-tritium reaction and that detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron. Gamma-ray spectra of resulting neutron reactions identify nuclides associated with all major chemicals in explosives, drugs, and chemical warfare agents, as well as many pollutants and fissile and fertile special nuclear material. Flight times determined from detection times of the gamma rays and alpha-particles yield a separate coarse tomographic image of each identified nuclide. The APSTNG also forms the basis for a compact fast-neutron transmission imaging system that can be used along with or instead of the emission imaging system. Proof-of-concept experiments have been performed under laboratory conditions for simulated nuclear and chemical warfare munitions and for explosives and drugs. The small and relatively inexpensive APSTNG exhibits high reliability and can be quickly replaced. Surveillance systems based on APSTNG technology can avoid the large physical size, high capital and operating expenses, and reliability problems associated with complex accelerators

  10. Device for Detection of Explosives, Nuclear and Other Hazardous Materials in Luggage and Cargo Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Andrey; Evsenin, Alexey; Gorshkov, Igor; Osetrov, Oleg; Vakhtin, Dmitry

    2009-12-01

    Device for detection of explosives, radioactive and heavily shielded nuclear materials in luggage and cargo containers based on Nanosecond Neutron Analysis/Associated Particles Technique (NNA/APT) is under construction. Detection module consists of a small neutron generator with built-in position-sensitive detector of associated alpha-particles, and several scintillator-based gamma-ray detectors. Explosives and other hazardous chemicals are detected by analyzing secondary high-energy gamma-rays from reactions of fast neutrons with materials inside a container. The same gamma-ray detectors are used to detect unshielded radioactive and nuclear materials. An array of several neutron detectors is used to detect fast neutrons from induced fission of nuclear materials. Coincidence and timing analysis allows one to discriminate between fission neutrons and scattered probing neutrons. Mathematical modeling by MCNP5 and MCNP-PoliMi codes was used to estimate the sensitivity of the device and its optimal configuration. Comparison of the features of three gamma detector types—based on BGO, NaI and LaBr3 crystals is presented.

  11. Device for Detection of Explosives, Nuclear and Other Hazardous Materials in Luggage and Cargo Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Andrey; Evsenin, Alexey; Osetrov, Oleg; Vakhtin, Dmitry; Gorshkov, Igor

    2009-01-01

    Device for detection of explosives, radioactive and heavily shielded nuclear materials in luggage and cargo containers based on Nanosecond Neutron Analysis/Associated Particles Technique (NNA/APT) is under construction. Detection module consists of a small neutron generator with built-in position-sensitive detector of associated alpha-particles, and several scintillator-based gamma-ray detectors. Explosives and other hazardous chemicals are detected by analyzing secondary high-energy gamma-rays from reactions of fast neutrons with materials inside a container. The same gamma-ray detectors are used to detect unshielded radioactive and nuclear materials. An array of several neutron detectors is used to detect fast neutrons from induced fission of nuclear materials. Coincidence and timing analysis allows one to discriminate between fission neutrons and scattered probing neutrons. Mathematical modeling by MCNP5 and MCNP-PoliMi codes was used to estimate the sensitivity of the device and its optimal configuration. Comparison of the features of three gamma detector types--based on BGO, NaI and LaBr 3 crystals is presented.

  12. Real-time detection and characterization of nuclear explosion using broadband analyses of regional seismic stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prastowo, T.; Madlazim

    2018-01-01

    This preliminary study aims to propose a new method of real-time detection and characterization of nuclear explosions by analyzing broadband seismic waveforms acquired from a network of regional seismic stations. Signal identification generated by a nuclear test was differentiated from natural sources of either earthquakes or other natural seismo-tectonic events by verifying crucial parameters, namely source depth, type of first motion, and P-wave domination of the broadband seismic wavesunder consideration. We examined and analyzed a recently hypothetical nuclear test performed by the North Koreangovernment that occurred on September 3, 2017 as a vital point to study. From spectral analyses, we found that the source of corresponding signals associated with detonations of the latest underground nuclear test was at a much shallower depth below the surface relatively compared with that of natural earthquakes, the suspected nuclear explosions produced compressional waves with radially directed outward from the source for their first motions, and the waves were only dominated by P-components. The results are then discussed in the context of potential uses of the proposed methodology for human-induced disaster early warning system and/or the need of rapid response purposes for minimizing the disaster risks.

  13. Underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, Gary H [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    In the Third Plowshare Symposium, held in 1964, data from a number of nuclear explosions were presented. At that time the basic elements of the nuclear explosion appeared to be well understood and relationships for predicting the gross nuclear effects were presented. Since that time, additional work has been done and many of the concepts have been extended. For example, nuclear explosions have been conducted at greater depths and with much greater yields. The physical and chemical properties of the material in which the explosions occur have been more accurately measured and related to explosion effects. Interpretation of the new information seems to indicate that the earlier relationships are valid over the ranges of energy and depths for which data is available but that effects relating to cavity and chimney sizes or fracturing had been overestimated at great depths of burst and higher yields. (author)

  14. Underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, Gary H.

    1970-01-01

    In the Third Plowshare Symposium, held in 1964, data from a number of nuclear explosions were presented. At that time the basic elements of the nuclear explosion appeared to be well understood and relationships for predicting the gross nuclear effects were presented. Since that time, additional work has been done and many of the concepts have been extended. For example, nuclear explosions have been conducted at greater depths and with much greater yields. The physical and chemical properties of the material in which the explosions occur have been more accurately measured and related to explosion effects. Interpretation of the new information seems to indicate that the earlier relationships are valid over the ranges of energy and depths for which data is available but that effects relating to cavity and chimney sizes or fracturing had been overestimated at great depths of burst and higher yields. (author)

  15. Associated-particle sealed-tube neutron probe: Detection of explosives, contraband, and nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, E.; Dickerman, C.E.

    1996-01-01

    Continued research and development of the APSTNG shows the potential for practical field use of this technology for detection of explosives, contraband, and nuclear materials. The APSTNG (associated-particle sealed-tube generator) inspects the item to be examined using penetrating 14-MeV neutrons generated by the deuterium-tritium reaction inside a compact accelerator tube. An alpha detector built into the sealed tube detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron emitted in a cone encompassing the volume to be inspected. Penetrating high-energy gamma-rays from the resulting neutron reactions identify specific nuclides inside the volume. Flight-times determined from the detection times of gamma-rays and alpha-particles separate the prompt and delayed gamma-ray spectra and allow a coarse 3-D image to be obtained of nuclides identified in the prompt spectrum. The generator and detectors can be on the same side of the inspected object, on opposite sides, or with intermediate orientations. Thus, spaces behind walls and other confined regions can be inspected. Signals from container walls can be discriminated against using the flight-time technique. No collimators or shielding are required, the neutron generator is relatively small, and commercial-grade electronics are employed. The use of 14-MeV neutrons yields a much higher cross-section for detecting nitrogen than that for systems based on thermal-neutron reactions alone, and the broad range of elements with significant 14-MeV neutron cross-sections extends explosives detection to other elements including low-nitrogen compounds, and allows detection of many other substances. Proof-of-concept experiments have been successfully performed for conventional explosives, chemical warfare agents, cocaine, and fissionable materials

  16. Nuclear explosive driven experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    Ultrahigh pressures are generated in the vicinity of a nuclear explosion. We have developed diagnostic techniques to obtain precise high pressures equation-of-state data in this exotic but hostile environment

  17. Explosive simulants for testing explosive detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kury, John W.; Anderson, Brian L.

    1999-09-28

    Explosives simulants that include non-explosive components are disclosed that facilitate testing of equipment designed to remotely detect explosives. The simulants are non-explosive, non-hazardous materials that can be safely handled without any significant precautions. The simulants imitate real explosives in terms of mass density, effective atomic number, x-ray transmission properties, and physical form, including moldable plastics and emulsions/gels.

  18. Innovative concept for a major breakthrough in atmospheric radioactive xenon detection for nuclear explosion monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Petit, G.; Cagniant, A.; Gross, P.; Achim, P.; Douysset, G.; Taffary, T.; Moulin, C.; Morelle, M.

    2013-01-01

    The verification regime of the comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT) is based on a network of three different waveform technologies together with global monitoring of aerosols and noble gas in order to detect, locate and identify a nuclear weapon explosion down to 1 kt TNT equivalent. In case of a low intensity underground or underwater nuclear explosion, it appears that only radioactive gases, especially the noble gas which are difficult to contain, will allow identification of weak yield nuclear tests. Four radioactive xenon isotopes, 131m Xe, 133m Xe, 133 Xe and 135 Xe, are sufficiently produced in fission reactions and exhibit suitable half-lives and radiation emissions to be detected in atmosphere at low level far away from the release site. Four different monitoring CTBT systems, ARIX, ARSA, SAUNA, and SPALAX TM have been developed in order to sample and to measure them with high sensitivity. The latest developed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) is likely to be drastically improved in detection sensitivity (especially for the metastable isotopes) through a higher sampling rate, when equipped with a new conversion electron (CE)/X-ray coincidence spectrometer. This new spectrometer is based on two combined detectors, both exhibiting very low radioactive background: a well-type NaI(Tl) detector for photon detection surrounding a gas cell equipped with two large passivated implanted planar silicon chips for electron detection. It is characterized by a low electron energy threshold and a much better energy resolution for the CE than those usually measured with the existing CTBT equipments. Furthermore, the compact geometry of the spectrometer provides high efficiency for X-ray and for CE associated to the decay modes of the four relevant radioxenons. The paper focus on the design of this new spectrometer and presents spectroscopic performances of a prototype based on recent results achieved from both radioactive xenon standards and air sample

  19. Idaho Explosives Detection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reber, Edward L.; Blackwood, Larry G.; Edwards, Andrew J.; Jewell, J. Keith; Rohde, Kenneth W.; Seabury, Edward H.; Klinger, Jeffery B.

    2005-01-01

    The Idaho Explosives Detection System was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to respond to threats imposed by delivery trucks potentially carrying explosives into military bases. A full-scale prototype system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. The system consists of two racks, one on each side of a subject vehicle. Each rack includes a neutron generator and an array of NaI detectors. The two neutron generators are pulsed and synchronized. A laptop computer controls the entire system. The control software is easily operable by minimally trained staff. The system was developed to detect explosives in a medium size truck within a 5-min measurement time. System performance was successfully demonstrated with explosives at the INL in June 2004 and at Andrews Air Force Base in July 2004

  20. Idaho Explosives Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reber, Edward L. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Freemont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2114 (United States)]. E-mail: reber@inel.gov; Blackwood, Larry G. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Freemont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2114 (United States); Edwards, Andrew J. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Freemont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2114 (United States); Jewell, J. Keith [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Freemont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2114 (United States); Rohde, Kenneth W. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Freemont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2114 (United States); Seabury, Edward H. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Freemont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2114 (United States); Klinger, Jeffery B. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Freemont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2114 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    The Idaho Explosives Detection System was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to respond to threats imposed by delivery trucks potentially carrying explosives into military bases. A full-scale prototype system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. The system consists of two racks, one on each side of a subject vehicle. Each rack includes a neutron generator and an array of NaI detectors. The two neutron generators are pulsed and synchronized. A laptop computer controls the entire system. The control software is easily operable by minimally trained staff. The system was developed to detect explosives in a medium size truck within a 5-min measurement time. System performance was successfully demonstrated with explosives at the INL in June 2004 and at Andrews Air Force Base in July 2004.

  1. Radioactive Emissions from Fission-Based Medical Isotope Production and Their Effect on Global Nuclear Explosion Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowyer, T.; Saey, P.

    2015-01-01

    The use of medical isotopes, such as Tc-99m, is widespread with over 30 million procedures being performed every year, but the fission-based production of isotopes used for medical procedures causes emissions into the environment. This paper will show that gaseous radioactive isotopes of xenon, such as Xe-133, are released in high quantities, because they have a high fission cross section and they are difficult to scrub from the processes used to produce the medical isotopes due to their largely unreactive nature. Unfortunately, the reasons that large amounts of radioactive xenon isotopes are emitted from isotope production are the same as those that make these isotopes the most useful isotopes for the detection of underground nuclear explosions. Relatively recently, the nuclear explosion monitoring community has established a provisional monitoring network for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) that includes radioactive xenon monitoring as a major component. This community has discovered that emissions from medical isotope production present a more serious problem to nuclear explosion monitoring than thought when the network was first conceived. To address the growing problem, a group of scientists in both the monitoring and the isotope production communities have come together to attempt to find scientific and pragmatic ways to address the emissions problems, recognizing that medical isotope production should not be adversely affected, while monitoring for nuclear explosions should remain effective as isotope production grows, changes, and spreads globally. (author)

  2. Peaceful nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-07-01

    Article V of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) specifies that the potential benefits of peaceful applications of nuclear explosions be made available to non-nuclear weapon states party to the Treaty 'under appropriate international observation and through appropriate international procedures'. The International Atomic Energy Agency's responsibility and technical competence in this respect have been recognized by its Board of Governors, the Agency's General Conference and the United Nations' General Assembly. Since 1968 when the United Nations Conference of Non-Nuclear Weapon States also recommended that the Agency initiate the necessary studies in the peaceful nuclear explosions (PNE) field, the Agency has taken the following steps: 1. The exchange of scientific and technical information has been facilitated by circulating information on the status of the technology and through the Agency's International Nuclear Information System. A bibliography of PNE-related literature was published in 1970. 2. In 1972, guidelines for 'the international observation of PNE under the provisions of NPT and analogous provisions in other international agreements' were developed and approved by the Board of Governors. These guidelines defined the basic purpose of international observation as being to verify that in the course of conducting a PNE project the intent and letter of Articles I and II of the NPT are not violated. 3. In 1974, an advisory group developed 'Procedures for the Agency to Use in Responding to Requests for PNE-Related Services'. These procedures have also been approved by the Board of Governors. 4. The Agency has convened a series of technical meetings which reviewed the 'state-of-the- art'. These meetings were convened in 1970, 1971, 1972 and in January 1975. The Fourth Technical Committee was held in Vienna from 20-24 January 1975 under the chairmanship of Dr. Allen Wilson of Australia with Experts from: Australia, France, Federal

  3. Use of canines for explosives detection in the personnel access control function at a nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    Results of experiments in the use of canines for explosive detection are discussed. Results of the experiments show that the tests identified the training and environmental problems associated with the use of macrosmatic animals in this environment. There may be more problems discovered in subsequent programs, but it is felt that the major problems were identified. The encouraging thing is that the identified problems are solvable by fairly straightforward adjustments in the training and environmental areas. It appears that canines in the personnal search application can achieve a better than 95% probability of detection, with a false alarm rate of less that 5% and an average per person search time of 20 seconds

  4. Use of canines for explosives detection in the personnel access control function at a nuclear facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    Results of experiments in the use of canines for explosive detection are discussed. Results of the experiments show that the tests identified the training and environmental problems associated with the use of macrosmatic animals in this environment. There may be more problems discovered in subsequent programs, but it is felt that the major problems were identified. The encouraging thing is that the identified problems are solvable by fairly straightforward adjustments in the training and environmental areas. It appears that canines in the personnal search application can achieve a better than 95% probability of detection, with a false alarm rate of less that 5% and an average per person search time of 20 seconds.

  5. Nuclear explosions and their effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-01-01

    A brief historical background is given of the development of the atomic bomb. Also included is an account of the Hiroshima-Nagasaki bombing, plus some information on the testing and production of nuclear weapons by the United States, United Kingdom, and Russia. More detailed consideration is given to the following: the scientific principles of fission and fusion explosions; the energy released in fission and the radioactivity of fission products; blast, thermal, and radiologicalal effects of nuclear explosions; long-term radiological hazards from fall-out; and genetic effects of nuclear explosions. A brief account is given of the fission chain process, the concept of critical size, and the principles of implosion as applied to nuclear explosions. Limited information is presented on the controlled release of thermonuclear energy and catalyzed fusion reaction. Discussions are included on dose rates from radiation sources inside and outside the body, the effect of nuclear explosions on the weather, and the contamination of fish and marine organisms.

  6. Peaceful applications of nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, L.B.

    1975-12-01

    The intension of this report is to give a survey of the field of peaceful applications of nuclear explosions. As an introduction some examples of possibilities of application are given together with a simple description of nuclear explosions under ground. After a summary of what has been done and will be done in this field nationally and internationally, a short discussion of advantages and problems with peaceful application of nuclear explosions follows. The risks of spreading nuclear weapons due to this applications are also touched before the report is finished with an attempt to judge the future development in this field. (M.S.)

  7. Detecting and modeling persistent self-potential anomalies from underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKague, H.L.; Kansa, E.; Kasameyer, P.W.

    1992-01-01

    Self-potential anomalies are naturally occurring, nearly stationary electric fields that are detected by measuring the potential difference between two points on (or in) the ground. SP anomalies arise from a number of causes: principally electrochemical reactions, and heat and fluid flows. SP is routinely used to locate mineral deposits, geothermal systems, and zones of seepage. This paper is a progress report on our work toward detecting explosion-related SP signals at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and in understanding the physics of these anomalies that persist and continue changing over periods of time that range from months to years. As background, we also include a brief description of how SP signals arise, and we mention their use in other areas such as exploring for geothermal resources and locating seepage through dams. Between the years 1988 and 1991, we surveyed the areas around seven underground nuclear tests for persistent SP anomalies. We not only detected anomalies, but we also found that various phenomena could be contributing to them and that we did not know which of these were actually occurring. We analyzed our new data with existing steady state codes and with a newly developed time-dependent thermal modeling code. Our results with the new code showed that the conductive decay of the thermal pulse from an underground nuclear test could produce many of the observed signals, and that others are probably caused by movement of fluid induced by the explosion. 25 refs

  8. Surface Coatings as Xenon Diffusion Barriers for Improved Detection of Clandestine Nuclear Explosions

    OpenAIRE

    Bläckberg, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    This thesis investigates surface coatings as xenon diffusion barriers on plastic scintillators. The motivation for the work is improved radioxenon detection systems, used within the verification regime of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). One type of radioxenon detection systems used in this context is the Swedish SAUNA system. This system uses a cylindrical plastic scintillator cell to measure the beta decay from radioxenon isotopes. The detector cell also acts as a container...

  9. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade Watkins, J.

    1970-01-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  10. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade Watkins, J [Petroleum Research, Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC (United States)

    1970-05-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  11. 8. Peaceful uses of nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musilek, L.

    1992-01-01

    The chapter deals with peaceful uses of nuclear explosions. Described are the development of the underground nuclear explosion, properties of radionuclides formed during the explosion, their distribution, the release of radioactive products of underground nuclear explosions into the air, their propagation in the atmosphere, and fallout in the landscape. (Z.S.). 1 tab., 8 figs., 19 refs

  12. Techniques for detecting explosives and contraband

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vourvopoulos, G.

    1994-01-01

    Because terrorism continues to be a societal threat, scientists are still searching for ways to identify concealed weapons that can be used in terrorist attacks. Explosives are singled out for particular attention because they can easily be shaped to look innocuous, and are still hard to detect. At present, there are three methods under development for the detection of explosives: X-ray imaging, vapour detection and nuclear techniques, and this article will concentrate on the latter. Since there is no single technology that can address all the questions concerning the detection of explosives and other illicit contraband, the philosophy that emerges is that of an integral system combining methodologies. Such a system could contain a nuclear technology device, a vapour detector, and an X-ray imaging device, all backed by an intelligence gathering system. In this paper methods are suggested for identifying explosives which may be used in terrorist attacks and for detecting concealed drugs. Techniques discussed are X-ray imaging, combining high and low energy x-ray machines, vapour detection using a ''sniffer'' to collect vapour samples then analysing the vapour by gas chromatography, chemiluminescence and mass spectroscopy and nuclear techniques. Nuclear techniques, such as neutron activation analysis, are discussed in detail but it is stressed that they need to be carried out at speed to eliminate disruption and delay at airports etc. (UK)

  13. Evaluation of the uncertainty in the azimuth calculation for the detection and localization of atmospheric nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuff, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Low-frequency acoustic signal below about 1 Hz can travel for hundreds or thousands of kilometers through in the Earth atmosphere. If a source produces infrasonic energy, it can be detected by a remote sensor. Atmospheric strong explosions as the nuclear detonation contains low-frequency components that can travel long distances with measurable signal levels. This fact can be useful for detection and localization of clandestine events. The international regime on the non-proliferation of nuclear requires the ability to detect, localize, and discriminate nuclear events on a global scale. Monitoring systems such as the Inter national Monitoring System (I.M.S.) rely on several sensor technologies to perform these functions. The current I.M.S. infra sound system design includes a network of low-frequency atmospheric acoustic sensor arrays, which contribute primarily to the detection and localization of atmospheric nuclear events. There have been observed differences between the azimuth measurements and the true directions of the sources of infra sound waves in artificial and natural events such as explosive eruptions of strong volcanoes. The infra sound waves are reflected in stratospheric and thermospheric layers near 50 km and 120 km in height respectively. The azimuth deviation is affected by meteorological disturbances in the troposphere and stratosphere. This paper describe new elements to obtain the uncertainty in the azimuth calculation of arrival wave plane passing across of a not plane array of infra sound sensors. It also presents a 3D computation of infra sound propagation and estimation of the azimuth deviation using the zonal horizontal wind model and M.S.I.S.E.-90 model of the upper atmosphere to obtain temperature, density and concentration of the principal components of the air for altitudes of up to 120 km. Deviations of up to 12 degrees in the azimuth were obtained, depending on the location of the source of infra sound, the point of measurement and

  14. Nuclear Explosions 1945-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergkvist, Nils-Olov; Ferm, Ragnhild

    2000-07-01

    The main part of this report is a list of nuclear explosions conducted by the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, France, China, India and Pakistan in 1945-98. The list includes all known nuclear test explosions and is compiled from a variety of sources including officially published information from the USA, Russia and France. The details given for each explosion (date, origin time, location, yield, type, etc.) are often compiled from more than one source because the individual sources do not give complete information. The report includes a short background to nuclear testing and provides brief information on the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and the verification regime now being established to verify compliance with the treaty. It also summarizes nuclear testing country by country. The list should be used with some caution because its compilation from a variety of sources means that some of the data could be incorrect. This report is the result of cooperation between the Defence Research Establishment (FOA) and the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI)

  15. Seismic coupling of nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.B.

    1989-01-01

    The new Giant Magnet Experimental Facility employing digital recording of explosion induced motion has been constructed and successfully tested. Particle velocity and piezoresistance gage responses can be measured simultaneously thus providing the capability for determining the multi-component stress-strain history in the test material. This capability provides the information necessary for validation of computer models used in simulation of nuclear underground testing, chemical explosion testing, dynamic structural response, earth penetration response, and etc. This report discusses fully coupled and cavity decoupled explosions of the same energy (0.622 kJ) were carried out as experiments to study wave propagation and attenuation in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). These experiments produced particle velocity time histories at strains from 2 x 10 -3 to as low as 5.8 x 10 -6 . Other experiments in PMMA, reported recently by Stout and Larson 8 provide additional particle velocity data to strains of 10 -1

  16. Optimal dynamic detection of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcgrane, Shawn D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Greenfield, Margo T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scharff, R J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rabitz, Herschel A [PRINCETON UNIV; Roslund, J [PRINCETON UNIV

    2009-01-01

    The detection of explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, especially at stand-off distances, due to their (generally) low vapor pressure, environmental and matrix interferences, and packaging. We are exploring optimal dynamic detection to exploit the best capabilities of recent advances in laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses for control of molecular processes to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. The core of the ODD-Ex technique is the introduction of optimally shaped laser pulses to simultaneously enhance sensitivity of explosives signatures while reducing the influence of noise and the signals from background interferents in the field (increase selectivity). These goals are being addressed by operating in an optimal nonlinear fashion, typically with a single shaped laser pulse inherently containing within it coherently locked control and probe sub-pulses. With sufficient bandwidth, the technique is capable of intrinsically providing orthogonal broad spectral information for data fusion, all from a single optimal pulse.

  17. Reduction of radioactivity produced by nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lessler, Richard M [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    Four main sources contribute to the radioactivity produced by a nuclear explosive: 1. Fission products from the nuclear explosive, 2. Fusion products from the nuclear explosive, 3. Induced radioactivity in the nuclear explosive, 4. Induced radioactivity in the environment. This paper will summarize some of the work done at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory at Livermore to reduce the radioactivity from these sources to levels acceptable for peaceful applications. Although it is theoretically possible to have no radioactivity produced by nuclear explosives, this goal has not been achieved.

  18. Experimental nuclear explosions and the arms race

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenci, F.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses how experimental nuclear explosions have basically three aims: a study of the effects of nuclear weapons; the development of new nuclear weapons; and control of the efficiency and security of nuclear weapons

  19. Peaceful nuclear explosions and thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, F.E.

    1975-01-01

    Some theoretical advances in the thermodynamics of very high pressures are reviewed. A universal (system-independent) formulation of the thermodynamics is sketched, and some of the equations more frequently used are written in system-independent form. Among these equations are: Hugoniot pressure and temperature as functions of volume; the Mie-Gruneisen equation; and an explicit form for the equation of state. It is also shown that this formalism can be used to interpret and predict results from peaceful nuclear explosions. (author)

  20. Ideas for peaceful nuclear explosions in USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    Three papers prepared in USSR have been made available to the Agency for circulation among Member States. One examines radioactive contamination and methods for predicting it, of natural environments during underground explosions. Another deals with the mechanical effect of underground explosions. The third, which forms the basis of this article, reviews possible applications of peaceful nuclear explosions in the Soviet economy. (author)

  1. Nuclear explosives testing readiness evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valk, T.C.

    1993-09-01

    This readiness evaluation considers hole selection and characterization, verification, containment issues, nuclear explosive safety studies, test authorities, event operations planning, canister-rack preparation, site preparation, diagnostic equipment setup, device assembly facilities and processes, device delivery and insertion, emplacement, stemming, control room activities, readiness briefing, arming and firing, test execution, emergency response and reentry, and post event analysis to include device diagnostics, nuclear chemistry, and containment. This survey concludes that the LLNL program and its supporting contractors could execute an event within six months of notification, and a second event within the following six months, given the NET group`s evaluation and the following three restraints: (1) FY94 (and subsequent year) funding is essentially constant with FY93, (2) Preliminary work for the initial event is completed to the historical sic months status, (3) Critical personnel, currently working in dual use technologies, would be recallable as needed.

  2. General phenomenology of underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derlich, S.; Supiot, F.

    1969-01-01

    An essentially qualitatively description is given of the phenomena related to underground nuclear explosions (explosion of a single unit, of several units in line, and simultaneous explosions). In the first chapter are described the phenomena which are common to contained explosions and to explosions forming craters (formation and propagation of a shock-wave causing the vaporization, the fusion and the fracturing of the medium). The second chapter describes the phenomena related to contained explosions (formation of a cavity with a chimney). The third chapter is devoted to the phenomenology of test explosions which form a crater; it describes in particular the mechanism of formation and the different types of craters as a function of the depth of the explosion and of the nature of the ground. The aerial phenomena connected with explosions which form a crater: shock wave in the air and focussing at a large distance, and dust clouds, are also dealt with. (authors) [fr

  3. Environmental control for nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, A W; Wells, W H [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    Peaceful applications introduce some new environmental considerations into the design of nuclear explosives. Much of the experience gained in weapon work can be applied, but the requirement of survival in a very deep hole is not found in any military system. We will briefly mention the overall environment and make a few comparisons with some general characteristics of the weapon environment. The major portion of this paper is devoted to the special problems of pressure and temperature found in the emplacement environment. Potential users should know where we stand with regard to survival in hostile environments in terms of feasibility and possible effects on field operations. In all applications there are several things competing for the available diameter. Given that explosives can be made to work over a range of diameters and that necessary environmental control is feasible, all further discussions can be related to the cost of providing a hole big enough to accomplish the task. The items competing for diameter are: 1) bare nuclear assembly 2) insulation and cooling system if needed 3) pressure canister 4) shielding material 5) emplacement clearance All of these must be considered with the cost of the hole in optimizing an overall design. Conditions in a particular location will affect the shielding requirements and the emplacement clearance. The nuclear assembly can vary in size, but the long development time requires that decisions be made quite early, perhaps in ignorance of the economic details of a particular application. The pressure canister is a relatively straightforward design problem that can be resolved by giving appropriate consideration to all of the design requirements. In particular for 20,000 psi pressure in the emplacement hole, a canister of heat-treated alloy steel having a yield strength of 200,000 psi and a wall thickness which is about .07 times the outside diameter is adequate and straight- forward to fabricate. The insulation and cooling

  4. Spot test kit for explosives detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoria, Philip F; Whipple, Richard E; Nunes, Peter J; Eckels, Joel Del; Reynolds, John G; Miles, Robin R; Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L

    2014-03-11

    An explosion tester system comprising a body, a lateral flow membrane swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body, a first explosives detecting reagent, a first reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the first reagent holder and dispenser containing the first explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the first explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body, a second explosives detecting reagent, and a second reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the second reagent holder and dispenser containing the second explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the second explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body.

  5. Nuclear explosion and internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeberhardt, A.

    1956-01-01

    By the study of the conditions of internal contamination due to the radioactive mixture produced by a nuclear explosion, the parts played by the relative weights of the different elements and the mode of expression of the doses are considered. Only the knowledge of the weight composition of the contamination mixture and of its evolution as a function of time can provide the required basis for the study of its metabolism in the organism. The curves which give the composition of the fission product mixture - in number of nuclei - - as a function of time - have been established. These curves are applied to some practical examples, particularly relative to the nature of contamination, radiotoxicity of some elements and assessment of hazards. (author) [fr

  6. Change Detection for Remote Monitoring of Underground Nuclear Testing: Comparison with Seismic and Associated Explosion Source Phenomenological Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canty, M.; Jahnke, G.; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2005-01-01

    The analysis of open-source satellite imagery is in process of establishing itself as an important tool for monitoring nuclear activities throughout the world which are relevant to disarmament treaties, like e. g. the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). However, the detection of anthrop......The analysis of open-source satellite imagery is in process of establishing itself as an important tool for monitoring nuclear activities throughout the world which are relevant to disarmament treaties, like e. g. the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). However, the detection...... of conventional multispectral satellite platforms with moderate ground resolution (Landsat TM, ASTER) to detect changes over wide areas.We chose the Nevada Test Site (NTS), USA, for a case study because of the large amount of available ground truth information. The analysis is based on the multivariate alteration...

  7. Engineering effects of underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, Charles R [CER Geonuclear Corporation, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Useful effects of contained underground nuclear explosions are discussed in light of today's most promising potential applications. Relevant data obtained through exploration of explosion environments of nine U.S. tests in competent rock are summarized and presented as a practical basis for estimating magnitudes of effects. Effects discussed include chimney configuration, permeability, and volume as well as rubble particle size distributions and extents of permeability change in the chimney wall rock. Explosion mediums include shale, granite, dolomite, and salt. (author)

  8. Engineering effects of underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, Charles R.

    1970-01-01

    Useful effects of contained underground nuclear explosions are discussed in light of today's most promising potential applications. Relevant data obtained through exploration of explosion environments of nine U.S. tests in competent rock are summarized and presented as a practical basis for estimating magnitudes of effects. Effects discussed include chimney configuration, permeability, and volume as well as rubble particle size distributions and extents of permeability change in the chimney wall rock. Explosion mediums include shale, granite, dolomite, and salt. (author)

  9. Delayed signatures of underground nuclear explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, Charles R.; Sun, Yunwei; Hunter, Steven L.; Ruddle, David G.; Wagoner, Jeffrey L.; Myers, Katherine B. L.; Emer, Dudley F.; Drellack, Sigmund L.; Chipman, Veraun D.

    2016-03-01

    Radionuclide signals from underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) are strongly influenced by the surrounding hydrogeologic regime. One effect of containment is delay of detonation-produced radioxenon reaching the surface as well as lengthening of its period of detectability compared to uncontained explosions. Using a field-scale tracer experiment, we evaluate important transport properties of a former UNE site. We observe the character of signals at the surface due to the migration of gases from the post-detonation chimney under realistic transport conditions. Background radon signals are found to be highly responsive to cavity pressurization suggesting that large local radon anomalies may be an indicator of a clandestine UNE. Computer simulations, using transport properties obtained from the experiment, track radioxenon isotopes in the chimney and their migration to the surface. They show that the chimney surrounded by a fractured containment regime behaves as a leaky chemical reactor regarding its effect on isotopic evolution introducing a dependence on nuclear yield not previously considered. This evolutionary model for radioxenon isotopes is validated by atmospheric observations of radioxenon from a 2013 UNE in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). Our model produces results similar to isotopic observations with nuclear yields being comparable to seismic estimates.

  10. Wireless sensor for detecting explosive material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Vincent E; Howell, Jr., Layton N; Mee, David K; Sepaniak, Michael J

    2014-10-28

    Disclosed is a sensor for detecting explosive devices. The sensor includes a ferromagnetic metal and a molecular recognition reagent coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The molecular recognition reagent is operable to expand upon absorption of vapor from an explosive material such that the molecular recognition reagent changes a tensile stress upon the ferromagnetic metal. The explosive device is detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the tensile stress.

  11. Glossary on peaceful nuclear explosions terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The report presents a glossary of terms in the area of peaceful nuclear explosions. The terms are in English, French, Russian and Spanish with cross-references for the corresponding terms of the other languages

  12. Do peaceful nuclear explosions have a future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The idea of peaceful uses for nuclear explosive devices arose almost simultaneously with the concept of the nuclear explosion itself. It has been a powerful idea in that it soon generated major study efforts in the United States and the USSR and also captured the interest of many developing nations. But in spite of this considerable interest and much expenditure of funds and effort, the expectation that economically viable uses will be found for peaceful nuclear explosions looks even more distant now that when the first studies were initiated. This, at least, is the conclusion of two recent U.S. studies of the economic feasibility and time scale for application of peaceful nuclear explosions by the United States. The larger of these two studies was prepared by the Gulf Universities Research Consortium, and dealt particularly with possibilities for use in the United States by 1990 of contained, i.e., underground, peaceful nuclear explosions. This paper provides briefer analysis by an ad hoc panel assesses the implications of the Gulf report, considers other uses for peaceful nuclear explosions, and summarizes the reasons why there is only a small possibility that there will be significant use of them by the United States before the year 2000

  13. Effects of Containment on Radionuclide Releases from Underground Nuclear Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, C. R.; Sun, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Confirming the occurrence of an underground nuclear explosion can require capturing short-lived noble gas radioisotopes produced by the explosion, sometimes referred to as the "smoking gun" for nuclear explosion detection. It is well known that the radioisotopic distribution resulting from the detonation evolves with time in the explosion cavity. In effect, the explosion cavity or chimney behaves as a chemical reactor. As long as the parent and daughter radionuclides remain in a closed and well-mixed cavity, parameters, such as radioxenon isotopic ratios, can be calculated analytically from a decay-chain network model. When gases from the cavity migrate into the containment regime, consideration of a "leaky reactor" model is more appropriate. We consider several implications of such a leaky reactor model relevant to interpretations of gas samples from the subsurface during an on-site inspection that could potentially be carried out under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Additionally, we have attempted to validate our leaky reactor model against atmospheric observations of radioactive xenon isotopes detected by radionuclide monitoring stations in Japan and Russia following the February 2013 DPRK underground nuclear explosion (Carrigan et al., 2016). While both model uncertainty and observational error are significant, our model of isotopic evolution appears to be in broad agreement with radionuclide observations, and for the first time links atmospheric measurements of radioxenon isotopic ratios to estimates of seismic yield. Carrigan et al., Scientific Reports 6, Article number: 23032 (2016) doi:10.1038/srep23032

  14. Review of Soviet studies related to peaceful underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical studies of contained and crater-forming underground nuclear explosions by USSR investigators are reviewed and summarized. Published data on U.S., USSR, and French cavity-forming nuclear explosions are compared with those predicted by the formula. Empirical studies on U.S. and USSR cratering explosions, both high explosions, both high explosive and nuclear are summarized. The parameters governing an excavation explosion are reviewed

  15. Radioactive and Other Effects of Nuclear Explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilijas, B.; Cizmek, A.; Prah, M.; Medakovic, S.

    2008-01-01

    As a result of long lasting efforts of international community to definitely ban all test nuclear explosions, the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) was opened for signature in New York on 24 September 1996, when it was signed by 71 states, including Croatia. The State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) which, as an independent state regulatory authority has a responsibility for activities relating to nuclear safety, including the national authority over this Treaty, is actively engaged in CTBTO activities. The nuclear explosion causes a lot of effects (blast, thermal, radioactive, electromagnetic) which differs a lot in its nature, reach, lasting and other. The longest lasting aftermath is from the radioactive effects that cause a radioactive fallout and a lot of radioactive elements in the environment, created by the influence of a primary beam of radiation. Fission and fusion are the main source of radionuclide created by the nuclear explosion, and the longest lasting aftermaths are by the fission products, namely their offspring in natural disintegration chains. This can make contaminated areas inappropriate for life for very long periods. Even in the case of underground nuclear explosion (when underground cavity is formed with no effects on the surface), a leakage of radioactive gases through cracks is possible. A number of radionuclide is created by the neutron activation of elements naturally present in an environment, because a very strong neutron radiation appears in the moment of nuclear explosion. The abundance of particular radionuclide is a very much dependent of a place of performing nuclear explosion and a composition of soil or water in the vicinity.(author)

  16. Explosives detection via fast neutron transmission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overley, J.C.; Chmelik, M.S.; Rasmussen, R.J.; Schofield, R.M.S.; Sieger, G.E.; Lefevre, H.W.

    2006-01-01

    A review of a five-year project on detection of explosives in luggage is presented. Experimental methods are described. Explosive detection algorithms based on elemental distributions in a 5-dimensional space are also described. Single-blind tests of the method suggest that a false-alarm rate of 4% and a detection rate of 93% are possible. Improvements in the method are suggested. Measurements of neutron total cross sections for chlorine are presented

  17. Glass produced by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, L.; Piwinskii, A.; Ryerson, F.; Tewes, H.; Beiriger, W.

    1983-01-01

    Detonation of an underground nuclear explosive produces a strong shock wave which propagates spherically outward, vaporizing the explosive and nearby rock and melting, the surrounding rock. The vaporized material expands adiabatically, forming a cavity. As the energy is dissipated during the cavity formation process, the explosive and rock debris condense and mix with the melted rock. The melt flows to the bottom of the cavity where it is quenched by fractured rock fragments falling from above as the cavity collapses. Measurements indicate that about 740 tonnes of rock and/or soil are melted for every kiloton (10 12 calories) of explosive energy, or about 25% of the explosive energy goes to melting rock. The resulting glass composition reflects the composition of the unaltered rock with explosive debris. The appearance ranges from white pumice to dense, dark lava. The bulk composition and color vary with the amount of explosive iron incorporated into the glass. The refractory explosion products are mixed with the solidified melt, although the degree of mixing is variable. Electron microprobe studies of glasses produced by Rainier in welded tuff have produced the following results: glasses are dehydrated relative to the host media, glasses are extremely heterogeneous on a 20 μm scale, a ubiquitous feature is the presence of dark marble-cake regions in the glass, which were locally enriched in iron and may be related to the debris, optically amorphous regions provide evidence of shock melting, only limited major element redistribution and homogenization occur within the cavity

  18. Novel methods for detecting buried explosive devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kercel, S.W.; Burlage, R.S.; Patek, D.R.; Smith, C.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hibbs, A.D.; Rayner, T.J. [Quantum Magnetics, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Quantum Magnetics, Inc. (QM) are exploring novel landmine detection technologies. Technologies considered here include bioreporter bacteria, swept acoustic resonance, nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), and semiotic data fusion. Bioreporter bacteria look promising for third-world humanitarian applications; they are inexpensive, and deployment does not require high-tech methods. Swept acoustic resonance may be a useful adjunct to magnetometers in humanitarian demining. For military demining, NQR is a promising method for detecting explosive substances; of 50,000 substances that have been tested, none has an NQR signature that can be mistaken for RDX or TNT. For both military and commercial demining, sensor fusion entails two daunting tasks, identifying fusible features in both present-day and emerging technologies, and devising a fusion algorithm that runs in real-time on cheap hardware. Preliminary research in these areas is encouraging. A bioreporter bacterium for TNT detection is under development. Investigation has just started in swept acoustic resonance as an approach to a cheap mine detector for humanitarian use. Real-time wavelet processing appears to be a key to extending NQR bomb detection into mine detection, including TNT-based mines. Recent discoveries in semiotics may be the breakthrough that will lead to a robust fused detection scheme.

  19. Laser-based optical detection of explosives

    CERN Document Server

    Pellegrino, Paul M; Farrell, Mikella E

    2015-01-01

    Laser-Based Optical Detection of Explosives offers a comprehensive review of past, present, and emerging laser-based methods for the detection of a variety of explosives. This book: Considers laser propagation safety and explains standard test material preparation for standoff optical-based detection system evaluation Explores explosives detection using deep ultraviolet native fluorescence, Raman spectroscopy, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, reflectometry, and hyperspectral imaging Examines photodissociation followed by laser-induced fluorescence, photothermal methods, cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry, and short-pulse laser-based techniques Describes the detection and recognition of explosives using terahertz-frequency spectroscopic techniques Each chapter is authored by a leading expert on the respective technology, and is structured to supply historical perspective, address current advantages and challenges, and discuss novel research and applications. Readers are left with an in-depth understa...

  20. The long-term nuclear explosives predicament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swahn, J.

    1992-01-01

    A scenario is described, where the production of new military fissile materials is halted and where civil nuclear power is phased out in a 'no-new orders' case. It is found that approximately 1100 tonnes of weapons-grade uranium, 233 tonnes of weapons-grade plutonium and 3795 tonnes of reactor-grade plutonium have to be finally disposed of as nuclear waste. This material could be used for the construction of over 1 million nuclear explosives. Reactor-grade plutonium is found to be easier to extract from spent nuclear fuel with time and some physical characteristics important for the construction of nuclear explosives are improved. Alternative methods for disposal of the fissile material that will avoid the long-term nuclear explosives predicament are examined. Among these methods are dilution, denaturing or transmutation of the fissile material and options for practicably irrecoverable disposal in deep boreholes, on the sea-bed, and in space. It is found that the deep boreholes method for disposal should be the primary alternative to be examined further. This method can be combined with an effort to 'forget' where the material was put. Included in the thesis is also an evaluation of the possibilities of controlling the limited civil nuclear activities in a post-nuclear world. Some surveillance technologies for a post-nuclear world are described, including satellite surveillance. In a review part of the thesis, methods for the production of fissile material for nuclear explosives are described, the technological basis for the construction of nuclear weapons is examined, including use of reactor-grade plutonium for such purposes; also plans for the disposal of spent fuel from civil nuclear power reactors and for the handling of the fissile material from dismantled warheads is described. The Swedish plan for the handling and disposal of spent nuclear fuel is described in detail. (490 refs., 66 figs., 27 tabs.)

  1. Advances in neutron based bulk explosive detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozani, Tsahi; Strellis, Dan

    2007-08-01

    Neutron based explosive inspection systems can detect a wide variety of national security threats. The inspection is founded on the detection of characteristic gamma rays emitted as the result of neutron interactions with materials. Generally these are gamma rays resulting from thermal neutron capture and inelastic scattering reactions in most materials and fast and thermal neutron fission in fissile (e.g.235U and 239Pu) and fertile (e.g.238U) materials. Cars or trucks laden with explosives, drugs, chemical agents and hazardous materials can be detected. Cargo material classification via its main elements and nuclear materials detection can also be accomplished with such neutron based platforms, when appropriate neutron sources, gamma ray spectroscopy, neutron detectors and suitable decision algorithms are employed. Neutron based techniques can be used in a variety of scenarios and operational modes. They can be used as stand alones for complete scan of objects such as vehicles, or for spot-checks to clear (or validate) alarms indicated by another inspection system such as X-ray radiography. The technologies developed over the last two decades are now being implemented with good results. Further advances have been made over the last few years that increase the sensitivity, applicability and robustness of these systems. The advances range from the synchronous inspection of two sides of vehicles, increasing throughput and sensitivity and reducing imparted dose to the inspected object and its occupants (if any), to taking advantage of the neutron kinetic behavior of cargo to remove systematic errors, reducing background effects and improving fast neutron signals.

  2. Detection of Noble Gas Radionuclides from an Underground Nuclear Explosion During a CTBT On-Site Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, Charles R.; Sun, Yunwei

    2014-03-01

    The development of a technically sound approach to detecting the subsurface release of noble gas radionuclides is a critical component of the on-site inspection (OSI) protocol under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. In this context, we are investigating a variety of technical challenges that have a significant bearing on policy development and technical guidance regarding the detection of noble gases and the creation of a technically justifiable OSI concept of operation. The work focuses on optimizing the ability to capture radioactive noble gases subject to the constraints of possible OSI scenarios. This focus results from recognizing the difficulty of detecting gas releases in geologic environments—a lesson we learned previously from the non-proliferation experiment (NPE). Most of our evaluations of a sampling or transport issue necessarily involve computer simulations. This is partly due to the lack of OSI-relevant field data, such as that provided by the NPE, and partly a result of the ability of computer-based models to test a range of geologic and atmospheric scenarios far beyond what could ever be studied by field experiments, making this approach very highly cost effective. We review some highlights of the transport and sampling issues we have investigated and complete the discussion of these issues with a description of a preliminary design for subsurface sampling that addresses some of the sampling challenges discussed here.

  3. A Study on intelligent measurement of nuclear explosion equivalent in atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Desheng; Wu Xiaohong

    1999-01-01

    Measurement of nuclear explosion equivalent in atmosphere is an important subject for nuclear survey. Based on the relations between nuclear explosion equivalent and the minimum illuminance time of light radiation from nuclear explosion. The method of RC differential valley time detection and mean-time taking is presented the method, using a single-chip computer as a intelligent part, can realize intelligent measurement of minimum illuminance time with high reliability and low power consumption. This method provides a practical mean for quick, accurate and reliable measurement of nuclear explosion equivalent in atmosphere

  4. Magnitude determination for large underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Lawrence D [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    A method is presented for determining the local magnitudes for large underground nuclear explosions. The Gutenberg-Richter nomograph is applied to the peak amplitudes for 24 large underground nuclear explosions that took place in Nevada. The amplitudes were measured at 18 California Wood-Anderson stations located 150-810 km from the explosion epicenter. The variation of the individual station magnitudes and magnitude corrections and the variation of the average and rms error estimates in the magnitude determinations are examined with respect to distance, azimuth, and event location. The magnitude prediction capability of the Gutenberg-Richter nomograph is examined on the basis of these two criteria, and certain corrections are suggested. The azimuthal dependence of the individual station magnitudes is investigated, and corrections for the California stations are calculated. Statistical weighting schemes for two-component data are employed, and the assumptions and limitations in the use of peak amplitudes are discussed. (author)

  5. Neutron albedo effects of underground nuclear explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bo; Ying Yangjun; Li Jinhong; Bai Yun

    2013-01-01

    The neutron field distribution is affected by the surrounding medium in the underground nuclear explosion. It will influence the radiation chemical diagnosis. By Monte Carlo simulation, the fuel burnup induced by device and neutron albedo was calculated. The analysis method of albedo effect on radiation chemical diagnosis result under special environment was proposed. Neutron albedo should be considered when capture reaction burnup fraction is used, and then correct analysis can be carried out on the nuclear device.The neutron field distribution is affected by the surrounding medium in the underground nuclear explosion. It will influence the radiation chemical diagnosis. By Monte Carlo simulation, the fuel burnup induced by device and neutron albedo was calculated. The analysis method of albedo effect on radiation chemical diagnosis result under special environment was proposed. Neutron albedo should be considered when capture reaction burnup fraction is used, and then correct analysis can be carried out on the nuclear device. (authors)

  6. Electromagnetic signals from underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, J.; Fitzhugh, R.; Homuth, F.

    1985-10-01

    Electromagnetic fields and ground currents resulting from underground nuclear explosions have been observed since the first such event. A few measurements have been reported, but most have not. There also have been some speculations as to their origin; the two most generally proposed are the magnetic bubble and the seismoelectric effect. The evidence seems to favor the latter mechanism. 15 refs., 36 figs

  7. Vapor explosion studies for nuclear and non-nuclear industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi P. [Arden L. Bement, Jr. Professor Nuclear Engineering, School of Nuclear Engineering, 1290 Nuclear Engineering Building, Room 108C, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47905 (United States)]. E-mail: rusi@purdue.edu

    2005-05-01

    Energetic melt-water explosions are a well-established contributor to risk for nuclear reactors, and even more so for the metal casting industry. In-depth studies were undertaken in an industry-national laboratory collaborative effort to understand the root causes of explosion triggering and to evaluate methods for prevention. The steam explosion triggering studies (SETS) facility was devised and implemented for deriving key insights into explosion prevention. Data obtained indicated that onset of base surface-entrapment induced explosive boiling-caused trigger shocks is a result of complex combination of surface wettability, type of coating (organic versus inorganic), degree of coating wearoff, existence of bypass pathways for pressure relief, charring and non-condensable gas (NCG) release potential. Of these parameters NCGs were found to play a preeminent role on explosion prevention by stabilizing the melt-water steam interface and acting as a shock absorber. The role of NCGs was experimentally confirmed using SETS for their effect on stable film boiling using a downward facing heated body through which gases were injected. The presence of NCGs in the steam film layer caused a significant delay in the transitioning of film-to-nucleate boiling. The role of NCGs on explosion prevention was thereafter demonstrated more directly by introducing molten metal drops into water pools with and without NCG bubbling. Whereas spontaneous and energetic explosions took place without NCG injection, only benign quenching occurred in the presence of NCGs. Gravimetric analyses of organic coatings which are known to prevent explosion onset were also found to release significant NCGs during thermal attack by melt in the presence of water. These findings offer a novel, simple, cost-effective technique for deriving fundamental insights into melt-water explosions as well as for explosion prevention under most conditions of interest to metal casting, and possibly for nuclear reactor

  8. The CTBT Verification Regime: Monitoring the Earth for nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-03-01

    The Comprehensive nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) bans all nuclear weapon tests. Its unique verification regime is designed to detect nuclear explosions anywhere on the planet - in the oceans, underground and in the atmosphere. once complete, the international Monitoring system (iMs) will consist of 337 facilities located in 89 countries around the globe. The iMs is currently operating in test mode so that data are already transmitted for analysis from monitoring facilities to the international Data Centre (iDC) at the headquarters of the preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) in Vienna. Data and analysis results are shared with Member states.

  9. Advancing Explosion Source Theory through Experimentation: Results from Seismic Experiments Since the Moratorium on Nuclear Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, J. L.; Stump, B. W.

    2011-12-01

    On 23 September 1992, the United States conducted the nuclear explosion DIVIDER at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It would become the last US nuclear test when a moratorium ended testing the following month. Many of the theoretical explosion seismic models used today were developed from observations of hundreds of nuclear tests at NTS and around the world. Since the moratorium, researchers have turned to chemical explosions as a possible surrogate for continued nuclear explosion research. This talk reviews experiments since the moratorium that have used chemical explosions to advance explosion source models. The 1993 Non-Proliferation Experiment examined single-point, fully contained chemical-nuclear equivalence by detonating over a kiloton of chemical explosive at NTS in close proximity to previous nuclear explosion tests. When compared with data from these nearby nuclear explosions, the regional and near-source seismic data were found to be essentially identical after accounting for different yield scaling factors for chemical and nuclear explosions. The relationship between contained chemical explosions and large production mining shots was studied at the Black Thunder coal mine in Wyoming in 1995. The research led to an improved source model for delay-fired mining explosions and a better understanding of mining explosion detection by the International Monitoring System (IMS). The effect of depth was examined in a 1997 Kazakhstan Depth of Burial experiment. Researchers used local and regional seismic observations to conclude that the dominant mechanism for enhanced regional shear waves was local Rg scattering. Travel-time calibration for the IMS was the focus of the 1999 Dead Sea Experiment where a 10-ton shot was recorded as far away as 5000 km. The Arizona Source Phenomenology Experiments provided a comparison of fully- and partially-contained chemical shots with mining explosions, thus quantifying the reduction in seismic amplitudes associated with partial

  10. NQR: From imaging to explosives and drugs detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osan, Tristan M.; Cerioni, Lucas M.C.; Forguez, Jose; Olle, Juan M.; Pusiol, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of this work is to present an overview of the nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectroscopy capabilities for solid state imaging and detection of illegal substances, such as explosives and drugs. We briefly discuss the evolution of different NQR imaging techniques, in particular those involving spatial encoding which permit conservation of spectroscopic information. It has been shown that plastic explosives and other forbidden substances cannot be easily detected by means of conventional inspection techniques, such as those based on conventional X-ray technology. For this kind of applications, the experimental results show that the information inferred from NQR spectroscopy provides excellent means to perform volumetric and surface detection of dangerous explosive and drug compounds

  11. Nuclear explosion and internal contamination; Explosion nucleaire et contamination interne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeberhardt, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1956-07-01

    By the study of the conditions of internal contamination due to the radioactive mixture produced by a nuclear explosion, the parts played by the relative weights of the different elements and the mode of expression of the doses are considered. Only the knowledge of the weight composition of the contamination mixture and of its evolution as a function of time can provide the required basis for the study of its metabolism in the organism. The curves which give the composition of the fission product mixture - in number of nuclei - - as a function of time - have been established. These curves are applied to some practical examples, particularly relative to the nature of contamination, radiotoxicity of some elements and assessment of hazards. (author) [French] Etudiant les modalites de la contamination interne par les elements radioactifs apparus lors d'une explosion nucleaire, le role de la 'masse' et le mode d'expression des doses sont envisages. La connaissance de la composition en 'masse' du melange contaminant et de son evolution en fonction du temps peut seule apporter les bases necessaires a l'etude de son comportement dans l'organisme. Les courbes donnant la composition du melange de produits de fission - en nombre de noyaux - - en fonction du temps - ont ete etablies. Quelques applications pratiques, relatives en particulier a la nature de la contamination, a la radiotoxicite de certains elements et a l'evaluation de risque, sont envisagees a titre d'exemple. (auteur)

  12. Seismic coupling of nuclear explosions. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, D B [ed.; Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1989-12-31

    The new Giant Magnet Experimental Facility employing digital recording of explosion induced motion has been constructed and successfully tested. Particle velocity and piezoresistance gage responses can be measured simultaneously thus providing the capability for determining the multi-component stress-strain history in the test material. This capability provides the information necessary for validation of computer models used in simulation of nuclear underground testing, chemical explosion testing, dynamic structural response, earth penetration response, and etc. This report discusses fully coupled and cavity decoupled explosions of the same energy (0.622 kJ) were carried out as experiments to study wave propagation and attenuation in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). These experiments produced particle velocity time histories at strains from 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} to as low as 5.8 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}. Other experiments in PMMA, reported recently by Stout and Larson{sup 8} provide additional particle velocity data to strains of 10{sup {minus}1}.

  13. The effects of fallout from nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.

    1987-01-01

    Early fallout from surface or near surface nuclear explosions leads to radiation doses at levels sufficient to cause deaths from the acute effects of radiation over large areas, particularly if no means of avoiding exposure are available. For example, early fallout from a 10 megatonne weapon could lead to doses in excess of 4 or 5 grays (at which half of those exposed die) over an area of about 25,000 square kilometres, in a deposit perhaps 400 km long and 80 km wide. The survivors of early fallout are likely to experience a significant increase in thyroid disease (for children at the time of exposure), in leukaemia and a probably detectable increase in cancer. It is unlikely that there would be any significant increase in the incidence of genetic disability and ill-health in the children of the survivors. Delayed fallout would be distributed fairly uniformly around the earth. The additional cancer and genetic risks from delayed fallout are small, the cancer risk being less than 1 per cent of natural incidence and the genetic risk being undetectable

  14. Observations on military exploitation of explosives detection technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Anthony A.; de Ruiter, C. J.; Ehlerding, Anneli; McFee, John E.; Svinsås, Eirik; van Rheenen, Arthur D.

    2011-06-01

    Accurate and timely detection of explosives, energetic materials, and their associated compounds would provide valuable information to military commanders in a wide range of military operations: protection of fast moving convoys from mobile or static IED threats; more deliberate countermine and counter-IED operations during route or area clearance; and static roles such as hasty or deliberate checkpoints, critical infrastructure protection and support to public security. The detection of hidden explosive hazards is an extremely challenging problem, as evidenced by the fact that related research has been ongoing in many countries for at least seven decades and no general purpose solution has yet been found. Technologies investigated have spanned all major scientific fields, with emphasis on the physical sciences, life sciences, engineering, robotics, computer technology and mathematics. This paper will present a limited, operationally-focused overview of the current status of detection technologies. Emphasis will be on those technologies that directly detect the explosive hazard, as opposed to those that detect secondary properties of the threat, such as the casing, associated wires or electronics. Technologies that detect explosives include those based on nuclear radiation and terahertz radiation, as well as trace and biological detection techniques. Current research areas of the authors will be used to illustrate the practical applications.

  15. Detection of bottled explosives by near infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itozaki, Hideo; Sato-Akaba, Hideo

    2013-10-01

    Bottled liquids are not allowed through the security gate in the airport, because liquid explosives have been used by the terrorists. However, passengers have a lot of trouble if they cannot bring their own bottles. For example, a mother would like to carry her own milk in the airplane for her baby. Therefore the detection technology of liquid explosives should be developed as soon as possible. This paper shows that near infrared spectroscopy can detect bottled explosives quickly. The transmission method cannot deal with milk in the sense of liquid inspection. Here we examined the reflection method to the test of milk. The inspection method with light cannot make test for the metal can. We also use ultrasonic method to check metal can simultaneously in order to expand test targets.

  16. Propulsion of space ships by nuclear explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, J. G.; Kravárik, J.

    2005-01-01

    Recent progress in the research on deuterium-tritium (D-T) inertially confined microexplosions encourages one to reconsider the nuclear propulsion of spaceships based on the concept originally proposed in the Orion project. We discuss first the acceleration of medium-sized spaceships by D-T explosions whose output is in the range of 0.1 10 t of TNT. The launching of such a ship into an Earth orbit or beyond by a large nuclear explosion in an underground cavity is sketched out in the second section of the paper, and finally we consider a hypothetical Mars mission based on these concepts. In the conclusion it is argued that propulsion based on the Orion concept only is not the best method for interplanetary travel owing to the very large number of nuclear explosion required. A combination of a super gun and subsequent rocket propulsion using advanced chemical fuels appears to be the best solution for space flights of the near future.

  17. Horizontal dimensions of ionosphere agitation provoked by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drobzheva, Ya.V.; Krasnov, V.M.; Sokolova, O.I.

    2001-01-01

    The horizontal dimensions of ionosphere agitation provoked by underground nuclear explosions have been experimentally determined for 13 explosions conducted at the Balapan test site of the Semipalatinsk test site. (author)

  18. Natural gas production from underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-01-01

    A remote location in Rio Arriba County, NW. New Mexico, is being considered as the site for an experiment in the use of a nuclear explosive to increase production from a natural gas field. A feasibility study has been conducted by the El Paso Natural Gas Co., the U.S. Atomic Energy commission, and the U.S. Bureau of Mines. As presently conceived, a nuclear explosive would be set in an emplacement hole and detonated. The explosion would create a cylinder or ''chimney'' of collapsed rock, and a network of fractures extending beyond the chimney. The fractures are the key effect. These would consist of new fractures, enlargement of existing ones, and movement along planes where strata overlap. In addition, there are a number of intangible but important benefits that could accrue from the stimulating effect. Among these are the great increase in recoverable reserves and the deliverability of large volumes of gas during the periods of high demand. It is believed that this type of well stimulation may increase the total gas production of these low permeability natural gas fields by about 7 times the amounts now attainable.

  19. Underground nuclear explosions at Astrakhan, USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, I.Y.

    1982-01-01

    The three underground nuclear explosions recorded in 1980 and 1981 by Hagfors Observatory in Sweden are in the vicinity of Astrakhan on the Caspian Sea. They are believed to be associated with the development of a gas condensate field discovered in 1973. The gas producing horizons are in limestones at 4000 m depth. They are overlain by bedded, Kungarian salts. Salt domes are recognized in the area. Plans to develop the field are contained in the 11th Five Year Plan (1981-82). The USSR has solicited bids from western contractors to build gas separation and gas processing plant with an annual capacity of 6 billion m 3 . Ultimate expansion plans call for three plants with the total capacity of 18 billion m 3 . By analogy with similar peaceful nuclear explosions described in 1975 by the Soviets at another gas condensate field, the underground cavities are probably designed for storage of unstable, sour condensate after initial separation from the gaseous phases in the field. Assuming that the medium surrounding the explosions is salt, the volume of each cavity is on the order of 50,000 m 3

  20. Integrated control system for nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragsdale, William F [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    The Integrated Control System (ICS) has been developed to facilitate Plowshare nuclear detonations by following a unified system approach. This system consolidates the techniques for firing, safety program, scientific program, and communications. Maximum emphasis is placed upon control and data transmission by radio rather than hardwire or coaxial cable. The ICS consists of a Command Point (CP) Trailer, a radio repeater station, a field station (the ICE Box), and several chassis located in the explosive canister. Commands originate in the CP and are transmitted via microwave radio to the ICE Box; monitors are returned to the CP from the canister, the ICE Box, and sensors near ground zero. The system allows complete checkout and operation before shipment to the field. The explosive canister may be dry-run at the assembly area (at NTS) before shipment to the field. The basic detonation functions for every event are: 1. Arming and firing commands in the explosive canister and at surface ground zero. 2. Environmental monitors and suitable arming monitors in the explosive canister. 3. Safety monitors at the zero site for weather, RAMS (Remote Area Monitoring System), and cavity collapse. Secondary functions that may be required for a specific project are: 4. Scientific program of phenomenology measurements. 5. Explosive performance measurements. 6. Ground zero television. 7. Auxiliary communications such as local telephones, VHF radio. By combining functions that have previously been performed by separate organizations and systems, the ICS attempts a minimum cost detonation service. Economy of operation results because: 1. Operating personnel work on more than one sub-system. 2. Interfaces and interface complexity are minimized. 3. A reduced dependence upon signal cables results from a microwave-based system. 4. Pre-fabrication allows test operation before shipment to the field and minimizes setup time in the field. The ICS is in use on the Sturtevant event and is

  1. Cavities produced by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butkovich, T.R.

    1976-01-01

    This investigation studied the displacement of rock that formerly occupied cavities produced by underground nuclear explosions. There are three possible explanations for this displacement: the volume could be displaced to the free surface; it could occupy previously air-filled pores removed from the surrounding rock through compaction; or it could be accounted for by persisting compressive stresses induced by the outgoing shock wave. The analysis shows it unlikely that stored residual elastic stresses account for large fractions of cavity volumes. There is limited experimental evidence that free surface displacement accounts for a significant portion of this volume. Whenever the explosion mediums contain air-filled pores, the compaction of these pores most likely accounts for all the volume. Calculations show that 4 percent air-filled porosity can account for all the cavity volume within about 4 cavity radii and that even 1 percent can account for a significant fraction of the volume

  2. Surface effects of underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, B.M.; Drellack, S.L. Jr.; Townsend, M.J.

    1997-06-01

    The effects of nuclear explosions have been observed and studied since the first nuclear test (code named Trinity) on July 16, 1945. Since that first detonation, 1,053 nuclear tests have been conducted by the US, most of which were sited underground at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The effects of underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) on their surroundings have long been the object of much interest and study, especially for containment, engineering, and treaty verification purposes. One aspect of these explosion-induced phenomena is the disruption or alteration of the near-surface environment, also known as surface effects. This report was prepared at the request of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), to bring together, correlate, and preserve information and techniques used in the recognition and documentation of surface effects of UNEs. This report has several main sections, including pertinent background information (Section 2.0), descriptions of the different types of surface effects (Section 3.0), discussion of their application and limitations (Section 4.0), an extensive bibliography and glossary (Section 6.0 and Appendix A), and procedures used to document geologic surface effects at the NTS (Appendix C). Because a majority of US surface-effects experience is from the NTS, an overview of pertinent NTS-specific information also is provided in Appendix B. It is not within the scope of this report to explore new relationships among test parameters, physiographic setting, and the types or degree of manifestation of surface effects, but rather to compile, summarize, and capture surface-effects observations and interpretations, as well as documentation procedures and the rationale behind them.

  3. Chemosensors for detection of nitroaromatic compounds (explosives)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyryanov, G. V.; Kopchuk, D. S.; Kovalev, I. S.; Nosova, E. V.; Rusinov, V. L.; Chupakhin, O. N.

    2014-09-01

    The key types of low-molecular-mass chemosensors for the detection of nitroaromatic compounds representing energetic substances (explosives) are analyzed. The coordination and chemical properties of these chemosensors and structural features of their complexes with nitroaromatic compounds are considered. The causes and methods for attaining high selectivity of recognition are demonstrated. The primary attention is paid to the use of low-molecular-mass chemosensors for visual detection of explosives of this class by colorimetric and photometric methods. Examples of using photo- and chemiluminescence for this purpose are described. A separate section is devoted to electrochemical methods of detection of nitroaromatic compounds. Data published from 2000 to 2014 are mainly covered. The bibliography includes 245 references.

  4. Chemosensors for detection of nitroaromatic compounds (explosives)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zyryanov, G V; Kopchuk, D S; Rusinov, V L; Chupakhin, O N; Kovalev, I S; Nosova, E V

    2014-01-01

    The key types of low-molecular-mass chemosensors for the detection of nitroaromatic compounds representing energetic substances (explosives) are analyzed. The coordination and chemical properties of these chemosensors and structural features of their complexes with nitroaromatic compounds are considered. The causes and methods for attaining high selectivity of recognition are demonstrated. The primary attention is paid to the use of low-molecular-mass chemosensors for visual detection of explosives of this class by colorimetric and photometric methods. Examples of using photo- and chemiluminescence for this purpose are described. A separate section is devoted to electrochemical methods of detection of nitroaromatic compounds. Data published from 2000 to 2014 are mainly covered. The bibliography includes 245 references

  5. Multi-sensor explosive detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozani, T.; Shea, P.M.; Sawa, Z.P.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes an explosive detection system. It comprises a source of neutrons; a detector array comprising a plurality of gamma ray detectors, each of the gamma ray detectors providing a detection signal in the event a gamma ray is captured by the detector, and at least one neutron detector, the neutron detector providing a neutron detection signal in the event a neutron is captured by the neutron detector; means for irradiating an object being examined with neutrons from the neutron source and for positioning the detector array relative to the object so that gamma rays emitted from the elements within the object as a result of the neutron irradiation are detected by the gamma ray detectors of the detector array; and parallel distributed processing means responsive to the detection signals of the detector array for discriminating between objects carrying explosives and objects not carrying explosives, the parallel distributed processing means including an artificial neural system (ANS), the ANS having a parallel network of processors, each processor of the parallel network of processors, each processor of the parallel network of processors including means for receiving at least one input signal, and means for generating an output signal as a function of the at least one input signal

  6. Detecting nuclear warheads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetter, S.; Frolov, V.A.; Prilutsky, O.F.; Rodionov, S.N.; Sagdeev, R.Z.; Miller, M.

    1992-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, all nuclear weapons contain at least several kilograms of fissile material - material that can sustain a chain reaction. Such material provides the energy for fission explosives such as those that destroyed Hiroshima and Nagasaki; it is also used in the fission trigger modern thermonuclear weapons. The two fissile materials used in US and Soviet warheads are weapon grade uranium (WgU) and weapon-grade plutonium (WgPu). Fissile materials are radioactive; they are very dense and absorb certain radiations very well; and they can be fissioned. This paper reports on the two basic ways to detect fissile material: passive detection of the radiation emitted by its radioactive decay, or active detection involving either radiographing (x-raying) an object with neutrons or high-energy photons and detecting particles emitted by the resulting induced fissions. Passive detection is the preferred technique for verification purposes because of its simplicity and safety

  7. 49 CFR 1544.213 - Use of explosives detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of explosives detection systems. 1544.213...: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.213 Use of explosives detection systems. (a... explosives detection system approved by TSA to screen checked baggage on international flights. (b) Signs and...

  8. Explosive plugging of nuclear heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossland, B.; Bahrani, A.S.; Townsley, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    Explosive welding is a well established process for cladding one metal on another or for welding tubes to tubeplates or lap welding, etc. Recently, the process has been adapted to plugging of heat exchangers in conventional and nuclear power plant, where it has already been accepted especially in situations where the access is difficult and remote from the site of plugging. The paper describes the explosive plugging techniques developed in the Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering of The Queen's University of Belfast for the reheater and superheater of the PFR, and for the reheater of the AGR. For the PFR a point charge system has been used which causes a spherical expansion of the plug, which gives two zones of welding. Initially for the much larger plug required for the AGR it was proposed to use a parallel stand-off welding set-up, but it proved difficult or impossible to avoid a crevice. Consequently, a rim charge set-up has been developed which gives a circular ring expansion of the plug with two zones of welding. Besides the problem of the design of the plug and explosive charge geometry it has also been necessary to consider the distortion of holes adjoining the hole in which a plug is welded. Bunging of adjoining holes in order to reduce the distortion has also been investigated

  9. Nuclear Explosion Monitoring History and Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, W. L.; Zucca, J. J.

    2008-12-01

    Within a year after the nuclear detonations over Hiroshima and Nagasaki the Baruch Plan was presented to the newly formed United Nations Atomic Energy Commission (June 14, 1946) to establish nuclear disarmament and international control over all nuclear activities. These controls would allow only the peaceful use of atomic energy. The plan was rejected through a Security Council veto primarily because of the resistance to unlimited inspections. Since that time there have been many multilateral, and bilateral agreements, and unilateral declarations to limit or eliminate nuclear detonations. Almost all of theses agreements (i.e. treaties) call for some type of monitoring. We will review a timeline showing the history of nuclear testing and the more important treaties. We will also describe testing operations, containment, phenomenology, and observations. The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) which has been signed by 179 countries (ratified by 144) established the International Monitoring System global verification regime which employs seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic and radionuclide monitoring techniques. The CTBT also includes on-site inspection to clarify whether a nuclear explosion has been carried out in violation of the Treaty. The US Department of Energy (DOE) through its National Nuclear Security Agency's Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring R&D Program supports research by US National Laboratories, and universities and industry internationally to detect, locate, and identify nuclear detonations. This research program builds on the broad base of monitoring expertise developed over several decades. Annually the DOE and the US Department of Defense jointly solicit monitoring research proposals. Areas of research include: seismic regional characterization and wave propagation, seismic event detection and location, seismic identification and source characterization, hydroacoustic monitoring, radionuclide monitoring, infrasound monitoring, and

  10. Remote detection of explosives using trained canines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.C.

    1983-03-01

    Use of dogs is a search method which combines high probability of detection, speed of search, and low cost. It was concluded that the canine could be used for explosive screening of personnel, but that it was imperative that the dog be in a position remote from employees and employee traffic. A study was made of the design of booths and air flow for this purpose. Results of tests and conclusions are given and discussed

  11. Detection of Atmospheric Explosions at IMS Monitoring Stations using Infrasound Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christie, Douglas R; Kennett, Brian L; Tarlowski, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Work is continuing on the development of infrasound techniques that can be used to improve detection, location and discrimination capability for atmospheric nuclear explosions at International Monitoring System (IMS...

  12. Nuclear explosives in water-resource management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piper, Arthur M [United States Department of the Interior, Geological Survey (United States)

    1970-05-15

    Nuclear explosives afford diverse tools for managing our water resources. These include principally: the rubble column of a fully contained underground detonation, the similar rubble column of a retarc, the crater by subsidence, the throwout crater of maximum volume (the latter either singly or in-line), and the ejecta of a valley-slope crater. By these tools, one can create space in which to store water, either underground or on the land surface - in the latter instance, to a considerable degree independently of the topography. Underground, one can accelerate movement of water by breaching a confining bed, a partition of a compartmented aquifer, or some other obstruction in the natural 'plumbing system'. Finally, on the land surface, one can modify the natural pattern of water flow, by canals excavated with in-line detonation. In all these applications, the potential advantage of a nuclear explosive rests chiefly in undertakings of large scale, under a consequent small cost per unit of mechanical work accomplished.

  13. Optical detection of explosives: spectral signatures for the explosive bouquet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Tabetha; Kaimal, Sindhu; Causey, Jason; Burns, William; Reeve, Scott

    2009-05-01

    Research with canines suggests that sniffer dogs alert not on the odor from a pure explosive, but rather on a set of far more volatile species present in an explosive as impurities. Following the explosive trained canine example, we have begun examining the vapor signatures for many of these volatile impurities utilizing high resolution spectroscopic techniques in several molecular fingerprint regions. Here we will describe some of these high resolution measurements and discuss strategies for selecting useful spectral signature regions for individual molecular markers of interest.

  14. Detection of explosives by neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, F.D.; Buffler, A.; Allie, M.S.; Nchodu, M.R.; Bharuth-Ram, K.

    1998-01-01

    For non-intrusive detection of hidden explosives or other contraband such as narcotics a fast neutron scattering analysis (FNSA) technique is proposed. An experimental arrangement uses a collimated, pulsed beam of neutrons directed at the sample. Scattered neutrons are detected by liquid scintillation counters at different scattering angles. A scattering signature is derived from two-parameter data, counts vs pulse height and time-of-flight measured for each element (H, C, N or O) at each of two scattering angles and two neutron energies. The elemental signatures are very distinctive and constitute a good response matrix for unfolding elemental components from the scattering signatures measured for different compounds

  15. A portable system for nuclear, chemical agent, and explosives identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, W.E.; Buckley, W.M.; Kreek, S.A.; Mauger, G.J.; Lavietes, A.D.; Dougan, A.D.; Caffrey, A.J.

    2001-01-01

    The FRIS/PINS hybrid integrates the LLNL-developed Field Radionuclide Identification System (FRIS) with the INEEL-developed Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy (PINS) chemical assay system to yield a combined general radioisotope, special nuclear material, and chemical weapons/explosives detection and identification system. The PINS system uses a neutron source and a high-purity germanium γ-ray detector. The FRIS system uses an electromechanically cooled germanium detector and its own analysis software to detect and identify special nuclear material and other radioisotopes. The FRIS/PINS combined system also uses the electromechanically-cooled germanium detector. There is no other currently available integrated technology that can combine a prompt-gamma neutron-activation analysis capability for CWE with a passive radioisotope measurement and identification capability for special nuclear material

  16. A Portable System for Nuclear, Chemical Agent and Explosives Identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, W.E.; Buckley, W.M.; Kreek, S.A.; Caffrey, A.J.; Mauger, G.J.; Lavietes, A.D.; Dougan, A.D.

    2000-01-01

    The FRIS/PINS hybrid integrates the LLNL-developed Field Radionuclide Identification System (FRIS) with the INEEL-developed Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy (PINS) chemical assay system to yield a combined general radioisotope, special nuclear material, and chemical weapons/explosives detection and identification system. The PINS system uses a neutron source and a high-purity germanium γ-ray detector. The FRIS system uses an electrochemically cooled germanium detector and its own analysis software to detect and identify special nuclear material and other radioisotopes. The FRIS/PINS combined system also uses the electromechanically-cooled germanium detector. There is no other currently available integrated technology that can combine an active neutron interrogation and analysis capability for CWE with a passive radioisotope measurement and identification capability for special nuclear material

  17. General phenomenology of underground nuclear explosions; Phenomenologie generale des explosions nucleaires souterraines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derlich, S; Supiot, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    An essentially qualitatively description is given of the phenomena related to underground nuclear explosions (explosion of a single unit, of several units in line, and simultaneous explosions). In the first chapter are described the phenomena which are common to contained explosions and to explosions forming craters (formation and propagation of a shock-wave causing the vaporization, the fusion and the fracturing of the medium). The second chapter describes the phenomena related to contained explosions (formation of a cavity with a chimney). The third chapter is devoted to the phenomenology of test explosions which form a crater; it describes in particular the mechanism of formation and the different types of craters as a function of the depth of the explosion and of the nature of the ground. The aerial phenomena connected with explosions which form a crater: shock wave in the air and focussing at a large distance, and dust clouds, are also dealt with. (authors) [French] On donne une description essentiellement qualitative des phenomenes lies aux explosions nucleaires souterraines (explosion d'un seul engin, d'engins en ligne et explosions simultanees). Dans un premier chapitre sont decrits les phenomenes communs aux explosions contenues et aux explosions formant un cratere (formation et propagation d'une onde de choc provoquant la vaporisation, la fusion et la fracturation du milieu). Le deuxieme chapitre decrit les phenomenes lies aux tirs contenus (formation d'une cavite et d'une cheminee). Le troisieme chapitre est consacre a la phenomenologie des tirs formant un cratere et decrit notamment le mecanisme de formation et les differents types de crateres en fonction de la profondeur d'explosion et de la nature du terrain. Les phenomenes aeriens lies aux explosions formant un cratere: onde de pression aerienne et focalisation a grande distance, nuages de poussieres, sont egalement abordes. (auteurs)

  18. Radiological hazards from nuclear explosions and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockcroft, J D

    1955-01-01

    The level of radioactive contamination in the world produced by all the nuclear bomb explosions and peaceful atomic energy activities is at present so low that it should not cause any anxiety. The radiation level which gives rise to serious harmful effects is probably at least a thousand times the present level of contamination. We do not at present know this figure with any accuracy, and long-term genetic studies are required to determine this.

  19. Apparatus and method for detecting explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, B.

    1976-01-01

    An apparatus is described for use in situations such as airports to detect explosives hidden in containers (for eg. suitcases). The method involves the evaluation of the quantities of oxygen and nitrogen within the container by neutron activation analysis and the determination of whether these quantities exceed predetermined limits. The equipment includes a small sub-critical lower powered reactor for thermal (0.01 to 0.10 eV) neutron production, a radium beryllium primary source, a deuterium-tritium reactor as a high energy (> 1.06 MeV) neutron source and Geiger counter detector arrays. (UK)

  20. U.S. nuclear exotica: Peaceful use of nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylves, R.T.

    1986-01-01

    Project Plowshare, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) program to investigate possible non-military uses for nuclear explosives, was an offshoot of President Eisenhower's ''Atoms for Peace'' proposal. Plowshare was, in a sense, two separate programs. One was for nuclear excavation projects applied to grand-scale civil engineering ventures. Much of what had sustained nuclear excavation Plowshare in the 1960s was the hope and belief that this new instrument of civil engineering would prove its value in construction of a second great Pan-American canal. The other was for contained underground blasting to serve parties interested in mining, underground natural gas storage, and long-term disposal of toxic and radioactive materials. Both programs were intertwined with military and national security-related experiments. Given the heavy security which justifiably surrounded AEC use of thermonuclear devices, and fears of nuclear terrorism as well as nuclear proliferation concerns, even Plowshare's most ardent supporters never expected the project to hand private industry a thermonuclear explosive device

  1. A row-charge nuclear cratering explosion in alluvial rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kireev, V.V.; Kedrovskij, O.L.; Valentinov, Yu.A.; Myasnikov, K.V.; Nikiforov, G.A.; Prozorov, L.B.; Potapov, V.K.

    1975-01-01

    A brief description is given of the first row-charge nuclear cratering explosion in alluvial rocks carried out on the route of the Pechora-Kolva canal. The authors explain the purposes of the explosion, describe the geological conditions, indicate the emplacement parameters and yields of the charges, present data on the dynamics of development of the explosion and report on its seismic effects. The parameters of the resulting trench cut and the characteristics of the rock ejecta are also given. The possibility of using nuclear explosions for hydrotechnological projects requiring large excavations in a thick stratum of weak water-bearing rocks is considered

  2. Cavity pressure history of contained nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapin, C E [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Knowledge of pressure in cavities created by contained nuclear explosions is useful for estimating the possibility of venting radioactive debris to the atmosphere. Measurements of cavity pressure, or temperature, would be helpful in evaluating the correctness of present code predictions of underground explosions. In instrumenting and interpreting such measurements it is necessary to have good theoretical estimates of cavity pressures. In this paper cavity pressure is estimated at the time when cavity growth is complete. Its subsequent decrease due to heat loss from the cavity to the surrounding media is also predicted. The starting pressure (the pressure at the end of cavity growth) is obtained by adiabatic expansion to the final cavity size of the vaporized rock gas sphere created by the explosion. Estimates of cavity size can be obtained by stress propagation computer codes, such as SOC and TENSOR. However, such estimates require considerable time and effort. In this paper, cavity size is estimated using a scheme involving simple hand calculations. The prediction is complicated by uncertainties in the knowledge of silica water system chemistry and a lack of information concerning possible blowoff of wall material during cavity growth. If wall material blows off, it can significantly change the water content in the cavity, compared to the water content in the ambient media. After cavity growth is complete, the pressure will change because of heat loss to the surrounding media. Heat transfer by convection, radiation and conduction is considered, and its effect on the pressure is calculated. Analysis of cavity heat transfer is made difficult by the complex nature of processes which occur at the wall where melting, vaporization and condensation of the gaseous rock can all occur. Furthermore, the melted wall material could be removed by flowing or dripping to the cavity floor. It could also be removed by expansion of the steam contained in the melt (blowoff) and by

  3. Underground Nuclear Explosions and Release of Radioactive Noble Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubasov, Yuri V.

    2010-05-01

    Over a period in 1961-1990 496 underground nuclear tests and explosions of different purpose and in different rocks were conducted in the Soviet Union at Semipalatinsk and anovaya Zemlya Test Sites. A total of 340 underground nuclear tests were conducted at the Semipalatinsk Test Site. One hundred seventy-nine explosions (52.6%) among them were classified as these of complete containment, 145 explosions (42.6%) as explosions with weak release of radioactive noble gases (RNG), 12 explosions (3.5%) as explosions with nonstandard radiation situation, and four excavation explosions with ground ejection (1.1%). Thirty-nine nuclear tests had been conducted at the Novaya Zemlya Test Site; six of them - in shafts. In 14 tests (36%) there were no RNG release. Twenty-three tests have been accompanied by RNG release into the atmosphere without sedimental contamination. Nonstandard radiation situation occurred in two tests. In incomplete containment explosions both early-time RNG release (up to ~1 h) and late-time release from 1 to 28 h after the explosion were observed. Sometimes gas release took place for several days, and it occurred either through tunnel portal or epicentral zone, depending on atmospheric air temperature.

  4. Portal monitoring for detecting fissile materials and chemical explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, D.

    1992-01-01

    The portal monitoring of pedestrians, packages, equipment, and vehicles entering or leaving areas of high physical security has been common for many years. Many nuclear facilities rely on portal monitoring to prevent the theft or diversion of plutonium and highly enriched uranium. At commercial airports, portals are used to prevent firearms and explosives from being smuggled onto airplanes. An August 1989 Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulation requires US airlines to screen luggage on international flights for chemical explosives. This paper reports that portal monitoring is now being introduced into arms-control agreements. Because some of the portal-monitoring equipment that would be useful in verifying arms-control agreements is already widely used as part of the physical security systems at nuclear facilities and commercial airports, the authors review these uses of portal monitoring, as well as its role in verifying the INF treaty. Then the authors survey the major types of portal-monitoring equipment that would be most useful in detecting nuclear warheads or fissile material

  5. Subsidence caused by an underground nuclear explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, W W [Environmental Research Corp., Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    An underground nuclear detonation creates a cavity, which may be followed by the formation of a rubble chimney and possibly by a surface subsidence crater. A knowledge of the mechanisms of surface and subsurface subsidence is valuable not only because of the potential engineering uses of the chimneys and craters that may form, but also for the prevention of surface damage. Some of the parameters that are of interest in the subsidence phenomenon are the height and volume of the chimney, the porosity of the chimney, the crater size (depth and radius) and shape, and the time required after detonation for formation of the chimney or crater. The influence of the properties of the subsidence medium on the geometry of the subsidence crater must be considered. The conditions under which partial or complete subsidence is prevented must also be studied. The applicability of the relations that have been developed for the flow of bulk solids for relatively small masses and low pressures to the subsidence problem associated with nuclear explosions is examined. Rational modifications are made to describe the subsidence problem. Sensitivity of the subsidence parameters to material properties and the prevailing geometry is shown. Comparison with observed results at the Nevada Test Site is made and the variations encountered are found to be within reasonable limits. The chimney size and subsidence crater dimensions are found to be a function of the bulking characteristics of the medium, the strength parameters, the dimensions of the subsurface cavity, and the depth of the cavity. The great influence of the strength parameters on the collapse times is shown. For a given medium, the prevention of subsidence is dependent on the cavity size. (author)

  6. The 20th nuclear explosion test of the Peoples' Republic of China (underground nuclear test)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    (1) The New China News Agency and the Radio Peking announced that China conducted the underground nuclear explosion test on 17 October, 1976. However, no exact data concerning the data, the place and the scale of this test was stated in above announcement. (2) However, relatively high radioactivity than that of normal level was detected in the rain and dry fallout samples collected from several prefectures. (author)

  7. The imitator of nuclear explosion signals for field operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lusong; Xie Yujun; Tan Youjin; Wang Liping

    1999-01-01

    According to the present system of the nuclear explosion monitoring equipment (NEME), the imitator of nuclear explosion signals for field operation is urgently needed by NEME, which has been fitted out to the army and some new types that will be finalized soon. The authors have made the imitator for the equipment, and as the cause of this research, it can be used not only in training and maintenance for army but also in research and production for scientific research institutions and industrial enterprise. Function of this imitator is to imitate the NEMP, the light and shock wave signals of nuclear explosion in proper order. The time difference of the process accords with the true location of nuclear explosion. This research is of great military importance

  8. Gas pressure from a nuclear explosion in oil shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    The quantity of gas and the gas pressure resulting from a nuclear explosion in oil shale is estimated. These estimates are based on the thermal history of the rock during and after the explosion and the amount of gas that oil shale releases when heated. It is estimated that for oil shale containing less than a few percent of kerogen the gas pressure will be lower than the hydrostatic pressure. A field program to determine the effects of nuclear explosions in rocks that simulate the unique features of oil shale is recommended. (U.S.)

  9. Industry potential of large scale uses for peaceful nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, P.L.

    1969-01-01

    The industrial potential for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions entering a critical stage of development. Should Project Gasbuggy, an experiment to determine to what extent an underground nuclear explosion can stimulate the production of natural gas from low-permeability formations, prove a technical or economic success, a great step forward will have been made. Should other experiments now being considered in natural gas, oil shale, copper, coal, water resources, underground storage, and others, also demonstrate technical or economic advantage, it is conceivable to expect peaceful nuclear explosion to grow from our current rate of one or two experimental shots per year to hundreds of production explosions per year. This growth rate could be severely restricted or reduced to zero if public safety and environmental control cannot be exercised. (author)

  10. Industry potential of large scale uses for peaceful nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, P L [Bureau of Mines, Denver, CO (United States)

    1969-07-01

    The industrial potential for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions entering a critical stage of development. Should Project Gasbuggy, an experiment to determine to what extent an underground nuclear explosion can stimulate the production of natural gas from low-permeability formations, prove a technical or economic success, a great step forward will have been made. Should other experiments now being considered in natural gas, oil shale, copper, coal, water resources, underground storage, and others, also demonstrate technical or economic advantage, it is conceivable to expect peaceful nuclear explosion to grow from our current rate of one or two experimental shots per year to hundreds of production explosions per year. This growth rate could be severely restricted or reduced to zero if public safety and environmental control cannot be exercised. (author)

  11. Trend analysis of explosion events at overseas nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Hiroki

    2008-01-01

    We surveyed failures caused by disasters (e.g., severe storms, heavy rainfall, earthquakes, explosions and fires) which occurred during the 13 years from 1995 to 2007 at overseas nuclear power plants (NPPs) from the nuclear information database of the Institute of Nuclear Safety System. Incorporated (INSS). The results revealed that explosions were the second most frequent type of failure after fires. We conducted a trend analysis on such explosion events. The analysis by equipment, cause, and effect on the plant showed that the explosions occurred mainly at electrical facilities, and thus it is essential to manage the maintenance of electrical facilities for preventing explosions. In addition, it was shown that explosions at transformers and batteries, which have never occurred at Japan's NPPs, accounted for as much as 55% of all explosions. The fact infers that this difference is attributable to the difference in maintenance methods of transformers (condition based maintenance adopted by NPPs) and workforce organization of batteries (inspections performed by utilities' own maintenance workers at NPPs). (author)

  12. Chapter 2. Peculiarities of radioactive particle formation and isotope fractionation resulted from underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive particles, forming terrain fallouts from underground nuclear explosion differ sufficiently from radioactive particles, produced by atmospheric nuclear explosions. Patterns of underground nuclear explosion development, release of radioactivity to the atmosphere, formation of a cloud and base surge, peculiarities of formed radioactive particles, data on isotope fractionation in radioactive particles are presented. Scheme of particle activation, resulted from underground explosions is given

  13. Brazilian participation in the International Monitoring System for Nuclear Explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloso, Jose Alberto Vivas

    1995-01-01

    On January 1, 1995, Brazil was integrated to the world-wide seismic system, through the Seismological Observatory of the University of Brasilia, dedicated to detect and identify underground nuclear explosions. This is an unprecedented global effort program to conduct a seismic test of rapid data collection, distribution and processing evolving the most advanced sensors, global communications and data processing technologies. By the end of February, 49 countries were incorporated and the present test represents a first training step towards the final definition of an International Monitoring System to monitoring a Comprehensive test Band Treaty. Besides accomplishing its main goal, the global monitoring program will be able to supply rapidly, through the International Data Center, important information to the seismological community. (author). 2 figs

  14. Nanostructured surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates for explosives detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Michael Stenbaek; Olsen, Jesper Kenneth; Boisen, Anja

    2010-01-01

    Here we present a method for trace detection of explosives in the gas phase using novel surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy substrates. Novel substrates that produce an exceptionally large enhancement of the Raman effect were used to amplify the Raman signal of explosives...

  15. Underground nuclear explosion effects in granite rock fracturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derlich, S.

    1970-01-01

    On the Saharan nuclear test site in Hoggar granite, mechanical properties of the altered zones were studied by in situ and laboratory measurements. In situ methods of study are drillings, television, geophysical and permeability measurements. Fracturing is one of the most important nuclear explosion effects. Several altered zones were identified. There are: crushed zone, fractured zone and stressed zone. Collapse of crushed and fractured zone formed the chimney. The extent of each zone can be expressed in terms of yield and of characteristic parameters. Such results are of main interest for industrial uses of underground nuclear explosives in hard rock. (author)

  16. Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering Program - Strategic Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Leslie A. [DOE/NNSA

    2004-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering (NEM R&E) Program is dedicated to providing knowledge, technical expertise, and products to US agencies responsible for monitoring nuclear explosions in all environments and is successful in turning scientific breakthroughs into tools for use by operational monitoring agencies. To effectively address the rapidly evolving state of affairs, the NNSA NEM R&E program is structured around three program elements described within this strategic plan: Integration of New Monitoring Assets, Advanced Event Characterization, and Next-Generation Monitoring Systems. How the Program fits into the National effort and historical accomplishments are also addressed.

  17. Underground nuclear explosion effects in granite rock fracturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derlich, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etude de Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France)

    1970-05-01

    On the Saharan nuclear test site in Hoggar granite, mechanical properties of the altered zones were studied by in situ and laboratory measurements. In situ methods of study are drillings, television, geophysical and permeability measurements. Fracturing is one of the most important nuclear explosion effects. Several altered zones were identified. There are: crushed zone, fractured zone and stressed zone. Collapse of crushed and fractured zone formed the chimney. The extent of each zone can be expressed in terms of yield and of characteristic parameters. Such results are of main interest for industrial uses of underground nuclear explosives in hard rock. (author)

  18. Benefits of explosive cutting for nuclear-facility applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazelton, R.F.; Lundgren, R.A.; Allen, R.P.

    1981-06-01

    The study discussed in this report was a cost/benefit analysis to determine: (1) whether explosive cutting is cost effective in comparison with alternative metal sectioning methods and (2) whether explosive cutting would reduce radiation exposure or provide other benefits. Two separate approaches were pursued. The first was to qualitatively assess cutting methods and factors involved in typical sectioning cases and then compare the results for the cutting methods. The second was to prepare estimates of work schedules and potential radiation exposures for candidate sectioning methods for two hypothetical, but typical, sectioning tasks. The analysis shows that explosive cutting would be cost effective and would also reduce radiation exposure when used for typical nuclear facility sectioning tasks. These results indicate that explosive cutting should be one of the principal cutting methods considered whenever steel or similar metal structures or equipment in a nuclear facility are to be sectioned for repair or decommissioning. 13 figures, 7 tables

  19. Vapor generation methods for explosives detection research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grate, Jay W.; Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.

    2012-12-01

    The generation of calibrated vapor samples of explosives compounds remains a challenge due to the low vapor pressures of the explosives, adsorption of explosives on container and tubing walls, and the requirement to manage (typically) multiple temperature zones as the vapor is generated, diluted, and delivered. Methods that have been described to generate vapors can be classified as continuous or pulsed flow vapor generators. Vapor sources for continuous flow generators are typically explosives compounds supported on a solid support, or compounds contained in a permeation or diffusion device. Sources are held at elevated isothermal temperatures. Similar sources can be used for pulsed vapor generators; however, pulsed systems may also use injection of solutions onto heated surfaces with generation of both solvent and explosives vapors, transient peaks from a gas chromatograph, or vapors generated by s programmed thermal desorption. This article reviews vapor generator approaches with emphasis on the method of generating the vapors and on practical aspects of vapor dilution and handling. In addition, a gas chromatographic system with two ovens that is configurable with up to four heating ropes is proposed that could serve as a single integrated platform for explosives vapor generation and device testing. Issues related to standards, calibration, and safety are also discussed.

  20. Explosives detection with applications to landmines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    Modern mines have been made difficult to detect by conventional means such as magnetic detection. The problem is not only that there is often only a small amount of metal in the mine but that the war zone may contain an enormous amount of metal pieces from other weapons. Thus the problem is not just one of detection, but of developing methods to discriminate between many kinds of background and clutter that are present. One of techniques is the use of fast neutrons to probe material with subsequent spectrometry of gamma rays produced by inelastic neutron interactions. Another approach is the use of an infrared camera to detect mines after heating soil with a large heater. Certain advantages has Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance to detect nitrogen in compounds such as TNT. Use of remote controlled mechanical devices to detonate mines can also be considered. It is important to note that no single device will solve the problem and therefore it will be more effective to build devices specific to problem

  1. Radioactive rare gases emission at underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubasov, Yu.V.

    2016-01-01

    The examples of radioactive rare gases emission at underground nuclear explosions conducted in the USSR on the Novaya Zemlya and Semipalatinsk test sites are considered. It is pointed out that in the case of evasive explosion in vertical wells without apparent radioactive gases emission the samples of subsurface gas must contain the traces of radioactive rare gases. Under the inspection of evasive explosion in horizontal workings of rock massif, one should guided by the analysis of atmospheric air samples in the inspected area [ru

  2. Soviet experience with peaceful uses of nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordyke, M.D.

    1976-01-01

    The Soviet Union is pursuing an active program for developing peaceful uses of nuclear explosions (PNE). They have reported 16 explosions, with applications ranging from putting out oil-well fires and stimulating oil recovery to creating instant dams and canals. The data reported generally agree with U.S. experience. Seismic data collected by western sources on explosions outside the known Soviet test sites indicate that the Soviet program is at least twice as large as they have reported. The accelerated pace of these events suggests that in some applications the Soviet PNE program is approaching routine industrial technology

  3. Underground nuclear explosions. Study of the cavity radius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaud, L.

    1968-11-01

    An underground nuclear explosion creates a cavity due to the expansion of the surrounding medium vaporized by the shot. The cavity radius is related to the energy of explosion and to the overburden pressure of the medium. The introduction of new elements such as the environment of the device (in a deep hole or in a tunnel) and the cohesion of the medium leads to a relationship which determines this radius. The known French and American underground explosions performed in various media, energy and overburden conditions, satisfy this relationship with a good precision. (author) [fr

  4. Differences in coupling between chemical and nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    The teleseismic amplitude resulting from an underground explosion is proportional to the asymptotic value of the reduced displacement potential (φ∞) or, in physical terms, to the permanent change in volume measured anywhere beyond the range at which the outgoing wave has become elastic. φ∞ decreases with increasing initial cavity size (r o ) until the cavity is large enough to preclude inelastic behavior in the surrounding rock, at which point no further decrease occurs. With nuclear explosions, φ∞ can also be reduced by decreasing the initial cavity size over a certain range. This occurs because, in this range of r 0 W -1/3 (where W is the yield) the thermal pressure in the surrounding medium increases much more slowly than does the thermal energy. With chemical explosions, by contrast, r 0 W -1/3 cannot be decreased below the fully tamped limit because the energy density is bounded above. Moreover, for the most of the cavity expansion period the ratio of specific heats of the chemical explosion products is substantially higher than the equivalent ratio in a nuclear explosion, so that the cavity pressure in the former case is higher as well and this further amplifies the differences between the two. Calculations show that the teleseismic amplitude could be as much as 50% higher for an equivalent tamped chemical explosion in salt than was observed in the SALMON nuclear event

  5. Detection of drugs and plastic explosives using neutron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, F.J.O. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: fferreira@ien.gov.br; Crispim, V.R; Silva, A.X. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear], E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.br, E-mail: verginia@com.ufrj.br

    2007-07-01

    The unique ability of neutrons to image certain elements and isotopes that are either completely undetectable or poorly detected by other Non-Destructive-Assay (NDA) methods makes neutron radiography an important tool for the NDA community. Neutron radiography, like other imaging techniques takes a number of different forms (i.e. / that is film, radioscopic, transfer methods, tomography, etc.) In this work report the Neutron Tomography System developed, which will allow inspections NDA of samples with high efficiency, in terms of minors measure time and the result analysis, and the application for detection of drugs and plastic explosives, which is very important for the combat to the terrorism and drug trafficking. The neutron tomography system developed is third generation. Therefore a rotary table driven by a step motor connected to a computerized motion control system has been installed at the sample position. In parallel to this a suitable electronic imaging device has been designed and can be controlled by a computer in order to synchronize the software the detector and of the rotary table with the aim of an automation of measurements. To obtain 2D tomography image, a system with an electronic imaging system for producing real time neutron radiography. Images are processing digital for cancel random noise effects and to optimize spatial resolution. Finally, using a (ARIEN) algorithm reconstruction of tomography images by finite element maximum entropy. The system was installed adjacent to the exit of the J-9 irradiation channel of the Argonauta Reactor in the Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN) - which is an organ of the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN - Brazil).The Argonauta reactor operates at 340 watts, being that the characteristics of the neutron beam on the plane of the image: thermal neutron flux 4,46 x10{sup 5} n/cm{sup 2}s. In the tomography assays, several encapsulated samples of paste, rock and cocaine powder and plastic explosives devices

  6. Detection of drugs and plastic explosives using neutron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, F.J.O.; Crispim, V.R; Silva, A.X.

    2007-01-01

    The unique ability of neutrons to image certain elements and isotopes that are either completely undetectable or poorly detected by other Non-Destructive-Assay (NDA) methods makes neutron radiography an important tool for the NDA community. Neutron radiography, like other imaging techniques takes a number of different forms (i.e. / that is film, radioscopic, transfer methods, tomography, etc.) In this work report the Neutron Tomography System developed, which will allow inspections NDA of samples with high efficiency, in terms of minors measure time and the result analysis, and the application for detection of drugs and plastic explosives, which is very important for the combat to the terrorism and drug trafficking. The neutron tomography system developed is third generation. Therefore a rotary table driven by a step motor connected to a computerized motion control system has been installed at the sample position. In parallel to this a suitable electronic imaging device has been designed and can be controlled by a computer in order to synchronize the software the detector and of the rotary table with the aim of an automation of measurements. To obtain 2D tomography image, a system with an electronic imaging system for producing real time neutron radiography. Images are processing digital for cancel random noise effects and to optimize spatial resolution. Finally, using a (ARIEN) algorithm reconstruction of tomography images by finite element maximum entropy. The system was installed adjacent to the exit of the J-9 irradiation channel of the Argonauta Reactor in the Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN) - which is an organ of the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN - Brazil).The Argonauta reactor operates at 340 watts, being that the characteristics of the neutron beam on the plane of the image: thermal neutron flux 4,46 x10 5 n/cm 2 s. In the tomography assays, several encapsulated samples of paste, rock and cocaine powder and plastic explosives devices. (author)

  7. Terrorism and Drug Trafficking: Technologies for Detecting Explosives and Narcotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The General Accounting Office (GAO) examined information on explosives and narcotics detection technologies that are available or under development. This report discusses (1) funding for those technologies, (2) characteristics and limitations of avai...

  8. Investigations of gas explosions in a nuclear coal gasification plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, K.

    1981-01-01

    The safety research program on gas cloud explosions is performed in the context of the German project of the Prototype Plant Nuclear Process Heat. By the work within this project, it is tried to extend the use of nuclear energy to non-electric application. The programme comprises efforts in several scientific disciplines. The final goal is to provide a representative pressure-time-function or a set of such functions. These functions should be the basis for safe design and construction of the nuclear reactor system of a coal gasification plant. No result yet achieved contradicts the assumption that released process gas is only able to deflagrate. It should be possible to demonstrate that, if unfavourable configurations are avoided, a design pressure of 300 mbar is sufficient to withstand an explosion of process gas; this pressure should never be exceeded by process gas explosions irrespective of gas mass released and distance to release point, except possibly in relatively small areas

  9. Data of the 21st nuclear explosion test of the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The news of Kyodo-Reuter said that on 17 November 1976 the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), U.S.A., announced for the 21st nuclear explosion test of the People's Republic of China. The radioactivity surveillance was carried out for the period from 18 November 1976 to 25 November 1976. From the results of the surveillance, a few effects of this nuclear explosion test were detected in the radioactivity measurement of rain, dry fallout, and air-borne dust. (author)

  10. Data of the 22nd nuclear explosion test of the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    US. Energy Research and Development Administration (US ERDA) announced for the 22 nd nuclear explosion test of the People's Republic of China. The radioactivity surveillance was carried out for the period from September 19, to September 28, 1977. From the results of this surveillance, the effects of this nuclear explosion test were detected in the radioactivity measurement of rainwater, dry fallout, air-borne dusts in upper atmosphere, and raw milk samples. Survey on iodine-131 concentrations in raw milk was continued until October 11, 1977. The results of radioactivity surveillance were described in the following articles. (author)

  11. Neutron capture on nitrogen as a means of detecting explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, M.N.; Rassool, R.P.

    1995-01-01

    A research prototype was developed on the basis of neutron capture on nitrogen and is demonstrated to be able to detect parcel and letter bombs. Is the gamma radiation that is detected as an indication of the presence of nitrogen, and the probable presence of nitrogen-containing explosive. The conceptual design of the explosive detector and some experimental results are briefly presented. figs., ills

  12. Radioactive fallout in France after the second Chinese nuclear explosion: atmospheric transfer processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doury, A.; Bourgeon, P.

    1966-05-01

    The products released into the atmosphere by the second Chinese nuclear explosion were detected and measured in France during the months of May, June and July 1965. The main results are presented here and discussed. They are considered in particular in the light of the meteorological conditions as a function of the most recent hypotheses concerning transfer processes. (authors) [fr

  13. Differential thermal analysis microsystem for explosive detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jesper Kenneth; Greve, Anders; Senesac, L.

    2011-01-01

    as a small silicon nitride membrane incorporating heater elements and a temperature measurement resistor. In this manuscript the DTA system is described and tested by measuring calorimetric response of 3 different kinds of explosives (TNT, RDX and PETN). This project is carried out under the framework...

  14. The nonproliferation treaty and peaceful uses of nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, Thomas

    1970-01-01

    In the past, nuclear arms control and peaceful uses of nuclear explosives were seen by many proponents of each as competing - if not opposing - interests. At one extreme, some viewed peaceful uses as an annoying irritant on the way to general and complete disarmament. At the other extreme, some considered arms-control arrangements - particularly those limiting nuclear testing - as bothersome barriers to realizing the full benefits of peaceful nuclear explosions. Most people found themselves somewhere between those extremes. But most also felt a continuing tension between essentially opposing forces. This polarity has been significantly altered by the 1968 Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons. It is believed that the future use of nuclear explosives for peaceful purposes will depend in large measure on the international arrangements worked out under the treaty. I also believe that the success of the treaty in checking proliferation of nuclear weapons is contingent, in substantial part, on those peaceful-uses arrangements. In the areas covered by the treaty, therefore, one could view an active development of peaceful uses for nuclear explosives as complementing rather than conflicting with nuclear arms control. The treaty is primarily a security agreement. It is aimed at reducing the risk of nuclear war by establishing permanency in the current separation of nuclear-weapon and non-nuclear-weapon nations. By its terms, each nuclear-weapon state agrees not to transfer nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices to any recipient, and each non-nuclear-weapon state agrees not to receive such weapons or devices. The non-nuclear- weapon parties are also obligated to negotiate safeguards agreements with the International Atomic Energy Agency covering peaceful-uses activities. And all signatories agree not to transfer fissionable material to those parties unless they are subject to such agreements. These provisions are all part of a scheme to limit the

  15. The nonproliferation treaty and peaceful uses of nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrlich, Thomas [School of Law, Stanford University, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    In the past, nuclear arms control and peaceful uses of nuclear explosives were seen by many proponents of each as competing - if not opposing - interests. At one extreme, some viewed peaceful uses as an annoying irritant on the way to general and complete disarmament. At the other extreme, some considered arms-control arrangements - particularly those limiting nuclear testing - as bothersome barriers to realizing the full benefits of peaceful nuclear explosions. Most people found themselves somewhere between those extremes. But most also felt a continuing tension between essentially opposing forces. This polarity has been significantly altered by the 1968 Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons. It is believed that the future use of nuclear explosives for peaceful purposes will depend in large measure on the international arrangements worked out under the treaty. I also believe that the success of the treaty in checking proliferation of nuclear weapons is contingent, in substantial part, on those peaceful-uses arrangements. In the areas covered by the treaty, therefore, one could view an active development of peaceful uses for nuclear explosives as complementing rather than conflicting with nuclear arms control. The treaty is primarily a security agreement. It is aimed at reducing the risk of nuclear war by establishing permanency in the current separation of nuclear-weapon and non-nuclear-weapon nations. By its terms, each nuclear-weapon state agrees not to transfer nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices to any recipient, and each non-nuclear-weapon state agrees not to receive such weapons or devices. The non-nuclear- weapon parties are also obligated to negotiate safeguards agreements with the International Atomic Energy Agency covering peaceful-uses activities. And all signatories agree not to transfer fissionable material to those parties unless they are subject to such agreements. These provisions are all part of a scheme to limit the

  16. A Parameter Study of Large Fast Reactor Nuclear Explosion Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesel, J R

    1969-02-15

    An IBM-code EEM (Explosive Excursion Model) has been developed for calculating the energy releases associated with the explosive disassembly of a large fast reactor following a superprompt critical condition. The assumed failure chain of events and the possible core collapse following a fuel meltdown give the input data and initial conditions, the most important of which is the reactivity insertion rate at the moment of the explosive core disassembly. The dependence of the energy releases on the reactivity insertion rate, the Doppler reactivity feedback, the power form factor and the core size have been studied. The model enables a quick estimation of conservative values of the destructive mechanical energy releases following a nuclear explosion and gives suggestions as to how to reduce or even avoid such excursions.

  17. A Parameter Study of Large Fast Reactor Nuclear Explosion Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesel, J.R.

    1969-02-01

    An IBM-code EEM (Explosive Excursion Model) has been developed for calculating the energy releases associated with the explosive disassembly of a large fast reactor following a superprompt critical condition. The assumed failure chain of events and the possible core collapse following a fuel meltdown give the input data and initial conditions, the most important of which is the reactivity insertion rate at the moment of the explosive core disassembly. The dependence of the energy releases on the reactivity insertion rate, the Doppler reactivity feedback, the power form factor and the core size have been studied. The model enables a quick estimation of conservative values of the destructive mechanical energy releases following a nuclear explosion and gives suggestions as to how to reduce or even avoid such excursions

  18. Ultrafast laser based coherent control methods for explosives detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-06

    The detection of explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, especially at stand-off, due to their (generally) low vapor pressure, environmental and matrix interferences, and packaging. We are exploring Optimal Dynamic Detection of Explosives (ODD-Ex), which exploits the best capabilities of recent advances in laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses for control of molecular processes to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. The core of the ODD-Ex technique is the introduction of optimally shaped laser pulses to simultaneously enhance sensitivity to explosives signatures while dramatically improving specificity, particularly against matrix materials and background interferences. These goals are being addressed by operating in an optimal non-linear fashion, typically with a single shaped laser pulse inherently containing within it coherently locked control and probe subpulses. Recent results will be presented.

  19. Swords into plowshares: the 'invention' of peaceful nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findlay, T.

    1986-11-01

    This paper examines the early history of so-called peaceful nuclear explosions or PNEs: the proposed use of nuclear explosives for non-military purposes such as digging canals, building harbours, mining precious metals and increasing the flow of oil wells and natural gas deposits. It traces the origins of the United States PNE program, Project Plowshare, with particular focus on the role of Edward Teller and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The paper also deals with the relationship between Plowshare and the 1958-61 nuclear test moratorium and the nuclear fallout controversy during that period. A key question addressed is whether Project Plowshare was simply a 'political' ploy designed to advance the anti-moratorium, anti-test ban and pro-nuclear weapon cause or whether its roots are to be found in the almost manic enthusiasm of the time for exploiting the 'peaceful atom'. The paper concludes that peaceful nuclear explosions were indeed largely a product of the same 1950s' ethos that gave the world such atomic-age 'white elephants' as the nuclear powered rocket, the nuclear-powered aircraft and the plutonium pacemaker

  20. Application of factor analysis to the explosive detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong Joon; Song, Byung Chul; Im, Hee Jung; Kim, Won Ho; Cho, Jung Hwan

    2005-01-01

    The detection of explosive devices hidden in airline baggage is significant problem, particularly in view of the development of modern plastic explosives which can formed into various innocent-appearing shapes and which are sufficiently powerful that small quantities can destroy an aircraft in flight. Besides, the biggest difficulty occurs from long detection time required for the explosive detection system based on thermal neutron interrogation, which involves exposing baggage to slow neutrons having energy in the order of 0.025 eV. The elemental compositions of explosives can be determined by the Neutron Induced Prompt gamma Spectroscopy (NIPS) which has been installed in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute as a tool for the detection of explosives in passenger baggage. In this work, the factor analysis has been applied to the NIPS system to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the prompt gamma spectrum for the detection of explosive hidden in a passenger's baggage, especially for the noisy prompt gamma spectrum obtained with short measurement time

  1. The limit of detection for explosives in spectroscopic differential reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubroca, Thierry; Vishwanathan, Karthik; Hummel, Rolf E.

    2011-05-01

    In the wake of recent terrorist attacks, such as the 2008 Mumbai hotel explosion or the December 25th 2009 "underwear bomber", our group has developed a technique (US patent #7368292) to apply differential reflection spectroscopy to detect traces of explosives. Briefly, light (200-500 nm) is shone on a surface such as a piece of luggage at an airport. Upon reflection, the light is collected with a spectrometer combined with a CCD camera. A computer processes the data and produces in turn a differential reflection spectrum involving two adjacent areas of the surface. This differential technique is highly sensitive and provides spectroscopic data of explosives. As an example, 2,4,6, trinitrotoluene (TNT) displays strong and distinct features in differential reflectograms near 420 nm. Similar, but distinctly different features are observed for other explosives. One of the most important criteria for explosive detection techniques is the limit of detection. This limit is defined as the amount of explosive material necessary to produce a signal to noise ratio of three. We present here, a method to evaluate the limit of detection of our technique. Finally, we present our sample preparation method and experimental set-up specifically developed to measure the limit of detection for our technology. This results in a limit ranging from 100 nano-grams to 50 micro-grams depending on the method and the set-up parameters used, such as the detector-sample distance.

  2. Detection of hidden explosives by fast neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinnian; Guo Junpeng; Luo Wenyun; Wang Chuanshan; Fang Xiaoming; Yu Tailiu

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes the method and principle for detection of hidden explosive by fast neutron activation analysis (FNAA). The method of detection of explosives by FNAA has the specific properties of simple determination equipments, high reliability, and low detecting cost, and would be beneficial to the applicability and popularization in the field of protecting and securing nation. The contents of nitrogen and oxygen in four explosives, more then ten common materials and TNT samples covered with soil, were measured by FNAA. 14 MeV fast neutrons were generated from (d, t) reaction with a 400 kV Cockcroft Walton type accelerator. The two-dimension distributions for nitro- gen and oxygen counting rates per unit mass of determined matters were obtained, and the characteristic area of explosives and non-explosives can be defined. By computer aided pattern recognition, the samples were identified with low false alarm or omission rates. The Monte-Carlo simulation indicates that there is no any radiation at 15 m apart from neutron source and is safe for irradiation after 1 h. It is suggested that FNAA may be potential in remote controlling for detection hidden explosive system with multi-probe large array. (authors)

  3. The associated particle method explosives detection technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Li; Chen Yuan; Guo Haiping; Zheng Pu; Wang Xinhua; He Tie; Mu Yunfeng; Yang Xiaofei; Zhu Chuanxin

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces the basic principle of associated alpha particles technique for explosives' inspection and the measurement system. The characteristic prompt gamma-rays come from water, graphite, liquid nitrogen, ammonium nitrate, melamine and simulated samples induced by D-T neutron from generator were gained by single alpha particles detector and gamma-ray detector. The complex gamma-ray spectra were deconvolved. The element ratio between the experiment and chemics molecular formula is agreement in 10%. (authors)

  4. Genetical effects of radiations from products of nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiers, F W

    1955-01-01

    Relative radiation dose-rates to man and to Drosophila are discussed. Data previously presented by Prof. J.B.S. Haldane on the genetical effects of radiation resulting from nuclear explosions are reviewed. A reply from Prof. Haldane presents revised calculations of radiation dose rates.

  5. Discrimination of nuclear-explosion and lightning electromagnetic pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Shufeng; Li Ximei; Han Shaoqing; Niu Chao; Feng Jun; Liu Daizhi

    2012-01-01

    The discrimination of nuclear-explosion and lightning electromagnetic pulses was studied using empirical mode decomposition and the fractal analytical method. The box dimensions of nuclear-explosion and lightning electromagnetic pulses' original signals were calculated, and the box dimensions of the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) of nuclear-explosion and lightning electromagnetic pulses' original signals after empirical mode decomposition were also obtained. The discrimination of nuclear explosion and lightning was studied using the nearest neighbor classification. The experimental results show that, the discrimination rate of the box dimension based on the first and second IMF after the original signal empirical mode decomposition is higher than that based on the third and forth IMF; the discrimination rate of the box dimension based on the original signal is higher than that based on any IMF; and the discrimination rate based on two-dimensional and three-dimensional characters is higher and more stable than that based on one-dimensional character, besides, the discrimination rate based on three-dimensional character is over 90%. (authors)

  6. Possible hazard reduction by using distributed phased nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chilton, Frank [Theoretical Physics Program, Stanford Research Institute, Menio Park, CA (United States); [Department of Applied Science, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Cheney, James A [Department of Civil Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    The use of two or more nuclear devices, phased together in order to constructively add their respective particle velocities, is proposed herein. By directing the seismic waves of the nuclear explosions to make them more efficient in accomplishing the intended construction, we hope to be able to reduce the radioactivity, seismic, and airblast hazards substantially. Experiments are being performed with one gram charges of PETN. (author)

  7. Detection of explosives (in particular landmines) by low-cost methods. Final report of an advisory group meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Advisory Group Meeting was to put together experts from several areas of explosives (landmines) detection, both nuclear and non-nuclear, to generate ideas which might lead to development of a low-cost method for detection of explosives (in particular landmines), or to a modification of existing methods. The discussions included nuclear, acoustic, radar, infrared, x-ray, and nuclear quadrupole resonance methods for localizing and characterizing landmines. Many technologies are still under laboratory development. This document includes 8 contributed papers, each of them was indexed and abstracted

  8. Damage caused to houses and equipment by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delort, F.; Guerrini, C.

    1969-01-01

    A description is given of the damaged caused to various structures, buildings, houses, mechanical equipment and electrical equipment by underground nuclear explosions in granite. For each type of equipment or building are given the limiting distances for a given degree of damage. These distances have been related to a parameter characterizing the movement of the medium; it is thus possible to generalize the results obtained in granite, for different media. The problem of estimating the damage caused at a greater distance from the explosion is considered. (authors) [fr

  9. Real-time change detection for countering improvised explosive devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouw, van de D.W.J.M.; Rens, van K.; Lint, van R.H.; Jaspers, Egbert; With, de P.H.N.; Loce, R.P.; Saber, E.

    2014-01-01

    We explore an automatic real-time change detection system to assist military personnel during transport and surveillance, by detection changes in the environment with respect to a previous operation. Such changes may indicate the presence of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs), which can then be

  10. On-site inspection for the radionuclide observables of an underground nuclear explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty an on-site inspection (OSI) may be undertaken to identify signatures from a potential nuclear explosion. This includes the measurement of 17 particulate radionuclides ( 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 99 Mo, 99m Tc, 103 Ru, 106 Rh, 132 Te, 131 I, 132 I, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 140 Ba, 140 La, 141 Ce, 144 Ce, 144 Pr, 147 Nd). This research provides an assessment of the potential to detect these radionuclides during an OSI within 1 week to 2 years after a nuclear explosion at two locations. A model has been developed that simulates the underground detonation of a 1 kT 235 U nuclear weapon with 1 % venting. This indicates a requirement to minimise the time since detonation with accurate determination of the test location. (author)

  11. Trends in Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research & Development - A Physics Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maceira, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Blom, Philip Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maccarthy, Jonathan K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marcillo, Omar Eduardo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Euler, Garrett Gene [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Begnaud, Michael Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ford, Sean R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Pasyanos, Michael E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Orris, Gregory J. [Naval Research Laboratory; Foxe, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Stephen J. [Sandia National Laboratory; Merchant, B. John [Sandia National Laboratory; Slinkard, Megan E. [Sandia National Laboratory

    2017-06-01

    This document entitled “Trends in Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Development – A Physics Perspective” reviews the accessible literature, as it relates to nuclear explosion monitoring and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT, 1996), for four research areas: source physics (understanding signal generation), signal propagation (accounting for changes through physical media), sensors (recording the signals), and signal analysis (processing the signal). Over 40 trends are addressed, such as moving from 1D to 3D earth models, from pick-based seismic event processing to full waveform processing, and from separate treatment of mechanical waves in different media to combined analyses. Highlighted in the document for each trend are the value and benefit to the monitoring mission, key papers that advanced the science, and promising research and development for the future.

  12. The Air Blast Wave from a Nuclear Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reines, Frederick

    The sudden, large scale release of energy in the explosion of a nuclear bomb in air gives rise, in addition to nuclear emanations such as neutrons and gamma rays, to an extremely hot, rapidly expanding mass of air.** The rapidly expanding air mass has an initial temperature in the vicinity of a few hundred thousand degrees and for this reason it glows in its early stages with an intensity of many suns. It is important that the energy density in this initial "ball of fire" is of the order of 3 × 103 times that found in a detonating piece of TNT and hence that the initial stages of the large scale air motion produced by a nuclear explosion has no counterpart in an ordinary. H. E. explosion. Further, the relatively low temperatures ˜2,000°C associated with the initial stages of an H. E. detonation implies that the thermal radiation which it emits is a relatively insignificant fraction of the total energy involves. This point is made more striking when it is remembered that the thermal energy emitted by a hot object varies directly with the temperature in the Rayleigh Jeans region appropriate to the present discussion. The expansion of the air mass heated by the nuclear reaction produces, in qualitatively the same manner as in an H.E. explosion or the bursting of a high pressure balloon, an intense sharp pressure pulse, a shock wave, in the atmosphere. As the pressure pulse spreads outward it weakens due to the combined effects of divergence and the thermodynamically irreversible nature of the shock wave. The air comprising such a pressure pulse or blast wave moves first radially outward and then back towards the center as the blast wave passes. Since a permanent outward displacement of an infinite mass of air would require unlimited energy, the net outward displacement of the air distant from an explosion must approach zero with increasing distance. As the distance from the explosion is diminished the net outward displacement due to irreversible shock heating of

  13. A review of conventional explosives detection using active neutron interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whetstone, Z.D.; Kearfott, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional explosives are relatively easy to obtain and may cause massive harm to people and property. There are several tools employed by law enforcement to detect explosives, but these can be subverted. Active neutron interrogation is a viable alternative to those techniques, and includes: fast neutron analysis, thermal neutron analysis, pulsed fast/thermal neutron analysis, neutron elastic scatter, and fast neutron radiography. These methods vary based on neutron energy and radiation detected. A thorough review of the principles behind, advantages, and disadvantages of the different types of active neutron interrogation is presented. (author)

  14. Detection of chemical explosives using multiple photon signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loschke, K.W.; Dunn, W.L.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: A template-matching procedure to aid in rapid detection of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) is being investigated. Multiple photon-scattered and photon-induced positron annihilation radiation responses are being used as part of a photon-neutron signature-based radiation scanning (SBRS) approach (see companion reference for description of the neutron component), in an attempt to detect chemical explosives at safe standoff distances. Many past and present photon interrogation methods are based on imaging. Imaging techniques seek to determine at high special resolution the internal structure of a target of interest. Our technique simply seeks to determine if an unknown target contains a detectable amount of chemical explosives by comparing multiple responses (signatures) that depend on both density and composition of portions of a target. In the photon component, beams of photons are used to create back-streaming signatures, which are dependent on the density and composition of part of the target being interrogated. These signatures are compared to templates, which are collections of the same signatures if the interrogated volume contained a significant amount of explosives. The signature analysis produces a figure-of-merit and a standard deviation of the figure-of-merit. These two metrics are used to filter safe from dangerous targets. Experiments have been conducted that show that explosive surrogates (fertilizers) can be distinguished from several inert materials using these photon signatures, demonstrating that these signatures can be used effectively to help IEDs

  15. Containment analysis for the simultaneous detonation of two nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terhune, R.W.; Glenn, H.D.; Burton, D.E.; Rambo, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    The explosive phenomenology associated with the simultaneous detonation of two 2.2-kt nuclear explosives is examined. A comprehensive spatial-time pictorial of the resultant shock-wave phenomenology is given. The explosives were buried at depths of 200 m and 280 m, corresponding to a separation of approximately 4 final cavity radii. Constitutive relations for the surrounding medium were derived from the geophysical logs and core samples taken from an actual emplacement configuration at the Nevada Test Site. Past calculational studies indicate that successful containment may depend upon the development of a strong tangential-stress field (or ''containment cage'') surrounding the cavity at late times. A series of conditions that must be met to insure formation of this cage are presented. Calculational results, based on one- and two-dimensional finite-difference codes of continuum mechanics, describe how each condition has been fulfilled and illustrate the dynamic sequence of events important to the formation of the containment cage. They also indicate, at least for the geological site chosen, that two nuclear explosives do not combine to threaten containment

  16. Proceedings of the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marv A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aguilar-chang, Julio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Begnaud, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harste, Hans [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maceira, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patton, Howard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Randall, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Revelle, Douglas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rowe, Charlotte [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stead, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steck, Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitaker, Rod [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xiaoning [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-09-23

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 23-25 September, 2008 in Portsmouth, Virginia. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  17. Proceedings of the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

    2007-09-25

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 25-27 September, 2007 in Denver, Colorado. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  18. Proceedings of the 2011 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor; Sandoval, Marisa N. [Editor

    2011-09-13

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2011: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 13-15 September, 2011 in Tucson, Arizona. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), National Science Foundation (NSF), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States' capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  19. Proceedings of the 2011 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Patterson, Eileen F.; Sandoval, Marisa N.

    2011-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2011: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 13-15 September, 2011 in Tucson, Arizona. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), National Science Foundation (NSF), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States' capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  20. Proceedings of the 23rd Seismic Research Symposium: Worldwide Monitoring of Nuclear Explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, N. Jill; Chavez, Francesca C.

    2001-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 23rd Seismic Research Review: Worldwide Monitoring of Nuclear Explosions, held 2-5 October, 2001 in Jackson Hole, Wyoming. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  1. Proceedings of the 2010 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F [Editor

    2010-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2010: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2010 in Orlando, Florida,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, National Science Foundation (NSF), Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  2. Proceedings of the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

    2006-09-19

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 19-21 September, 2006 in Orlando, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  3. Proceedings of the 2010 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Patterson, Eileen F.

    2010-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2010: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2010 in Orlando, Florida,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, National Science Foundation (NSF), Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  4. Proceedings of the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Benson, Jody; Patterson, Eileen F.

    2006-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 19-21 September, 2006 in Orlando, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  5. Proceedings of the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Benson, Jody; Patterson, Eileen F.

    2007-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 25-27 September, 2007 in Denver, Colorado. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  6. Direct calibration of the yield of nuclear explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, K.; Nikolayev, A.

    1994-06-01

    The determination of the power of underground nuclear explosions (UNE) is of great significance. The seismic method of UNE yield determination allows monitoring at large distances, but is less precise than local monitoring methods. A way is proposed to calibrate UNE based on the idea of the vibroseis method in which powerful vibrators are used to produce seismic waves in the UNE epicenter; UNE calibration is carried out by comparison of the vibroseis record with a UNE seismogram. Results of preliminary work on the problem are presented. It is based on experience with vibrosounding of the Earth as well as earthquakes and chemical and nuclear explosions wave field structure studies. It is concluded that UNE calibration with the aid of seismic vibrators is both possible and expedient

  7. Peaceful uses of nuclear explosions. Vol.2 (1969-1979)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The present bibliography on Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Explosions is the 43rd in the Bibliographical Series of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the second such IAEA publication on PNE. It deals with theoretical aspects and peaceful applications of nuclear explosions. The bibliography contains 1335 references to the literature published in the period from 1969 to 1979. Most references have been supplied with abstracts in English. The material is listed by subject; within each subject it is arranged alphabetically by author. An Author Index including corporate authors and a Subject Index are given at the end of the bibliography. The Subject Index is basically a permutated-title keyword-in-context index

  8. Origins of displacements caused by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinehart, John S.

    1970-01-01

    Elastic theory has been used to calculate the relative displacement that will occur between the two sides of a loose boundary when a plane wave strikes the boundary obliquely. The calculations suggest that the displacements produced along loose fractures and faults close in to the underground nuclear explosions are a direct consequence of reflection of the transient stress wave at this loose boundary. Quantitatively the results agree fairly well with the limited data that are available. (author)

  9. Origins of displacements caused by underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinehart, John S [ESSA Research Laboratories, and Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1970-05-15

    Elastic theory has been used to calculate the relative displacement that will occur between the two sides of a loose boundary when a plane wave strikes the boundary obliquely. The calculations suggest that the displacements produced along loose fractures and faults close in to the underground nuclear explosions are a direct consequence of reflection of the transient stress wave at this loose boundary. Quantitatively the results agree fairly well with the limited data that are available. (author)

  10. Recognition structure of semipalatinsk residents caused by nuclear explosion tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirabayashi, Kyoko; Satoh, Kenichi; Ohtaki, Megu; Muldagaliyev, T.; Apsalikov, K.; Kawano, Noriyuki

    2012-01-01

    Authors' team of Hiroshima University and Scientific Research Institute of Radiation Medicine and Ecology (Kazakhstan) has been investigating the health state, exposure route, contents and mental effect of nuclear explosion tests of Semipalatinsk residents through their witness and questionnaire since 2002, to elucidate the humanistic damage of nuclear tests. Reported here is the recognition structure in the title statistically analyzed with use of frequently spoken words in the witness. The audit was performed in 2002-2007 to 994 residents who had experienced ground explosion tests during the period from 1949 to 1962 and were living in 26 villages near the old test site. Asked questions concerning nuclear tests involved such items as still unforgettable matters, dreadful events, regretting things, thought about the test, requests; and matters about themselves, their family, close friends and anything. The frequency of the test site-related words heard in the interview were analyzed with hierarchical clustering and multi-dimensional scaling with a statistic software R for computation and MeCab for morphological analysis. Residents' recognition was found to be of two structures of memory at explosion tests and anger/dissatisfaction/anxiety to the present state. The former contained the frequent words of mushroom cloud, flash, blast, ground tremble and outdoor evacuation, and the latter, mostly anxiety about health of themselves and family. Thus residents have had to be confronted with uneasiness of their health even 20 years after the closure of the test site. (T.T.)

  11. A TNA explosives-detection system in airline baggage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shea, P.; Gozani, T. (Science Applications International Corp., Santa Clara, CA (USA)); Bozorgmanesh, H. (Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (USA))

    1990-12-20

    Existing technologies that are applied to explosives-detection in passenger baggage are briefly discussed. A system based on thermal-neutron analysis (TNA) is described. The actual performance of the system in the field on passenger bags is given. The application of the TNA in an integrated airport security system is discussed in view of the intense public debate on this issue. (orig.).

  12. Emplacement and stemming of nuclear explosives for Plowshare applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, J.L.

    1970-01-01

    This paper will discuss the various methods used for emplacement and design considerations that must be taken into account when the emplacement and stemming method is selected. The step-by-step field procedure will not be discussed in this paper. The task of emplacing and stemming the nuclear explosive is common to all Plowshare experiments today. All present-day applications of a nuclear explosive for Plowshare experiments require that the detonation take place some distance below the surface of the ground. This is normally done by lowering the explosive into an emplacement hole to a desired depth and then backfilling the hole with a suitable stemming material. At first glance it scenes like a very straightforward, simple task to perform. It would appear to be a task that could become a standard procedure for all experiments; however, this is not the case. In actuality, the emplacement and stemming of a nuclear explosive must almost be a custom design. It varies with the application of the experiment, i.e., cratering or underground engineering. It also varies with the condition of the hole, the available equipment to do the job, the actual purpose of the stemming, possible postshot reentry, hydrology, geology, and future production. A very important item that must always be considered is the protection of the firing and signal cables during the downhole and stemming operation. Each of these things must be considered; ignoring any one of them could jeopardize one of the objectives of the experiment or perhaps even the experiment itself. It should be emphasized that for a multiple-shot program such as would be used to develop a gas field where the geology, depths of burial etc. are the same, the emplacement and stemming operation would be standardized, as would all other parts of the program. However, for individual experiments in totally different areas, complete standardization of the emplacement and stemming is impossible

  13. Emplacement and stemming of nuclear explosives for Plowshare applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, J L [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    This paper will discuss the various methods used for emplacement and design considerations that must be taken into account when the emplacement and stemming method is selected. The step-by-step field procedure will not be discussed in this paper. The task of emplacing and stemming the nuclear explosive is common to all Plowshare experiments today. All present-day applications of a nuclear explosive for Plowshare experiments require that the detonation take place some distance below the surface of the ground. This is normally done by lowering the explosive into an emplacement hole to a desired depth and then backfilling the hole with a suitable stemming material. At first glance it scenes like a very straightforward, simple task to perform. It would appear to be a task that could become a standard procedure for all experiments; however, this is not the case. In actuality, the emplacement and stemming of a nuclear explosive must almost be a custom design. It varies with the application of the experiment, i.e., cratering or underground engineering. It also varies with the condition of the hole, the available equipment to do the job, the actual purpose of the stemming, possible postshot reentry, hydrology, geology, and future production. A very important item that must always be considered is the protection of the firing and signal cables during the downhole and stemming operation. Each of these things must be considered; ignoring any one of them could jeopardize one of the objectives of the experiment or perhaps even the experiment itself. It should be emphasized that for a multiple-shot program such as would be used to develop a gas field where the geology, depths of burial etc. are the same, the emplacement and stemming operation would be standardized, as would all other parts of the program. However, for individual experiments in totally different areas, complete standardization of the emplacement and stemming is impossible.

  14. Relative source comparison of the NPE to underground nuclear explosions at local distances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) provides an opportunity to compare broadband characteristics of chemical to nuclear explosions at a group of local stations (4 to 40 km distant). The locations for these stations were established on bedrock to record a small partially decoupled nuclear explosion and two nearby nuclear experiments, all shots within {open_quotes}N{close_quotes} Tunnel on Rainier Mesa, Area 12. These sites were also occupied to record aftershocks from the Little Skull Mountain earthquake and chemical explosions from the USGS Sierra Experiment. To minimize calibration errors during this period, redundant instrumentation were used for each event. THe analysis emphasizes the source characteristics of the different explosions. The 300-lb chemical calibration explosion allows removal of path effects from each explosion. The NPE and nearby experiments produce very similar waveforms. The decoupled nuclear explosion and the 300-lb chemical calibration explosion show higher frequency content consistent with a higher corner frequency for the sources.

  15. Proceedings of the 27th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

    2005-09-20

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 27th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 20-22 September, 2005 in Rancho Mirage, California. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  16. Proceedings of the 24th Seismic Research Review: Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Innovation and Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, N. Jill

    2002-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 24th Seismic Research Review: Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Innovation and Integration, held 17-19 September, 2002 in Ponte Vedra Beach, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  17. Proceedings of the 26th Seismic Research Review: Trends in Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, Francesca C.; Benson, Jody; Hanson, Stephanie; Mark, Carol; Wetovsky, Marvin A.

    2004-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 26th Seismic Research Review: Trends in Nuclear Explosion Monitoring, held 21-23 September, 2004 in Orlando, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  18. Proceedings of the 25th Seismic Research Review -- Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Building the Knowledge Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Francesca C. [Editor; Mendius, E. Louise [Editor

    2003-09-23

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 25th Seismic Research Review -- Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Building the Knowledge Base, held 23-25 September, 2003 in Tucson, Arizona. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  19. Proceedings of the 24th Seismic Research Review: Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Innovation and Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, N. Jill [Editor

    2002-09-17

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 24th Seismic Research Review: Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Innovation and Integration, held 17-19 September, 2002 in Ponte Vedra Beach, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  20. Proceedings of the 27th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Benson, Jody; Patterson, Eileen F.

    2005-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 27th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 20-22 September, 2005 in Rancho Mirage, California. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  1. Proceedings of the 26th Seismic Research Review: Trends in Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Francesca C [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Hanson, Stephanie [Editor; Mark, Carol [Editor; Wetovsky, Marvin A [Editor

    2004-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 26th Seismic Research Review: Trends in Nuclear Explosion Monitoring, held 21-23 September, 2004 in Orlando, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  2. Proceedings of the 2009 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marv A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aguilar - Chang, Julio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, Dale [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Begnaud, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harste, Hans [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maceira, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patton, Howard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Randall, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rowe, Charlotte [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stead, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steck, Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitaker, Rod [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xiaoning ( David ) [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2009: Ground -Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2009 in Tucson, Arizona,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  3. Proceedings of the 25th Seismic Research Review -- Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Building the Knowledge Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, Francesca C.; Mendius, E. Louise

    2003-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 25th Seismic Research Review -- Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Building the Knowledge Base, held 23-25 September, 2003 in Tucson, Arizona. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  4. Preliminary detection of explosive standard components with Laser Raman Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botti, S.; Ciardi, R.

    2008-01-01

    Presently, our section is leader of the ISOTREX project (Integrated System for On-line TRace EXplosives detection in solid, liquid and vapour state), funded in the frame of the PASR 2006 action (Preparatory Action on the enhancement of the European industrial potential in the field of Security Research Preparatory Action) of the 6. EC framework. ISOTREX project will exploit the capabilities of different laser techniques as LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy), LPA (Laser Photo Acustic) and CRDS (Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy) to monitor explosive traces. In this frame, we extended our investigation also to the laser induced Raman effect spectroscopy, in order to investigate its capabilities and possible future integration. We analysed explosive samples in bulk solid phase, diluted liquid phase and as evaporated films over suitable substrate. In the following, we present the main results obtained, outlining preliminary conclusions [it

  5. Monte Carlo simulation of explosive detection system based on a Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) neutron generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergaoui, K; Reguigui, N; Gary, C K; Brown, C; Cremer, J T; Vainionpaa, J H; Piestrup, M A

    2014-12-01

    An explosive detection system based on a Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) neutron generator has been simulated using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP5). Nuclear-based explosive detection methods can detect explosives by identifying their elemental components, especially nitrogen. Thermal neutron capture reactions have been used for detecting prompt gamma emission (10.82MeV) following radiative neutron capture by (14)N nuclei. The explosive detection system was built based on a fully high-voltage-shielded, axial D-D neutron generator with a radio frequency (RF) driven ion source and nominal yield of about 10(10) fast neutrons per second (E=2.5MeV). Polyethylene and paraffin were used as moderators with borated polyethylene and lead as neutron and gamma ray shielding, respectively. The shape and the thickness of the moderators and shields are optimized to produce the highest thermal neutron flux at the position of the explosive and the minimum total dose at the outer surfaces of the explosive detection system walls. In addition, simulation of the response functions of NaI, BGO, and LaBr3-based γ-ray detectors to different explosives is described. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantum control for initiation and detection of explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenfield, Margo T.; McGrane, Shawn D.; Scharff, R. Jason; Moore, David S.

    2010-01-01

    We employ quantum control methods towards detection and quantum controlled initiation (QCI) of energetic materials. Ultrafast pulse shaping of broadband Infrared (∼750 nm to 850 run) and ultraviolet (266 nm, 400 nm) light is utilized for control. The underlying principals behind optimal control can be utilized to both detect and initiate explosives. In each case, time dependent phase shaped electric fields drive the chemical systems towards a desired state. For optimal dynamic detection of explosives (ODD-Ex) a phase specific broadband infrared pulse is created which increases not only the sensitivity of detection but also the selectivity of an explosive's spectral signatures in a background of interferents. QCI on the other hand, seeks to initiate explosives by employing shaped ultraviolet light. QCI is ideal for use with explosive detonators as it removes the possibility of unintentional initiation from an electrical source while adding an additional safety feature, initiation only with the proper pulse shape. Quantum control experiments require: (1) the ability to phase and amplitude shape the laser pulse and (2) the ability to effectively search for the pulse shape which controls the reaction. In these adaptive experiments we utilize both global and local optimization search routines such as genetic algorithm, differential evolution, and downhill simplex. Pulse shaping the broadband IR light, produced by focusing 800 nm light through a pressurized tube of Argon, is straightforward as commercial pulse shapers are available at and around 800 nm. Pulse shaping in the UV requires a home built shaper. Our system is an acoustic optical modulator (AOM) pulse shaper in which consists of a fused silica AOM crystal placed in the Fourier plane of a 4-f zero dispersion compressor.

  7. Enhanced coupling and decoupling of underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terhune, R.W.; Snell, C.M.; Rodean, H.C.

    1979-09-04

    The seismic coupling efficiency of nuclear explosions was studied in granite by means of computer calculations as a function of scaled explosion source radius. The scaled source radii were varied from 0.1 m/kt/sup 1/3/ (point source) to 20 m/kt/sup 1/3/ (representing a nearly full decoupling cavity). It was found that seismic coupling efficiency is at a maximum when the scaled source radius is approximately 2 m/kt/sup 1/3/. The primary cause of this maximum in seismic wave source strength is the effect of initial source radius on peak particle velocity and pulse duration of the outgoing elastic wave. A secondary cause is that rock vaporization (an energy sink) does not occur for scaled source radii somewhat greater than 1 m/kt/sup 1/3/. Therefore, for scaled source radii greater than 1 m/kt/sup 1/3/, there is additional energy available for seismic wave generations. Available data for some nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site do not provide sufficient evidence to either support or negate the enhanced coupling that is indicated by calculations at scaled source radii of 1-2 m/kt/sup 1/3/.

  8. Enhanced coupling and decoupling of underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terhune, R.W.; Snell, C.M.; Rodean, H.C.

    1979-01-01

    The seismic coupling efficiency of nuclear explosions was studied in granite by means of computer calculations as a function of scaled explosion source radius. The scaled source radii were varied from 0.1 m/kt/sup 1/3/ (point source) to 20 m/kt/sup 1/3/ (representing a nearly full decoupling cavity). It was found that seismic coupling efficiency is at a maximum when the scaled source radius is approximately 2 m/kt/sup 1/3/. The primary cause of this maximum in seismic wave source strength is the effect of initial source radius on peak particle velocity and pulse duration of the outgoing elastic wave. A secondary cause is that rock vaporization (an energy sink) does not occur for scaled source radii somewhat greater than 1 m/kt/sup 1/3/. Therefore, for scaled source radii greater than 1 m/kt/sup 1/3/, there is additional energy available for seismic wave generations. Available data for some nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site do not provide sufficient evidence to either support or negate the enhanced coupling that is indicated by calculations at scaled source radii of 1-2 m/kt/sup 1/3/

  9. Security training symposium: Meeting the challenge: Firearms and explosives recognition and detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    These conference proceedings have been prepared in support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Security Training Symposium on Meeting the Challenge -- Firearms and Explosives Recognition and Detection,'' November 28 through 30, 1989, in Bethesda, Maryland. This document contains the edited transcripts of the guest speakers. It also contains some of the speakers' formal papers that were distributed and some of the slides that were shown at the symposium (Appendix A).

  10. The present status of scientific applications of nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, G.A.; Diven, B.C.

    1970-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of symposia which started, in 1957 at Livermore with the purpose of examining the peaceful uses of nuclear explosives. Although principal emphasis has b een placed on technological applications, the discussions have, from the outset, included the fascinating question of scientific uses. Of the possible scientific applications which were mentioned at the 1957 meeting, the proposals which attracted most attention involved uses of nuclear explosions for research in seismology. It is interesting to note that since then a very large and stimulating body of data in the field of seismology has been collected from nuclear tests. Ideas for scientific applications of nuclear explosions go back considerably further than 1957. During the war days Otto Frisch at Los Alamos suggested that a fission bomb would provide an excellent source of fast neutrons which could be led down a vacuum pipe and used for experiments in a relatively unscattered state. This idea, reinvented, modified, and elaborated upon in the ensuing twenty-five years, provides the basis for much of the research discussed in this morning's program. In 1952 a somewhat different property of nuclear explosions, their ability to produce intense neutron exposures on internal targets and to synthesize large quantities of multiple neutron capture products, was dramatically brought to our attention by analysis of debris from the first large thermonuclear explosion (Mike) in which the elements einsteinium and fermiun were observed for the first time. The reports of the next two Plowshare symposia in 1959 and 1964 help record the fascinating development of the scientific uses of neutrons in nuclear explosions. Starting with two 'wheel' experiments in 1958 to measure symmetry of fission in 235-U resonances, the use of external beams of energy-resolved neutrons was expanded on the 'Gnome' experiment in 1961 to include the measurement of neutron capture excitation functions for 238-U, 232-Th

  11. The present status of scientific applications of nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, G A; Diven, B C [Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, University of California, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1970-05-15

    This is the fourth in a series of symposia which started, in 1957 at Livermore with the purpose of examining the peaceful uses of nuclear explosives. Although principal emphasis has {sup b}een placed on technological applications, the discussions have, from the outset, included the fascinating question of scientific uses. Of the possible scientific applications which were mentioned at the 1957 meeting, the proposals which attracted most attention involved uses of nuclear explosions for research in seismology. It is interesting to note that since then a very large and stimulating body of data in the field of seismology has been collected from nuclear tests. Ideas for scientific applications of nuclear explosions go back considerably further than 1957. During the war days Otto Frisch at Los Alamos suggested that a fission bomb would provide an excellent source of fast neutrons which could be led down a vacuum pipe and used for experiments in a relatively unscattered state. This idea, reinvented, modified, and elaborated upon in the ensuing twenty-five years, provides the basis for much of the research discussed in this morning's program. In 1952 a somewhat different property of nuclear explosions, their ability to produce intense neutron exposures on internal targets and to synthesize large quantities of multiple neutron capture products, was dramatically brought to our attention by analysis of debris from the first large thermonuclear explosion (Mike) in which the elements einsteinium and fermiun were observed for the first time. The reports of the next two Plowshare symposia in 1959 and 1964 help record the fascinating development of the scientific uses of neutrons in nuclear explosions. Starting with two 'wheel' experiments in 1958 to measure symmetry of fission in 235-U resonances, the use of external beams of energy-resolved neutrons was expanded on the 'Gnome' experiment in 1961 to include the measurement of neutron capture excitation functions for 238-U, 232

  12. Establishment of data base of regional seismic recordings from earthquakes, chemical explosions and nuclear explosions in the Former Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermolenko, N.A.; Kopnichev, Yu.F.; Kunakov, V.G.; Kunakova, O.K.; Rakhmatullin, M.Kh.; Sokolova, I.N.; Vybornyy, Zh.I. [AN SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Fiziki Zemli

    1995-06-01

    In this report results of work on establishment of a data base of regional seismic recordings from earthquakes, chemical explosions and nuclear explosions in the former Soviet Union are described. This work was carried out in the Complex Seismological Expedition (CSE) of the Joint Institute of Physics of the Earth of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The recording system, methods of investigations and primary data processing are described in detail. The largest number of digital records was received by the permanent seismic station Talgar, situated in the northern Tien Shan, 20 km to the east of Almaty city. More than half of the records are seismograms of underground nuclear explosions and chemical explosions. The nuclear explosions were recorded mainly from the Semipalatinsk test site. In addition, records of the explosions from the Chinese test site Lop Nor and industrial nuclear explosions from the West Siberia region were obtained. Four records of strong chemical explosions were picked out (two of them have been produced at the Semipalatinsk test site and two -- in Uzbekistan). We also obtained 16 records of crustal earthquakes, mainly from the Altai region, close to the Semipalatinsk test site, and also from the West China region, close to the Lop Nor test site. In addition, a small number of records of earthquakes and underground nuclear explosions, received by arrays of temporary stations, that have been working in the southern Kazakhstan region are included in this report. Parameters of the digital seismograms and file structure are described. Possible directions of future work on the digitizing of unique data archive are discussed.

  13. Electrochemical detection of ultratrace nitroaromatic explosives using ordered mesoporous carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zang Jianfeng; Guo Chunxian; Hu Fengping [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering and Center for Advanced Bionanosystems, Nanyang Technological University, 70 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637457 (Singapore); Yu Lei [Department of Chemical, Materials and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Li Changming, E-mail: ecmli@ntu.edu.sg [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering and Center for Advanced Bionanosystems, Nanyang Technological University, 70 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637457 (Singapore)

    2011-01-10

    A sensitive electrochemical sensor has been fabricated to detect ultratrace nitroaromatic explosives using ordered mesoporus carbon (OMC). OMC was synthesized and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements. Glassy carbon electrodes functionalized with OMC show high sensitivity of 62.7 {mu}A cm{sup -2} per ppb towards 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). By comparison with other materials such as carbon nanotubes and ordered mesoporous silica, it is found that the high performance of OMC toward sensing TNT is attributed to its large specific surface area and fast electron transfer capability. As low as 0.2 ppb TNT, 1 ppb 2,4-dinitrotoluene and 1 ppb 1,3-dinitrobenzene can be detected on OMC based electrodes. This work renders new opportunities to detect ultratrace explosives for applications of environment protections and home securities against chemical warfare agents.

  14. Electrochemical Sensor for Explosives Precursors’ Detection in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cloé Desmet

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Although all countries are intensifying their efforts against terrorism and increasing their mutual cooperation, terrorist bombing is still one of the greatest threats to society. The discovery of hidden bomb factories is of primary importance in the prevention of terrorism activities. Criminals preparing improvised explosives (IE use chemical substances called precursors. These compounds are released in the air and in the waste water during IE production. Tracking sources of precursors by analyzing air or wastewater can then be an important clue for bomb factories’ localization. We are reporting here a new multiplex electrochemical sensor dedicated to the on-site simultaneous detection of three explosive precursors, potentially used for improvised explosive device preparation (hereafter referenced as B01, B08, and B15, for security disclosure reasons and to avoid being detrimental to the security of the counter-explosive EU action. The electrochemical sensors were designed to be disposable and to combine ease of use and portability in a screen-printed eight-electrochemical cell array format. The working electrodes were modified with different electrodeposited metals: gold, palladium, and platinum. These different coatings giving selectivity to the multi-sensor through a “fingerprint”-like signal subsequently analyzed using partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA. Results are given regarding the detection of the three compounds in a real environment and in the presence of potentially interfering species.

  15. Environmental contamination due to nuclear weapon tests and peaceful uses of nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petr, I.; Jandl, J.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of nuclear weapons tests and of the peaceful uses of nuclear explosions on the environment is described. The local and global fallout and the fallout distribution are analysed for the weapon tests. The radiation effects of external and internal irradiation on the population are discussed and the overall radiation risk is estimated. (author)

  16. Detecting Illicit Nuclear Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouzes, Richard T.

    2005-01-01

    The threat that weapons of mass destruction might enter the United States has led to a number of efforts for the detection and interdiction of nuclear, radiological, chemical, and biological weapons at our borders. There have been multiple deployments of instrumentation to detect radiation signatures to interdict radiological material, including weapons and weapons material worldwide

  17. Nuclear winter: Global consequences of multiple nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turco, R.P.; Toon, O.B.; Ackerman, T.P.; Pollack, J.B.; Sagan, C.

    1984-01-01

    Concern has been raised over the short- and long-term consequences of the dust, smoke, radioactivity, and toxic vapors that would be generated by a nuclear war. The discovery that dense clouds of soil particles may have played a major role in past mass extinctions of life on Earth has encouraged the reconsideration of nuclear war effects. These developments have led the authors to calculate, using new data and improved models, the potential global environmental effects of dust and smoke clouds (henceforth referred to as nuclear dust and smoke) generated in a nuclear war. They neglect the short-term effects of blast, fire, and radiation. Most of the world's population could probably survive the initial nuclear exchange and would inherit the postwar environment. Accordingly, the longer-term and global-scale aftereffects of nuclear war might prove to be as important as the immediate consequences of the war

  18. Measurements of Argon-39 at the U20az underground nuclear explosion site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, J I; Aalseth, C E; Alexander, T R; Back, H O; Bellgraph, B J; Bowyer, T W; Chipman, V; Cooper, M W; Day, A R; Drellack, S; Foxe, M P; Fritz, B G; Hayes, J C; Humble, P; Keillor, M E; Kirkham, R R; Krogstad, E J; Lowrey, J D; Mace, E K; Mayer, M F; Milbrath, B D; Misner, A; Morley, S M; Panisko, M E; Olsen, K B; Ripplinger, M D; Seifert, A; Suarez, R

    2017-11-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory reports on the detection of 39 Ar at the location of an underground nuclear explosion on the Nevada Nuclear Security Site. The presence of 39 Ar was not anticipated at the outset of the experimental campaign but results from this work demonstrated that it is present, along with 37 Ar and 85 Kr in the subsurface at the site of an underground nuclear explosion. Our analysis showed that by using state-of-the-art technology optimized for radioargon measurements, it was difficult to distinguish 39 Ar from the fission product 85 Kr. Proportional counters are currently used for high-sensitivity measurement of 37 Ar and 39 Ar. Physical and chemical separation processes are used to separate argon from air or soil gas, yielding pure argon with contaminant gases reduced to the parts-per-million level or below. However, even with purification at these levels, the beta decay signature of 85 Kr can be mistaken for that of 39 Ar, and the presence of either isotope increases the measurement background level for the measurement of 37 Ar. Measured values for the 39 Ar measured at the site ranged from 36,000 milli- Becquerel/standard-cubic-meter-of-air (mBq/SCM) for shallow bore holes to 997,000 mBq/SCM from the rubble chimney from the underground nuclear explosion. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. A Hydrogen Ignition Mechanism for Explosions in Nuclear Facility Piping Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leishear, Robert A.

    2013-09-18

    Hydrogen explosions may occur simultaneously with water hammer accidents in nuclear facilities, and a theoretical mechanism to relate water hammer to hydrogen deflagrations and explosions is presented herein. Hydrogen and oxygen generation due to the radiolysis of water is a recognized hazard in pipe systems used in the nuclear industry, where the accumulation of hydrogen and oxygen at high points in the pipe system is expected, and explosive conditions may occur. Pipe ruptures in nuclear reactor cooling systems were attributed to hydrogen explosions inside pipelines, i.e., Hamaoka, Nuclear Power Station in Japan, and Brunsbuettel in Germany. Prior to these accidents, an ignition source for hydrogen was not clearly demonstrated, but these accidents demonstrated that a mechanism was, in fact, available to initiate combustion and explosion. A new theory to identify an ignition source and explosion cause is presented here, and further research is recommended to fully understand this explosion mechanism.

  20. SCOPE-RADTEST: Radioactivity from nuclear test explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, C.S.; Tsaturov, Y.

    1993-10-01

    The SCOPE-RADTEST program consists of an international collaborative study involving Russia, the USA, China, and Kazakhstan. It will focus on the releases of radioactivity that resulted from nuclear test explosions that have taken place at various test sites around the world for peaceful and military purposes. RADTEST will focus on these principal tasks: (1) To inventory data on measurements of radionuclide deposition densities, and identify gaps in these data. (2) To compare old and develop new models of radioactive transport to better understand the deposition densities of radionuclides both on and near the nuclear test sites, including areas downwind where potentially significant episodes of fallout have occurred (such as the Altaj Region of Russia). (3) To study the migration of the radionuclides through the biosphere, including all pathways to humans. This will include the study of the effects on other biota that have impacts on humans. The main focus will be to characterize the nature and magnitude of the dose to humans. This will include dose reconstructions from past events, and also an increased capability for dose prediction from possible future accidental or deliberate explosions. (4)To analyze the data on the effects of these doses (including low doses) on human health. The test sites to be studied would include the Nevada Test Site (USA), South Pacific Islands (USA), Novaja Zemla (Russia), Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan) and Luc Bu Pu (Lop Nor) (China). Tests at these sites include most of the total of nuclear explosions that have been conducted. Other sites, (including the sites of the U.K. and France), as appropriate, may also be included where tests were conducted for peaceful or military purposes

  1. The Use of Nuclear Explosives To Disrupt or Divert Asteroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dearborn, D S; Patenaude, S; Managan, R A

    2007-02-20

    Nuclear explosives are a mature technology with well-characterized effects. Proposed utilizations include a near asteroid burst to ablate surface material and nudge the body to a safer orbit, or a direct sub-surface burst to fragment the body. For this latter method, previous estimates suggest that for times as short as 1000 days, over 99.999% of the material is diverted, and no longer impacts the Earth, a huge mitigation factor. To better understand these possibilities, we have used a multidimensional radiation/hydrodynamics code to simulate sub-surface and above surface bursts on an inhomogeneous, 1 km diameter body with an average density of 2 g/cc. The body, or fragments (up to 750,000) are then tracked along 4 representative orbits to determine the level of mitigation achieved. While our code has been well tested in simulations on terrestrial structures, the greatest uncertainty in these results lies in the input. These results, particularly the effort to nudge a body into a different orbit, are dependant on NEO material properties, like the dissipation of unconsolidated material in a low gravity environment, as well as the details on an individual body's structure. This problem exists in simulating the effect of any mitigation technology. In addition to providing an greater understanding of the results of applying nuclear explosives to NEO-like bodies, these simulations suggest what must be learned about these bodies to improve the predictive capabilities. Finally, we will comment on some of the popular misinformation abounding about the utility of nuclear explosives.

  2. Parameters of explosives detection through tagged neutron method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagdasaryan, Kh.E.; Batyaev, V.F.; Belichenko, S.G., E-mail: consul757@mail.ru; Bestaev, R.R.; Gavryuchenkov, A.V.; Karetnikov, M.D.

    2015-06-01

    The potentialities of tagged neutron method (TNM) for explosives detection are examined on the basis of an idealized geometrical model. The model includes ING-27 14 MeV neutron generator with a built-in α-detector, a LYSO γ-detector and samples of material to be identified of approximately 0.3 kg each: explosives imitators (trinitrotoluene - TNT, tetryl, RDX and ammonium nitrate), legal materials (sugar, water, silk and polyethylene). The samples were unshielded or shielded by a paper layer of various thicknesses. The experimental data were interpreted by numerical simulation using a Poisson distribution of signals with the statistical parameters defined experimentally. The detection parameters were obtained by a pattern classification theory and a Bayes classifier.

  3. Modelling of nuclear explosions in hard rock sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunish, W.M.; App, F.N.

    1993-01-01

    This study represents part of a larger effort to systematically model the effects of differing source region properties on ground motion from underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site. In previous work by the authors the primary emphasis was on alluvium and both saturated and unsaturated tuff. We have attempted to model events on Pahute Mesa, where either the working point medium, or some of the layers above the working point, or both, are hard rock. The complex layering at these sites, however, has prevented us from drawing unambiguous conclusions about modelling hard rock

  4. The tank's dynamic response under nuclear explosion blast wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Mei; Wang Lianghou; Li Xiaotian; Yu Suyuan; Zhang Zhengming; Wan Li

    2005-01-01

    To weapons and equipment, blast wave is the primary destructive factor. In this paper, taken the real model-59 tank as an example, we try to transform the damage estimation problem into computing a fluid structure interaction problem with finite element method. The response of tank under nuclear explosion blast wave is computed with the general-coupling algorithm. Also, the dynamical interaction of blast wave and tank is reflected in real time. The deformation of each part of the tank is worked out and the result corresponds to the real-measured data. (authors)

  5. Simulated nuclear optical signatures using explosive light sources (ELS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaser, R.F.

    1979-05-01

    Four Explosive Light Source (aluminium powder and oxygen) tests were conducted on the test range at Sandia Laboratories in Albuquerque (SLA) from 28 February through 7 March 1978. Although several types of measuring devices were used, the report documents only the optical time histories measured by the bhangmeters and the NBDS, and explains the conclusions reached. In general, the four shots made it possible to gather clear-air optical transmission data, determine the suitability of ELS to simulate the optical effects of a nuclear burst, and provide experience for the larger scale ELS tests to be conducted at Fort Ord, CA in April

  6. Simulated nuclear optical signatures using explosive light sources (ELS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaser, R.F.

    1979-05-01

    Four Explosive Light Source (aluminium powder and oxygen) tests were conducted on the test range at Sandia Laboratories in Albuquerque (SLA) from 28 February through 7 March 1978. Although several types of measuring devices were used, the report documents only the optical time histories measured by the bhangmeters and the NBDS, and explains the conclusions reached. In general, the four shots made it possible to gather clear-air optical transmission data, determine the suitability of ELS to simulate the optical effects of a nuclear burst, and provide experience for the larger scale ELS tests to be conducted at Fort Ord, CA in April.

  7. Appraisal of the radiological situation following a nuclear explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, E.

    1976-01-01

    The physical laws governing a nuclear explosion and the characteristics of initial and residual radiation are set forth for an atomic and a neutron bomb. Consequent issues are successively discussed for local, continental, and global fallout, and formation of the radioactive trace. Impact aspects considered include: physico-chemical characteristics of fission products; inhalation, ingestion, and percutaneous routes of intake; distribution, localization, and removal from the body. Assessment is also made of external gamma irradiation from the radioactive trace. Finally, consideration is given to problems of radiation injuries sorting, of dosimetry, and early diagnostics in an emergency situation. (A.B.)

  8. Studies of radioactivity from nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddons, R A [AWRE, Aldermaston (United Kingdom)

    1970-05-01

    Estimates are made of the extent and duration of hazards from radioactivity to the general public due to fallout from a cratering explosion. The nuclear explosive is assumed to be 'clean' in the sense that only a small fraction of the yield is derived from fission. Hypothetical examples take an explosive of total yield 100 kT, of which 10 kT, 1 kT and zero - the ultimate in cleanliness - are derived from fission. The maximum permitted level to the public is taken as 0.5 rem in a period of one year. Sources of activity considered are fission products, residual thermonuclear material (tritium), neutron induced activity in the device materials and neutron induced activity in the surrounding rock. Estimates of the production are made, and are associated with a distribution function derived from the Sedan fallout measurements. The hazards from radioactivity associated with the creation of a storage reservoir for natural gas have also been considered. In this case the main problem is contamination of the product by tritium left in the chimney. The possibility of flushing out this tritium with water is discussed. (author)

  9. Studies of radioactivity from nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddons, R.A.

    1970-01-01

    Estimates are made of the extent and duration of hazards from radioactivity to the general public due to fallout from a cratering explosion. The nuclear explosive is assumed to be 'clean' in the sense that only a small fraction of the yield is derived from fission. Hypothetical examples take an explosive of total yield 100 kT, of which 10 kT, 1 kT and zero - the ultimate in cleanliness - are derived from fission. The maximum permitted level to the public is taken as 0.5 rem in a period of one year. Sources of activity considered are fission products, residual thermonuclear material (tritium), neutron induced activity in the device materials and neutron induced activity in the surrounding rock. Estimates of the production are made, and are associated with a distribution function derived from the Sedan fallout measurements. The hazards from radioactivity associated with the creation of a storage reservoir for natural gas have also been considered. In this case the main problem is contamination of the product by tritium left in the chimney. The possibility of flushing out this tritium with water is discussed. (author)

  10. A simple dynamic rising nuclear cloud based model of ground radioactive fallout for atmospheric nuclear explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yi

    2008-01-01

    A simple dynamic rising nuclear cloud based model for atmospheric nuclear explosion radioactive prediction was presented. The deposition of particles and initial cloud radius changing with time before the cloud stabilization was considered. Large-scale relative diffusion theory was used after cloud stabilization. The model was considered reasonable and dependable in comparison with four U.S. nuclear test cases and DELFIC model results. (authors)

  11. Underground nuclear explosions. Geological survey of the cavities; Explosions nucleaires souterraines etude geologique des cavites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faure, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    A geological survey of underground nuclear explosions makes it possible to determine the main characteristics of the cavity formed. The lower portion is spherical; the same was very likely true of the roof, which collapses in the majority of media with the exception of rock-salt. Its radius, for a given bomb size, can vary by a factor of two according to the type of rock. The lay-out of its contents depends on the characteristics of the solid and liquid products at the moment of the roof collapse; according to the medium involved, mixing of the rubble and the mud-flow occurs (granite) or does not occur (tuff and alluvia). In all media, the average physical properties can be evaluated. (author) [French] L'etude geologique d'explosions nucleaires souterraines permet de determiner les principaux caracteres de la cavite creee. Sa partie inferieure est spherique; il en etait vraisemblablement de meme de sa voute, effondree dans la plupart des milieux a l'exception du sel gemme. Son rayon, a energie d'engin egale, varie selon les roches du simple au double. La disposition de son contenu depend des caracteristiques des produits solides et liquides au moment de la chute du toit; selon le cas, il n'y a pas (tuf et alluvions) ou il y a (granite) melange des eboulis et des laves. Dans tous les milieux, les proprietes physiques moyennes peuvent etre evaluees. (auteur)

  12. Detection of Nuclear Explosions Using Infrasound Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    operation for some time. Work on the construction of a 4th Australian station, IS06 Cocos Islands, is underway and it is expected that the last...been achieved (Zumberge et al., 2003, Walker et al., 2007) using a distributed optical fiber infrasound sensor (OFIS) to average pressure...Schnidrig (2003). An optical fiber infrasound sensor: A new lower limit on atmospheric pressure noise between 1 and 10 Hz, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 113

  13. Earthquake and nuclear explosion location using the global seismic network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    The relocation of nuclear explosions, aftershock sequence and regional seismicity is addressed by using joint hypocenter determination, Lomnitz' distance domain location, and origin time and earthquake depth determination with local observations. Distance domain and joint hypocenter location are used for a stepwise relocation of nuclear explosions in the USSR. The resulting origin times are 2.5 seconds earlier than those obtained by ISC. Local travel times from the relocated explosions are compared to Jeffreys-Bullen tables. P times are found to be faster at 9-30 0 distances, the largest deviation being around 10 seconds at 13-18 0 . At these distances S travel times also are faster by approximately 20 seconds. The 1977 Sumba earthquake sequence is relocated by iterative joint hypocenter determination of events with most station reports. Simultaneously determined station corrections are utilized for the relocation of smaller aftershocks. The relocated hypocenters indicate that the aftershocks were initially concentrated along the deep trench. Origin times and depths are recalculated for intermediate depth and deep earthquakes using local observations in and around the Japanese Islands. It is found that origin time and depth differ systematically from ISC values for intermediate depth events. Origin times obtained for events below the crust down to 100 km depth are earlier, whereas no general bias seem to exist for origin times of events in the 100-400 km depth range. The recalculated depths for earthquakes shallower than 100 km are shallower than ISC depths. The depth estimates for earthquakes deeper than 100 km were increased by the recalculations

  14. Earthquake and nuclear explosion location using the global seismic network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    The relocation of nuclear explosions, aftershock sequence and regional seismicity is addressed by using joint hypocenter determination, Lomnitz' distance domain location, and origin time and earthquake depth determination with local observations. Distance domain and joint hypocenter location are used for a stepwise relocation of nuclear explosions in the USSR. The resulting origin times are 2.5 seconds earlier than those obtained by ISC. Local travel times from the relocated explosions are compared to Jeffreys-Bullen tables. P times are found to be faster at 9-30/sup 0/ distances, the largest deviation being around 10 seconds at 13-18/sup 0/. At these distances S travel times also are faster by approximately 20 seconds. The 1977 Sumba earthquake sequence is relocated by iterative joint hypocenter determination of events with most station reports. Simultaneously determined station corrections are utilized for the relocation of smaller aftershocks. The relocated hypocenters indicate that the aftershocks were initially concentrated along the deep trench. Origin times and depths are recalculated for intermediate depth and deep earthquakes using local observations in and around the Japanese Islands. It is found that origin time and depth differ systematically from ISC values for intermediate depth events. Origin times obtained for events below the crust down to 100 km depth are earlier, whereas no general bias seem to exist for origin times of events in the 100-400 km depth range. The recalculated depths for earthquakes shallower than 100 km are shallower than ISC depths. The depth estimates for earthquakes deeper than 100 km were increased by the recalculations.

  15. Detection of explosives and illicit drugs using neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiraly, B. E-mail: kiralyb@tigris.klte.hu; Sanami, T.; Doczi, R.; Csikai, J

    2004-01-01

    A procedure developed for the determination of the flux perturbation factor required for the thermal neutron activation analysis of bulky samples of unknown composition has been extended for epithermal neutrons using hydrogenous and graphite moderators. Measurements on the diffusion and backscattering of thermal neutrons in soil components were carried out for the development of novel nuclear methods in order to speed up the humanitarian demining process. Results obtained for the diffusion length were checked by MCNP-4C calculations. In addition, the effect of the weight and density of the explosives on the observation of the anomaly in the reflected thermal neutrons was examined by using different dummy landmines.

  16. Measurements and standards for bulk-explosives detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, Larry, E-mail: larry.hudson@nist.gov [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 8460, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Bateman, Fred; Bergstrom, Paul; Cerra, Frank; Glover, Jack; Minniti, Ronaldo; Seltzer, Stephen; Tosh, Ronald [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 8460, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Recent years have seen a dramatic expansion in the application of radiation and isotopes to security screening. This has been driven primarily by increased incidents involving improvised explosive devices as well as their ease of assembly and leveraged disruption of transportation and commerce. With global expenditures for security-screening systems in the hundreds of billions of dollars, there is a pressing need to develop, apply, and harmonize standards for x-ray and gamma-ray screening systems used to detect explosives and other contraband. The National Institute of Standards and Technology has been facilitating the development of standard measurement tools that can be used to gauge the technical performance (imaging quality) and radiation safety of systems used to screen luggage, persons, vehicles, cargo, and left-behind objects. After a review of this new suite of national standard test methods, test objects, and radiation-measurement protocols, we highlight some of the technical trends that are enhancing the revision of baseline standards. Finally we advocate a more intentional use of technical-performance standards by security stakeholders and outline the advantages this would accrue. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This work responds to the need for standards for x-ray screening systems used to detect explosives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Described are new measurement tools to gage the performance and radiation safety of such systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A more intentional use of technical-performance standards by security stakeholders is argued.

  17. Measurements and standards for bulk-explosives detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, Larry; Bateman, Fred; Bergstrom, Paul; Cerra, Frank; Glover, Jack; Minniti, Ronaldo; Seltzer, Stephen; Tosh, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen a dramatic expansion in the application of radiation and isotopes to security screening. This has been driven primarily by increased incidents involving improvised explosive devices as well as their ease of assembly and leveraged disruption of transportation and commerce. With global expenditures for security-screening systems in the hundreds of billions of dollars, there is a pressing need to develop, apply, and harmonize standards for x-ray and gamma-ray screening systems used to detect explosives and other contraband. The National Institute of Standards and Technology has been facilitating the development of standard measurement tools that can be used to gauge the technical performance (imaging quality) and radiation safety of systems used to screen luggage, persons, vehicles, cargo, and left-behind objects. After a review of this new suite of national standard test methods, test objects, and radiation-measurement protocols, we highlight some of the technical trends that are enhancing the revision of baseline standards. Finally we advocate a more intentional use of technical-performance standards by security stakeholders and outline the advantages this would accrue. - Highlights: ► This work responds to the need for standards for x-ray screening systems used to detect explosives. ► Described are new measurement tools to gage the performance and radiation safety of such systems. ► A more intentional use of technical-performance standards by security stakeholders is argued.

  18. The ion mobility spectrometer for high explosive vapor detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.J.; Stimac, R.M.; Wernlund, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    The Phemto-Chem /SUP R/ Model 100 Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS) operates in air and measures a number of explosive vapors at levels as low as partsper-trillion in seconds. The theory and operation of this instrument is discussed. The IMS inhales the vapor sample in a current of air and generates characteristic ions which are separated by time-of -ion drift in the atmospheric pressure gas. Quantitative results, using a dilution tunnel and standard signal generator with TNT, nitroglycerine, ethylene glycol dinitrate, cyclohexanone, methylamine, octafluoronaphthalene and hexafluorobenzene, are given. Rapid sample treatment with sample concentrations, microprocessor signal readout and chemical identification, offer a realistic opportunity of rapid explosive vapor detection at levels down to 10 -14 parts by volume in air

  19. Digital micromirror devices in Raman trace detection of explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glimtoft, Martin; Svanqvist, Mattias; Ågren, Matilda; Nordberg, Markus; Östmark, Henric

    2016-05-01

    Imaging Raman spectroscopy based on tunable filters is an established technique for detecting single explosives particles at stand-off distances. However, large light losses are inherent in the design due to sequential imaging at different wavelengths, leading to effective transmission often well below 1 %. The use of digital micromirror devices (DMD) and compressive sensing (CS) in imaging Raman explosives trace detection can improve light throughput and add significant flexibility compared to existing systems. DMDs are based on mature microelectronics technology, and are compact, scalable, and can be customized for specific tasks, including new functions not available with current technologies. This paper has been focusing on investigating how a DMD can be used when applying CS-based imaging Raman spectroscopy on stand-off explosives trace detection, and evaluating the performance in terms of light throughput, image reconstruction ability and potential detection limits. This type of setup also gives the possibility to combine imaging Raman with non-spatially resolved fluorescence suppression techniques, such as Kerr gating. The system used consists of a 2nd harmonics Nd:YAG laser for sample excitation, collection optics, DMD, CMOScamera and a spectrometer with ICCD camera for signal gating and detection. Initial results for compressive sensing imaging Raman shows a stable reconstruction procedure even at low signals and in presence of interfering background signal. It is also shown to give increased effective light transmission without sacrificing molecular specificity or area coverage compared to filter based imaging Raman. At the same time it adds flexibility so the setup can be customized for new functionality.

  20. Dose Prediction for surface nuclear explosions: case studies for Semipalatinsk and Lop Nur tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Dose prediction method RAPS after surface nuclear explosion has been developed by using the empirical dose function of USA nuclear test. This method which provides us external total dose, dose rate at any distant, at any time for any yield of nuclear explosion, is useful for radiation protection in case of nuclear events such as terrorism and nuclear war. The validity of RAPS has been confirmed by application to historical surface nuclear test explosions. The first test case study which was done for the first test explosion of the former USSR at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site on August 29th 1949, shows a good agreement with luminescence dosimetry on a brick. This dose prediction method was applied nuclear tests in Lop Nur. The results indicate dangerous nuclear radiation influences including fatal risk in the wide Uygur area. (author)

  1. Application of neutron/gamma transport codes for the design of explosive detection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, E.; Shayer, Z.

    1994-01-01

    Applications of neutron and gamma transport codes to the design of nuclear techniques for detecting concealed explosives material are discussed. The methodology of integrating radiation transport computations in the development, optimization and analysis phases of these new technologies is discussed. Transport and Monte Carlo codes are used for proof of concepts, guide the system integration, reduce the extend of experimental program and provide insight into the physical problem involved. The paper concentrates on detection techniques based on thermal and fast neutron interactions in the interrogated object. (authors). 6 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  2. Proceedings of 8. national conference on nuclear electronic and nuclear detection technology: Pt.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The 8th National Conference on Nuclear Electronics and Nuclear Detection Technology was held during 2-7, 12, 1996 in Zhuhai, Guangdong, China. 184 pieces of papers were collected in the conference proceedings. The contents of the conference proceedings are: nuclear electronics, nuclear detectors, nuclear instruments and its application, nuclear medical electronics, computer applications in nuclear sciences and technology, measurement of nuclear monitoring and nuclear explosion, radiation hardened electronics, liquid scintillation counting techniques and miscellaneous. Reported hereafter is the first part of the proceedings

  3. The Soviet program for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordyke, M.D.

    1996-01-01

    The concept of utilizing the weapons of war to serve the peaceful pursuits of mankind is as old as civilization itself. Perhaps the most famous reference to this basic desire is recorded in the Book of Micah where the great prophet Isiah called upon his people 'to turn your spears into pitchforks and your swords into plowshares.' As the scientists at Los Alamos worked on developing the world's first atomic bomb, thoughts of how this tremendous new source of energy could be used for peaceful purposes generally focused on using the thermal energy generated by the slow fission of uranium in a reactor, such as those being used to produce Plutonium to drive electric power stations. However, being scientists in a new, exciting field, it was impossible to avoid letting their minds wander from the task at hand to other scientific or non-military uses for the bombs themselves. During the Manhattan Project, Otto Frisch, one of the pioneers in the development of nuclear fission process in the 1930s, first suggested using an atomic explosion as a source for a large quantities of neutrons which could used in scientific experiments designed to expand their understanding of nuclear physics. After the war was over, many grandiose ideas appeared in the popular press on how this new source of energy should be to serve mankind. Not to be left out of the growing enthusiasm for peaceful uses of atomic energy, the Soviet Union added their visions to the public record. This document details the Soviet program for using nuclear explosions in peacetime pursuits

  4. The Soviet program for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordyke, M.D.

    1996-07-24

    The concept of utilizing the weapons of war to serve the peaceful pursuits of mankind is as old as civilization itself. Perhaps the most famous reference to this basic desire is recorded in the Book of Micah where the great prophet Isiah called upon his people `to turn your spears into pitchforks and your swords into plowshares.` As the scientists at Los Alamos worked on developing the world`s first atomic bomb, thoughts of how this tremendous new source of energy could be used for peaceful purposes generally focused on using the thermal energy generated by the slow fission of uranium in a reactor, such as those being used to produce Plutonium to drive electric power stations. However, being scientists in a new, exciting field, it was impossible to avoid letting their minds wander from the task at hand to other scientific or non-military uses for the bombs themselves. During the Manhattan Project, Otto Frisch, one of the pioneers in the development of nuclear fission process in the 1930s, first suggested using an atomic explosion as a source for a large quantities of neutrons which could used in scientific experiments designed to expand their understanding of nuclear physics. After the war was over, many grandiose ideas appeared in the popular press on how this new source of energy should be to serve mankind. Not to be left out of the growing enthusiasm for peaceful uses of atomic energy, the Soviet Union added their visions to the public record. This document details the Soviet program for using nuclear explosions in peacetime pursuits.

  5. Detection of explosive remnants of war by neutron thermalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, F.D., E-mail: frank.brooks@uct.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Drosg, M. [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Wien A-1090 (Austria); Smit, F.D.; Wikner, C. [iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa)

    2012-01-15

    The HYDAD-D landmine detector () has been modified and field-tested for 17 months in a variety of soil conditions. Test objects containing about the same mass of hydrogen (20 g) as small explosive remnants of war, such as antipersonnel landmines, were detected with efficiency 100% when buried at cover depths up to 10 cm. The false alarm rate under the same conditions was 9%. Plots of detection efficiency versus false alarm rate are presented. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new version of the HYDAD-D antipersonnel landmine detector is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Field tests were carried out for 17 months under different conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dummy antipersonnel mines were detected with 100% efficiency at cover depths up to 10 cm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results are presented as plots of landmine detection efficiency versus false alarm rate.

  6. Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Technology Roadmap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    This GNDD Technology Roadmap is intended to provide guidance to potential researchers and help management define research priorities to achieve technology advancements for ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring science being pursued by the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team within the Office of Nuclear Detonation Detection in the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Four science-based elements were selected to encompass the entire scope of nuclear monitoring research and development (R&D) necessary to facilitate breakthrough scientific results, as well as deliver impactful products. Promising future R&D is delineated including dual use associated with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Important research themes as well as associated metrics are identified along with a progression of accomplishments, represented by a selected bibliography, that are precursors to major improvements to nuclear explosion monitoring.

  7. Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Leslie A.

    2014-01-13

    This GNDD Technology Roadmap is intended to provide guidance to potential researchers and help management define research priorities to achieve technology advancements for ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring science being pursued by the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team within the Office of Nuclear Detonation Detection in the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Four science-based elements were selected to encompass the entire scope of nuclear monitoring research and development (R&D) necessary to facilitate breakthrough scientific results, as well as deliver impactful products. Promising future R&D is delineated including dual use associated with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Important research themes as well as associated metrics are identified along with a progression of accomplishments, represented by a selected bibliography, that are precursors to major improvements to nuclear explosion monitoring.

  8. Ultraviolet Resonant Raman Enhancements in the Detection of Explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short Jr., Billy Joe [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Raman-based spectroscopy is potentially militarily useful for standoff detection of high explosives. Normal (non-resonance) and resonance Raman spectroscopies are both light scattering techniques that use a laser to measure the vibrational spectrum of a sample. In resonance Raman, the laser is tuned to match the wavelength of a strong electronic absorbance in the molecule of interest, whereas, in normal Raman the laser is not tuned to any strong electronic absorbance bands. The selection of appropriate excitation wavelengths in resonance Raman can result in a dramatic increase in the Raman scattering efficiency of select band(s) associated with the electronic transition. Other than the excitation wavelength, however, resonance Raman is performed experimentally the same as normal Raman. In these studies, normal and resonance Raman spectral signatures of select solid high explosive (HE) samples and explosive precursors were collected at 785 nm, 244 nm and 229 nm. Solutions of PETN, TNT, and explosive precursors (DNT & PNT) in acetonitrile solvent as an internal Raman standard were quantitatively evaluated using ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) microscopy and normal Raman spectroscopy as a function of power and select excitation wavelengths. Use of an internal standard allowed resonance enhancements to be estimated at 229 nm and 244 nm. Investigations demonstrated that UVRR provided ~2000-fold enhancement at 244 nm and ~800-fold improvement at 229 nm while PETN showed a maximum of ~25-fold at 244 nm and ~190-fold enhancement at 229 nm solely from resonance effects when compared to normal Raman measurements. In addition to the observed resonance enhancements, additional Raman signal enhancements are obtained with ultraviolet excitation (i.e., Raman scattering scales as !4 for measurements based on scattered photons). A model, based partly on the resonance Raman enhancement results for HE solutions, is presented for estimating Raman enhancements for solid HE samples.

  9. Nuclear Winter: Global Consequences of Multiple Nuclear Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.; Ackerman, T. P.; Pollack, J. B.; Sagan, Carl

    1983-12-01

    The potential global atmospheric and climatic consequences of nuclear war are investigated using models previously developed to study the effects of volcanic eruptions. Although the results are necessarily imprecise, due to a wide range of possible scenarios and uncertainty in physical parameters, the most probable first-order effects are serious. Significant hemispherical attenuation of the solar radiation flux and subfreezing land temperatures may be caused by fine dust raised in high-yield nuclear surface bursts and by smoke from city and forest fires ignited by airbursts of all yields. For many simulated exchanges of several thousand megatons, in which dust and smoke are generated and encircle the earth within 1 to 2 weeks, average light levels can be reduced to a few percent of ambient and land temperatures can reach -15 degrees to -25 degrees C. The yield threshold for major optical and climatic consequences may be very low: only about 100 megatons detonated over major urban centers can create average hemispheric smoke optical depths greater than 2 for weeks and, even in summer, subfreezing land temperatures for months. In a 5000-megaton war, at northern mid-latitude sites remote from targets, radioactive fallout on time scales of days to weeks can lead to chronic mean doses of up to 50 rads from external whole-body gamma-ray exposure, with a likely equal or greater internal dose from biologically active radionuclides. Large horizontal and vertical temperature gradients caused by absorption of sunlight in smoke and dust clouds may greatly accelerate transport of particles and radioactivity from the Northern Hemisphere to the Southern Hemisphere. When combined with the prompt destruction from nuclear blast, fires, and fallout and the later enhancement of solar ultraviolet radiation due to ozone depletion, long-term exposure to cold, dark, and radioactivity could pose a serious threat to human survivors and to other species.

  10. Performance of electrical contact pins near a nuclear explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, C.E.; Silbert, M.G.; Ellis, A.N.; Robinson, E.E.; Daddario, M.J.

    1977-09-01

    The pressures attainable in equation-of-state studies using nuclear-explosion-driven shock waves greatly exceed those that can be reached in normal laboratory conditions. However, the diagnostic instrumentation must survive in the high-radiation environment present near such an explosion. Therefore, a set of experiments were fielded on the Redmud event to test the feasibility of using electrical contact pins in this environment. In these experiments a 60-cm-high shield of boron-lead was placed on the rack lid approximately 1 m from the device. A sample consisting of slabs of molybdenum and 238 U was placed on top of the shield, and twelve electrical contact pins were embedded to five different depths in the materials. Five different multiplexing-charging circuits were used for the pins, and a piezoelectric quartz gauge was placed on top of the uranium to obtain an estimate of the fission-energy deposition. All of the charged pins survived the radiation and produced signals indicating shock arrival. The uncertainty in determining the pin-closure time was approximately 3 ns. The signal from the quartz gauge corresponded to a pressure that was consistent with the calculated neutron fluence

  11. Coda Spectral Peaking for Nevada Nuclear Test Site Explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, K R; Mayeda, K; Walter, W R

    2007-09-10

    We have applied the regional S-wave coda calibration technique of Mayeda et al. (2003) to earthquake data in and around the Nevada Test Site (NTS) using 4 regional broadband stations from the LLNL seismic network. We applied the same path and site corrections to tamped nuclear explosion data and averaged the source spectra over the four stations. Narrowband coda amplitudes from the spectra were then regressed against inferred yield based on the regional m{sub b}(Pn) magnitude of Denny et al. (1987), along with the yield formulation of Vergino and Mensing (1990). We find the following: (1) The coda-derived spectra show a peak which is dependent upon emplacement depth, not event size; (2) Source size estimates are stable for the coda and show a dependence upon the near-source strength and gas porosity; (3) For explosions with the same m{sub b}(Pn) or inferred yield, those in weaker material have lower coda amplitudes at 1-3 Hz.

  12. Ag-ZnO nanostructure for ANTA explosive molecule detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaik, Ummar Pasha [Advanced Center of Research in High Energy Materials, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Sangani, L. D. Varma [Centre for Advanced Studies in Electronics Science and Technology, School of Physics, University of Hyderabad (India); Gaur, Anshu [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, Via Sommarive9, Trento (Italy); Mohiddon, Md. Ahamad, E-mail: ahamed.vza@gmail.com [National Institute of Technology Andhra Pradesh, Tadepalliguem 534101, AP, India Phone : (+) 91-40-23134382, FAX: (+) 91-40-23010227 (India); Krishna, M. Ghanashyam [Advanced Center of Research in High Energy Materials, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Centre for Advanced Studies in Electronics Science and Technology, School of Physics, University of Hyderabad (India); National Institute of Technology Andhra Pradesh, Tadepalliguem 534101, AP, India Phone : (+) 91-40-23134382, FAX: (+) 91-40-23010227 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Ag/ZnO nanostructure for surface enhanced Raman scattering application in the detection of ANTA explosive molecule is demonstrated. A highly rough ZnO microstructure was achieved by rapid thermal annealing of metallic Zn film. Different thickness Ag nanostructures are decorated over these ZnO microstructures by ion beam sputtering technique. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic studies carried out over Ag/ZnO substrates have shown three orders higher enhancement compared to bare Ag nanostructure deposited on the same substrate. The reasons behind such huge enhancement are discussed based on the morphology of the sample.

  13. Symposium on engineering with nuclear explosives. Proceedings. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-05-01

    This symposium on 'Engineering with Nuclear Explosives' reports to the Plowshare community, both national and international, the progress achieved since April 1964, the date of the Third Plowshare Symposium. In structuring the technical presentations, contributions of broadest interest were placed at the beginning, thus forming a common base of current information and applied science understanding developed in support of Plowshare technology. Sessions of speciality or pertaining to specific areas of application and engineering follow logically in the program. The Plenary Session reviewed the current status of the Plowshare Program from the technical, government, and industrial points of view. The 112 papers presented at 15 technical sessions covered all technical aspects of the Plowshare Program. The conference summary reviewed principal themes, areas of significant advance, and subjects requiring further attention that emerged during the technical conference. This proceedings is the record of the symposium

  14. Symposium on engineering with nuclear explosives. Proceedings. Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1970-05-01

    This symposium on 'Engineering with Nuclear Explosives' reports to the Plowshare community, both national and international, the progress achieved since April 1964, the date of the Third Plowshare Symposium. In structuring the technical presentations, contributions of broadest interest were placed at the beginning, thus forming a common base of current information and applied science understanding developed in support of Plowshare technology. Sessions of speciality or pertaining to specific areas of application and engineering follow logically in the program. The Plenary Session reviewed the current status of the Plowshare Program from the technical, government, and industrial points of view. The 112 papers presented at 15 technical sessions covered all technical aspects of the Plowshare Program. The conference summary reviewed principal themes, areas of significant advance, and subjects requiring further attention that emerged during the technical conference. These proceedings are the record of the symposium.

  15. Symposium on engineering with nuclear explosives. Proceedings. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1970-05-15

    This symposium on 'Engineering with Nuclear Explosives' reports to the Plowshare community, both national and international, the progress achieved since April 1964, the date of the Third Plowshare Symposium. In structuring the technical presentations, contributions of broadest interest were placed at the beginning, thus forming a common base of current information and applied science understanding developed in support of Plowshare technology. Sessions of speciality or pertaining to specific areas of application and engineering follow logically in the program. The Plenary Session reviewed the current status of the Plowshare Program from the technical, government, and industrial points of view. The 112 papers presented at 15 technical sessions covered all technical aspects of the Plowshare Program. The conference summary reviewed principal themes, areas of significant advance, and subjects requiring further attention that emerged during the technical conference. This proceedings is the record of the symposium.

  16. Symposium on engineering with nuclear explosives. Proceedings. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-05-01

    This symposium on 'Engineering with Nuclear Explosives' reports to the Plowshare community, both national and international, the progress achieved since April 1964, the date of the Third Plowshare Symposium. In structuring the technical presentations, contributions of broadest interest were placed at the beginning, thus forming a common base of current information and applied science understanding developed in support of Plowshare technology. Sessions of speciality or pertaining to specific areas of application and engineering follow logically in the program. The Plenary Session reviewed the current status of the Plowshare Program from the technical, government, and industrial points of view. The 112 papers presented at 15 technical sessions covered all technical aspects of the Plowshare Program. The conference summary reviewed principal themes, areas of significant advance, and subjects requiring further attention that emerged during the technical conference. These proceedings are the record of the symposium

  17. Mass casualties of radiation injuries after nuclear weapon explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messerschmidt, O.

    1980-01-01

    Burns, mechanical lesions, radiation injuries as well as combinations of these types of injuries as a consequence of a nuclear explosion demand different basic lines of triage. The lack of a suitable physical dosimetry is a special problem for the evaluation of radiation injuries. While in cases of wounds and burns treatment, like surgery, is recommended to take place early, for example, within hours or days after those injuries, treatment of radiation victims is necessary only in the stage of severe haematologic changes including disturbances of coagulation and occurrence of high fever which appears after one or two weeks subsequent to exposure. The lack of medical personnel and medical equipment result in even a worse prognosis for the various injuries than in peace time accidents. (orig.) [de

  18. Modelling of nuclear explosions in hard rock sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunish, W.M.; App, F.N.

    1993-01-01

    This study represents part of a larger effort to systematically model the effects of differing source region properties on ground motion from underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site. In previous work by the authors the primary emphasis was on alluvium and both saturated and unsaturated tuff. We have attempted to model events on Pahute Mesa, where either the working point medium, or some of the layers above the working point, or both, are hard rock. The complex layering at these sites, however, has prevented us from drawing unambiguous conclusions about modelling hard rock. In order to learn more about the response of hard rock to underground nuclear explosions, we have attempted to model the PILEDRIVER event. PILEDRIVER was fired on June 2, 1966 in the granite stock of Area 15 at the Nevada Test Site. The working point was at a depth of 462.7 m and the yield was determined to be 61 kt. Numerous surface, sub-surface and free-field measurements were made and analyzed by SRI. An attempt was made to determine the contribution of spall to the teleseismic signal, but proved unsuccessful because most of the data from below-shot-level gauges was lost. Nonetheless, there is quite a bit of good quality data from a variety of locations. We have been able to obtain relatively good agreement with the experimental PILEDRIVER waveforms. In order to do so, we had to model the granodiorite as being considerably weaker than ''good quality'' granite, and it had to undergo considerable weakening due to shock damage as well. In addition, the near-surface layers had to be modeled as being weak and compressible and as have a much lower sound speed than the material at depth. The is consistent with a fractured and jointed material at depth, and a weathered material near the surface

  19. Technologies for detection of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVolpi, A.

    1996-01-01

    Detection of smuggled nuclear materials at transit points requires monitoring unknown samples in large closed packages. This review contends that high-confidence nuclear-material detection requires induced fission as the primary mechanism, with passive radiation screening in a complementary role. With the right equipment, even small quantities of nuclear materials are detectable with a high probability at transit points. The equipment could also be linked synergistically with detectors of other contrabond. For screening postal mail and packages, passive monitors are probably more cost-effective. When a suspicious item is detected, a single active probe could then be used. Until active systems become mass produced, this two-stage screening/interrogation role for active/passive equipment is more economic for cargo at border crossings. For widespread monitoring of nuclear smuggling, it will probably be necessary to develop a system for simultaneously detecting most categories of contraband, including explosives and illicit drugs. With control of nuclear materials at known storage sites being the first line of defense, detection capabilities at international borders could establish a viable second line of defense against smuggling

  20. Detection of plastic explosives using thermal neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacidume, Leo Ryoske

    1999-12-01

    The work aims to demonstrate the potentiality of the neutron radiography technique, allied to the computerized tomography by transmission, to both detect and visualize plastic explosive samples in several hidden conditions, using a simple scanner as a digitalisation instrument. Each tomographic essay was obtained in the J-9 channel of the Argonauta Research Reactor of IEN/CNEN, in groups of six neutron radiographic projections, performed with an angular increment of 30 deg C, in a period of time of 30 minutes for each projection. Two groups of tomographic reconstructions were generated, distinguished by the digitalisation process of the interested lines in the reconstruction plane coming from the projection groups, utilization a scanner and a microdensitometer, respectively. The reconstruction of the bi-dimensional image of the transverse section, in relation to this plane, was processed making use of the Image Reconstruction Algorithmic of an Image based on the Maximum Entropy principle (ARIEM). From the qualitative analysis of the images, we conclude that the neutron radiographic system was able to detect the explosive sample in a satisfactory way while the quantitative analysis confirmed the application effectiveness of a scanner to acquire the projection dates whose objective is only a reconnaissance. (author)

  1. Detection of plastic explosives by thermic neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacidume, Leo R.; Crispim, Verginia R.; Silva, Ademir X. da

    2000-01-01

    This work aims to demonstrate the potentiality of the neutron radiography technique, allied to the computerized tomography by transmission, to both detect and visualize plastic explosive samples in several hidden conditions, using a simple scanner as a digitalisation instrument. Each tomographic essay was obtained in the J-9 channel of the Argonauta Research Reactor of IEN/CNEN, in groups of six neutron radiographic projections, performed with an angular increment of 30 in a period of time of 30 minutes for each projection. Two groups of tomographic reconstructions were generated, distinguished by the digitalisation process of the interested lines in the reconstruction plane coming from the projection groups, utilizing a scanner and a microdensitometer, respectively. The reconstruction of the bi-dimensional image of the transverse section, in relation to this plane, was processed making use of the Image reconstruction algorithmic of an image based on the maximum entropy principle (ARIEM). From the qualitative analysis of the images, we conclude that the neutron radiographic system was able to detect the explosive sample in a satisfactory way while the quantitative analysis confirmed the application effectiveness of a scanner to acquire the projection dates whose objective is only a reconnaissance. (author)

  2. Pulsed White Spectrum Neutron Generator for Explosive Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Michael J.; Miller, Gill T.; Reijonen, Jani; Ji, Qing; Andresen, Nord; Gicquel, Frederic; Kavlas, Taneli; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Kwan, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Successful explosive material detection in luggage and similar sized containers is a critical issue in securing the safety of all airline passengers. Tensor Technology Inc. has recently developed a methodology that will detect explosive compounds with pulsed fast neutron transmission spectroscopy. In this scheme, tritium beams will be used to generate neutrons with a broad energy spectrum as governed by the T(t,2n)4He fission reaction that produces 0-9 MeV neutrons. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in collaboration with Tensor Technology Inc., has designed and fabricated a pulsed white-spectrum neutron source for this application. The specifications of the neutron source are demanding and stringent due to the requirements of high yield and fast pulsing neutron emission, and sealed tube, tritium operation. In a unique co-axial geometry, the ion source uses ten parallel rf induction antennas to externally couple power into a toroidal discharge chamber. There are 20 ion beam extraction slits and 3 concentric electrode rings to shape and accelerate the ion beam into a titanium cone target. Fast neutron pulses are created by using a set of parallel-plate deflectors switching between +-1500 volts and deflecting the ion beams across a narrow slit. The generator is expected to achieve 5 ns neutron pulses at tritium ion beam energies between 80-120 kV. First experiments demonstrated ion source operation and successful beam pulsing

  3. Gas cloud explosions and their effect on nuclear power plant, basic development of explosion codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, S.F.; Martin, D.; MacKenzie, J.

    1985-01-01

    The study of factors influencing the pressure and velocity fields produced by the burning of flammable substances has been in progress at SRD for some years. This paper describes an extension of these studies by using existing codes for a parametric survey, and modifying codes to produce more realistic representations of explosions and developing a two dimensional combustion code, FLARE. The one dimensional combustion code, GASEX1, has been used to determine the pressure from a burning gas cloud for a number of different fuels, concentrations and burning velocities. The code was modified so that gas concentrations could be modelled. Results for concentration gradients showed the pressure depended on local conditions and the burning velocity. The two dimensional code, GASEX2, was modified to model the interaction of pressure waves with structures. It was used, with results from GASEX1, to model the interaction of a pressure wave from the combustion of a gas cloud with a rigid structure representing a nuclear power plant. The two dimensional code FLARE has been developed to model the interaction of flames and pressure waves with structures. The code incorporates a simple turbulence model with a turbulence dependent reaction rate. Validation calculations have been carried out for the code. (author)

  4. Using of acoustic technologies for detection of explosives in gas, liquid and solid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valyaev, A. N.; Yanushkevich, V.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Some industrial nuclear power objects are very attractive for the realization of radiological and chemical terrorism acts with using of explosives. Although up today this type of terrorism is not revealed itself, but the problem of detection of explosives at these objects is becoming very actual one, for example, in connection with the implementation of the urgent decommissioning of nuclear powered vessels. Such decommissioning includes the utilization the dangerous radioactive and chemical elements, contained in submarines and vessels. This actual problem is existed not only in Russia, but also in abroad. It is noticed that catastrophes at these objects will have in addition the great negative mental effect on population of all over the world, as it was after the Chernobyl accident. The using of the modern nuclear physics methods for detection and analysis of explosives is connected with the following difficulties: (1) we have to have the unique and the expensive equipment; (2) the special preparation of sample probes; (3) a long time is often necessary for analysis; (4) the high qualification of service personal is needed. We proposed to use for these purposes the complex of acoustic techniques, that are based on the high sensitivity of acoustic characteristics of any matter to their physical and chemical properties.Any acoustic signal has the following main parameters: (1) frequency (ω); (2) amplitude of pressure (ρ); (3) wave and amplitude bands; (4) velocity of acoustic wave propagation (sound velocity) (C); (5) space and temporal signal evolution, that is determined by the values of coefficients of temporal attenuation (α), space adsorption (β) and sound dispersion on obstacles and impurities. Our acoustic analysis is included the determination of C, α and β values for solid and liquid explosives. The exact measurements of these parameters and their dependences from frequency and temperature are conducted in the special acoustic cells, that

  5. The feasibility of uranium enrichment in Brazil for use in nuclear bombs and the conceptual project of a nuclear explosive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.P.

    1990-05-01

    This work reports the steps to define a brazilian system of nuclear safeguards under the congress responsibility. It discusses as well the feasibility of uranium enrichment for nuclear weapons, the construction of a nuclear submarine and the conceptual project of a nuclear explosive. (A.C.A.S.)

  6. Performance evaluation of spectral deconvolution analysis tool (SDAT) software used for nuclear explosion radionuclide measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foltz Biegalski, K.M.; Biegalski, S.R.; Haas, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    The Spectral Deconvolution Analysis Tool (SDAT) software was developed to improve counting statistics and detection limits for nuclear explosion radionuclide measurements. SDAT utilizes spectral deconvolution spectroscopy techniques and can analyze both β-γ coincidence spectra for radioxenon isotopes and high-resolution HPGe spectra from aerosol monitors. Spectral deconvolution spectroscopy is an analysis method that utilizes the entire signal deposited in a gamma-ray detector rather than the small portion of the signal that is present in one gamma-ray peak. This method shows promise to improve detection limits over classical gamma-ray spectroscopy analytical techniques; however, this hypothesis has not been tested. To address this issue, we performed three tests to compare the detection ability and variance of SDAT results to those of commercial off- the-shelf (COTS) software which utilizes a standard peak search algorithm. (author)

  7. Summary of USSR reports on mechanical and radioactivity effects of underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Paul [Civil Engineering Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Two reports have been issued by the USSR which examine the mechanical effects and radioactive contamination of the environment from underground nuclear explosions. In reviewing the mechanical effects, the institute of Terrestrial Physics of the USSR Academy of Sciences emphasizes the advantages of nuclear explosives, namely the tremendous power and small dimensions, in the industrial and construction fields. The authors note that the mechanical effects are based not only upon the explosive yield but also upon the thermodynamic properties of the cavity gases during expansion. These properties may vary widely depending upon the rock material. A list of the basic parameters affecting the mechanical effects of contained nuclear explosions includes: cavity volume, dimensions of the chimney, degree of rock fracturing, intensity of the compression wave as a function of distance from shot point, and seismic effects. The second paper describes the phenomenology of radioactive contamination of the environment for both contained and excavation explosions.

  8. Summary of USSR reports on mechanical and radioactivity effects of underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, Paul

    1970-01-01

    Two reports have been issued by the USSR which examine the mechanical effects and radioactive contamination of the environment from underground nuclear explosions. In reviewing the mechanical effects, the institute of Terrestrial Physics of the USSR Academy of Sciences emphasizes the advantages of nuclear explosives, namely the tremendous power and small dimensions, in the industrial and construction fields. The authors note that the mechanical effects are based not only upon the explosive yield but also upon the thermodynamic properties of the cavity gases during expansion. These properties may vary widely depending upon the rock material. A list of the basic parameters affecting the mechanical effects of contained nuclear explosions includes: cavity volume, dimensions of the chimney, degree of rock fracturing, intensity of the compression wave as a function of distance from shot point, and seismic effects. The second paper describes the phenomenology of radioactive contamination of the environment for both contained and excavation explosions

  9. Engineering with nuclear explosives near populated areas - A survey from the technological and economic viewpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, K [AWRE, Aldermaston (United Kingdom)

    1970-05-01

    Current experience with underground firings of nuclear explosives and of large charges of conventional explosives is largely confined to sparsely populated areas such as the Nevada and Sahara deserts and parts of Siberia. On the other hand many of the commercial applications proposed for nuclear explosives are directly relevant to industrialized areas, where consumptions of energy and natural resources are high, as are population densities. In many of these areas there is a need to increase the efficiency with which natural gas, oil and electrical power are supplied and to make safe disposal of fluid wastes; completely contained nuclear explosions could be a useful tool in achieving some or all of these aims. Whilst radioactivity and air blast hazards are likely to rule out nuclear cratering operations near densely populated areas, the prospects for carrying out completely contained explosions are much better, providing seismic damage is kept within reasonable bounds. In large areas of Western Europe and on the eastern, southern and western seaboards of the United States this might be achieved by using nuclear explosions beneath the seabed at a reasonable distance from the nearest coastline, always provided the relevant political issues can be resolved. Stimulation and storage of North Sea natural gas, construction of off-shore oil storage and storage of electrical energy are areas where engineering with nuclear explosives merits more detailed investigation and some of the relevant technical problems are discussed. (author)

  10. Engineering with nuclear explosives near populated areas - A survey from the technological and economic viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, K.

    1970-01-01

    Current experience with underground firings of nuclear explosives and of large charges of conventional explosives is largely confined to sparsely populated areas such as the Nevada and Sahara deserts and parts of Siberia. On the other hand many of the commercial applications proposed for nuclear explosives are directly relevant to industrialized areas, where consumptions of energy and natural resources are high, as are population densities. In many of these areas there is a need to increase the efficiency with which natural gas, oil and electrical power are supplied and to make safe disposal of fluid wastes; completely contained nuclear explosions could be a useful tool in achieving some or all of these aims. Whilst radioactivity and air blast hazards are likely to rule out nuclear cratering operations near densely populated areas, the prospects for carrying out completely contained explosions are much better, providing seismic damage is kept within reasonable bounds. In large areas of Western Europe and on the eastern, southern and western seaboards of the United States this might be achieved by using nuclear explosions beneath the seabed at a reasonable distance from the nearest coastline, always provided the relevant political issues can be resolved. Stimulation and storage of North Sea natural gas, construction of off-shore oil storage and storage of electrical energy are areas where engineering with nuclear explosives merits more detailed investigation and some of the relevant technical problems are discussed. (author)

  11. To the issue about negative consequences of underground nuclear explosions in the salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyashov, D.N.; Mokhov, V.A.; Murzadilov, T.D.

    1998-01-01

    I. From 1970 to 1984, 26 underground explosions were conducted at Azgir test site salt domes and Karachaganak gas-condensate deposit (KGKD) of Kazakhstan. Consequence, 9 and 6, relatively, underground cavities were created. At Azgir test site 5 cavities were filled by water and brines. Some of them were destroyed with surface spotting formation. It is noticed the spreading of radionuclides out of cavities bounds. At the KGKD gas-condensate is loaded into 4 cavities, another 2 cavities are in the accident condition, the last one (5TK) was filled by brine. There are characters of radioecological situation degradation above the last cavity. Radioactive logging in the cavity shown that the γ-activity of rock was increased more then 8 times in the distance of depths 0-64 m for 3 years. Apparently, outbreak of radioactive brines takes place along the zones of fissuring on the bound of casing tubes into the 5TK borehole and along enclosing rocks with sorption of radioactive isotopes in clay rocks. 2. There are examples of negative evolution of events at the Astrakhan gas-condensate deposit, where 15 nuclear cavities were created from 1980 to 1984 years. In 1986 year, 13 of them stopped to exist because of tectonic shearing, triggering by underground nuclear explosion in the salt dome. Many of them are flooded and they throw out the radioactive brines, reaching the surface. 3. Negative development of radioecological situation is occurred because of depressurization of cavities, their flooding, displacement of radionuclides with salt into the brines, destroying of cavities, extrusion of radioactive brines along the permeable zones, more often along the militant and observation boreholes. It is possible to spread of radioactive contamination along horizontal at the distance for l,5-3 km. In 2 years after the underground nuclear explosion at the Grachev oil deposit of Bashkiria radioactive tritium was detected in underground water and in the ground more then 3 km far from

  12. The research development on the movement of the gas in nuclear explosion clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoli; Zheng Yi; Zhu Shilei

    2010-01-01

    This paper is intends to analysis several experimental research and also the numerical modeling on the movement of explosion clouds. Following this, the paper gives some development of the numerical modeling and also its restriction during its application to the gas in Nuclear Explosion Clouds. Finally, the model applied to different stage are pointed out. (authors)

  13. Neutron-based techniques for detection of explosives and drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiraly, B.; Olah, L.; Csikai, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    Neutron reflection, scattering and transmission methods combined with the detection of characteristic gamma rays have an increasing role in the identification of hidden explosives, illicit drugs and other contraband materials. There are about 100 million land mines buried in some 70 countries. Among the abandoned anti-personnel land mines (APL) certain types have low mass (about 100 g) and contain little or no metal. Therefore, these plastic APL cannot be detected by the usual metal detectors. The IAEA Physics Section has organized a CRP in 1999 for the development of novel methods in order to speed up the removing process of APL. The transportation of illicit drugs has shown an increasing trend during the last decade. Developments of fast, non-destructive interrogation methods are required for the inspection of cargo containers, trucks and airline baggage. The major constituents of plastic APL and drugs are H, C, N and O which can be identified by the different neutron interactions. The atom fractions of these elements, in particular the C/O, C/N and C/H ratios, are quite different for drugs and explosives as compared to other materials used to hide them. Recently, we have carried out systematic measurements and calculations on the neutron fields from the 9 Be(d,n), 2 H(d,n), 252 Cf and Pu-Be sources passing through different bulky samples, on the possible use of elastically backscattered Pu-Be neutrons in elemental analysis and on the advantages and limitations of the thermal neutron reflection method in the identification of land mines and illicit drugs. The measured spectral shapes of neutrons were compared with the calculated results using the MCNP-4A and MCNP-4B codes. (author)

  14. Numerical simulation of the ionization effects of low- and high-altitude nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhengyu; Wang Xiang

    2007-01-01

    Low-altitude and high-altitude nuclear explosions are sources of intensive additional ionization in ionosphere. In this paper, in terms of the ionization equilibrium equation system and the equation of energy deposition of radiation in atmosphere, and considering the influence of atmosphere, the temporal and spatial distribution of ionization effects caused by atmospheric nuclear detonation are investigated. The calculated results show that the maximum of additional free electron density produced by low-altitude nuclear explosion is greater than that by the high-altitude nuclear burst. As to the influence of instant nuclear radiation, there is obvious difference between the low-altitude and the high-altitude explosions. The influence range and the continuance time caused by delayed nuclear radiation is less for the low-altitude nuclear detonation than that for the high-altitude one. (authors)

  15. Study of the chimney produced by an underground nuclear explosion; Etude de la cheminee creee par une explosion nucleaire souterraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derlich, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    Underground nuclear explosions lead to the formation of a cavity which is roughly of spherical shape. The roof of this cavity is unstable and collapses in most cases, leading to the formation of a chimney. The height and the diameter depend on the energy of the charge and on the nature of the surroundings. The chronology of the various stages can be determined by seismic observations. The interior of the chimney is filled, either partially or completely, with rubble earth. This phenomenon is of great importance as far as the use of nuclear explosions for industrial applications is concerned. (author) [French] Les explosions nucleaires souterraines creent une cavite de forme grossierement spherique. La voute de cette cavite est instable et s'effondre dans la plupart des cas, donnant lieu a la formation d'une cheminee. La hauteur et le diametre sont fonction de l'energie du tir et de la nature du milieu. La chronologie des evenements peut etre determinee par des observations seismiques. L'interieur des cheminees est occupe, en partie ou en totalite, par des eboulis. Ce phenomene presente un grand interet pour l'utilisation des explosions nucleaires a des fins industrielles. (auteur)

  16. Radioactive contamination of copper produced using nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crouse, D J; Arnold, W D; Hurst, F J

    1970-05-15

    Laboratory tests simulating the processing of copper ore after fracturing with nuclear explosives indicate that only very small fractions of the radioactive fission products will be dissolved on leaching with dilute sulfuric acid. Tritium (as tritiated water) will be by far the dominant radionuclide in the circulating leach liquor, assuming use of a fusion device. Only 106Ru appears of significant importance with respect to contamination of the cement copper. It is rejected effectively in electrolytic purification and, therefore, the final copper product should be very low in radiocontamination and not hazardous to the customer. The activity level may be high enough, however, to make the copper unsuitable for some specific uses. If necessary, solvent extraction can be used as an alternative to the cementation process to reduce the radioactivity of the copper products. The tritium in the circulating liquor and the 106Ru in the cement copper are potential hazards at the plant site and must be given consideration in designing and operating the facility. However since the activity levels will be low, the protection necessary to ensure safety of the operating personnel should be neither difficult nor costly to provide. (author)

  17. The ionization effects from nuclear explosions in high-altitude and their effect to radio propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Rongsheng; Li Qin

    1997-01-01

    A high-altitude nuclear explosions releases large quantities of energetic particles and electromagnetic radiation capable of producing ionization in the atmosphere. These particles and rays radiation character in the atmosphere are discussed. Ionizations due to explosion X rays, γ rays, neutrons and β particles are considered separately. The time-space distribution of additional electron density is computed and its nature is analyzed. The effects of explosion-induced ionization on the absorption of radio wave is considered and the dependence of the absorption on explosion characteristics, distance from the earth's atmosphere, and frequency of the radio wave is determined

  18. Wavelet analysis and it's applications to recognition of nuclear explosion and lightning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhongshan; Zhang Enshan; Gao Chunxia

    1999-01-01

    An approach to feature extraction and recognition of the characteristic signal is studied. And the method is applied to recognition of nuclear explosions and lightning. The results show the method is valid

  19. UTEX modeling of xenon signature sensitivity to geology and explosion cavity characteristics following an underground nuclear explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrey, J. D.; Haas, D.

    2013-12-01

    Underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) produce anthropogenic isotopes that can potentially be used in the verification component of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Several isotopes of radioactive xenon gas have been identified as radionuclides of interest within the International Monitoring System (IMS) and in an On-Site Inspection (OSI). Substantial research has been previously undertaken to characterize the geologic and atmospheric mechanisms that can drive the movement of radionuclide gas from a well-contained UNE, considering both sensitivities on gas arrival time and signature variability of xenon due to the nature of subsurface transport. This work further considers sensitivities of radioxenon gas arrival time and signatures to large variability in geologic stratification and generalized explosion cavity characteristics, as well as compares this influence to variability in the shallow surface.

  20. Characteristics of acoustic wave from atmospheric nuclear explosions conducted at the USSR Test Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Inna

    2015-04-01

    Availability of the acoustic wave on the record of microbarograph is one of discriminate signs of atmospheric (surface layer of atmosphere) and contact explosions. Nowadays there is large number of air wave records from chemical explosions recorded by the IMS infrasound stations installed during recent decade. But there is small number of air wave records from nuclear explosions as air and contact nuclear explosions had been conducted since 1945 to 1962, before the Limited Test Ban Treaty was signed in 1963 (the treaty banning nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water) by the Great Britain, USSR and USA. That time there was small number of installed microbarographs. First infrasound stations in the USSR appeared in 1954, and by the moment of the USSR collapse the network consisted of 25 infrasound stations, 3 of which were located on Kazakhstan territory - in Kurchatov (East Kazakhstan), in Borovoye Observatory (North Kazakhstan) and Talgar Observatory (Northern Tien Shan). The microbarograph of Talgar Observatory was installed in 1962 and recorded large number of air nuclear explosions conducted at Semipalatinsk Test Site and Novaya Zemlya Test Site. The epicentral distance to the STS was ~700 km, and to Novaya Zemlya Test Site ~3500 km. The historical analog records of the microbarograph were analyzed on the availability of the acoustic wave. The selected records were digitized, the database of acoustic signals from nuclear explosions was created. In addition, acoustic signals from atmospheric nuclear explosions conducted at the USSR Test Sites were recorded by analogue broadband seismic stations at wide range of epicentral distances, 300-3600 km. These signals coincide well by its form and spectral content with records of microbarographs and can be used for monitoring tasks and discrimination in places where infrasound observations are absent. Nuclear explosions which records contained acoustic wave were from 0.03 to 30 kt yield for

  1. Remote detection of weak aftershocks of the DPRK underground explosions using waveform cross correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bras, R.; Rozhkov, M.; Bobrov, D.; Kitov, I. O.; Sanina, I.

    2017-12-01

    Association of weak seismic signals generated by low-magnitude aftershocks of the DPRK underground tests into event hypotheses represent a challenge for routine automatic and interactive processing at the International Data Centre (IDC) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization, due to the relatively low station density of the International Monitoring System (IMS) seismic network. Since 2011, as an alternative, the IDC has been testing various prototype techniques of signal detection and event creation based on waveform cross correlation. Using signals measured by seismic stations of the IMS from DPRK explosions as waveform templates, the IDC detected several small (estimated mb between 2.2 and 3.6) seismic events after two DPRK tests conducted on September 9, 2016 and September 3, 2017. The obtained detections were associated with reliable event hypothesis and then used to locate these events relative to the epicenters of the DPRK explosions. We observe high similarity of the detected signals with the corresponding waveform templates. The newly found signals also correlate well between themselves. In addition, the values of the signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) estimated using the traces of cross correlation coefficients, increase with template length (from 5 s to 150 s), providing strong evidence in favour of their spatial closeness, which allows interpreting them as explosion aftershocks. We estimated the relative magnitudes of all aftershocks using the ratio of RMS amplitudes of the master and slave signal in the cross correlation windows characterized by the highest SNR. Additional waveform data from regional non-IMS stations MDJ and SEHB provide independent validation of these aftershock hypotheses. Since waveform templates from any single master event may be sub-efficient at some stations, we have also developed a method of joint usage of the DPRK and the biggest aftershocks templates to build more robust event hypotheses.

  2. Using Gunshot Detection Systems to Fight Explosive Fishing Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showen, R. L.; Dunson, J. C.; Woodman, G.; Christopher, S.; Wilson, S.

    2015-12-01

    Blast fishing (using explosives to catch fish) causes extensive damage to coral reefs, especially in the Coral Triangle in Southeast Asia. Subsistence fishermen and larger consortiums, often with criminal links, throw an explosive into a school of fish, killing all sea life within range. This unsustainable practice is becoming more prevalent, and threatens the protein supply of as many as a billion people. Ending blast fishing will require combined technical and societal methods aimed at both deterring the practice, and catching those responsible. Our work aims to significantly improve enforcement. We are re-purposing SST's ShotSpotter gunshot detection system, (trusted and valued by police around the world), substituting hydrophones for the present microphones. Using multilateration and trained human reviewers, the system can give prompt blast alerts, location data, and acoustic waveforms to law enforcement officials. We hope to establish a prototype system in Malaysia in 2015, and have already secured governmental approvals for installation and tests with local law enforcement. The Scubazoo media firm in Malaysia is working with resorts, dive operations, and celebrity sponsors, and is planning to produce videos to illustrate the severity of the problem to both governments and the public. Because there is little hard data concerning the prevalence of blast fishing in either marine protected areas or open waters, the system can also indicate to the world the actual blast rates and patterns of use. The Teng Hoi environmental NGO in Hong Kong showed in 2004 that acoustic waves from typical bombs propagate on the order of 20 km, so an underwater locator system with a small number of sensors can feasibly cover a sizable coral region. Our present plans are to mount sensors on piers, buoys, and boats, but if possible we would also like to integrate with other existing acoustic arrays to strengthen the fight against blast fishing.

  3. Recognition of underground nuclear explosion and natural earthquake based on neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hong; Jia Weimin

    2000-01-01

    Many features are extracted to improve the identified rate and reliability of underground nuclear explosion and natural earthquake. But how to synthesize these characters is the key of pattern recognition. Based on the improved Delta algorithm, features of underground nuclear explosion and natural earthquake are inputted into BP neural network, and friendship functions are constructed to identify the output values. The identified rate is up to 92.0%, which shows that: the way is feasible

  4. Mass Spectrometry Vapor Analysis for Improving Explosives Detection Canine Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-10

    Explosives are typically encoun- tered as hidden or wrapped in a packaged material. The in- strument was used to determine an odor exfiltration point...from a packaged explosive. A sample of C4 wrapped in plastic was analyzed by monitoring cyclohexanone. Signal was observed to increase whenever...explosives. This method makes intuitive sense because handlers cannot see odors, so their intention is used as a surrogate for whether or not an

  5. Synthetic seismograms - II. Synthesis of amplitude spectra and seismograms of P waves from underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banghar, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    As a part of programme of seismic detection of underground nuclear explosions, step by step variations in the amplitude spectra and waveforms of P wave signal, as it propagates from source to receiver region, are investigated. Influences on the amplitude spectra and waveforms of teleseismic p waves due to : (1) variation in the shape of reduced displacement potential, (2) variation of mantle Q values, (3) change in depth, (4) various yields, (5) spalling, and (6) variation of crustal structure at source as well as at receiver are studied. The results show that for a yield of 85 kilotons, the time structure of seismograms is nearly same for four types of reduced displacement potentials considered here. The duration of waveforms is affected both by crustal structure at source as well as due to spalling. In general, effect of receiver crust on seismograms is found to be minor. Synthesized and observed P wave seismograms for Longshot, Milrow and Cannikin underground nuclear explosions are computed at various seismometer array stations of the UKAEA. Computed seismograms compare well with the recorded ones. It is seen that: (1) overburden P wave velocity inferred from seismograms is less as compared to its value obtained from on-site measurements, and (2) the source function, the source crust transfer function, the mantle transfer function and the spalling function are the most important factors that influence shaping of spectra and seismograms. (M.G.B.)

  6. Steam explosion - physical foundations and relation to nuclear reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, U.

    1982-08-01

    'Steam explosion' means the sudden evaporation of a fluid by heat exchange with a hotter material. Other terms are 'vapour explosion', 'thermal explosion', and 'energetic fuel-coolant interaction (FCI)'. In such an event a large fraction of the thermal energy initially stored in the hot material may possibly be converted into mechanical work. For pressurized water reactors one discusses (e.g. in risk analysis studies) a core melt-down accident during which molten fuel comes into contact with water. In the analysis of the consequences one has to investigate steam explosions. In this report an overview over the state of the knowledge is given. The overview is based on an extensive literature review. The objective of the report is to provide the basic knowledge which is required for understanding of the most important theories on the process of steam explosions. Following topics are treated: overview on steam explosion incidents, work potential, spontaneous nucleation, concept of detonation, results of some typical experiments, hydrodynamic fragmentation of drops, bubbles and jets, coarse mixtures, film-boiling, scenario of a core melt-down accident with possible steam-explosion in a pressurized water reactor. (orig.) [de

  7. Numerical simulation of stress wave propagation from underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, J T; Petersen, F L [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    This paper presents a numerical model of stress wave propagation (SOC) which uses material properties data from a preshot testing program to predict the stress-induced effects on the rock mass involved in a Plowshare application. SOC calculates stress and particle velocity history, cavity radius, extent of brittle failure, and the rock's efficiency for transmitting stress. The calculations are based on an equation of state for the rock, which is developed from preshot field and laboratory measurements of the rock properties. The field measurements, made by hole logging, determine in situ values of the rock's density, water content, and propagation velocity for elastic waves. These logs also are useful in judging the layering of the rock and in choosing which core samples to test in the laboratory. The laboratory analysis of rock cores includes determination of hydrostatic compressibility to 40 kb, triaxial strength data, tensile strength, Hugoniot elastic limit, and, for the rock near the point of detonation, high-pressure Hugoniot data. Equation-of-state data are presented for rock from three sites subjected to high explosive or underground nuclear shots, including the Hardhat and Gasbuggy sites. SOC calculations of the effects of these two shots on the surrounding rock are compared with the observed effects. In both cases SOC predicts the size of the cavity quite closely. Results of the Gasbuggy calculations indicate that useful predictions of cavity size and chimney height can be made when an adequate preshot testing program is run to determine the rock's equation of state. Seismic coupling is very sensitive to the low-pressure part of the equation of state, and its successful prediction depends on agreement between the logging data and the static compressibility data. In general, it appears that enough progress has been made in calculating stress wave propagation to begin looking at derived numbers, such as number of cracks per zone, for some insight into the

  8. Numerical simulation of stress wave propagation from underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, J.T.; Petersen, F.L.

    1970-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical model of stress wave propagation (SOC) which uses material properties data from a preshot testing program to predict the stress-induced effects on the rock mass involved in a Plowshare application. SOC calculates stress and particle velocity history, cavity radius, extent of brittle failure, and the rock's efficiency for transmitting stress. The calculations are based on an equation of state for the rock, which is developed from preshot field and laboratory measurements of the rock properties. The field measurements, made by hole logging, determine in situ values of the rock's density, water content, and propagation velocity for elastic waves. These logs also are useful in judging the layering of the rock and in choosing which core samples to test in the laboratory. The laboratory analysis of rock cores includes determination of hydrostatic compressibility to 40 kb, triaxial strength data, tensile strength, Hugoniot elastic limit, and, for the rock near the point of detonation, high-pressure Hugoniot data. Equation-of-state data are presented for rock from three sites subjected to high explosive or underground nuclear shots, including the Hardhat and Gasbuggy sites. SOC calculations of the effects of these two shots on the surrounding rock are compared with the observed effects. In both cases SOC predicts the size of the cavity quite closely. Results of the Gasbuggy calculations indicate that useful predictions of cavity size and chimney height can be made when an adequate preshot testing program is run to determine the rock's equation of state. Seismic coupling is very sensitive to the low-pressure part of the equation of state, and its successful prediction depends on agreement between the logging data and the static compressibility data. In general, it appears that enough progress has been made in calculating stress wave propagation to begin looking at derived numbers, such as number of cracks per zone, for some insight into the

  9. Multi-colorimetric sensor array for detection of explosives in gas and liquid phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostesha, Natalie; Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne; Johnsen, C.

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of the research project "Xsense" at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) we are developing a simple colorimetric sensor array which can be useful in detection of explosives like DNT, TATP, HMX, RDX and identification of reagents needed for making homemade explosives. The tec......In the framework of the research project "Xsense" at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) we are developing a simple colorimetric sensor array which can be useful in detection of explosives like DNT, TATP, HMX, RDX and identification of reagents needed for making homemade explosives...... to the analytes creates a color difference map which gives a unique fingerprint for each explosive and VOCs. Such sensing technology can be used for screening relevant explosives in a complex background as well as to distinguish mixtures of volatile organic compounds distributed in gas and liquid phases....... This sensor array is inexpensive, and can potentially be produced as single use disposable....

  10. Chemicapacitive microsensors for detection of explosives and TICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sanjay V.; Hobson, Stephen T.; Cemalovic, Sabina; Mlsna, Todd E.

    2005-10-01

    Seacoast Science develops chemical sensors that use polymer-coated micromachined capacitors to measure the dielectric permittivity of an array of selectively absorbing materials. We present recent results demonstrating the sensor technology's capability to detect components in explosives and toxic industrial chemicals. These target chemicals are detected with functionalized polymers or network materials, chosen for their ability to adsorb chemicals. When exposed to vapors or gases, the permittivity of these sorbent materials changes depending on the strength of the vapor-sorbent interaction. Sensor arrays made of ten microcapacitors on a single chip have been previously shown to detect vapors of organic compounds (chemical warfare agents, industrial solvents, fuels) and inorganic gases (SO2, CO2, NO2). Two silicon microcapacitor structures were used, one with parallel electrode plates and the other with interdigitated "finger-like" electrodes. The parallel-plates were approximately 300 μm wide and separated by 750 nm. The interdigitated electrodes were approximately 400 μm long and were elevated above the substrate to provide faster vapor access. Eight to sixteen of these capacitors are fabricated on chips that are 5 x 2 mm and are packaged in less than 50 cm3 with supporting electronics and batteries, all weighing less than 500 grams. The capacitors can be individually coated with different materials creating a small electronic nose that produces different selectivity patterns in response to different chemicals. The resulting system's compact size, low-power consumption and low manufacturing costs make the technology ideal for integration into various systems for numerous applications.

  11. Revolution in nuclear detection affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, Warren M.

    2014-01-01

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms

  12. Detection Dynamics Of Nitrogen Based Explosive Quantities In Selected Cylindrical Containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngusha Tavershima Almighty

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental set up for examining the variation of detection intensity with explosive quantity has been studied. Containers made from ceramic carbon steel wood and HDPE were filled with explosive masses ranging from 10 kg to 500 kg and irradiated by a 14.1 MeV point isotropic neutron source. The resulting gamma photons were analyzed for their C N and O composition and the sum computed to yield a quantity known as the material quotient MQ. Examination of MQ values indicates an initial increase in detection intensity with increasing explosive quantity. Saturation is however reached at an explosive quantity of about 25kg where detection intensity reduces with further increase in explosive quantity. Effects of variation in explosive quantity appeared to be more pronounced for explosives contained in HDPE and wooden containers and least pronounced for those in steel containers. Source-detector configuration was identified as a major factor affecting effective detection of large masses of explosives.

  13. Detection of nuclear radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanarro Sanz, A.

    1959-01-01

    A summary of the lectures about the ordinary detectors of nuclear radiations given by the author in the Courses of Introduction to Nuclear Engineering held at the JEN up to the date of publication is given. Those lectures are considered to be a necessary introduction to Nuclear Instrumentation and Applied electronics to Nuclear Engineering so it has been intent to underline those characteristics of radiation detectors that must be taken in consideration in choosing or designing the electronic equipment associated to them in order to take advantage of each detector possibilities. (Author) 8 refs

  14. Detection of nuclear radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanarro Sanz, A.

    1967-01-01

    A summary of the lectures about the ordinary detectors of nuclear radiations explained by the author in the courses of Nuclear Engineering held at the J.E.N. up to the date of publication is given. Those lectures are considered to be a necessary introduction to Nuclear Instrumentation and Applied Electronics to Nuclear Engineering so it has been intended to underline those characteristics of radiation detectors that must be taken in consideration in choosing or designing the electronic equipment associated to them in order to take advantage of each detector possibilities. (Author)

  15. Explosives trace detection in the process of biometrical fingerprint identification for access control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertseva, Elena V.; Savin, Andrey V.

    2007-02-01

    A method for trace detection of explosives on the surface of biometric fingerprint scanner is proposed and its sensitivity explored. The method is based on attenuated total reflection mid-infrared spectroscopy. The detection limit is about several microgram and the detectivity increases with the wavelength used for scanning. The advantages of the proposed method include high selectivity and thus low false alarm level, applicability to low vapor pressure explosives and low cost.

  16. Detection of explosives on the basis of TNA-method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozhaev, A.N.; Kozlovskij, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    The possibility of applying the counting efficiency methods in the algorithm of the arrangement program intended for searching the explosive substances through the neutron radiation analysis method is discussed. The capture radiation spectra registered on the real facility model, and the response calculational functions for the 6 and 10.9 MeV quanta are presented. The possibility of applying the considered methods in the task of the explosive substances identification is described [ru

  17. Control of the dynamic environment produced by underground nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernreuter, D L; Jackson, E C; Miller, A B [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    One important aspect of any underground nuclear explosion is recording, retrieval and analysis of experiment and/or device performance. Most of the information is recorded or conditioned on sensitive electronic equipment and often transmitted via antennas that must remain in alignment. Sometimes diagnostic packages are located in towers near surface ground zero (SGZ). Also, some equipment is needed for timing and firing as well as safety requirements. Generally it is desirable to locate this equipment as close to SGZ as possible. This paper is a summary of LRL's method of controlling the dynamic environment in order to get good quality data and protect equipment while optimizing the cost. The overall problem blends together: (1) definition of input, i.e. ground shock parameters; (2) shock sensitivity or fragility level of equipment to the input and purpose (i.e. does it record or transmit through shock arrival time?); and (3) design of a fail-safe shock mount (SM) system to modify the shock environment when required. Before any SM system can be designed, items I and 2 must be answered as the ground shock can vary over a wide range and the sensitivity/fragility of the equipment can vary from less than 1/2 g to more than 100 g's, particularly if recording is done through shock arrival time. Keeping antennas in alignment is a somewhat different problem. Whenever possible the design of the SM system is based only on peak input parameters of the ground motion since detailed time histories of the ground motions are very difficult to predict. For towers and other systems which require detailed time histories, computer codes have been developed which allow a parametric study of the input ground motion's effect on the response of the system. This paper deals mainly with the close-in region where the dynamic environment is quite severe. In this region, non-standard methods and analysis are required. Out of this region, more standard methods can be used. (author)

  18. Control of the dynamic environment produced by underground nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernreuter, D.L.; Jackson, E.C.; Miller, A.B.

    1970-01-01

    One important aspect of any underground nuclear explosion is recording, retrieval and analysis of experiment and/or device performance. Most of the information is recorded or conditioned on sensitive electronic equipment and often transmitted via antennas that must remain in alignment. Sometimes diagnostic packages are located in towers near surface ground zero (SGZ). Also, some equipment is needed for timing and firing as well as safety requirements. Generally it is desirable to locate this equipment as close to SGZ as possible. This paper is a summary of LRL's method of controlling the dynamic environment in order to get good quality data and protect equipment while optimizing the cost. The overall problem blends together: (1) definition of input, i.e. ground shock parameters; (2) shock sensitivity or fragility level of equipment to the input and purpose (i.e. does it record or transmit through shock arrival time?); and (3) design of a fail-safe shock mount (SM) system to modify the shock environment when required. Before any SM system can be designed, items I and 2 must be answered as the ground shock can vary over a wide range and the sensitivity/fragility of the equipment can vary from less than 1/2 g to more than 100 g's, particularly if recording is done through shock arrival time. Keeping antennas in alignment is a somewhat different problem. Whenever possible the design of the SM system is based only on peak input parameters of the ground motion since detailed time histories of the ground motions are very difficult to predict. For towers and other systems which require detailed time histories, computer codes have been developed which allow a parametric study of the input ground motion's effect on the response of the system. This paper deals mainly with the close-in region where the dynamic environment is quite severe. In this region, non-standard methods and analysis are required. Out of this region, more standard methods can be used. (author)

  19. First observations of tritium in ground water outside chimneys of underground nuclear explosions, Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crow, N.B.

    1976-01-01

    Abnormal levels of radionuclides had not been detected in ground water at the Nevada Test Site beyond the immediate vicinity of underground nuclear explosions until April 1974, when above-background tritium activity levels were detected in ground-water inflow from the tuff beneath Yucca Flat to an emplacement chamber being mined in hole U2aw in the east-central part of Area 2. No other radionuclides were detected in a sample of water from the chamber. In comparison with the amount of tritium estimated to be present in the ground water in nearby nuclear chimneys, the activity level at U2aw is very low. To put the tritium activity levels at U2aw into proper perspective, the maximum tritium activity level observed was significantly less than the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) for a restricted area, though from mid-April 1974 until the emplacement chamber was expended in September 1974, the tritium activity exceeded the MPC for the general public. Above-background tritium activity was also detected in ground water from the adjacent exploratory hole, Ue2aw. The nearest underground nuclear explosion detonated beneath the water table, believed to be the source of the tritium observed, is Commodore (U2am), located 465 m southeast of the emplacement chamber in U2aw. Commodore was detonated in May 1967. In May 1975, tritium activity May significantly higher than regional background. was detected in ground water from hole Ue2ar, 980 m south of the emplacement chamber in U2aw and 361 m from a second underground nuclear explosion, Agile (U2v), also detonated below the water table, in February 1967. This paper describes these occurrences of tritium in the ground water. A mechanism to account for the movement of tritium is postulated

  20. In-source collision induced dissociation of inorganic explosives for mass spectrometric signature detection and chemical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, Thomas P., E-mail: thomas.forbes@nist.gov; Sisco, Edward

    2015-09-10

    The trace detection, bulk quantification, and chemical imaging of inorganic explosives and components was demonstrated utilizing in-source collision induced dissociation (CID) coupled with laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS). The incorporation of in-source CID provided direct control over the extent of adduct and cluster fragmentation as well as organic noise reduction for the enhanced detection of both the elemental and molecular ion signatures of fuel-oxidizer mixtures and other inorganic components of explosive devices. Investigation of oxidizer molecular anions, specifically, nitrates, chlorates, and perchlorates, identified that the optimal in-source CID existed at the transition between fragmentation of the ionic salt bonds and molecular anion bonds. The chemical imaging of oxidizer particles from latent fingerprints was demonstrated, including both cation and anion components in positive and negative mode mass spectrometry, respectively. This investigation demonstrated LDI-MS with in-source CID as a versatile tool for security fields, as well as environmental monitoring and nuclear safeguards, facilitating the detection of elemental and molecular inorganic compounds at nanogram levels. - Highlights: • In-source CID enhanced detection of elemental inorganics up to 1000-fold. • In-source CID optimization of polyatomic oxidizers enhanced detection up to 100-fold. • Optimal CID identified at transition from breaking ionic salt to molecular anion bonds. • Trace detection of inorganic explosives at nanogram levels was demonstrated. • Oxidizer particles were chemically imaged directly from latent fingerprints.

  1. Explosively free-formed pass partition plate for a nuclear steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    A large flow-separating dished plate of a complex shape was manufactured by near-contact explosive forming in which only an edge die was used. The shape of the part, for service in a large, nuclear steam generator, was obtained by careful sizing and placement of the explosive charge. The development of the technique and the manufacture of the plate are described. 4 refs

  2. The signature-based radiation-scanning approach to standoff detection of improvised explosive devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, R.L.; Dunn, W.L.; Heider, S.; Matthew, C.; Yang, X.

    2012-01-01

    The signature-based radiation-scanning technique for detection of improvised explosive devices is described. The technique seeks to detect nitrogen-rich chemical explosives present in a target. The technology compares a set of “signatures” obtained from a test target to a collection of “templates”, sets of signatures for a target that contain an explosive in a specific configuration. Interrogation of nitrogen-rich fertilizer samples, which serve as surrogates for explosives, is shown experimentally to be able to discriminate samples of 3.8 L and larger. - Highlights: ► Signature-based radiation-scanning techniques applied to detection of explosives. ► Nitrogen-rich fertilizer samples served as surrogate explosive samples. ► Signatures of a target compared to collections of templates of surrogate explosives. ► Figure-of-merit determined for neutron and neutron-induced gamma-ray signatures. ► Discrimination of surrogate explosive from inert samples of 3.8 L and larger.

  3. Nuclear crime - a threat? Trade with nuclear explosives in Europe, political and social background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, W.; Becker, D.; Brunner, H.; Fechner, J.; Frenzel, E.; Kaul, A.; Kesten, J.; Koschel, P.; Mattausch, E.; Mertens, D.; Nosske, D.; Stoll, W.; Willuhn, K.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear Crime defined as illegal trade, transport and possession of fissille and other radioactive material, increasingly keeps government and public in suspense. As shown already by the two parts of the term, both Radiation Protection and Prosecution Authorities are concerned. In the focal theme of this issue, their opinions and experiences will be compiled with the aim of treating this really explosive topic critically, but factually correct from all sides. This intention requires answering several broad questions: -Where does the nuclear material come from? - What experiences with nuclear crime do exist? - What countermeasures are we able and ready to take? - What measurement techniques are at hand to recognize and avert the danger? and, with particular reference to the nuclear weapons material Plutonium: - Who is producing Pu, and in what shape and mixtures? - What is the real radiological risk of the 'ultra-poison' Pu? - What possibilities exist to remove Pu contaminations, and to decomparate it? The following contributions of competent authors from Germany and Switzerland convey a comprehensive picture of the present situation demonstrating equally that means and knowledge exist in both countries to efficiently overt the threat of Nuclear Crime. (orig.) [de

  4. A Study of Storage Ring Requirements for an Explosive Detection System Using NRA Method

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Tai-Sen

    2005-01-01

    The technical feasibility of an explosives detection system based on the nuclear resonance absorption (NRA) of gamma rays in nitrogen-rich materials was demonstrated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 1993 by using an RFQ proton accelerator and a tomographic imaging prototype.* The study is being continued recently to examine deployment of such an active interrogation system in realistic scenarios. The approach is to use a cyclotron and electron-cooling-equipped storage rings(s) to provide the high quality and high current proton beam needed in a practical application. In this work, we investigate the storage ring requirements for a variant of the airport luggage inspection system considered in the earlier LANL experiments. Estimations are carried out based on the required inspection throughput, the gamma ray yield, the proton beam emittance growth due to scattering with the photon-production target, beam current limit in the storage ring, and the electron cooling rate. Studies using scaling and reas...

  5. Interpenetrated Binary Supramolecular Nanofibers for Sensitive Fluorescence Detection of Six Classes of Explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Zhu, Qijian; Gong, Yanjun; Wang, Chen; Che, Yanke; Zhao, Jincai

    2018-04-03

    In this work, we develop a sequential self-assembly approach to fabricate interpenetrated binary supramolecular nanofibers consisting of carbazole oligomer 1-cobalt(II) (1-Co 2+ ) coordination nanofibers and oligomer 2 nanofibers for the sensitive detection of six classes of explosives. When exposed to peroxide explosives (e.g., H 2 O 2 ), Co 2+ in 1-Co 2+ coordination nanofibers can be reduced to Co + that can transfer an electron to the excited 2 nanofibers and thereby quench their fluorescence. On the other hand, when exposed to the other five classes of explosives, the excited 2 nanofibers can transfer an electron to explosives to quench their fluorescence. On the basis of the distinct fluorescence quenching mechanisms, six classes of explosives can be sensitively detected. Herein, we provide a new strategy to design broad-band fluorescence sensors for a rich identification of threats.

  6. Spectral content of seismic movements produced by underground nuclear explosions; Contenu spectral des mouvements seismiques dus aux explosions nucleaires souterraines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albaret, A; Duclaux, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    After a summary of available data, both theoretical and experimental, concerning the spectral content of seismic movements, a description is given of the experiments carried out during the French nuclear explosions in the Sahara, and of the results obtained on the volume waves. A comparison is then made with certain American results. A new method is described for studying the amplitude spectra; it has made it possible to show that the amount of low frequencies in the spectrum increases with the power of the explosion, and decreases with the distance to the zero point and with the filtering effect of the weathered zone. A calculation is then made of the low cut-off ground filter, this giving a better representation of the initial seismic phenomenon. (authors) [French] Apres avoir resume les connaissances disponibles, aussi bien theoriques qu'experimentales, sur le contenu spectral des mouvements seismiques, on decrit les experiences effectuees a l'occasion des explosions nucleaires francaises du Sahara et les resultats obtenus sur les ondes de volume. Puis on les compare avec certains resultats americains. On decrit une nouvelle methode d'etude des spectres d'amplitudes qui montre que le spectre est d'autant plus riche en basses frequences que la puissance de l'explosion est grande, que la distance au point zero est faible et qu'il est moins filtre par la zone alteree superficielle. Puis on calcule le filtre terrain coupe-bas qui permet de donner une representation plus fidele du phenomene seismique initial. (auteurs)

  7. 4. International symposium on analysis and detection of explosives, Jerusalem (Israel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    From all the presentations given at the 4. International Symposium on Analysis and Detection of Explosives (September 7-10, 1992, Jerusalem, Israel), three were considered in INIS scope and separately indexed

  8. Terrorism and Drug Trafficking: Responsibilities for Developing Explosives and Narcotics Detection Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    This report discusses (1) the roles, responsibilities, and authority of : agencies that establish policy, provide funds or oversee funding requests, : and develop explosives and narcotics detection technologies; : (2) mechanisms used to coordinate th...

  9. Detecting Weak Explosions at Local Distances by Fusing Multiple Geophysical Phenomenologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, Joshua D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nemzek, Robert J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Arrowsmith, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sentz, Kari [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-23

    Comprehensive explosion monitoring requires the technical capability to identify certain signatures at low signal strengths. For particularly small, evasively conducted explosions, conventional monitoring methods that use single geophysical phenomenologies may produce marginal or absent detections. To address this challenge, we recorded coincident acoustic, seismic and radio-frequency emissions during the above-ground detonation of ~ 2-12 kg solid charges and assessed how waveform data could be fused to increase explosion-screening capability. Our data provided identifiable explosion signatures that we implemented as template-events in multichannel correlation detectors to search for similar, matching waveforms. We thereby observed that these highly sensitive correlation detectors missed explosive events when applied separately to data streams that were heavily contaminated with noise and signal clutter. By then adding the p-values of these statistics through Fisher’s combined probability test, we correctly identified the explosion signals at thresholds consistent with the false alarm rates of the correlation detectors. This resulting Fisher test thereby provided high-probability detections, zero false alarms, and higher theoretical detection capability. We conclude that inclusion of these fusion methods in routine monitoring operations will likely lower both detection thresholds for small explosions, while reducing false attribution rates.

  10. Yield estimation for nuclear explosions of semipalatinsk using rayleigh waves recorded at SRO, Mashhad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naghizadeh, M.; Javaherian, A.; Sadidkhooy, A.

    2005-01-01

    Surface wave amplitudes from explosion sources show less variation for a given event than body wave amplitudes, so it is natural to expect that yield estimation derived from surface waves will be more accurate than yield estimation derived from body waves. However yield estimation from surface waves is complicated by the presence of tectonic strain release, which acts like one or more earthquake sources superimposed on the explosion. Explosions on an island or near a mountain slope can exhibit anomalous surface waves similar to those caused by tectonic strain release. One of the methods in estimating the yield of nuclear explosions is to determine a relationship between the magnitude and the yield of an explosion. The kind of magnitude employed has an important role in this regard. In this paper, vertical component of long period seismograms at SRO, Mashhad from explosions occurred in semipalatinsk test site, semipalatinsk test site east of Kazakhstan) are considered. First, by using the relationships of IASPEI and Rezapour and Pearce (1998), we determined surface wave magnitude (MS) which is defined as the logarithm of the amplitude plus a distance correction. Then we derived a relation for M S versus yield for a data set which includes a 15 long period seismograms recorded at SRO Mashhad station from semipalatinsk test site nuclear explosions. Furthermore, by digitizing the vertical component of seismograms and transforming them to the frequency domain, the mean amplitude of records at frequency ranges of 0.04-0.06 Hz were calculated. Then, surface wave magnitudes in the frequency domain (M Sf ) and their corresponding yield-magnitude relationship were obtained. By comparing correlation coefficients of these two yield-magnitude relationships, following relationship M S = 1.079 log(Y) + 1.714, was chosen for estimating the yield of semipalatinsk test site nuclear explosion from seismograms of SRO

  11. MEMS-based Porous Silicon Preconcentrators Filled with Carbopack-B for Explosives Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Camara , El Hadji Malik; James , Franck; Breuil , Philippe; Pijolat , Christophe; Briand , Danick; De Rooij , Nicolaas F

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In this paper we report the detection of explosive compounds using a miniaturized gas preconcentrator (μGP) made of porous silicon (PS) filled in with Carbopack B as an adsorbent material. The μGP includes also a platinum heater patterned at the backside and fluidic connectors sealed on the glass cover. Our μGP is designed and optimized through fluidic and thermal simulations for meeting the requirements of trace explosives detection. The thermal mass of the device was...

  12. Research on data auto-analysis algorithms in the explosive detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haidong; Li Yuanjing; Yang Yigang; Li Tiezhu; Chen Boxian; Cheng Jianping

    2006-01-01

    This paper mainly describe some auto-analysis algorithms in explosive detection system with TNA method. These include the auto-calibration algorithm when disturbed by other factors, MCA auto-calibration algorithm with calibrated spectrum, the auto-fitting and integral of hydrogen and nitrogen elements data. With these numerical algorithms, the authors can automatically and precisely analysis the gamma-spectra and ultimately achieve the explosive auto-detection. (authors)

  13. Multi-Source Fusion for Explosive Hazard Detection in Forward Looking Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    California, United States Paper Title: Voxel-space radar signal processing for side attack explosive ballistic detection Publication Status: 1-Published...documentation. 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS (ES) U.S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211...R-0012. The aim of this research is to improve the U.S. Army’s ability to detect landmines and explosive hazards in different scenarios using

  14. Material movement of medium surrounding an underground nuclear explosion; Mouvement materiel du milieu environnant une explosion nucleaire souterraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrini, C; Garnier, J L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    The results of measurements of the mechanical effects in the, intermediate zone around underground nuclear explosions in Sahara granite are presented. After a description of the main characteristics of the equipment used, the laws drawn up using experimental results for the acceleration, the velocity, and the material displacement are presented. These laws are compared to those published in other countries for nuclear tests in granite, in tuff and in alluvial deposits. (authors) [French] Les resultats de mesures d'effets mecaniques en zone intermediaire autour d'essais nucleaires souterrains dans le granite du Sahara sont exposes. Apres avoir decrit, dans leurs grandes lignes, les materiels utilises, on presente les lois etablies avec les resultats experimentaux pour l'acceleration, la vitesse et le deplacement materiel. Ces lois sont comparees a celles publiees a l'etranger pour des essais nucleaires dans le granite, le tuf et les alluvions. (auteur)

  15. False alarm rates of liquid explosives detection systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dzhongova, E.; Anderson, D.; Ruiter, J. de; Novakovic, V.; Ruiz Oses, M.

    2017-01-01

    Restrictions on the carriage of liquids, aerosol, and gels (LAGs) by airline passengers have been in place since November 2006, following the discovery of a terrorist plot involving homemade liquid explosives to be used on transatlantic flights (Wikipedia, 2006). Restrictions on the carriage of LAGs

  16. Some predicted peak ground motions for nuclear cratering explosions along the Qattara alignment in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    Some predicted peak free-field ground motions at shot depth for the nuclear explosive excavation of a canal in Egypt are summarized. Peak values of displacement, velocity, acceleration, and radial stress are presented as a function of slant range from the working point. Results from two-dimensional TENSOR cratering calculations are included. Fits to ground motion measurements in other media are also shown. This summary is intended to help specify engineering design requirements for detonating nuclear explosive salvos which are required to efficiently excavate the canal. It also should be useful in guiding estimates for gage response ranges in ground motion measurements

  17. A line technology of subterranean mining by means of nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gushchin, V.V.; Vasin, K.D.; Nifontov, B.I.; Odrov, Yu.L.; Myasnikov, K.V.; Kol'tsov, V.M.; Kornev, G.N.; Degtyarev, V.A.

    1976-01-01

    The basic principles of a line technology of extracting firm ores, including break-up of ore by means of subterranean nuclear explosions, the removal of ore from sorting blocks by means of vibrator feeders and transporting it to intermediate levels via a new type of belt conveyor on mobile supports are considered. A method of crushing ore by nuclear explosions on reflecting surfaces is proposed to obtain a more uniform fragmentation of ore, increase the output of fragmented ore per unit capacity, and to preserve mining output. The basic principles of designing a system of mining based on a line technology are formulated and one variant of such a system is presented

  18. Development of a Risk-Based Decision-Support-Model for Protecting an Urban Medical Center from a Nuclear Explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Dor, G.; Shohet, I.M.; Ornai, D.; Brosh, B.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear explosion is the worst man-made physical threat on the human society. The nuclear explosion includes several consequences, some of them are immediate and others are long term. The major influences are: long duration blast, extreme thermal release, nuclear radiations, and electro-magnetic pulse (EMP). Their damage range is very wide. When nuclear explosion occurs above or in an urban area it is possible that one or more medical centers will be affected. Medical centers include several layers of structures defined by their resistance capacity to the nuclear explosion influences, beginning with the structure's frame and ending with different systems and with vulnerable medical critical infrastructures such as communications, medical gas supply, etc. A comprehensive literature survey revealed that in spite of the necessity and the importance of medical centers in the daily life and especially in emergency and post nuclear explosion, there is a lack of research on this topic

  19. The role of atmospheric nuclear explosions on the stagnation of global warming in the mid 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yoshiaki

    2011-04-01

    This study suggests that the cause of the stagnation in global warming in the mid 20th century was the atmospheric nuclear explosions detonated between 1945 and 1980. The estimated GST drop due to fine dust from the actual atmospheric nuclear explosions based on the published simulation results by other researchers (a single column model and Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Model) has served to explain the stagnation in global warming. Atmospheric nuclear explosions can be regarded as full-scale in situ tests for nuclear winter. The non-negligible amount of GST drop from the actual atmospheric explosions suggests that nuclear winter is not just a theory but has actually occurred, albeit on a small scale. The accuracy of the simulations of GST by IPCC would also be improved significantly by introducing the influence of fine dust from the actual atmospheric nuclear explosions into their climate models; thus, global warming behavior could be more accurately predicted.

  20. Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Sources Used in The Detection of Explosives by Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waltman, Melanie J. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Explosives detection is a necessary and wide spread field of research. From large shipping containers to airline luggage, numerous items are tested for explosives every day. In the area of trace explosives detection, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is the technique employed most often because it is a quick, simple, and accurate way to test many items in a short amount of time. Detection by IMS is based on the difference in drift times of product ions through the drift region of an IMS instrument. The product ions are created when the explosive compounds, introduced to the instrument, are chemically ionized through interactions with the reactant ions. The identity of the reactant ions determines the outcomes of the ionization process. This research investigated the reactant ions created by various ionization sources and looked into ways to manipulate the chemistry occurring in the sources.

  1. Comparison of the effects in the rock mass of large-scale chemical and nuclear explosions. Final technical report, June 9, 1994--October 9, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spivak, A.A.

    1995-04-01

    It was found that in the first approximation the mechanical effect of underground nuclear explosion is analogous to the effect of chemical explosion. Really qualitative analysis shows that accompanying mechanical effects of nuclear and chemical explosions are the same: in the both cases explosion consequences are characterized by formation of the camouplet cavity (crater after explosion near free surface), destruction of the rock massif near explosion centre, creation of the stress wave, which forms seismoexplosive effect a long distance from explosion epicentre. Qualitative likeness of underground nuclear explosions and chemical explosions is the base of modelling the mechanical effects of the underground nuclear explosion. In this paper we`ll compare two explosions: nuclear (15-04-84) and chemical (27.06.95) with large power. These explosions were realized at the same geological conditions at Degelen test area, which is a part of the Semipalatinsk Test Site. In the case of the nuclear explosion, the charge was disposed in the face of the deep horizontal gallery. The charge of the chemical explosion was a semisphere from explosives at the rock massif surface. In the both case rock massif behavior after explosions was investigated at underground conditions (in the case of chemical explosion -- in the long underground excavation from explosion epicentre). Mechanical effects from the nuclear and chemical explosions were investigated with the same methods. The changes in geological medium after a large-scale explosive actions will be analyzed in detail too. Investigations of the influence of tectonic energy on the mechanical effects after underground nuclear, explosions represents the main interest. In this paper we`ll discuss this question on the data from underground nuclear explosion, realized 08.09.89 in the deep well at the Balapan test area, at the Semipalatinsk Test Site.

  2. Strategies for the disposition of high explosives resulting from dismantlement of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruneda, C.; Humphrey, J.

    1993-03-01

    Many thousands of pounds of high quality main-charge explosives will result as surplus from the dismantlement of returns from the US nuclear weapons stockpile. The method most often employed for dealing with this surplus explosive is destruction by open burning. However, open burning as a means of treating excess explosives is losing favor because of environmental concerns associated with such an uncontrolled thermal destruction process. Thus, alternative processes for treatment of excess explosives from weapon dismantlement is discussed. These alternatives include: reformulation, crystalline component recovery, chemical conversion of the crystalline component to higher value products which may have civilian or military applications and, when necessary, treatment as waste in an environmentally benign fashion

  3. [Assessment of modern radioecological situation at nuclear explosion "Chagan" (Balapan Site, Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site, Kazakhstan)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evseeva, T I; Maĭstrenko, T A; Geras'kin, S A; Belykh, E S; Umarov, M A; Sergeeva, I Iu; Sergeev, V Iu

    2008-01-01

    Results on estimation of modern radioecological situation at nuclear explosion "Chagan" based on large-scale cartographic studies (1:25000) of a test area (4 km2) are presented. Maximum gamma-irradiation doses were observed at bulk of ground surrounded a crater and at radioactive fall-outs extended to the North-East and to the SouthWest from the crater. Based on data on artificial radionuclide specific activity most part of soil samples were attributed to radioactive wastes according to IAEA (1996) and OSPORB (1999). Natural decrease of soil radioactivity up to safety level due to 60Co, 137Cs, 90Sr, 152Eu, 154Eu radioactive decay and 241Am accumulation-decay will not take place within the next 60 years at the studied area.

  4. Nuclear EMP induced chaos. [Effect of nuclear explosion on power and communication facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dance, B

    1983-04-01

    It is anticipated that a single nuclear explosion, of adequate size, on the outside of the atmosphere would generate a pulse of sufficient intensity to damage communications equipment (including telephones, radio transmitters and receivers), and to disrupt main power supplies. This damage could be done by a very intense, short duration electro-magnetic pulse (EMP). The article discusses the generation and history of EMP, the test facilities that are needed for EMP test, and techniques that can be used to harden equipment against EMP. It is also important to protect extensive systems against EMP. The article points out that fibre-optics are very useful, because they are EMP resistant and a single fibre can also carry a very high data rate.

  5. Accuracy analysis of the CTBTO nuclear test detection scale and Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Young Kwang [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    CTBTO (Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization) is charge of nuclear test monitoring for nuclear non-proliferation. CTBTO has 170 seismic stations in operation in 76 countries in order to detect the artificial earthquake that was caused by an underground nuclear test. Korea use formula that is based on the equations that are used by the IMS (International Monitoring System) of CTBTO for analysis of explosive scale, and reflect the nature of the terrain, such as rock. But the expression for calculating the exact scale explosive is still un-established state. And generally CTBTO doesn't care about artificial explosive that is being received low-yield in accordance with the criteria of nuclear detection. But, at the time that North Korea conduct a nuclear test, it should not be overlooked that the scale of the earthquake detection criteria below. Because DPRK is trying to conceal their nuclear development capability, there are possibility of low-yield nuclear test or possibility of install a buffer to hide actual explosive scale. These radionuclide observations were consistent with a DPRK low-yield nuclear test on May 2010, even though no seismic signals from such a test have been detected. But there were a few times of low-yield (magnitude 1.39-1.93) occurred around DPRK nuclear test site at that time.

  6. On the fallout by nuclear explosion experiment and the radioactive iodine in animal organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Giichiro

    1974-01-01

    Radioactive iodine (mainly 131 I, 132 I, 133 I, and 135 I) was measured with fallout, cow milk, human urine, and thyroid glands (human and cattles) after the first nuclear explosion experiment in China. Analysing method was determined by placing emphasis on rapidity and perfect separation from other nuclides. The detectable limit employing this method was about several p Ci. The identification of radioactive iodine was performed with a simultaneous counting type β - ray spectrometer, and 131 I, 132 I, and 133 I were identified by their half lives. 131 I in cow milk increased from around the 4th day after the experiment, and it had been detected for a month continuously, the maximum amount being 437 p Ci/l. In thyroid glands, 131 I was detected for 100 days in a milch cow, the maximum being 88, 1p Ci/g, while it was somewhat low in Japanese cows and pigs. 131 I in the thyroid gland of a human infant (accidentally died after 12 days) was 1.29p Ci/g. 131 I in human urine was 6.3p Ci/l on the 7th day. (Kobatake, H.)

  7. The 23rd nuclear explosion test of the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Concerning the 23 rd nuclear explosion test of the People's Republic of China, the results of measurements of radioactivity, etc. in Japan are presented. (1) As for gross beta-radioactivity in upper air, high radioactivity was measured in western Japan. (2) As for gross beta-radioactivity in surface air at monitoring posts, relatively high radioactivity was detected in south-western Japan. (3) As for gross beta-radioactivity in rain and dry fallout, 130 mCi/km 2 in Hachijo Island and 101.9 mCi/km 2 in Saitama Prefecture were detected, and as for dry fallout, 82 mCi/km 2 was measured at National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Chiba Prefecture). (4) As for gross beta-radioactivity in air-borne dust, higher radioactivity than normal was measured in several prefectures. (5) As for the radioactive iodine concentration in raw milk, relatively high concentration of radioactive iodine was detected by National Institute of Radiological Sciences. (6) Hot particles. (7) Analysis of radionuclides. (8) Other related data. (J.P.N.)

  8. Evaluation of the pressure loads generated by hydrogen explosion in auxiliary nuclear building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed Bentaib; Alexandre Bleyer; Pierre Pailhories; Jean-Pierre L'heriteau; Bernard Chaumont; Jerome Dupas; Jerome Riviere

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In the framework of nuclear safety, a hydrogen leaks in the auxiliary nuclear building would raise a explosion hazard. A local ignition of the combustible mixture would give birth initially to a slow flame, rapidly accelerated by obstacles. This flame acceleration is responsible for high pressure loads that can damage the auxiliary building and destroy safety equipments in it. In this paper, we evaluate the pressure loads generated by an hydrogen explosion for both bounding and realistic explosion scenarios. The bounding scenarios use stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixtures and the realistic scenarios correspond to hydrogen leaks with mass flow rate varying between 1 g/s and 9 g/s. For every scenario, the impact of the ignition location and ignition time are investigated. The hydrogen dispersion and explosion are computed using the TONUS code. The dispersion model used is based on a finite element solver and the explosion is simulated by a structured finite volumes EULER equation solver and the combustion model CREBCOM which simulates the hydrogen/air turbulent flame propagation, taking into account 3D complex geometry and reactants concentration gradients. The pressure loads computed are then used to investigate the occurrence of a mechanical failure of the tanks located in the auxiliary nuclear building and containing radioactive fluids. The EUROPLEXUS code is used to perform 3D mechanical calculations because the loads are non uniform and of rather short deviation. (authors)

  9. Sensor Technology Assessment for Ordnance and Explosive Waste Detection and Location. Revision B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-01

    249 A ppendices ................................................................................................ 255 Appendix A...military purposes. Dogs. noted for their acute sense of smell, provide a quick and effective method for OEW detection. Explosive munitions in or out of...odor, which the dog detects through its acute sense of smell. They are also trained to detect and respond to visual clues such as metal or plastic

  10. Instant detection and identification of concealed explosive-related compounds: Induced Stokes Raman versus infrared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbasuney, Sherif; El-Sherif, Ashraf F

    2017-01-01

    The instant detection of explosives and explosive-related compounds has become an urgent priority in recent years for homeland security and counter-terrorism applications. Modern techniques should offer enhancement in selectivity, sensitivity, and standoff distances. Miniaturisation, portability, and field-ruggedisation are crucial requirements. This study reports on instant and standoff identification of concealed explosive-related compounds using customized Raman technique. Stokes Raman spectra of common explosive-related compounds were generated and spectrally resolved to create characteristic finger print spectra. The scattered Raman emissions over the band 400:2000cm -1 were compared to infrared absorption using FTIR. It has been demonstrated that the two vibrational spectroscopic techniques were opposite and completing each other. Molecular vibrations with strong absorption in infrared (those involve strong change in dipole moments) induced weak signals in Raman and vice versa. The tailored Raman offered instant detection, high sensitivity, and standoff detection capabilities. Raman demonstrated characteristic fingerprint spectra with stable baseline and sharp intense peaks. Complete correlations of absorption/scattered signals to certain molecular vibrations were conducted to generate an entire spectroscopic profile of explosive-related compounds. This manuscript shades the light on Raman as one of the prevailing technologies for instantaneous detection of explosive-related compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Review of possible peaceful applications of nuclear explosions in the national economy of the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witherspoon, Paul A.

    1970-01-01

    The following review will give some of the current thinking of Soviet scientists and engineers on the possibilities of using nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes in the Soviet Union. This review is taken from a more detailed report that was presented under the same title by Soviet participants at an information-exchange meeting that was held in Vienna between the Soviet Union and the United States in April, 1969. Aside from a very brief review of one explosion in salt, the report does not give details on nuclear explosion effects (mechanical, seismic, radiation, or thermal). Rather, the report summarizes the results of design calculations and indicates the direction of Soviet planning for a variety of industrial applications. A complete translation of this report will be published by the Division of Technical Information and Education of AEC at Oakridge. (author)

  12. Review of possible peaceful applications of nuclear explosions in the national economy of the Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherspoon, Paul A [University of California, Berkeley (United States)

    1970-05-15

    The following review will give some of the current thinking of Soviet scientists and engineers on the possibilities of using nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes in the Soviet Union. This review is taken from a more detailed report that was presented under the same title by Soviet participants at an information-exchange meeting that was held in Vienna between the Soviet Union and the United States in April, 1969. Aside from a very brief review of one explosion in salt, the report does not give details on nuclear explosion effects (mechanical, seismic, radiation, or thermal). Rather, the report summarizes the results of design calculations and indicates the direction of Soviet planning for a variety of industrial applications. A complete translation of this report will be published by the Division of Technical Information and Education of AEC at Oakridge. (author)

  13. Development of the colorimetric sensor array for detection of explosives and volatile organic compounds in air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostesha, Natalie; Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne; Johnsen, C

    2010-01-01

    a color difference map which gives a unique fingerprint for each explosive and volatile organic compound. Such sensing technology can be used to screen for relevant explosives in a complex background as well as to distinguish mixtures of volatile organic compounds distributed in gas phase. This sensor......In the framework of the research project 'Xsense' at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) we are developing a simple colorimetric sensor array which can be useful in detection of explosives like DNT and TNT, and identification of volatile organic compounds in the presence of water vapor in air...

  14. Explosion-evaporation model for fragment production in intermediate-energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fai, G.; Randrup, J.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear collisions at intermediate energies may create transient systems of hot nuclear matter that decay into many nuclear fragments. The disassembly of such a nuclear fireball is described as a two-stage process. In the primary explosion stage the system quickly fragments into nucleons and composite nuclei according to the available phase space. The explosion produces excited nuclei with half-lives longer than the time associated with the breakup. In the secondary evaporation stage, these nuclei decay, first by sequential emission of light particles (neutrons, protons, alphas), later by electromagnetic radiation. The secondary stage in general changes the relative abundancies of the various fragment species. This general feature makes it essential to take account of the composite fragments before using d/p as a measure of the entropy of the initial source. The formation of unbound nuclei at the explosion stage also has the desirable effect of enhancing the final abundancies of particularly stable nuclei, e.g., 4 He. For neutron-excessive sources the presence of composite nuclei amplifies the ratio of observed neutrons and protons; this effect persists for heavier mirror systems. Predictions of the model are qualitatively compared to available experimental data. The model offers a convenient way to augment existing dynamical models, such as intra-nuclear cascade and nuclear fluid dynamics, to yield actual nuclear fragments rather than merely matter distributions

  15. Africa's contribution to putting an end to nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    African States play an important role in worldwide efforts towards nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament. All 53 African States are parties to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), which aims at preventing the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, advancing nuclear disarmament, and facilitating the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Of Africa's 53 States, 51 have signed the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) and 38 have also ratified it as of September 2010. Mauritius and Somalia are the only two States still to sign the Treaty. The States that have signed but not yet ratified are: Angola, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Sao Tome and Principe, Swaziland and Zimbabwe. Egypt's ratification is of particular importance as it is one of those States whose ratification is required for the Treaty's entry into force.

  16. Simulation Study of Near-Surface Coupling of Nuclear Devices vs. Equivalent High-Explosive Charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, Kevin B [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Walton, Otis R [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Benjamin, Russ [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dunlop, William H [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-29

    A computational study was performed to examine the differences in near-surface ground-waves and air-blast waves generated by high-explosive energy sources and those generated by much higher energy - density low - yield nuclear sources. The study examined the effect of explosive-source emplacement (i.e., height-of-burst, HOB, or depth-of-burial, DOB) over a range from depths of -35m to heights of 20m, for explosions with an explosive yield of 1-kt . The chemical explosive was modeled by a JWL equation-of-state model for a ~14m diameter sphere of ANFO (~1,200,000kg – 1 k t equivalent yield ), and the high-energy-density source was modeled as a one tonne (1000 kg) plasma of ‘Iron-gas’ (utilizing LLNL’s tabular equation-of-state database, LEOS) in a 2m diameter sphere, with a total internal-energy content equivalent to 1 k t . A consistent equivalent-yield coupling-factor approach was developed to compare the behavior of the two sources. The results indicate that the equivalent-yield coupling-factor for air-blasts from 1 k t ANFO explosions varies monotonically and continuously from a nearly perfec t reflected wave off of the ground surface for a HOB ≈ 20m, to a coupling factor of nearly zero at DOB ≈ -25m. The nuclear air - blast coupling curve, on the other hand, remained nearly equal to a perfectly reflected wave all the way down to HOB’s very near zero, and then quickly dropped to a value near zero for explosions with a DOB ≈ -10m. The near - surface ground - wave traveling horizontally out from the explosive source region to distances of 100’s of meters exhibited equivalent - yield coupling - factors t hat varied nearly linearly with HOB/DOB for the simulated ANFO explosive source, going from a value near zero at HOB ≈ 5m to nearly one at DOB ≈ -25m. The nuclear-source generated near-surface ground wave coupling-factor remained near zero for almost all HOB’s greater than zero, and then appeared to vary nearly - linearly with depth

  17. The threat of nuclear terrorism: Nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerli, Morten Bremer

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Conventional weaponry and tactics are likely to remain the primary terrorist means for a definitive majority of sub-national groups. No non-state actors have ever deployed or used a nuclear device. However, recent developments in international terrorism may point in the direction of future terrorist uses of weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear devices. Some terrorist groups with a high international profile have showed disturbing interests in acquiring nuclear weapon capabilities. As the 'terrorist nuclear weapon standards' are likely to be lower than the strict requirements for traditional state nuclear weapons, technical barriers should not be considered sufficient to avoid future nuclear terrorist violence. Preventing any extremist group from achieving their goals of large-scale nuclear killing is likely best done by preventing the access to fissile materials through state compliances to rigorous standards of Material Protection, Control and Accountability (MPC and A). (author)

  18. Fire and the related effects of nuclear explosions. 1982 Asilomar Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, S.B.; Alger, R.S.

    1982-11-01

    This report summarizes the proceedings of a Federal Emergency Management Agency-sponsored Conference on fire and the related effects of nuclear explosions (with passing attention to earthquakes and other nonnuclear mishaps). This conference, the fifth of an annual series (formally called Blast/Fire Interaction Conferences), was held during the week of April 25, 1982, again at Asilomar, California

  19. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-05-01

    The current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of radiation in man is considered. The discussion is restricted to dose-incidence data in humans, particularly to certain of those epidemiological studies of human populations that are used most frequently for risk estimation for low-dose radiation carcinogenesis in man. Emphasis is placed solely on those surveys concerned with nuclear explosions and medical exposures

  20. Weapons of mass destruction: Overview of the CBRNEs (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prockop, Leon D

    2006-11-01

    The events of September 11, 2001, made citizens of the world acutely aware of disasters consequent to present-day terrorism. This is a war being waged for reasons obscure to many of its potential victims. The term "NBCs" was coined in reference to terrorist weapons of mass destruction, i.e., nuclear, biological and chemical. The currently accepted acronym is "CBRNE" which includes Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive weapons. Non-nuclear explosives are the most common terrorist weapon now in use. Nuclear and radiological weapons are beyond the scope of this publication, which focuses on the "CBEs", i.e. chemical, biological and explosive weapons. Although neurologists will not be the first responders to CBEs, they must know about the neurological effects in order to provide diagnosis and treatment to survivors. Neurological complications of chemical, biological and explosive weapons which have or may be used by terrorists are reviewed by international experts in this publication. Management and treatment profiles are outlined.

  1. Lightning vulnerability of nuclear explosive test systems at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasbrouck, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    A task force chartered to evaluate the effects of lightning on nuclear explosives at the Nevada Test Site has made several recommendations intended to provide lightning-invulnerable test device systems. When these recommendations have been implemented, the systems will be tested using full-threat-level simulated lightning

  2. Fire and the related effects of nuclear explosions. 1982 Asilomar Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, S.B.; Alger, R.S. (eds.)

    1982-11-01

    This report summarizes the proceedings of a Federal Emergency Management Agency-sponsored Conference on fire and the related effects of nuclear explosions (with passing attention to earthquakes and other nonnuclear mishaps). This conference, the fifth of an annual series (formally called Blast/Fire Interaction Conferences), was held during the week of April 25, 1982, again at Asilomar, California.

  3. An empirical fast-neutron technique for detection of explosive-like materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, E.M.A.; Lord, P.M.; Bot, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    A method for detecting explosives in airport baggage using fast-neutron scattering and transmission measurements is presented. Ammonium nitrate (a commercial fertilizer) is used in the laboratory to simulate an explosive-like substance. The measurements are combined in Cartesian maps of normalized pairs of measurements. The existence of fertilizer manifests itself in these maps within a distinct region which is not significantly altered by the presence of surrounding materials. Monte Carlo simulations further confirm this phenomenon. (orig.)

  4. Parametric Explosion Spectral Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, S R; Walter, W R

    2012-01-19

    Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

  5. Shell and explosive hydrogen burning. Nuclear reaction rates for hydrogen burning in RGB, AGB and Novae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeltzig, A. [Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Bruno, C.G.; Davinson, T. [University of Edinburgh, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Cavanna, F.; Ferraro, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Genova (Italy); INFN, Genova (Italy); Cristallo, S. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Collurania, INAF, Teramo (Italy); INFN, Napoli (Italy); Depalo, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy); INFN, Padova (Italy); DeBoer, R.J.; Wiescher, M. [University of Notre Dame, Institute for Structure and Nuclear Astrophysics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Notre Dame, Indiana (United States); Di Leva, A.; Imbriani, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Napoli (Italy); INFN, Napoli (Italy); Marigo, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy); Terrasi, F. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica Seconda Universita di Napoli, Caserta (Italy); INFN, Napoli (Italy)

    2016-04-15

    The nucleosynthesis of light elements, from helium up to silicon, mainly occurs in Red Giant and Asymptotic Giant Branch stars and Novae. The relative abundances of the synthesized nuclides critically depend on the rates of the nuclear processes involved, often through non-trivial reaction chains, combined with complex mixing mechanisms. In this paper, we summarize the contributions made by LUNA experiments in furthering our understanding of nuclear reaction rates necessary for modeling nucleosynthesis in AGB stars and Novae explosions. (orig.)

  6. Nuclear structure near the particle drip-lines and explosive nucleosynthesis processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratz, K.L.; Pfeiffer, B.; Moeller, P.; Thielemann, F.K.; Wiescher, M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the nuclear physics input for a selected set of explosive nucleosynthesis scenarios leading to rapid proton-- and neutron--capture processes. Observables (like e.g. luminosity curves or elemental abundance distributions) witness the interplay between nuclear structure aspects near the particle drip-lines and the appropriate astrophysical environments, and can give guidance to and constraints on stellar conditions and the associated nucleosynthesis. (authors)

  7. Surface-wave generation by underground nuclear explosions releasing tectonic strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    Seismic surface-wave generation by underground nuclear explosions releasing tectonic strain is studied through a series of synthetic radiation-pattern calculations based on the earthquake-trigger model. From amplitude and phase radiation patterns for 20-s Rayleigh waves, inferences are made about effects on surface-wave magnitude, M/sub s/, and waveform character. The focus of this study is a comparison between two mechanisms of tectonic strain release: strike-slip motion on vertical faults and thrust motion on 45 0 dipping faults. The results of our calculations show that Rayleigh-wave amplitudes of the dip-slip model at F values between 0.75 and 1.5 are significantly lower than amplitudes of the strike-slip model or of the explosion source alone. This effect translates into M/sub s/ values about 0.5 units lower than M/sub s/ of the explosion alone. Waveform polarity reversals occur in two of four azimuthal quadrants for the strike-slip model and in all azimuths of the dip-slip-thrust model for F values above about 3. A cursory examination of waveforms from presumed explosions in eastern Kazakhstan suggests that releases of tectonic strain are accompanying the detonation of many of these explosions. Qualitatively, the observations seem to favor the dip-slip-thrust model, which, in the case of a few explosions, must have F values above 3

  8. Multichannel Discriminative Detection of Explosive Vapors with an Array of Nanofibrous Membranes Loaded with Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaofeng Wu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The multichannel fluorescent sensor array based on nanofibrous membranes loaded with ZnS quantum dots (QDs was created and demonstrated for the discriminative detection of explosives. The synergistic effect of the high surface-to-volume ratio of QDs, the good permeability of nanofibrous membranes and the differential response introduced by surface ligands was played by constructing the sensing array using nanofibrous membranes loaded with ZnS QDs featuring several surface ligands. Interestingly, although the fluorescence quenching of the nanofibrous membranes is not linearly related to the exposure time, the fingerprint of each explosive at different times is very similar in shape, and the fingerprints of the three explosives show different shapes. Three saturated vapors of nitroaromatic explosives could be reliably detected and discriminated by the array at room temperature. This work is the first step toward devising a monitoring system for explosives in the field of public security and defense. It could, for example, be coupled with the technology of image recognition and large data analysis for a rapid diagnostic test of explosives. This work further highlights the power of differential, multichannel arrays for the rapid and discriminative detection of a wide range of chemicals.

  9. Conditions of external loading of nuclear power plant structures by vapor cloud explosions and design requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, W.

    1977-01-01

    In the design of nuclear power plant structures in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) the external loading by pressure waves from unconfined vapor cloud explosions is taken into account. The loading conditions used are based on simplified model considerations for the sequence of events which generates the pressure wave. The basic assumption is that the explosion of unconfined vapor clouds can evolve only in the form of a deflagration wave with a maximum overpressure of 0.3 bar. The research on gas explosions conducted in the FRG with a view to external reactor safety just as similar work in other countries demonstrates that there are still various problems which need further clarification. The principal issues are the maximum conceivable load and the modes of structrual response. This paper presents the main results of a status report commissioned by the German Ministry of the Inertior in which the whole sequence of events leading to the external loading of nuclear power plants and the corresponding response of the structure was scrutinized. Constitutive in establishing the status report have been thorough discussions with experts of the various fields. The following problem areas are discussed in the paper. Incidents leading to the release of large amounts of liquefied gas; Formation of explosive vapor clouds, ignition conditions; Development of the explosion, generation of the pressure wave; Interaction between pressure wave and reactor building. It is outlined where definite statements are possible and where uncertainties and information gaps exist. (Auth.)

  10. Gas cloud explosions and their effect on nuclear power plant. Phase 1: basic development of explosion codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, S.F.; Martin, D.; MacKenzie, J.

    1984-01-01

    The study of factors influencing the pressure and velocity fields produced by the burning of clouds of flammable substances has been in progress in SRD for some years. During this time several computer codes have been developed to aid these studies. This report concerns an extension of these studies, which involves firstly, the use of the existing codes for systematic parameter surveys and secondly, the removal of some of the limitations on the code capabilities so that they become capable of producing more realistic representations of real explosions. This work is all aimed at the study of wave and velocity fields and the influence of rigid boundaries, such as the presence of strong buildings, e.g. nuclear power plants. These existing computer models have been used to investigate the scope and range of possible pressure loadings produced by gas cloud explosions and the interaction of their pressure fields with structures. Calculations have been undertaken for a number of different fuels and at different concentrations and burning velocities. The results of some of these calculations have been used in two-dimensional wave-structure interaction calculations with structures representative of nuclear power plant buildings. Finally, the development of a two-dimensional code capable of modelling flame and pressure wave interactions with structures is presented. This code has user-oriented input and output routines with particular attention having been paid to initial conditions, obstacles and graphics. The flux corrected transport method (the state-of-the-art method for dealing with flow with shocks) is used to solve a system of equations consisting of the usual conservation equations and a simple turbulence model (two-equation K-E model) including a simple turbulence-dependent chemical reaction rate

  11. Improved explosive collection and detection with rationally assembled surface sampling materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Bays, J. Timothy; Gerasimenko, Aleksandr A.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.; Addleman, R. Shane

    2016-01-01

    Sampling and detection of trace explosives is a key analytical process in modern transportation safety. In this work we have explored some of the fundamental analytical processes for collection and detection of trace level explosive on surfaces with the most widely utilized system, thermal desorption IMS. The performance of the standard muslin swipe material was compared with chemically modified fiberglass cloth. The fiberglass surface was modified to include phenyl functional groups. When compared to standard muslin, the phenyl functionalized fiberglass sampling material showed better analyte release from the sampling material as well as improved response and repeatability from multiple uses of the same swipe. The improved sample release of the functionalized fiberglass swipes resulted in a significant increase in sensitivity. Various physical and chemical properties were systematically explored to determine optimal performance. The results herein have relevance to improving the detection of other explosive compounds and potentially to a wide range of other chemical sampling and field detection challenges.

  12. Whistleblower litigation: A potential explosion in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowitt, A.J.; Panich, D.

    1990-01-01

    This article examines the protection offered nuclear employees and the limits of a nuclear employer's liability under section 210 of the Energy Reorganization Act. The author's warn that review by the US Supreme Court is not necessary but could only serve to expose the nuclear industry to an onslaught of litigation resulting from the assertion by an employee subjected to an adverse employment decision that the employee was engaged in a protected activity and as a result has a right to protection from retaliation by the employer

  13. Trace level detection of explosives in solution using leidenfrost phenomenon assisted thermal desorption ambient mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Subhrakanti; Mandal, Mridul Kanti; Chen, Lee Chuin; Ninomiya, Satoshi; Shida, Yasuo; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2013-01-01

    The present paper demonstrates the detection of explosives in solution using thermal desorption technique at a temperature higher than Leidenfrost temperature of the solvent in combination with low temperature plasma (LTP) ionization. Leidenfrost temperature of a solvent is the temperature above which the solvent droplet starts levitation instead of splashing when placed on a hot metallic surface. During this desorption process, slow and gentle solvent evaporation takes place, which leads to the pre-concentration of less-volatile explosive molecules in the droplet and the explosive molecules are released at the last moment of droplet evaporation. The limits of detection for explosives studied by using this thermal desorption LTP ionization method varied in a range of 1 to 10 parts per billion (ppb) using a droplet volume of 20 μL (absolute sample amount 90-630 fmol). As LTP ionization method was applied and ion-molecule reactions took place in ambient atmosphere, various ion-molecule adduct species like [M+NO2](-), [M+NO3](-), [M+HCO3](-), [M+HCO4](-) were generated together with [M-H](-) peak. Each peak was unambiguously identified using 'Exactive Orbitrap' mass spectrometer in negative ionization mode within 3 ppm deviation compared to its exact mass. This newly developed technique was successfully applied to detect four explosives contained in the pond water and soil sample with minor sample pre-treatment and the explosives were detected with ppb levels. The present method is simple, rapid and can detect trace levels of explosives with high specificity from solutions.

  14. Materials science for nuclear detection

    OpenAIRE

    Peurrung, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    The increasing importance of nuclear detection technology has led to a variety of research efforts that seek to accelerate the discovery and development of useful new radiation detection materials. These efforts aim to improve our understanding of how these materials perform, develop formalized discovery tools, and enable rapid and effective performance characterization. We provide an overview of these efforts along with an introduction to the history, physics, and taxonomy of radiation detec...

  15. General considerations on fire and explosions in a nuclear facility. Interaction with ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savornin, J.

    1983-05-01

    After a brief survey of French regulations and documents used in defining fire and explosion precautions, a number of fires which have broken out in French nuclear power plants and their effects on ventilation are mentioned. Past or current tests and experiments in France are described, and the provisions made to create computer codes for refining fire safety analysis are presented. The regulations which have been established to reduce the risk of fire or explosion and to contain it without failure of the containment barrier provided by the ventilation system are then given [fr

  16. Characteristics of seismic waves from Soviet peaceful nuclear explosions in salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adushkin, V.V.; Kaazik, P.B.; Kostyuchenko, V.N.; Kuznetsov, O.P.; Nedoshivin, N.I.; Rubinshtein, K.D.; Sultanov, D.D. [Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. for Dynamics of the Geospheres

    1995-04-01

    The report is carried out by the Institute for Dynamics of the Geospheres, Russian Academy of Sciences under contract NB280344 with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California. The work includes investigation of seismic waves generation and propagation from Soviet peaceful underground nuclear explosions in salt based on the data from temporary and permanent seismic stations. The explosions were conducted at the sites Azgir and Vega within the territory of the Caspian depression of the Russian platform. The data used were obtained in the following conditions of conduction: epicentral distance range from 0 to 60 degrees, yields from 1 to 65 kt and depths of burial from 160 to 1500 m.

  17. Automated detection of cavities present in the high explosive filler of artillery shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, R.P.; Janney, D.H.; Breedlove, J.R. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Initial research has been conducted into the use of digital image analysis techniques for automated detection and characterization of piping cavities present in the high explosive (HE) filler region of 105-mm artillery shells. Experimental work utilizing scene segmentation techniques followed by a sequential similarity detection algorithm for cavitation detection have yielded promising initial results. This work is described with examples of computer-detected defects

  18. Nuclear explosives, ionizin.o. radiation and the effects on the biota of the natural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, Vincent; Ward Whicker, F.

    1980-01-01

    After giving a general discussion of nuclear explosives, weapons testing and peaceful use of nuclear explosives under Plowshare project, ecological studies carried out at weapon test sites and Plowshare project sites in United States are reviewed. It is noted that though considerable data are available on the behaviour of radionuclides in natural environments on these sites, only a few observations of effects of ionizing radiations on the biota of the natural environments of these sites have been made. The major effects on the natural environments of these sites have been attributed to physical effects of nuclear detonations and site preparation. These effects are physical destruction of plants and animals and habitat modification such as soil disturbances. Recolonization of ground zeros and adjacent areas is observed to follow the successional pattern unique to the site. Observed effects of ionizing radiation on shrubs in the vicinity of cratering tests appear to be inconsequential when one considers the ecosystem as a whole. (M.G.B.)

  19. Explosives detection through fast-neutron time-of-flight attenuation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overley, J.C.; Chmelik, M.S.; Rasmussen, R.J.; Schofield, R.M.S.; Lefevre, H.W.

    1995-01-01

    Computer simulations have been used to devise an algorithm for detection of explosives in luggage which is based upon measured projected number densities of H, C, N, and O. Other elements are lumped together as projection X. Dependence on luggage-thickness is reduced by normalizing the projection for each element by the total. Normalization constrains projections to a 4-dimensional space. Distributions of nonexplosive (N) and explosive (E) situations are generated by sorting results of simulations into bins in that 4-space. A detection matrix element, given by the ratio E/(N+E) for each bin, is addressed by a measurement. For a realistic distribution of the numbers and types of luggage materials, the plastic explosive RDX, at 10% of suitcase thickness, can be detected in a single pixel with 85% reliability and a false alarm rate of 3%. (orig.)

  20. Thin film sensor materials for detection of Nitro-Aromatic explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdasi, Dipali; Mudhalwadkar, Rohini

    2018-03-01

    Many countries have experienced terrorist activities and innocent people have suffered. Timely detection of explosives can avoid this situation. This paper targets the detection of Nitrobenzene and Nitrotoluene, which are nitroaromatic compounds possessing explosive properties. As direct sensors for detecting these compounds are not available, Polyaniline based thin film sensors doped with palladium are developed using the spin coating technique. The response of the developed sensors is observed for varying concentrations of explosives. It is observed that zinc oxide based sensor is more sensitive to Nitrotoluene exhibiting a relative change in resistance of 0.78. The tungsten oxide sensor is more sensitive to Nitrobenzene with a relative change in resistance of 0.48. The sensor performance is assessed by measuring the response and recovery time. The cross sensitivity of the sensors is evaluated for ethanol, acetone and methanol which was observed as very low.

  1. Detection of explosive substances by tomographic inspection using neutron and gamma-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farahmand, M.; Boston, A.J.; Grint, A.N.; Nolan, P.J.; Joyce, M.J.; Mackin, R.O.; D'Mellow, B.; Aspinall, M.; Peyton, A.J.; Silfhout, R. van

    2007-01-01

    In recent years the detection and identification of hazardous materials has become increasingly important. This work discusses research and development of a technique which is capable of detecting and imaging hidden explosives. It is proposed to utilise neutron interrogation of the substances under investigation facilitating the detection of emitted gamma radiation and scattered neutrons. Pulsed fast neutron techniques are attractive because they can be used to determine the concentrations of the light elements (hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen) which can be the primary components of explosive materials. Using segmented High Purity Ge (HPGe) detectors and digital pulse processing [R.J. Cooper, G. Turk, A.J. Boston, H.C. Boston, J.R. Cresswell, A.R. Mather, P.J. Nolan, C.J. Hall, I. Lazarus, J. Simpson, A. Berry, T. Beveridge, J. Gillam, R.A. Lewis, in: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Position Sensitive Detectors, Nuclear Instruments and Methods A, in press; I. Lazarus, D.E. Appelbe, A. J. Boston, P.J. Coleman-Smith, J.R. Cresswell, M. Descovich, S.A.A. Gros, M. Lauer, J. Norman, C.J. Pearson, V.F.E. Pucknell, J.A. Sampson, G. Turk, J.J. Valiente-Dobon, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., 51 (2004) 1353; R.J. Cooper, A.J. Boston, H.C. Boston, J.R. Cresswell, A.N. Grint, A.R. Mather, P.J. Nolan, D.P. Scraggs, G. Turk, C.J. Hall, I. Lazarus, A. Berry, T. Beveridge, J. Gillam, R.A. Lewis, in: Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Radiation Measurements and Application, 2006. ] the scatter path of incident photons can be reconstructed to determine the origin of the gamma-rays without the need for mechanical collimation by applying the Compton camera principle [V. Schonfelder, A. Hirner, K. Schneider, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 107 (1973) 385; R.W. Todd, J.M. Nightingale, D.B. Everett, Nature 251 (1974) 132. ]. In addition, it is proposed to utilise the scattered neutrons which recoil from the materials being assayed, detecting them with a fast

  2. Risk assessment for transportation of radioactive materials and nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, D.B.; Wilson, R.K.; Hartman, W.F.

    1991-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has the lead technical role for probabilistic risk assessments of transportation of nuclear weapons, components, and special nuclear material in support of the US Department of Energy. The emphasis of the risk assessments is on evaluating the probability of inadvertent disposal of radioactive material and the consequences of such a release. This paper will provide an overview of the methodology being developed for the risk assessment and will discuss the interpretation and use of the results. The advantages and disadvantages of using risk assessment as an alternative to performance-based criteria for packaging will be described. 2 refs., 1 fig

  3. Consideration of impact of atmospheric intrusion in subsurface sampling for investigation of suspected underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowrey, J.D.; Bowyer, T.W.; Haas, D.A.; Hayes, J.C.; Biegalski, S.R.

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive noble gases radioxenon and radioargon constitute the primary smoking gun of an underground nuclear explosion. The aim of subsurface sampling of soil gas as part of an on-site inspection (OSI) is to search for evidence of a suspected underground nuclear event. It has been hypothesized that atmospheric gas can disturb soil gas concentrations and therefore potentially add to problems in civilian source discrimination verifying treaty compliance under the comprehensive nuclear-test ban treaty. This work describes a study of intrusion of atmospheric air into the subsurface and its potential impact on an OSI using results of simulations from the underground transport of environmental xenon (UTEX) model. (author)

  4. Automatic calibration of spectrometer's tracts of installation for detecting of explosive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lajkin, A.I.; Mozhaev, A.N.; Kozlovskij, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    Calibration of the facility, representing the spectrometer and intended for the explosive substances detection on various objects is considered. The above work is based on the method of the neutron-radiation analysis. Brief description of the operational prototype, the basic characteristics, the capturing radiation background spectrum with a sample of the nitrogen-containing substance and the example of the calibration straight line are presented. The method of control sums and advantages of its application at the facilities for the explosive substances detection are considered [ru

  5. Traveling ionospheric disturbances triggered by the 2009 North Korean underground nuclear explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.; Tang, L. [Wuhan Univ. (China). School of Geodesy and Geomatics

    2015-04-01

    Underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) can induce acoustic-gravity waves, which disturb the ionosphere and initiate traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs). In this paper, we employ a multi-step and multi-order numerical difference method with dual-frequency GPS data to detect ionospheric disturbances triggered by the North Korean UNE on 25 May 2009. Several International GNSS Service (IGS) stations with different distances (400 to 1200 km) from the epicenter were chosen for the experiment. The results show that there are two types of disturbances in the ionospheric disturbance series: high-frequency TIDs with periods of approximately 1 to 2 min and low-frequency waves with period spectrums of 2 to 5 min. The observed TIDs are situated around the epicenter of the UNE, and show similar features, indicating the origin of the observed disturbances is the UNE event. According to the amplitudes, periods and average propagation velocities, the high-frequency and low-frequency TIDs can be attributed to the acoustic waves in the lower ionosphere and higher ionosphere, respectively. (orig.)

  6. The Off-Site Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs: Assessing Potential Environmental Liabilities through an Examination of Proposed Nuclear Projects,High Explosive Experiments, and High Explosive Construction Activities Volume 1 of 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck Colleen M,Edwards Susan R.,King Maureen L.

    2011-09-01

    This document presents the results of nearly six years (2002-2008) of historical research and field studies concerned with evaluating potential environmental liabilities associated with U.S. Atomic Energy Commission projects from the Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs. The Plowshare Program's primary purpose was to develop peaceful uses for nuclear explosives. The Vela Uniform Program focused on improving the capability of detecting, monitoring and identifying underground nuclear detonations. As a result of the Project Chariot site restoration efforts in the early 1990s, there were concerns that there might be other project locations with potential environmental liabilities. The Desert Research Institute conducted archival research to identify projects, an analysis of project field activities, and completed field studies at locations where substantial fieldwork had been undertaken for the projects. Although the Plowshare and Vela Uniform nuclear projects are well known, the projects that are included in this research are relatively unknown. They are proposed nuclear projects that were not executed, proposed and executed high explosive experiments, and proposed and executed high explosive construction activities off the Nevada Test Site. The research identified 170 Plowshare and Vela Uniform off-site projects and many of these had little or no field activity associated with them. However, there were 27 projects that merited further investigation and field studies were conducted at 15 locations.

  7. The Off-Site Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs: Assessing Potential Environmental Liabilities through an Examination of Proposed Nuclear Projects,High Explosive Experiments, and High Explosive Construction Activities Volume 2 of 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck Colleen M.,Edwards Susan R.,King Maureen L.

    2011-09-01

    This document presents the results of nearly six years (2002-2008) of historical research and field studies concerned with evaluating potential environmental liabilities associated with U.S. Atomic Energy Commission projects from the Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs. The Plowshare Program's primary purpose was to develop peaceful uses for nuclear explosives. The Vela Uniform Program focused on improving the capability of detecting, monitoring and identifying underground nuclear detonations. As a result of the Project Chariot site restoration efforts in the early 1990s, there were concerns that there might be other project locations with potential environmental liabilities. The Desert Research Institute conducted archival research to identify projects, an analysis of project field activities, and completed field studies at locations where substantial fieldwork had been undertaken for the projects. Although the Plowshare and Vela Uniform nuclear projects are well known, the projects that are included in this research are relatively unknown. They are proposed nuclear projects that were not executed, proposed and executed high explosive experiments, and proposed and executed high explosive construction activities off the Nevada Test Site. The research identified 170 Plowshare and Vela Uniform off-site projects and many of these had little or no field activity associated with them. However, there were 27 projects that merited further investigation and field studies were conducted at 15 locations.

  8. The Off-Site Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs: Assessing Potential Environmental Liabilities through an Examination of Proposed Nuclear Projects,High Explosive Experiments, and High Explosive Construction Activities Volume 3 of 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck Colleen M.,Edwards Susan R.,King Maureen L.

    2011-09-01

    This document presents the results of nearly six years (2002-2008) of historical research and field studies concerned with evaluating potential environmental liabilities associated with U.S. Atomic Energy Commission projects from the Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs. The Plowshare Program's primary purpose was to develop peaceful uses for nuclear explosives. The Vela Uniform Program focused on improving the capability of detecting, monitoring and identifying underground nuclear detonations. As a result of the Project Chariot site restoration efforts in the early 1990s, there were concerns that there might be other project locations with potential environmental liabilities. The Desert Research Institute conducted archival research to identify projects, an analysis of project field activities, and completed field studies at locations where substantial fieldwork had been undertaken for the projects. Although the Plowshare and Vela Uniform nuclear projects are well known, the projects that are included in this research are relatively unknown. They are proposed nuclear projects that were not executed, proposed and executed high explosive experiments, and proposed and executed high explosive construction activities off the Nevada Test Site. The research identified 170 Plowshare and Vela Uniform off-site projects and many of these had little or no field activity associated with them. However, there were 27 projects that merited further investigation and field studies were conducted at 15 locations.

  9. Refinement of parameters of weak nuclear explosions conducted at the Semipalatinsk test site on the basis of historical seismograms study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Inna

    2014-05-01

    Many researchers working in the field of monitoring and discriminating of nuclear tests encounter the problem of lacking in seismic catalogues the information about source parameters for weak nuclear explosions. As usual, the information about origin time, coordinates and magnitude is absent, there is information about date, approximate coordinates and information about explosion yield. Huge work conducted on recovery of parameters of small underground nuclear explosions conducted at the Semipalatinsk Test Site using records of analogue seismic stations of the USSR located at regional distances was conducted by V. Khalturin, T. Rayutian, P. Richards (Pure and Applied Geophysics, 2001). However, if underground nuclear explosions are studied and described in literature quite well, then air and contact explosions were small and were not recorded by standard permanent seismic stations. In 1961-1962 maximum number of air and contact explosions was conducted at Opytnoye polye site of the STS. We managed to find and analyze additional seismic data from some temporary and permanent stations. That time IPE AS USSR installed a network of high-sensitive stations along Pamir-Baykal profile to study earth crust structure and upper mantle, the profile length was 3500 km. Epicentral distance from some stations of the profile to Opytnoye polye was 300-400 km. In addition, a permanent seismic station Semipalatinsk (SEM) located 175 km away from the site started its operation. The seismograms from this station became available recently. The digitized historical seismograms allowed to recover and add parameters for more than 36 air and surface explosions. Origin time, coordinates, magnitudes mpv, MLV and energy class K were determined for explosions. A regional travel-time curve for Central Kazakhstan constructed using records of calibration chemical explosions conducted at the STS in 1997-2000 and ground-truth underground nuclear explosions was used to determine kinematic parameters

  10. Smoke production from multiple nuclear explosions in nonurban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, R.D.; Bush, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    The amount of smoke that may be produced by wildland or rural fires as a consequence of a large-scale nuclear exchange is estimated. The calculation is based on a compilation of rural military facilities, identified from a wide variety of unclassified sources, together with data on their geographic positions, surrounding vegetation (fuel), and weather conditions. The ignition area (corrected for fuel moisture) and the amount of fire spread are used to calculate the smoke production. The results show a substantially lower estimated smoke production (from wildland fires) than in earlier nuclear winter studies. The amount varies seasonally and at its peak is less by an order of magnitude than the estimated threshold level necessary for a major attenuation of solar radiation. 32 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  11. Design and construction of an explosive detection system by Tna methods, using 252Cf radioisotope source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavakkoli Farsouli, A.

    1999-01-01

    Bombs concealed in luggage have threatened human life and property throughout the world's traffic. The plastic explosives could not checked by the X-ray detecting device. Thermal Neutron Activation method has been tested in the present work for non-destructive detection of explosives. A radioisotope neutron source 252 Cf and two gamma spectroscopy systems have been used as a tool to find explosives, regardless of the bomb's shape and the packing materials. The MCNP code has been used to design the neutronic section of the system. The measured thermal neutron fluxes by the gold foils in some location of the system were in good agreement with those data obtained by the MCNP code. Also, detection limits for nitrogen in various counting times were measured. The measurements show that the system is capable to detect 417 gr of HMX explosive material (158 gr nitrogen) by 10 minutes of counting time. To modify the system and to decrease the detection limits some opinions are given

  12. Prohibiting and Preventing Nuclear Explosions: Background Information for Parliamentarians on the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-07-01

    The object and purpose of the CTBT is to ban comprehensively nuclear weapon test explosions and any other nuclear explosion in any environment in an effectively verifiable manner. The CTBT aims at eliminating nuclear weapons by constraining the development and qualitative improvement of new or more advanced nuclear weapons. It plays a crucial role in the prevention of nuclear proliferation and in nuclear disarmament, thus contributing to a safer and more secure world. When the Treaty enters into force it will establish a treaty-implementing body (the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO)), including an on-site inspection mechanism and confidence-building measures as well as an International Monitoring System (IMS) and International Data Centre (IDC). The IMS and IDC are already being created and are being provisionally operated during the preparatory phase by the Preparatory Commission for the CTBTO and its Provisional Technical Secretariat in Vienna. Seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide data are collected through the stations of the IMS and transmitted to Member States via the IDC. The IDC also processes the raw data received from the stations to derive objective products and services which will support the Treaty verification responsibilities. If the collected and analysed data indicate an ambiguous event, States may address concerns about possible noncompliance with the Treaty through a consultation and clarification process after it enters into force and may request an on-site inspection by the CTBTO.

  13. DELFIC-TES, Gamma Doses from Nuclear Explosion Radioactive Clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: DELFIC-TES computes the transit gamma exposure from the airborne cloud resulting from a nuclear burst for fixed targets located on or above the earth's surface. 2 - Method of solution - The system is based on a method of producing 'snapshots' of the moving cloud of airborne particles during the transport process of DELFIC. Each particle in each snapshot is then assigned an activity and these data are used to calculate transit exposure by employing an energy-dependent buildup factor technique

  14. A Study of Storage Ring Requirements for an Explosive Detection System Using NRA Method.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T. F. (Tai-Sen F.); Kwan, T. J. T. (Thomas J. T.)

    2005-01-01

    The technical feasibility of an explosives detection system based on the nuclear resonance absorption (NRA) of gamma rays in nitrogen-rich materials was demonstrated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 1993 by using an RFQ proton accelerator and a tomographic imaging prototype. The study is being continued recently to examine deployment of such an active interrogation system in realistic scenarios. The approach is to use an accelerator and electron-cooling-equipped storage rings(s) to provide the high quality and high current proton beam needed in a practical application. In this work, we investigate the requirements on the storage ring(s) with external gamma-ray-production target for a variant of the airport luggage inspection system considered in the earlier LANL experiments. Estimations are carried out based on the required inspection throughput, the gamma ray yield, the proton beam emittance growth due to scatters with the photon-production target, beam current limit in the storage ring, and the electron-cooling rate. Studies using scaling and reasonable parameter values indicate that it is possible to use no more than a few storage rings per inspection station in a practical NRA luggage inspection complex having more than ten inspection stations.

  15. Proceedings for the symposium on public health aspects of peaceful uses of nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1969-07-01

    The Southwestern Radiological Health Laboratory is very pleased to have sponsored this Symposium on the Public Health Aspects of the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Explosives. The primary purpose of the Symposium was to disseminate and document current information and data on the public health aspects of this promising new technical field. In addition, it served to identify potential problem areas, stimulated discussion, and provided an opportunity for exchange of ideas and rapport between and among various individuals and groups sharing interests in various facets of Plowshare technology. These proceedings should serve these objectives and provide a resource of relevant information which may be used to evaluate what is presently known and unknown in the public health and safety area of the technology for peaceful applications of nuclear explosives.

  16. Study of the mineralogical transformations of granite by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, Jean

    1970-01-01

    The object of the following communication is to prove new data about the petrographic effects of the underground nuclear explosions. It is founded on the results of trench tests in granite rock. The samples are collected by drilling and the temperature of the rock was measured in the hole. Four types of melted rocks can be sorted, grey-green glass and pumices, beige to red-brown pumices, dark lavas, dark veinlets and crushed granite. The distribution of these rocks is studied. Optical microscopy, X-rays and chemical analysis, study by electron probe, are made. The results complete previously published data. They are interesting as far as the use of nuclear explosions for industrial applications is concerned. (author)

  17. Proceedings for the symposium on public health aspects of peaceful uses of nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    The Southwestern Radiological Health Laboratory is very pleased to have sponsored this Symposium on the Public Health Aspects of the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Explosives. The primary purpose of the Symposium was to disseminate and document current information and data on the public health aspects of this promising new technical field. In addition, it served to identify potential problem areas, stimulated discussion, and provided an opportunity for exchange of ideas and rapport between and among various individuals and groups sharing interests in various facets of Plowshare technology. These proceedings should serve these objectives and provide a resource of relevant information which may be used to evaluate what is presently known and unknown in the public health and safety area of the technology for peaceful applications of nuclear explosives

  18. Study of the mineralogical transformations of granite by underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faure, Jean [Commissariat a I' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes de Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France)

    1970-05-15

    The object of the following communication is to prove new data about the petrographic effects of the underground nuclear explosions. It is founded on the results of trench tests in granite rock. The samples are collected by drilling and the temperature of the rock was measured in the hole. Four types of melted rocks can be sorted, grey-green glass and pumices, beige to red-brown pumices, dark lavas, dark veinlets and crushed granite. The distribution of these rocks is studied. Optical microscopy, X-rays and chemical analysis, study by electron probe, are made. The results complete previously published data. They are interesting as far as the use of nuclear explosions for industrial applications is concerned. (author)

  19. Yield Estimation for Semipalatinsk Underground Nuclear Explosions Using Seismic Surface-wave Observations at Near-regional Distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adushkin, V. V.

    - A statistical procedure is described for estimating the yields of underground nuclear tests at the former Soviet Semipalatinsk test site using the peak amplitudes of short-period surface waves observed at near-regional distances (Δ Semipalatinsk explosions, including the Soviet JVE explosion of September 14, 1988, and it is demonstrated that it provides seismic estimates of explosion yield which are typically within 20% of the yields determined for these same explosions using more accurate, non-seismic techniques based on near-source observations.

  20. Ionospheric disturbances due to underground nuclear explosions and other sources: an elementary discussion, Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouters, L.F.

    1971-01-01

    The possible effect of verticle ground surface motion on the ionosphere, as a consequence of acoustic propagation, is discussed. Estimates of R. F. phase path perturbations are developed for several representative sources and several propagative modes (both terrestrial and atmospheric). In particular, amplitude models for ionospheric density perturbations are used. The discrimination of earth quakes and nuclear explosive disturbances is considered and some detailed properties of the extended atmosphere are described. A list of references is provided. (U.S.)

  1. Peaceful nuclear explosions as a provocation and tasks of international organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welck, S. Freiherr von

    1975-01-01

    First there is a brief survey on how to make use of peaceful nuclear explosions and on the present state of technological development. Before their use on an international level materializes, a number of political, technical, legal, and ecological problems have to be solved at least provisionally. The extent to which international organizations can help to find these solutions is examined in detail. (HP/LN) [de

  2. Comparison of the inelastic response of steel building frames to strong earthquake and underground nuclear explosion ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.C.; Tokarz, F.J.

    1976-01-01

    Analytic studies were made of the adequacy of simulating earthquake effects at the Nevada Test Site for structural testing purposes. It is concluded that underground nuclear explosion ground motion will produce inelastic behavior and damage comparable to that produced by strong earthquakes. The generally longer duration of earthquakes compared with underground nuclear explosions does not appear to significantly affect the structural behavior of the building frames considered. A comparison of maximum ductility ratios, maximum story drifts, and maximum displacement indicate similar structural behavior for both types of ground motion. Low yield (10 - kt) underground nuclear explosions are capable of producing inelastic behavior in large structures. Ground motion produced by underground nuclear explosions can produce inelastic earthquake-like effects in large structures and could be used for testing large structures in the inelastic response regime. The Nevada Test Site is a feasible earthquake simulator for testing large structures

  3. Determination of Peroxide-Based Explosives Using Liquid Chromatography with On-Line Infrared Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulte-Ladbeck, Rasmus; Edelmann, Andrea; Quintas, Guillermo; Lendl, Bernhard; Karst, U.

    2006-01-01

    A nondestructive analytical method for peroxide-based explosives determination in solid samples is described. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography in combination with on-line Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) detection is used for the analysis of triacetonetriperoxide (TATP) and

  4. Xsense: using nanotechnology to combine detection methods for high sensitivity handheld explosives detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk; Kostesha, Natalie; Bosco, Filippo

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to produce a handheld explosives sensor the Xsense project has been initiated at the Technical University of Denmark in collaboration with a number of partners. Using micro- and nano technological approaches it will be attempted to integrate four detection principles into a single de...

  5. Standoff Detection of Explosives at 1 m using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Junjuri, R.; Myakalwar, A.K.; Gundawar, M.K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 6 (2017), s. 623-630 ISSN 0011-748X Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy * Multivariate analysis * Principal component analysis * Explosive detection Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation OBOR OECD: Electrical and electronic engineering Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2016

  6. Automated detection and cataloging of global explosive volcanism using the International Monitoring System infrasound network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoza, Robin S.; Green, David N.; Le Pichon, Alexis; Shearer, Peter M.; Fee, David; Mialle, Pierrick; Ceranna, Lars

    2017-04-01

    We experiment with a new method to search systematically through multiyear data from the International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound network to identify explosive volcanic eruption signals originating anywhere on Earth. Detecting, quantifying, and cataloging the global occurrence of explosive volcanism helps toward several goals in Earth sciences and has direct applications in volcanic hazard mitigation. We combine infrasound signal association across multiple stations with source location using a brute-force, grid-search, cross-bearings approach. The algorithm corrects for a background prior rate of coherent unwanted infrasound signals (clutter) in a global grid, without needing to screen array processing detection lists from individual stations prior to association. We develop the algorithm using case studies of explosive eruptions: 2008 Kasatochi, Alaska; 2009 Sarychev Peak, Kurile Islands; and 2010 Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland. We apply the method to global IMS infrasound data from 2005-2010 to construct a preliminary acoustic catalog that emphasizes sustained explosive volcanic activity (long-duration signals or sequences of impulsive transients lasting hours to days). This work represents a step toward the goal of integrating IMS infrasound data products into global volcanic eruption early warning and notification systems. Additionally, a better understanding of volcanic signal detection and location with the IMS helps improve operational event detection, discrimination, and association capabilities.

  7. Explosive cutting techniques for dismantling of concrete structures in a nuclear power station following decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, H.U.; Fleischer, C.C.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the work that has been jointly carried out, based on a common and complementary research programme, by the Battelle Institut e.V., Frankfurt and Taylor Woodrow Construction Ltd., Southall, on the controlled use of explosives for the cutting and safe removal of activated and contaminated parts of nuclear facilities without impairing the overall structural integrity. Previous work had demonstrated the feasibility of using explosive techniques for the stripping off of an equivalent thickness of concrete, for radiation protection, from the inside walls of nuclear facilities. The present research work aims at complementing, improving and optimizing the foregoing work. Extensive investigations have been executed on the adjustment of blasting parameters, material and structural effects, drilling techniques, particle distribution and on procedures for remote handling. The report presents the results obtained from field trials and theoretical analysis undertaken to augment the development programme. It concludes that the controlled use of explosives offers a safe and favourable dismantling technique for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities

  8. Receiver Operating Characteristic Analysis for Detecting Explosives-related Threats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxley, Mark E; Venzin, Alexander M

    2012-11-14

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) are interested in developing a standardized testing procedure for determining the performance of candidate detection systems. This document outlines a potential method for judging detection system performance as well as determining if combining the information from a legacy system with a new system can signicantly improve performance. In this document, performance corresponds to the Neyman-Pearson criterion applied to the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves of the detection systems in question. A simulation was developed to investigate how the amount of data provided by the vendor in the form of the ROC curve eects the performance of the combined detection system. Furthermore, the simulation also takes into account the potential eects of correlation and how this information can also impact the performance of the combined system.

  9. Ultrasensitive detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents by low-pressure photoionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wanqi; Liang, Miao; Li, Zhen; Shu, Jinian; Yang, Bo; Xu, Ce; Zou, Yao

    2016-08-15

    On-spot monitoring of threat agents needs high sensitive instrument. In this study, a low-pressure photoionization mass spectrometer (LPPI-MS) was employed to detect trace amounts of vapor-phase explosives and chemical warfare agent mimetics under ambient conditions. Under 10-s detection time, the limits of detection of 2,4-dinitrotoluene, nitrotoluene, nitrobenzene, and dimethyl methyl phosphonate were 30, 0.5, 4, and 1 parts per trillion by volume, respectively. As compared to those obtained previously with PI mass spectrometric techniques, an improvement of 3-4 orders of magnitude was achieved. This study indicates that LPPI-MS will open new opportunities for the sensitive detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Explosive and chemical threat detection by surface-enhanced Raman scattering: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hakonen, Aron; Andersson, Per Ola; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk

    2015-01-01

    Acts of terror and warfare threats are challenging tasks for defense agencies around the world and of growing importance to security conscious policy makers and the general public. Explosives and chemical warfare agents are two of the major concerns in this context, as illustrated by the recent...... progressively better, smaller and cheaper, and can today be acquired for a retail price close to 10,000 US$. This contribution aims to give a comprehensive overview of SERS as a technique for detection of explosives and chemical threats. We discuss the prospects of SERS becoming a major tool for convenient in......-situ threat identification and we summarize existing SERS detection methods and substrates with particular focus on ultra-sensitive real-time detection. General concepts, detection capabilities and perspectives are discussed in order to guide potential users of the technique for homeland security and anti-warfare...

  11. Assessing Miniaturized Sensor Performance using Supervised Learning, with Application to Drug and Explosive Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne

    of sensors, as the sensors are designed to provide robust and reliable measurements. That means, the sensors are designed to have repeated measurement clusters. Sensor fusion is presented for the sensor based on chemoselective compounds. An array of color changing compounds are handled and in unity they make......This Ph.D. thesis titled “Assessing Miniaturized Sensor Performance using Supervised Learning, with Application to Drug and Explosive Detection” is a part of the strategic research project “Miniaturized sensors for explosives detection in air” funded by the Danish Agency for Science and Technology...... emanated by explosives and drugs, similar to an electronic nose. To evaluate sensor responses a data processing and evaluation pipeline is required. The work presented herein focuses on the feature extraction, feature representation and sensor accuracy. Thus the primary aim of this thesis is twofold...

  12. Explosion and detonation of ozone in mixtures with carrier gases employed in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weh, M.M.L.

    1988-09-01

    Explosive ozone is known to be formed during low temperature radiolysis of oxygen. Detailed knowledge on the explosion and the detonation of ozone is therefore required for safety considerations of nuclear installations such as proposed for the cryogenic separation of 85 krypton from the head end off gas of a reprocessing plant. The explosion properties of gaseous ozone in mixtures with oxygen, nitrogen, helium, argon, krypton, xenon and difluorodichloromethane were studied by varying the ozone concentration, the initial pressure and the shape of the vessel containing the gas. Detonation velocities were determined for gaseous mixtures of ozone with oxygen, argon, krypton or xenon as functions of the ozone concentration. In addition, the initial pressure was varied for ozone-xenon mixtures. The effect of a packing such as used in the 85 Kr-separation plant 'KRETA' in KfK on ozone-xenon detonation was investigated. In addition, the effect of low amounts of carbon monoxide, methane and nitrogen dioxide on the explosion (O 3 /Ar) and the detonation (O 3 /Xe) of an ozone-noble gas mixture was determined. (orig.) [de

  13. The study of steam explosions in nuclear systems. Advanced Reactor Severe Accident Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theofanous, T.G.; Yuen, W.W.; Angelini, S.; Chen, X.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the steam explosion issue in nuclear reactor safety and our approach to assessing it. Key physics, models, and computational tools are described, and illustrative results are presented for ex-vessel steam explosions in an open pool geometry. An extensive set of appendices facilitate access to previously reported work that is an integral part of this effort. These appendices include key developments in our approach, key advances in our understanding from physical and numerical experiments, and details of the most advanced computational results presented in this report. Of major significance are the following features: A consistent two-dimensional treatment for both premixing and propagation which in practical settings are ostensibly at least two-dimensional phenomena; experimental demonstration of voiding and microinteractions which represent key behaviors in premixing and propagation respectively; demonstration of the explosion venting phenomena in open pool geometries which, therefore, can be counted on as a very important mitigative feature; and introduction of the idea of penetration cutoff as a key mechanism prohibiting large-scale premixing in usual ex-vessel situations involving high pour velocities and subcooled pools. This report is intended as an overview and is to be followed by code manuals for PM-ALPHA and ESPROSE.m, respective verification reports, and application documents for reactor-specific applications. The applications will employ the Risk Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology (ROAAM) to address the safety importance of potential steam explosions phenomena in evaluated severe accidents for passive Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs)

  14. A Photoluminescence-Based Field Method for Detection of Traces of Explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Roland Menzel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a photoluminescence-based field method for detecting traces of explosives. In its standard version, the method utilizes a commercially available color spot test kit for treating explosive traces on filter paper after swabbing. The colored products are fluorescent under illumination with a laser that operates on three C-size flashlight batteries and delivers light at 532 nm. In the fluorescence detection mode, by visual inspection, the typical sensitivity gain is a factor of 100. The method is applicable to a wide variety of explosives. In its time-resolved version, intended for in situ work, explosives are tagged with europium complexes. Instrumentation-wise, the time-resolved detection, again visual, can be accomplished in facile fashion. The europium luminescence excitation utilizes a laser operating at 355 nm. We demonstrate the feasibility of CdSe quantum dot sensitization of europium luminescence for time-resolved purposes. This would allow the use of the above 532 nm laser.

  15. Trace detection of explosive materials in air cargo containers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jezierska, M.M.; Spreen, J.S.; Ruiter, J.C. de; Koomen, G.C.M.; Slegt, M.

    2011-01-01

    At the request of the National Coordinator for Counterterrorism in the Netherlands a research project called “Security through innovation - risk-oriented detection in a drive-through set-up” has been carried out by TNO Defense, Security and Safety (TNO) and by Dutch Customs. In 2009 and 2010, a

  16. Radiological investigations at the 'Taiga' nuclear explosion site: Site description and in situ measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramzaev, V., E-mail: V.Ramzaev@mail.ru [Institute of Radiation Hygiene, Mira str. 8, 197101 St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Repin, V.; Medvedev, A.; Khramtsov, E.; Timofeeva, M.; Yakovlev, V. [Institute of Radiation Hygiene, Mira str. 8, 197101 St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-15

    In the summer of 2009, we performed a field survey of the 'Taiga' peaceful underground nuclear explosion site, the Perm region, Russia (61.30{sup o} N, 56.60{sup o} E). The explosion was carried out by the USSR in 1971. This paper provides an extended summary of the available published data on the 'Taiga' experiment. A detailed description of the site is illustrated by original aerial and ground-level photos. A large artificial lake (700 m long and 350 m wide) currently occupies the central area of the experimental site. The ground lip surrounding the lake is covered by a newly grown mixed forest. In situ measurements, performed in August 2009, revealed elevated levels of the {gamma}-ray dose rate in air on the banks of the lake 'Taiga'. Two hot spots were detected on the eastern bank of the lake. The excess of the {gamma}-ray radiation is attributable to the man-made radionuclides {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs. The current external {gamma}-ray dose rate to a human from the contaminations associated with the 'Taiga' experiment was between 9 and 70 {mu}Sv per week. Periodic monitoring the site is recommended. - Highlights: > We studied a radiation anomaly at the 'Taiga' underground nuclear explosion site. > The anomaly currently has an area of approximately 1 km{sup 2}. > The excess of {gamma}-ray radiation at the site is mainly attributable to {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs. > The external effective dose may currently exceed the negligible value of 10 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}.

  17. Modeling the Propagation of Atmospheric Gravity Waves Produced by an Underground Nuclear Explosion using the Transfer Function Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruntz, R. J.; Mayr, H. G.; Paxton, L. J.

    2017-12-01

    We will present results from the Transfer Function Model (TFM), which simulates the neutral atmosphere, from 0 to 700 km, across the entire globe (pole to pole). The TFM is able to rapidly calculate the density and temperature perturbations created by a localized impulse. We have used TFM to simulate a ground-level explosion (equivalent to an underground nuclear explosion (UNE)) and its effects on the neutral atmosphere, including the propagation of gravity waves up to ionospheric heights. At ionospheric altitudes ion-neutral interactions are expected to lead to perturbations in the electron density. These perturbations can be observed as changes in the total electron content (TEC), a feature readily observed by the globally distributed network of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) sensors. We will discuss the time and location of the maximum atmospheric disturbances at a number of altitudes, including the peaks of several ionospheric layers, including the F2 layer, which is often treated as the major driver of changes in GNSS-TEC observations. We will also examine the drop-off of atmospheric disturbances at those altitudes, both with increasing time and distance. The 6 known underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) by North Korea in the 21st century have sparked increased interest in UNE detection through atmospheric and ionospheric observations. The latest test by North Korea (3 Sept. 2017) was the largest UNE in over 2 decades. We will compare TFM results to the analysis of previous UNEs, including some tests by North Korea, and discuss possible confounding factors in predicting the time, location, and amplitude of atmospheric and ionospheric disturbances produced by a UNE.

  18. Neutron-based techniques for detection of explosives and drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiraly, B.; Olah, L.; Csikai, J. E-mail: csikai@falcon.phys.klte.hu

    2001-06-01

    Systematic measurements were carried out on the possible use of elastically backscattered Pu-Be neutrons combined with the thermal neutron reflection method for the identification of land mines and illicit drugs via he detection of H, C, N, and O elements as their major constituents. While ur present results show that these methods are capable of indicating the anomalies in bulky materials and observation of the major elements, e termination of the exact atom fractions needs further investigation.

  19. Neutron-based techniques for detection of explosives and drugs

    CERN Document Server

    Kiraly, B; Csikai, J

    2001-01-01

    Systematic measurements were carried out on the possible use of elastically backscattered Pu-Be neutrons combined with the thermal neutron reflection method for the identification of land mines and illicit drugs via he detection of H, C, N, and O elements as their major constituents. While ur present results show that these methods are capable of indicating the anomalies in bulky materials and observation of the major elements, e termination of the exact atom fractions needs further investigation.

  20. Chemical Microsensors For Detection Of Explosives And Chemical Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoguang; Swanson, Basil I.

    2001-11-13

    An article of manufacture is provided including a substrate having an oxide surface layer and a layer of a cyclodextrin derivative chemically bonded to said substrate, said layer of a cyclodextrin derivative adapted for the inclusion of selected compounds, e.g., nitro-containing organic compounds, therewith. Such an article can be a chemical microsensor capable of detecting a resultant mass change from inclusion of the nitro-containing organic compound.

  1. Monte Carlo design of a system for the detection of explosive materials and analysis of the dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez A, P. L.; Medina C, D.; Rodriguez I, J. L.; Salas L, M. A.; Vega C, H. R.

    2015-10-01

    The problems associated with insecurity and terrorism have forced to designing systems for detecting nuclear materials, drugs and explosives that are installed on roads, ports and airports. Organic materials are composed of C, H, O and N; similarly the explosive materials are manufactured which can be distinguished by the concentration of these elements. Its elemental composition, particularly the concentration of hydrogen and oxygen, allow distinguish them from other organic substances. When these materials are irradiated with neutrons nuclear reactions (n, γ) are produced, where the emitted photons are ready gamma rays whose energy is characteristic of each element and its abundance allows estimating their concentration. The aim of this study was designed using Monte Carlo methods a system with neutron source, gamma rays detector and moderator able to distinguish the presence of Rdx and urea. In design were used as moderators: paraffin, light water, polyethylene and graphite; as detectors were used HPGe and the NaI(Tl). The design that showed the best performance was the moderator of light water and HPGe, with a source of 241 AmBe. For this design, the values of ambient dose equivalent around the system were calculated. (Author)

  2. ISC origin times for announced and presumed underground nuclear explosions at several test sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodean, H.C.

    1979-01-01

    Announced data for US and French underground nuclear explosions indicate that nearly all detonations have occurred within one or two tenths of a second after the minute. This report contains ISC origin-time data for announced explosions at two US test sites and one French test site, and includes similar data for presumed underground nuclear explosions at five Soviet sites. Origin-time distributions for these sites are analyzed for those events that appeared to be detonated very close to the minute. Particular attention is given to the origin times for the principal US and Soviet test sites in Nevada and Eastern Kazakhstan. The mean origin times for events at the several test sites range from 0.4 s to 2.8 s before the minute, with the earlier mean times associated with the Soviet sites and the later times with the US and French sites. These times indicate lower seismic velocities beneath the US and French sites, and higher velocities beneath the sites in the USSR 9 figures, 8 tables

  3. SWAN - Detection of explosives by means of fast neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gierlik, M., E-mail: m.gierlik@ncbj.gov.pl; Borsuk, S.; Guzik, Z.; Iwanowska, J.; Kaźmierczak, Ł.; Korolczuk, S.; Kozłowski, T.; Krakowski, T.; Marcinkowski, R.; Swiderski, L.; Szeptycka, M.; Szewiński, J.; Urban, A.

    2016-10-21

    In this work we report on SWAN, the experimental, portable device for explosives detection. The device was created as part of the EU Structural Funds Project “Accelerators & Detectors” (POIG.01.01.02-14-012/08-00), with the goal to increase beneficiary's expertise and competencies in the field of neutron activation analysis. Previous experiences and budged limitations lead toward a less advanced design based on fast neutron interactions and unsophisticated data analysis with the emphasis on the latest gamma detection and spectrometry solutions. The final device has been designed as a portable, fast neutron activation analyzer, with the software optimized for detection of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. SWAN's performance in the role of explosives detector is elaborated in this paper. We demonstrate that the unique features offered by neutron activation analysis might not be impressive enough when confronted with practical demands and expectations of a generic homeland security customer.

  4. SWAN - Detection of explosives by means of fast neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierlik, M.; Borsuk, S.; Guzik, Z.; Iwanowska, J.; Kaźmierczak, Ł.; Korolczuk, S.; Kozłowski, T.; Krakowski, T.; Marcinkowski, R.; Swiderski, L.; Szeptycka, M.; Szewiński, J.; Urban, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we report on SWAN, the experimental, portable device for explosives detection. The device was created as part of the EU Structural Funds Project “Accelerators & Detectors” (POIG.01.01.02-14-012/08-00), with the goal to increase beneficiary's expertise and competencies in the field of neutron activation analysis. Previous experiences and budged limitations lead toward a less advanced design based on fast neutron interactions and unsophisticated data analysis with the emphasis on the latest gamma detection and spectrometry solutions. The final device has been designed as a portable, fast neutron activation analyzer, with the software optimized for detection of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. SWAN's performance in the role of explosives detector is elaborated in this paper. We demonstrate that the unique features offered by neutron activation analysis might not be impressive enough when confronted with practical demands and expectations of a generic homeland security customer.

  5. The use of triangle diagram in the detection of explosive and illicit drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudac, Davorin; Baricevic, Martina; Obhodas, Jasmina; Franulovic, Andrej; Valkovic, Vladivoj

    2010-04-01

    A tagged neutron inspection system has been used for the detection of explosive and illicite drugs. Simulant of the RDX explosive was measured in different environments and its gamma ray spectra were compared with the gamma ray spectra of benign materials like paper, sugar and rise. "Fingerprint" of the RDX simulant was found by detecting the nitrogen as well as by making the triangle plot which coordinates show the carbon and oxygen content and density. Density was obtained by measuring the intensity of the transmited tagged neutrons. Hence, the presence of the simulant can be confirmed by using two different methods. The possibility of using the triangle plot for detection of illicit drugs like heroin, cocain and marihuana is also discused.

  6. Initial approaches to the establishment of a Russian data bank on nuclear explosions and compatibility with similar foreign data banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izrael, Y.A.; Ognev, B.I.; Ryaboshapko, A.G.; Stukin, E.D.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear-weapons tests and peaceful nuclear explosions, which had been conducted over the territory of the former USSR for 40 years, enabled the collection of a huge volume of information about the explosion parameters and radioactive contamination of natural environments. Presently, the information is being shared by various institutions that too part in the nuclear tests. The information is generally used for solving individual applied problems related to the studies of the consequences of nuclear tests. The relevant computerized data banks, which are being set up, are of an applied nature, i.e., they are oriented towards a limited number of applied programs. A unified Russian computer-aided information system on this problem does not exist. At the same time, the recently heightened public concern about medico-radiological, radioactivity and environmental consequences of nuclear explosions requires that the range of applied problems, which were not planned previously, should be expanded. (orig./GL)

  7. Explosives and chemical warfare agents - detection and analysis with PTR-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulzer, Philipp; Juerschik, Simone; Jaksch, Stefan; Jordan, Alfons; Hanel, Gernot; Hartungen, Eugen; Seehauser, Hans; Maerk, Lukas; Haidacher, Stefan; Schottkowsky, Ralf [IONICON Analytik GmbH, Innsbruck (Austria); Petersson, Fredrik [Institut fuer Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik, Leopold-Franzens Universitaet Innsbruck (Austria); Maerk, Tilmann [IONICON Analytik GmbH, Innsbruck (Austria); Institut fuer Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik, Leopold-Franzens Universitaet Innsbruck (Austria)

    2010-07-01

    We utilized a recently developed high sensitivity PTR-MS instrument equipped with a high resolution time-of-flight mass analyzer for detailed investigations on explosives and chemical warfare agents (CWAs). We show that with this so called PTR-TOF 8000 it is possible to identify solid explosives (RDX, TNT, HMX, PETN and Semtex A) by analyzing the headspace above small quantities of samples at room temperature and from trace quantities not visible to the naked eye placed on surfaces. As the mentioned solid explosives possess very low vapor pressures, the main challenge for detecting them in the gas phase is to provide an instrument with a sufficient sensitivity. CWAs on the other side have very high vapor pressures but are difficult to identify unambiguously as their nominal molecular masses are usually comparably small and therefore hard to distinguish from harmless everyday-compounds (e.g. mustard gas: 159 g/mol). In the present work we demonstrate that we can detect a broad range of dangerous substances, ranging from the CWA mustard gas to the explosive HMX.

  8. A safety evaluation of fire and explosion in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Gunji; Takada, Junichi; Tukamoto, Michio; Watanabe, Kouji; Miyata, Teijirou

    1996-01-01

    The demonstration test was performed in JAERI to prove the adequacy of a safety evaluation for an air-ventilation system in the case of solvent fire and red-oil explosion in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The test objectives were to obtain data of the safety evaluation on a thermofluid behavior and a confinement effect of radioactive materials during fire and explosion while the system is operating in a cell. The computer code was developed to evaluate the safety of associated network in the ventilation system and to estimate the confinement of radioactive materials in the system. The code was verified by comparison of code calculations with results of the demonstration test. (author)

  9. Search for evidence of nuclear involvement in the fatal explosion of a 'cold fusion' experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, P.M.; Whipple, R.E.; Andresen, B.D.; Russo, R.E.; Bazan, F.; Brunk, J.L.; Wong, K.M.

    1995-01-01

    Forensic analyses of debris from the fatal explosion of an electrochemical 'cold fusion' cell at SRI International were conducted at LLNL at the request of Cal-OSHA. One investigation focused on the possibility of conventional nuclear reaction mechanisms contributing to the total energy inventory of the incident. Selected metal components of the electrolysis apparatus were subjected to nondestructive γ-ray spectrometry with high-sensitivity, low-background Ge detector systems. The anticipated analytes in these studies were radioactivation products potentially induced in the explosion residue by either fast or thermal neutrons. The results of this investigation were negative within the temporal constraints of the incident and the analytical sensitivities of the instrumentation. (author) 5 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs

  10. Simulation of the chemical environment of a nuclear explosion with exploding wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Walter; Block, Oliver U.J. [Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS (United States)

    1970-05-15

    The chemical processes in an expanding underground cavity resulting from a nuclear explosion cannot be predicted or controlled as well as such physical characteristics as crater size, magnitude of the outgoing shock wave, or the extent of rock fracturing. However in most underground nuclear explosions it would be desirable to control the chemical and/or physical form and amount of radioactive fallout venting from the explosion. The high temperatures and corresponding high energy densities produced by exploding wires are sufficient to produce in the wire and material immediately surrounding it the temperature (a few thousand degrees) required to simulate the chemical environment of a nuclear explosion in the time interval just preceding the venting of the cavity. The economics and the size of exploding wire apparatus make this type of experiment readily applicable to laboratory study. Design of exploding wire circuits to obtain particular temperatures or energy densities can be completed using several different combinations of circuit and wire conditions. Since the circuit parameters, including charging voltage, capacitor bank capacitance and circuit inductance primarily determine the cost of the necessary laboratory equipment, these parameters should be selected by theoretical expressions while also considering economic factors. Wire parameters are then experimentally determined to produce the most energetic explosions with the selected circuit parameters. A theoretical method applicable to designing exploding wire circuits to produce the desired high temperatures and energy densities in the wire and surrounding sample material has been obtained. The method assumes that a thermal spike of energy is deposited in a low conductivity material (typical of the earth's crust) surrounding the wire. From the assumed temperature distribution in the surrounding sample material the energy which must be deposited in the thermal spike to produce the desired temperature and

  11. Detecting Surface Changes from an Underground Explosion in Granite Using Unmanned Aerial System Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz-Fellenz, Emily S.; Coppersmith, Ryan T.; Sussman, Aviva J.; Swanson, Erika M.; Cooley, James A.

    2017-08-01

    Efficient detection and high-fidelity quantification of surface changes resulting from underground activities are important national and global security efforts. In this investigation, a team performed field-based topographic characterization by gathering high-quality photographs at very low altitudes from an unmanned aerial system (UAS)-borne camera platform. The data collection occurred shortly before and after a controlled underground chemical explosion as part of the United States Department of Energy's Source Physics Experiments (SPE-5) series. The high-resolution overlapping photographs were used to create 3D photogrammetric models of the site, which then served to map changes in the landscape down to 1-cm-scale. Separate models were created for two areas, herein referred to as the test table grid region and the nearfield grid region. The test table grid includes the region within 40 m from surface ground zero, with photographs collected at a flight altitude of 8.5 m above ground level (AGL). The near-field grid area covered a broader area, 90-130 m from surface ground zero, and collected at a flight altitude of 22 m AGL. The photographs, processed using Agisoft Photoscan® in conjunction with 125 surveyed ground control point targets, yielded a 6-mm pixel-size digital elevation model (DEM) for the test table grid region. This provided the ≤3 cm resolution in the topographic data to map in fine detail a suite of features related to the underground explosion: uplift, subsidence, surface fractures, and morphological change detection. The near-field grid region data collection resulted in a 2-cm pixel-size DEM, enabling mapping of a broader range of features related to the explosion, including: uplift and subsidence, rock fall, and slope sloughing. This study represents one of the first works to constrain, both temporally and spatially, explosion-related surface damage using a UAS photogrammetric platform; these data will help to advance the science of

  12. Effects from airplane crashes and gas explosions to Leningrad nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junttila, K.; Varpasuo, P.

    1998-01-01

    In this study the effects of aircraft crash and gas explosion to Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant has been researched. One of the two reactor buildings is modeled with finite element method using the pre-processor program MSC/PATRAN and analyzed with MSC/NASTRAN analysis program. In MSC/PATRAN or FEMAP, which is a pre-processor program of MSC/NASTRAN for Windows, the reactor building of the plant has been modeled with shell and beam elements and the load sets describing the aircraft crash and gas explosion have been developed. The crash loads are from Cessna 210 civil airplane crash with impact velocity 360 km/h and maximum impact force of 7 MN and Phantom RF-43 military airplane crash with impact velocity 215 m/s and with maximum impact force of 110 MN. The gas explosion pressure wave simulates the deflagration wave with maximum pressure of 0,045 MPa. Seven Cessna 210 airplane crash locations, two Phantom RF-43 airplane crash locations and one gas explosion load case is modeled. Airplane crash loads were from different directions and to different points of impact in the reactor building. The gas explosion load was assumed to affect the reactor building from one side parallel to one of the global coordinate axes of the model. With MSC/NASTRAN reactions from loads are analyzed. All loads were timedependent; their magnitude varied with time and consequently the analysis was carried out with the aid of transient response analysis. Time step in Cessna 210 analysis was 0,003 s and in Phantom RF-43 and gas explosion analyses 0,01 s. The greatest displacement from Cessna 210 loads was 12 mm and from Phantom RF-43 load 344 mm. The last value shows that construction would fail with that load. The greatest displacement from gas explosion load was 68 mm. Stresses are not so interesting in this preliminary analysis of the effects, but they are shown in pictures embedded in the report text. Displacements were greatest in upper part of the reactor building, where no intersections

  13. Remote laser drilling and sampling system for the detection of concealed explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, D.; Pschyklenk, L.; Theiß, C.; Holl, G.

    2017-05-01

    The detection of hazardous materials like explosives is a central issue in national security in the field of counterterrorism. One major task includes the development of new methods and sensor systems for the detection. Many existing remote or standoff methods like infrared or raman spectroscopy find their limits, if the hazardous material is concealed in an object. Imaging technologies using x-ray or terahertz radiation usually yield no information about the chemical content itself. However, the exact knowledge of the real threat potential of a suspicious object is crucial for disarming the device. A new approach deals with a laser drilling and sampling system for the use as verification detector for suspicious objects. Central part of the system is a miniaturised, diode pumped Nd:YAG laser oscillator-amplifier. The system allows drilling into most materials like metals, synthetics or textiles with bore hole diameters in the micron scale. During the drilling process, the hazardous material can be sampled for further investigation with suitable detection methods. In the reported work, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is used to monitor the drilling process and to classify the drilled material. Also experiments were carried out to show the system's ability to not ignite even sensitive explosives like triacetone triperoxide (TATP). The detection of concealed hazardous material is shown for different explosives using liquid chromatography and ion mobility spectrometry.

  14. Mesoporous aluminium organophosphonates: a reusable chemsensor for the detection of explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dongdong; Yu, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and sensitive detection of explosives is in high demand for homeland security and public safety. In this work, electron-rich of anthracene functionalized mesoporous aluminium organophosphonates (En-AlPs) were synthesized by a one-pot condensation process. The mesoporous structure and strong blue emission of En-AlPs were confirmed by the N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, transmission electron microscopy images and fluorescence spectra. The materials En-AlPs can serve as sensitive chemosensors for various electron deficient nitroderivatives, with the quenching constant and the detection limit up to 1.5×10 6 M −1 and 0.3 ppm in water solution. More importantly, the materials can be recycled for many times by simply washed with ethanol, showing potential applications in explosives detection. - Graphical abstract: Electron-rich of anthracene functionalized mesoporous aluminium organophosphonates can serve as sensitive and recycled chemosensors for nitroderivatives with the quenching constant up to 1.5×10 6 M −1 in water solution. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Anthracene functionalized mesoporous aluminium organophosphonates were synthesized. • The materials serve as sensitive chemosensors for nitroderivatives. • The materials can be recycled for many times by simply washed with ethanol. • The materials show potential applications in explosives detection.

  15. Summary of ground motion prediction results for Nevada Test Site underground nuclear explosions related to the Yucca Mountain project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walck, M.C.

    1996-10-01

    This report summarizes available data on ground motions from underground nuclear explosions recorded on and near the Nevada Test Site, with emphasis on the ground motions recorded at stations on Yucca Mountain, the site of a potential high-level radioactive waste repository. Sandia National Laboratories, through the Weapons Test Seismic Investigations project, collected and analyzed ground motion data from NTS explosions over a 14-year period, from 1977 through 1990. By combining these data with available data from earlier, larger explosions, prediction equations for several ground motion parameters have been developed for the Test Site area for underground nuclear explosion sources. Also presented are available analyses of the relationship between surface and downhole motions and spectra and relevant crustal velocity structure information for Yucca Mountain derived from the explosion data. The data and associated analyses demonstrate that ground motions at Yucca Mountain from nuclear tests have been at levels lower than would be expected from moderate to large earthquakes in the region; thus nuclear explosions, while located relatively close, would not control seismic design criteria for the potential repository

  16. Summary of ground motion prediction results for Nevada Test Site underground nuclear explosions related to the Yucca Mountain project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walck, M.C.

    1996-10-01

    This report summarizes available data on ground motions from underground nuclear explosions recorded on and near the Nevada Test Site, with emphasis on the ground motions recorded at stations on Yucca Mountain, the site of a potential high-level radioactive waste repository. Sandia National Laboratories, through the Weapons Test Seismic Investigations project, collected and analyzed ground motion data from NTS explosions over a 14-year period, from 1977 through 1990. By combining these data with available data from earlier, larger explosions, prediction equations for several ground motion parameters have been developed for the Test Site area for underground nuclear explosion sources. Also presented are available analyses of the relationship between surface and downhole motions and spectra and relevant crustal velocity structure information for Yucca Mountain derived from the explosion data. The data and associated analyses demonstrate that ground motions at Yucca Mountain from nuclear tests have been at levels lower than would be expected from moderate to large earthquakes in the region; thus nuclear explosions, while located relatively close, would not control seismic design criteria for the potential repository.

  17. Time-domain study of tectonic strain-release effects on seismic waves from underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, K.K.; Sherman, N.W.

    1982-09-01

    Tectonic strain release affects both the amplitude and phase of seismic waves from underground nuclear explosions. Surface wave magnitudes are strongly affected by the component of tectonic strain release in the explosion. Amplitudes and radiation patterns of surface waves from explosions with even small tectonic components change magnitudes significantly and show a strong dependence on receiver locations. A thrust-slip source superimposed on an isotropic explosion can explain observed reversals in waveform at different azimuths and phase delays between normal and reversed Rayleigh waves. The mechanism of this reversal is due to the phase relationship between reasonable explosion and tectonic release sources. Spallation or an unusual source time function are not required. The observations of Shagan River events imply thrust-slip motion along faults in a northwest-southeast direction, which is consistent with regional tectonics

  18. US Army Nuclear Burst Detection System (NBDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaser, R.F.

    1980-07-01

    The Nuclear Burst Detection System (NBDS) was developed to meet the Army requirements of an unattended, automatic nuclear burst reporting system. It provides pertinent data for battlefield commanders on a timely basis with high reliability

  19. Colorimetric Sensor Arrays for the Detection and Identification of Chemical Weapons and Explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Michael J; Burks, Raychelle M; Atwater, Jordyn; Lukowicz, Rachel M; Williams, Pat; Holmes, Andrea E

    2017-03-04

    There is a significant demand for devices that can rapidly detect chemical-biological-explosive (CBE) threats on-site and allow for immediate responders to mitigate spread, risk, and loss. The key to an effective reconnaissance mission is a unified detection technology that analyzes potential threats in real time. In addition to reviewing the current state of the art in the field, this review illustrates the practicality of colorimetric arrays composed of sensors that change colors in the presence of analytes. This review also describes an outlook toward future technologies, and describes how they could possibly be used in areas such as war zones to detect and identify hazardous substances.

  20. Development of graphene nanoplatelet embedded polymer microcantilever for vapour phase explosive detection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Prasenjit; Pandey, Swapnil; Ramgopal Rao, V.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a graphene based strain sensor has been reported for explosive vapour detection applications by exploiting the piezoresistive property of graphene. Instead of silicon based cantilevers, a low cost polymeric micro-cantilever platform has been used to fabricate this strain sensor by embedding the graphene nanoplatelet layer inside the beam. The fabricated devices were characterized for their mechanical and electromechanical behaviour. This device shows a very high gauge factor which is around ∼144. Also the resonant frequency of these cantilevers is high enough such that the measurements are not affected by environmental noise. These devices have been used in this work for reliable detection of explosive vapours such as 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene down to parts-per-billion concentrations in ambient conditions.

  1. Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy helps fight terrorism: High sensitivity detection of chemical Warfare Agent and explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, C. K. N.

    2008-01-01

    Tunable laser photoacoustic spectroscopy is maturing rapidly in its applications to real world problems. One of the burning problems of the current turbulent times is the threat of terrorist acts against civilian population. This threat appears in two distinct forms. The first is the potential release of chemical warfare agents (CWA), such as the nerve agents, in a crowded environment. An example of this is the release of Sarin by Aum Shinrikyo sect in a crowded Tokyo subway in 1995. An example of the second terrorist threat is the ever-present possible suicide bomber in crowded environment such as airports, markets and large buildings. Minimizing the impact of both of these threats requires early detection of the presence of the CWAs and explosives. Photoacoustic spectroscopy is an exquisitely sensitive technique for the detection of trace gaseous species, a property that Pranalytica has extensively exploited in its CO2 laser based commercial instrumentation for the sub-ppb level detection of a number of industrially important gases including ammonia, ethylene, acrolein, sulfur hexafluoride, phosphine, arsine, boron trichloride and boron trifluoride. In this presentation, I will focus, however, on our recent use of broadly tunable single frequency high power room temperature quantum cascade lasers (QCL) for the detection of the CWAs and explosives. Using external grating cavity geometry, we have developed room temperature QCLs that produce continuously tunable single frequency CW power output in excess of 300 mW at wavelengths covering 5 μm to 12 μm. I will present data that show a CWA detection capability at ppb levels with false alarm rates below 1:108. I will also show the capability of detecting a variety of explosives at a ppb level, again with very low false alarm rates. Among the explosives, we have demonstrated the capability of detecting homemade explosives such as triacetone triperoxide and its liquid precursor, acetone which is a common household

  2. Laser methods for detecting explosive residues on surfaces of distant objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skvortsov, L A [Institute of Cryptography, Communications and Informatics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-01-31

    The basic methods of laser spectroscopy that are used for standoff detection and identification of explosive traces in the form of particles on the surfaces of objects tested under real or close-toreal conditions are briefly considered. The advantages and drawbacks of all methods are discussed and their characteristics are compared. Particular attention has been given to the prospects of development and practical implementation of the technologies discussed and justification of their most preferred applications. (review)

  3. The performance of transmission lines and cables subjected to electromagnetic radiation from a nuclear explosion (NEMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguet, M.; Ianovici, M.; Lin, C.C.; Fornerod, F.

    1980-01-01

    The use of armoured cables for telecommunication and data transmission systems is practically essential to avoid electromagnetic interference. The authors have made a mathematical study of the probable effect of a high altitude nuclear explosion. Using a simplified model, the voltages and currents induced into single and multiple-sheathed, overhead and buried cables subjected to an intense magnetic pulse (50kV/m) from high altitude, are determined by computer. It is found that, contrary to expectations the current intensity in the second case is seven times greater than for the overhead conductor. (F.N.S.)

  4. Radioactive contamination of the biosphera after nuclear explosion, for an arbitrary wind field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomon, S.

    1981-01-01

    Theoretical foundations have been developed of a method for defining the degree of air- and surface contamination following a nuclear explosion, for the variable wind vector in time and space. The wind description is taken to be discrete in time and horizontal plane as well as continuous (polynomial-approximated) in the perpendicular one. A stabilized clouds has been assumed, with initial normal distribution of activity. The formulae derived permit the volumetric activity in air as well as the dosage rate above the surface of the c ontaminated ground, to be determined. (author)

  5. Prototype selection based on FCM and its application in discrimination between nuclear explosion and earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Shaoqing; Li Xihai; Song Zibiao; Liu Daizhi

    2007-01-01

    The synergetic pattern recognition is a new way of pattern recognition with many excellent features such as noise resistance and deformity resistance. But when it is used in the discrimination between nuclear explosion and earthquake using existing methods of prototype selection, the results are not satisfying. A new method of prototype selection based on FCM is proposed in this paper. First, each group of training samples is clustered into c groups using FCM; then c barycenters or centers are chosen as prototypes. Experiment results show that compared with existing methods of prototype selection this new method is effective and it increases the recognition ratio greatly. (authors)

  6. Application of CPML to two-dimension numerical simulation of nuclear electromagnetic pulse from air explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Chunxia; Wang Lianghou

    2005-01-01

    The characteristics of different types of PML were analyzed and the convolutional PML was chosen to truncate the open boundaries in numerical simulation of nuclear electromagnetic pulse from air explosions. On the basis of the split-field PML and the plane-wave solution of electromagnetic field in free space, the unsplit-field PML was constructed. By applying the convolutional theorem of Fourier transform, the discrete iterative equations of electromagnetic field components were presented in the CPML media under the two-dimension prolate-spheroidal coordinate system. The numerical results indicate that the method of CPML can largely decrease calculation errors of boundary fields. (authors)

  7. Detecting hidden volcanic explosions from Mt. Cleveland Volcano, Alaska with infrasound and ground-couples airwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Slivio; Fee, David; Haney, Matthew; Schneider, David

    2012-01-01

    In Alaska, where many active volcanoes exist without ground-based instrumentation, the use of techniques suitable for distant monitoring is pivotal. In this study we report regional-scale seismic and infrasound observations of volcanic activity at Mt. Cleveland between December 2011 and August 2012. During this period, twenty explosions were detected by infrasound sensors as far away as 1827 km from the active vent, and ground-coupled acoustic waves were recorded at seismic stations across the Aleutian Arc. Several events resulting from the explosive disruption of small lava domes within the summit crater were confirmed by analysis of satellite remote sensing data. However, many explosions eluded initial, automated, analyses of satellite data due to poor weather conditions. Infrasound and seismic monitoring provided effective means for detecting these hidden events. We present results from the implementation of automatic infrasound and seismo-acoustic eruption detection algorithms, and review the challenges of real-time volcano monitoring operations in remote regions. We also model acoustic propagation in the Northern Pacific, showing how tropospheric ducting effects allow infrasound to travel long distances across the Aleutian Arc. The successful results of our investigation provide motivation for expanded efforts in infrasound monitoring across the Aleutians and contributes to our knowledge of the number and style of vulcanian eruptions at Mt. Cleveland.

  8. Microcantilever technology for law enforcement and anti-terrorism applications: chemical, biological, and explosive material detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J. D.; Rogers, B.; Whitten, R.

    2005-05-01

    The remarkable sensitivity, compactness, low cost, low power-consumption, scalability, and versatility of microcantilever sensors make this technology among the most promising solutions for detection of chemical and biological agents, as well as explosives. The University of Nevada, Reno, and Nevada Nanotech Systems, Inc (NNTS) are currently developing a microcantilever-based detection system that will measure trace concentrations of explosives, toxic chemicals, and biological agents in air. A baseline sensor unit design that includes the sensor array, electronics, power supply and air handling has been created and preliminary demonstrations of the microcantilever platform have been conducted. The envisioned device would measure about two cubic inches, run on a small watch battery and cost a few hundred dollars. The device could be operated by untrained law enforcement personnel. Microcantilever-based devices could be used to "sniff out" illegal and/or hazardous chemical and biological agents in high traffic public areas, or be packaged as a compact, low-power system used to monitor cargo in shipping containers. Among the best detectors for such applications at present is the dog, an animal which is expensive, requires significant training and can only be made to work for limited time periods. The public is already accustomed to explosives and metal detection systems in airports and other public venues, making the integration of the proposed device into such security protocols straightforward.

  9. Investigation of common fluorophores for the detection of nitrated explosives by fluorescence quenching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meaney, Melissa S.; McGuffin, Victoria L.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that nitrated explosives may be detected by fluorescence quenching of pyrene and related compounds. The use of pyrene, however, invokes numerous health and waste disposal hazards. In the present study, ten safer fluorophores are identified for quenching detection of target nitrated compounds. Initially, Stern-Volmer constants are measured for each fluorophore with nitrobenzene and 4-nitrotoluene to determine the sensitivity of the quenching interaction. For quenching constants greater than 50 M -1 , sensitivity and selectivity are investigated further using an extended set of target quenchers. Nitromethane, nitrobenzene, 4-nitrotoluene, and 2,6-dinitrotoluene are chosen to represent nitrated explosives and their degradation products; aniline, benzoic acid, and phenol are chosen to represent potential interfering compounds. Among the fluorophores investigated, purpurin, malachite green, and phenol red demonstrate the greatest sensitivity and selectivity for nitrated compounds. Correlation of the quenching rate constants for these fluorophores to Rehm-Weller theory suggests an electron-transfer quenching mechanism. As a result of the large quenching constants, purpurin, malachite green, and phenol red are the most promising for future detection of nitrated explosives via fluorescence quenching

  10. A review of a field study of radionuclide migration from an underground nuclear explosion at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.C.; Daniels, W.R.; Wolfsberg, K.; Thompson, J.L.; Rundberg, R.S.; Fraser, S.L.; Daniels, K.S.

    1984-01-01

    Results from a long-term (9 year) field study of the distribution of radionuclides around an underground nuclear explosion cavity at the Nevada Test Site are reviewed. The goals of this Radionuclide Migration project are to examine the rates of migration underground in various media and to determine the potential for movement, both on and off the Nevada Test Site, of radioactivity from such explosions, with particular interest in possible contamination of water supplies. Initial studies were undertaken near the site of the low-yield test Cambric, which was detonated 73 m beneath the water table in tuffaceous alluvium. Solid samples were obtained from just below ground surface to 50 m below the detonation point, and water was sampled from five different regions in the vicinity of the explosion. Ten years after the test, most of the radioactivity was found to be retained in the fused debris in the cavity region and no activity above background was found 50 m below. Only tritium and 90 Sr were present in water in the cavity at levels greater than recommended concentration guides for water in uncontrolled areas. A satellite well is being used to remove water 91 m from the detonation point. During seven years (7x10 6 m 3 ) of pumping, tritium, 85 Kr, 36 Cl and 129 I have been detected in the water. Approximately 40% of the total tritium from the cavity region has been removed by pumping at the satellite well, and the maximum in the tritium concentration is clearly defined. Use of sensitive analytical techniques has permitted measurement of the very low concentrations of 36 Cl and 129 I present in the water. The 36 Cl peak precedes the tritiated water, possibly as a result of anion exclusion. Additional analyses are in progress to better define the shape of the 129 I concentration curve. (author)

  11. Review of a field study of radionuclide migration from an underground nuclear explosion at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.C.; Daniels, W.R.; Wolfsberg, K.; Thompson, J.L.; Rundberg, R.S.; Fraser, S.L.; Daniels, K.S.

    1983-01-01

    Results from a long-term (9 year) field study of the distribution of radionuclides around an underground nuclear explosion cavity at the Nevada Test Site are reviewed. The goals of this Radionuclide Migration project are to examine the rates of migration underground in various media and to determine the potential for movement, both on and off the Nevada Test Site, of radioactivity from such explosions, with particular interest in possible contamination of water supplies. Initial studies were undertaken near the site of the low-yield test Cambric, which was detonated 73 m beneath the water table in tuffaceous alluvium. Solid samples were obtained from just below ground surface to 50 m below the detonation point, and water was sampled from five different regions in the vicinity of the explosion. Ten years after the test, most of the radioactivity was found to be retained in the fused debris in the cavity region and no activity above background was found 50 m below. Only tritium and 90 Sr were presented in water in the cavity at levels greater than recommended concentration guides for water in uncontrolled areas. A satellite well is being used to remove water 91 m from the detonation point. During seven years (7 x 10 6 m 3 ) of pumping, tritium, 85 Kr, 36 Cl, and 129 I have been detected in the water. Approximately 40% of the total tritium from the cavity region has been removed by pumping at the satellite well, and the maximum in the tritium concentration is clearly defined. Use of sensitive analytical techniques has permitted measurement of the very low concentrations of 36 Cl and 129 I present in the water. The 36 Cl peak precedes the tritiated water, possibly as a result of anion exclusion. Additional analyses are in progress to better define the shape of the 129 I concentration curve

  12. Proceedings of the CSNI specialist meeting on interaction of fire and explosion with ventilation systems in nuclear facilities. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the papers presented in the following areas: (1) experience and experimentation; (2) fire and explosion prevention, protection, and detection; and (3) application of related research

  13. A laser-based FAIMS detector for detection of ultra-low concentrations of explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmalov, Artem E.; Chistyakov, Alexander A.; Kotkovskii, Gennadii E.; Sychev, Alexey V.; Tugaenko, Anton V.; Bogdanov, Artem S.; Perederiy, Anatoly N.; Spitsyn, Eugene M.

    2014-06-01

    A non-contact method for analyzing of explosives traces from surfaces was developed. The method is based on the laser desorption of analyzed molecules from the surveyed surfaces followed by the laser ionization of air sample combined with the field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS). The pulsed radiation of the fourth harmonic of a portable GSGG: Cr3+ :Nd3+ laser (λ = 266 nm) is used. The laser desorption FAIMS analyzer have been developed. The detection limit of the analyzer equals 40 pg for TNT. The results of detection of trinitrotoluene (TNT), cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) and cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX) are presented. It is shown that laser desorption of nitro-compounds from metals is accompanied by their surface decomposition. A method for detecting and analyzing of small concentrations of explosives in air based on the laser ionization and the FAIMS was developed. The method includes a highly efficient multipass optical scheme of the intracavity fourthharmonic generation of pulsed laser radiation (λ = 266 nm) and the field asymmetric ion mobility (FAIM) spectrometer disposed within a resonator. The ions formation and detection proceed inside a resonant cavity. The laser ion source based on the multi-passage of radiation at λ = 266 nm through the ionization region was elaborated. On the basis of the method the laser FAIMS analyzer has been created. The analyzer provides efficient detection of low concentrations of nitro-compounds in air and shows a detection limit of 10-14 - 10-15 g/cm3 both for RDX and TNT.

  14. High incidence of micronuclei in lymphocytes from residents of the area near the Semipalatinsk nuclear explosion test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kimio; Hoshi, Masaharu; Kamada, Nanao; Tchaijunusova, N.J.; Takatsuji, Toshihiro; Gusev, B.I.; Sakerbaev, A.K.H.

    2000-01-01

    The Semipalatinsk area is highly contaminated with radioactive fallout from 40 years of continuous nuclear testing. The biological effects on human health in this area have not been studied. Significant remaining radioactivities include long-lived radioisotopes of 238, 239, 400 Pu, 137 Cs and 90 Sr. To evaluate the long-term biological effects of the radioactive fallout, the incidence of micronuclei in lymphocytes from residents of the area was observed. Blood was obtained from 10 residents (5 females and 5 males, aged 47 to 55 years old) from each of the 3 areas of Znamenka, Dolon and Semipalatinsk, which are about 50-150 km from the nuclear explosion test site. For micronucleus assay. PHA-stimulated lymphocytes were cultured for 72 h and cytochalasin B was added at 44 h for detecting binuclear lymphocytes. Five thousand binuclear lymphocytes in each resident were scored. The means of micronucleus counts in 1,000 lymphocytes in residents of Semipalatinsk, Dolon and Znamenka were 16.3, 12.6, and 7.80, respectively, which were higher than those of the normal Japanese persons (4.66). These values were equivalent to the results obtained from 0.187-0.47 Gy of chronic exposure to γ-rays at a dose rate of 0.02 cGy/min. The high incidence of micronuclei in residents of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site area was mainly caused by internal exposure rather than external exposure received for the past 40 years. (author)

  15. Nuclear Rocket Test Facility Decommissioning Including Controlled Explosive Demolition of a Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael Kruzic

    2007-01-01

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, the Test Cell A Facility was used in the 1960s for the testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program. The facility was decontaminated and decommissioned (D and D) in 2005 using the Streamlined Approach For Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Utilities and process piping were verified void of contents, hazardous materials were removed, concrete with removable contamination decontaminated, large sections mechanically demolished, and the remaining five-foot, five-inch thick radiologically-activated reinforced concrete shield wall demolished using open-air controlled explosive demolition (CED). CED of the shield wall was closely monitored and resulted in no radiological exposure or atmospheric release

  16. The destabilizing influence of heat flow on the geological environment during underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Politikov, M.I.; Kamberov, I.M.; Krivchenko, V.F.; Lukashenko, S.N.; Solodukhin, V.P.

    2001-01-01

    The study has determined the fact that the processes of gas-radioactive ectoplasm intrusion from nuclear cavities in the geological environment bring the significant contribution in bosom destabilizing besides the mechanical rock destruction as affected by underground nuclear explosions. Not only heat field forming that reduces the rock resistance and increases its porosity is related to it, but also the forming, on the way, of man-caused contamination aureoles of the geological environment, including the underground water bearing horizon. Unfortunately, this problem is hardly studied, mainly for the lack of reliable apparatus and methods. Judging by the results of information search, the best way to solve the problem is not yet known. (author)

  17. Preventing nuclear explosive testing. Submitted to the House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    H.J. Resolution 3 banning the testing of nuclear weapons over 150 kilotons seeks to slow the arms race by urging Congress to ratify the 1974 Threshold Test Ban Treaty and the 1976 Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty and urging the President to resume negotiations with the Soviet Union. The House Foreign Affairs Committee report supports the concept after a series of hearings with verification experts and the weapons and intelligence establishments. Verification and weapons reliability were the key issues of concern, but the committee concluded that politics rather than technology prevented a comprehensive test ban. The report also includes the reminder in the minority view that talks were suspended after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and that scientists need further testing to make weapons safer and less vulnerable to terrorist action

  18. Nuclear fuel element leak detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, C.D. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a leak detection system integral with a wall of a building used to fabricate nuclear fuel elements for detecting radiation leakage from the nuclear fuel elements as the fuel elements exit the building. The leak detecting system comprises a shielded compartment constructed to withstand environmental hazards extending into a similarly constructed building and having sealed doors on both ends along with leak detecting apparatus connected to the compartment. The leak detecting system provides a system for removing a nuclear fuel element from its fabrication building while testing for radiation leaks in the fuel element

  19. Nuclear detection systems in traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, T.; Pernicka, L.; Svec, A.

    2005-01-01

    Illicit trafficking in nuclear materials (nuclear criminality) has become a problem, due to the circulation of a high number of radioactive sources caused by the changes of the organisational infrastructures to supervise these material within the successor states of the former Soviet Union. Aim of this paper is to point out the technical requirements and the practicability of an useful monitoring system at preselected traffic check points (railway and highway border crossings, industrial sites entry gates, international airports). The ITRAP lab test was designed to work as strict benchmark to qualify border monitoring systems 67 with very low false alarm rates, in addition the minimum sensitivity to give an alarm has been defined for fix-installed systems, pocket type and hand held instruments. For the neutron tests a special prepared Californium source ( 252 Cf) was used to simulate the weapons plutonium. The source is shielded against gamma radiation, use a moderator and provides the required neutron rate of 20000 n/s at 2 rn distance. To test the false alarm rate (rate of false positive ) the same test facility , under the same background conditions, was used but without a radioactive test source. The ITRAP lab tests for the fix-installed systems started at May 1998 and first results were given in September 1998. Only 2 of 14 fix-installed monitoring systems could fulfil the minimum requirement for neutron detection. 7 of 14 fix-installed monitoring systems (50%) passed the ITRAP lab test. The analytical method developed and used for certification of installed radiation monitors in the Slovak Institute of Metrology consists in measurement of radiation activity of selected radionuclide in defined conditions. (authors)

  20. Use of nuclear explosions to create gas condensate storage in the USSR. LLL Treaty Verification Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, I.Y.

    1982-01-01

    The Soviet Union has described industrial use of nuclear explosions to produce underground hydrocarbon storage. To examples are in the giant Orenburg gas condensate field. There is good reason to believe that three additional cavities were created in bedded salt in the yet to be fully developed giant Astrakhan gas condensate field in the region of the lower Volga. Although contrary to usual western practice, the cavities are believed to be used to store H 2 S-rich, unstable gas condensate prior to processing in the main gas plants located tens of kilometers from the producing fields. Detonations at Orenburg and Astrakhan preceded plant construction. The use of nuclear explosions at several sites to create underground storage of highly corrosive liquid hydrocarbons suggests that the Soviets consider this time and cost effective. The possible benefits from such a plan include degasification and stabilization of the condensate before final processing, providing storage of condensate during periods of abnormally high natural gas production or during periods when condensate but not gas processing facilities are undergoing maintenance. Judging from information provided by Soviet specialists, the individual cavities have a maximum capacity on the order of 50,000 m 3

  1. Status report on the conceivable outside pressure exerted on nuclear power stations by gaseous explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, W.

    1977-01-01

    The following incidents to be taken into account in the whole process beginning with gas release and ending with a possible stress exerted on the power plant building are discussed in detail: Conditions leading to the release of large amounts of gas; formation of an explorable gas mixture cloud; ignition and course of explosion; pressure wave propagation in the surrounding air; construction dynamics and damaging effects. Experimental results obtainable so far and analyses of large explosions are discussed with a view to their consequences. Special emphasis is placed on the question as to whether extremely unfavourable conditions may lead to a detonation of the cloud instead of a deflagration. Considering the physical laws of cloud formation and the special initiation conditions governing free gas-air-mixtures as a result of gas dynamics and reaction kinetics it can be concluded that a detonation seems to be very unlikely. It is examined what kind of studies are still to be canied out in order to clarity the question of a possible detonation. On the other hand, it is not yet possible to give a decisive answer to the question of whether and to what extent nuclear power plants are endangered by gas cloud deflagration. Due to the complex wave field resulting from diffraction and reflexion of the incoming pressure wave by the buildings of the nuclear power station, a variety of stress functions are possible that may, under certain circumstances, lead to a selective excitation of single vibration modes of the structure. (orig.) [de

  2. A proposal to use chlorine-36 for monitoring the movement of radionuclides from nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, F.M.; Davis, S.N.; Kubik, P.

    1990-01-01

    Chlorine-36 has been produced in large amounts by hundreds of nuclear explosions on the Nevada Test Site as well as 12 off-site explosions at eight locations in five states. Continued monitoring of the redistribution of radionuclides by subsurface water is of concern in most of the areas affected by the detonations. Chlorine-36 has the following advantages as a built-in tracer for this redistribution: its mobility is equal to or greater than water, its long half-life assures its continued usefulness over long periods, collection and storage of samples is simple, it is not subject to vapor transport at ordinary temperatures, its natural background is very low, and it does not form insoluble precipitates. Chlorine-36 from the Gnome event near Carlsbad, New Mexico, illustrates how 36 Cl can be used to help study the redistribution of radionuclides in the soil profile. Chlorine-36 is also potentially useful as a tracer to study movement of contaminants around large nuclear reactor complexes and near repositories for radioactive waste

  3. The detection of improvised nonmilitary peroxide based explosives using a titania nanotube array sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Subarna; Mohapatra, Susanta K; Misra, Mano; Mishra, Indu B

    2009-01-01

    There is a critical need to develop an efficient, reliable and highly selective sensor for the detection of improvised nonmilitary explosives. This paper describes the utilization of functionalized titania nanotube arrays for sensing improvised organic peroxide explosives such as triacetone triperoxide (TATP). TATP forms complexes with titania nanotube arrays (prepared by anodization and sensitized with zinc ions) and thus affects the electron state of the nanosensing device, which is signaled as a change in current of the overall nanotube material. The response is rapid and a signal of five to eight orders of magnitude is observed. These nanotube array sensors can be used as hand-held miniaturized devices as well as large scale portable units for military and homeland security applications.

  4. The detection of improvised nonmilitary peroxide based explosives using a titania nanotube array sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Subarna; Mohapatra, Susanta K; Misra, Mano; Mishra, Indu B

    2009-02-18

    There is a critical need to develop an efficient, reliable and highly selective sensor for the detection of improvised nonmilitary explosives. This paper describes the utilization of functionalized titania nanotube arrays for sensing improvised organic peroxide explosives such as triacetone triperoxide (TATP). TATP forms complexes with titania nanotube arrays (prepared by anodization and sensitized with zinc ions) and thus affects the electron state of the nanosensing device, which is signaled as a change in current of the overall nanotube material. The response is rapid and a signal of five to eight orders of magnitude is observed. These nanotube array sensors can be used as hand-held miniaturized devices as well as large scale portable units for military and homeland security applications.

  5. Improved efficiency access control equipment and explosive, weapons and drug abuse detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, A.; Milford, A.; Woollven, J.

    1985-01-01

    The second generation portal explosives detector has been designed with increased detection capability and convenience in service. The method of detection and performance relative to the first generation is described. A novel method of auto-calibration and self diagnosis is described and results are discussed. Improvements in convenience of operation have been achieved and operating space and costs reduced by combining metal detection capability, together with explosives detection. This allows both alarm signal and diagnostic outputs to be combined on a single remote panel in the guard room, and reduces the number of guards needed to man the access control. This type of access control is entirely a defensive measure against attack but a further additional feature is proposed which will also check the state of mind of all personnel passing through the check point. Any person suffering from the effect of narcotic or alcohol will be detected by their inability to reproduce their normal signature. A new method of signature analysis in five dimensions is described together with proposals for integrating the check without increasing the time in the test area. Some recent results on the effects of alcohol on signature reproduction is given

  6. Increasing the selectivity and sensitivity of gas sensors for the detection of explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallin, Daniel

    Over the past decade, the use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) has increased, domestically and internationally, highlighting a growing need for a method to quickly and reliably detect explosive devices in both military and civilian environments before the explosive can cause damage. Conventional techniques have been successful in explosive detection, however they typically suffer from enormous costs in capital equipment and maintenance, costs in energy consumption, sampling, operational related expenses, and lack of continuous and real-time monitoring. The goal was thus to produce an inexpensive, portable sensor that continuously monitors the environment, quickly detects the presence of explosive compounds and alerts the user. In 2012, here at URI, a sensor design was proposed for the detection of triacetone triperoxide (TATP). The design entailed a thermodynamic gas sensor that measures the heat of decomposition between trace TATP vapor and a metal oxide catalyst film. The sensor was able to detect TATP vapor at the part per million level (ppm) and showed great promise for eventual commercial use, however, the sensor lacked selectivity. Thus, the specific objective of this work was to take the original sensor design proposed in 2012 and to make several key improvements to advance the sensor towards commercialization. It was demonstrated that a sensor can be engineered to detect TATP and ignore the effects of interferent H2O2 molecules by doping SnO2 films with varying amounts of Pd. Compared with a pure SnO2 catalyst, a SnO2, film doped with 8 wt. % Pd had the highest selectivity between TATP and H2O2. Also, at 12 wt. % Pd, the response to TATP and H2O2 was enhanced, indicating that sensitivity, not only selectivity, can be increased by modifying the composition of the catalyst. An orthogonal detection system was demonstrated. The platform consists of two independent sensing mechanisms, one thermodynamic and one conductometric, which take measurements from

  7. Calculation of isodose curves from initial neutron radiation of a hypothetical nuclear explosion using Monte Carlo Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, Marcos P.C.; Rebello, Wilson F.; Andrade, Edson R.; Silva, Ademir X.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear explosions are usually described in terms of its total yield and associated shock wave, thermal radiation and nuclear radiation effects. The nuclear radiation produced in such events has several components, consisting mainly of alpha and beta particles, neutrinos, X-rays, neutrons and gamma rays. For practical purposes, the radiation from a nuclear explosion is divided into i nitial nuclear radiation , referring to what is issued within one minute after the detonation, and 'residual nuclear radiation' covering everything else. The initial nuclear radiation can also be split between 'instantaneous or 'prompt' radiation, which involves neutrons and gamma rays from fission and from interactions between neutrons and nuclei of surrounding materials, and 'delayed' radiation, comprising emissions from the decay of fission products and from interactions of neutrons with nuclei of the air. This work aims at presenting isodose curves calculations at ground level by Monte Carlo simulation, allowing risk assessment and consequences modeling in radiation protection context. The isodose curves are related to neutrons produced by the prompt nuclear radiation from a hypothetical nuclear explosion with a total yield of 20 KT. Neutron fluency and emission spectrum were based on data available in the literature. Doses were calculated in the form of ambient dose equivalent due to neutrons H*(10) n - . (author)

  8. Calculation of isodose curves from initial neutron radiation of a hypothetical nuclear explosion using Monte Carlo Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Marcos P.C.; Rebello, Wilson F.; Andrade, Edson R., E-mail: rebello@ime.eb.br, E-mail: daltongirao@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear; Silva, Ademir X., E-mail: ademir@nuclear.ufrj.br [Corrdenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Egenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear explosions are usually described in terms of its total yield and associated shock wave, thermal radiation and nuclear radiation effects. The nuclear radiation produced in such events has several components, consisting mainly of alpha and beta particles, neutrinos, X-rays, neutrons and gamma rays. For practical purposes, the radiation from a nuclear explosion is divided into {sup i}nitial nuclear radiation{sup ,} referring to what is issued within one minute after the detonation, and 'residual nuclear radiation' covering everything else. The initial nuclear radiation can also be split between 'instantaneous or 'prompt' radiation, which involves neutrons and gamma rays from fission and from interactions between neutrons and nuclei of surrounding materials, and 'delayed' radiation, comprising emissions from the decay of fission products and from interactions of neutrons with nuclei of the air. This work aims at presenting isodose curves calculations at ground level by Monte Carlo simulation, allowing risk assessment and consequences modeling in radiation protection context. The isodose curves are related to neutrons produced by the prompt nuclear radiation from a hypothetical nuclear explosion with a total yield of 20 KT. Neutron fluency and emission spectrum were based on data available in the literature. Doses were calculated in the form of ambient dose equivalent due to neutrons H*(10){sub n}{sup -}. (author)

  9. Low-frequency electromagnetic measurements as a zero-time discriminant of nuclear and chemical explosions - OSI research final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, J.J.

    1996-12-01

    This is the final report on a series of investigations of low frequency (1-40 Hz) electromagnetic signals produced by above ground and underground chemical explosions and their use for confidence building under the Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty. I conclude that low frequency electromagnetic measurements can be a very powerful tool for zero-time discrimination of chemical and nuclear explosions for yields of 1 Kt or greater, provided that sensors can be placed within 1-2 km of the suspected detonation point in a tamper-proof, low noise environment. The report includes descriptions and analyses of low frequency electromagnetic measurements associated with chemical explosions carried out in a variety of settings (shallow borehole, open pit mining, underground mining). I examine cavity pressure data from the Non-Proliferation Experiment (underground chemical explosion) and present the hypothesis that electromagnetic signals produced by underground chemical explosions could be produced during rock fracturing. I also review low frequency electromagnetic data from underground nuclear explosions acquired by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during the late 1980s. (author)

  10. Hydrologic processes and radionuclide distribution in a cavity and chimney produced by the Cannikin nuclear explosion, Amchitka Island, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claassen, H.C.

    1978-01-01

    An analysis of hydraulic, chemical, and radiochemical data obtained in the vicinity of the site of a nuclear explosion (code-named Cannikin, 1971), on Amchitka Island, Alaska, was undertaken to describe the hydrologic processes associated with the saturation of subsurface void space produced by the explosion. Immediately after detonation of the explosive, a subsurface cavity was created surrounding the explosion point. This cavity soon was partly filled by collapse of overburden, producing void volume in a rubble chimney extending to land surface and forming a surface-collapse sink. Surface and groundwater immediately began filling the chimney but was excluded for a time from the cavity by the presence of steam. When the steam condensed, the accumulated water in the chimney flowed into the cavity region, picking up and depositing radioactive materials along its path. Refilling of the chimney voids then resumed and was nearly complete about 260 days after the explosion. The hydraulic properties of identified aquifers intersecting the chimney were used with estimates of surface-water inflow, chimney dimensions, and the measured water-level rise in the chimney to estimate the distribution of explosion-created porosity in the chimney, which ranged from about 10 percent near the bottom to 4 percent near the top. Chemical and radiochemical analyses of water from the cavity resulted in identification of three aqueous phases: groundwater, surface water, and condensed steam. Although most water samples represented mixtures of these phases, they contained radioactivity representative of all radioactivity produced by the explosion

  11. Rapid detection of sugar alcohol precursors and corresponding nitrate ester explosives using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisco, Edward; Forbes, Thomas P

    2015-04-21

    This work highlights the rapid detection of nitrate ester explosives and their sugar alcohol precursors by direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) using an off-axis geometry. Demonstration of the effect of various parameters, such as ion polarity and in-source collision induced dissociation (CID) on the detection of these compounds is presented. Sensitivity of sugar alcohols and nitrate ester explosives was found to be greatest in negative ion mode with sensitivities ranging from hundreds of picograms to hundreds of nanograms, depending on the characteristics of the particular molecule. Altering the in-source CID potential allowed for acquisition of characteristic molecular ion spectra as well as fragmentation spectra. Additional studies were completed to identify the role of different experimental parameters on the sensitivity for these compounds. Variables that were examined included the DART gas stream temperature, the presence of a related compound (i.e., the effect of a precursor on the detection of a nitrate ester explosive), incorporation of dopant species and the role of the analysis surface. It was determined that each variable affected the response and detection of both sugar alcohols and the corresponding nitrate ester explosives. From this work, a rapid and sensitive method for the detection of individual sugar alcohols and corresponding nitrate ester explosives, or mixtures of the two, has been developed, providing a useful tool in the real-world identification of homemade explosives.

  12. Detection of explosives on the surface of banknotes by Raman hyperspectral imaging and independent component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Mariana R; Correa, Deleon N; Zacca, Jorge J; Logrado, Lucio Paulo Lima; Poppi, Ronei J

    2015-02-20

    The aim of this study was to develop a methodology using Raman hyperspectral imaging and chemometric methods for identification of pre- and post-blast explosive residues on banknote surfaces. The explosives studied were of military, commercial and propellant uses. After the acquisition of the hyperspectral imaging, independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to extract the pure spectra and the distribution of the corresponding image constituents. The performance of the methodology was evaluated by the explained variance and the lack of fit of the models, by comparing the ICA recovered spectra with the reference spectra using correlation coefficients and by the presence of rotational ambiguity in the ICA solutions. The methodology was applied to forensic samples to solve an automated teller machine explosion case. Independent component analysis proved to be a suitable method of resolving curves, achieving equivalent performance with the multivariate curve resolution with alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) method. At low concentrations, MCR-ALS presents some limitations, as it did not provide the correct solution. The detection limit of the methodology presented in this study was 50 μg cm(-2). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Porous chromatographic materials as substrates for preparing synthetic nuclear explosion debris particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, S.D.; Carman, A.J.; Martin Liezers; Antolick, K.C.; Garcia, B.J.; Eiden, G.C.; Sweet, L.E.

    2013-01-01

    Several porous chromatographic materials were investigated as synthetic substrates for preparing surrogate nuclear explosion debris particles. Eighteen metals, including some of forensic interest, were loaded onto materials by immersing them in metal solutions (556 mg/L of each metal) to fill the pores, applying gentle heat (110 deg C) to drive off water, and then treating them at high temperatures (up to 800 deg C) in air to form less soluble metal species. High-boiling-point metals were uniformly loaded on spherical controlled-pore glass to emulate early fallout, whereas low-boiling-point metals were loaded on core-shell silica to represent coated particles formed later in the nuclear fallout-formation process. Analytical studies characterized material balance and the formation of recalcitrant species. Metal loading was 1.5-3 times higher than expected from the pore volume alone, a result attributed to surface coating. Most metals were passively loaded; that is, solutions filled the pores without active metal discrimination. However, niobium and tin concentrations were lower in solutions after pore filling, and were found in elevated concentrations in the final products, indicating selective loading. High-temperature treatments caused reduced solubility of several metals, and the loss of some volatile species (rhenium and tellurium). Sample preparation reproducibility was high (the inter- and intra-batch relative standard deviations were 7.8 and 0.84 %, respectively) indicating suitability for use as a working standard for analytical methods development. We anticipate future standardized radionuclide-loaded materials will find use in radioanalytical methods development and/or serve as a starting material for the synthesis of more complex nuclear explosion debris forms (e.g., Trinitite). (author)

  14. The Soviet program for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordyke, M.D.

    1996-10-01

    An extensive review is given of the US and Russian efforts on peaceful uses of nuclear explosions (PNE). The Soviet PNE program was many times larger than the US Plowshare program in terms of both the number of applications explored with field experiments and the extent to which they were introduced into industrial use. Several PNE applications, such as deep seismic sounding and oil stimulation, have been explored in depth and appear to have had a positive cost benefit at minimal public risk. Closure of runaway gas wells is another possible application where all other techniques fail. However, the fundamental problem with PNEs is the fact that, if they are to be economically significant, there must be widespread use of the technology, involving large numbers of sites, each of which presents a potential source of radioactivity to the environment and nearby communities. Russia now has more than 100 sites where significant high-level radioactivity has been buried. Experience over the last 20 years in US and in today`s Russia shows that it is virtually impossible to gain public acceptance of such applications of nuclear energy. In addition, PNEs also pose a difficult problem in the arms control area. Under a comprehensive test ban, any country conducting PNEs would, in appearance if not in fact, receive information useful for designing new nuclear weapons or maintaining an existing nuclear stockpile, information denied to the other parties to the treaty. 6 tabs, 10 figs.

  15. Joint maximum-likelihood magnitudes of presumed underground nuclear test explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Sheila; Douglas, Alan; Bowers, David

    2017-08-01

    Body-wave magnitudes (mb) of 606 seismic disturbances caused by presumed underground nuclear test explosions at specific test sites between 1964 and 1996 have been derived from station amplitudes collected by the International Seismological Centre (ISC), by a joint inversion for mb and station-specific magnitude corrections. A maximum-likelihood method was used to reduce the upward bias of network mean magnitudes caused by data censoring, where arrivals at stations that do not report arrivals are assumed to be hidden by the ambient noise at the time. Threshold noise levels at each station were derived from the ISC amplitudes using the method of Kelly and Lacoss, which fits to the observed magnitude-frequency distribution a Gutenberg-Richter exponential decay truncated at low magnitudes by an error function representing the low-magnitude threshold of the station. The joint maximum-likelihood inversion is applied to arrivals from the sites: Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan) and Novaya Zemlya, former Soviet Union; Singer (Lop Nor), China; Mururoa and Fangataufa, French Polynesia; and Nevada, USA. At sites where eight or more arrivals could be used to derive magnitudes and station terms for 25 or more explosions (Nevada, Semipalatinsk and Mururoa), the resulting magnitudes and station terms were fixed and a second inversion carried out to derive magnitudes for additional explosions with three or more arrivals. 93 more magnitudes were thus derived. During processing for station thresholds, many stations were rejected for sparsity of data, obvious errors in reported amplitude, or great departure of the reported amplitude-frequency distribution from the expected left-truncated exponential decay. Abrupt changes in monthly mean amplitude at a station apparently coincide with changes in recording equipment and/or analysis method at the station.

  16. Surface motion induced by nuclear explosions beneath Pahute Mesa. Part I. Halfbreak, Greeley, Scotch, Boxcar events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perret, W.R.

    1976-10-01

    Results of surface motion studies conducted by Sandia Laboratories during seven underground nuclear explosions detonated beneath Pahute Mesa, Areas 19 and 20 of the Nevada Test Site, between 1966 and 1973 are reported. The report is divided into two parts of which this, Part I, includes (1) descriptions of the Pahute Mesa geological environment and of the purposes and instrumentation used in these programs (Chapter 1), and (2) description of four events, the data derived from each, and analysis of these data. These Part I events are HALFBEAK (Chapter 2), GREELEY (Chapter 3), SCOTCH (Chapter 4), and BOXCAR (Chapter 5) for all of which a nominally radial array of gage stations yielded data as a function of distance primarily, although in a few cases data were derived from stations at widely separated azimuths from the explosion. Results of the analysis indicate that average propagation velocity through the geologic column between the explosions and mesa surface was about 8800 ft/sec and that for horizontal distances greater than shot depth, refraction occurred within rhyolite flows with characteristic velocity of about 12,300 ft/sec. There is evidence which suggests possible deeper refraction at a velocity between 18,000 and 21,000 ft/sec. Only the verticle motion peaks follow a pattern amenable to regression analysis because geometrical effects influence horizontal motion amplitudes differently as horizontal distances increase. Particle velocities vary roughly as the inverse square of slant or radial range with exponent values ranging from -3.9 to -1.3. Displacements follow a similar pattern with exponents ranging from about -6 to -2. Displacement profiles at various times during the motion and displacement hodographs in the vertical-radial plane aid in understanding several local phenomena implied by individual motion records

  17. Inadequate peak expiratory flow meter characteristics detected by a computerised explosive decompression device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, M.R.; Atkins, P.R.; Pedersen, O.F.

    2003-01-01

    Methods: The dynamic response of mini-Wright (MW), Vitalograph (V), TruZone (TZ), MultiSpiro (MS) and pneumotachograph (PT) flow meters was tested by delivering two differently shaped flow-time profiles from a computer controlled explosive decompression device fitted with a fast response solenoid.......1) and 257 (39.2), respectively, and at ≈200 l/min they were 51 (23.9) and 1 (0.5). All the meters met ATS accuracy requirements when tested with their waveforms. Conclusions: An improved method for testing the dynamic response of flow meters detects marked overshoot (underdamping) of TZ and MS responses...

  18. Detection of drugs and explosives using neutron computerized tomography and artificial intelligence techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, F.J.O. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro, CEP 21945-970, Caixa Postal 68550 (Brazil)], E-mail: fferreira@ien.gov.br; Crispim, V.R.; Silva, A.X. [DNC/Poli, PEN COPPE CT, UFRJ Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CEP 21941-972, Caixa Postal 68509, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2010-06-15

    In this study the development of a methodology to detect illicit drugs and plastic explosives is described with the objective of being applied in the realm of public security. For this end, non-destructive assay with neutrons was used and the technique applied was the real time neutron radiography together with computerized tomography. The system is endowed with automatic responses based upon the application of an artificial intelligence technique. In previous tests using real samples, the system proved capable of identifying 97% of the inspected materials.

  19. Detection of drugs and explosives using neutron computerized tomography and artificial intelligence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, F.J.O.; Crispim, V.R.; Silva, A.X.

    2010-01-01

    In this study the development of a methodology to detect illicit drugs and plastic explosives is described with the objective of being applied in the realm of public security. For this end, non-destructive assay with neutrons was used and the technique applied was the real time neutron radiography together with computerized tomography. The system is endowed with automatic responses based upon the application of an artificial intelligence technique. In previous tests using real samples, the system proved capable of identifying 97% of the inspected materials.

  20. The use of contained nuclear explosions to create underground reservoirs, and experience of operating these for gas condensate storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kedrovskij, O.L.; Myasnikov, K.V.; Leonov, E.A.; Romadin, N.M.; Dorodnov, V.F.; Nikiforov, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations on the creation of underground reservoirs by means of nuclear explosions have been going on in the Soviet Union for many years. In this paper the authors consider three main kinds of sites or formations that can be used for constructing reservoirs by this method, namely, low-permeable rocks, worked-out mines and rock salt formations. Formulae are given for predicting the mechanical effect of an explosion in rocks, taking their strength characteristics into account. Engineering procedures are described for sealing and restoring the emplacement holes, so that they can be used for operating the underground reservoir. Experience with the contruction and operation of a 50 000 m 3 gas-condensate reservoir in a rock salt formation is described. In the appendix to the paper a method is presented for calculating the stability of spherical cavities created by nuclear explosions in rock salt, allowing for the development of elasto-plastic deformations and creep

  1. Graphene oxide-based optical biosensor functionalized with peptides for explosive detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Diming; Lu, Yanli; Yao, Yao; Li, Shuang; Liu, Qingjun

    2015-06-15

    A label-free optical biosensor was constructed with biofunctionalized graphene oxide (GO) for specific detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). By chemically binding TNT-specific peptides with GO, the biosensor gained unique optoelectronic properties and high biological sensitivity, with transducing bimolecular bonding into optical signals. Through UV absorption detection, increasing absorbance responses could be observed in presence of TNT at different concentrations, as low as 4.40×10(-9) mM, and showed dose-dependence and stable behavior. Specific responses of the biosensor were verified with the corporation of 2,6-dinitrotoluene (DNT), which had similar molecular structure to TNT. Thus, with high sensitivity and selectivity, the biosensor provided a convenient approach for detection of explosives as miniaturizing and integrating devices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Investigation and analysis of hydrogen ignition and explosion events in foreign nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuda, Yasunori [Institute of Nuclear Safety System, Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    Reports about hydrogen ignition and explosion events in foreign nuclear power plants from 1980 to 2001 were investigated, and 31 events were identified. Analysis showed that they were categorized in (1) outer leakage ignition events and (2) inner accumulation ignition events. The dominant event for PWR (pressurized water reactor) was outer leakage ignition in the main generator, and in BWR (boiling water reactor) it was inner accumulation ignition in the off-gas system. The outer leakage ignition was a result of work process failure with the ignition source, operator error, or main generator hydrogen leakage. The inner accumulation ignition events were caused by equipment failure or insufficient monitoring. With careful preventive measures, the factors leading to these events could be eliminated. (author)

  3. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-01-01

    The present review provides an understanding of our current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of low-dose radiation in man, and surveys the epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to nuclear explosions and medical radiation. Discussion centers on the contributions of quantitative epidemiology to present knowledge, the reliability of the dose-incidence data, and those relevant epidemiological studies that provide the most useful information for risk estimation of cancer induction in man. Reference is made to dose-incidence relationships from laboratory animal experiments where they may obtain, for problems and difficulties in extrapolation from data obtained at high doses to low doses, and from animal data to the human situation. The paper describes the methods of application of such epidemiological data for estimation of excess risk of radiation-induced cancer in exposed human populations and discusses the strengths and limitations of epidemiology in guiding radiation protection philosophy and public health policy

  4. Damage caused to houses and equipment by underground nuclear explosions; Degats dus aux explosions nucleaires souterraines sur les habitations et les equipements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delort, F; Guerrini, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    A description is given of the damaged caused to various structures, buildings, houses, mechanical equipment and electrical equipment by underground nuclear explosions in granite. For each type of equipment or building are given the limiting distances for a given degree of damage. These distances have been related to a parameter characterizing the movement of the medium; it is thus possible to generalize the results obtained in granite, for different media. The problem of estimating the damage caused at a greater distance from the explosion is considered. (authors) [French] Les degats sur diverses structures, constructions, habitations, equipements mecaniques et materiels electriques provoques par des explosions nucleaires souterraines dans le granite sont decrits. On a indique pour chaque type de materiel ou de construction, les distances limites correspondant a un degre de gravite de dommage observe. Ces distances ont ete reliees a un parametre caracterisant le mouvement du milieu, permettant ainsi de generaliser les resultats obtenus dans le granite, a differents milieux. Le probleme de la prevision des degats en zone lointaine a ete aborde. (auteurs)

  5. Geotechnical studies relevant to the containment of underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1982-05-01

    The Department of Energy and the Department of Defense are actively pursuing a program of nuclear weapons testing by underground explosions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Over the past 11 years, scores of tests have been conducted and the safety record is very good. In the short run, emphasis is put on preventing the release of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. In the long run, the subsidence and collapse of the ground above the nuclear cavities also are matters of interest. Currently, estimation of containment is based mostly on empiricism derived from extensive experience and on a combination of physical/mechanical testing and numerical modeling. When measured directly, the mechanical material properties are obtained from short-term laboratory tests on small, conventional samples. This practice does not determine the large effects of scale and time on measured stiffnesses and strengths of geological materials. Because of the limited data base of properties and in situ conditions, the input to otherwise fairly sophisticated computer programs is subject to several simplifying assumptions; some of them can have a nonconservative impact on the calculated results. As for the long-term, subsidence and collapse phenomena simply have not been studied to any significant degree. This report examines the geomechanical aspects of procedures currently used to estimate containment of undergroung explosions at NTS. Based on this examination, it is concluded that state-of-the-art geological engineering practice in the areas of field testing, large scale laboratory measurements, and numerical modeling can be drawn upon to complement the current approach.

  6. Geotechnical studies relevant to the containment of underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1982-05-01

    The Department of Energy and the Department of Defense are actively pursuing a program of nuclear weapons testing by underground explosions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Over the past 11 years, scores of tests have been conducted and the safety record is very good. In the short run, emphasis is put on preventing the release of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. In the long run, the subsidence and collapse of the ground above the nuclear cavities also are matters of interest. Currently, estimation of containment is based mostly on empiricism derived from extensive experience and on a combination of physical/mechanical testing and numerical modeling. When measured directly, the mechanical material properties are obtained from short-term laboratory tests on small, conventional samples. This practice does not determine the large effects of scale and time on measured stiffnesses and strengths of geological materials. Because of the limited data base of properties and in situ conditions, the input to otherwise fairly sophisticated computer programs is subject to several simplifying assumptions; some of them can have a nonconservative impact on the calculated results. As for the long-term, subsidence and collapse phenomena simply have not been studied to any significant degree. This report examines the geomechanical aspects of procedures currently used to estimate containment of undergroung explosions at NTS. Based on this examination, it is concluded that state-of-the-art geological engineering practice in the areas of field testing, large scale laboratory measurements, and numerical modeling can be drawn upon to complement the current approach

  7. Some possible applications of peaceful nuclear explosions in the recovery of natural resources from beneath the seabed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, K.

    1975-01-01

    The technical, economic and environmental advantages and disadvantages of using nuclear explosions as an aid to recovering natural resources from beneath the seabed are discussed and compared with those in applications on land. Particular consideration is given to their use in assisting petroleum production as offshore development moves into deeper waters. (author)

  8. Nuclear radiation detection by a variband semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    Possibilities of using a variband semiconductor for detecting nuclear radiations are considered. It is shown that the variaband quasielectric field effectively collects charges induced by a nuclear particle only at a small mean free path in the semiconductor (up to 100 μm), the luminescence spectrum of the variband semiconductor when a nuclear particle gets into it, in principle, permits to determine both the energy and mean free path in the semiconductor (even at large mean free paths) [ru

  9. Thermoset plastics for the nuclear track detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, M.

    1984-01-01

    Characteristics of thermoset plastics for the nuclear track detection have been studied. Some of the samples show good etching properties and will be useful for observations of super heavy primaries. (author)

  10. IAEA safeguards to prevent nuclear matrials diversion for fabrication of nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preuschen von und zu Liebenstein, R.

    1982-01-01

    The IAEA precautionary measures in accordance with the Non-Proliferation Treaty can be characterized as measures creating confidence. They constitute at present the essential basis for peaceful use of atomic energy. Even though there is a lot of criticism concerning the efficiency of the precautionary measures, and all justified calls for the elaboration of further legal instruments against nuclear materials diversion must not be neglected, the IAEA precautionary measures have already in a credible way contributed to contain the proliferation of nuclear weapons. (orig./HSCH) [de

  11. Detection of special nuclear materials with the associate particle technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carasco, Cédric; Deyglun, Clément; Pérot, Bertrand; Eléon, Cyrille; Normand, Stéphane; Sannié, Guillaume; Boudergui, Karim; Corre, Gwenolé; Konzdrasovs, Vladimir; Pras, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    In the frame of the French trans-governmental R and D program against chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosives (CBRN-E) threats, CEA is studying the detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) by neutron interrogation with fast neutrons produced by an associated particle sealed tube neutron generator. The deuterium-tritium fusion reaction produces an alpha particle and a 14 MeV neutron almost back to back, allowing tagging neutron emission both in time and direction with an alpha particle position-sensitive sensor embedded in the generator. Fission prompt neutrons and gamma rays induced by tagged neutrons which are tagged by an alpha particle are detected in coincidence with plastic scintillators. This paper presents numerical simulations performed with the MCNP-PoliMi Monte Carlo computer code and with post processing software developed with the ROOT data analysis package. False coincidences due to neutron and photon scattering between adjacent detectors (cross talk) are filtered out to increase the selectivity between nuclear and benign materials. Accidental coincidences, which are not correlated to an alpha particle, are also taken into account in the numerical model, as well as counting statistics, and the time-energy resolution of the data acquisition system. Such realistic calculations show that relevant quantities of SNM (few kg) can be distinguished from cargo and shielding materials in 10 min acquisitions. First laboratory tests of the system under development in CEA laboratories are also presented.

  12. Proposal of secure camera-based radiation warning system for nuclear detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Ken'ichi; Kurosawa, Kenji; Akiba, Norimitsu; Kakuda, Hidetoshi; Imoto, Daisuke; Hirabayashi, Manato; Kuroki, Kenro

    2016-01-01

    Counter-terrorisms against radiological and nuclear threat are significant issues toward Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games. In terms of cost benefit, it is not easy to build a warning system for nuclear detection to prevent a Dirty Bomb attack (dispersion of radioactive materials using a conventional explosive) or a Silent Source attack (hidden radioactive materials) from occurring. We propose a nuclear detection system using the installed secure cameras. We describe a method to estimate radiation dose from noise pattern in CCD images caused by radiation. Some dosimeters under neutron and gamma-ray irradiations (0.1mSv-100mSv) were taken in CCD video camera. We confirmed amount of noise in CCD images increased in radiation exposure. The radiation detection using CMOS in secure cameras or cell phones has been implemented. However, in this presentation, we propose a warning system including neutron detection to search shielded nuclear materials or radiation exposure devices using criticality. (author)

  13. Electronic detection of nuclear radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, J.

    1972-01-01

    This report is the first draft of one of the chapters of a book being prepared under the title: Topics on Practical Nuclear Physics. It is published as a report because of i ts immediate educational value and in order to include in its final draft the suggestions of the readers. (Author)

  14. Porous Chromatographic Materials as Substrates for Preparing Synthetic Nuclear Explosion Debris Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, Scott D.; Liezers, Martin; Antolick, Kathryn C.; Garcia, Ben J.; Sweet, Lucas E.; Carman, April J.; Eiden, Gregory C.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated several porous chromatographic materials as synthetic substrates for preparing surrogate nuclear explosion debris particles. The resulting synthetic debris materials are of interest for use in developing analytical methods. Eighteen metals, including some of forensic interest, were loaded onto materials by immersing them in metal solutions (556 mg/L of each metal) to fill the pores, applying gentle heat (110°C) to drive off water, and then treating them at high temperatures (up to 800°C) in air to form less soluble metal species. High-boiling-point metals were uniformly loaded on spherical controlled-pore glass to emulate early fallout, whereas low-boiling-point metals were loaded on core-shell silica to represent coated particles formed later in the nuclear fallout-formation process. Analytical studies were applied to characterize solubility, material balance, and formation of recalcitrant species. Dissolution experiments indicated loading was 1.5 to 3 times higher than expected from the pore volume alone, a result attributed to surface coating. Analysis of load solutions before and after filling the material pores revealed that most metals were passively loaded; that is, solutions filled the pores without active metal discrimination. However, niobium and tin concentrations were lower in solutions after pore filling, and were found in elevated concentrations in the final products, indicating some metals were selectively loaded. High-temperature treatments caused reduced solubility of several metal species, and loss of some metals (rhenium and tellurium) because volatile species were formed. Sample preparation reproducibility was high (the inter-batch relative standard deviation was 7.8%, and the intra-batch relative standard deviation was 0.84%) indicating that this material is suitable for use as a working standard for analytical methods development. We anticipate future standardized radionuclide-loaded materials will find use in

  15. The application of a figure of merit for nuclear explosive utility as a metric for material attractiveness in a nuclear material theft scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Wayne E.; Bradley, Keith; Jones, Edwin D.; Kramer, Kevin J.; Latkowski, Jeffery F.; Robel, Martin; Sleaford, Brad W.

    2010-01-01

    Effective integration of nonproliferation management into the design process is key to the broad deployment of advanced nuclear energy systems, and is an explicit goal of the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The nuclear explosives utility of a nuclear material to a state (proliferator) or sub-state (terrorist) is a critical factor to be assessed and is one aspect of material attractiveness. In this work, we approached nuclear explosives utility through the calculation of a 'figure of merit' (FOM) that has recently been developed to capture the relative viability and difficulty of constructing nuclear explosives starting from various nuclear material forms and compositions. We discuss the integration of the figure of merit into an assessment of a nuclear material theft scenario and its use in the assessment. This paper demonstrates that material attractiveness is a multidimensional concept that embodies more than the FOM. It also seeks to propose that other attributes may be able to be quantified through analogous FOMs (e.g., transformation) and that, with quantification, aggregation may be possible using concepts from the risk community.

  16. The application of a figure of merit for nuclear explosive utility as a metric for material attractiveness in a nuclear material theft scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Wayne E., E-mail: weking@llnl.go [Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Bradley, Keith [Global Security Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Jones, Edwin D. [Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Kramer, Kevin J.; Latkowski, Jeffery F. [Engineering Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Robel, Martin [Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Sleaford, Brad W. [Engineering Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Effective integration of nonproliferation management into the design process is key to the broad deployment of advanced nuclear energy systems, and is an explicit goal of the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The nuclear explosives utility of a nuclear material to a state (proliferator) or sub-state (terrorist) is a critical factor to be assessed and is one aspect of material attractiveness. In this work, we approached nuclear explosives utility through the calculation of a 'figure of merit' (FOM) that has recently been developed to capture the relative viability and difficulty of constructing nuclear explosives starting from various nuclear material forms and compositions. We discuss the integration of the figure of merit into an assessment of a nuclear material theft scenario and its use in the assessment. This paper demonstrates that material attractiveness is a multidimensional concept that embodies more than the FOM. It also seeks to propose that other attributes may be able to be quantified through analogous FOMs (e.g., transformation) and that, with quantification, aggregation may be possible using concepts from the risk community.

  17. Study of chemical reactions in the nuclear underground explosion - Incidence on radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picq, Jean Maurice

    1970-01-01

    In order to find out and state the theoretical or semi-empirical laws governing the reaction of radioactivity in contained nuclear explosion, we are studying the chemical reactions during the different stages of the cavity and chimney formation, as well as thermal transfers. At the same time, we are carrying an experimental study on melted rock and gas samples taken from the French underground explosions. The results of which can be found in this paper are derived from our present experiments at the plant (have been obtained from partial studies). During the French underground explosions, we took gaseous samples. The gas analysis, without taking water vapour into consideration, showed that those samples were composed of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide with small quantities of hydrocarbons (chiefly methane - about one per cent). The total amount of gas being quite large and proportional to the burst power, we came to the conclusion that those gases were produced by rock reactions (that rock was granite). We considered the following reagents because they were found in sufficient quantities to alter the balance between the different components: ferrous ions contained in mica, biotite, carbon dioxide from carbonates and water, either free or in a component state, contained in the rock. A comparison between theoretical and experimental results led us to notice among other things: the temperature of rock re-solidification; pressure nearing lithostatic pressure. Since the components of the environment, water not included, is quite homogeneous, the gas volume produced by '1 kiloton' is quite constant. On the other hand, the relative proportion of the gases undergoes a few changes, particularly the ratio CO/CO 2 which normally depends on the quantity of water contained in the environment. This statement is verified by the calculation of thermodynamic equilibriums. In order to calculate the simultaneous chemical equilibrium we have first selected five reactions. We

  18. Convolutional neural network based side attack explosive hazard detection in three dimensional voxel radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockner, Blake; Veal, Charlie; Dowdy, Joshua; Anderson, Derek T.; Williams, Kathryn; Luke, Robert; Sheen, David

    2018-04-01

    The identification followed by avoidance or removal of explosive hazards in past and/or present conflict zones is a serious threat for both civilian and military personnel. This is a challenging task as variability exists with respect to the objects, their environment and emplacement context, to name a few factors. A goal is the development of automatic or human-in-the-loop sensor technologies that leverage signal processing, data fusion and machine learning. Herein, we explore the detection of side attack explosive hazards (SAEHs) in three dimensional voxel space radar via different shallow and deep convolutional neural network (CNN) architectures. Dimensionality reduction is performed by using multiple projected images versus the raw three dimensional voxel data, which leads to noteworthy savings in input size and associated network hyperparameters. Last, we explore the accuracy and interpretation of solutions learned via random versus intelligent network weight initialization. Experiments are provided on a U.S. Army data set collected over different times, weather conditions, target types and concealments. Preliminary results indicate that deep learning can perform as good as, if not better, than a skilled domain expert, even in light of limited training data with a class imbalance.

  19. Infrared photothermal imaging spectroscopy for detection of trace explosives on surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendziora, Christopher A; Furstenberg, Robert; Papantonakis, Michael; Nguyen, Viet; Byers, Jeff; Andrew McGill, R

    2015-11-01

    We are developing a technique for the standoff detection of trace explosives on relevant substrate surfaces using photothermal infrared (IR) imaging spectroscopy (PT-IRIS). This approach leverages one or more compact IR quantum cascade lasers, which are tuned to strong absorption bands in the analytes and directed to illuminate an area on a surface of interest. An IR focal plane array is used to image the surface and detect increases in thermal emission upon laser illumination. The PT-IRIS signal is processed as a hyperspectral image cube comprised of spatial, spectral, and temporal dimensions as vectors within a detection algorithm. The ability to detect trace analytes at standoff on relevant substrates is critical for security applications but is complicated by the optical and thermal analyte/substrate interactions. This manuscript describes a series of PT-IRIS experimental results and analysis for traces of RDX, TNT, ammonium nitrate, and sucrose on steel, polyethylene, glass, and painted steel panels. We demonstrate detection at surface mass loadings comparable with fingerprint depositions ( 10μg/cm2 to 100μg/cm2) from an area corresponding to a single pixel within the thermal image.

  20. Automation in airport security X-ray screening of cabin baggage: Examining benefits and possible implementations of automated explosives detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hättenschwiler, Nicole; Sterchi, Yanik; Mendes, Marcia; Schwaninger, Adrian

    2018-10-01

    Bomb attacks on civil aviation make detecting improvised explosive devices and explosive material in passenger baggage a major concern. In the last few years, explosive detection systems for cabin baggage screening (EDSCB) have become available. Although used by a number of airports, most countries have not yet implemented these systems on a wide scale. We investigated the benefits of EDSCB with two different levels of automation currently being discussed by regulators and airport operators: automation as a diagnostic aid with an on-screen alarm resolution by the airport security officer (screener) or EDSCB with an automated decision by the machine. The two experiments reported here tested and compared both scenarios and a condition without automation as baseline. Participants were screeners at two international airports who differed in both years of work experience and familiarity with automation aids. Results showed that experienced screeners were good at detecting improvised explosive devices even without EDSCB. EDSCB increased only their detection of bare explosives. In contrast, screeners with less experience (tenure automated decision provided better human-machine detection performance than on-screen alarm resolution and no automation. This came at the cost of slightly higher false alarm rates on the human-machine system level, which would still be acceptable from an operational point of view. Results indicate that a wide-scale implementation of EDSCB would increase the detection of explosives in passenger bags and automated decision instead of automation as diagnostic aid with on screen alarm resolution should be considered. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Principles of nuclear radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichholz, G.G.; Poston, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    This book covers the transistorization of equipment and provides an introduction into practice of semiconductor and thermoluminescent detectors. It discusses the principles of radiation detectors most widely used in nuclear technology, medical practice and radiation protection. It stresses the alternative detectors available and discusses practical considerations in choosing and setting up detector systems for actual use. Traditional materials, including semiconductors, TLD's and modern data handling facilities are covered

  2. Metabonomics for detection of nuclear materials processing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Todd Michael; Luxon, Bruce A. (University Texas Medical Branch); Neerathilingam, Muniasamy (University Texas Medical Branch); Ansari, S. (University Texas Medical Branch); Volk, David (University Texas Medical Branch); Sarkar, S. (University Texas Medical Branch); Alam, Mary Kathleen

    2010-08-01

    Tracking nuclear materials production and processing, particularly covert operations, is a key national security concern, given that nuclear materials processing can be a signature of nuclear weapons activities by US adversaries. Covert trafficking can also result in homeland security threats, most notably allowing terrorists to assemble devices such as dirty bombs. Existing methods depend on isotope analysis and do not necessarily detect chronic low-level exposure. In this project, indigenous organisms such as plants, small mammals, and bacteria are utilized as living sensors for the presence of chemicals used in nuclear materials processing. Such 'metabolic fingerprinting' (or 'metabonomics') employs nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to assess alterations in organismal metabolism provoked by the environmental presence of nuclear materials processing, for example the tributyl phosphate employed in the processing of spent reactor fuel rods to extract and purify uranium and plutonium for weaponization.

  3. Metabonomics for detection of nuclear materials processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Todd Michael; Luxon, Bruce A.; Neerathilingam, Muniasamy; Ansari, S.; Volk, David; Sarkar, S.; Alam, Mary Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    Tracking nuclear materials production and processing, particularly covert operations, is a key national security concern, given that nuclear materials processing can be a signature of nuclear weapons activities by US adversaries. Covert trafficking can also result in homeland security threats, most notably allowing terrorists to assemble devices such as dirty bombs. Existing methods depend on isotope analysis and do not necessarily detect chronic low-level exposure. In this project, indigenous organisms such as plants, small mammals, and bacteria are utilized as living sensors for the presence of chemicals used in nuclear materials processing. Such 'metabolic fingerprinting' (or 'metabonomics') employs nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to assess alterations in organismal metabolism provoked by the environmental presence of nuclear materials processing, for example the tributyl phosphate employed in the processing of spent reactor fuel rods to extract and purify uranium and plutonium for weaponization.

  4. A review of the developments of radioxenon detectors for nuclear explosion monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivels, Ciara B.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Bowyer, Theodore W.; Kalinowski, Martin B.; Pozzi, Sara A.

    2017-09-27

    Developments in radioxenon monitoring since the implementation of the International Monitoring System are reviewed with emphasis on the most current technologies to improve detector sensitivity and resolution. The nuclear detectors reviewed include combinations of plastic and NaI(Tl) detectors, high purity germanium detectors, silicon detectors, and phoswich detectors. The minimum detectable activity and calibration methods for the various detectors are also discussed.

  5. A new method of explosive detection based on dual-energy X-ray technology and forward-scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Kun; Li Jianmin

    2004-01-01

    Based on dual-energy X-ray technology combined with forward-scattering, a brand new explosive detection method is presented. Dual-energy technology can give the information on the effective atomic number (Z eff ) of an irradiated component, while the intensity of the forward scattered photons can reveal the density information according to our research. Therefore, the existence of the explosive can be effectively identified by combining these two characteristic quantities. Compared with the earlier inspection approaches, the new one has a series of particular advantages, such as high detection rate, low false alarm rate, automatic alarm and so forth. The project is ongoing. (authors)

  6. A brief introduction to high altitude nuclear explosion and a review on high altitude nuclear tests of usa and former USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jingwen

    1999-11-01

    The author briefly introduces some knowledge about high altitude nuclear explosion (HANE) and presents a general review on high altitude nuclear tests of USA and former USSR. Physical phenomenon generated by HANE is given. The effects of HANE on space flyer, artificial satellite and communication are discussed. Some aspects of a mechanism of antimissile for HANE are described and the effect and role of HANE for USA and USSR are reviewed

  7. The sensitivity studies of a landmine explosive detection system based on neutron backscattering using Monte Carlo simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Hamda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper carries out a Monte Carlo simulation of a landmine detection system, using the MCNP5 code, for the detection of concealed explosives such as trinitrotoluene and cyclonite. In portable field detectors, the signal strength of backscattered neutrons and gamma rays from thermal neutron activation is sensitive to a number of parameters such as the mass of explosive, depth of concealment, neutron moderation, background soil composition, soil porosity, soil moisture, multiple scattering in the background material, and configuration of the detection system. In this work, a detection system, with BF3 detectors for neutrons and sodium iodide scintillator for g-rays, is modeled to investigate the neutron signal-to-noise ratio and to obtain an empirical formula for the photon production rate Ri(n,γ= SfGfMf(d,m from radiative capture reactions in constituent nuclides of trinitrotoluene. This formula can be used for the efficient landmine detection of explosives in quantities as small as ~200 g of trinitrotoluene concealed at depths down to about 15 cm. The empirical formula can be embedded in a field programmable gate array on a field-portable explosives' sensor for efficient online detection.

  8. Environmental assessment of the thermal neutron activation explosive detection system for concourse use at US airports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.G.

    1990-08-01

    This document is an environmental assessment of a system designed to detect the presence of explosives in checked airline baggage or cargo. The system is meant to be installed at the concourse or lobby ticketing areas of US commercial airports and uses a sealed radioactive source of californium-252 to irradiate baggage items. The major impact of the use of this system arises from direct exposure of the public to scattered or leakage radiation from the source and to induced radioactivity in baggage items. Under normal operation and the most likely accident scenarios, the environmental impacts that would be created by the proposed licensing action would not be significant. 44 refs., 19 figs., 18 tabs.

  9. Environmental assessment of the thermal neutron activation explosive detection system for concourse use at US airports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.G.

    1990-08-01

    This document is an environmental assessment of a system designed to detect the presence of explosives in checked airline baggage or cargo. The system is meant to be installed at the concourse or lobby ticketing areas of US commercial airports and uses a sealed radioactive source of californium-252 to irradiate baggage items. The major impact of the use of this system arises from direct exposure of the public to scattered or leakage radiation from the source and to induced radioactivity in baggage items. Under normal operation and the most likely accident scenarios, the environmental impacts that would be created by the proposed licensing action would not be significant. 44 refs., 19 figs., 18 tabs

  10. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on THz for CBRN and Explosives Detection and Diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Shulika, Oleksiy

    2017-01-01

    This work is intended to jointly address the development, realization and applications of emitters and detectors of terahertz (THz-0.3 THz up to 10 THz) and their application to diagnostics of CBRN effects and detection of explosives and CBRN. Hazardous substances typically exhibit rotational and vibrational transitions in this region, hence giving access to spectroscopic analysis of a large variety of molecules which play a key role in security as well as various other areas, e.g. air pollution, climate research, industrial process control, agriculture, food industry, workplace safety and medical diagnostics can be monitored by sensing and identifying them via THz (0.3 to 10 THz) and mid infrared (MIR-10 THz to 100 THz) absorption “finger prints”. Most plastics, textiles and paper are nearly transparent for THz radiation.

  11. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for the remote detection of explosives at level of fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaviva, S.; Palucci, A.; Lazic, V.; Menicucci, I.; Nuvoli, M.; Pistilli, M.; De Dominicis, L.

    2016-04-01

    We report the results of the application of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for the detection of some common military explosives and theirs precursors deposited on white varnished car's external and black car's internal or external plastic. The residues were deposited by an artificial silicon finger, to simulate material manipulation by terrorists when preparing a car bomb, leaving traces of explosives on the parts of a car. LIBS spectra were acquired by using a first prototype laboratory stand-off device, developed in the framework of the EU FP7 313077 project EDEN (End-user driven DEmo for CBRNe). The system operates at working distances 8-30 m and collects the LIBS in the spectral range 240-840 nm. In this configuration, the target was moved precisely in X-Y direction to simulate the scanning system, to be implemented successively. The system is equipped with two colour cameras, one for wide scene view and another for imaging with a very high magnification, capable to discern fingerprints on a target. The spectral features of each examined substance were identified and compared to those belonging to the substrate and the surrounding air, and those belonging to possible common interferents. These spectral differences are discussed and interpreted. The obtained results show that the detection and discrimination of nitro-based compounds like RDX, PETN, ammonium nitrate (AN), and urea nitrate (UN) from organic interfering substances like diesel, greasy lubricants, greasy adhesives or oils in fingerprint concentration, at stand-off distance of some meters or tenths of meters is feasible.

  12. Portable standoff Raman system for fast detection of homemade explosives through glass, plastic, and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Anupam K.; Sharma, Shiv K.; Acosta, Tayro E.; Porter, John N.; Lucey, Paul G.; Bates, David E.

    2012-06-01

    The University of Hawaii has been developing portable remote Raman systems capable of detecting chemicals in daylight from a safe standoff distance. We present data on standoff detection of chemicals used in the synthesis of homemade explosives (HME) using a portable standoff Raman system utilizing an 8-inch telescope. Data show that good-quality Raman spectra of various hazardous chemicals such as ammonium nitrate, potassium nitrate, potassium perchlorate, sulfur, nitrobenzene, benzene, acetone, various organic and inorganic chemicals etc. could be easily obtained from remote distances, tested up to 120 meters, with a single-pulse laser excitation and with detection time less than 1 μs. The system uses a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG pulsed laser source (532 nm, 100 mJ/pulse, 15 Hz, pulse width 10 ns) capable of firing a single or double pulse. The double-pulse configuration also allows the system to perform standoff LIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) at 50 m range. In the standoff Raman detection, the doublepulse sequence simply doubles the signal to noise ratio. Significant improvement in the quality of Raman spectra is observed when the standoff detection is made with 1s integration time. The system uses a 50-micron slit and has spectral resolution of 8 cm-1. The HME chemicals could be easily detected through clear and brown glass bottles, PP and HDPE plastic bottles, and also through fluorescent plastic water bottles. Standoff Raman detection of HME chemical from a 10 m distance through non-visible concealed bottles in plastic bubble wrap packaging is demonstrated with 1 s integration time. Possible applications of the standoff Raman system for homeland security and environmental monitoring are discussed.

  13. Detection of nitro-organic and peroxide explosives in latent fingermarks by DART- and SALDI-TOF-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Frederick; Seviour, John; Lim, Angelina Yimei; Elumbaring-Salazar, Cheryl Grace; Loke, Jason; Ma, Jan

    2012-09-10

    The ability of two mass spectrometric methods, surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (SALDI-TOF-MS) and direct analysis in real time (DART-MS), to detect the presence of seven common explosives (six nitro-organic- and one peroxide-type) in spiked latent fingermarks has been examined. It was found that each explosive could be detected with nanogram sensitivity for marks resulting from direct finger contact with a glass probe by DART-MS or onto stainless steel target plates using SALDI-TOF-MS for marks pre-dusted with one type of commercial black magnetic powder. These explosives also could be detected in latent marks lifted from six common surfaces (paper, plastic bag, metal drinks can, wood laminate, adhesive tape and white ceramic tile) whereas no explosive could be detected in equivalent pre-dusted marks on the surface of a commercial lifting tape by the DART-MS method due to high background interference from the tape material. The presence of TNT and Tetryl could be detected in pre-dusted latent fingermarks on a commercial lifting tape for up to 29 days sealed and stored under ambient conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Detection of explosives in traces by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy: Differences from organic interferents and conditions for a correct classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazic, V.; Palucci, A.; Jovicevic, S.; Carpanese, M.

    2011-01-01

    With the aim to study and to improve LIBS capability for detecting residues of energetic compounds in air surrounding, nine types of explosives and some potential interferents, placed in small quantities on a metallic support, were interrogated by a laser. Shot-to-shot behavior of the line intensities relative to the sample constituents was studied. The detected plasma was not stoichiometric and the line intensities, as well as their ratios, were changing even for an order of magnitude from one sampling point to another, particularly in the case of aromatic compounds. We explained some sources of such LIBS signal's behavior and this allowed us to establish a data processing procedure, which leads to a good linearization among the data sets. In this way, it was possible to determine some real differences between the LIBS spectra from explosives and interferents, and to correlate them with molecular formulas, with some known pathways for the molecule's decomposition and with successive chemical reactions in the plasma. Number spectral parameters, which distinguish the each studied explosive from other organic materials, were also determined and compared with previously published results relative to percentages of correct classifications for the same explosives. Experimental conditions for reliable recognition of the explosives by LIBS in air are also suggested, together with the parameters that should be considered or discarded from the classification procedure.

  15. Study by Monte Carlo methods of an explosive detection system using a D-D generator and Nal (Tl) detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cevallos R, L. E.; Guzman G, K. A.; Gallego, E.; Garcia F, G.; Vega C, H. R.

    2017-10-01

    The detection of hidden explosive material is very important for national security. Using Monte Carlo methods, with the code MCNP6, several proposed configurations of a detection system with a Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) generator, in conjunction with NaI (Tl) scintillation detectors, have been evaluated to intercept hidden explosives. The response of the system to various explosive samples such as Rdx and ammonium nitrate are analyzed as the main components of home-military explosives. The D-D generator produces fast neutrons of 2.5 MeV in a maximum field of 10 10 n/s (Dd-110) which is surrounded with high density polyethylene in order to thermalized the fast neutrons making them interact with the sample inspected, giving rise to the emission of gamma rays that generates a characteristic spectrum of the elements that constitute it, being able in this way to determine its chemical composition and identify the type of substance. The necessary shielding is evaluated to estimate the admissible operation dose, with thicknesses of lead and borated polyethylene, in order to place it at some point of the Laboratory of Neutron Measurements of the Polytechnic University of Madrid where the shielding is optimal. The results show that its functionality is promising in the field of national security for the explosives inspection. (Author)

  16. Passive detection of nuclear-armed SLCMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagdeev, R.Z.; Prilutsky, O.F.; Frolov, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    Effective procedures have been developed, using national technical measures (photoreconnaissance satellites, radiointercept stations, etc.), for verification of reductions in land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles, such as marine-based ballistic missiles, and strategic bombers. However, there is agreement on procedures for verifying limitations of numbers of long-range nuclear-armed cruise missiles. The difficulties in developing such procedures are sometimes regarded (by opponents of nuclear disarmament) as a reason why cruise missiles based on ships and submarines ought not to be limited by future arms-reduction treaties. This paper considers the detectability of nuclear-armed cruise missiles through the penetrating radiation emitted spontaneously from their warheads

  17. Nuclear resonance absorption (NRA): method and application to detection of contraband in a baggage, cargo and vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldenberg, M.B.; Vartsky, D.; Engler, G.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear Resonance Absorption (NRA) has played a prominent role in nuclear spectroscopy for almost 5 decades, but found only few and marginal applications outside the laboratory before 1985. In that year the situation changed markedly when scientists from this laboratory proposed to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in the U.S. to study its suitability for detecting explosives in passenger baggage via nitrogen-specific radiographic imaging (explosives, as a category, have inordinately high nitrogen densities). Following a basic feasibility study and the first laboratory demonstration of explosives detection in 1989, this project has attained the stage of a pre-industrial prototype that exhibited excellent performance characteristics in a 1993 blind test conducted by the FAA. In terms of NRA operational system concept, data taking methodology, development of dedicated detectors and image analysis algorithms, the Soreq group has made a major, if not exclusive, contribution over the years. (authors)

  18. Possible techniques for decontamination of natural gas from gas wells stimulated by a nuclear explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wethington, Jr, John A [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    Decontamination of the products from gas wells stimulated by nuclear explosions requires the removal of T, present as HT, CH{sub 3}T, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}T, etc., and {sup 85}Kr from the production stream. Flaring of large volumes of gas from the Gasbuggy well led to the replacement of radioactive cavity gas with inactive formation gas, but this would not be a satisfactory production procedure because it releases T and {sup 85}Kr into the atmosphere and wastes large amounts of product gas. Exchange reactions appear to offer promise for removing the tritium. For example, water or steam flowing countercurrent to tritiated gas in the presence of a suitable catalyst can participate in the exchange reactions CH{sub 3}T + H{sub 2}O {r_reversible} CH{sub 4} + HTO, HT + H{sub 2}O {r_reversible} H{sub 2} + HTO, resulting in the transfer of T from gas into water. Other possibilities for utilizing exchange reactions include exchange of the gas with ethylene glycol used in the gas dryer, with silicate rocks introduced into the gas stream, or with a countercurrent stream of NH{sub 3} or H{sub 2}S. As another approach, use of the contaminated gas for the manufacture of ammonia synthesis gas has potential for removal of both T and {sup 85}Kr. (author)

  19. Automated High-Speed Video Detection of Small-Scale Explosives Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Robert; Guymon, Clint

    2013-06-01

    Small-scale explosives sensitivity test data is used to evaluate hazards of processing, handling, transportation, and storage of energetic materials. Accurate test data is critical to implementation of engineering and administrative controls for personnel safety and asset protection. Operator mischaracterization of reactions during testing contributes to either excessive or inadequate safety protocols. Use of equipment and associated algorithms to aid the operator in reaction determination can significantly reduce operator error. Safety Management Services, Inc. has developed an algorithm to evaluate high-speed video images of sparks from an ESD (Electrostatic Discharge) machine to automatically determine whether or not a reaction has taken place. The algorithm with the high-speed camera is termed GoDetect (patent pending). An operator assisted version for friction and impact testing has also been developed where software is used to quickly process and store video of sensitivity testing. We have used this method for sensitivity testing with multiple pieces of equipment. We present the fundamentals of GoDetect and compare it to other methods used for reaction detection.

  20. Development of an air cleaning system for dissolving high explosives from nuclear warheads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Staggs, K.; Wapman, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has a major effort underway in dismantling nuclear weapons. In support of this effort we have been developing a workstation for removing the high explosive (HE) from nuclear warheads using hot sprays of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent to dissolve the HE. An important component of the workstation is the air cleaning system that is used to contain DMSO aerosols and vapor and radioactive aerosols. The air cleaning system consists of a condenser to liquefy the hot DMSO vapor, a demister pad to remove most of the DMSO aerosols, a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter to remove the remaining aerosols, an activated carbon filter to remove the DMSO vapor, and a final HEPA filter to meet the redundancy requirement for HEPA filters in radioactive applications. The demister pad is a 4{double_prime} thick mat of glass and steel fibers and was selected after conducting screening tests on promising candidates. We also conducted screening tests on various activated carbons and found that all had a similar performance. The carbon breakthrough curves were fitted to a modified Wheeler`s equation and gave excellent predictions for the effect of different flow rates. After all of the components were assembled, we ran a series of performance tests on the components and system to determine the particle capture efficiency as a function of size for dioctyl sebacate (DOS) and DMSO aerosols using laser particle counters and filter samples. The pad had an efficiency greater than 990% for 0.1 {mu}m DMSO particles. Test results on the prototype carbon filter showed only 70% efficiency, instead of the 99.9% in small scale laboratory tests. Thus further work will be required to develop the prototype carbon filter. 7 refs., 18 figs., 10 tabs.

  1. Force detection of nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rugar, D.; Zueger, O.; Hoen, S.; Yannoni, C.S.; Vieth, H.M.; Kendrick, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    Micromechanical sensing of magnetic force was used to detect nuclear magnetic resonance with exceptional sensitivity and spatial resolution. With a 900 angstrom thick silicon nitride cantilever capable of detecting subfemtonewton forces, a single shot sensitivity of 1.6 x 10 13 protons was achieved for an ammonium nitrate sample mounted on the cantilever. A nearby millimeter-size iron particle produced a 600 tesla per meter magnetic field gradient, resulting in a spatial resolution of 2.6 micrometers in one dimension. These results suggest that magnetic force sensing is a viable approach for enhancing the sensitivity and spatial resolution of nuclear magnetic resonance microimaging

  2. Calculation of the shock-wave in the region close to an underground nuclear explosion (method Cades); Calcul de l'onde de choc en zone proche d'une explosion nucleaire souterraine (methode cades)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supiot, F; Brugies, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    The outline of a method is presented for calculating the characteristics of a shock wave produced by an underground nuclear explosion (pressure, wave velocity, velocity of the medium, energy left in the medium by the shock, etc.). By means of an application to a granitic medium and of a comparison with results obtained during French nuclear explosions, it has been possible to show the good agreement existing between the calculations and the experimental results. The advantages of such a method for studying the industrial applications of underground nuclear explosions are stressed. (authors) [French] On expose les grandes lignes d'une methode de calcul des caracteristiques de l'onde de choc issue d'une explosion nucleaire souterraine (pression, vitesse de l'onde, vitesse du milieu, energie deposee par le choc dans le milieu...). Une application a un milieu granitique et une comparaison aux resultats obtenus au cours d'explosions nucleaires francaises permet de montrer la bonne concordance entre le calcul et les resultats experimentaux. On souligne l'interet d'une telle, methode pour l'etude d'applications industrielles des explosions nucleaires souterraines. (auteurs)

  3. Landmine detection by nuclear techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megahid, R M [Reactor Physics Department, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2000-11-15

    According to the information given by recent published data , more than 150 million land mines are buried in more than 70 countries, among them is Egypt . In Egypt, more than 23 million land mines lie buried in the northern parts of the western desert and western parts of Sinai . These mines are triggered accidentally by civilian activities, ravaging the land and killing or maiming a lot of innocent civilian people . For humanitarian demining , the removal of land mines already in the ground is very difficult and quite costly. In addition, detecting minimum metal antipersonnel mines and distinguishing them from the metallic debris of a minefields is difficult with current available detectors.

  4. Landmine detection by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megahid, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    According to the information given by recent published data , more than 150 million land mines are buried in more than 70 countries, among them is Egypt . In Egypt, more than 23 million land mines lie buried in the northern parts of the western desert and western parts of Sinai . These mines are triggered accidentally by civilian activities, ravaging the land and killing or maiming a lot of innocent civilian people . For humanitarian demining , the removal of land mines already in the ground is very difficult and quite costly. In addition, detecting minimum metal antipersonnel mines and distinguishing them from the metallic debris of a minefields is difficult with current available detectors

  5. Monitoring of surface chemical and underground nuclear explosions with help of ionospheric radio-sounding above test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnov, V.M.; Drobzheva, Ya.V.

    2000-01-01

    We describe the basic principles, advantages and disadvantages of ionospheric method to monitor surface chemical and underground nuclear explosions. The ionosphere is 'an apparatus' for the infra-sound measurements immediately above the test site. Using remote radio sounding of the ionosphere you can obtain that information. So you carry out the inspection at the test site. The main disadvantage of the ionospheric method is the necessity to sound the ionosphere with radio waves. (author)

  6. Spatial selection of focal of underground nuclear explosion by means of directed investigation and a method of vibroseismic oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voskobojnikova, G.M.; Sedukhina, G.F.; Khajretdinov, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    An approach to task solving on parameters localization and determination within focal area of underground nuclear explosion (UNE) by scanning the inspected area by vibroseismic translucent field is considered. For the method, which application has been justified for task solving on On-Site Inspection (OSI), results of numerical modeling of seismic antenna orientation specifications are given, results of experiments on directed method of vibroseismic oscillation is described, questions on practical application of On-Site Inspection tasks are discussed. (author)

  7. Health of children living in Panfilov distract of Almaty region after Chernobyl accident and nuclear explosions at Lobnor test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mit, A.A.; Chasnikov, I.Ya.; Chastnicova, S.S.; Mukhametzhanov, M.M.; Zhantagulova, T.K.

    1999-01-01

    It is known that Panfilov district of Almaty region was affected with radiation contamination during nuclear explosions at Lobnor test site and after Chernobyl accident, which impaired the health of its population [1]. In addition, the children's mortality rate was turned out to be the highest one among other districts of the region. This report presents some other information related to an increase of children's sickness rate in Panfilov district

  8. Near-surface velocity modeling at Yucca Mountain using borehole and surface records from underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, B.A.

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Energy is investigating Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a potential site for commercial radioactive waste disposal in a mined geologic repository. One critical aspect of site suitability is the tectonic stability of the repository site. The levels of risk from both actual fault displacements in the repository block and ground shaking from nearby earthquakes are being examined. In particular, it is necessary to determine the expected level of ground shaking at the repository depth for large seismic sources such as nearby large earthquakes or underground nuclear explosions (UNEs). Earthquakes are expected to cause the largest ground motions at the site, however, only underground nuclear explosion data have been obtained at the repository depth level (about 350m below the ground level) to date. In this study we investigate ground motion from Nevada Test Site underground nuclear explosions recorded at Yucca Mountain to establish a compressional velocity model for the uppermost 350m of the mountain. This model is useful for prediction of repository-level ground motions for potential large nearby earthquakes

  9. Near-surface velocity modeling at Yucca Mountain using borehole and surface records from underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrani, B.A. [Texas Univ., El Paso, TX (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences; Walck, M.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Energy is investigating Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a potential site for commercial radioactive waste disposal in a mined geologic repository. One critical aspect of site suitability is the tectonic stability of the repository site. The levels of risk from both actual fault displacements in the repository block and ground shaking from nearby earthquakes are being examined. In particular, it is necessary to determine the expected level of ground shaking at the repository depth for large seismic sources such as nearby large earthquakes or underground nuclear explosions (UNEs). Earthquakes are expected to cause the largest ground motions at the site, however, only underground nuclear explosion data have been obtained at the repository depth level (about 350m below the ground level) to date. In this study we investigate ground motion from Nevada Test Site underground nuclear explosions recorded at Yucca Mountain to establish a compressional velocity model for the uppermost 350m of the mountain. This model is useful for prediction of repository-level ground motions for potential large nearby earthquakes.

  10. Carbon nanotubes-based chemiresistive immunosensor for small molecules: detection of nitroaromatic explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Miso; Cella, Lakshmi N; Chen, Wilfred; Myung, Nosang V; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2010-12-15

    In recent years, there has been a growing focus on use of one-dimensional (1-D) nanostructures, such as carbon nanotubes and nanowires, as transducer elements for label-free chemiresistive/field-effect transistor biosensors as they provide label-free and high sensitivity detection. While research to-date has elucidated the power of carbon nanotubes- and other 1-D nanostructure-based field effect transistors immunosensors for large charged macromolecules such as proteins and viruses, their application to small uncharged or charged molecules has not been demonstrated. In this paper we report a single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)-based chemiresistive immunosensor for label-free, rapid, sensitive and selective detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), a small molecule. The newly developed immunosensor employed a displacement mode/format in which SWNTs network forming conduction channel of the sensor was first modified with trinitrophenyl (TNP), an analog of TNT, and then ligated with the anti-TNP single chain antibody. Upon exposure to TNT or its derivatives the bound antibodies were displaced producing a large change, several folds higher than the noise, in the resistance/conductance of SWNTs giving excellent limit of detection, sensitivity and selectivity. The sensor detected between 0.5 ppb and 5000 ppb TNT with good selectivity to other nitroaromatic explosives and demonstrated good accuracy for monitoring TNT in untreated environmental water matrix. We believe this new displacement format can be easily generalized to other one-dimensional nanostructure-based chemiresistive immuno/affinity-sensors for detecting small and/or uncharged molecules of interest in environmental monitoring and health care. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Overburden stripping from deeply buried orebodies by controlled nuclear explosive casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saperstein, L W; Mishra, R [Department of Mining, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    Previous schemes to strip the overburden from a deeply-buried orebody by nuclear explosives have been hampered by various constraints. These are the notions that surface topography should slope in the desired direction to facilitate casting; that the orebody should be stripped all at once, meaning that an unsafe and unnaturally high yield will be detonated; or that the overburden be broken and cast, in a manner akin to conventional blasting, with a series of explosions linked by milli-second delays, such delays being an unproven and, perhaps non-permissible technology; and, finally, that the schemes leave an excessive amount of overburden to be removed by conventional means. It is proposed that deep orebodies, idealized by a 250-ft. thick copper porphyry under 600 feet of cover, be stripped in successive rows, using available row-charge technology. A first row, of greater magnitude than those succeeding, is used to expose the orebody. The second row is placed so as to throw overburden into the void created by the first. All rows are placed so as not to damage the ore. Except for the first row, all rows utilize directed throwing. After a row is detonated, the ore beneath it would be removed by conventional means. The void thus created would provide space for the successive row to fire into. Further, the additional free-face provided by the void imparts a major direction to the ejecta. Because of the directed nature of the throw, ore removal does not have to proceed directly beneath the row slope. Advantages to this scheme are its adaptability to terrain; its reduction in overburden to be removed by conventional methods; its increased speed in uncovering ore; its reduction of unit costs; audits adaptability to production rates. An example, utilizing the idealized orebody shows that production of ore can begin within a year of project approval versus four or five years for the same orebody developed conventionally; that no more than eight percent of the overburden has

  12. Overburden stripping from deeply buried orebodies by controlled nuclear explosive casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saperstein, L.W.; Mishra, R.

    1970-01-01

    Previous schemes to strip the overburden from a deeply-buried orebody by nuclear explosives have been hampered by various constraints. These are the notions that surface topography should slope in the desired direction to facilitate casting; that the orebody should be stripped all at once, meaning that an unsafe and unnaturally high yield will be detonated; or that the overburden be broken and cast, in a manner akin to conventional blasting, with a series of explosions linked by milli-second delays, such delays being an unproven and, perhaps non-permissible technology; and, finally, that the schemes leave an excessive amount of overburden to be removed by conventional means. It is proposed that deep orebodies, idealized by a 250-ft. thick copper porphyry under 600 feet of cover, be stripped in successive rows, using available row-charge technology. A first row, of greater magnitude than those succeeding, is used to expose the orebody. The second row is placed so as to throw overburden into the void created by the first. All rows are placed so as not to damage the ore. Except for the first row, all rows utilize directed throwing. After a row is detonated, the ore beneath it would be removed by conventional means. The void thus created would provide space for the successive row to fire into. Further, the additional free-face provided by the void imparts a major direction to the ejecta. Because of the directed nature of the throw, ore removal does not have to proceed directly beneath the row slope. Advantages to this scheme are its adaptability to terrain; its reduction in overburden to be removed by conventional methods; its increased speed in uncovering ore; its reduction of unit costs; audits adaptability to production rates. An example, utilizing the idealized orebody shows that production of ore can begin within a year of project approval versus four or five years for the same orebody developed conventionally; that no more than eight percent of the overburden has

  13. Moment tensor analysis of the 3 September 2017 DPRK announced nuclear explosion and collapse aftershock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, G. A.; Ford, S. R.; Chiang, A.; Walter, W. R.; Dreger, D. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) conducted its sixth announced nuclear test on 3 September 2017, 03:30:00 with a magnitude of 6.1 (IDC mb). At 03:38:27, there was an aftershock of magnitude 4.1 (IDC mb). Moment tensor analysis using regional long-period surface waves was performed to identify the source type of these two events. The first event was an explosive isotropic source with total seismic moment magnitude of Mw 5.34 (Mo=1.16e+17 Nm) with strong 66% isotropic component (eigenvalues: 1.30e+17, 0.75e+17, 0.44e+17 Nm). The second event was a closing crack source with an Mw 4.64 (Mo=1.04e+17 Nm) also with a strong 68% isotropic component (eigenvalues: -4.82e+16, -5.33e+16, -10.93e+16 Nm). We used the same stations within 360-1140 km for inversion of both events (stations: IC.MDJ, IC.BJT, IC.HIA) and predict the long-period displacements at KG.TJN and IU.INCN. We used a 1-D velocity model appropriate for active tectonic regions and band pass the data between periods of 20 and 100 sec. Waveform time-shifts were incorporated from previous event-station pairs to account for velocity model inadequacies. Both DPRK events source-types plot within the population of other NNSS nuclear and western US collapse events (Ford et al., 2009) on the fundamental lune (Tape and Tape, 2012). The DPRK collapse event is similar to the hole collapse 0h21m26s after the 5 September 1982 Atrisco shot at NNSS (Springer et al., 2002; DOE NV-209). The DPRK collapse could be explained by a complete or partial apical cavity collapse. The estimated collapse volume is 122000-277000 m3 and crack radius is 30-40 m given the seismic moment, elastic moduli for granite and a closing crack model (Mueller, 2001). In comparison to Denny and Johnson (1994) cavity-yield scaling in granite, the cavity radius ranges from 40 to 60 m given an explosion yield range of 140-400 kT. This collapse event is noteworthy because large aftershocks are rare in nuclear testing and even more rare are

  14. [Chromosomal instability parameters in the population affected by nuclear explosions at the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abil'dinova, G Zh; Kuleshov, N P; Sviatova, G S

    2003-08-01

    A population genetic survey of 149 persons who were born and have permanently lived in the contaminated zones of the Semipalatinsk region has been performed. A cytogenetic study has demonstrated that the frequency of aberrant cells is 1.7-3 times higher than control parameters. The total frequencies of chromosome aberrations are 3.43 +/- 0.48, 3.1 +/- 0.3, 1.8 +/- 0.2, and 1.15 +/- 0.17 aberrations per 100 cells in the populations of the extreme radiation risk (ERR), maximum radiation risk (MaxRR), minimum radiation risk (MinRR), and control zones, respectively. The high chromosome aberration rate in all three zones of radiation risk has been detected mainly due to radiation-induced chromosome markers, including paired fragments (1.2 +/- 0.2, 0.94 +/- 0.13, and 0.43 +/- 0.06 per 100 cells, respectively), dicentric and ring chromosomes (0.44 +/- 0.04, 0.45 +/- 0.07, and 0.11 +/- 0.02 per 100 cells, respectively), and stable chromosome aberrations (0.74 +/- 0.16, 0.8 +/- 0.1, and 0.63 +/- 0.13 per 100 cells, respectively). The qualitative spectra of the cytogenetic lesions observed in these groups indicate a mutagenic effect of ionizing radiation on chromosomes in the populations studied.

  15. Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Trace Vapor Detection and Standoff Detection of Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    construction of sensors that are designed for specific tasks. PAS is well suited for trace detection of gaseous and condensed media. Recent research has...The TLV for chemical substances is defined as a concentration in air , typically for inhalation or skin exposure. For acetone , the TLV is 250 ppm...12 pt) The findings in this report are not to be construed as an official Department of the Army position unless so designated by other authorized

  16. Nuclear Rocket Facility Decommissioning Project: Controlled Explosive Demolition of Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael R, Kruzic

    2008-01-01

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the Test Cell A (TCA) Facility (Figure 1) was used in the early to mid-1960s for testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program, to further space travel. Nuclear rocket testing resulted in the activation of materials around the reactors and the release of fission products and fuel particles. The TCA facility, known as Corrective Action Unit 115, was decontaminated and decommissioned (D and D) from December 2004 to July 2005 using the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The SAFER process allows environmental remediation and facility closure activities (i.e., decommissioning) to occur simultaneously, provided technical decisions are made by an experienced decision maker within the site conceptual site model. Facility closure involved a seven-step decommissioning strategy. First, preliminary investigation activities were performed, including review of process knowledge documentation, targeted facility radiological and hazardous material surveys, concrete core drilling and analysis, shield wall radiological characterization, and discrete sampling, which proved to be very useful and cost-effective in subsequent decommissioning planning and execution and worker safety. Second, site setup and mobilization of equipment and personnel were completed. Third, early removal of hazardous materials, including asbestos, lead, cadmium, and oil, was performed ensuring worker safety during more invasive demolition activities. Process piping was to be verified void of contents. Electrical systems were de-energized and other systems were rendered free of residual energy. Fourth, areas of high radiological contamination were decontaminated using multiple methods. Contamination levels varied across the facility. Fixed beta/gamma contamination levels ranged up to 2 million disintegrations per minute (dpm)/100

  17. Nuclear Rocket Facility Decommissioning Project: Controlled Explosive Demolition of Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael R. Kruzic

    2008-06-01

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the Test Cell A (TCA) Facility (Figure 1) was used in the early to mid-1960s for testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program, to further space travel. Nuclear rocket testing resulted in the activation of materials around the reactors and the release of fission products and fuel particles. The TCA facility, known as Corrective Action Unit 115, was decontaminated and decommissioned (D&D) from December 2004 to July 2005 using the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The SAFER process allows environmental remediation and facility closure activities (i.e., decommissioning) to occur simultaneously, provided technical decisions are made by an experienced decision maker within the site conceptual site model. Facility closure involved a seven-step decommissioning strategy. First, preliminary investigation activities were performed, including review of process knowledge documentation, targeted facility radiological and hazardous material surveys, concrete core drilling and analysis, shield wall radiological characterization, and discrete sampling, which proved to be very useful and cost-effective in subsequent decommissioning planning and execution and worker safety. Second, site setup and mobilization of equipment and personnel were completed. Third, early removal of hazardous materials, including asbestos, lead, cadmium, and oil, was performed ensuring worker safety during more invasive demolition activities. Process piping was to be verified void of contents. Electrical systems were de-energized and other systems were rendered free of residual energy. Fourth, areas of high radiological contamination were decontaminated using multiple methods. Contamination levels varied across the facility. Fixed beta/gamma contamination levels ranged up to 2 million disintegrations per minute (dpm)/100

  18. Polymer nanocomposite nanomechanical cantilever sensors: material characterization, device development and application in explosive vapour detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seena, V; Fernandes, Avil; Ramgopal Rao, V; Pant, Prita; Mukherji, Soumyo

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports an optimized and highly sensitive piezoresistive SU-8 nanocomposite microcantilever sensor and its application for detection of explosives in vapour phase. The optimization has been in improving its electrical, mechanical and transduction characteristics. We have achieved a better dispersion of carbon black (CB) in the SU-8/CB nanocomposite piezoresistor and arrived at an optimal range of 8-9 vol% CB concentration by performing a systematic mechanical and electrical characterization of polymer nanocomposites. Mechanical characterization of SU-8/CB nanocomposite thin films was performed using the nanoindentation technique with an appropriate substrate effect analysis. Piezoresistive microcantilevers having an optimum carbon black concentration were fabricated using a design aimed at surface stress measurements with reduced fabrication process complexity. The optimal range of 8-9 vol% CB concentration has resulted in an improved sensitivity, low device variability and low noise level. The resonant frequency and spring constant of the microcantilever were found to be 22 kHz and 0.4 N m -1 respectively. The devices exhibited a surface stress sensitivity of 7.6 ppm (mN m -1 ) -1 and the noise characterization results support their suitability for biochemical sensing applications. This paper also reports the ability of the sensor in detecting TNT vapour concentration down to less than six parts per billion with a sensitivity of 1 mV/ppb.

  19. Polymer nanocomposite nanomechanical cantilever sensors: material characterization, device development and application in explosive vapour detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seena, V; Fernandes, Avil; Ramgopal Rao, V [Centre for Excellence in Nanoelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Pant, Prita [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Mukherji, Soumyo, E-mail: seenapradeep@iitb.ac.in, E-mail: rrao@ee.iitb.ac.in [Department of Biosciences and Bio-engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India)

    2011-07-22

    This paper reports an optimized and highly sensitive piezoresistive SU-8 nanocomposite microcantilever sensor and its application for detection of explosives in vapour phase. The optimization has been in improving its electrical, mechanical and transduction characteristics. We have achieved a better dispersion of carbon black (CB) in the SU-8/CB nanocomposite piezoresistor and arrived at an optimal range of 8-9 vol% CB concentration by performing a systematic mechanical and electrical characterization of polymer nanocomposites. Mechanical characterization of SU-8/CB nanocomposite thin films was performed using the nanoindentation technique with an appropriate substrate effect analysis. Piezoresistive microcantilevers having an optimum carbon black concentration were fabricated using a design aimed at surface stress measurements with reduced fabrication process complexity. The optimal range of 8-9 vol% CB concentration has resulted in an improved sensitivity, low device variability and low noise level. The resonant frequency and spring constant of the microcantilever were found to be 22 kHz and 0.4 N m{sup -1} respectively. The devices exhibited a surface stress sensitivity of 7.6 ppm (mN m{sup -1}){sup -1} and the noise characterization results support their suitability for biochemical sensing applications. This paper also reports the ability of the sensor in detecting TNT vapour concentration down to less than six parts per billion with a sensitivity of 1 mV/ppb.

  20. Polymer nanocomposite nanomechanical cantilever sensors: material characterization, device development and application in explosive vapour detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seena, V; Fernandes, Avil; Pant, Prita; Mukherji, Soumyo; Rao, V Ramgopal

    2011-07-22

    This paper reports an optimized and highly sensitive piezoresistive SU-8 nanocomposite microcantilever sensor and its application for detection of explosives in vapour phase. The optimization has been in improving its electrical, mechanical and transduction characteristics. We have achieved a better dispersion of carbon black (CB) in the SU-8/CB nanocomposite piezoresistor and arrived at an optimal range of 8-9 vol% CB concentration by performing a systematic mechanical and electrical characterization of polymer nanocomposites. Mechanical characterization of SU-8/CB nanocomposite thin films was performed using the nanoindentation technique with an appropriate substrate effect analysis. Piezoresistive microcantilevers having an optimum carbon black concentration were fabricated using a design aimed at surface stress measurements with reduced fabrication process complexity. The optimal range of 8-9 vol% CB concentration has resulted in an improved sensitivity, low device variability and low noise level. The resonant frequency and spring constant of the microcantilever were found to be 22 kHz and 0.4 N m(-1) respectively. The devices exhibited a surface stress sensitivity of 7.6 ppm (mN m(-1))(-1) and the noise characterization results support their suitability for biochemical sensing applications. This paper also reports the ability of the sensor in detecting TNT vapour concentration down to less than six parts per billion with a sensitivity of 1 mV/ppb.