WorldWideScience

Sample records for nuclear emulsions

  1. Development of High Sensitivity Nuclear Emulsion and Fine Grained Emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, H.; Asada, T.; Naka, T.; Naganawa, N.; Kuwabara, K.; Nakamura, M.

    2014-08-01

    Nuclear emulsion is a particle detector having high spacial resolution and angular resolution. It became useful for large statistics experiment thanks to the development of automatic scanning system. In 2010, a facility for emulsion production was introduced and R&D of nuclear emulsion began at Nagoya university. In this paper, we present results of development of the high sensitivity emulsion and fine grained emulsion for dark matter search experiment. Improvement of sensitivity is achieved by raising density of silver halide crystals and doping well-adjusted amount of chemicals. Production of fine grained emulsion was difficult because of unexpected crystal condensation. By mixing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to gelatin as a binder, we succeeded in making a stable fine grained emulsion.

  2. Development of High Sensitivity Nuclear Emulsion and Fine Grained Emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahara, H.; Asada, T.; Naka, T.; Naganawa, N.; Kuwabara, K.; Nakamura, M.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear emulsion is a particle detector having high spacial resolution and angular resolution. It became useful for large statistics experiment thanks to the development of automatic scanning system. In 2010, a facility for emulsion production was introduced and R and D of nuclear emulsion began at Nagoya university. In this paper, we present results of development of the high sensitivity emulsion and fine grained emulsion for dark matter search experiment. Improvement of sensitivity is achieved by raising density of silver halide crystals and doping well-adjusted amount of chemicals. Production of fine grained emulsion was difficult because of unexpected crystal condensation. By mixing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to gelatin as a binder, we succeeded in making a stable fine grained emulsion

  3. Study on some characteristics of nuclear emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonglian, Liu; Jinqin, Han; Huichang, Liu [Academia Sinica, Beijing, BJ (China). Inst. of Atomic Energy

    1993-11-01

    The authors describe the variation of some characteristics of the nuclear emulsion such as sensitivity, fog density and latent image stability influenced by adding ascorbic acid into the finished emulsion N-4. A comparative study of latent image stability is made between Fuji ET-7B nuclear emulsion and authors' under different temperature and relative humidity. The result indicates that the addition of ascorbic acid obviously improves the latent image stability of the emulsion N-4. The Fuji ET-7B emulsion and the emulsion N-4 containing ascorbic acid have similar latent image fading quality at lower temperature while the Japanese sample does have better quality at room temperature.

  4. Nuclear emulsion and high-energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Hancheng; Zhang Donghai

    2008-01-01

    The history of the development of nuclear emulsion and its applications in high-energy physics, from the discovery of pion to the discovery of tau neutrino, are briefly reviewed in this paper. A new stage of development of nuclear-emulsion technique is discussed

  5. Response of nuclear emulsions to ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, R.; Pinkerton, F.E.

    1975-01-01

    Heavy ion tracks in Ilford K-2 emulsion are simulated with a computer program which makes use of the delta-ray theory of track structure, and the special assumption that the response of this emulsion to gamma-rays is 8-or-more hit. The Ilford K-series of nuclear emulsions is produced from a parent stock called K.0 emulsion, sensitized to become K.1 to K.5, and desensitized to become K-1 to K-3. Our simulations demonstrate that the emulsions K.5 through K.0 to K-1 are 1-or-more hit detectors, while K-2 is an 8-or-more hit detector. We have no data for K-3 emulsion. It would appear that emulsions of intermediate hittedness might be produced by an intermediate desensitization, to mimic or match the RBE-LET variations of biological cells, perhaps to produce a ''rem-dosimeter''. In the K-2 emulsion no developable gains are produced by stopping H, He, and Li ions. The emulsion has ''threshold-like'' properties, resembling etchable track detectors. It should prove useful in the measurement of high LET dose in a strong low LET background, as for pions or neutrons. Since it can be expected to accumulate and repair ''sub-lethal damage'', to display the ion-kill and gamma-kill inactivation modes, the grain-count and track width regimes, it may serve to model biological effects. (auth)

  6. Long-term characteristics of nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, N; Kuwabara, K

    2010-01-01

    Long-term characteristics of the nuclear emulsion so called 'OPERA film' used in the neutrino oscillation experiment, OPERA, has been studied for 8 years since its production or refreshing after it. In the results, it turned out to be excellent in sensitivity, amount of random noise, and refreshing characteristics. The retention capacity of latent image of tracks was also studied. The result will open the way to the recycling of 7,000,000 emulsion films which will remain not developed after 5 years of OPERA's run, and other long-term experiments with emulsion.

  7. Long-term characteristics of nuclear emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganawa, N.; Kuwabara, K.

    2010-02-01

    Long-term characteristics of the nuclear emulsion so called ``OPERA film'' used in the neutrino oscillation experiment, OPERA, has been studied for 8 years since its production or refreshing after it. In the results, it turned out to be excellent in sensitivity, amount of random noise, and refreshing characteristics. The retention capacity of latent image of tracks was also studied. The result will open the way to the recycling of 7,000,000 emulsion films which will remain not developed after 5 years of OPERA's run, and other long-term experiments with emulsion.

  8. Relativistic nuclear photographic emulsion for multilayer piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogomolov, K.S.; Romanovskaya, K.M.; Razorenova, I.F.

    1975-01-01

    Nuclear photoemulsion layers having a high sensitivity to relativistic singly charged particles, a high sensitivity stability, time stability of the latent image, as well as a high constancy of the emulsion thickness within the limits of the layer, were developed and fabricated for a large nuclear photoemulsion stack that was exposed in space during the experiments carried out on the artificial earth satellite ''Intercosmos-6''

  9. Supralinearity and particle discrimination in nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, R.; Larsson, L.; Pinkerton, F.E.; Benton, E.V.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear emulsions may be desensitized in manufacture and/or may be so processed as to discriminate against small latent image sites; to yield supralinear sensitometric response after x-irradiation; and to discriminate against lightly ionizing radiations in favor of heavily ionizing particles. In a circumstance where one electron passing through an emulsion grain is unlikely to generate a latent image sufficiently large to yield a visible grain after development, some larger number of electrons is required, resulting in 'many-hit' statistics, supralinearity, and particle discrimination: for lightly ionizing particles are not likely to generate more than one delta-ray (secondary electron) in their passage through or near a grain. Since these properties are analogous to the response of many biological cells to ionizing radiations, such emulsion-developer combinations have the potential to mimic the response of biological systems to particulate radiations of different charge and speed. (author)

  10. Track theory and nuclear photographic emulsions for Dark Matter searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditlov, V.A.

    2013-01-01

    This work is devoted to the analysis of possibilities of nuclear emulsions for Dark Matter search, particles of which can produce slow recoil-nuclei. Tracks of such recoil-nuclei in developed nuclear emulsion consist from several emulsion grains. The analysis was carried out with Monte-Carlo calculations made on the basis of the Track Theory and the various factors influencing Dark Matter particles registration efficiency were investigated. Problems, which should be solved for optimal utilization of nuclear emulsions in Dark Matter search, were formulated. B ody - Highlights: ► Specific features of Dark Matter Search in nuclear photographic emulsions. ► Track theory for WIMP search in nuclear emulsions. ► Primary efficiency for single WIMP registration. ► Properties of primary WIMP registration efficiency. ► Primary registration efficiency of WIMP flow

  11. Increasing of registering capacity of nuclear emulsion for autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanovskaya, K.M.; Savvateeva, J.P.; Tolkacheva, E.N.

    1977-01-01

    The ways of increasing detecting power of the type M nuclear emulsion gel have been investigated in these studies. There have been found conditions under which type M emulsion sensitivity increased by 15 to 20% without increasing fog grain background. The stability of photographic sensitivity during emulsion gel storage increased by two times. The prevention of latent image fading (by means of layer moisture content) decreased to 1.2% and increasing the detecting power of the emulsion (by means of exposure temperature) by up to 37 0 C. The exposure time of tritium labelled autographs has been decreased to about 20%. (author)

  12. Particles identification using nuclear emulsion in OPERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manai, K.

    2007-10-01

    The Opera experiment will try to confirm the ν μ → ν τ oscillations by the appearance of the ν τ in a pure ν μ beam. Indeed, a neutrino beam almost pure is produced at CERN (CNGS Beam) and sent to the Opera detector. The detector is composed of two muons spectrometers and a target formed by walls of bricks. Each brick is an alternation of lead plates and emulsions. This modular structure allows to reconstruct the kink topology of the τ lepton decay with a high spatial resolution. The great challenge of the Opera experiment is to detect the ν τ interactions with the less uncertainty. To reduce this uncertainty it is essential to identify with the greatest efficiency any background event not including a tau particle. My work permits to reduce background. My principal contribution concerns the selection development, the reconstruction and the muons identification at low energy. This work is based on the setting of variables related to the deposit energy and the multiple scattering. Previously, only deposit energy was used in the analyses of pion/muon separation. This study allows doubling the muon identification efficiency at low energy. This leads to increase the background events rejection in Opera and to decrease the contamination by 30%. I also studied the nuclear emulsions capacity to identify charged particles through the analysis of a test beam carried out by the Nagoya group. This test contains protons and pions with different energies. My work proves that the European scan system gives comparable results with those obtained by the Japanese scan system. (author)

  13. Technical specification of the NRPB Nuclear Emulsion Dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, D.T.; Bird, T.V.

    1978-08-01

    This document is a formal specification of the NRPB Nuclear Emulsion Dosemeter. The dosemeter specified in this report replaces the NRPB Fast Neutron Personal Dosemeter specified in NRPB-R50. (author)

  14. Recent applications of nuclear track emulsion technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarubin, P. I., E-mail: zarubin@lhe.jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of High Energy Physics (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    A survey of recent results obtained using the nuclear track emulsion (NTE) technique in low energy applications is given. NTE irradiation with 60 MeV {sup 8}He nuclei provides identification of their decays at stopping, evaluation of the possibility of α range spectrometry, and observation of drift of thermalized {sup 8}He atoms. Correlations of α particles studied in {sup 12}C → 3α splitting induced by 14.1 MeV neutrons indicate the presence of a superposition of 0{sup +} and 2{sup +} states of the {sup 8}Be nucleus in the ground state of {sup 12}C. Angular correlations of fragments are studied in boron-enriched NTE, and the prospects of NTE application in radioactivity and nuclear fission research are discussed. It is proposed to use an automated microscope to search for collinear tripartition of heavy nuclei implanted in NTE. Surface irradiation of NTE by a {sup 252}Cf source is started. Planar events containing fragment pairs and long range α particles, as well as fragment triples, are studied. NTE samples are calibrated using Kr and Xe ions with an energy of 1.2 and 3 A MeV.

  15. Fine grained nuclear emulsion for higher resolution tracking detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naka, T., E-mail: naka@flab.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Asada, T.; Katsuragawa, T.; Hakamata, K.; Yoshimoto, M.; Kuwabara, K.; Nakamura, M.; Sato, O.; Nakano, T. [Graduated School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Tawara, Y. [Division of Energy Science, EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); De Lellis, G. [INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Sirignano, C. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); D' Ambrossio, N. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (L' Aquila) (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Fine grained nuclear emulsion with several 10 nm silver halide crystals can detect submicron tracks. This detector is expected to be worked as dark matter detector with directional sensitive. Now, nuclear emulsion became possible to be produced at Nagoya University, and extreme fine grained nuclear emulsion with 20 nm diameter was produced. Using this emulsion and new reading out technique with expansion technique, for optical selection and X-ray microscopy, recoiled tracks induced by dark matter can be detected automatically. Then, readout efficiency is larger than 80% at 120 nm, and angular resolution for final confirmation with X-ray microscopy is 20°. In addition, we started to construct the R and D underground facility in Gran Sasso.

  16. Large angle tracking and high discriminating tracking in nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Tomokazu; Shibuya, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Satoru; Fukuda, Tsutomu; Mikado, Shoji

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear emulsion is a high resolution and re-analyzable detector. Conventional “Track Selector” which have angle acceptance |tan θ|<0.6 are widely used to find tracks in emulsion. We made a new track selector “Fine Track Selector” (FTS) which has large angle acceptance and high discriminating ability. The FTS reduces fake tracks using new algorithms, navigation etc. FTS also keeps finding efficiency of tracks around 90% in an angle range of |tan θ| < 3.5. FTS was applied to the τ candidate in OPERA and no additional tracks found. FTS will be useful to our new J-PARC emulsion experiment.

  17. Two component memory of Rotstein effect in nuclear emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gushchin, E.M.; Lebedev, A.N.; Somov, S.V.; Timofeev, M.K.; Tipografshchik, G.I.

    1991-01-01

    Two sharply differing memory components - fast and slow -are simultaneously detected during investigation into the controlled mode of fast charged particle detection in simple nuclear emulsions, with the emulsion trace sensitivity, corresponding to these components, being about 5 time different. The value of memory time is T m ≅40 μs for fast memory and T m ≅3.5 ms for the slow one. The detection of two Rotstein effect memory components confirms the correctness of the trap model

  18. Imaging of Nuclear Fragmentation in Nuclear Track Emulsion Relativistic Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarubina, I.G. JINR

    2011-01-01

    The method of nuclear track emulsion provides a uniquely complete observation of multiple fragment systems produced in dissociation of relativistic nuclei. The most valuable events of coherent dissociation of nuclei in narrow jets of light and the lightest nuclei with a net charge as in the initial nucleus, occurring without the production of fragments of the target nuclei and mesons (the so-called w hite s tars), comprise a few percent among the observed interactions. The data on this phenomenon are fragmented, and the interpretation is not offered. The dissociation degree of light O, Ne, Mg and Si, and as well as heavy Au, Pb and U nuclei may reach a complete destruction to light and the lightest nuclei and nucleons, resulting in cluster systems of an unprecedented complexity. Studies with relativistic neutron-deficient nuclei have special advantages due to more complete observations. An extensive collection of macro videos of such interactions in nuclear track emulsion gathered by the Becquerel collaboration is presented

  19. The identification method of the nuclear fragments in emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jipa, Alexandru; Ocheseanu, Silvia; Caramarcu, Costin; Calin, Marius; Constantin, Florin; Stan, Emil

    2003-01-01

    The visualization detectors have been successfully used from the beginning of the study of the relativistic nuclear collisions. One of these detectors used in such experiments is the nuclear emulsion. To increase the speed of the passage from pictures to experimental data different methods and tools have been proposed during the time. For identifying the nuclear fragments obtained in the relativistic radioactive beams multiple layers of nuclear emulsions have been exposed in experiments performed at the Synchrophasotron from the JINR Dubna (BECQUEREL Collaboration). The nuclear fragments have been identified using PAVICOM scanning and measuring system. In the present work an identification method based on a real time image processing machine and a reconstruction algorithm based on special conformal transforms is proposed. The results obtained by this method are compared with those obtained using PAVICOM device. Because in this study only pictures have been used, not initial nuclear emulsions, some difficulties in the identification of the nuclear fragments with higher polar angles can appear. Generally, comparable results have been obtained. The authors thank Dr. Pavel Zarubin from JINR Dubna, Laboratory of High Energy Physics, and Dr. Maria Haiduc, Institute of Space Sciences Bucharest-Magurele, for the pictures of the nuclear emulsions exposed in these experiments. (authors)

  20. Experimental examination of ternary fission in nuclear track emulsion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mamatkulov, K. Z.; Ambrožová, Iva; Artemenkov, D. A.; Bradnova, V.; Firu, E.; Haiduc, M.; Kákona, Martin; Kattabekov, R. R.; Marey, A.; Neagu, A.; Ploc, Ondřej; Rusakova, V. V.; Stanoeva, R.; Turek, Karel; Zaitsev, A. A.; Zarubin, P. I.; Zarubina, I. G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 6 (2017), s. 910-913 ISSN 1063-7796 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : angular correlation * nuclear track emulsion Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics OBOR OECD: Particles and field physics Impact factor: 0.681, year: 2016

  1. Investigation of the Geometrical Distortions in the Nuclear Emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batusov, Yu.A.; Rumyantseva, V.P.; Soroko, L.M.; Tereshchenko, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    The geometrical distortions in the nuclear emulsion were investigated by means of two devices: 1) stereoscopic meso-optical Fourier transform microscope (MFTM) and 2) traditional optical microscope (KSM-1) designed for precise measurements. The particle tracks were produced by primary Oxygen-nuclei with impulse 65.6 GeV/c and by secondary α-particles in various regions of the nuclear emulsion. The measurement errors were: 1.8' (angular minute) for orientation angle θ xy ; 2.7' (angular minute) for dip angle θ z ; 0.3 μm for transverse coordinate x; 0.1 μm for longitudinal coordinate y and 0.3 μm for depth coordinate z. The effect of the global forced bending of the nuclear emulsion glass support was detected and estimated as dθ z /dy=2' (angular minute) per mm. To suppress the local geometrical distortions, a difference plot was calculated for two secondary α-particles going very close within ≤ 10 μm over the distance 6 mm. It was shown that this mode of the local geometrical distortions is kept constant over the mutual transverse distances up to 0.6 mm. By observing the zy-plots of four secondary α-particles we have isolated the rotating mode of the local geometrical distortions in the nuclear emulsion. 5 refs., 11 figs

  2. Particle discrimination by an automatic scanner for nuclear emulsion plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinecke, W.; Fischer, B.E.

    1976-01-01

    An automatic scanner for nuclear emulsion plates has been improved by adding particle discrimination. By determination of the mean luminosity of tracks in darkfield illumination in addition to the track length a clear discrimination has been obtained, at least for lighter particles. The scanning speed of the original automatic scanner has not been reduced. The scanner works up to 200 times faster than a human scanner. Besides the particle discrimination the determination of the mean track luminosity led to a lower perturbation sensitivity with respect to a high background of accidentally developed silvergrains, scratches in emulsion etc. The reproducibility of the results obtained by the automatic scanner is better than 5%. (Auth.)

  3. Energy spectra of fast neutrons by nuclear emulsion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaresma, A.A.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental method which uses nuclear emulsion plates to determine the energy spectrum of fission neutrons is described. By using this technique, we have obtained the energy distribution of neutrons from spontaneous fission of Cf 2 5 2 . The results are in good agreement with whose obtained previously by others authors who have used different detection techniques, and they are consistent with a Maxwellian distribution as expected by Weisskopf's nuclear evaporation theory. (author)

  4. Automated track recognition and event reconstruction in nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deines-Jones, P.; Aranas, A.; Cherry, M.L.; Dugas, J.; Kudzia, D.; Nilsen, B.S.; Sengupta, K.; Waddington, C.J.; Wefel, J.P.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wosiek, B.

    1997-01-01

    The major advantages of nuclear emulsion for detecting charged particles are its submicron position resolution and sensitivity to minimum ionizing particles. These must be balanced, however, against the difficult manual microscope measurement by skilled observers required for the analysis. We have developed an automated system to acquire and analyze the microscope images from emulsion chambers. Each emulsion plate is analyzed independently, allowing coincidence techniques to be used in order to reject background and estimate error rates. The system has been used to analyze a sample of high-multiplicity Pb-Pb interactions (charged particle multiplicities ∝ 1100) produced by the 158 GeV/c per nucleon 208 Pb beam at CERN. Automatically measured events agree with our best manual measurements on 97% of all the tracks. We describe the image analysis and track reconstruction techniques, and discuss the measurement and reconstruction uncertainties. (orig.)

  5. Parallel 3-D image processing for nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Toshiyuki

    2001-01-01

    The history of nuclear plate was explained. The first nuclear plate was named as pellicles covered with 600 μm of emulsion in Europe. In Japan Emulsion Cloud Chamber (ECC) using thin emulsion (50 μm) type nuclear plate was developed in 1960. Then, the semi-automatic analyzer (1971) and automatic analyzer (1980), Track Selector (TS) with memory stored 16 layer images in 512 x 512 x 16 pixel were developed. Moreover, NTS (New Track Selector), speeding up analyzer, was produced for analysis of results of CHORUS experiment in 1996. Simultaneous readout of 16 layer images had been carried out, but UTS (Ultra Track Selector) made possible to progressive treatment of 16 layers of some data and determination of traces in all angles. Direct detection of tau neutrino (VT) was studied by DONUT (FNAL E872) using UTS and nuclear plate. Neutrino beam was produced by 800 GeV proton beam hitting the fixed target. About 1100 phenomena of neutrino reactions were observed during six months of irradiation. 203 phenomena were detected. 4 examples were shown in this paper. OPERA experiment by SK is explained. (S.Y.)

  6. Contribution to the development study of a personal fast neutron dosemeter using nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, C.

    1985-02-01

    This work deals with the response of a personal neutron dosemeter using nuclear emulsion. The main characteristics of the detector are studied with the help of a computer programme simulating the conditions of the formation of recoil protons tracks recorded by nuclear emulsions. The lecture limits of nuclear emulsions with light microscope and the validity of our computer code are checked by comparing our theoretical values with experimental results [fr

  7. Evaluation of microcomputer assisted system for nuclear emulsion measurement, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yoshihiro; Tezuka, Ikuo; Izawa, Kazuo.

    1983-01-01

    In the reaction of hardrons of several hundreds GeV/c, charm particles with from 10 -12 to 10 -13 second lifetime and beauty particles of shorter lifetime are generated. For directly observing these particles, the experiment using a system which combines nuclear emulsion and an electronic counter is carried out. The authors have engaged in the development of a nuclear emulsion analyzing system since several years ago, and recently developed a program for that system, and made measurement using the program, as one of the works to participate in the NA-19 hybrid experiment of this type, which is a high energy experiment implemented with the CERN accelerator using 350 GeV/c π - beam. In this report, first the outline of NA-19 experiment, next the corresponding of counter coordinates to nuclear emulsions, and the search for candidate events, in which two or more muons exist, that passed iron and tungsten dampers, are described. Further, the measuring programs XPRED 5 and CRS 34 and the relationship between these programs and measuring procedure and the evaluation for them are described at the end. The present program allows the measurement of generated secondary particles without any trouble up to the distance of 5 mm downstream from the collision point. It was also found that the program was applicable to the measurement of the decay phenomena and kink of the particles expected in the measurement of short-life particles. The system capability of estimating the position of target particles within 10 μm greatly contributes to this. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  8. Multi-plane photomicrography of 3-D objects in nuclear emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, V.I.

    1994-01-01

    A new method of photomicrographing charged particle tracks in nuclear emulsions is proposed. It is based on summarizing the inverse (dark field) object partial images, obtained at different emulsion layer depths on one negative. This method permits to get, for example, nuclear event stereo pictures with large image field depth. 5 refs., 5 figs

  9. Nuclear emulsion scanning in opera: methods and results

    CERN Document Server

    Bozza, C.

    2008-01-01

    The design of the OPERA experiment was also motivated and justified by the revival of nuclear emulsion handling and scanning in a modem, automatic fashion, as it took previously place, although at a smaller scale, for the CHORUS experiment. Nuclear emulsions are still the only detector to allow a very detailed topological study of an interaction/decay vertex at the sub-micrometer level. They are most suitable in experiments where topology is a non-ambiguous signature of a certain class of events. This is for instance the case of neutrino oscillation detection and measurement by the study of a tau-appearance signal. The design and performance of the two different scanning systems used in OPERA (ESS and S-UTS) are discussed. Their unique features in terms of speed, precision, background suppression, particle identification, and kinematical reconstruction are shown in close connection with the technical details that make them possible. Unequalled precision, almost vanishing background, and a wealth of informati...

  10. Particles identification using nuclear emulsion in OPERA; Identification des particules par les emulsions nucleaires dans OPERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manai, K

    2007-10-15

    The Opera experiment will try to confirm the {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}} oscillations by the appearance of the {nu}{sub {tau}} in a pure {nu}{sub {mu}} beam. Indeed, a neutrino beam almost pure is produced at CERN (CNGS Beam) and sent to the Opera detector. The detector is composed of two muons spectrometers and a target formed by walls of bricks. Each brick is an alternation of lead plates and emulsions. This modular structure allows to reconstruct the kink topology of the {tau} lepton decay with a high spatial resolution. The great challenge of the Opera experiment is to detect the {nu}{sub {tau}} interactions with the less uncertainty. To reduce this uncertainty it is essential to identify with the greatest efficiency any background event not including a tau particle. My work permits to reduce background. My principal contribution concerns the selection development, the reconstruction and the muons identification at low energy. This work is based on the setting of variables related to the deposit energy and the multiple scattering. Previously, only deposit energy was used in the analyses of pion/muon separation. This study allows doubling the muon identification efficiency at low energy. This leads to increase the background events rejection in Opera and to decrease the contamination by 30%. I also studied the nuclear emulsions capacity to identify charged particles through the analysis of a test beam carried out by the Nagoya group. This test contains protons and pions with different energies. My work proves that the European scan system gives comparable results with those obtained by the Japanese scan system. (author)

  11. NEWSdm: Nuclear Emulsions for WIMP Search with directional measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Crescenzo A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct Dark Matter searches are nowadays one of the most exciting research topics. Several experimental efforts are concentrated on the development, construction, and operation of detectors looking for the scattering of target nuclei with Weakly Interactive Massive Particles (WIMPs. The measurement of the direction of WIMP-induced nuclear recoils is a challenging strategy to extend dark matter searches beyond the neutrino floor and provide an unambiguous signature of the detection of Galactic dark matter. Current directional experiments are based on the use of gas TPC whose sensitivity is strongly limited by the small achievable detector mass. We present an innovative directional experiment based on the use of a solid target made by newly developed nuclear emulsions and read-out systems reaching a position resolution of the order of 10 nm.

  12. NEWSdm: Nuclear Emulsions for WIMP Search with directional measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Crescenzo, A.

    2017-12-01

    Direct Dark Matter searches are nowadays one of the most exciting research topics. Several experimental efforts are concentrated on the development, construction, and operation of detectors looking for the scattering of target nuclei with Weakly Interactive Massive Particles (WIMPs). The measurement of the direction of WIMP-induced nuclear recoils is a challenging strategy to extend dark matter searches beyond the neutrino floor and provide an unambiguous signature of the detection of Galactic dark matter. Current directional experiments are based on the use of gas TPC whose sensitivity is strongly limited by the small achievable detector mass. We present an innovative directional experiment based on the use of a solid target made by newly developed nuclear emulsions and read-out systems reaching a position resolution of the order of 10 nm.

  13. Automatic readout for nuclear emulsions in muon radiography of volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrov, A.; Bozza, C.; Consiglio, L.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Marco, N.; Kose, U.; Lauria, A.; Medinaceli, E.; Miyamoto, S.; Montesi, C.; Pupilli, F.; Rescigno, R.; Russo, A.; Sirignano, C.; Stellacci, S. M.; Strolin, P.; Tioukov, V.

    2012-04-01

    Nuclear emulsions are an effective choice in many scenarios of volcano radiography by cosmic-ray muons. They are cheap and emulsion-based detectors require no on-site power supply. Nuclear emulsion films provide sub-micrometric tracking precision and intrinsic angular accuracy better than 1 mrad. Imaging the inner structure of a volcano requires that the cosmic-ray absorption map be measured on wide angular range. High-absorption directions can be probed by allowing for large statistics, which implies a large overall flux, i.e. wide surface for the detector. A total area of the order of a few m2 is nowadays typical, thanks to the automatic readout tools originally developed for high-energy physics experiments such as CHORUS, PEANUT, OPERA. The European Scanning System is now being used to read out nuclear emulsion films exposed to cosmic rays on the side of volcanoes. The structure of the system is described in detail with respect to both hardware and software. Its present scanning speed of 20 cm2/h/side/microscope is suitable to fulfil the needs of the current exposures of nuclear emulsion films for muon radiograph, but it is worth to notice that applications in volcano imaging are among the driving forces pushing to increase the performances of the system. Preliminary results for the Unzen volcano of a joint effort by research groups in Italy and Japan show that the current system is already able to provide signal/background ratio in the range 100÷10000:1, depending on the quality cuts set in the off-line data analysis. The size of the smallest detectable structures in that experimental setup is constrained by the available statistics in the region of highest absorption to about 50 mrad, or 22 m under the top of the mountain. Another exposure is currently taking data at the Stromboli volcano. Readout of the exposed films is expected to begin in March 2012, and preliminary results will be available soon after. An effort by several universities and INFN has

  14. An integrated system for large scale scanning of nuclear emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozza, Cristiano, E-mail: kryss@sa.infn.it [University of Salerno and INFN, via Ponte Don Melillo, Fisciano 84084 (Italy); D’Ambrosio, Nicola [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, S.S. 17 BIS km 18.910, Assergi (AQ) 67010 (Italy); De Lellis, Giovanni [University of Napoli and INFN, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, via Cintia Ed. G, Napoli 80126 (Italy); De Serio, Marilisa [University of Bari and INFN, via E. Orabona 4, Bari 70125 (Italy); Di Capua, Francesco [INFN Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, via Cintia Ed. G, Napoli 80126 (Italy); Di Crescenzo, Antonia [University of Napoli and INFN, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, via Cintia Ed. G, Napoli 80126 (Italy); Di Ferdinando, Donato [INFN Bologna, viale B. Pichat 6/2, Bologna 40127 (Italy); Di Marco, Natalia [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, S.S. 17 BIS km 18.910, Assergi (AQ) 67010 (Italy); Esposito, Luigi Salvatore [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, now at CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Fini, Rosa Anna [INFN Bari, via E. Orabona 4, Bari 70125 (Italy); Giacomelli, Giorgio [University of Bologna and INFN, viale B. Pichat 6/2, Bologna 40127 (Italy); Grella, Giuseppe [University of Salerno and INFN, via Ponte Don Melillo, Fisciano 84084 (Italy); Ieva, Michela [University of Bari and INFN, via E. Orabona 4, Bari 70125 (Italy); Kose, Umut [INFN Padova, via Marzolo 8, Padova (PD) 35131 (Italy); Longhin, Andrea; Mauri, Nicoletta [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, via E. Fermi 40, Frascati (RM) 00044 (Italy); Medinaceli, Eduardo [University of Padova and INFN, via Marzolo 8, Padova (PD) 35131 (Italy); Monacelli, Piero [University of L' Aquila and INFN, via Vetoio Loc. Coppito, L' Aquila (AQ) 67100 (Italy); Muciaccia, Maria Teresa; Pastore, Alessandra [University of Bari and INFN, via E. Orabona 4, Bari 70125 (Italy); and others

    2013-03-01

    The European Scanning System, developed to analyse nuclear emulsions at high speed, has been completed with the development of a high level software infrastructure to automate and support large-scale emulsion scanning. In one year, an average installation is capable of performing data-taking and online analysis on a total surface ranging from few m{sup 2} to tens of m{sup 2}, acquiring many billions of tracks, corresponding to several TB. This paper focuses on the procedures that have been implemented and on their impact on physics measurements. The system proved robust, reliable, fault-tolerant and user-friendly, and seldom needs assistance. A dedicated relational Data Base system is the backbone of the whole infrastructure, storing data themselves and not only catalogues of data files, as in common practice, being a unique case in high-energy physics DAQ systems. The logical organisation of the system is described and a summary is given of the physics measurement that are readily available by automated processing.

  15. An integrated system for large scale scanning of nuclear emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozza, Cristiano; D’Ambrosio, Nicola; De Lellis, Giovanni; De Serio, Marilisa; Di Capua, Francesco; Di Crescenzo, Antonia; Di Ferdinando, Donato; Di Marco, Natalia; Esposito, Luigi Salvatore; Fini, Rosa Anna; Giacomelli, Giorgio; Grella, Giuseppe; Ieva, Michela; Kose, Umut; Longhin, Andrea; Mauri, Nicoletta; Medinaceli, Eduardo; Monacelli, Piero; Muciaccia, Maria Teresa; Pastore, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    The European Scanning System, developed to analyse nuclear emulsions at high speed, has been completed with the development of a high level software infrastructure to automate and support large-scale emulsion scanning. In one year, an average installation is capable of performing data-taking and online analysis on a total surface ranging from few m 2 to tens of m 2 , acquiring many billions of tracks, corresponding to several TB. This paper focuses on the procedures that have been implemented and on their impact on physics measurements. The system proved robust, reliable, fault-tolerant and user-friendly, and seldom needs assistance. A dedicated relational Data Base system is the backbone of the whole infrastructure, storing data themselves and not only catalogues of data files, as in common practice, being a unique case in high-energy physics DAQ systems. The logical organisation of the system is described and a summary is given of the physics measurement that are readily available by automated processing

  16. Time stamp technique using a nuclear emulsion multi-stage shifter for gamma-ray telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Satoru; Aoki, Shigeki; Rokujo, Hiroki; Hamada, Kaname; Komatsu, Masahiro; Morishima, Kunihiro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Nakano, Toshiyuki; Niwa, Kimio; Sato, Osamu; Yoshioka, Teppei; Kodama, Koichi

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear emulsion has a potential use as a gamma-ray telescope with high angular resolution. For this application it is necessary to know the time when each track was recorded in the emulsion. In previous experiments using nuclear emulsion, various efforts were used to associate time to nuclear emulsion tracks and to improve the time resolution. Using a high speed readout system for nuclear emulsion together with a clock-based multi-stage emulsion shifter, we invented a technique to give a time-stamp to emulsion tracks and greatly improve the time resolution. A test experiment with a 2-stage shifter was used to demonstrate the principle of multi-stage shifting, and we achieved a time resolution 1.5 s for 12.1 h (about 1 part in 29 000) with the time stamp reliability 97% and the time stamp efficiency 98%. This multi-stage shifter can achieve the time resolution required for a gamma-ray telescope and can also be applied to another cosmic ray observations and accelerator experiments using nuclear emulsion.

  17. On the production of thick pellicles of Kodak NTB-3 nuclear track emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claesson, G.; Soederstroem, K.; Ingelman, G.

    1980-11-01

    We describe procedures for making thick pellicles of Kodak NTB-3 nuclear emulsion. The technique has successfully been applied for the production of a 15 liter emulsion target, consisting of 600 μm thick pellicles. Melting and pouring of the gel is discussed as well as the conditions during the drying and processing. (author)

  18. Particle identification by nuclear emulsions in the OPERA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manai, Kais

    2007-01-01

    The OPERA experiment will try to confirm the ν μ →ν τ oscillations by the appearance of the ν τ in a pure ν μ beam. Indeed, a neutrino beam almost pure is produced at CERN (CNGS Beam) and sent to the OPERA detector. The detector is composed of two muons spectrometers and a target formed by walls of bricks. Each brick is an alternation of lead plates and emulsions. This modular structure allows to reconstruct the kink topology of the τ lepton decay with a high spatial resolution. The great challenge of the OPERA experiment is to detect the ν τ interactions with the less uncertainty. To reduce this uncertainty it is essential to identify with the greatest efficiency any background event not including a tau particle. My work permits to reduce background. My principal contribution concerns the selection development, the reconstruction and the muons identification at low energy. This work is based on the setting of variables related to the deposit energy and the multiple scattering. Previously, only deposit energy was used in the analyses of pion/muon separation. This study allows doubling the muon identification efficiency at low energy. This leads to increase the background events rejection in OPERA and to decrease the contamination by 30 pour cent. I also studied the nuclear emulsions capacity to identify charged particles through the analysis of a test beam carried out by the Nagoya group. This test contains protons and pions with different energies. My work proves that the European scan system gives comparable results with those obtained by the Japanese scan system. (Author)

  19. High-speed particle tracking in nuclear emulsion by last-generation automatic microscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armenise, N.; De Serio, M.; Ieva, M.; Muciaccia, M.T.; Pastore, A.; Simone, S.; Damet, J.; Kreslo, I.; Savvinov, N.; Waelchli, T.; Consiglio, L.; Cozzi, M.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Esposito, L.S.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgini, M.; Mandrioli, G.; Patrizii, L.; Sioli, M.; Sirri, G.; Arrabito, L.; Laktineh, I.; Royole-Degieux, P.; Buontempo, S.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; De Rosa, G.; Di Capua, F.; Coppola, D.; Formisano, F.; Marotta, A.; Migliozzi, P.; Pistillo, C.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Sorrentino, G.; Strolin, P.; Tioukov, V.; Juget, F.; Hauger, M.; Rosa, G.; Barbuto, E.; Bozza, C.; Grella, G.; Romano, G.; Sirignano, C.

    2005-01-01

    The technique of nuclear emulsions for high-energy physics experiments is being revived, thanks to the remarkable progress in measurement automation achieved in the past years. The present paper describes the features and performances of the European Scanning System, a last-generation automatic microscope working at a scanning speed of 20cm 2 /h. The system has been developed in the framework of the OPERA experiment, designed to unambigously detect ν μ ->ν τ oscillations in nuclear emulsions

  20. High-Speed Automatic Microscopy for Real Time Tracks Reconstruction in Nuclear Emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ambrosio, N.

    2006-06-01

    The Oscillation Project with Emulsion-tRacking Apparatus (OPERA) experiment will use a massive nuclear emulsion detector to search for /spl nu//sub /spl mu///spl rarr//spl nu//sub /spl tau// oscillation by identifying /spl tau/ leptons through the direct detection of their decay topology. The feasibility of experiments using a large mass emulsion detector is linked to the impressive progress under way in the development of automatic emulsion analysis. A new generation of scanning systems requires the development of fast automatic microscopes for emulsion scanning and image analysis to reconstruct tracks of elementary particles. The paper presents the European Scanning System (ESS) developed in the framework of OPERA collaboration.

  1. Superheated emulsions for the detection of special nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Errico, Francesco; Di Fulvio, Angela

    2011-01-01

    A novel solution for the detection and smuggling interdiction of special nuclear materials is presented here consisting of large detector modules which contain superheated emulsions and which are readout with an optical approach. The detectors can be produced to be fully sensitive to prompt fission neutrons and totally insensitive to the interrogation beam, whether X-rays or neutrons below a chosen energy threshold. Therefore, the detectors are able to operate while the selected interrogation beam is on and they will only pick up the signal from fission neutrons. A position-sensitive readout mechanism is used in our design, relying on the scattering of light by neutron-induced bubbles. A beam of coherent light crosses the active area of the detector, and local variations in scattered light due to the presence of bubbles are detected in real time by arrays of silicon planar photodiodes affixed along the whole length of the detector. The system may offer a variety of advantages compared to current approaches, such as the possibility of simultaneous irradiation and detection, i.e. a 100% duty cycle, without requiring complex signal analysis, and high signal-to-noise ratio, minimizing costly nuisance alarms, thanks to its inherent insensitivity to photons.

  2. Discovery potential for directional dark matter detection with nuclear emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, A. M.; NEWSdm Collaboration

    2017-06-01

    Direct Dark Matter searches are nowadays one of the most exciting research topics. Several Experimental efforts are concentrated on the development, construction, and operation of detectors looking for the scattering of target nuclei with Weakly Interactive Massive Particles (WIMPs). In this field a new frontier can be opened by directional detectors able to reconstruct the direction of the WIMP-recoiled nucleus thus allowing to extend dark matter searches beyond the neutrino floor. Exploiting directionality would also give a proof of the galactic origin of dark matter making it possible to have a clear and unambiguous signal to background separation. The angular distribution of WIPM-scattered nuclei is indeed expected to be peaked in the direction of the motion of the Solar System in the Galaxy, i.e. toward the Cygnus constellation, while the background distribution is expected to be isotropic. Current directional experiments are based on the use of gas TPC whose sensitivity is limited by the small achievable detector mass. In this paper we show the potentiality in terms of exclusion limit of a directional experiment based on the use of a solid target made by newly developed nuclear emulsions and read-out systems reaching sub-micrometric resolution.

  3. Intrinsic neutron background of nuclear emulsions for directional Dark Matter searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, A.; Asada, T.; Buonaura, A.; Consiglio, L.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Marco, N.; Di Vacri, M. L.; Furuya, S.; Galati, G.; Gentile, V.; Katsuragawa, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Lauria, A.; Loverre, P. F.; Machii, S.; Monacelli, P.; Montesi, M. C.; Naka, T.; Pupilli, F.; Rosa, G.; Sato, O.; Strolin, P.; Tioukov, V.; Umemoto, A.; Yoshimoto, M.

    2016-07-01

    Recent developments of the nuclear emulsion technology led to the production of films with nanometric silver halide grains suitable to track low energy nuclear recoils with submicrometric length. This improvement opens the way to a directional Dark Matter detection, thus providing an innovative and complementary approach to the on-going WIMP searches. An important background source for these searches is represented by neutron-induced nuclear recoils that can mimic the WIMP signal. In this paper we provide an estimation of the contribution to this background from the intrinsic radioactive contamination of nuclear emulsions. We also report the neutron-induced background as a function of the read-out threshold, by using a GEANT4 simulation of the nuclear emulsion, showing that it amounts to about 0.06 per year per kilogram, fully compatible with the design of a 10 kg × year exposure.

  4. Use of Synthetic Polymers in Nuclear Emulsions for Fast-Neutron Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradna, F.

    1967-01-01

    The paper describes the results of tests on the properties of hydrogen-enriched nuclear-track emulsions for detecting fast neutrons, which were prepared in the Radiological Dosimetry Laboratory of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences Nuclear Research Institute. It also compares the dosimetric characteristics of these new emulsions with those of the gelatin emulsions used up to the present. The most promising of the series of polymers synthesized in the laboratory were: (1) Polyvinylacetal of 2,4-disulphonic acid benzaldehyde (polymer No. 1); (2) The co-polymer of a-acetylaminoacrylic acid and N-vinylpyrrolidone (polymer No. 2). The author also studied the possibility of using polyvinyl alcohol solutions with a higher hydrogen content than the above polymers for saturating polymer-gelatin emulsions and for preparing from them films for use as proton radiators. Polymers No. 1 and No. 2 were tested beforehand in an ammonia emulsion. It was established that polymer No. 1 has no marked effect on the photochemical properties of the emulsions, whereas the physical and mechanical.properties of the polymer-gelatin emulsions are considerably better than those of normal gelatin emulsions. The polymers have good protective properties, and polymer No. 2; can be used even during physical ageing, since it retards this process only to a small extent. The photochemical properties of the polymer-gelatin emulsions remain practically unchanged during natural ageing, and their mechanical strength is still further increased. After these preliminary tests, polymers No.-1 and No. 2 were used as fillers for a nuclear-track emulsion, in quantities ranging from 50 to 70% of the total amount of protective colloid, the silver content of the emulsion remaining unchanged. To increase their efficiency further, the polymer-gelatin emulsions were saturated with hydrogen, which was passed through the liquid emulsion for a short period of time. When prepared, the emulsions were poured on a tri

  5. Nuclear emulsion experiments on particle production at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterlund, I.

    1976-08-01

    Various experimental results, including multiplicities of shower-particles and heavy prong particles, correlations between them and single particle distributions, from proton-emulsion nucleus reactions in the energy range 200-400 GeV are presented. (Auth.)

  6. British patent 580,504 and Ilford nuclear emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waller, C.

    1988-01-01

    By a new technique disclosed in British Patent 580,504, gelatin with silver halide is precipitated from emulsion by adding a surface active agent. This technique was used from 1945 to produce emulsions with about eight times the normal ratio of silver halide to gelatin. The technique also facilitated the combined use of production and laboratory resources for their reliable manufacture on a fairly large scale. (author)

  7. Study of Some Technical Problems in Nuclear Emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarrega Tornero, M. P.

    1967-01-01

    A methodological study of various technical aspects of photographic emulsions is presented. This study enables the emulsion method to be used in certain physical problems, and can be summarized under the following headings. 1) Variation of different ionization indices with the degree of development. A measure of the degree of development is introduced. This measure called the α -mark, is based on the average width of tracks due to α-particles. Using the α-mack the influence of several factors such as the duration, temperature and concentration of the developing liquid are investigated. A comparative study of the sensitivity of llford C 2 and K 2 emulsions is given. (Author) 9 refs

  8. Study of Particle Production and Nuclear Fragmentation in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions in Nuclear Emulsions

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % EMU11 \\\\ \\\\ We propose to use nuclear emulsions for the study of nuclear collisions of $^{207}$Pb, $^{197}$Au, and any other heavy-ion beams when they are available. We have, in the past, used $^{32}$S at 200A~GeV and $^{16}$O at 200A and 60A~GeV from CERN (Experiment EMU08) and at present the analysis is going on with $^{28}$Si beam from BNL at 14.5A~GeV. It will be important to compare the previous and the present investigations with the new $^{207}$Pb beam at 60-160A~GeV. We want to measure in nuclear emulsion, on an event by event basis, shower particle multiplicity, pseudorapidity density and density fluctuations of charged particles, charge multiplicity and angular distributions of projectile fragments, production and interaction cross-sections of heavily ionizing particles emitted from the target fragmentation. Special emphasis will be placed on the analysis of events produced in the central collisions which are selected on the basis of low energy fragments emitted from the target excitation. It woul...

  9. Sub-micron accurate track navigation method ''Navi'' for the analysis of Nuclear Emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, T; Yoshida, J; Kodama, K

    2011-01-01

    Sub-micron accurate track navigation in Nuclear Emulsion is realized by using low energy signals detected by automated Nuclear Emulsion read-out systems. Using those much dense ''noise'', about 10 4 times larger than the real tracks, the accuracy of the track position navigation reaches to be sub micron only by using the information of a microscope field of view, 200 micron times 200 micron. This method is applied to OPERA analysis in Japan, i.e. support of human eye checks of the candidate tracks, confirmation of neutrino interaction vertexes and to embed missing track segments to the track data read-out by automated systems.

  10. Sub-micron accurate track navigation method ``Navi'' for the analysis of Nuclear Emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, T.; Yoshida, J.; Kodama, K.

    2011-03-01

    Sub-micron accurate track navigation in Nuclear Emulsion is realized by using low energy signals detected by automated Nuclear Emulsion read-out systems. Using those much dense ``noise'', about 104 times larger than the real tracks, the accuracy of the track position navigation reaches to be sub micron only by using the information of a microscope field of view, 200 micron times 200 micron. This method is applied to OPERA analysis in Japan, i.e. support of human eye checks of the candidate tracks, confirmation of neutrino interaction vertexes and to embed missing track segments to the track data read-out by automated systems.

  11. Development of cosmic-ray radiography with nuclear emulsion and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishima, Kunihiro

    2017-01-01

    We are developing cosmic-ray radiography with nuclear emulsion. Cosmic-ray radiography is non-destructive inspection technology to take image of inner structure of gigantic objects (nuclear reactor, pyramids, volcanoes and so on). We conducted cosmic-ray radiography of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant from 2014 to 2015 and are conducting cosmic-ray radiography of Pyramids at Egypt from 2015. In this paper, technical details and latest results are presented. (author)

  12. Nuclear emulsion measurements of the astronauts' radiation exposure on the Apollo-Soyuz mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, H. J.; Sullivan, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    On the Apollo-Soyuz mission each astronaut carried one passive dosimeter containing nuclear photographic emulsions, plastic foils, TLD chips, and neutron-activation foils for recording radiation exposure. This report is limited to the presentation of data retrieved from nuclear emulsions. Protons, most of them trapped particles encountered in numerous passes through the South Atlantic Anomaly, contributed by far the largest share to the mission dose. Their linear energy transfer (LET) spectrum was established from track and grain counts in a G.5 emulsion which is used for medium and high energies, and from ender counts in a K.2 emulsion which is used for low energies. The total mission fluence of protons was found to be equivalent to a unidirectional beam of 448,500 square centimeters. The broad spectrum was broken down into small LET intervals, which allowed for the computation of absorbed doses and dose equivalents. The totals are 51 millirad and 74 millirem. Counts of disintegration stars in K.2 emulsion are incomplete at present. While a total of 467 stars were identified, counting their prong numbers is still in progress. It was concluded that the Apollo-Soyuz astronauts' radiation exposure as such did not contain anything out of the ordinary that would seem to require special attention.

  13. Imaging properties of the mesooptical Fourier transform microscope for nuclear research emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bencze, Gy.L.; Soroko, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    The optical signal transformation in the Mesooptical Fourier Transform Microscope (MFTM) for nuclear emulsion is treated in terms of Fourier Optics. A continuous conversion of the traditional optical microscope into the MFTM is followed. The images of dot-like and straight line objects given by the MFTM are discussed

  14. An attempt to observe directly beauty particles in nuclear emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albanese, J.P.; Arnold, R.; Matteuzzi, C.; Musset, P.; Piuz, F.; Poulard, G.; Price, M.J.; Ramello, L.; Sletten, H.; Allasia, D.; Bisi, V.; Gamba, D.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Riccati, L.; Romero, A.; Armenise, N.; Calicchio, M.; Erriquez, O.; Lavopa, P.; Maggi, G.; Muciaccia, M.T.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Baroni, G.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Liberto, S.; Manfredini, A.; Meddi, F.; Petrera, S.; Romano, G.; Rosa, G.; Santonico, R.; Sebastiani, F.; Barth, M.; Bertrand, D.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Roosen, R.; Sacton, J.; Schorochoff, G.; Wickens, J.; Breslin, A.C.; Montwill, A.; O'Connor, A.; Davis, D.G.; Davis, D.H.; Downes, J.K.; Duff, B.G.; Esten, M.J.; Gjerpe, I.; Heymann, F.F.; Imrie, D.C.; Lush, G.J.; Tovee, D.N.; Hazama, M.; Isokane, Y.; Tsuneoka, Y.; Maeda, Y.; Tasaka, S.

    1983-01-01

    An attempt at the direct observation of the cascade decay of beauty particles, produced by π - of 350 GeV/c leading to 3 muons or 4 muons in the final state, has been made in an emulsion/counter hybrid experiment at CERN. Under the assumption that the lifetime of beauty particles is of the order of 10 - 13 s the non-observation of any candidates provides an upper limit for beauty production of approx.=90 nb at the 90% confidence level. (orig.)

  15. Track following of Ξ"- hyperons in nuclear emulsion for the E07 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishina, Akihiro; Endo, Yoko; Hoshino, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    The E07 experiment is expected to provide knowledge of S = -2 systems with ten times more statistics than that of the past E373 experiment. To achieve this in a reasonable time, an automated track following system is very important. This system consists of three techniques, 'emulsion surface detection', 'alignment of plate by plate connection with K"- beams' and 'followed track recognition in nuclear emulsion'. Ξ"- hyperon candidate tracks are followed from the entrance to the end point in the emulsion. If the system operates properly such that one track is processed in each plate within one minute, all Ξ"- candidate tracks can be followed successfully to their stopping points in a year. The development of softwares for the system is ongoing. (author)

  16. Automated system for processing nuclear emulsion data on nuclear-nuclear interactions for EMU-15 CERN experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, A.B.; Azarenkova, I.Yu.; Feinberg, E.L.; Goneharova, L.A.; Martynov, A.G.; Polukhina, N.G.; Starkov, N.I.

    2004-01-01

    The EMU-15 experiment has been performed at CERN by the LPI group with the aim of studying characteristics of high-density and high-temperature nuclear matter, in particular, for searching for manifestation of quark-gluon plasma. The main problem inherent in these investigations is a large amount of track measurements in nuclear emulsions. A very efficient Completely Automated Measuring Complex (Russian abbreviation sounds as P AVICOM ) for track-detector data processing in nuclear and high-energy particle physics is operating at the Lebedev Physical Institute. The PAVICOM provides essential improving the efficiency of experimental studies performed not only by the LPI group, but also by many Russian Institutes

  17. A novel approach for fast scanning of nuclear emulsions with continuous motion of the microscope stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksandrov, A., E-mail: andrey@na.infn.it [INFN sezione di Napoli, I-80125 Napoli (Italy); LPI - Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, RUS-119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Tioukov, V. [INFN sezione di Napoli, I-80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Nuclear emulsions have been used in particle physics experiments for many decades because of their unique spatial resolution. The use of nuclear emulsions as precise tracking detectors in large experiments has recently been made possible due to advances in the production of emulsion films and to the development of very fast automatic scanning devices. The present scanning speed of the European Scanning System (ESS), which has been developed within the OPERA Collaboration, is about 20 cm{sup 2}/h. In addition to the scanning of OPERA films, the ESS is used for other applications with ever-growing demands for scanning speed, such as the muon radiography of volcanoes. In order to further increase the scanning speed of the ESS, we are testing a novel approach different from the standard stop-and-go motion of the microscope stage in the horizontal plane. Indeed we perform data acquisition with the stage moving at constant speed, using an objective lens with wide field of view. Unlike the implementation realized in Japan where the movement of objective lens and stage are synchronized to pile up images of the same view in a vertical stack, in this approach only the stage is moving horizontally. Thus images at different depths are not fully overlapped and special care is needed in the reconstruction. This approach can give a substantial increase in the scanning speed, especially for thin emulsion layers and wide field of view. In this paper we demonstrate that, after applying special corrections, the emulsion data quality can be as good as with the standard stop-and-go approach. This technique allows to double the scanning speed of the ESS, bringing it to 40 cm{sup 2}/h without any hardware modification.

  18. Nuclear interactions of 400 GeV protons in emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterlund, I.; Stenlund, E.; Andersson, B.; Nilsson, G.; Adamovic, O.; Juric, M.; Areti, H.; Hebert, C.J.D.; Hebert, J.; Baumann, G.; Devienne, R.; Bolta, J.M.; Sanchis, M.A.; Bravo, L.; Niembro, R.; Ruiz, A.; Villar, E.

    1978-01-01

    The authors report on 400 GeV proton-emulsion nuclei reactions and compare the results to hadron-nucleus reactions at smaller energies. In particular they present results on the emission of fast target protons (essentially grey track particles) and on their correlation with the number of collisions inside the nucleus, γ, with the number of charged evaporated particles (essentially black track particles) and with the number of pions produced (essentially shower particles). It is observed that the main features of the 200-400 GeV data are very similar. However, it is found that the mean shower-particle multiplicity at 400 GeV is essentially higher than expected from the simple independent particle model prediction = [1+0.5( )-1)]. The shower particle multiplicities do not seem to follow a target mass dependence of the form =nsub(ch)>Asup(α) with α=0.14 or α=0.19 as has been suggested in the literature. The pseudo-rapidity distribution shows limiting target and projectile fragmentation. The shower-particle multiplicity in the 'central region' increases linearly with but faster than 0.5(γ) times the corresponding multiplicity in pp reactions. (Auth.)

  19. Nuclear interactions of 400 GeV protons in emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterlund, I.; Stenlund, E.; Andersson, B.

    1978-04-01

    We report on 400 GeV proton-emulsion nucleus reactions and compare the results to hadron-nucleus reactions at smaller energies. In particular we present results on the emission of fast target protons (essentially grey track particles) and on their correlation with the number of collisions inside the nucleus, ν, with the number of charged evaporated particles (essentially black particles) and with the number of pions produced (essentially shower particles). We observe that the main features of the 200-400 GeV data are very similar. However, we find that the mean shower-particle multiplicity at 400 GeV is essentially higher than expected from the simple independent particle model prediction = [1 + 0.5 ( - 1)]. The shower particle multiplicities do not seem to follow a target mass dependence of the form = A sup(α) with α = 0.19 as has been suggested in the literature. The pseudo-rapidity distribution shows limiting target and projectile fragmentation. The shower particle multiplicity in the ''central region'' increases linearily with but faster than 0.5 times the corresponding multiplicity in pp-reactions. (author)

  20. Nuclear interactions of 400 GeV protons in emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterlund, I.; Stenlund, E.; Andersson, B.

    1978-04-01

    We report on 400 GeV proton-emulsion nucleus reactions and compare the results to hadron-nucleus reactions at smaller energies. In particular we present results on the emission of fast target protons (essentially grey track particles) and on their correlation with the number of collisions inside the nucleus, ν, with the number of charged evaporated particles (essentially black track particles) and with the number of pions produced (essentially shower particles). We observe that the main features of the 200-400 GeV data are very similar. However, we find that the mean shower-particle multiplicity at 400 GeV is essentially higher than expected from the simple independent particle model prediction = [1 + 0.5 ( - 1)]. The shower particle multiplicities do not seem to follow a target mass dependence of the form = Asup(α) with α = 0.14 or α = 0.19 as has been suggested in the literature. The pseudo-rapidity distribution shows limiting target and projectile fragmentation. The shower particle multiplicity in the ''central region'' increases linearily with but faster than 0.5 times the corresponding multiplicity in pp-reactions. (author)

  1. Computer-aided method for recognition of proton track in nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan Jinlu; Li Hongyun; Song Jiwen; Zhang Jianfu; Chen Liang; Zhang Zhongbing; Liu Jinliang

    2014-01-01

    In order to overcome the shortcomings of the manual method for proton-recoil track recognition in nuclear emulsions, a computer-aided track recognition method was studied. In this method, image sequences captured by a microscope system were processed through image convolution with composite filters, binarization by multi thresholds, track grains clustering and redundant grains removing to recognize the track grains in the image sequences. Then the proton-recoil tracks were reconstructed from the recognized track grains through track reconstruction. The proton-recoil tracks in the nuclear emulsion irradiated by the neutron beam at energy of 14.9 MeV were recognized by the computer-aided method. The results show that proton-recoil tracks reconstructed by this method consist well with those reconstructed by the manual method. This compute-raided track recognition method lays an important technical foundation of developments of a proton-recoil track automatic recognition system and applications of nuclear emulsions in pulsed neutron spectrum measurement. (authors)

  2. Composition of medium energy cosmic rays from silicon to nickel measured with nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrnetz, S.; Kristiansson, K.; Lindstam, S.; Soederstroem, K.

    1975-12-01

    The cosmic ray charge spectrum has been studied in three nuclear emulsion stacks exposed in balloon flights from Fort Churchill, Canada, in 1967 and 1970. The charge region is 14 <= Z < E 28 and the energy interval is about 400-800 MeV/Nucleon. The particles are identified by measurements with a nuclear track photometer which is described in some detail. The charge spectrum is extrapolated to the top of the atmosphere and comparisons with other measurements are made. Special emphasis is put on the abundance ratios (Sc-Mn)/Fe, (Sc+Ti)/(V+Cr) and Ni/Fe. (Auth.)

  3. A new generation scanning system for the high-speed analysis of nuclear emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, A.; Buonaura, A.; Consiglio, L.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Galati, G.; Lauria, A.; Montesi, M. C.; Tioukov, V.; Vladymyrov, M.

    2016-06-01

    The development of automatic scanning systems was a fundamental issue for large scale neutrino detectors exploiting nuclear emulsions as particle trackers. Such systems speed up significantly the event analysis in emulsion, allowing the feasibility of experiments with unprecedented statistics. In the early 1990s, R&D programs were carried out by Japanese and European laboratories leading to automatic scanning systems more and more efficient. The recent progress in the technology of digital signal processing and of image acquisition allows the fulfillment of new systems with higher performances. In this paper we report the description and the performance of a new generation scanning system able to operate at the record speed of 84 cm2/hour and based on the Large Angle Scanning System for OPERA (LASSO) software infrastructure developed by the Naples scanning group. Such improvement, reduces the scanning time by a factor 4 with respect to the available systems, allowing the readout of huge amount of nuclear emulsions in reasonable time. This opens new perspectives for the employment of such detectors in a wider variety of applications.

  4. A new generation scanning system for the high-speed analysis of nuclear emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrov, A.; Buonaura, A.; Consiglio, L.; Lellis, G. De; Crescenzo, A. Di; Galati, G.; Lauria, A.; Montesi, M.C.; Tioukov, V.; D'Ambrosio, N.; Vladymyrov, M.

    2016-01-01

    The development of automatic scanning systems was a fundamental issue for large scale neutrino detectors exploiting nuclear emulsions as particle trackers. Such systems speed up significantly the event analysis in emulsion, allowing the feasibility of experiments with unprecedented statistics. In the early 1990s, R and D programs were carried out by Japanese and European laboratories leading to automatic scanning systems more and more efficient. The recent progress in the technology of digital signal processing and of image acquisition allows the fulfillment of new systems with higher performances. In this paper we report the description and the performance of a new generation scanning system able to operate at the record speed of 84 cm 2 /hour and based on the Large Angle Scanning System for OPERA (LASSO) software infrastructure developed by the Naples scanning group. Such improvement, reduces the scanning time by a factor 4 with respect to the available systems, allowing the readout of huge amount of nuclear emulsions in reasonable time. This opens new perspectives for the employment of such detectors in a wider variety of applications.

  5. A Nuclear Emulsion Detector for the Muon Radiography of a Glacier Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akitaka Ariga

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cosmic ray muons can be used to image the interior of geological sites provided that one employs detectors able to operate in the specific harsh conditions of the mountain environment. We designed and developed a detector exploiting the nuclear emulsion technique to assess the bedrock profile underneath an alpine glacier. Nuclear emulsions do not need any electric power supply or maintenance and allow for the measurement of the muon flux and direction behind a large target volume. The 3D density distribution of the material traversed by muons can then be assessed, bringing relevant information on the shape of the boundary between the glacial ice and the underlying bedrock. This new methodology in the geological field was recently tested in a campaign of measurements in the Jungfrau region of the central Swiss Alps. It was shown that the bedrock surface position can be measured with a resolution of about 5 % when the traversed target is about 100 m thick. Characteristics and performance of the method are reported here and demonstrate that muon radiography based on emulsion detectors represents a powerful tool for the geological study of glaciers.

  6. Optical microscope for nuclear emulsion readout-system design and results in application

    CERN Document Server

    Winkler, K; Gussek, P; Balogh, I; Breitfelder, S; Schlichting, J; Dupraz, J P; Fabre, Jean-Paul; Panman, J; Papadopoulos, I M; Zucchelli, P; Van de Vyver, B L

    1999-01-01

    Experiments such as CHORUS at CERN require the inspection of a large amount of nuclear emulsion plates exposed to particle beams. Rare events need to be found, measured and analyzed. Their features are stored as grains in microscopic dimensions in a 3D stack of plates. A new, fully automatic immersion microscope system was developed. It features high resolution, small depth of focus, large working distance, large field of view and synchronization of illumination and detector. An additional requirement is given by variations in the refraction index and in the relative thickness of immersion oil and emulsion. The approach used is an imaging system based on a various objective lens with extreme numerical aperture, large working distance and wide field, combined with a matched high-aperture Koehler illuminator. The light source is a mercury arc lamp, combined with a filter package for the g-line. It includes liquid crystal elements for synchronized shuttering and variable attenuation. The theoretical resolution i...

  7. Nuclear emulsions for the detection of micrometric-scale fringe patterns: an application to positron interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghion, S.; Ariga, A.; Bollani, M.; Ereditato, A.; Ferragut, R.; Giammarchi, M.; Lodari, M.; Pistillo, C.; Sala, S.; Scampoli, P.; Vladymyrov, M.

    2018-05-01

    Nuclear emulsions are capable of very high position resolution in the detection of ionizing particles. This feature can be exploited to directly resolve the micrometric-scale fringe pattern produced by a matter-wave interferometer for low energy positrons (in the 10–20 keV range). We have tested the performance of emulsion films in this specific scenario. Exploiting silicon nitride diffraction gratings as absorption masks, we produced periodic patterns with features comparable to the expected interferometer signal. Test samples with periodicities of 6, 7 and 20 μ m were exposed to the positron beam, and the patterns clearly reconstructed. Our results support the feasibility of matter-wave interferometry experiments with positrons.

  8. Standard Practice for Application and Analysis of Nuclear Research Emulsions for Fast Neutron Dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 Nuclear Research Emulsions (NRE) have a long and illustrious history of applications in the physical sciences, earth sciences and biological sciences (1,2) . In the physical sciences, NRE experiments have led to many fundamental discoveries in such diverse disciplines as nuclear physics, cosmic ray physics and high energy physics. In the applied physical sciences, NRE have been used in neutron physics experiments in both fission and fusion reactor environments (3-6). Numerous NRE neutron experiments can be found in other applied disciplines, such as nuclear engineering, environmental monitoring and health physics. Given the breadth of NRE applications, there exist many textbooks and handbooks that provide considerable detail on the techniques used in the NRE method. As a consequence, this practice will be restricted to the application of the NRE method for neutron measurements in reactor physics and nuclear engineering with particular emphasis on neutron dosimetry in benchmark fields (see Matrix E706). 1...

  9. Measured and calculated absorptance of tracks of fast heavy ions in Ilford G5 nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.; Mathiesen, O.

    1975-04-01

    A modified form of the delta-ray theory of track formation developed by Katz and coworkers has been used to calculate the absorptance of tracks of fast heavy ions in Ilford G5 nuclear emulsion. The theoretical data have been compared with results of different photometrical investigations reported in the literature. In most cases the theoretical predictions are found to be in good agreement with experiments. This suggests that the theory can be used in the planning and execution of future experiments, i.e. to optimize the geometry of the photometer and to obtain an absolute charge calibration of the detector. It is shown that the basic photometrical properties of an emulsion stack can be described by a single quantity which can be determined from measurements. Knowing this quantity it is possible to predict the response of the emulsion stack for different types of photometers. The practical limits of the use of the modified theory at high and low levels of energy dose are discussed. (Auth.)

  10. Dark-field scanning confocal microscope for vertical particle tracks in nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astakhov, A.Ya.; Batusov, Yu.A.; Soroko, L.M.; Tereshchenko, S.V.; Tereshchenko, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    The principle of the DArk-FIeld Scanning CONfocal (DAFISCON) microscope for selective observation of the vertical particle tracks in nuclear emulsion is described. The construction of the DAFISCON microscope, built on the basis of the 2D measurement microscope, is described. The results of the experimental testing of the DAFISCON microscope, accomplished at high density of the vertical particle tracks, are presented. The 2D plot and the 1D plot of the CCD dark-field image are given. The spatial resolution of our microscope can be increased by using the objective with higher aperture

  11. Cosmic ray nuclei detection in the balloon borne nuclear emulsion gamma ray telescope flight in Australia (GRAINE 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyono Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear emulsion plates for studying elementary particle physics as well as cosmic ray physics are very powerful tracking tools with sub-micron spatial resolutions of charged particle trajectories. Even if gamma rays have to be detected, electron-positron pair tracks can provide precise information to reconstruct their direction and energy with high accuracy. Recent developments of emulsion analysis technology can digitally handle almost all tracks recorded in emulsion plates by using the Hyper Track Selector of the OPERA group at NAGOYA University. On the other hand, the potential of time resolutions have been equipped by emulsion multilayer shifter technology in the GRAINE (Gamma Ray Astro-Imager with Nuclear Emulsion experiments, the aims of which are to detect cosmic gamma rays such as the Vela pulsar stellar object by precise emulsion tracking analysis and to study cosmic ray particle interactions and chemical compositions. In this paper, we focus on the subject of cosmic ray nuclei detection in the GRAINE balloon flight experiments launched at Alice Springs, Australia in May 2015.

  12. The role of nuclear emulsions in the institutionalization of research in experimental physics in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Cassio Leite; Videira, Antonio A.P.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe and analyze the introduction and the use of the nuclear emulsions technique in Brazil. Even though consistent researches in cosmic ray physics had been done since the forties of the last century in this country, physicists here only began using this technique after Cesar Lattes' works in Bristol (England) and Berkeley (US). Despite being the implantation of the technique in this country posterior to the origin of the method itself dated from late 1900s, Brazilian scientists were quickly familiarized with it and adopted it not only in cosmic rays, but also in particle physics and nuclear physics, employing it until recently. In our work, we will be concerned with the reasons of this longevity. In other words, why were the nuclear emulsions technique employed for so many years in Brazil, even after its vanishing in physics researches centers in the world? We advance here that the answer to this question involves the institutionalization of science in Brazil mainly physics and economical, social, and geographic reasons. (author)

  13. An estimation of percentage of pion, kaon and other particles produced in nuclear emulsion - a simulated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Swarnapratim; Haiduc, Maria; Neagu, Alina Tania; Firu, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Multiparticle production in both high-energy nuclear and particle collisions is still a mystery, as far as the understanding of the dynamics of the production of secondary particles, especially of the soft varieties, is concerned. Of the various types of particles produced, mesons, especially the π-mesons, constitute, in practical terms, the near totality of the produced particles. Along with pions, in high-energy interactions kaons, hyperons and other mesons are also produced. In online experiments such as RHIC or LHC all the mesons can be detected. However, in emulsion experiments, there is no identification of the produced particles making a study of particle ratio fluctuations or net charge fluctuations impossible. In emulsion experiments, therefore, it is not possible to distinguish between pions and other mesons. There is one way to look at the compositions of the particles produced in high-energy nucleus-nucleus interactions in nuclear emulsion track detector

  14. Study of Particle Production and Nuclear Fragmentation in Collisions of $^{16}$O Beams with Emulsion Nuclei at 13-200 A GeV

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    .SK 2\\\\ \\\\ The aim of the experiment is to study, on an event by event basis, multiplicities of produced charged particles, pseudo-rapidity density distributions globally and in selected regions of pseudo-rapidity, density fluctuations, multiplicity and angular distributions of nuclear fragments and recoiling protons (30-400~A~MeV) and cross sections for production and interation of light and medium (Z=2-8) projectile fragments. \\\\ \\\\ The detectors are emulsion chambers as well as conventional emulsion stacks. The emulsion chambers consist of several layers of a plastic substrate, each coated with nuclear emulsion on both sides. Since the best measurement accuracy is obtained for the particles with the smallest emission angles, this design is especially suited for the pseudo-rapidity determination. The emulsion stacks, of both high and low sensitivity, have been exposed in the conventional way, with the beam parallel to the emulsion sheets. These stacks are used to study the fragmentation of the interaction n...

  15. Study of nuclear interactions of 400 GeV protons in emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterlund, I.; Kullberg, R.; Stenlund, E.; Andersson, B.; Nilsson, G.; Kim, C.O.; Lorry, J.; Meton, C.; Schune, D.; Chu, T.; Villot, B.; Kaiser, R.; Vincent, M.A.; Baumann, G.; Devienne, R.; Schmitt, R.; Adamovic, O.; Juric, M.; Bolta, J.M.; Sanchis, M.A.; Bravo, L.; Niembro, R.; Ruiz, A.; Villar, E.

    1977-05-01

    400 GeV inelastic proton-emulsion nucleus interactions from an International Emulsion Group experiment at Fermilab are reported. The results are compared with the corresponding data at 67-300 GeV. (Auth.)

  16. Investigation into the possibility of using short silver half-lives for the determination of silver in nuclear emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guazzoni, P.; Laverlochere, M.; Heilmann, C.; Jung, M.; Francois, H.

    1982-01-01

    The 24 s and 2.4 mn short halft-life Ag 110 and Ag 108 isotopes were used to determine the quantity of silver remaining in developed nuclear emulsions after exposure to various neutron and gamma radiations. The test carried out should lead to the development and construction of automatic measurement equipment [fr

  17. Search for anomalons produced in nuclear emulsion by 1.88A GeV 40Ar ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nadi, M.; Badawy, O.E.; El-Nagdy, M.S.; Sadek, N.M.; El-Sourogy, A.A.; Mosaad, M.M.; El-Bakry, M.N.; El-Hamalawy, A.

    1987-01-01

    The interaction mean free paths of relativistic projectile fragments produced from a 40 Ar beam at 1.88A GeV in nuclear emulsion are measured. No statistically significant anomalously short mean free path is observed for projectile fragments of charges ranging from Ζ = 2 up to Ζ ≥ 10 at such energy. (author)

  18. Nuclear research emulsion neutron spectrometry at the Little-Boy replica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.; Roberts, J.H.; Preston, C.C.

    1985-10-01

    Nuclear research emulsions (NRE) have been used to characterize the neutron spectrum emitted by the Little-Boy replica. NRE were irradiated at the Little-Boy surface as well as approximately 2 m from the center of the Little-Boy replica using polar angles of 0 0 , 30 0 , 60 0 and 90 0 . For the NRE exposed at 2 m, neutron background was determined using shadow shields of borated polyethylene. Emulsion scanning to date has concentrated exclusively on the 2-m, 0 0 and 2-m, 90 0 locations. Approximately 5000 proton-recoil tracks have been measured in NRE irradiated at each of these locations. Neutron spectra obtained from these NRE proton-recoil spectra are compared with both liquid scintillator neutron spectrometry and Monte Carlo calculations. NRE and liquid scintillator neutron spectra generally agree within experimental uncertainties at the 2-m, 90 0 location. However, at the 2-m, 0 0 location, the neutron spectra derived from these two independent experimental methods differ significantly. NRE spectra and Monte Carlo calculations exhibit general agreement with regard to both intensity as well as energy dependence. Better agreement is attained between theory and experiment at the 2-m, 90 0 location, where the neutron intensity is considerably higher. 14 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs

  19. Measured and calculated absorptance of tracks of fast heavy ions in Ilford G5 nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.; Mathiesen, O.

    1976-01-01

    A modified form of the delta-ray theory of track formation developed by Katz and coworkers has been used to calculate the absorptance of tracks of fast heavy ions in Ilford G5 nuclear emulsion. The theoretical data have been compared with results of different photometrical investigations reported in the literature. In most cases the theoretical predictions are found to be in good agreement with experiments. This suggests that the theory can be used in the planning and execution of future experiments, i.e. to optimize the geometry of the photometer and to obtain an absolute charge calibration of the detector. It is shown that the basic photometrical properties of an emulsion stack can be described by a single quantity which can be determined from measurements. Knowing this quantity it is possible to predict the response of the detector system, for different types of photometers. The practical limits of the use of the modified theory at high and low levels of energy dose are discussed. (Auth.)

  20. A novel automatic film changer for high-speed analysis of nuclear emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borer, K.; Damet, J.; Hess, M.; Kreslo, I.; Moser, U.; Pretzl, K.; Savvinov, N.; Schuetz, H.-U.; Waelchli, T.; Weber, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the recent development of a novel automatic computer-controlled manipulator for emulsion sheet placement and removal at the microscope object table (also called stage). The manipulator is designed for mass scanning of emulsions for the OPERA neutrino oscillation experiment and provides emulsion changing time shorter than 30s with an emulsion sheet positioning accuracy as good as 20μm RMS

  1. Nuclear interactions of super high energy cosmic-rays observed by mountain emulsion chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Here is presented a summary of joint discussions on the results of three mountain experiments with large-scale emulsion chambers, at Pamir, Mt. Fuji and Chacaltaya. The observation covers gamma-quanta, hadrons and their clusters (called ''families''). Following topics are covered concerning on characteristics of nuclear interactions in energy region of 10 14 - 10 16 eV: 1) rapid dissipation seen in atmospheric diffusion of high energy cosmic-rays, 2) multiplicity and p sub(t) increase in produced pimesons in the fragmentation region, 3) existence of large p sub(t) jets, 4) extremely-hadron-rich family of Centauro type, 5) exotic phenomena at extremely high energy region beyond 10 16 eV. (author)

  2. A new scanning system for alpha decay events as calibration sources for range-energy relation in nuclear emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, J.; Kinbara, S.; Mishina, A.; Nakazawa, K.; Soe, M. K.; Theint, A. M. M.; Tint, K. T.

    2017-03-01

    A new scanning system named "Vertex picker" has been developed to rapid collect alpha decay events, which are calibration sources for the range-energy relation in nuclear emulsion. A computer-controlled optical microscope scans emulsion layers exhaustively, and a high-speed and high-resolution camera takes their micrographs. A dedicated image processing picks out vertex-like shapes. Practical operations of alpha decay search were demonstrated by emulsion sheets of the KEK-PS E373 experiment. Alpha decays of nearly 28 events were detected in eye-check work on a PC monitor per hour. This yield is nearly 20 times more effective than that by the conventional eye-scan method. The speed and quality is acceptable for the coming new experiment, J-PARC E07.

  3. A new scanning system for alpha decay events as calibration sources for range-energy relation in nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, J.; Kinbara, S.; Mishina, A.; Nakazawa, K.; Soe, M.K.; Theint, A.M.M.; Tint, K.T.

    2017-01-01

    A new scanning system named “Vertex picker” has been developed to rapid collect alpha decay events, which are calibration sources for the range-energy relation in nuclear emulsion. A computer-controlled optical microscope scans emulsion layers exhaustively, and a high-speed and high-resolution camera takes their micrographs. A dedicated image processing picks out vertex-like shapes. Practical operations of alpha decay search were demonstrated by emulsion sheets of the KEK-PS E373 experiment. Alpha decays of nearly 28 events were detected in eye-check work on a PC monitor per hour. This yield is nearly 20 times more effective than that by the conventional eye-scan method. The speed and quality is acceptable for the coming new experiment, J-PARC E07.

  4. Irradiation and development of the nuclear emulsions exposed to intense fluxes of thermal neutrons with {gamma} rays; Irradiation et developpement des emulsions nucleaires exposees a des flux intenses de neutrons thermiques, accompagnes de rayons {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraggi, H; Bonnet, A; Cohen, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Lab. du Fort de Chatillon, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1952-07-01

    The thermal neutron fluxes provided by nuclear reactors permit the survey of relatively rare phenomenons, and dosage of very weak quantities of some elements. One of the most favorable detection technique are constituted by the use of the nuclear emulsions. one can mention: - the dosage of uranium by counting in the emulsion the number of traces due to fission fragments after irradiation. - The dosage of the lithium and the boron as trace amounts with the help of nuclear reactions (n, {alpha}) and thermal neutrons. - The research of reactions (n, {alpha}) or (n, p) of very weak cross section for middle or heavy elements. These different applications require however important neutrons fluxes. It had therefore obliged us to search for the most favorable irradiation and development of the emulsions conditions, to get the best visibility of the trajectories and decrease the phenomena of fog on the emulsion, which prevents any observation. (M.B.) [French] Les flux de neutrons thermiques fournis par les reacteurs nucleaires permettent l'etude de phenomenes relativement rares, et le dosage de tres faibles quantites de certains elements. Un des moyens de detection les plus favorables est constitue par l'utilisation des emulsions nucleaires. on peut citer: - le dosage de l'uranium par comptage dans l'emulsion du nombre de traces dues aux fragments de fission apres irradiation. - Le dosage du lithium et du bore a l'etat de traces a l'aide des reactions (n, {alpha}) sous l'action des neutrons thermiques. - La recherche de reactions (n,{alpha}) ou (n,p) de tres faible section efficace pour des elements moyens ou lourds. Ces differentes applications necessite cependant des flux de neutrons important. On a donc ete amene a rechercher les conditions les plus favorables d'irradiation et de developpement des emulsions, de maniere a obtenir la meilleure visibilite des trajectoires et diminuer les phenomenes de voile de l'emulsion, qui empeche toute observation. (M.B.)

  5. Heavy Hyperfragments produced by 800 MeV/c k in Nuclear Emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcial, P.

    1967-01-01

    A statistical and phenomenological survey of nearly 1200 heavy hyperfragments produced by interaction of 800 MeV/c K with the heavy nuclei of llford K 5 emulsion is presented. The emulsion was exposed A statistical and phenomenological survey of nearly 1200 heavy hyperfragments produced by interaction of 800 MeV/c K tilde with the heavy nuclei of llford K5 emulsion is presented. The emulsion was exposed in Berkeley. The variation of long list of parameters dealing with both the production and desintegration of the hyperfragments, with the size of the primary interaction is given. (Author)

  6. Sulphur dissociation in nuclear emulsion at 3.7 and 200A GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Nadi, M.; Abdelsalam, A.; Shaat, E.A.; Abou Moussa, Z. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Hussien, A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Fayoum Branch, Fayoum (Egypt); Ali-Mossa, N. [Basic Science Department, Faculty of Engineering, Banha Branch, Zagazig University, Banha (Egypt); Kamel, S.; Hafiz, M.E. [Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Abdel-Waged, K.H. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Banha (Egypt)

    2002-02-01

    In this work, the electromagnetic dissociation (EMD) of sulphur projectile induced by two widely differing energies in nuclear emulsions is investigated. Although the percentages of EMD events of the total numbers of studied interactions are relatively small, i.e. 5.7 and 14.4% for 3.7 and 200A GeV interactions respectively, one could extract some results out of them. The emission of a proton through the {sup 32}S({gamma}, p){sup 31}P channel is found to be a dominant process (43.8%) at 200A GeV whereas the single alpha emission through the {sup 32}S({gamma}, {alpha}){sup 28}Si channel is the dominant one (34.0%) at 3.7A GeV. Multiplicity distributions of hydrogen and helium isotopes as well as the measured probabilities for the different modes of fragmentation are studied. The comparison of the present results, from electromagnetic and peripheral nuclear interactions, indicates the effective role of the different reaction mechanisms at ultra-relativistic energy (200A GeV). The experimental inclusive cross sections of different fragmentation modes produced in the EMD of {sup 32}S ions at 200A GeV were found to be in satisfactory agreement with the predictions of the combined approach of Pshenichnov et al. (author)

  7. Track following of Ξ-hyperons in nuclear emulsion for the E07 experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishina, Akihiro; Nakazawa, Kazuma; Hoshino, Kaoru; Itonaga, Kazunori; Yoshida, Junya; Than Tint, Khin; Kyaw Soe, Myint; Kinbara, Shinji; Itoh, Hiroki; Endo, Yoko; Kobayashi, Hidetaka; Umehara, Kaori; Yokoyama, Hiroyuki; Nakashima, Daisuke; J-PARC E07 Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    Events of Double- Λ and Twin Single- Λ Hypernuclei are very important to understand Λ- Λ and Ξ--N interaction. We planned the E07 experiment to find Nuclear mass dependences of them with ten times higher statistics than before. In the experiment, the number of Ξ- hyperon stopping at rest is about ten thousands which is ten times larger than before. Such number of tracks for Ξ- hyperon candidates should be followed in nuclear emulsion plate up to their stopping point. To complete its job within one year, it is necessary for development of automated track following system. The important points for track following is Track connection in plate by plate. To carry out these points, we innovated image processing methods. Especially, we applied pattern match of K- beams for 2nd point. Position accuracy of this method was 1.4 +/-0.8 μm . If we succeed this application in about one minute for a track in each plate, all track following can be finished in one year.

  8. Energy of ions 3{<=}Z{<=}10 in Ilford C2 nuclear emulsions; Parcours - energie des ions 3{<=}Z{<=}10 dans les emulsions nucleaires ilford C2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papineau, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1956-07-01

    The relationship between the path and energy of ions with 3{<=}Z{<=}10 in Ilford C2 nuclear emulsions is studied. It determined the average state of charge of ions in each velocity intervals. Results are given in a table for {sub 2}He, {sub 3}Li, {sub 4}Be, {sub 5}B, {sub 6}C, {sub 7}N, {sub 8}O and {sub 10}Ne. For each velocity interval, it is possible to apply the Blackett relation which links, for the same velocity, the path {delta}R of a particle with M (mass) and Z (charge) to the path {delta}R' of a particle with M' and Z'. Results are given in tables and graphics representing the particles energy with the particles path. (M.P.)

  9. Automatic track following system to study double strangeness nuclei in nuclear emulsion exposed to the observable limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myint Kyaw Soe, E-mail: npkyaw1@gmail.com; Goto, Ryosuke; Mishina, Akihiro; Nakanisi, Yoshiaki; Nakashima, Daisuke; Yoshida, Junya; Nakazawa, Kazuma

    2017-03-11

    An automatic track following system has been successfully developed to follow tracks in nuclear emulsion sheets exposed with beam up to the limit to be observed for the first time. The track followed rate of the system is 99.5% with the assistance of the new techniques. The working speed for a track is less than 1 min through one thick emulsion sheet, whereas it is 15 times faster than that of semiautomatic system with human. The system working for 24 h is applied for the E07 experiment at J-PARC and makes it possible to detect ~10{sup 2} nuclei with double strangeness (S=−2 nuclei) within one year. Regarding analyses to identify nuclear species of S=−2 nuclei, the system shows quite decent job for significant steps such as following tracks emitted to spherical directions from S=−2 nuclei, measurement of lengths of followed tracks, and so on.

  10. Development of an automatic scanning system for nuclear emulsion analysis in the OPERA experiment and study of neutrino interactions location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrabito, L.

    2007-10-01

    Following Super Kamiokande and K2K experiments, Opera (Oscillation Project with Emulsion tracking Apparatus), aims to confirm neutrino oscillation in the atmospheric sector. Taking advantage of a technique already employed in Chorus and in Donut, the Emulsion Cloud Chamber (ECC), Opera will be able to observe the ν μ → ν τ oscillation, through the ν τ appearance in a pure ν μ beam. The Opera experiment, with its ∼ 100000 m 2 of nuclear emulsions, needs a very fast automatic scanning system. Optical and mechanics components have been customized in order to achieve a speed of about 20 cm 2 /hour per emulsion layer (44 μm thick), while keeping a sub-micro-metric resolution. The first part of this thesis was dedicated to the optimization of 4 scanning systems at the French scanning station, based in Lyon. An experimental study on a dry objective scanning system has also been realized. The obtained results show that the performances of dry scanning are similar with respect to the traditional oil scanning, so that it can be successfully used for Opera. The second part of this work was devoted to the study of the neutrino interaction location and reconstruction strategy actually used in Opera. A dedicated test beam was performed at CERN in order to simulate Opera conditions. The obtained results definitely confirm that the proposed strategy is well adapted for tau search. (author)

  11. Development of automatic nuclear emulsion plate analysis system and its application to elementary particle reactions, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushida, Noriyuki; Otani, Masashi; Kumazaki, Noriyasu

    1984-01-01

    This system is composed of precise coordinate measuring apparatuses, a stage controller and various peripherals, employing NOVA 4/C as the host computer. The analyzed results are given as the output to a printer or an XY plotter. The data required for experiment, sent from Nagoya University and others, are received by the host computer through an acoustic coupler, and stored in floppy disks. This paper contains simple explanation on the monitor for the events which occur immediately after the on-line measurement ''MTF 1'', the XY plotter and the acoustic coupler, which hold important position in the system in spite of low cost, due to the development of useful program, as those were not described in the previous paper. The three-dimensional reconstruction of tracks and various errors, corrective processing and analytical processing after corrective processing as off-line processing are also described. In addition, the application of the system was made to the E-531 neutrino experiment in Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, which attempted to measure the life of the charm particles generated in neutrino reaction with a composite equipment composed of nuclear plates and various counters. First, the outline of the equipment, next, the location of neutrino reaction and the surveillance of charm particle decay using MTF program as the analyzing method at the target, and thirdly, the emulsion-counter data fitting are explained, respectively. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  12. A new apparatus for track-analysis in nuclear track emulsion based on a CCD-camera device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganssauge, E.

    1993-01-01

    A CCD camera-based, image-analyzing system for automatic evaluation of nuclear track emulsion chambers is presented. The stage of a normal microscope moves using three remote controlled stepping motors with a step size of 0.25 μm. A CCD-camera is mounted on tope of the microscope in order to register the nuclear emulsion. The camera has a resolution capable of differentiating single emulsion-grains (0.6 μm). The camera picture is transformed from analogue to digital signals and stored by a frame grabber. Some background-picture elements can be eliminated by applying cuts on grey levels. The central computer processes the picture, correlates the single picture points, the coordinates and the grey-levels, such that in the end one has a unique assignment of each picture point to an address on the hard disk for a given plate. After repetition of this procedure for several plates by means of an appropriate software (for instance our vertex program [1]). the coordinates of the points are combined to tracks, and a variety of distributions like pseudorapidity-distributions can be calculated and presented on the terminal. (author)

  13. Development of nuclear emulsions with 1μm spatial resolution for the AEgIS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, M. [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Laboratory for High Energy Physics, University of Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Aghion, S. [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Ahlén, O. [European Organisation for Nuclear Research, Physics Department, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Amsler, C., E-mail: claude.amsler@cern.ch [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Laboratory for High Energy Physics, University of Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Ariga, A.; Ariga, T. [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Laboratory for High Energy Physics, University of Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Belov, A.S. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Bonomi, G. [University of Brescia, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Via Branze 38, 25133 Brescia (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. di Pavia, Via Agostino Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Bräunig, P. [University of Heidelberg, Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, Im Neuenheimer Feld 227, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Bremer, J. [European Organisation for Nuclear Research, Physics Department, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Brusa, R.S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trento and INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Burghart, G. [European Organisation for Nuclear Research, Physics Department, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Cabaret, L. [Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, CNRS, Université Paris Sud, ENS Cachan, Bâtiment 505, Campus d' Orsay, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Canali, C. [University of Zurich, Physics Institute, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); and others

    2013-12-21

    The main goal of the AEgIS experiment at CERN is to test the weak equivalence principle for antimatter. We will measure the Earth's gravitational acceleration g{sup ¯} with antihydrogen atoms being launched in a horizontal vacuum tube and traversing a moiré deflectometer. We intend to use a position sensitive device made of nuclear emulsions (combined with a time-of-flight detector such as silicon μ-strips) to measure precisely their annihilation points at the end of the tube. The goal is to determine g{sup ¯} with a 1% relative accuracy. In 2012 we tested emulsion films in vacuum and at room temperature with low energy antiprotons from the CERN antiproton decelerator. First results on the expected performance for AEgIS are presented.

  14. Development of nuclear emulsions with 1 $\\mu$m spatial resolution for the AEgIS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, M; Ahlén, O; Amsler, C; Ariga, A; Ariga, T; Belov, A.S; Bonomi, G; Bräunig, P; Bremer, J; Brusa, R.S; Burghart, G; Cabaret, L; Canali, C; Caravita, R; Castelli, F; Cerchiari, G; Cialdi, S; Comparat, D; Consolati, G; Di Domizio, S; Di Noto, L; Doser, M; Dudarev, A; Ereditato, A; Ferragut, R; Fontana, A; Genova, P; Giammarchi, M; Gligorova, A; Gninenko, S.N; Haider, S; Hogan, S.D; Huse, T; Jordan, E; Jørgensen, L.V; Kaltenbacher, T; Kawada, J; Kellerbauer, A; Knecht, A; Krasnický, D; Lagomarsino, V; Mariazzi, S; Matveev, V.A; Merkt, F; Moia, F; Nebbia, G; Nédélec, P; Oberthaler, M.K; Pacifico, N; Petrácek, V; Pistillo, C; Prelz, F; Prevedelli, M; Regenfus, C; Riccardi, C; Røhne, O; Rotondi, A; Sandaker, H; Scampoli, P; Spacek, M; Storey, J; Subieta Vasquez, M.A; Testera, G; Trezzi, D; Vaccarone, R; Zavatarelli, S

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of the AEgIS experiment at CERN is to test the weak equivalence principle for antimatter. We will measure the Earth ' s gravitational acceleration g with antihydrogen atoms being launched in a horizontal vacuum tube and traversing a moiré de fl ectometer. We intend to use a position sensitive device made of nuclear emulsions (combined with a time-of- fl ight detector such as silicon μ strips) to measure precisely their annihilation points at the end of the tube. The goal is to determine g with a 1% relative accuracy. In 2012 we tested emulsion fi lms in vacuum and at room temperature with low energy antiprotons from the CERN antiproton decelerator. First results on the expected performance for AEgIS are presented

  15. Irradiation and development of the nuclear emulsions exposed to intense fluxes of thermal neutrons with {gamma} rays; Irradiation et developpement des emulsions nucleaires exposees a des flux intenses de neutrons thermiques, accompagnes de rayons {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraggi, H.; Bonnet, A.; Cohen, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Lab. du Fort de Chatillon, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1952-07-01

    The thermal neutron fluxes provided by nuclear reactors permit the survey of relatively rare phenomenons, and dosage of very weak quantities of some elements. One of the most favorable detection technique are constituted by the use of the nuclear emulsions. one can mention: - the dosage of uranium by counting in the emulsion the number of traces due to fission fragments after irradiation. - The dosage of the lithium and the boron as trace amounts with the help of nuclear reactions (n, {alpha}) and thermal neutrons. - The research of reactions (n, {alpha}) or (n, p) of very weak cross section for middle or heavy elements. These different applications require however important neutrons fluxes. It had therefore obliged us to search for the most favorable irradiation and development of the emulsions conditions, to get the best visibility of the trajectories and decrease the phenomena of fog on the emulsion, which prevents any observation. (M.B.) [French] Les flux de neutrons thermiques fournis par les reacteurs nucleaires permettent l'etude de phenomenes relativement rares, et le dosage de tres faibles quantites de certains elements. Un des moyens de detection les plus favorables est constitue par l'utilisation des emulsions nucleaires. on peut citer: - le dosage de l'uranium par comptage dans l'emulsion du nombre de traces dues aux fragments de fission apres irradiation. - Le dosage du lithium et du bore a l'etat de traces a l'aide des reactions (n, {alpha}) sous l'action des neutrons thermiques. - La recherche de reactions (n,{alpha}) ou (n,p) de tres faible section efficace pour des elements moyens ou lourds. Ces differentes applications necessite cependant des flux de neutrons important. On a donc ete amene a rechercher les conditions les plus favorables d'irradiation et de developpement des emulsions, de maniere a obtenir la meilleure visibilite des trajectoires et diminuer les phenomenes de voile de l'emulsion, qui

  16. Study of Some Technical Problems in Nuclear Emulsions; Estudio de algunos problemas tecnicos en emulsiones fotonucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarrega Tornero, M P

    1967-07-01

    A methodological study of various technical aspects of photographic emulsions is presented. This study enables the emulsion method to be used in certain physical problems, and can be summarized under the following headings. 1) Variation of different ionization indices with the degree of development. A measure of the degree of development is introduced. This measure called the {alpha} -mark, is based on the average width of tracks due to {alpha}-particles. Using the {alpha}-mack the influence of several factors such as the duration, temperature and concentration of the developing liquid are investigated. A comparative study of the sensitivity of llford C{sub 2} and K{sub 2} emulsions is given. (Author) 9 refs.

  17. Preferential emission of photon emulsion nuclei in high energy nuclear disintegration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Subir; Bhattacharjee, B.; Goswami, T.D.

    1997-01-01

    In the present work an effort has been made to observe such preferential emission, if any, in the CNO group of photo emulsion nuclei. Here the angle between any two slow (β b = 3,4,5 and 6. Assuming the fragments to be emitted isotropically as expected from evaporation theory, possible angles between any two tracks are computed separately for disintegrating centres with the same number of N b

  18. Innovative precipitation in emulsion process: toward a non-nuclear industrial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollivier, M.; Borda, G.; Charton, S.; Flouret, J.

    2016-01-01

    A precipitation in emulsion process has been proposed by Borda et al. in 2008 for the continuous precipitation of lanthanides or actinides as oxalate, in order to either increase the production capacity or allow the precipitation of long-life radioactive elements under optimum safety conditions. During research/development tests, a strong correlation between the emulsion's properties and those of the particles produced have been evidenced, thus enabling the size and morphology of the powder to be tuned by varying the droplets properties, the latter being controlled by the column operating conditions. This process thus appears as an attractive alternative to conventional processes for the synthesis of high-value precipitates; as it offers interesting intensification capabilities. In this context, the feasibility of the precipitation of bismuth subnitrate (BSN), for which the emulsion route for precipitation seems to be particularly attractive, has been studied. Indeed, the division of the reacting volume into droplets may allow efficient temperature regulation of the exothermic reaction. In addition, an improvement of the product appearance is expected. This first phase of the feasibility study focused on the choice of the organic phase and the sensitivity of the droplets and solid particles properties to the operating conditions. Following the encouraging results observed in stirred-tank reactor, we successfully tested the implementation in a pulsed column, at lab-scale. (authors)

  19. Innovative precipitation in emulsion process: toward a non-nuclear industrial application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ollivier, M.; Borda, G.; Charton, S. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, DEN,DTEC,SGCS, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Flouret, J. [OCM, ZI Quai Jean Jaures, 197 Avenue Marie Curie, 07800 La Voulte-sur-Rhone (France)

    2016-07-01

    A precipitation in emulsion process has been proposed by Borda et al. in 2008 for the continuous precipitation of lanthanides or actinides as oxalate, in order to either increase the production capacity or allow the precipitation of long-life radioactive elements under optimum safety conditions. During research/development tests, a strong correlation between the emulsion's properties and those of the particles produced have been evidenced, thus enabling the size and morphology of the powder to be tuned by varying the droplets properties, the latter being controlled by the column operating conditions. This process thus appears as an attractive alternative to conventional processes for the synthesis of high-value precipitates; as it offers interesting intensification capabilities. In this context, the feasibility of the precipitation of bismuth subnitrate (BSN), for which the emulsion route for precipitation seems to be particularly attractive, has been studied. Indeed, the division of the reacting volume into droplets may allow efficient temperature regulation of the exothermic reaction. In addition, an improvement of the product appearance is expected. This first phase of the feasibility study focused on the choice of the organic phase and the sensitivity of the droplets and solid particles properties to the operating conditions. Following the encouraging results observed in stirred-tank reactor, we successfully tested the implementation in a pulsed column, at lab-scale. (authors)

  20. Interactions of 10.6 GeV/n gold nuclei with light and heavy target nuclei in nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, M.L.; Denes-Jones, P.

    1994-03-01

    We have investigated the particle production and fragmentation of nuclei participating in the interactions of 10.6 GeV/n gold nuclei in nuclear emulsions. A new criteria has been developed to distinguish between the interactions of these gold nuclei with the light (H, C, N, O) and heavy (Ag, Br) target nuclei in the emulsion. This has allowed separate analyzes of the multiplicity and pseudo-rapidity distributions of the singly charged particles emitted in Au-(H, C, N, O) and Au-(Ag, Br) interactions, as well as of the models of breakup of the projectile and target nuclei. The pseudo-rapidity distributions show strong forward asymmetries, particularly for the interactions with the light nuclei. Heavy target nuclei produce a more severe breakup of the projectile gold nucleus than do the lighter targets. A negative correlation between the number of fragments emitted from the target nuclei and the degree of centrality of the collisions has been observed, which can be attributed to the total destruction of the relatively light target nuclei by these very heavy projectile nuclei. (author). 14 refs, 11 figs, 1 tab

  1. Interactions of $^{16}$O Projectile and its Fragments in Nuclear Emulsion at about 60 and 200 GeV/nucleon

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the experiment is to measure the multiplicity ``$ n _{s} $'' and pseudo-rapidity ``$\\eta$'' of the shower particles ($\\beta$~$\\geq$~0.7) produced in different types of collisions (peripheral, semi-central and central), of $^{16}$O and $^{32}$S in nuclear emulsions. The multiplicities and angular distributions of both the grey ``$ n _{g} $'' (mainly due to knock- on and recoil protons), and black ``$ n _{b} $'' (slow evaporated target fragments) particles, and the inter-correlation between them are studied. \\\\ \\\\ The yield, charge and angular distributions of produced relativistic projectile fragments P.F.S., for $ Z _{P} . _{F} . $ $\\geq$~2 are measured and their interactions in emulsions are investigated. \\\\ \\\\ The study of the mean free paths for the projectile fragments with Z $\\geq$ 3 produced from 200~A~GeV $^{16}$ 0 interactions were performed, which show the absence of the anomalous phenomena. \\\\ \\\\ The possible production of zero-spin light neutral scaler bosons and pseudoscaler bosons from...

  2. Investigation of the production of slow particles in 60 A GeV 16O induced nuclear emulsion reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Donghai

    2001-01-01

    The multiplicity distributions and correlations of grey track producing particles (N g ), black track producing particles (N b ) and heavy track producing particles (N h ) have been studied in 60 A GeV 16 O induced nuclear emulsion reaction. The multiplicity distributions of grey particles, black particles and heavy track producing particles can be reproduced by FRITIOF (version 1.7) taking cascade mechanism in to account and DTUNUC2.0 with an incident energy of 200 A GeV. The mean multiplicity of black particles (N b ) increases with the number of grey particle N g up to 10 and then exhibits a saturation for peripheral, central and mini-bias events; the average values of grey particles g > (heavy track producing particles h > increase with increasing values of black particle N b (grey particle N g )

  3. Interactions of hadrons in nuclear emulsion in the energy range 60 GeV - 400 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holynski, R.

    1986-01-01

    Interactions of pions and protons in the energy range 60 GeV in nuclear emulsion have been analysed. The fragmentation process of the struck nucleus as well as the multiple production of relativistic particles have been investigated as a function of the primary energy and the effective thickness of the target. It is shown that both, the fragmentation of the target nucleus and particle production, can be described by models in which the projectile (or its constituents) undergoes multiple collisions inside the target nucleus. In particular the particle production in the projectile fragmentation region in pion-nucleus interactions is well described by the additive quark model. 47 refs., 35 figs., 2 tabs. (author)

  4. Use of Synthetic Polymers in Nuclear Emulsions for Fast-Neutron Dosimetry; Primenenie sinteticheskikh polimerov v yadernykh ehmul'siyakh dlya dozimetrii bystrykh nejtronov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradna, F. [Laboratorija Radiologicheskoj Dozimetrii Instituta Jadernykh Issledovanij CHSAN Praga, CSSR (Czech Republic)

    1967-01-15

    The paper describes the results of tests on the properties of hydrogen-enriched nuclear-track emulsions for detecting fast neutrons, which were prepared in the Radiological Dosimetry Laboratory of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences Nuclear Research Institute. It also compares the dosimetric characteristics of these new emulsions with those of the gelatin emulsions used up to the present. The most promising of the series of polymers synthesized in the laboratory were: (1) Polyvinylacetal of 2,4-disulphonic acid benzaldehyde (polymer No. 1); (2) The co-polymer of a-acetylaminoacrylic acid and N-vinylpyrrolidone (polymer No. 2). The author also studied the possibility of using polyvinyl alcohol solutions with a higher hydrogen content than the above polymers for saturating polymer-gelatin emulsions and for preparing from them films for use as proton radiators. Polymers No. 1 and No. 2 were tested beforehand in an ammonia emulsion. It was established that polymer No. 1 has no marked effect on the photochemical properties of the emulsions, whereas the physical and mechanical.properties of the polymer-gelatin emulsions are considerably better than those of normal gelatin emulsions. The polymers have good protective properties, and polymer No. 2; can be used even during physical ageing, since it retards this process only to a small extent. The photochemical properties of the polymer-gelatin emulsions remain practically unchanged during natural ageing, and their mechanical strength is still further increased. After these preliminary tests, polymers No.-1 and No. 2 were used as fillers for a nuclear-track emulsion, in quantities ranging from 50 to 70% of the total amount of protective colloid, the silver content of the emulsion remaining unchanged. To increase their efficiency further, the polymer-gelatin emulsions were saturated with hydrogen, which was passed through the liquid emulsion for a short period of time. When prepared, the emulsions were poured on a tri

  5. Personnel dosimetry of fast neutrons by silver activation in nuclear emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, H.; Heilmann, C.; Jung, M.; Kappler, A.; Oppel, R.; Demoulin, R.

    1982-01-01

    This neutron dosimetry method may be extended to the radiological monitoring of a large number of workers. It uses photographic emulsion, a detector with long-established properties. The reproducibility of the detection characteristics is guaranteed by industrial manufacture. The method has been thoroughly tested and is now sufficiently under control for the application stage to be contemplated. The activation method has shown moreover that the optical counting technique accounts for only half the signal available. Owing to its sensitivity, energy response from 100 keV onwards, capacity to measure the neutron and electromagnetic (γ or X) doses simultaneously and complete automation the method may now be considered ready for extensive use in radioprotection [fr

  6. Scaling in multiplicity distributions of heavy, black and grey prongs in nuclear emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieminen, M.; Torsti, J.J.; Valtonen, E.

    1979-01-01

    The validity of Koba-Nielsen-Olesen scaling hypothesis was examined in the case of heavy, black, and grey prongs in proton-emulsion collisions ('heavy' means 'either black or grey'). The average multiplicities of these prongs were computed in the region 0.1-400 GeV for the nuclei C, N, O, S, Br, Ag, and I. After the inclusion of the energy-dependent excitation probability of the nuclei of the form P* = b 0 + b 1 ln E 0 into the model, experimental multiplicity distributions in the energy region 6-300 GeV agreed satisfactorily with the scaling hypothesis. The ratio of the dispersion D (D = √ 2 >- 2 ) to the average multiplicity in the scaling functions of heavy, balck, and grey prongs was estimated to be 0.86, 0.84, and 1.04, respectively, in the high energy region. (Auth.)

  7. Charge identification of highly ionizing particles in desensitized nuclear emulsion using high speed read-out system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshito, T.; Kodama, K.; Yusa, K.; Ozaki, M.; Amako, K.; Kameoka, S.; Murakami, K.; Sasaki, T.; Aoki, S.; Ban, T.; Fukuda, T.; Naganawa, N.; Nakamura, T.; Natsume, M.; Niwa, K.; Takahashi, S.; Kanazawa, M.; Kanematsu, N.; Komori, M.; Sato, S.; Asai, M.; Koi, T.; Fukushima, C.; Ogawa, S.; Shibasaki, M.; Shibuya, H.

    2006-01-01

    We performed an experimental study of charge identification of heavy ions from helium to carbon having energy of about 290MeV/u using an emulsion chamber. Emulsion was desensitized by means of forced fading (refreshing) to expand a dynamic range of response to highly charged particles. For the track reconstruction and charge identification, the fully automated high speed emulsion read-out system, which was originally developed for identifying minimum ionizing particles, was used without any modification. Clear track by track charge identification up to Z=6 was demonstrated. The refreshing technique has proved to be a powerful technique to expand response of emulsion film to highly ionizing particles

  8. Analysis system of submicron particle tracks in the fine-grained nuclear emulsion by a combination of hard x-ray and optical microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naka, T.; Asada, T.; Yoshimoto, M.; Katsuragawa, T.; Tawara, Y.; Umemoto, A.; Suzuki, Y.; Terada, Y.; Takeuchi, A.; Uesugi, K.; Kimura, M.

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of nuclear emulsion detectors that can detect and identify charged particles or radiation as tracks have typically utilized optical microscope systems because the targets have lengths from several μm to more than 1000 μm. For recent new nuclear emulsion detectors that can detect tracks of submicron length or less, the current readout systems are insufficient due to their poor resolution. In this study, we developed a new system and method using an optical microscope system for rough candidate selection and the hard X-ray microscope system at SPring-8 for high-precision analysis with a resolution of better than 70 nm resolution. Furthermore, we demonstrated the analysis of submicron-length tracks with a matching efficiency of more than 99% and position accuracy of better than 5 μm. This system is now running semi-automatically

  9. Charged particles multiplicity in interactions of 3.7 A GeV 28Si with light and heavy target nuclei in nuclear emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.K.; Tuli, S.K.

    1998-01-01

    Results from measurement of multiplicity of different charged particles emitted from the interactions of 3.7 A GeV 28 Si with different target groups in nuclear emulsion and correlations among them are presented. The nature of the dependence of multiplicities of charged particles on the impact parameter is examined. Analysis of data in terms of specific multiplicity for different target groups is performed and the results are discussed in the light of superposition model. (author)

  10. Search for charmed hadron production in $\\pi^{-}$ nucleus interactions in nuclear emulsion

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment will search for the production and decay of charmed hadrons in $\\pi^{-}$ interactions (> 300 GeV) with emulsion nuclei. A total of 70 pellicles, each of 8 cm x 8 cm x 0.06 cm, will be exposed to a low-intensity $\\pi^{-}$ beam (a total of $6 \\times 10^{5}$ pions). The scanning for inelastic interactions will be made in the 2 cm wide strip parallel to the beam entry edge. As a result we hope to get $10^{4}$ inelastic interactions. \\\\ \\\\ In searching for charmed particle decay all charged secondaries will be followed up to 1 mm. Search for neutral candidates will be done in a radius of $\\sim$ 100 $\\mu$m around the primary star and up to 1 mm in the forward cone. For the charm production cross section of 100 $\\mu$b in hadron-hadron collisions, the total number of charmed events expected to be seen is 115 for $\\tau = 10^{-13}$ s and $\\approx$ 100 for $\\tau = 2 \\times 10^{-14}$ s with a background of 10 events, from secondary interactions and decays of $K^{0}_{S} /\\Lambda$.

  11. Peripheral collisions of 2 GeV/nucleon Fe nuclei in nuclear emulsion. I. Light projectile fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedlander, E.M.; Crawford, H.J.; Gimpel, R.W.; Greiner, D.E.; Heckman, H.H.; Lindstrom, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    Observations on 374 collisions of 1.88-GeV/nucleon Fe nuclei in Ilford G-5 nuclear track emulsion, in which at least one projectle fragment of Z > = 3 was emitted within a 6 0 cone, revealed several features of projectile breakup. The onset of copious multiple fragmentation was observed. The relatively high α-particle multiplicities allowed for the first time a study of the α multiplicity distribution; a Poisson distribution gave an excellent fit. The data showed a significant enhancement of α-particle pairs with very small relative momenta. The transverse momentum distributions, which should reflect best the thermal motion in the projectile system, are in flagrant discrepancy with theoretical predictions; the distributions show a marked target dependence. The charges of all projectile fragments up to B were determined by measurement of gap-length distributions. Events with N/sub h/ = 0 are a class apart from the rest of the events; between N/sub h/ = 1 and N/sub h/ = 9 there is surprisingly little change in most parameters. 4 figures

  12. The separation of heavy ion tracks in nuclear emulsions by means of the pulsed electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akopova, A.B.; Magradze, N.V.; Melkumyan, L.V.; Prokhorenko, Y.P.

    1976-01-01

    The pulsed electric field (PEF) technique is developed for the separation of heavy ion tracks from the intense background caused by high energy electrons, protons and γ-radiation. The tracks of Ne, Cr, Ar-ions accelerated at the Dubna Nuclear Reactions Laboratory have been separated from the background, the voltage of the applied PEF being 10 5 V/cm. (orig.) [de

  13. Heavy Hyperfragments produced by 800 MeV/c k in Nuclear Emulsions; Hiperfragmentos pesados producidos por K de 800 MeV c en emulsiones nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcial, P

    1967-07-01

    A statistical and phenomenological survey of nearly 1200 heavy hyperfragments produced by interaction of 800 MeV/c K with the heavy nuclei of llford K{sub 5} emulsion is presented. The emulsion was exposed A statistical and phenomenological survey of nearly 1200 heavy hyperfragments produced by interaction of 800 MeV/c K with the heavy nuclei of llford K5 emulsion is presented. The emulsion was exposed in Berkeley. The variation of long list of parameters dealing with both the production and desintegration of the hyperfragments, with the size of the primary interaction is given. (Author)

  14. Charm studies in emulsion

    CERN Document Server

    Kalinin, Sergey

    Neutrino-nucleon scattering is an effective way to investigate the inner structure of the nucleon, to extract the Standard Model parameters and to explore heavy quarks production dynamics. In the last decades, several experiments have been constructed to study weak interactions of neutrinos with nucleons. One of them was CERN-WA95 experiment operated by the CHORUS collaboration. It is based on a hybrid detector with nuclear emulsion as a target followed by electronic devices. Nuclear emulsion provides three dimensional spatial information with an outstanding resolution of the order of one micron. Therefore, it is ideal to detect short-lived particles. A special technique has been developed to reconstruct events in the emulsion which allows to perform a detailed investigation of events such as charmed hadrons production by neutrinos. As a result, the backround in the selected charm sample is up to six times lower compared to similar experiments. Such a method also permits to make direct measurements of some qu...

  15. Topological background on charmed and beauty particle pairs produced in high energy hadron interactions in nuclear emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, G.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter demonstrates that by making use of the fact that new flavors must be produced in pairs in strong interactions and that beauty particles are expected to decay often into charmed particles, the contribution of background simulating decays can be computed from a pure topological point of view. Topics covered include the emulsion data, the search for charmed particles, the search for beauty particles, detection efficiency, and the evaluation of mean life-time. It is assumed that in the interaction of (350-400) GeV hadrons in emulsion the production rate of charmed particle pairs is 5X10 -3 /interaction. The corresponding figures for BB production are estimated to be 10 3 times smaller. It is noted that some neutral decay topology, like 4 or more charged prongs, are much less affected by background

  16. Rheology of attractive emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sujit S; Gerrard, Dustin D; Rhodes, Travers S; Mason, Thomas G; Weitz, David A

    2011-10-01

    We show how attractive interactions dramatically influence emulsion rheology. Unlike the repulsive case, attractive emulsions below random close packing, φ(RCP), can form soft gel-like elastic solids. However, above φ(RCP), attractive and repulsive emulsions have similar elasticities. Such compressed attractive emulsions undergo an additional shear-driven relaxation process during yielding. Our results suggest that attractive emulsions begin to yield at weak points through the breakage of bonds, and, above φ(RCP), also undergo droplet configurational rearrangements.

  17. The role of nuclear emulsions in the institutionalization of research in experimental physics in Brazil; O papel das emulsoes nucleares na institucionalizacao da pesquisa em fisica experimental no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Cassio Leite [Instituto Ciencia Hoje, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Videira, Antonio A.P. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we describe and analyze the introduction and the use of the nuclear emulsions technique in Brazil. Even though consistent researches in cosmic ray physics had been done since the forties of the last century in this country, physicists here only began using this technique after Cesar Lattes' works in Bristol (England) and Berkeley (US). Despite being the implantation of the technique in this country posterior to the origin of the method itself dated from late 1900s, Brazilian scientists were quickly familiarized with it and adopted it not only in cosmic rays, but also in particle physics and nuclear physics, employing it until recently. In our work, we will be concerned with the reasons of this longevity. In other words, why were the nuclear emulsions technique employed for so many years in Brazil, even after its vanishing in physics researches centers in the world? We advance here that the answer to this question involves the institutionalization of science in Brazil mainly physics and economical, social, and geographic reasons. (author)

  18. Development of an automatic scanning system for nuclear emulsion analysis in the OPERA experiment and study of neutrino interactions location; Developpement d'un systeme ultra rapide pour le scan des emulsions nucleaires d'OPERA et etude sur la localistion des vertex de l'interaction des neutrinos a l'aide de ce systeme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrabito, L

    2007-10-15

    Following Super Kamiokande and K2K experiments, Opera (Oscillation Project with Emulsion tracking Apparatus), aims to confirm neutrino oscillation in the atmospheric sector. Taking advantage of a technique already employed in Chorus and in Donut, the Emulsion Cloud Chamber (ECC), Opera will be able to observe the {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}} oscillation, through the {nu}{sub {tau}} appearance in a pure {nu}{sub {mu}} beam. The Opera experiment, with its {approx} 100000 m{sup 2} of nuclear emulsions, needs a very fast automatic scanning system. Optical and mechanics components have been customized in order to achieve a speed of about 20 cm{sup 2}/hour per emulsion layer (44 {mu}m thick), while keeping a sub-micro-metric resolution. The first part of this thesis was dedicated to the optimization of 4 scanning systems at the French scanning station, based in Lyon. An experimental study on a dry objective scanning system has also been realized. The obtained results show that the performances of dry scanning are similar with respect to the traditional oil scanning, so that it can be successfully used for Opera. The second part of this work was devoted to the study of the neutrino interaction location and reconstruction strategy actually used in Opera. A dedicated test beam was performed at CERN in order to simulate Opera conditions. The obtained results definitely confirm that the proposed strategy is well adapted for tau search. (author)

  19. Recent Emulsion Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariga, A.

    2011-01-01

    Emulsion technologies are very much developed in the last decade and still developing in both the emulsion gel and the data taking. Emulsion detectors are suitable for the neutrino experiments because they can distinguish all 3 flavors of neutrino. The OPERA experiment, a recent pillar in the emulsion experiments aiming at the first observation of the neutrino oscillation in CNGS beam in appearance mode, is running, showing the good capability to separate 3 flavor neutrino interactions. In this poster, the recent developments and prospects of the emulsions for the next generation experiments are reported.

  20. Emulsion Science Basic Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Leal-Calderon, Fernando; Schmitt, Véronique

    2007-01-01

    Emulsions are generally made out of two immiscible fluids like oil and water, one being dispersed in the second in the presence of surface-active compounds.They are used as intermediate or end products in a huge range of areas including the food, chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, paint, and coating industries. Besides the broad domain of technological interest, emulsions are raising a variety of fundamental questions at the frontier between physics and chemistry. This book aims to give an overview of the most recent advances in emulsion science. The basic principles, covering aspects of emulsions from their preparation to their destruction, are presented in close relation to both the fundamental physics and the applications of these materials. The book is intended to help scientists and engineers in formulating new materials by giving them the basics of emulsion science.

  1. CMS emulsion pictures during LS1

    CERN Multimedia

    Di Ferdinando, Donato

    2013-01-01

    These images were taken at the CMS experimental cavern during Long Shutdown 1, installing pinhole cameras at different points of the cavern and exposing them for days. The development of the film was done by Donato di Ferdinando from INFN Bologna. A pinhole camera is a light-tight box where a small hole is made (diameter of the order of microns); a light-sensitive material is set in the back of the hole. As sensitive material a nuclear emulsion film from the OPERA experiment was used. It is a special photographic emulsion optimized (silver grains enriched) for the detection of charged particles. A very large amount of nuclear emulsions where used in Opera experiment, at the Gran Sasso Underground Labs; nuclear emulsions must detect the charged tau-leptons emerging from the interaction between the "oscillated" tau-neutrino coming from the pure muon-neutrino beam produced at CERN (the CNGS beam). The oscillations theory of neutrino expects that muon neutrinos oscillate to tau-neutrinos and due to this behavior ...

  2. Electrochemically driven emulsion inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johans, Christoffer; Kontturi, Kyösti

    2007-09-01

    It is shown that emulsions stabilized by ionic surfactants can be inverted by controlling the electrical potential across the oil-water interface. The potential dependent partitioning of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was studied by cyclic voltammetry at the 1,2-dichlorobenzene|water interface. In the emulsion the potential control was achieved by using a potential-determining salt. The inversion of a 1,2-dichlorobenzene-in-water (O/W) emulsion stabilized by SDS was followed by conductometry as a function of added tetrapropylammonium chloride. A sudden drop in conductivity was observed, indicating the change of the continuous phase from water to 1,2-dichlorobenzene, i.e. a water-in-1,2-dichlorobenzene emulsion was formed. The inversion potential is well in accordance with that predicted by the hydrophilic-lipophilic deviation if the interfacial potential is appropriately accounted for.

  3. Emulsions inside Gargamelle

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    A feasibility test was made with a 2.5 litre emulsion stack installed within the chamber. The stack was contained in a thermally insulated aluminium alloy pressure vessel (photo). See Annual Report 1978 p. 79 Fig. 5.

  4. Emulsions from Aerosol Sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengelmolen; Vincent; Hassall

    1997-12-01

    An electrostatic emulsification apparatus has been designed for the purpose of studying diffusion from oil droplets which have a mean size in the range of approximately 1.5-3.5 &mgr;m, with standard deviations of 40-50%. The emulsification technique involves the collection of a spray of electrically charged oil droplets onto a rotating water film which is sustained from a reservoir. In this way, emulsions with volume fractions of approximately 10(-3) are produced within several minutes at oil flow rates of around 10(-2) ml min-1. Phase-Doppler anemometry (PDA) was used to assess droplet size distributions for the sprays and emulsions. Results show that the mean emulsion droplet size was smaller than the mean spray droplet size by several orders of magnitude. At flow rates around 10(-2) ml min-1, the spray droplet size distribution was little affected by the applied potential between about -4.20 and -4.65 kV (mean droplet size between approximately 7.6 and 7.8 &mgr;m, with standard deviations of approximately 20%), whereas the mean droplet size of the corresponding emulsion decreased more rapidly with applied potential. Above an applied potential of approximately -4.30 kV, which corresponded to an emulsion droplet size below approximately 2 &mgr;m, the measured volume fraction of the emulsion decreased with respect to the volume fraction as calculated on the basis of total amount of injected oil. Copyright 1997 Academic Press. Copyright 1997Academic Press

  5. Emulsion type dry cleaning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohanawa, Osamu; Matsumoto, Hiroyo.

    1988-01-01

    Protective clothing against radioactive contamination used in the radiation controlled areas of nuclear plants has been washed by the same wet washing as used for underwear washing, but recently dry cleaning is getting used in place of wet washing, which generates a large quantity of laundry drain. However, it was required to use wet washing once every five to ten dry cleanings for washing protective clothing, because conventional dry cleaning is less effective in removing water-soluble soils. Therefore, in order to eliminate wet washing, and to decrease the quantity of laundry drains, the emulsion type dry cleaning system capable of removing both oil-soluble and water-soluble soils at a time has been developed. The results of developmental experiments and actual application are presented in this paper. (author)

  6. Integrated, Continuous Emulsion Creamer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Wesley G; Hackler, Amber L; Cavett, Valerie J; Price, Alexander K; Paegel, Brian M

    2017-12-19

    Automated and reproducible sample handling is a key requirement for high-throughput compound screening and currently demands heavy reliance on expensive robotics in screening centers. Integrated droplet microfluidic screening processors are poised to replace robotic automation by miniaturizing biochemical reactions to the droplet scale. These processors must generate, incubate, and sort droplets for continuous droplet screening, passively handling millions of droplets with complete uniformity, especially during the key step of sample incubation. Here, we disclose an integrated microfluidic emulsion creamer that packs ("creams") assay droplets by draining away excess oil through microfabricated drain channels. The drained oil coflows with creamed emulsion and then reintroduces the oil to disperse the droplets at the circuit terminus for analysis. Creamed emulsion assay incubation time dispersion was 1.7%, 3-fold less than other reported incubators. The integrated, continuous emulsion creamer (ICEcreamer) was used to miniaturize and optimize measurements of various enzymatic activities (phosphodiesterase, kinase, bacterial translation) under multiple- and single-turnover conditions. Combining the ICEcreamer with current integrated microfluidic DNA-encoded library bead processors eliminates potentially cumbersome instrumentation engineering challenges and is compatible with assays of diverse target class activities commonly investigated in drug discovery.

  7. Emulsion sheet doublets as interface trackers for the OPERA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Anokhina, A.; Ariga, A.; Arrabito, L.; Autiero, D.; Badertscher, A.; Bay, F.; Greggio, F.Bersani; Bertolin, A.; Besnier, M.; Bick, D.; Bozza, C.; Brugiere, T.; Brugnera, R.; Brunetti, G.; Buontempo, S.; Carrara, E.; Cazes, A.; Chaussard, L.; Chernyavsky, M.; Chiarella, V.; Chon-Sen, N.; Chukanov, A.; Consiglio, L.; Cozzi, M.; Cuha, V.; Dal Corso, F.; D'Amato, G.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; Declais, Y.; De Serio, M.; Di Capua, F.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Di Giovanni, A.; Di Marco, N.; Di Troia, C.; Dmitrievski, S.; Dominjon, A.; Dracos, Marcos; Duchesneau, D.; Dusini, S.; Ebert, J.; Egorov, O.; Enikeev, R.; Ereditato, Antonio; Esposito, L.S.; Favier, J.; Felici, G.; Ferber, T.; Fini, R.; Frekers, D.; Fukuda, T.; Galkin, V.I.; Galkin, V.A.; Garfagnini, A.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgini, M.; Goellnitz, C.; Goldberg, J.; Golubkov, D.; Gornushkin, Y.; Grella, G.; Grianti, F.; Guler, M.; Gusev, G.; Gustavino, C.; Hagner, Caren; Hara, T.; Hierholzer, M.; Hiramatsu, S.; Hoshino, Kaoru; Ieva, M.; Jakovcic, K.; Janicsko Csathy, J.; Janutta, B.; Jollet, C.; Juget, F.; Kawai, T.; Kazuyama, M.; Kim, S.H.; Knuesel, J.; Kodama, K.; Komatsu, M.; Kose, U.; Kreslo, I.; Laktineh, I.; Lazzaro, C.; Lenkeit, J.; Ljubicic, A.; Longhin, Andrea; Lutter, G.; Manai, K.; Mandrioli, G.; Marotta, A.; Marteau, J.; Matsuo, T.; Matsuoka, H.; Mauri, N.; Meisel, F.; Meregaglia, A.; Messina, M.; Migliozzi, P.; Mikado, S.; Miyamoto, S.; Monacelli, Piero; Morishima, Kunihiro; Moser, U.; Muciaccia, Maria Teresa; Naganawa, N.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, T.; Nikitina, V.; Niwa, K.; Nonoyama, Y.; Ogawa, S.; Osedlo, V.; Ossetski, D.; Paoloni, A.; Park, B.D.; Park, I.G.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Pilipenko, V.; Pistillo, C.; Polukhina, N.; Pozzato, M.; Pretzl, Klaus P.; Publichenko, P.; Pupilli, F.; Roganova, T.; Rosa, G.; Rostovtseva, I.; Rubbia, A.; Russo, A.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Ryzhikov, D.; Sato, O.; Sato, Y.; Saveliev, V.; Sazhina, G.; Schembri, A.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Shibuya, H.; Simone, S.; Sioli, Max; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Song, J.S.; Spinetti, M.; Stanco, L.; Starkov, N.; Stipcevic, M.; Strauss, T.; Strolin, Paolo Emilio; Sugonyaev, V.; Taira, Y.; Takahashi, S.; Tenti, M.; Terranova, F.; Tezuka, I.; Tioukov, V.; Tolun, P.; Tsarev, V.; Tufanli, S.; Ushida, N.; Vilain, P.; Vladimirov, M.; Votano, L.; Vuilleumier, J.L.; Wilquet, G.; Wonsak, B.; Wurtz, J.; Yoon, C.S.; Yoshida, J.; Zaitsev, Y.; Zemskova, S.; Zghiche, Amina; Zimmermann, R.

    2008-01-01

    New methods for efficient and unambiguous interconnection between electronic counters and target units based on nuclear photographic emulsion films have been developed. The application to the OPERA experiment, that aims at detecting oscillations between mu neutrino and tau neutrino in the CNGS neutrino beam, is reported in this paper. In order to reduce background due to latent tracks collected before installation in the detector, on-site large-scale treatments of the emulsions ("refreshing") have been applied. Changeable Sheet (CSd) packages, each made of a doublet of emulsion films, have been designed, assembled and coupled to the OPERA target units ("ECC bricks"). A device has been built to print X-ray spots for accurate interconnection both within the CSd and between the CSd and the related ECC brick. Sample emulsion films have been extensively scanned with state-of-the-art automated optical microscopes. Efficient track-matching and powerful background rejection have been achieved in tests with electronic...

  8. Study of the Production Mechanisms and Decay Properties of Charmed Particles Observed in Nuclear Emulsions Coupled to the NA14 Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The aims of this test experiment are: \\item a)~~~~to check the expected improvement in scanning speed and efficiency, due to the use of the microstrip vertex detector of the NA14 set-up and to the help of automated microscopes; \\item b)~~~~to evaluate the enrichment factor in the charmed event content of the sample to be searched, due to the particle identification power and the vertex detector of NA14; \\item c)~~~~to collect some 100 pairs of charmed particles, produced and decaying in emulsion, which would allow a comparison with the results from the WA58 experiment, in particular about the possible energy dependence of the production mechanism of associated @L^c|+~$\\bar{D}$. \\end{enumerate} The incident beam will consist of tagged photons between 70 and 150-200~GeV.

  9. Measurement of charge of heavy ions in emulsion using a CCD camera

    CERN Document Server

    Kudzia, D; Dabrowska, A; Deines-Jones, P; Holynski, R; Olszewski, A; Nilsen, B S; Sen-Gupta, K; Szarska, M; Trzupek, A; Waddington, C J; Wefel, J P; Wilczynska, B; Wilczynski, H; Wolter, W; Wosiek, B; Wozniak, K

    1999-01-01

    A system has been developed for semi-automated determination of the charges of heavy ions recorded in nuclear emulsions. The profiles of various heavy ion tracks in emulsion, both accelerator beam ions and fragments of heavy projectiles, were obtained with a CCD camera mounted on a microscope. The dependence of track profiles on illumination, emulsion grain size and density, background in emulsion, and track geometry was analyzed. Charges of the fragments of heavy projectiles were estimated independently by the delta ray counting method. A calibration of both width and height of track profiles against ion charges was made with ions of known charges ranging from helium to gold nuclei. (author)

  10. Influence of fat crystals in the oil phase on stability of oil-in-water emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    1980-01-01

    Coalescence at rest and during flow was studied in emulsions of paraffin oil in water with several surfactants and with crystals of solid paraffin or tristearate in the oil phase. Solid fat in the oil phase was estimated by pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance. Without crystals, oil-in-water emulsions

  11. Radiation processing of polymer emulsion, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, Keizo; Katakai, Akio; Ito, Hiroshi; Hayakawa, Naohiro; Araki, Kunio

    1983-01-01

    Methyl methacrylate was polymerized in emulsion by Co-60 γ-rays below 19 deg C in a batch reactor by using sodium lauryl sulfate as emulsifier. The conversion-time curves of the polymerization system showed two rate regions, i.e., a fact conversion rate in early stage, and a much slower rate in latter stage. The change in rate occurred at about 70 % conversion. The molecular weight of product polymer decreased with increasing conversion during the course of polymerization in latter stage, in contrast to the behavior in early stage. The distribution of the monomer in emulsion in latter stage was evaluated by nuclear magnetic resonance technique. The decrease of the molecular weight with conversion is due to the radiation-induced degradation of product polymer accelerated by the monomers absorbed in the polymer particles. (author)

  12. Use of semiconductors in lieu of emulsions in nuclear spectroscopy; Utilisation de semi-conducteurs a la place d'emulsions en spectroscopie nucleaire; Primenenie poluprovodnikov vmesto ehmul'sij v yadernoj spektroskopii; Sustitucion de las emulsiones por semiconductores en espectroscopia nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilaniuk, O M; Marsh, B B [University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States)

    1962-04-15

    Twenty surface-barrier counters obtained by evaporating gold on to n-type germanium, or junction counters produced by diffusing phosphorus into p-type silicon, are placed in the image plane of a high-resolution magnetic spectrometer in place of a nuclear emulsion plate. To avoid the use of separate amplifiers and registers for each crystal, the outputs of individual counters are connected into a lumped delay line, replacing alternate capacitors of the line. When an ionizing particle strikes a counter, the resultant pulse travels toward both ends of the delay line. Each of the 20 stages of the line consists of two 35-{mu}H inductances and two 60-{mu}{mu}F capacitors of which one is the counter itself and its leads. These components provide for a delay of t = 2(LC){sup 1/2} = 90 ns per stage. Thus the time difference between pulses arriving at the ends of the delay line will differ by 180 ns for two adjacent detectors. The two ends of the delay line are connected into a ''start'' amplifier and a ''stop'' amplifier respectively, followed by identical shaping and trigger circuits. Their outputs operate a 6BN6 time-to-pulse-height converter. A fixed delay of 2.5 {mu}s is included in the stop amplifier, which ensures that the stop pulse always arrives at the time-pulse-height converter after the start pulse. The amplitude of the pulse coming out of the 6BN6 converter is proportional to the time difference between the start and stop pulses. Thus, signals originating in various counters of the mosaic are decoded by pulse height. The resulting groups of counts are displayed on the screen of a 400-channel pulse-height analyser, printed out, and graphed by an X-Y recorder. The groups are entirely'resolved so that the decoding is complete. The decoding circuit can accept a pulse every 8{mu}s so that the limitation for the counting rate does not stem from this unit but from the 400-channel analyser. The decoding unit has been found to perform satisfactorily with the magnetic

  13. Cleaning fluid emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prikryl, J; Kotyza, R; Krulikovsky, J; Mjartan, V; Valisova, I

    1981-09-15

    Composition of cleaning fluid emulsion are presented for drilling small diameter wells in clay soils, at high drill bit rotation velocity. The emulsions have lubricating properties and the abilty to improve stability of the drilled soil. The given fluids have a high fatty acid content with 12-24 carbon atoms in a single molecule, with a predominance of resinous acids 1-5% in mass, and having been emulsified in water or clay suspension without additives, or in a clay suspension with high-molecular polymer additives (glycobate cellulose compounds and/or polysaccharides, and/or their derivatives) in an amount of 0.1-3% per mass; thinning agents - huminite or lignite compounds in the amount of 0.01 to 0.5% in mass; weighting material - barite or lime 0.01 to 50% per mass; medium stabilizers - organic poly-electrolyte with polyacrylate in the amount of 0.05 to 2% in mass, or alkaline chloride/alkaline-ground metals 1-10% per mass. A cleaning emulsion fluid was prepared in the laboratory according to the given method. Add 3 kg tall oil to a solution of 1 kg K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ per 100 l of water. Dynamic viscosity was equal to 1.4 x 10-/sup 3/ Pa/s. When drilling in compacted clay soils, when the emulsions require improved stability, it is necessary to add the maximum amount of tall oil whose molecules are absorbed by the clay soil and increase its durability.

  14. Rheology of unstable mineral emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolović Dunja S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the rheology of mineral oils and their unstable water emulsion were investigated. The oil samples were domestic crude oil UA, its fractions UA1, UA4 and blend semi-product UP1, while the concentration of oil in water emulsions was in the range from 1 up to 30%. The results were analyzed based on shear stress. The oil samples UA, UA1 and UP1 are Newtonian fluids, while UA4 is pseudoplastic fluid. The samples UA and UA4 show higher value of shear stress (83.75 Pa, 297 Pa, then other two samples UA1 and UP1 (18.41 Pa, 17.52 Pa. Rheology of investigated oils due to its complex chemical composition should be analyzed as a simultaneous effect of all their components. Therefore, structural composition of the oils was determined, namely content of paraffins, naphthenes, aromatics and asphaltenes. All samples contain paraffins, naphthenes and aromatics but only oils UA and UA4 contain asphaltenes as well. All investigated emulsions except 30% EUA4 are Newtonian fluids. The EUA4 30% emulsion shows pseudoplastic behaviour, and it is the only 30% emulsion among investigated ones that achieves lower shear stress then its oil. The characteristics of oil samples that could have an influence on their properties and their emulsion rheology, were determined. These characteristics are: neutralization number, interfacial tension, dielectric constant, and emulsivity. Oil samples UA and UA4 have significantly higher values of neutralization number, dielectric constants, and emulsivity. The sample UA has the lowest value of interface tension and the greatest emulsivity, indicating that this oil, among all investigated, has the highest preference for building emulsion. This could be the reason why 20% and 30% emulsions of the oil UA achieve the highest shear stress among all investigated emulsions.

  15. Study on target interactions in emulsion chamber - Brasil-Japan emulsion chamber collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, M.; Santos, C.; Bellandi Filho, J.; Chinellato, J. A.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Lattes, C. M. G.; Marques, A.; Menon, M. J.; Navia, C. E.; Sawayanagi, K.

    Experimental results are presented from observations of 80 target nuclear interactions where the total gamma-ray energy is greater than or equal to 20 TeV. Evidence is presented for the existence of two types of interactions; the interpretation is given on the basis of a fire-ball model. Two-story emulsion chambers exposed at Mount Chacaltaya, in Bolivia (5,220 m above sea level), are used. Gamma rays from nuclear interactions in the target layer of petroleum pitch (1/3 of the nuclear mean free path in thickness) are detected through observations of the electron showers generated by them in the lower chamber

  16. Creating nanoscale emulsions using condensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Ingrid F; Anand, Sushant; Varanasi, Kripa K

    2017-11-08

    Nanoscale emulsions are essential components in numerous products, ranging from processed foods to novel drug delivery systems. Existing emulsification methods rely either on the breakup of larger droplets or solvent exchange/inversion. Here we report a simple, scalable method of creating nanoscale water-in-oil emulsions by condensing water vapor onto a subcooled oil-surfactant solution. Our technique enables a bottom-up approach to forming small-scale emulsions. Nanoscale water droplets nucleate at the oil/air interface and spontaneously disperse within the oil, due to the spreading dynamics of oil on water. Oil-soluble surfactants stabilize the resulting emulsions. We find that the oil-surfactant concentration controls the spreading behavior of oil on water, as well as the peak size, polydispersity, and stability of the resulting emulsions. Using condensation, we form emulsions with peak radii around 100 nm and polydispersities around 10%. This emulsion formation technique may open different routes to creating emulsions, colloidal systems, and emulsion-based materials.

  17. Target dependence of clan model parameter in Emulsion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    attention of physicists for a long time [7]. Scientists conveyed several important ... fully followed until they either interacted with nuclear emulsion detector (NED) nuclei or escaped from any surface of .... come from the diagonal terms of the full covariance matrix, the changes in the χ2/DOF values are insignificant when the ...

  18. Radiation induced emulsion polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stannett, V.T.; Stahel, E.P.

    1990-01-01

    High energy radiation is particularly favored for the initiation of emulsion polymerization. The yield of free radicals, for example, from the radiolysis of the aqueous phase, is high; G(radical) values of 5-7. In addition, the rather special kinetics associated with emulsion polymerization lead, in general, to very large kinetic chain lengths, even with 'non-ideal' monomers such as vinyl acetate. Together, high polymerization rates at low doses become possible. There are some important advantages of radiation polymerization compared with chemical initiators, such as potassium persulfate. Perhaps the most important among them is the temperature independence of the initiation step. This makes low temperature polymerization very accessible. With monomers such as vinyl acetate, where chain termination to monomer is predominant, low temperatures lead to often highly desirable higher molecular weights. With styrene, the classical ideally behaved monomer, there are the advantages such as, for example, the feasibility of using cationic monomers. These and some attendant disadvantages are discussed in detail, including pilot plant studies

  19. Proton Linear Energy Transfer measurement using Emulsion Cloud Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae-ik [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Division of Heavy Ion Clinical Research, Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seyjoon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Haksoo; Kim, Meyoung [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Chiyoung [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sungkoo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Young Kyung; Shin, Dongho [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Se Byeong, E-mail: sblee@ncc.re.kr [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Morishima, Kunihiro; Naganawa, Naotaka; Sato, Osamu [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Kwak, Jungwon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Hyun [Center for Underground Physics, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jung Sook [Department of refinement education, Dongseo University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jung Keun [Department of Physics, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Chun Sil [Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Incerti, Sebastien [CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Université Bordeaux 1, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France)

    2015-04-15

    This study proposes to determine the correlation between the Volume Pulse Height (VPH) measured by nuclear emulsion and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) calculated by Monte Carlo simulation based on Geant4. The nuclear emulsion was irradiated at the National Cancer Center (NCC) with a therapeutic proton beam and was installed at 5.2 m distance from the beam nozzle structure with various thicknesses of water-equivalent material (PMMA) blocks to position with specific positions along the Bragg curve. After the beam exposure and development of the emulsion films, the films were scanned by S-UTS developed in Nagoya University. The proton tracks in the scanned films were reconstructed using the ‘NETSCAN’ method. Through this procedure, the VPH can be derived from each reconstructed proton track at each position along the Bragg curve. The VPH value indicates the magnitude of energy loss in proton track. By comparison with the simulation results obtained using Geant4, we found the correlation between the LET calculated by Monte Carlo simulation and the VPH measured by the nuclear emulsion.

  20. Proton Linear Energy Transfer measurement using Emulsion Cloud Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jae-ik; Park, Seyjoon; Kim, Haksoo; Kim, Meyoung; Jeong, Chiyoung; Cho, Sungkoo; Lim, Young Kyung; Shin, Dongho; Lee, Se Byeong; Morishima, Kunihiro; Naganawa, Naotaka; Sato, Osamu; Kwak, Jungwon; Kim, Sung Hyun; Cho, Jung Sook; Ahn, Jung Keun; Kim, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Chun Sil; Incerti, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes to determine the correlation between the Volume Pulse Height (VPH) measured by nuclear emulsion and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) calculated by Monte Carlo simulation based on Geant4. The nuclear emulsion was irradiated at the National Cancer Center (NCC) with a therapeutic proton beam and was installed at 5.2 m distance from the beam nozzle structure with various thicknesses of water-equivalent material (PMMA) blocks to position with specific positions along the Bragg curve. After the beam exposure and development of the emulsion films, the films were scanned by S-UTS developed in Nagoya University. The proton tracks in the scanned films were reconstructed using the ‘NETSCAN’ method. Through this procedure, the VPH can be derived from each reconstructed proton track at each position along the Bragg curve. The VPH value indicates the magnitude of energy loss in proton track. By comparison with the simulation results obtained using Geant4, we found the correlation between the LET calculated by Monte Carlo simulation and the VPH measured by the nuclear emulsion

  1. Proton Linear Energy Transfer measurement using Emulsion Cloud Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae-ik; Park, Seyjoon; Kim, Haksoo; Kim, Meyoung; Jeong, Chiyoung; Cho, Sungkoo; Lim, Young Kyung; Shin, Dongho; Lee, Se Byeong; Morishima, Kunihiro; Naganawa, Naotaka; Sato, Osamu; Kwak, Jungwon; Kim, Sung Hyun; Cho, Jung Sook; Ahn, Jung Keun; Kim, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Chun Sil; Incerti, Sebastien

    2015-04-01

    This study proposes to determine the correlation between the Volume Pulse Height (VPH) measured by nuclear emulsion and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) calculated by Monte Carlo simulation based on Geant4. The nuclear emulsion was irradiated at the National Cancer Center (NCC) with a therapeutic proton beam and was installed at 5.2 m distance from the beam nozzle structure with various thicknesses of water-equivalent material (PMMA) blocks to position with specific positions along the Bragg curve. After the beam exposure and development of the emulsion films, the films were scanned by S-UTS developed in Nagoya University. The proton tracks in the scanned films were reconstructed using the 'NETSCAN' method. Through this procedure, the VPH can be derived from each reconstructed proton track at each position along the Bragg curve. The VPH value indicates the magnitude of energy loss in proton track. By comparison with the simulation results obtained using Geant4, we found the correlation between the LET calculated by Monte Carlo simulation and the VPH measured by the nuclear emulsion.

  2. Neutrino Interactions in a Hybrid Emulsion - Bubble Chamber Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenbladt, Robert Ludwig [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1981-05-01

    target consisting of 22 - 1 liter stacks of cryogenically sensitive nuclear emulsion has been exposed inside the 15 Foot Bubble Chamber to the Fermilab wide-band neutrino beam. A hybrid system of emulsion plus bubble chamber was used to find and analyze neutrino interactions with nuclei in the emulsion target. The average multiplicity of charged minimum ionization tracks of the 45 events was found to be 6.8 ± 0.5. The normalized multiplicity with respect to neutrino - proton interactions at the same average hadronic center of mass energy was found to be 1.3 ± 0.2. When compared to neutrino - proton interactions, the rapidity distribution shows a clear signal for intranuclear cascading in the target fragmentation region. Measured rapidity and multiplicity distributions are compared with predictions of the Growth of Longitudinal Distances Model of Nikolaev and the Coherent Tube Model.

  3. Study of the effects induced by lead on the emulsion films of the OPERA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Anokhina, A.; Ariga, A.; Arrabito, L.; Autiero, D.; Badertscher, A.; Bay, F.; Bergnoli, A.; Bersani Greggio, F.; Besnier, M.; Bick, D.; Bozza, C.; Brugiere, T.; Brugnera, R.; Brunetti, G.; Buontempo, S.; Carrara, E.; Cazes, A.; Chaussard, L.; Chernyavsky, M.; Chiarella, V.; Chon-Sen, N.; Chukanov, A.; Consiglio, L.; Cozzi, M.; Dal Corso, F.; D'Amato, G.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; Declais, Y.; De Serio, M.; Di Capua, F.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Di Giovanni, A.; Di Marco, N.; Di Troia, C.; Dmitrievski, S.; Dominjon, A.; Dracos, M.; Duchesneau, D.; Dulach, B.; Dusini, S.; Ebert, J.; Egorov, O.; Enikeev, R.; Ereditato, A.; Esposito, L.S.; Favier, J.; Felici, G.; Ferber, T.; Fini, R.; Franceschi, A.; Fukuda, T.; Fukushima, C.; Galkin, V.I.; Galkin, V.A.; Garfagnini, A.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgini, M.; Goellnitz, C.; Golubkov, D.; Gornoushkin, Y.; Grella, G.; Grianti, F.; Guler, M.; Gusev, G.; Gustavino, C.; Hagner, Caren; Hara, T.; Hierholzer, M.; Hiramatsu, S.; Hoshino, Kaoru; Ieva, M.; Jakovcic, K.; Janicsko Csathy, J.; Janutta, B.; Jollet, C.; Juget, F.; Kawai, T.; Kazuyama, M.; Kim, S.H.; Kimura, M.; Knuesel, J.; Kodama, K.; Komatsu, M.; Kose, U.; Kreslo, I.; Laktineh, I.; Lazzaro, C.; Lenkeit, J.; Ljubicic, A.; Longhin, Andrea; Lutter, G.; Manai, K.; Mandrioli, G.; Manzoor, S.; Marotta, A.; Marteau, J.; Matsuoka, H.; Mauri, N.; Meisel, F.; Meregaglia, A.; Messina, M.; Migliozzi, P.; Miyamoto, S.; Monacelli, P.; Morishima, K.; Moser, U.; Muciaccia, M.T.; Naganawa, N.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, T.; Nikitina, V.; Niwa, K.; Nonoyama, Y.; Ogawa, S.; Osedlo, V.; Ossetski, D.; Paoloni, A.; Park, B.D.; Park, I.G.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Pistillo, C.; Polukhina, N.; Pozzato, M.; Pretzl, K.; Publichenko, P.; Pupilli, F.; Roganova, T.; Rosa, G.; Rostovtseva, I.; Rubbia, A.; Russo, A.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Ryzhikov, D.; Sato, Y.; Sato, O.; Saveliev, V.; Sazhina, G.; Schembri, A.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Shibuya, H.; Simone, S.; Sioli, M.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Song, J.S.; Spinetti, M.; Stanco, L.; Starkov, N.; Stipcevic, M.; Strauss, T.; Strolin, Paolo Emilio; Sugonyaev, V.; Taira, Y.; Takahashi, S.; Tenti, M.; Terranova, F.; Tioukov, V.; Togo, V.; Tolun, P.; Tsarev, V.; Tufanli, S.; Ushida, N.; Valieri, C.; Vilain, P.; Vladimirov, M.; Votano, L.; Vuilleumier, J.L.; Wilquet, G.; Wonsak, B.; Wurtz, J.; Yoon, C.S.; Yoshida, J.; Zaitsev, Y.; Zemskova, S.; Zghiche, A.; Zimmermann, R.

    2008-01-01

    The OPERA neutrino oscillation experiment is based on the use of the Emulsion Cloud Chamber (ECC). In the OPERA ECC, nuclear emulsion films acting as very high precision tracking detectors are interleaved with lead plates providing a massive target for neutrino interactions. We report on studies related to the effects occurring from the contact between emulsion and lead. A low radioactivity lead is required in order to minimize the number of background tracks in emulsions and to achieve the required performance in the reconstruction of neutrino events. It was observed that adding other chemical elements to the lead, in order to improve the mechanical properties, may significantly increase the level of radioactivity on the emulsions. A detailed study was made in order to choose a lead alloy with good mechanical properties and an appropriate packing technique so as to have a low enough effective radioactivity.

  4. Characterization of flaxseed oil emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-En; Choo, Wee-Sim

    2015-07-01

    The emulsifying capacity of surfactants (polysorbate 20, polysorbate 80 and soy lecithin) and proteins (soy protein isolate and whey protein isolate) in flaxseed oil was measured based on 1 % (w/w) of emulsifier. Surfactants showed significantly higher emulsifying capacity compared to the proteins (soy protein isolate and whey protein isolate) in flaxseed oil. The emulsion stability of the flaxseed oil emulsions with whey protein isolate (10 % w/w) prepared using a mixer was ranked in the following order: 1,000 rpm (58 min) ≈ 1,000 rpm (29 min) ≈ 2,000 rpm (35 min) >2,000 rpm (17.5 min). The emulsion stability of the flaxseed oil emulsions with whey protein isolate (10 % w/w) prepared using a homogenizer (Ultra Turrax) was independent of the speed and mixing time. The mean particle size of the flaxseed oil emulsions prepared using the two mixing devices ranged from 23.99 ± 1.34 μm to 47.22 ± 1.99 μm where else the particle size distribution and microstructure of the flaxseed oil emulsions demonstrated using microscopic imaging were quite similar. The flaxseed oil emulsions had a similar apparent viscosity and exhibited shear thinning (pseudoplastic) behavior. The flaxseed oil emulsions had L* value above 70 and was in the red-yellow color region (positive a* and b* values).

  5. Isotachophoresis with emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goet, G.; Baier, T.; Hardt, S.; Sen, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    An experimental study on isotachophoresis (ITP) in which an emulsion is used as leading electrolyte (LE) is reported. The study aims at giving an overview about the transport and flow phenomena occurring in that context. Generally, it is observed that the oil droplets initially dispersed in the LE are collected at the ITP transition zone and advected along with it. The detailed behavior at the transition zone depends on whether or not surfactants (polyvinylpyrrolidon, PVP) are added to the electrolytes. In a system without surfactants, coalescence is observed between the droplets collected at the ITP transition zone. After having achieved a certain size, the droplets merge with the channel walls, leaving an oil film behind. In systems with PVP, coalescence is largely suppressed and no merging of droplets with the channel walls is observed. Instead, at the ITP transition zone, a droplet agglomerate of increasing size is formed. In the initial stages of the ITP experiments, two counter rotating vortices are formed inside the terminating electrolyte. The vortex formation is qualitatively explained based on a hydrodynamic instability triggered by fluctuations of the number density of oil droplets. PMID:24404037

  6. Study on cosmic ray iron isotopes in an emulsion-plastic detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherzer, R.; Enge, W.; Beaujean, R.; Hertzman, S.; Kristiansson, K.; Soederstroem, K.

    1976-01-01

    Combining cellulose nitrate plastics and nuclear emulsions a detector system for mass measurement in the iron group has been designed. The detector operates in an energy interval of 500-700 MeV/Nuc and has been flown in two balloon flights. In the emulsion range and track width are measured. Cone lengths and range are measured in the plastics. The charge of a particle can be determined both in emulsion and in plastics. The mass is determined by relating cone lengths to residual range. One advantage of this detector system is the high rejection of interacting particles. The present status is reported. (orig.) [de

  7. Chemistry and technology of emulsion polymerisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herk, van A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Emulsion polymerisation produces high value polymers in a low cost, environmentally friendly process. The drive to develop environmentally benign production methods for polymers has resulted in widespread development and implementation of the emulsion polymerisation technique. In addition, when

  8. Beauty pair production in 600 GeV/c π-emulsion interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipton, R.

    1992-01-01

    Nine beauty pairs have been observed by the E653 experiment in 600 GeV/c π-emulsion interactions. The experiment uses a combination of nuclear emulsion and silicon vertex detectors to unambiguously reconstruct decay vertices. A muon trigger was used to select semi-muonic beauty decays for scanning. Results on production characteristics and lifetimes of beauty pairs are presented, for charged and neutral B lifetimes. (R.P.) 2 figs.; 1 tab

  9. Bulk-loaded emulsion explosives technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, D.G. [Blasting Analysis International, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The largest use of emulsion explosives and emulsion-Anfo blends is in surface mining operations. An emulsion explosive is a two-phase system: the inner phase is madeup of an oxidizer solution; the outer phase is made up of oils or an oil/wax blend. Emulsion Anfo blends have been used to expand drill patterns, increase fragmentation, and provide extra energy for blast casting. 3 tabs.

  10. Microfluidic methods to study emulsion formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijlwijk, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    Emulsions are dispersions of one liquid in another that are commonly used in various products, and methods such as high-pressure homogenisers and colloid mills are used to form emulsions. The size and size distribution of emulsion droplets are important for the final product properties and thus

  11. Emulsion properties of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Perez, S.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Vereijken, J.M.; Merck, K.B.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Emulsions were made with sunflower protein isolate (SI), helianthinin, and sunflower albumins (SFAs). Emulsion formation and stabilization were studied as a function of pH and ionic strength and after heat treatment of the proteins. The emulsions were characterized with respect to average droplet

  12. A study of recording possibilities of emulsions in autoradiography conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogomolov, C.S.; Razorenova, I.F.; Ruditskaya, I.A.; Khruliova, L.S.

    1976-01-01

    The autoradiography method is widely used in various fields of science and technique and particularly, in medico-biological and medical researches. Combination of autoradiography method and electron microscopy allowed to carry out researches with qualitatively new level and to study radioactive labels, for example, in separate elements of a cell structure. In the present paper there has been carried out a study of nuclear emulsion properties with reference to electron-microscopic autoradiography conditions. (orig./ORU) [de

  13. Selective enhancement of boron accumulation with boron-entrapped water-in-oil-water emulsion in VX-2 rabbit hepatic cancer model for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagie, Hironobu; Higashi, Shushi; Ikushima, Ichiro

    2006-01-01

    Tumor cell destruction in boron neutron-capture therapy (BNCT) is due to the nuclear reaction between 10 B and thermal neutrons. It is necessary for effective BNCT therapy to accumulate 10 B atoms in the tumor cells without affecting adjacent healthy cells. Water-in-oil-water (WOW) emulsion was used as the carrier of anti-cancer agents on arterial injections in clinical cancer treatment. In this study, we prepared 10 BSH entrapped WOW emulsion for selective arterial infusion for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. WOW emulsion was administrated by arterial injections via proper hepatic artery. The anti-tumor activity of the emulsion was compared with 10 BSH-Lipiodol mix emulsion or 10 BSH solutions on VX-2 rabbit hepatic tumor models. The 10 B concentrations in VX-2 tumor on delivery with WOW emulsion was superior to those by conventional lipiodol mix emulsion. Electro-microscopic figures of WOW emulsion delineated the accumulation of fat droplets of WOW emulsion in the tumor site, but there was no accumulation of fat droplets in lipiodol emulsion. These results indicate that 10 B entrapped WOW emulsion is most useful carrier for arterial delivery of boron agents on BNCT to cancer. (author)

  14. Emulsion sheet doublets as interface trackers for the OPERA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anokhina, A; Aoki, S; Ariga, A; Arrabito, L; Autiero, D; Brugiere, T; Chaussard, L; Badertscher, A; Bay, F; Greggio, F Bersani; Bertolin, A; Besnier, M; Bick, D; Bozza, C; Brugnera, R; Carrara, E; Brunetti, G; Buontempo, S; Cazes, A; Chernyavsky, M

    2008-01-01

    New methods for efficient and unambiguous interconnection between electronic position sensitive detectors and target units based on nuclear photographic emulsion films have been developed. The application to the OPERA experiment, that aims at detecting ν μ ν τ oscillations in the CNGS neutrino beam, is reported in this paper. In order to reduce background due to latent tracks collected before installation in the detector, on-site large-scale treatments of the emulsions (''refreshing'') have been applied. Changeable Sheet (CSd) packages, each made of a doublet of emulsion films, have been designed, assembled and coupled to the OPERA target units (''ECC bricks''). A device has been built to print X-ray spots for accurate interconnection both within the CSd and between the CSd and the related ECC brick. Sample emulsion films have been extensively scanned with state-of-the-art automated optical microscopes. Efficient track-matching and powerful background rejection have been achieved in tests with electronically tagged penetrating muons. Further improvement of in-doublet film alignment was obtained by matching the pattern of low-energy electron tracks. The commissioning of the overall OPERA alignment procedure is in progress

  15. Inverted emulsion drilling fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ana, I; Astanei, E; Mireanu, G; Orosz, M; Popescu, F; Vasile, I

    1979-07-28

    The subject of the invention is the method of obtaining inverted drilling fluid which is required during stripping of a productive bed and ending of a well where difficulties develop during drilling of the argillaceous rock. Example: in a reservoir with capacity 30 m/sup 3/, 10 m/sup 3/ of diesel fuel are added. A total of 1000 kg of emulsifier are added to the diesel fuel consisting of: 85 mass% of a mixture of sodium and potassium salts of fatty acids, residues of fatty acids or naphthene acids with high molecular weight taken in proportion of 10:90; 5 mass% of a mixture of polymers with hydrophilic-hydrophobic properties obtained by mixing 75 mass% of polyethylene oxide with molecular weight 10,000 and 25 mass% of propylene oxide with molecular weight 15,000, and 10 mass% of salt on alkaline earth metal (preferably calcium chloride). The mixture is mixed into complete dissolving. Then 1200 kg of filtering accelerator are added obtained from concentrated sulfuric acid serving for sulfur oxidation, asphalt substance with softening temperature 85-104/sup 0/C and fatty acids C/sub 10/-C/sub 20/ taken in a proportion of 23.70 and 7 mass% The mixture obtained in this manner is neutralized by adding calcium hydroxide and equal quantities of alumina and activated bentonite clay in a concentration of 1-10 mass%, more preferably 5 mass% in relation to the initial mixture. The obtained mass is mixed until complete dispersion, after which 200 kg of organophilic clay are added obtained from bentonite of the type montmorillonite of sodium by processing with derivate obtained from amine of the type of the quaternary base of ammonium salt, and agent of hydrophobization of the type of fatty alcohols, fatty acids, nonion surfactants of the block-polymer type. After complete dispersion of the organophilic clay, 100 kg of stabilizer of emulsion of the surfactant type was added with molecular weight of 250010,000, more preferably 5000, in concentration of 0.1-5.0 mass%, more

  16. Modelling of Emulsion Flow in Porous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Kassem, J.H. [UAE University (United Arab Emirates); Farouq Ali, S.M. [UAE University (United Arab Emirates)

    1995-06-01

    Oil recovery methods predominantly involve emulsion formation. Oil recovery simulation requires the incorporation of emulsion characteristics and flow in porous media, in order to optimize oil recovery from petroleum reservoirs. This paper explored the nature and rheology of emulsions, and evaluated several models of flow of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids in porous media. It also summarized in situ emulsion formation in porous media. A model for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian emulsion fluid flow was proposed, with special emphasis on pore size, and tortuosity in the porous media.

  17. High-conversion emulsion polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maxwell, I.A.; Verdurmen, E.M.F.J.; German, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    The four important factors that det. the rate of emulsion polymn. are the propagation rate coeff., the latex-particle concn., the monomer concn. in the latex particles, and the free-radical concn. in the latex particles. Both theor. considerations and exptl. evidence suggested that the important

  18. Modeling of emulsion copolymer microstructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doremaele, G.H.J.; Herk, van A.M.; German, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    A model is developed to describe stages II and III of batch emulsion copolymn., and its predictive capabilities are investigated by application to the system styrene-Me acrylate. The main reaction site is the monomer-swollen polymer particle. Copolymn. rate and copolymer microstructure (molar

  19. Study of v interactions and background estimation in the OPERA emulsion film detector

    CERN Document Server

    Janicskó-Csáthy, József

    The OPERA (Oscillation Project with Emulsion tRacking Apparatus ) experiment or CNGS1 was approved in 2001 by CERN and presently is under construction. Data-taking is expected to start in 2006. The experiment is designated to the νμ  ντ oscillation search. OPERA is a hybrid detector comprising a number of electronic detectors and a specially designed nuclear emulsion stack interlaced with lead plates. The total target mass of the detector will be about 1.8 kt. This impressive mass needed for neutrino detection is combined with an even more impressive spatial resolution of about a m , characteristic of the nuclear emulsion technique. The detection of ντ is based on the observation of the decay of the τ lepton. The fine grained structure of nuclear emulsions offers the possibility to directly observe such a decay and by the means of kinematical analysis can be clearly separated from background events. Nuclear emulsions will be produced and processed in industrial quantities and the readout will be don...

  20. Steroidal Compounds in Commercial Parenteral Lipid Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhidong; Harvey, Kevin A.; Pavlina, Thomas; Dutot, Guy; Hise, Mary; Zaloga, Gary P.; Siddiqui, Rafat A.

    2012-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions made from various plant oils contain steroidal compounds, called phytosterols. During parenteral administration of lipid emulsions, phytosterols can reach levels in the blood that are many fold higher than during enteral administration. The elevated phytosterol levels have been associated with the development of liver dysfunction and the rare development of liver failure. There is limited information available in the literature related to phytosterol concentrations in lipid emulsions. The objective of the current study was to validate an assay for steroidal compounds found in lipid emulsions and to compare their concentrations in the most commonly used parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions: Liposyn® II, Liposyn® III, Lipofundin® MCT, Lipofundin® N, Structolipid®, Intralipid®, Ivelip® and ClinOleic®. Our data demonstrates that concentrations of the various steroidal compounds varied greatly between the eight lipid emulsions, with the olive oil-based lipid emulsion containing the lowest levels of phytosterols and cholesterol, and the highest concentration of squalene. The clinical impression of greater incidences of liver dysfunction with soybean versus MCT/LCT and olive/soy lipid emulsions may be reflective of the levels of phytosterols in these emulsions. This information may help guide future studies and clinical care of patients with lipid emulsion-associated liver dysfunction. PMID:23016123

  1. Steroidal compounds in commercial parenteral lipid emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhidong; Harvey, Kevin A; Pavlina, Thomas; Dutot, Guy; Hise, Mary; Zaloga, Gary P; Siddiqui, Rafat A

    2012-08-01

    Parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions made from various plant oils contain steroidal compounds, called phytosterols. During parenteral administration of lipid emulsions, phytosterols can reach levels in the blood that are many fold higher than during enteral administration. The elevated phytosterol levels have been associated with the development of liver dysfunction and the rare development of liver failure. There is limited information available in the literature related to phytosterol concentrations in lipid emulsions. The objective of the current study was to validate an assay for steroidal compounds found in lipid emulsions and to compare their concentrations in the most commonly used parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions: Liposyn(®) II, Liposyn(®) III, Lipofundin(®) MCT, Lipofundin(®) N, Structolipid(®), Intralipid(®), Ivelip(®) and ClinOleic(®). Our data demonstrates that concentrations of the various steroidal compounds varied greatly between the eight lipid emulsions, with the olive oil-based lipid emulsion containing the lowest levels of phytosterols and cholesterol, and the highest concentration of squalene. The clinical impression of greater incidences of liver dysfunction with soybean versus MCT/LCT and olive/soy lipid emulsions may be reflective of the levels of phytosterols in these emulsions. This information may help guide future studies and clinical care of patients with lipid emulsion-associated liver dysfunction.

  2. Steroidal Compounds in Commercial Parenteral Lipid Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafat A. Siddiqui

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions made from various plant oils contain steroidal compounds, called phytosterols. During parenteral administration of lipid emulsions, phytosterols can reach levels in the blood that are many fold higher than during enteral administration. The elevated phytosterol levels have been associated with the development of liver dysfunction and the rare development of liver failure. There is limited information available in the literature related to phytosterol concentrations in lipid emulsions. The objective of the current study was to validate an assay for steroidal compounds found in lipid emulsions and to compare their concentrations in the most commonly used parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions: Liposyn® II, Liposyn® III, Lipofundin® MCT, Lipofundin® N, Structolipid®, Intralipid®, Ivelip® and ClinOleic®. Our data demonstrates that concentrations of the various steroidal compounds varied greatly between the eight lipid emulsions, with the olive oil-based lipid emulsion containing the lowest levels of phytosterols and cholesterol, and the highest concentration of squalene. The clinical impression of greater incidences of liver dysfunction with soybean versus MCT/LCT and olive/soy lipid emulsions may be reflective of the levels of phytosterols in these emulsions. This information may help guide future studies and clinical care of patients with lipid emulsion-associated liver dysfunction.

  3. Experiments on muon radiography with emulsion track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, Andrey; Bagulya, Alexander; Baklagin, Sergei; Chernyavsky, Mikhail; Galkin, Vladimir; Grachev, Victor; Konovalova, Nina; Managadze, Alexander; Polukhina, Natalya; Roganova, Tatiana; Starkov, Nikolai; Shchedrina, Tatiana; Tioukov, Valeri; Vladymirov, Mykhailo; Zemskova, Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Muon radiography is a method of study the internal structure of large natural and industrial objects based on sensing an object with a flux of cosmic muons with their subsequent registration and analysis of the pattern of their dispersion, or conplete (or partial) absorption. The Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Moscow State University have started a series of muon radiography experiments with nuclear emulsion detectors. As a result, the optimal conditions for experiment arrangement have been determined, algorithms of data processing have been worked out, and peculiarities of the method have been ultimately investigated

  4. Automatic read out system for superheated emulsion based neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meena, J.P.; Parihar, A.; Vaijapurkar, S.G.; Mohan, Anand

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur (DLJ) has developed superheated emulsion technology for neutron and gamma measurements. The laboratory has attempted to develop reader system to display neutron dose and dose rate based on acoustic technique. The paper presents a microcontroller based automatic reader system for neutron measurements using indigenously developed superheated emulsion detector. The system is designed for real time counting of bubbles formed in superheated emulsion detector. A piezoelectric transducer is used for sensing bubble acoustic. The front end of system is mainly consisting of specially designed signal conditioning unit consisted of piezoelectric transducer, an amplifier, a high-pass filter, a differentiator, a comparator and monostable multivibrator. The system is based on PIC 18F6520 microcontroller having large internal SRAM, 10-bit internal ADC, I 2 C interface, UART/USART modules. The paper also describes the design of following peripheral units interfaced to microcontroller temperature and battery monitoring, display, keypad and a serial communication. The reader system measures and displays neutron dose and dose rate, number of bubble and elapsed time. The developed system can be used for detecting very low neutron leakage in the accelerators, nuclear reactors and nuclear submarines. The important features of system are compact, light weight, cost effective and high neutron sensitivity. The prototype was tested and evaluated by exposing to 241 Am-Be neutron source and results have been reported

  5. Pickering emulsions for skin decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Alicia; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Rolland, Pauline; Chevalier, Yves; Josse, Denis; Briançon, Stéphanie

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed at developing innovative systems for skin decontamination. Pickering emulsions, i.e. solid-stabilized emulsions, containing silica (S-PE) or Fuller's earth (FE-PE) were formulated. Their efficiency for skin decontamination was evaluated, in vitro, 45min after an exposure to VX, one of the most highly toxic chemical warfare agents. Pickering emulsions were compared to FE (FE-W) and silica (S-W) aqueous suspensions. PE containing an oil with a similar hydrophobicity to VX should promote its extraction. All the formulations reduced significantly the amount of VX quantified on and into the skin compared to the control. Wiping the skin surface with a pad already allowed removing more than half of VX. FE-W was the less efficient (85% of VX removed). The other formulations (FE-PE, S-PE and S-W) resulted in more than 90% of the quantity of VX removed. The charge of particles was the most influential factor. The low pH of formulations containing silica favored electrostatic interactions of VX with particles explaining the better elimination from the skin surface. Formulations containing FE had basic pH, and weak interactions with VX did not improve the skin decontamination. However, these low interactions between VX and FE promote the transfer of VX into the oil droplets in the FE-PE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Microfluidic methods to study emulsion formation

    OpenAIRE

    Muijlwijk, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    Emulsions are dispersions of one liquid in another that are commonly used in various products, and methods such as high-pressure homogenisers and colloid mills are used to form emulsions. The size and size distribution of emulsion droplets are important for the final product properties and thus need to be controlled. Rapid coalescence of droplets during emulsification increases droplet size and widens the size distribution, and therefore needs to be prevented. To increase stability of emulsio...

  7. Radiation processing of polymer emulsion, (4). Radiation-induced emulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuuchi, Keizo; Katakai, Akio; Ito, Hiroshi; Hayakawa, Naohiro; Araki, Kunio (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma. Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment)

    1983-06-01

    Methyl methacrylate was polymerized in emulsion by Co-60 ..gamma..-rays below 19 deg C in a batch reactor by using sodium lauryl sulfate as emulsifier. The conversion-time curves of the polymerization system showed two rate regions, i.e., a fact conversion rate in early stage, and a much slower rate in latter stage. The change in rate occurred at about 70 % conversion. The molecular weight of product polymer decreased with increasing conversion during the course of polymerization in latter stage, in contrast to the behavior in early stage. The distribution of the monomer in emulsion in latter stage was evaluated by nuclear magnetic resonance technique. The decrease of the molecular weight with conversion is due to the radiation-induced degradation of product polymer accelerated by the monomers absorbed in the polymer particles.

  8. How emulsions composition and structure affect sensory perception of low-viscosity model emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Wijk, de R.A.; Zoet, F.D.; Nixdorf, R.R.; Aken, van G.A.

    2008-01-01

    The oral residence time of low-viscosity emulsions, like milk, is relatively short. Despite this short residence time, people can easily perceive differences between these emulsions. Our research is dedicated to unravel the oral behaviour of emulsions in relation to sensory perception. The aim of

  9. Asphalt emulsion; Asphalt nyuzai ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, T. [Toa Doro Kogyo Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-28

    The emulsification, manufacture, type, applications, etc. of asphalt emulsion were introduced. The emulsification of asphalt is obtained by mixing heated asphalt into an emulsification liquid where emulsifier is added to water and then agitating it. The emulsifier has both hydrophilic and lipophilic parts in the same molecule, prevents collision between asphalt particles after being arranged properly on the surface of asphalt particles, and prevent separation into water and asphalt. The emulsion is available for penetration and for mixing depending on applications and can be classified into cation emulsion, anion emulsion, and nonionic emulsion according to the property. The emulsion is mainly applied to road pavement, reaching approximately 90 % of the total manufactured emulsion. It is also used for other areas such as the filler of a slab race of each bullet train of Sanyo, Tohoku, and Jyoetsu and is also applied to the formation of a water-proof layer by spraying a high-concentration emulsion with rubber, agricultural water channels using asphalt emulsion and nonwoven cloth, etc. in civil engineering and agricultural fields. 2 refs., 13 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Food enrichment with marine phospholipid emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline P.

    marine PL emulsions with and without addition of fish oil. The oxidative stability of marine PL emulsions was significantly influenced by the chemical composition of marine PL used for emulsions preparation. For instance, emulsions with good oxidative stability could be obtained when using raw materials...... with high purity, low fish oil content and high PL, cholesterol and α-tocopherol content. In addition, non-enzymatic browning reactions may also affect the oxidative stability of the marine PL emulsion. These reactions included Strecker degradation and pyrrolization, and their occurrence were due......Many studies have shown that marine phospholipids (PL) provide more advantages than fish oil. They seem to have better bioavailability, better resistance towards oxidation and higher content of eicosapentaenoic acids and docosahexaenoic acids than fish oil, which essentially contains triglycerides...

  11. Destabilization of emulsions by natural minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Songhu; Tong, Man; Wu, Gaoming

    2011-09-15

    This study developed a novel method to destabilize emulsions and recycle oils, particularly for emulsified wastewater treatment. Natural minerals were used as demulsifying agents, two kinds of emulsions collected from medical and steel industry were treated. The addition of natural minerals, including artificial zeolite, natural zeolite, diatomite, bentonite and natural soil, could effectively destabilize both emulsions at pH 1 and 60 °C. Over 90% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) can be removed after treatment. Medical emulsion can be even destabilized by artificial zeolite at ambient temperature. The mechanism for emulsion destabilization by minerals was suggested as the decreased electrostatic repulsion at low pH, the enhanced gathering of oil microdroplets at elevated temperature, and the further decreased surface potential by the addition of minerals. Both flocculation and coalescence were enhanced by the addition of minerals at low pH and elevated temperature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Arresting relaxation in Pickering Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Tim; Burke, Chris

    2015-03-01

    Pickering emulsions consist of droplets of one fluid dispersed in a host fluid and stabilized by colloidal particles absorbed at the fluid-fluid interface. Everyday materials such as crude oil and food products like salad dressing are examples of these materials. Particles can stabilize non spherical droplet shapes in these emulsions through the following sequence: first, an isolated droplet is deformed, e.g. by an electric field, increasing the surface area above the equilibrium value; additional particles are then adsorbed to the interface reducing the surface tension. The droplet is then allowed to relax toward a sphere. If more particles were adsorbed than can be accommodated by the surface area of the spherical ground state, relaxation of the droplet is arrested at some non-spherical shape. Because the energetic cost of removing adsorbed colloids exceeds the interfacial driving force, these configurations can remain stable over long timescales. In this presentation, we present a computational study of the ordering present in anisotropic droplets produced through the mechanism of arrested relaxation and discuss the interplay between the geometry of the droplet, the dynamical process that produced it, and the structure of the defects observed.

  13. Characteristics of emulsion chamber family events produced at low heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, G.; Jing, C.; Zhu, Q.; Ding, L.

    1985-01-01

    The uncertainty of primary cosmic ray composition at 10 to the 14th power -10 to the 16th power eV is well known making the study of nuclear interaction mechanisms more difficult. Experimentally if one can identify effectively the family events produced at low heights, then an induced by primary protons might be separated. In this paper an attempt is made to simulate a family of events under the conditions of a mountain emulsion chamber experiments using a reasonable model. The aim is to search for the dependence of some experimentally observable quantities on the interaction height

  14. A pulse radiolysis study of emulsion polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAskill, N.A.

    1976-01-01

    The emulsion polymerisation of slightly water soluble monomers such as styrene occurs initially in micelles of surfactant swollen with monomer and later in larger particles consisting of polymer swollen with monomer and stabilized with an outer layer of surfactant. There is considerable controversy on whether the reaction sites of polymerization are inside or on the surface of the particle or micelle. The relative amounts of micelle and particles present at various stages of the polymerization are also nuclear. In the present study the OH radical formed by pulse radiolysis has been used as a probe to investigate the site of solubilization of styrene in various surfactant micelles. Two products can be distinguished by UV spectrometry, a benzyl type radical formed by OH addition to the side chain of styrene and a cyclohexadienyl type radical formed by addition to the ring. Wide differences in the relative amounts of each product were observed suggesting that in some surfactants the styrene ring is buried inside the micelle whilst in other systems the styrene appears to be so solubilized at the interface leaving both the ring and the side chain open to attack by the OH radical. (author)

  15. Structured triglyceride emulsions in parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambrier, C; Lauverjat, M; Bouletreau, P

    2006-08-01

    Over the past 3 decades, various concepts for IV fat emulsions (IVFE) have been developed. A randomized, structured-lipid emulsion based on an old technology has recently become available. This structured-lipid emulsion is produced by mixing medium-chain triglycerides and long-chain triglycerides, then allowing hydrolysis to form free fatty acids, followed by random transesterification of the fatty acids into mixed triglyceride molecules. Studies in animals have shown an improvement in nitrogen balance with the use of these lipid emulsions. Only 8 human clinical studies with these products have been performed. The results of these human clinical studies have been less promising than the animal studies; however, an improvement in nitrogen balance and lipid metabolism exceeds results associated with infusion of long-chain triglycerides (LCT) or a physical mixture of long-chain triglycerides and medium-chain triglycerides (LCT-MCT). Structured-lipid emulsion seems to induce less elevation in serum liver function values compared with standard IVFEs. In addition, structured-lipid emulsions have no detrimental effect on the reticuloendothelial system. Further studies are necessary in order to recommend the use of structured-lipid emulsions. The clinical community hopes that chemically defined structured triglycerides will make it possible to determine the distribution of specific fatty acids on a specific position on the glycerol core and therefore obtain specific activity for a specific clinical situation.

  16. Kinetics of Crystallization in Polydisperse Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashchiev; Kaneko; Sato

    1998-12-01

    The kinetics of isothermal crystallization of the droplets in polydisperse emulsions are analyzed under the condition that each emulsion droplet gives birth to one nucleus only. Expressions are derived for the time dependences of the number of crystallized droplets and the fraction of crystallized droplet volume in the cases of either volume or surface nucleation of the crystals in the droplets. The time for half-crystallization is determined as a function of the emulsion polydispersity, and it is found that the more polydisperse the emulsion, the shorter this time in comparison with that for the corresponding monodisperse emulsion. Formulae are also obtained for the change of the velocity Kv of propagation of ultrasound through polydisperse emulsions during the time t of isothermal crystallization of the droplets in them. Good agreement is found between theory and experiment in an analysis of available Kv(t) data for crystallization in polydisperse palm oil-in-water and n-hexadecane-in-water emulsions. The results obtained are directly applicable to devitrification and polymorphic transformation of disperse solid phases. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  17. Extending temporary storage capacity with emulsion breakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buist, I.; Guarino, A.; DeVitis, D.; Nolan, K.; Lewis, A.; Smith, B.; Lane, J.

    2002-01-01

    The use of emulsion breakers injected into an oil spill recovery system was examined in both laboratory testing and at the OHMSETT test facility. The tests were designed to assess the injection/mixing/settling regimes needed for optimum water-removal performance from a meso-stable water-in-oil emulsion with an oil spill demulsifier. Different types of injection locations and mixing technologies were examined, including skimmer heads, cargo lines, tank inlets, as well as static in-line and mechanical technologies. During laboratory testing, water-in-oil emulsions and free water was pumped through various lengths of piping loops, an in-line mixer and 8 settling tanks. Following the injection of a demulsifier, the fluid was decanted to observe the emulsion breaking. At the OHMSETT test facility, a Desmi Terminator skimmer recovered the same emulsion from a polluted water surface. Different slick thicknesses, wave heights and recovery rates were used. A demulsifier was also injected into the recovered fluid which was allowed to separate in recovery tanks. The demulsifier efficiency was then measured. It was determined that the demulsifier significantly reduced the volume of water in the recovery tanks and the water content of the remaining emulsion. If free water content was greater than 60 per cent, then the effect of the surfactant was greatly reduced. If no free water was present, the level of turbulence was insufficient to promote emulsion breaking. More than 33 per cent free water content is needed to reduce the bulk viscosity of the fluid and to promote emulsion breaking. The degree of emulsion breaking also increased with increasing mixing energy. 10 refs., 5 tabs., 8 figs

  18. The NRPB nuclear emission dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, D.T.; Bird, T.V.; Miles, J.C.H.

    1980-03-01

    The NRPB nuclear emulsion dosemeter is designed such that the thermal neutron response is similar to the fast neutron response. This report gives details of the dependence of response on incident neutron energy and on neutron angle of incidence. (author)

  19. Double hypernuclei experiment with hybrid emulsion method at J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekawa, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Double hypernuclei are important probes to study the system with strangeness S = -2. Several emulsion experiments had been performed to search for them. We are planning a new experiment to search for double hypernuclei at the K1.8 beam line in the Hadron Experimental Facility (J-PARC E07 experiment). Ξ"- tracks in the emulsion plates and SSD will be automatically connected by a hybrid method. The estimated Ξ"- stopped statistics is 10 times as high as that of the KEK E373 experiment. Discoveries of 10 new double hypernuclear species are expected, which enable us to discuss binding energy in terms of mass number dependence. On the other hand, we will also observe X rays from Ξ"- atoms with a germanium detector array installed close to the emulsion plates by tagging Ξ"- stopped events. This will be the first measurement to give information on the Ξ"- potential at the nuclear surface region. (author)

  20. Prospects for measuring the gravitational free-fall of antihydrogen with emulsion detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Aghion, S.; Amsler, C.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Belov, A.S.; Bonomi, G.; Bräunig, P.; Bremer, J.; Brusa, R.S.; Cabaret, L.; Canali, C.; Caravita, R.; Castelli, F.; Cerchiari, G.; Cialdi, S.; Comparat, D.; Consolati, G.; Derking, J.H.; Di Domizio, S.; Di Noto, L.; Doser, M.; Dudarev, A.; Ereditato, A.; Ferragut, R.; Fontana, A.; Genova, P.; Giammarchi, M.; Gligorova, A.; Gninenko, S.N.; Haider, S.; Harasimovicz, J.; Hogan, S.D.; Huse, T.; Jordan, E.; Jørgensen, L.V.; Kaltenbacher, T.; Kawada, J.; Kellerbauer, A.; Kimura, M.; Knecht, A.; Krasnický, D.; Lagomarsino, V.; Magnani, A.; Mariazzi, S.; Matveev, V.A.; Moia, F.; Nebbia, G.; Nédélec, P.; Oberthaler, M.K.; Pacifico, N.; Petráček, V.; Pistillo, C.; Prelz, F.; Prevedelli, M.; Regenfus, C.; Riccardi, C.; Røhne, O.; Rotondi, A.; Sandaker, H.; Scampoli, P.; Sosa, A.; Storey, J.; Subieta Vasquez, M.A.; Špaček, M.; Testera, G.; Trezzi, D.; Vaccarone, R.; Welsch, C.P.; Zavatarelli, S.

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of the AEgIS experiment at CERN is to test the weak equivalence principle for antimatter. AEgIS will measure the free-fall of an antihydrogen beam traversing a moir\\'e deflectometer. The goal is to determine the gravitational acceleration g for antihydrogen with an initial relative accuracy of 1% by using an emulsion detector combined with a silicon micro-strip detector to measure the time of flight. Nuclear emulsions can measure the annihilation vertex of antihydrogen atoms with a precision of about 1 - 2 microns r.m.s. We present here results for emulsion detectors operated in vacuum using low energy antiprotons from the CERN antiproton decelerator. We compare with Monte Carlo simulations, and discuss the impact on the AEgIS project.

  1. Localized structures in vibrated emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcón, Claudio; Bruggeman, Jake; Pasquali, Matteo; Deegan, Robert D.

    2012-04-01

    We report our observations of localized structures in a thin layer of an emulsion subjected to vertical oscillations. We observe persistent holes, which are voids that span the layer depth, and kinks, which are fronts between regions with and without fluid. These structures form in response to a finite amplitude perturbation. Combining experimental and rheological measurements, we argue that the ability of these structures to withstand the hydrostatic pressure of the surrounding fluid is due to convection within their rim. For persistent holes the oscillatory component of the convection generates a normal stress which opposes contraction, while for kinks the steady component of the convection generates a shear stress which opposes the hydrostatic stress of the surrounding fluid.

  2. Use of olive oil-in-water gelled emulsions in model turkey breast emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdaroğlu, M.; Öztürk, B.

    2017-09-01

    Today, gelled emulsion systems offer a novel possibility in lipid modification of meat products. In this study, we aimed to investigate the quality characteristics of model turkey emulsions that were prepared with olive oil-in-water gelled emulsion (GE) as partial or total beef fat replacer. The results indicated that while most of the GE treatments showed equivalent emulsion characteristics in terms of emulsion stability, water-holding capacity and cook yield, utilization of 100% GE as the lipid source could increase total expressible fluid of the model turkey emulsion and thus negatively affect the quality. Utilization of GE was effective in total fat reduction, as the model turkey emulsions formulated with more than 50% GE had significantly lower fat content compared to full-beef fat control model emulsion. However, beef fat replacement with GE produced considerable changes in colour parameters. Finally, it was concluded that utilization of GE as a partial beef fat replacer has good potential to enhance stability and reduce total fat in turkey meat emulsion products.

  3. Aging properties of Kodak type 101 emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohne, B.; Feldman, U.; Neupert, W.

    1984-01-01

    Aging tests for several batches of Kodak type 101 emulsion show that storage conditions significantly influence how well the film will maintain its sensitometric properties, with sensitivity and density increasing to a maximum during this period. Any further aging may result in higher fog levels and sensitivity loss. It is noted that storage in an environment free of photographically active compounds allows film property optimization, and that film batches with different sensitivities age differently. Emulsions with maximum 1700-A sensitivity are 2.5 times faster than those at the low end of the sensitivity scale. These sensitive emulsions exhibit significantly accelerated changes in aging properties. Their use in space applications requires careful consideration of time and temperature profiles, encouraging the use of less sensitive emulsions when the controllability of these factors is limited.

  4. Storage stability of marine phospholipids emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline Pascale

    Marine phospholipids (MPL) are believed to provide more advantages than fish oil from the same source. They are considered to have a better bioavailability, a better resistance towards oxidation and a higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic...... acids (DHA) than oily triglycerides (fish oil). Therefore, the objective of this study is to explore the feasibility of using marine phospholipids emulsions as delivery system through investigation of the physical, oxidative and hydrolytic stability of MPL emulsions with or without addition of fish oil....... The effect of initial Peroxide Value, total lipids, phospholipids and antioxidants content on stability of MPL emulsions were studied. The physical stability was investigated through measurement of particle size distribution and creaming stability, which involve measurement of changes (%) in emulsion volume...

  5. Automatic readout system for superheated emulsion based neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meena, J.P.; Parihar, A.; Vaijapurkar, S.G.; Mohan, Anand

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a microcontroller based automatic reader system for neutron measurement using indigenously developed superheated emulsion detector. The system is designed for real time counting of bubbles formed in superheated emulsion detector. A piezoelectric transducer is used for sensing bubble acoustic during the nucleation. The front end of system is mainly consisting of specially designed signal conditioning unit, piezoelectric transducer, an amplifier, a high-pass filter, a differentiator, a comparator and monostable multivibrator. The system is based on PlC 18F6520 microcontroller having large internal SRAM, 10-bit internal ADC, I 2 C interface, UART/USART modules. The paper also describes the design of following microcontroller peripheral units viz temperature monitoring, battery monitoring, LCD display, keypad and a serial communication. The reader system measures and displays neutron dose and dose rate, number of bubble and elapsed time. The developed system can be used for detecting very low neutron leakage in the accelerators, nuclear reactors and nuclear submarines. The important features of system are compact, light weight, cost effective and high neutron sensitivity. The prototype was tested and evaluated by exposing to 241 Am-Be neutron source and results have been reported. (author)

  6. Special photographic emulsions for high LET dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, R.

    1978-12-01

    The purpose of these investigations into photographic emulsion dosimetry is to attempt to use the photographic emulsion to mimic the response of human tissues to high LET radiations. The program therefore requires that a systematic understanding of the response of mammalian cells to ionizing radiations be achieved. We have been concerned with differences in RBE and in radiation response to both high and LET radiations, and in the interrelationship between observations with these different radiations

  7. Microemulsion systems applied to breakdown petroleum emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuma de Castro Dantas, Tereza; Avelino Dantas Neto, Afonso; Ferreira Moura, Everlane [Deptos de Quimica e Eng. Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitario s/n, 59072.970, Natal/RN Campinas (Brazil)

    2001-12-29

    Microemulsion systems obtained using commercial surfactants with demulsifier and emulsion prevention properties have been employed to break down Brazilian crude water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions. These crude oils were supplied by the Brazilian oil company-PETROBRAS-and were characterized by the different Balance sheet of Sediment and Water (BSW) values of 48%, 36%, and 32%. The microemulsion systems formed in this study were composed of an aqueous phase (HCl 5.2% solution); an oil phase (toluene); a cosurfactant/surfactant (C/S) phase (isopropyl alcohol (C)/surfactants (S) with a ratio C/S of 9.0). The microemulsion efficiency to break down oil emulsions was evaluated by a direct contact method between the microemulsions and crude (W/O) emulsions. The Scheffe net statistical planning for mixtures was used to relate the component mass fractions to the relative breakdown of petroleum emulsions. The best composition of the microemulsion system for the complete breakdown of oil emulsions with high BSW values had the lowest C/S phase percentage.

  8. Test experiments on muon radiography with emulsion track detectors in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, A.B.; Bagulya, A.V.; Vladimirov, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    The Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (FIAN) and the Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Lomonosov Moscow State University (SINP MSU) opened in Russia a series of pilot muon radiography experiments with nuclear emulsion detectors for study of interior structure of large-scale natural and industrial objects. As a result the optimal conditions of experiment organization were determined, algorithms of data processing were worked out and peculiarities of the method were ultimately investigated. The experiment data, including field observations (in the mine of the Geophysical Department of the Russian Academy of Sciences), were also presented which confirm that the method with track detectors on the base of nuclear emulsions with uniquely high spatial resolution holds much promise in case of their high-tech automated processing

  9. Enhancing saltiness in emulsion based foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lad Mita

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of enhancing saltiness perception in emulsions and a liquid food formulated with the emulsions (ambient vegetable soup through increasing salt concentration in the continuous phase while retaining the fat content of the (aqueous continuous product was evaluated. This was accomplished by increasing the droplet phase volume using duplex emulsion technology. Viscosity and droplet size distribution was measured. Saltiness evaluation was based on simple paired comparison testing (2-Alternate Forced Choice tests, BS ISO 5495:2007. Results Single and duplex emulsions and emulsion-based products had comparable mean oil droplet diameters (25 to 30 μm; however, viscosity of the duplex emulsion systems was considerably higher. Sensory assessment of saltiness of emulsion pairs (2AFC indicated duplex technology enhanced saltiness perception compared to a single emulsion product at the same salt content (6.3 g/100 g in both simple emulsions and the formulated food product (P = 0.0596 and 0.0004 respectively although assessors noted the increased viscosity of the duplex systems. The formulated food product also contained pea starch particles which may have aided product mixing with saliva and thus accelerated tastant transport to the taste buds. Lowering salt content in the duplex systems (to levels of aqueous phase salt concentration similar to the level in the single systems resulted in duplex systems being perceived as less salty than the single system. It appears that the higher viscosity of the duplex systems could not be “overruled” by enhanced mixing through increased droplet phase volume at lowered salt content. Conclusions The results showed that salt reduction may be possible despite the added technology of duplex systems increasing the overall measured viscosity of the product. The changes in viscosity behavior impact mouthfeel, which may be exploitable in addition to the contribution towards salt

  10. Automated batch emulsion copolymerization of styrene and butyl acrylate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mballa Mballa, M.A.; Schubert, U.S.; Heuts, J.P.A.; Herk, van A.M.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a method for carrying out emulsion copolymerization using an automated synthesizer. For this purpose, batch emulsion copolymerizations of styrene and butyl acrylate were investigated. The optimization of the polymerization system required tuning the liquid transfer method,

  11. Radiation processing of polymer emulsion, 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, Keizo; Katakai, Akio; Hagiwara, Miyuki

    1983-01-01

    Radiation induced emulsion copolymerization of strong acid monomer was investigated to reduce the curing temperature of core shell particle emulsion having N-(n-butoxymethyl) acrylamide (NBM) moities in shell part. The strong acid monomers used were 3-chloro-2-acidphosphoxypropyl methacrylate, acid-phosphoxyethyl methacrylate, 2-acrylamide-2-methyl-propane sulfonic acid, and sodium p-styrenesulfonate. Curing was remarkably promoted by the presence of copolymerized strong acid monomer in shell part. Tensile strength of the film cured at 120 0 C was identical with that of conventional NBM core-shell emulsion film cured at 160 0 C. However, the water absorbing capacity of the film cured at 120 0 C was extremely high. The water resistance was found to increase with decreasing the amount of adsorbed polyelectrolyte on the particle surface. (author)

  12. Lithium aluminate spheroids prepared by emulsion procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateos, A.G.; DiBello, P.M.; Zaleski, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    Lithium aluminate powders were prepared by emulsion evaporation method. The procedure involved preparation of water-in-oil emulsion, with the aqueous phase being a solution of Li and Al nitrates. The mixed salts precursor crystallized to gamma-LiAlO 2 at 700C. Single phase LiAlO 2 occurred as μm spherical particles with average crystallite size of 81 angstrom and surface area of 14 M 2 /g. After prolonged heating at 900C, the aluminate powder crystallite size grew by 5 times with a reduction in particle porosity. The emulsion technique promotes close control of particle size and shape of product and the technique facilitates chemical reaction of constituents and sinterability of resulting product

  13. Formulation and characterization of a multiple emulsion containing 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to prepare a stable multiple emulsion containing a skin anti-aging agent and using paraffin oil. Vitamin C, was incorporated into the inner aqueous phase of water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) multiple emulsion at a concentration of 1%. Multiple emulsion was prepared by two step method. Stability ...

  14. Food emulsions as delivery systems for flavor compounds: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Like; Roos, Yrjö H; Biliaderis, Costas G; Miao, Song

    2017-10-13

    Food flavor is an important attribute of quality food, and it largely determines consumer food preference. Many food products exist as emulsions or experience emulsification during processing, and therefore, a good understanding of flavor release from emulsions is essential to design food with desirable flavor characteristics. Emulsions are biphasic systems, where flavor compounds are partitioning into different phases, and the releases can be modulated through different ways. Emulsion ingredients, such as oils, emulsifiers, thickening agents, can interact with flavor compounds, thus modifying the thermodynamic behavior of flavor compounds. Emulsion structures, including droplet size and size distribution, viscosity, interface thickness, etc., can influence flavor component partition and their diffusion in the emulsions, resulting in different release kinetics. When emulsions are consumed in the mouth, both emulsion ingredients and structures undergo significant changes, resulting in different flavor perception. Special design of emulsion structures in the water phase, oil phase, and interface provides emulsions with great potential as delivery systems to control flavor release in wider applications. This review provides an overview of the current understanding of flavor release from emulsions, and how emulsions can behave as delivery systems for flavor compounds to better design novel food products with enhanced sensorial and nutritional attributes.

  15. The role of electrostatics in saliva-induced emulsion flocculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silletti, Erika; Vingerhoeds, Monique H.; Norde, Willem; Van Aken, George A.

    Upon consumption food emulsions undergo different processes, including mixing with saliva. It has been shown that whole saliva induces emulsion flocculation [van Aken, G. A., Vingerhoeds, M. H., & de Hoog, E. H. A. (2005). Colloidal behaviour of food emulsions under oral conditions. In E. Dickinson

  16. Package for the BESM-6 computer for particles momenta measuring in nuclei emulsions by semiautomatic microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskin, V.A.; Saltykov, A.I.; Shabratova, G.S.

    1980-01-01

    Computer codes for using on the BESM-6 computer have been developed. The information obtained by semiautomatic measuring in nuclear emulsions are processed, and then the information from paper tape are checked and the diagnostics are printed if the errors in the information occu.,. Data input to the BESM-6 computer is written to the magnetic tape as the direct access files. The data not containing errors are used in calculations of particle momentum by multiple-scattering method

  17. Nanocellulose-stabilized Pickering emulsions and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Shuji; Togawa, Eiji; Kuroda, Katsushi

    2017-01-01

    Pickering emulsion, which is an emulsion stabilized by solid particles, offers a wide range of potential applications because it generally provides a more stable system than surfactant-stabilized emulsion. Among various solid stabilizers, nanocellulose may open up new opportunities for future Pickering emulsions owing to its unique nanosizes, amphiphilicity, and other favorable properties (e.g. chemical stability, biodegradability, biocompatibility, and renewability). In this review, the preparation and properties of nanocellulose-stabilized Pickering emulsions are summarized. We also provide future perspectives on their applications, such as drug delivery, food, and composite materials.

  18. Perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsions as potential drug carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuhas, J.M.; Goodman, R.L.; Moore, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    PFC emulsions have excellent oxygen transporting properties and have been reported to enhance the response of murine tumors to both radiation and BCNU. While the presently available emulsions are far too toxic to the immune system to be used in cancer therapy, they can be used to investigate the overall potential of this approach. As an example, the authors have found that these emulsions can alter drug availability. The lipophilicity of both the PFC and the drug in question determine the partitioning of the drug between the organic and aqueous phases of an emulsion. In vitro, this can reduce drug effectiveness by reducing the amount of drug available to the cells. In vivo, however, this partitioning may produce sustained drug exposure, which could be of benefit in cancer therapy and other applications. In brief, as the drug is absorbed from the circulating aqueous phase, additional drug would leach from the PFC, thereby providing a sustained drug exposure similar to that obtained with liposomes. While a great deal more work will be required to evaluate the practicality of this approach, the existence of this phenomenon must be taken into account in both the design and interpretation of efficacy studies in which anesthetics, chemotherapeutics, etc are employed

  19. HEAVY-OIL PRODUCTION USING EMULSION FLOODING

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ... American Petroleum Institute, EOR = Enhanced Oil Recovery, GOR = Gas Oil Ratio ... concentration, 166.003 is the constant (molar mass of ... (molar mass of CaCO3),1M is the constant value. ... volume of prepared oil-in-water emulsion, that.

  20. Radiation dosimetry and spectrometry with superheated emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Errico, Francesco

    2001-01-01

    Detectors based on emulsions of overexpanded halocarbon droplets in tissue equivalent aqueous gels or soft polymers, known as 'superheated drop detectors' or 'bubble (damage) detectors', have been used in radiation detection, dosimetry and spectrometry for over two decades. Recent technological advances have led to the introduction of several instruments for individual and area monitoring: passive integrating meters based on the optical or volumetric registration of the bubbles, and active counters detecting bubble nucleations acoustically. These advances in the instrumentation have been matched by the progress made in the production of stable and well-specified emulsions of superheated droplets. A variety of halocarbons are employed in the formulation of the detectors, and this permits a wide range of applications. In particular, halocarbons with a moderate degree of superheat, i.e. a relatively small difference between their operating temperature and boiling point, can be used in neutron dosimetry and spectrometry since they are only nucleated by energetic heavy ions such as those produced by fast neutrons. More recently, halocarbons with an elevated degree of superheat have been utilised to produce emulsions that nucleate with much smaller energy deposition and detect low linear energy transfer radiations, such as photons and electrons. This paper reviews the detector physics of superheated emulsions and their applications in radiation measurements, particularly in neutron dosimetry and spectrometry

  1. Characteristics of Nano-emulsion for Cold Thermal Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumoto, Koji; Kawaji, Masahiro; Kawanami, Tsuyoshi

    Phase change emulsion (PCE) is novel kind of heat storage and heat transfer fluids. It has characteristics as follows; greater apparent specific heat and higher heat transfer abilities in the phase change temperature range than conventional single phase heat transfer fluid. In this paper, a phase change emulsion, which has droplet diameter distribution of nanometer, were prepared. The Nano-emulsion was formed by low energy emulsification methods, as known the phase inversion temperature (PIT) method. Physical properties, such as viscosity, diameter and its distribution of emulsion were investigated. Especially, the relationships between preparation method and the concentration of surfactant have been discussed in detail. The results show that the viscosity of the Nano-emulsion is lower than the micro-emulsion, which was made by same mixing ratio of surfactant and concentration of phase change material. In addition, the Nano-emulsion clarified that stability was higher than microemulsions.

  2. Showing Emulsion Properties with Common Dairy Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Diaz, Carlos; Gonzalez-Romero, Elisa

    1996-09-01

    Foods are mixtures of different chemical compounds, and the quality we sense (taste, texture, color, etc.) are all manifestations of its chemical properties. Some of them can be visualized with the aid of simple, safe and inexpensive experiments using dairy products that can be found in any kitchen and using almost exclusively kitchen utensils. In this paper we propose some of them related with food emulsions. Food emulsions cover an extremely wide area of daily-life applications such as milk, sauces, dressings and beverages. Experimentation with some culinary recipes to prepare them and the analyisis of the observed results is close to ideal subject for the introduction of chemical principles, allowing to discuss about the nature and composition of foods, the effects of additives, etc. At the same time it allows to get insights into the scientific reasons that underlie on the recipes (something that it is not usually found in most cookbooks). For example, when making an emulsion like mayonnaise, why the egg yolks and water are the first materials in the bowl , and the oil is added to them rather than in the other way around? How you can "rescue" separate emulsions (mayonnaise)? Which parameters affect emulsion stability? Since safety, in its broad sense, is the first requisite for any food, concerns about food exist throughout the world and the more we are aware of our everyday life, the more likely we will be to deal productively with the consequences. On the other hand, understanding what foods are and how cooking works destroys no delightful mystery of the art of cuisine, instead the mystery expands.

  3. Synthetic Polymers at Interfaces: Monodisperse Emulsions Multiple Emulsions and Liquid Marbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guanqing

    The adsorption of polymeric materials at interfaces is an energetically favorable process which is investigated in much diversified fields, such as emulsions, bubbles, foams, liquid marbles. Pickering emulsion, which is emulsion stabilized by solid particles has been investigated for over one century and preparation of Pickering emulsion with narrow size distribution is crucial for both the theoretical study of the stabilization mechanism and practical application, such as templated fabrication of colloidosomes. The precise control over the size and functionality of polymer latices allows the preparation of monodisperse Pickering emulsions with desired sizes through SPG membrane emulsification at rather rapid rate compared to microfludic production. Double or multiple emulsions have long been investigated but its rapid destabilization has always been a major obstacle in applying them into practical applications. The modern living polymerization techniques allow us to prepare polymers with designed structure of block copolymers which makes it possible to prepare ultra-stable multiple emulsions. The precise tuning of the ratio of hydrophobic part over the hydrophilic can unveil the stabilization mechanism. Liquid marble is a new type of materials of which liquid droplets are coated by dry particles. The coating of an outer layer of dry particles renders the liquid droplets non-sticky at solid surface which is useful in transportation of small amount of liquid without leakage at extreme low friction force. The property of liquid marbles relies largely on the stabilizers and the drying condition of polymeric latices is shown to have great influence on the property of liquid marbles. Firstly, an introduction to the interfacial and colloidal science with special attention to topics on emulsions, multiple emulsion and liquid marbles is given in Chapter 1. The unique features of an interface and a discussion on the definition of colloids are introduced prior to the

  4. Porous Polystyrene Monoliths and Microparticles Prepared from Core Cross-linked Star (CCS) Polymers-Stabilized Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qijing; Shi, Ting; Han, Fei; Li, Zihan; Lin, Chao; Zhao, Peng

    2017-08-17

    A hydrophobic CCS polymer of poly(benzyl methacrylate) (PBzMA) was prepared in toluene by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT)-mediated dispersion polymerization. The CCS polymer, with poly(benzyl methacrylate) as the arm and crosslinked N, N'-bis(acryloyl)cystamine (BAC) as the core, was confirmed by characterization with gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Three kinds of oils (toluene, anisole and styrene) were chosen to study the emulsification properties of PBzMA CCS polymer. The oils can be emulsified by CCS polymer to form water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions. Moreover, w/o high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) can be obtained with the increase of toluene and styrene volume fractions from 75% to 80%. Porous polystyrene monolith and microparticles were prepared from the emulsion templates and characterized by the scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). With the internal phase volume fraction increased, open-pore porous monolith was obtained.

  5. Co-delivery of antigen and a lipophilic anti-inflammatory drug to cells via a tailorable nanocarrier emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuan, Yap Pang; Zeng, Bi Yun; O'Sullivan, Brendan; Thomas, Ranjeny; Middelberg, Anton P J

    2012-02-15

    Nanotechnology promises new drug carriers that can be tailored to specific applications. Here we report a new approach to drug delivery based on tailorable nanocarrier emulsions (TNEs), motivated by a need to co-deliver a protein antigen and a lipophilic drug for specific inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in antigen presenting cells (APCs). Co-delivery for NF-κB inhibition holds promise as a strategy for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. We used a highly surface-active peptide (SAP) to prepare a nanosized emulsion having defined surface properties predictable from the SAP sequence. Incorporating the lipophilic drug into the oil phase at the time of emulsion formation enabled its facile packaging. The SAP is depleted from bulk during emulsification, allowing simple subsequent addition of the drug-loaded oil-in-water emulsion to a solution of protein antigen. Decoration of emulsion surface with antigen was achieved via electrostatic deposition. In vitro data showed that the TNE prepared this way was internalized and well-tolerated by model APCs, and that good suppression of NF-κB expression was achieved. This work reports a new type of nanotechnology-based carrier, a TNE, which can potentially be tailored for co-delivery of multiple therapeutic components, and can be made using simple methods using only biocompatible materials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Wettability modification of rock cores by fluorinated copolymer emulsion for the enhancement of gas and oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Chunyan [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China); Kong Ying, E-mail: yingkong1967@yahoo.com.cn [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China); Jiang Guancheng [MOE Key Laboratory of Petroleum Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Yang Jinrong; Pu Chunsheng [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China); Zhang Yuzhong [Key Lab of Hollow Fibre Membrane Materials and Membrane Process, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300160 (China)

    2012-07-01

    The fluorine-containing acrylate copolymer emulsion was prepared with butyl acrylate, methacrylic acid and 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorooctyl acrylate as monomers. Moreover, the structure of the copolymer was verified by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR and {sup 19}F NMR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. The results showed that all the monomers had been copolymerized and the presence of fluorine moieties. The contact angle (CA) analyses, capillary rise and imbibition spontaneous tests were used to estimate the influence of the copolymer emulsion on the wettability of gas reservoirs. It was observed that the rock surface was of large contact angles of water, oilfield sewage, hexadecane and crude oil after treatment with the emulsion. The capillary rise results indicated that the contact angles of water/air and oil/air systems increased from 60 Degree-Sign and 32 Degree-Sign to 121 Degree-Sign and 80 Degree-Sign , respectively, due to the emulsion treatment. Similarly, because of wettability alteration by the fluoropolymer, the imbibition of water and oil in rock core decreased significantly. Experimental results demonstrated that the copolymer emulsion can alter the wettability of porous media from strong liquid-wetting to gas-wetting. This work provides a cost-effective method to prepare the fluoropolymer which can increase gas deliverability by altering the wettability of gas-condensate reservoirs and mitigating the water block effect.

  7. [Study of high energy nucleus-nucleus interactions with a Magnetic-Interferometric-Emulsion-Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki.

    1990-01-01

    The Nuclear Physics group at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) has been analyzing 200 GeV/n S + Pb collision events with a Magnetic-Interactive-Emulsion-Chamber (MAGIC). The objectives of the research are to learn the nature of nuclear matter at high density of particles and to develop an all-particle tracking system for very high particle densities. To advance the study further, the detector capability has been improved so as to allow the best utilization of all-particle measurements. A design study for Pb + Pb interactions at 160 GeV/n was made for planned experiments in 1993

  8. A Comparative Study of the Physicochemical Properties of a Virgin Coconut Oil Emulsion and Commercial Food Supplement Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih Phing Khor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Food manufacturers are interested in developing emulsion-based products into nutritional foods by using beneficial oils, such as fish oil and virgin coconut oil (VCO. In this study, the physicochemical properties of a VCO oil-in-water emulsion was investigated and compared to other commercial oil-in-water emulsion products (C1, C2, C3, and C4. C3 exhibited the smallest droplet size of 3.25 µm. The pH for the emulsion samples ranged from 2.52 to 4.38 and thus were categorised as acidic. In a texture analysis, C2 was described as the most firm, very adhesive and cohesive, as well as having high compressibility properties. From a rheological viewpoint, all the emulsion samples exhibited non-Newtonian behaviour, which manifested as a shear-thinning property. The G'G'' crossover illustrated by the VCO emulsion in the amplitude sweep graph but not the other commercial samples illustrated that the VCO emulsion had a better mouthfeel. In this context, the VCO emulsion yielded the highest zeta potential (64.86 mV, which was attributed to its strong repulsive forces, leading to a good dispersion system. C2 comprised the highest percentage of fat among all emulsion samples, followed by the VCO emulsion, with 18.44% and 6.59%, respectively.

  9. Emulsion characteristics, chemical and textural properties of meat systems produced with double emulsions as beef fat replacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdaroğlu, Meltem; Öztürk, Burcu; Urgu, Müge

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, double emulsions are stated to have a promising potential in low-fat food production, however, there are very few studies on their possible applications in meat matrices. We aimed to investigate the quality of beef emulsion systems in which beef fat was totally replaced by double emulsions (W1/O/W2) prepared with olive oil and sodium caseinate (SC) by two-step emulsification procedure. Incorporation of W1/O/W2 emulsion resulted in reduced lipid, increased protein content, and modified fatty acid composition. W1/O/W2 emulsion treatments had lower jelly and fat separation, higher water-holding capacity and higher emulsion stability than control samples with beef fat. Increased concentrations of W1/O/W2 emulsions resulted in significant changes in texture parameters. TBA values were lower in W1/O/W2 emulsion treatments than control treatment after 60days of storage. In conclusion, our study confirms that double emulsions had promising impacts on modifying fatty acid composition and developing both technologically and oxidatively stable beef emulsion systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Track reconstruction in the emulsion-lead target of the OPERA experiment using the ESS microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrabito, L.; Bozza, C.; Buontempo, S.; Consiglio, L.; Cozzi, M.; D'Ambrosio, N.; DeLellis, G.; DeSerio, M.; Di Capua, F.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Di Marco, N.; Ereditato, A.; Esposito, L. S.; Fini, R. A.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgini, M.; Grella, G.; Ieva, M.; Janicsko Csathy, J.; Juget, F.; Kreslo, I.; Laktineh, I.; Manai, K.; Mandrioli, G.; Marotta, A.; Migliozzi, P.; Monacelli, P.; Moser, U.; Muciaccia, M. T.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Petukhov, Y.; Pistillo, C.; Pozzato, M.; Romano, G.; Rosa, G.; Russo, A.; Savvinov, N.; Schembri, A.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Simone, S.; Sioli, M.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Strolin, P.; Tioukov, V.; Waelchli, T.

    2007-05-01

    The OPERA experiment, designed to conclusively prove the existence of νμ→ντ oscillations in the atmospheric sector, makes use of a massive lead-nuclear emulsion target to observe the appearance of ντ's in the CNGS νμ beam. The location and analysis of the neutrino interactions in quasi real-time required the development of fast computer-controlled microscopes able to reconstruct particle tracks with sub-micron precision and high efficiency at a speed of ~20 cm2/h. This paper describes the performance in particle track reconstruction of the European Scanning System, a novel automatic microscope for the measurement of emulsion films developed for OPERA.

  11. Track reconstruction in the emulsion-lead target of the OPERA experiment using the ESS microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrabito, L; Bozza, C; Buontempo, S

    2007-01-01

    The OPERA experiment, designed to conclusively prove the existence of ν μ →ν τ oscillations in the atmospheric sector, makes use of a massive lead-nuclear emulsion target to observe the appearance of ν τ 's in the CNGS ν μ beam. The location and analysis of the neutrino interactions in quasi real-time required the development of fast computer-controlled microscopes able to reconstruct particle tracks with sub-micron precision and high efficiency at a speed of ∼20 cm 2 /h. This paper describes the performance in particle track reconstruction of the European Scanning System, a novel automatic microscope for the measurement of emulsion films developed for OPERA

  12. Kinematical analysis with the Emulsion Cloud Chamber in the OPERA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Di Capua, F

    2010-01-01

    The OPERA experiment aims at measuring for the first time neutrino oscil- lation in appearance mode through the detection of ni-tau in an almost pure niμ beam produced at CERN SPS (CNGS), 730 km far from the detector. The ni-tau appearance signal is identified through the measurement of the decay daughter particles of the " lepton produced in CC ni-tau interactions. Since the short-lived " particle has, at the energy of the beam, an average decay length shorter than a 1 mm, a micrometric detection resolution is needed. The OPERA appara- tus is hybrid, using nuclear emulsion as high precision tracker and electronic detectors for the time stamp, event localization in the target and muon recon- struction. The Emulsion Cloud Chamber technique fulfils the requirement of a microscopic resolution together with a large target mass. The kinematical analysis allowed by this technique is described.

  13. Rheology essentials of cosmetic and food emulsions

    CERN Document Server

    Brummer, Rüdiger

    2006-01-01

    Cosmetic emulsions exist today in many forms for a wide variety of applications, including face and hand creams for normal, dry or oily skin, body milks and lotions, as well as sun-block products. Keeping track of them and their properties is not always easy despite informative product names or partial names (e.g. hand or face cream) that clearly indicate their use and properties. This practical manual provides a detailed overview that describes the key properties and explains how to measure them using modern techniques. Written by an expert in flows and flow properties, it focuses on the application of rheological (flow) measurements to cosmetic and food emulsions and the correlation of these results with findings from other tests. Beginning with a brief history of rheology and some fundamental principles, the manual describes in detail the use of modern viscometers and rheometers, including concise explanations of the different available instruments. But the focus remains on practical everyday lab procedure...

  14. Perfection of the individual photographic emulsion dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soudain, G.

    1960-01-01

    A photographic dosimeter making possible the measurement of γ radiation doses of from 10 mr up to 800 r by means of 3 emulsion bands of varying sensitivity stuck to the same support is described. The dosimeter has also a zone for marking and a test film insensitive to radiation. This requires a photometric measurement by diffuse reflection an d makes it possible to measure doses with an accuracy of 20 per cent. (author) [fr

  15. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This document proposes a presentation and discussion of the main notions, issues, principles, or characteristics related to nuclear energy: radioactivity (presence in the environment, explanation, measurement, periods and activities, low doses, applications), fuel cycle (front end, mining and ore concentration, refining and conversion, fuel fabrication, in the reactor, back end with reprocessing and recycling, transport), the future of the thorium-based fuel cycle (motivations, benefits and drawbacks), nuclear reactors (principles of fission reactors, reactor types, PWR reactors, BWR, heavy-water reactor, high temperature reactor of HTR, future reactors), nuclear wastes (classification, packaging and storage, legal aspects, vitrification, choice of a deep storage option, quantities and costs, foreign practices), radioactive releases of nuclear installations (main released radio-elements, radioactive releases by nuclear reactors and by La Hague plant, gaseous and liquid effluents, impact of releases, regulation), the OSPAR Convention, management and safety of nuclear activities (from control to quality insurance, to quality management and to sustainable development), national safety bodies (mission, means, organisation and activities of ASN, IRSN, HCTISN), international bodies, nuclear and medicine (applications of radioactivity, medical imagery, radiotherapy, doses in nuclear medicine, implementation, the accident in Epinal), nuclear and R and D (past R and D programmes and expenses, main actors in France and present funding, main R and D axis, international cooperation)

  16. Mathematical Approach in Rheological Characterizing of Asphalt Emulsion Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Hwan Cho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Three different emulsion residues, such as SS1HP, HFE90, and SS-1VH (trackless, and a base asphalt binder (PG 64-22 are compared to characterize rheological properties by using DSR test. In order to capture the emulsion properties, different frequencies (from 1 to 100 rad/sec at a 10% constant shear rate and temperatures (from −45°C to 75°C with 15°C increments were applied. Then, a master curve for shear modulus was plotted for each emulsion. The transition of the HFE90 emulsion from viscous to elastic behavior occurs at lower temperatures, compared to the other materials. This emulsion is known for performing in a wider temperature range as shown in the results. The trackless emulsion presents an elastic behavior at intermediate temperatures. This product is known as having very fast setting and high resistance to shear stresses. The trackless emulsion presents the highest viscous and elastic modulus, followed by the PG 64-22 binder, SS1HP, and HFE90 emulsion. Shear strength test results show a behavior between trackless emulsion and SS1HP similar to the frequency sweep test results performed by DSR.

  17. Studies with a safflower oil emulsion in total parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, K. H.; Deitel, M.

    1981-01-01

    The prevention of essential fatty acid deficiency and the provision of adequate amounts of energy are two major concerns in total parenteral nutrition. Since earlier preparations of fat emulsion used to supplement the usual regimen of hypertonic glucose and amino acids have widely varying clinical acceptability, a new product, a safflower oil emulsion available in two concentrations (Liposyn), was evaluated. In four clinical trials the emulsion was used as a supplement to total parenteral nutrition. In five surgical patients 500 ml of the 10% emulsion infused every third day prevented or corrected essential fatty acid deficiency; however, in some cases in infusion every other day may be necessary. In 40 patients in severe catabolic states the emulsion provided 30% to 50% of the energy required daily: 10 patients received the 10% emulsion for 14 to 42 days, 9 patients received each emulsion in turn for 7 days, and 21 patient received the 20% emulsion for 14 to 28 days. All the patients survived and tolerated the lipid well; no adverse clinical effects were attributable to the lipid infusions. Transient mild, apparently clinically insignificant abnormalities in the results of one or more liver function tests and eosinophilia were observed in some patients. Thus, the safflower oil emulsion, at both concentrations, was safe and effective as a source of 30% to 50% of the energy required daily by seriously ill patients. PMID:6799182

  18. The choice of homogenisation equipment affects lipid oxidation in emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard

    2012-01-01

    in emulsions has been shown to be affected by the emulsification conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of homogenisation equipment (microfluidizer vs. two-stage valve homogeniser) on lipid oxidation in 10% fish oil-in-water emulsions prepared with two different milk proteins....... Emulsions were prepared at pH 7 with similar droplet sizes. Results showed that the oxidative stability of emulsions prepared with sodium caseinate was not influenced by the type of homogeniser used. In contrast, the type of homogenisation equipment significantly influenced lipid oxidation when whey protein...

  19. Field testing of asphalt-emulsion radon-barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Freeman, H.D.; Baker, E.G.; Elmore, M.R.; Nelson, D.A.; Voss, C.F.; Koehmstedt, P.L.

    1981-09-01

    Three years of laboratory and field testing have demonstrated that asphalt emulsion seals are effective radon diffusion barriers. Both laboratory and field tests in 1979, 1980 and 1981 have shown that an asphalt emulsion seal can reduce radon fluxes by greater than 99.9%. The effective diffusion coefficient for the various asphalt emulsion admix seals averages about 10 -6 cm 2 /s. The 1981 joint field test is a culmination of all the technology developed to date for asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems. Preliminary results of this field test and the results of the 1980 field test are presented. 18 figures, 6 tables

  20. Tweens demulsification effects on heavy crude oil/water emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastaran Hayati Roodbari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The demulsification role of Tweens (nonionic polymers was determined in the separation of water from heavy crude oil emulsion. According to the previous researches, these nonionic polymers, having hydrophilic and lipophilic groups, are appropriate for making oil in water emulsion. In this research their effects in certain concentrations on demulsifying of water in crude oil emulsion were proved. High molecular weight, alkenes’ chains and groups of ketone and ester in these polymers can improve their performance for the demulsification of water in crude oil emulsion. Their efficiencies are improved with electronegative groups such as oxygen. They leave no corrosion effect because they are neutral and do not leave counter ions.

  1. Laboratory effectiveness testing of water-in-oil emulsion breakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.F.; Fieldhouse, B.; Bier, I.; Conrod, D.; Tennyson, E.

    1995-01-01

    The physics and chemistry of water-in-oil emulsions dominate the development of effectiveness tests. Emulsions are variable in stability--this variability is largely dependent on oil type and degree of weathering. These factors complicate the development of a test. Emulsions which have low stability will apparently break easily with chemical emulsion breakers. Broken emulsions will form a foam-like material, called rag, which retains water which is not part of the stable emulsions. Analytical methods used to determine the final stability of the broken or unbroken emulsion were evaluated. Measurements of water content and viscosity measurements show correlation to emulsion stability. Viscosity provides a more reliable measure of emulsion stability but water content measurements are more convenient and are largely used in this study. Twelve tests were developed in the past. Two testing methods have been developed to a usable stage. These tests are described and data using them provided. The effects of mixing time, agent amount, settling time and mixing energy on effectiveness results are presented

  2. Development of an Electroplating Method Using the Emulsion Under Supercritical C0{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jeongmin; Park, Kwangheon; Ha, Sungwoo [Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The development of an internal cladding metal coating technology is required as a measure for manufacturing homogeneous burnable poison and preventing PCI. This study applied nickel plating obtaining a film on the metal surface by making the emulsion of supercritical CO2 and plating solution. It is an eco-friendly process that reduced an electrolyte used in the electroplating process to 40% and a method that can inhibit the effect of bubbles generated during plating. According to the experimental results, it was found that emulsion can be formed through agitation by using ultrasonic horn. And the nickel plating film in the relatively uniform and dense from was formed in Zry-4 and Cu specimens with the formed emulsion. Additionally, the side effects of pinhole in existing electroplating were diminished through the emulsion electroplating. Process development research is underway in order to secure a plating layer with the smoother and generally even specimen surface and find optimized plating conditions and this study can be used as the basic data for new plating process development. Recently, pressurized-water reactor nuclear fuel has been developed as high burn up nuclear fuel that can be operated for a long time. To this end, the nuclear fuel aggregate adding neutron absorber (Burnable absorber-BA) is required. To this end, a new technology to replace burnable poison in the form of pellet is required. If BA coating is made inside the nuclear fuel cladding, it is possible to produce burnable poison that improved performance more than that of burnable poison in the form of existing pellet. Generally, coating using plating can be simply manufactured at a low temperature compared to the complex process of making pellet and can also distribute burnable poison overall evenly. The problem in the behavior of high burn up nuclear fuel is pellet-cladding interaction (PCI) shown while burning. Several methods to reduce it have been devised and recently, research on nuclear

  3. Development of an Electroplating Method Using the Emulsion Under Supercritical C02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jeongmin; Park, Kwangheon; Ha, Sungwoo

    2015-01-01

    The development of an internal cladding metal coating technology is required as a measure for manufacturing homogeneous burnable poison and preventing PCI. This study applied nickel plating obtaining a film on the metal surface by making the emulsion of supercritical CO2 and plating solution. It is an eco-friendly process that reduced an electrolyte used in the electroplating process to 40% and a method that can inhibit the effect of bubbles generated during plating. According to the experimental results, it was found that emulsion can be formed through agitation by using ultrasonic horn. And the nickel plating film in the relatively uniform and dense from was formed in Zry-4 and Cu specimens with the formed emulsion. Additionally, the side effects of pinhole in existing electroplating were diminished through the emulsion electroplating. Process development research is underway in order to secure a plating layer with the smoother and generally even specimen surface and find optimized plating conditions and this study can be used as the basic data for new plating process development. Recently, pressurized-water reactor nuclear fuel has been developed as high burn up nuclear fuel that can be operated for a long time. To this end, the nuclear fuel aggregate adding neutron absorber (Burnable absorber-BA) is required. To this end, a new technology to replace burnable poison in the form of pellet is required. If BA coating is made inside the nuclear fuel cladding, it is possible to produce burnable poison that improved performance more than that of burnable poison in the form of existing pellet. Generally, coating using plating can be simply manufactured at a low temperature compared to the complex process of making pellet and can also distribute burnable poison overall evenly. The problem in the behavior of high burn up nuclear fuel is pellet-cladding interaction (PCI) shown while burning. Several methods to reduce it have been devised and recently, research on nuclear

  4. Mixing Time, Inversion and Multiple Emulsion Formation in a Limonene and Water Pickering Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sawiak

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available It has previously been demonstrated that particle-stabilized emulsions comprised of limonene, water and fumed silica particles exhibit complex emulsification behavior as a function of composition and the duration of the emulsification step. Most notably the system can invert from being oil-continuous to being water-continuous under prolonged mixing. Here we investigate this phenomenon experimentally for the regime where water is the majority liquid. We prepare samples using a range of different emulsification times and we examine the final properties in bulk and via confocal microscopy. We use the images to quantitatively track the sizes of droplets and clusters of particles. We find that a dense emulsion of water droplets forms initially which is transformed, in time, into a water-in-oil-in-water multiple emulsion with concomitant changes in droplet and cluster sizes. In parallel we carry out rheological studies of water-in-limonene emulsions using different concentrations of fumed silica particles. We unite our observations to propose a mechanism for inversion based on the changes in flow properties and the availability of particles during emulsification.

  5. Studies of water-in-oil emulsions : testing of emulsion formation in OHMSETT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.

    2001-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the stability of water-in-oil emulsions in the OHMSETT tank facility. The results were then compared with previous laboratory studies which suggested that the stability of emulsions can be grouped into four categories, stable, unstable, meso-stable and entrained. It has been determined that entrained emulsions can retain oil by viscous forces long enough for interfacial agents, resins and asphaltenes to stabilize the droplets. This paper also described the difference in viscosity between the 4 categories of emulsion stability. The OHMSETT tests were conducted in two series of one week each. The first series of tests were conducted in July and involved 12 experiments on 2 different types of oils which were placed at varying thicknesses on the water. The second set of tests were conducted in November and involved 12 experiments on 6 oils. The rheological properties of the oils were measured and compared to the same oils undergoing emulsification in the laboratory. The oils and water-in-oil states produced were found to have analogous properties between the laboratory and the first set of tests at the OHMSETT facility. All the oils tested produced entrained water-in-oil states in both the laboratory and the test tank. The energy in the two test conditions was found to be similar, with the OHMSETT emulsions similar to one produced in the laboratory at high energies. The second series of tests at OHMSETT did not result in the expected water in-oil- states. This unexpected result was most likely due to the residual surfactant from an earlier dispersant experiment. The study showed that the conditions for emulsion formation are analogous in the OHMSETT tank and in the laboratory tests. The level of energy is considered to be the major variant. It was concluded that the energy levels between the laboratory mixing experiments and the OHMSETT is similar. It was shown that surfactants left over from dispersant testing inhibited the formation

  6. Novel epoxy-benzoxazine water-based emulsions with reactive benzoxazine surfactants for coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Krajnc

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Novel epoxy-benzoxazine emulsions designed for water-based coatings were prepared and investigated. Bisphenol A-based epoxy resins with molar weights of 340, 377 and 1750 g/mol along with epoxidized soybean oil were emulsified using mono- and bi-functional benzoxazine surfactants, which are able to react with epoxy resins at their cure temperature. The structure of synthesized surfactants carrying one or two polyether chains was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance and differential scanning calorimetry. Stability of emulsions was verified by particle diameters measurements. Coatings, made directly from emulsions, were dried and cured at elevated temperature using 3,3'-dimetoxybenzidine as curing agent to ensure a highly cross-linked structure of thermosetting films. Curing process, thermal properties and hardness of cured films were investigated. It was found that benzoxazine molecules were well incorporated into the epoxy network upon curing, which ensures no void structure of cured copolymer and enhanced coating properties.

  7. A development of time-resolved emulsion detector by multi-stage shifter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Satoru; Aoki, Shigeki

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear emulsion is a powerful tracking device that can record the three-dimensional trajectory of charged particles within 1 μm spatial resolution. We are promoting GRAINE project which is 10 MeV-100 GeV cosmic γ-ray observations with a precise (0.08deg at 1-2 GeV) and polarization-sensitive large-aperture-area (∼10 m 2 ) emulsion telescope by repeating long duration balloon flights. We are developing multi-stage shifter which allows us to give a timing information to emulsion tracks with ∼seconds or below. The multi-stage shifter opened feasibilities of precise cosmic γ-ray observations, GRAINE, as well as precise measurements of ν-N interactions, J-PARC T60. ∼Millisecond time resolution in a balloon-borne experiment, ∼second time resolution for 126.7 days in an accelerator ν experiment and ∼10 6 time-resolved numbers are being achieved. New model of multi-stage shifter is also being developed for future experiments. (author)

  8. Tuning Amphiphilicity of Particles for Controllable Pickering Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pickering emulsions with the use of particles as emulsifiers have been extensively used in scientific research and industrial production due to their edge in biocompatibility and stability compared with traditional emulsions. The control over Pickering emulsion stability and type plays a significant role in these applications. Among the present methods to build controllable Pickering emulsions, tuning the amphiphilicity of particles is comparatively effective and has attracted enormous attention. In this review, we highlight some recent advances in tuning the amphiphilicity of particles for controlling the stability and type of Pickering emulsions. The amphiphilicity of three types of particles including rigid particles, soft particles, and Janus particles are tailored by means of different mechanisms and discussed here in detail. The stabilization-destabilization interconversion and phase inversion of Pickering emulsions have been successfully achieved by changing the surface properties of these particles. This article provides a comprehensive review of controllable Pickering emulsions, which is expected to stimulate inspiration for designing and preparing novel Pickering emulsions, and ultimately directing the preparation of functional materials.

  9. Interplay between Colloids and Interfaces : Emulsions, Foams and Microtubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Folter, J.W.J.

    2013-01-01

    The central theme of this thesis is the interplay between colloids and interfaces. The adsorption of colloids at fluid-fluid interfaces is the main topic and covers Chapters 2-6. Pickering emulsions where colloidal particles act as emulsion stabilizers in the absence of surfactants are studied in a

  10. 21 CFR 524.802 - Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion. 524... ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.802 Enrofloxacin, silver sulfadiazine emulsion. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter contains 5 milligrams (mg) enrofloxacin and 10 mg silver sulfadiazine. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000859 in § 510...

  11. Multi-responsive ionic liquid emulsions stabilized by microgels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteillet, H.; Workamp, M.; Li, X.; Schuur, Boelo; Kleijn, J.M.; Leermakers, F.; Sprakel, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a complete toolbox to use responsive ionic liquid (IL) emulsions for extraction purposes. IL emulsions stabilized by responsive microgels are shown to allow rapid extraction and reversible breaking and re-emulsification. Moreover, by using a paramagnetic ionic liquid, droplets can be

  12. Pickering Emulsions for Food Applications: Background, Trends, and Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berton-Carabin, C.C.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.

    2015-01-01

    Particle-stabilized emulsions, also referred to as Pickering emulsions, have garnered exponentially increasing interest in recent years. This has also led to the first food applications, although the number of related publications is still rather low. The involved stabilization mechanisms are

  13. Aqueous polymer emulsions by chemical modifications of thermosetting alternating polyketones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Youchun; Broekhuis, A. A.; Picchioni, F.

    2007-01-01

    Aqueous polymer emulsions were prepared by chemical modifications of thermosetting alternating polyketones in a one-pot reaction. Polymeric amines derived from the polyketones can act as polymeric surfactants for the self-emulsification of polyketones. The stability and structure of the emulsions

  14. Zero-Valent Metal Emulsion for Reductive Dehalogenation of DNAPLs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Debra R. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian (Inventor); Gelger, Cherie L. (Inventor); Quinn, Jacqueline (Inventor); Brooks, Kathleen (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A zero-valent metal emulsion is used to dehalogenate solvents, such as pooled dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), including trichloroethylene (TCE). The zero-valent metal emulsion contains zero-valent metal particles, a surfactant, oil and water, The preferred zero-valent metal particles are nanoscale and microscale zero-valent iron particles.

  15. Oxidative Stability and Shelf Life of Food Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Lipid oxidation and antioxidant effects in food emulsions are influenced by many different factors, such as the composition of the aqueous phase and interface, the partitioning of the antioxidants between the different phases of the emulsion system, the antioxidant properties, and others. This ch...

  16. Microfluidic production of multiple emulsions and functional microcapsules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Tae Yong; Choi, Tae Min; Shim, Tae Soup; Frijns, Raoul A.M.; Kim, Shin Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in microfluidics have enabled the controlled production of multiple-emulsion drops with onion-like topology. The multiple-emulsion drops possess an intrinsic core-shell geometry, which makes them useful as templates to create microcapsules with a solid membrane. High flexibility

  17. Synthesis of metallic nanoshells on porphyrin-stabilized emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haorong [Albuquerque, NM; Song, Yujiang [Albuquerque, NM; Shelnutt, John A [Tijeras, NM; Medforth, Craig J [Winters, CA

    2011-12-13

    Metal nanostructures formed by photocatalytic interfacial synthesis using a porphyrin-stabilized emulsion template and the method for making the nanostructures. Catalyst-seeded emulsion droplets are employed as templates for hollow-nanoshell growth. The hollow metal nanospheres may be formed with or without inclusions of other materials.

  18. Nonionic emulsion-mediated synthesis of zeolite beta

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zeolite beta synthesis was first carried out in a newly developed emulsion system containing nonionic polyoxyethylated alkylphenol surfactant, which showed interesting non-conventional features. Compared to the conventional hydrothermal synthesis of zeolite beta, the reported nonionic emulsion system showed a faster ...

  19. Cosmetic emulsion from virgin olive oil: Formulation and bio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cosmetic emulsion from virgin olive oil: Formulation and bio-physical ... virgin olive oil was developed by entrapping it in the oily phase of oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion. ... The evaluation parameters consisted of color, smell, phase separation, ...

  20. Formulation and stability of topical water in oil emulsion containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate the water in oil (W/O) emulsion of corn silk (CS) extract and to evaluate its stability at various storage conditions. Methods: Ethanol CS extract was prepared using maceration (cold) technique. A 4 % CS emulsion was prepared using varying concentrations of liquid paraffin, ABIL EM90 and water.

  1. Development of lamivudine containing multiple emulsions stabilized by gum odina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Kumar Jena

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, a multiple emulsion (W/O/W of lamivudine was developed using a new biopolymer, gum odina (GOd to increase bioavailability and patient compliances. GOd was employed to stabilize both the interfaces of liquid membrane in both the external and internal aqueous phases. The developed W/O/W multiple emulsion of lamivudine was characterized by analyzing droplet size, zeta potential, polydispersity index (PDI, sedimentation, viscosity, rheological properties, drug entrapment efficiency, in-vitro drug release and stability at various storage conditions. The results obtained were also compared with W/O/W multiple emulsion of lamivudine prepared using Tween 80 (a standard emulsion stabilizer. The drug entrapment efficiency of W/O/W multiple emulsion stabilized using GOd was measured as 91.60 ± 3.66% with sustained lamivudine release over a period of 6 h. Rheological and microscopic examinations indicated long term stability of the developed emulsion prepared using GOd. The results of the current study provide a promising scope to attain sustained drug release through the W/O/W multiple emulsions stabilized by GOd in antiviral therapies. Keywords: Gum odina, Lamivudine, Multiple emulsions

  2. Emulsion polymerization with high energy radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stannett, V.T.; Stahel, E.P.

    1992-01-01

    High energy radiation, particularly that of cobalt-60 or caesium-137 gamma-rays, provides in principle an ideal initiator for emulsion polymerization. The high free radical yields from the radiolysis of the aqueous phase combined with the high kinetic chain lengths associated with emulsion polymerization lead to a highly effective utilization of the radiation. There are other important advantages compared with the use of chemical initiators such as potassium persulfate. These are outlined in the chapter, together with some attendant disadvantages. Radiation-induced initiation is temperature independent, and low temperature polymerizations can be conducted with ease. Monomers that mainly terminate their growing chains by chain transfer to monomer give higher molecular weights at lower temperatures. Industrially, vinyl acetate is an important example of such a monomer, and it has been studied using radiation initiation. Both laboratory and pilot plant studies have been carried out and reported. The results are summarized in this chapter. Styrene is the classical example of a material that under a number of conditions closely obeys the so-called ideal Smith-Ewart kinetics. It has been found that under similar conditions but substituting radiation for potassium persulfate as the initiator, ideal kinetics were closely followed. Most of the conventional and some non-standard vinyl and diene monomers have been studied to some extent with radiation-initiated polymerizations in emulsion. To conserve space however, this chapter presents and discusses the results obtained only with styrene and vinyl acetate, both in laboratory and pilot plant investigations. Other monomers and special situations are referenced either directly or to the other available reviews. (orig.)

  3. Economical and environmentally safe treatment of emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, V

    1978-05-01

    The steady increase in the cost of the removal of emulsions and oil-containing liquid waste, as well as the rigid requirements concerning limiting values for discharge, have turned the disposal of spent cooling lubricants and oil-containing working fluids into a problem. The petroleum content in liquid waste is controlled with particular rigidity by the authorities. Ultrafiltration systems can keep the petroleum content at a very low level (< 2 mg/l) with great reliability. Ultrafiltration systems are easy to maintain, they have low operation costs and are easy to manipulate. The efficiency of a system is largely independent of its manipulation by the operating personnel.

  4. Heavy ion and hadron reactions in emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterlund, I.

    1979-04-01

    Recent results from heavy ion and hadron reactions in emulsion are reviewed. General properties of hadron-reaction multiplicities and their correlation to the production of recoiling protons are given. Properties of pseudo-rapidity distributions of shower-particles especially the particle production in the central region of pseudo-rapidity will be discussed. Non-peripheral heavy ion reactions are compared to recent participant-spectator model calculations. Very energetic cosmic ray events will be examined in the light of recent results from hadron-nucleus reactions. (author)

  5. Structure- and oil type-based efficacy of emulsion adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Theo; Hofmans, Marij P M; Theelen, Marc J G; Manders, Frans; Schijns, Virgil E J C

    2006-06-29

    Oil-based emulsions are well-known immunopotentiators for inactivated, "killed" vaccines. We addressed the relationship between emulsion structure and levels of in vivo antibody formation to inactivated New Castle Disease virus (NDV) and Infectious Bronchitis virus (IBV) as antigens in 3-week-old chickens. The use of a polymeric emulsifier allowed for direct comparison of three types of emulsions, water-in-oil (W/O), oil-in-water (O/W) and W/O-in-water (W/O/W), while maintaining an identical content of components for each vehicle. They were prepared with either non-metabolizable, mineral oil or metabolizable, Miglyol 840. In addition, we assessed the inherent release capacity of each emulsion variant in vitro. Remarkably, we noted that W/O-type emulsions induced the best immune responses, while they released no antigen during 3 weeks. In general, mineral oil vaccines showed superior efficacy compared to Miglyol 840-based vaccines.

  6. Method validation and stability study of quercetin in topical emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia Casagrande

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study validated a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method for the quantitative evaluation of quercetin in topical emulsions. The method was linear within 0.05 - 200 μg/mL range with a correlation coefficient of 0.9997, and without interference in the quercetin peak. The detection and quantitation limits were 18 and 29 ng/mL, respectively. The intra- and inter-assay precisions presented R.S.D. values lower than 2%. An average of 93% and 94% of quercetin was recovered for non-ionic and anionic emulsions, respectively. The raw material and anionic emulsion, but not non-ionic emulsion, were stable in all storage conditions for one year. The method reported is a fast and reliable HPLC technique useful for quercetin determination in topical emulsions.

  7. Progression of radical reactions on microscopic scale in food emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raudsepp, Piret

    Understanding the progression of lipid oxidation in oil-in-water emulsions from the aspect of the food quality and safety, consumer satisfaction and cleaner food label is of importance, because most of the food emulsions are oil-in-water emulsions. There is an increasing tendency in the food...... industry to incorporate unsaturated oils into food products, but that results in shortened shelf-life. Therefore, studying the factors and consequences of the oxidative instability provides beneficial insight into prolonging the antioxidative stage and inhibiting undergoing oxidation processes to improve...... the food quality and increase the shelflife of the food products. In the present work, lipid oxidation in oil-in-water emulsions was studied via conventional analytical and via novel state-of-the-art techniques. For the first time, the effect of mixing emulsions made of saturated medium-chain triglyceride...

  8. Cold in-place recycling using solventless emulsion - phase IV (emulsion qualification and long-term field performance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This report looks into how a successful Cold In-Place solventless emulsion behaves and how the emulsion : break test developed in Phase III of this project demonstrates that behavior. Modifications to the test have been : made to improve the consiste...

  9. Differential molecular regulation of bile acid homeostasis by soy lipid induced phytosterolemia and fish oil lipid emulsions in TPN-fed preterm pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prolonged total parenteral nutrition (PN) may lead to cholestasis and liver disease (PNALD). The soybean oil-based lipid emulsion (Intralipid) and its constituent phytosterols have been implicated in PNALD. Phytosterols may induce cholestasis by antagonism of the nuclear bile-acid receptor, FXR, lea...

  10. Further study of helium production at large impact parameters in 6.4 TeV 32S emulsion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, S.

    1999-01-01

    Further study of helium production in electromagnetic and inelastic peripheral interactions of 32 S nuclei at 200 AGeV in nuclear emulsion is presented. The multiplicities, transverse momentum distributions of relativistic He fragments, and their parameters in both interactions are measured. The effect of the multiple helium production on the present obtained evidence of two different temperatures is investigated. The main characteristics of transverse momentum distributions show a certain dependence on the peripherality degree of the interactions

  11. Rutting performance of cold bituminous emulsion mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Ahmad Kamil; Ali, Noor Azilatom; Shaffie, Ekarizan; Hashim, Wardati; Rahman, Zanariah Abd

    2017-10-01

    Cold Bituminous Emulsion Mixture (CBEM) is an environmentally friendly alternative to hot mix asphalt (HMA) for road surfacing, due to its low energy requirements. However, CBEM has generally been perceived to be less superior in performance, compared to HMA. This paper details a laboratory study on the rutting performance of CBEM. The main objective of this study is to determine the Marshall properties of CBEM and to evaluate the rutting performance. The effect of cement in CBEM was also evaluated in this study. The specimens were prepared using Marshall Mix Design Method and rutting performance was evaluated using the Asphalt Pavement Analyzer (APA). Marshall Properties were analysed to confirm compliance with the PWD Malaysia's specification requirements. The rutting performance for specimens with cement was also found to perform better than specimens without cement. It can be concluded that Cold Bituminous Emulsion Mixtures (CBEM) with cement is a viable alternative to Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) as their Marshall Properties and performance obtained from this study meets the requirements of the specifications. It is recommended that further study be conducted on CBEM for other performance criteria such as moisture susceptibility and fatigue.

  12. Fragmentation in 28Si-emulsion interactions at 3.7A GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.K.; Tuli, S.K.

    1999-01-01

    The results on fragmentation of a 3.7A GeV 28 Si projectile in interactions with different target nuclei in nuclear emulsion are presented. Limiting fragmentation behaviour of the projectile fragments is achieved at this energy. It is shown that the factorization principle for fragmentation cross-sections holds for light fragments only. A bond percolation prescription is able to reproduce the experimental observations for fragments with charge 4≤Z≤10. A rise in the production of helium fragments is also predicted by bond percolation

  13. Rheological Behaviour of Water-in-Light Crude Oil Emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husin, H.; Taju Ariffin, T. S.; Yahya, E.

    2018-05-01

    Basically, emulsions consist of two immiscible liquids which have different density. In petroleum industry, emulsions are undesirable due to their various costly problems in term of transportation difficulties and production loss. A study of the rheological behaviour of light crude oil and its mixture from Terengganu were carried out using Antoon Paar MCR 301 rheometer operated at pressure of 2.5 bar at temperature C. Water in oil emulsions were prepared by mixing light crude oil with different water volume fractions (20%, 30% and 40%). The objectives of present paper are to study the rheological behaviour of emulsion as a fuction of shear rate and model analysis that fitted with the experimental data. The rheological models of Ostwald-De-Waele and Herschel-Bulkley were fitted to the experimental results. All models represented well the rheological data, with high values for the correlation coefficients. The result indicated that variation of water content influenced shear rate-shear stress rheogram of the prepared emulsions. In the case of 100% light crude oil, the study demonstrated non-Newtonian shear thickening behavior. However, for emulsion with different volume water ratios, the rheological behaviour could be well described by Herschel-Bulkley models due to the present of yield stress parameter (R2 = 0.99807). As a conclusion, rheological studies showed that volume water ratio have a great impact on the shear stress and viscosity of water in oil emulsion and it is important to understand these factors to avoid various costly problems.

  14. Minimum pressure for sustained combustion in AN-based emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldthorp, S.; Turcotte, R.; Badeen, C.M. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory; Chan, S.K. [Orica Canada Inc., Brownsburg-Chatham, PQ (Canada)

    2008-04-15

    AN-based emulsions have been involved in a relatively high number of accidental explosions related to pumping operations during their manufacture, transfer and handling. The minimum burning pressure (MBP) of emulsions is used to estimate safe operating pressures for pumping and mixing equipment. This study examined testing protocols conducted to measure MBP values. Factors contributing to uncertainties in MBP data were examined, and a measurement methodology designed to incorporate the uncertainties was presented. MBP measurements obtained for 5 different AN-based emulsions in high pressure vessels were also provided, and the impact of various ingredients on MBP values was discussed. Bench-scale experiments and time current pulse tests were conducted to examine thermal ignition behaviour. The emulsions exhibited MBP values that ranged from 580 to 6510 kPa. Results of the study suggested that ingredients play a significant role on MBP values. A relatively high energy flux was required to induce stable combustion fronts in the emulsions. Large air voids containing flammable atmospheres were able to provide sufficient energy to ignite the emulsions. It was concluded that a knowledge of the MBP of emulsions is needed to ensure that corresponding pumping operations are conducted at pressures below the MBP. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  15. Organic Based Glutinous Corn (Zea maize Supplemented With Seaweeds Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayrome S. Butay

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was therefore design to generate scientific information that are vital for organic farming advocates as it uses natural organic farm inputs in the production of corn. It was conducted because of the insurmountable rising cost of inorganic fertilizers perspective the farmers have to look for alternative measures to sustain the profitability of their farming business by evaluating the efficacy of seaweeds emulsion (Carrageenan as nutrient supplement to organic fertilizer on glutinous corn production, a study was conducted at the Cagayan State University – Lal-lo, Cagayan from July 17 to September 25, 2016with the following treatments: T1- Control, T2 – 3 tons Organic Fertilizer, T3 - 1.5 liters Seaweeds Emulsion ha-1 , T4 - 3 liters Seaweeds Emulsion ha-1 , T5 - 4.5 liters Seaweeds Emulsion ha-1 and T6 - 6 liters Seaweeds Emulsion ha-1 arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The treatments have no significant effect on plant height. Application of seaweed emulsion affected the grain development as manifested by longer and heavier corn ear. Higher rates (3-6 li ha-1 proved to more efficient as indicated by the bigger ear, highest yield and ROI of 909.62 percent. The study revealed that 3 tons Organic Fertilizer with liters of seaweed emulsion improved glutinous corn production. Further study is recommended to validate the result and come up with a more reliable conclusion.

  16. Study on short-lived particles with emulsion techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prentis, D.D.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments on measuring the lifetimes are reviewed and the decay mechanisms for c-, b-quark, tau-lepton and charmed hadron are disclosed by means of emulsion chambers and hybride techniques (HT) of the emulsion-spectrometer type. The dominant development of hybride emulsion technique is traced beginning with the early experiments on measuring the lifetime of particles with emulsion (approximately 10 -13 s) and emulsion chambers. The layouts of arrangement of emulsions, counters and chambers are presented. Experiments on neutrino beams in the Fermilab and CERN using a foot bubble chamber and the Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC) are briefly described. HT experiments with a muon beam and neutrino beams in the Fermilab, with a photon beam in CERN with the use of the modified Omega are considered in detail. The results on measuring the lifetimes of the particles investigated are presented. The lengths of decay tracks, hypothetical decays, fitted masses, leVels of permissible limit of kinematic analysis, pulses of charmed baryons and intrinsic lifetimes of candidates for decay Λsub(c)sup(+), D +- , D 0 , F + - mesons are tabulated. The maximum likelihood method has been applied to determine the lifetimes from complete data on decays. It is noted that new developments in the field of semiconductor detectors and automation of emulsion measurements can extend possibilities of HT for investigation of both charmed

  17. Perfection of the individual photographic emulsion dosimeter; Perfectionnements dans la dosimetrie individuelle par emulsion photographique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soudain, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    A photographic dosimeter making possible the measurement of {gamma} radiation doses of from 10 mr up to 800 r by means of 3 emulsion bands of varying sensitivity stuck to the same support is described. The dosimeter has also a zone for marking and a test film insensitive to radiation. This requires a photometric measurement by diffuse reflection an d makes it possible to measure doses with an accuracy of 20 per cent. (author) [French] On decrit un dosimetre photographique permettant la mesure des doses de rayonnement {gamma} depuis 10 mroentgens jusqu'a 800 roentgens, au moyen de trois bandes d'emulsions de sensibilites differentes collees sur le meme support. Le dosimetre comporte egalement une plage de marquage et un temoin de developpement insensibles au rayonnement. Ceci impose la mesure photometrique par reflexion diffuse et permet l'appreciation visuelle des doses a 20 pour cent pres. (auteur)

  18. Oil-in-oil emulsions stabilised solely by solid particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Bernard P; Tyowua, Andrew T

    2016-01-21

    A brief review of the stabilisation of emulsions of two immiscible oils is given. We then describe the use of fumed silica particles coated with either hydrocarbon or fluorocarbon groups in acting as sole stabilisers of emulsions of various vegetable oils with linear silicone oils (PDMS) of different viscosity. Transitional phase inversion of emulsions, containing equal volumes of the two oils, from silicone-in-vegetable (S/V) to vegetable-in-silicone (V/S) occurs upon increasing the hydrophobicity of the particles. Close to inversion, emulsions are stable to coalescence and gravity-induced separation for at least one year. Increasing the viscosity of the silicone oil enables stable S/V emulsions to be prepared even with relatively hydrophilic particles. Predictions of emulsion type from calculated contact angles of a silica particle at the oil-oil interface are in agreement with experiment provided a small polar contribution to the surface energy of the oils is included. We also show that stable multiple emulsions of V/S/V can be prepared in a two-step procedure using two particle types of different hydrophobicity. At fixed particle concentration, catastrophic phase inversion of emulsions from V/S to S/V can be effected by increasing the volume fraction of vegetable oil. Finally, in the case of sunflower oil + 20 cS PDMS, the study is extended to particles other than silica which differ in chemical type, particle size and particle shape. Consistent with the above findings, we find that only sufficiently hydrophobic particles (clay, zinc oxide, silicone, calcium carbonate) can act as efficient V/S emulsion stabilisers.

  19. Use of emulsion for warm mix asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahabir Panda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to increase in energy costs and emission problems in hot mix asphalt usually used, it brought a great interest to the researchers to develop the warm mix technology for pavement constructions. Commonly known as warm mix asphalt (WMA, it is a typical method in the bituminous paving technology, which allows production and placement of bituminous mixes at lower temperatures than that used for hot mix asphalt (HMA. The WMA involves an environmental friendly production process that utilises organic additives, chemical additives and water based technologies. The organic and chemical additives are normally very costly and still involve certain amount of environmental issues. These factors motivated the authors to take up this technology using simple, environment friendly and somewhat cost effective procedure. In this study, an attempt has been made to prepare warm mixes by first pre-coating the aggregates with medium setting bitumen emulsion (MS and then mixing the semi-coated aggregates with VG 30 bitumen at a lower temperature than normally required. After a number of trials it was observed that mostly three mixing temperatures, namely temperatures 110 °C, 120 °C and 130 °C were appropriate to form the bituminous mixes with satisfactory homogeneity and consistency and as such were maintained throughout this study. Marshall samples for paving mixes were prepared using this procedure for dense bituminous macadam (DBM gradings as per the specifications of Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MORTH and subsequently Marshall properties of the resultant mixes were studied with the main objective of deciding the different parameters that were considered for development of appropriate warm mix asphalt. In this study it has been observed that out of three mixing temperatures tried, the mixes prepared at 120 °C with bitumen-emulsion composition of 80B:20E for DBM warm mix, offer highest Marshall stability and highest indirect tensile strength

  20. Vinyl Acetate/butyl acrylate/acrylate Research of Ternary Soap-free Emulsion Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Li-guang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the vinyl acetate/butyl acrylate/acrylic acrylic emulsion preparation without soap vinegar, with solid content, gel, emulsion stability and film forming properties and tensile strength as the main index to study the effect of raw materials on the properties of emulsion. Through the infrared spectrometer soap-free emulsion for microscopic analysis research. Study of the ternary soap-free vinegar acrylic emulsion with good performance.

  1. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The first text deals with a new circular concerning the collect of the medicine radioactive wastes, containing radium. This campaign wants to incite people to let go their radioactive wastes (needles, tubes) in order to suppress any danger. The second text presents a decree of the 31 december 1999, relative to the limitations of noise and external risks resulting from the nuclear facilities exploitation: noise, atmospheric pollution, water pollution, wastes management and fire prevention. (A.L.B.)

  2. Superhydrophobic cellulose-based bionanocomposite films from Pickering emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Ilker S.; Steele, Adam; Martorana, Philip J.; Loth, Eric; Miller, Lance

    2009-04-01

    Inherently superhydrophobic and flexible cellulose-based bionanocomposites were fabricated from solid stabilized (Pickering) emulsions. Emulsions were formed by dispersing cyclosiloxanes in water stabilized by layered silicate particles and were subsequently modified by blending into a zinc oxide nanofluid. The polymer matrix was a blend of cellulose nitrate and fluoroacrylic polymer (Zonyl 8740) precompatibilized in solution. Coatings were spray cast onto aluminum substrates from polymer blends dispersed in modified Pickering emulsions. No postsurface treatment was required to induce superhydrophobicity. Effect of antiseptic additives on bionanocomposite superhydrophobicity is also discussed. Replacing cellulose nitrate with commercial liquid bandage solutions produced identical superhydrophobic coatings.

  3. Radiation-induced emulsion polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwa, Takeshi

    1979-10-01

    The radiation-induced emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) has been studied at initial pressure 2 - 25 kg/cm 2 and temperature 30 0 - 110 0 C for dose rate 0.57 x 10 4 - 3.0 x 10 4 rad/hr. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), a hydrophobic polymer, forms as a stable latex in the absence of an emulsifier. Stability of the latex is governed by the dose rate/TFE pressure ratio; it increases with sufficient TFE monomer. PTFE particles produced in this polymerization system are stable due to the carboxyl end groups and adsorption of OH - and HF on the particles. PTFE latex of molecular weight higher than 2 x 10 7 is obtained by addition of a radical scavenger such as hydroquinone. The molecular weight of PTFE can be measured from the heat of crystallization conveniently with high reliability, which was found in the course of study on the melting and crystallization behavior. (author)

  4. Size determinations of colloidal fat emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Judith; Klaus, Katrin; Steiniger, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Size and size distributions of colloidal dispersions are of crucial importance for their performance and safety. In the present study, commercially available fat emulsions (Lipofundin N, Lipofundin MCT and Lipidem) were analyzed by photon correlation spectroscopy, laser diffraction with adequate...... was checked with mixtures of monodisperse polystyrene nanospheres. In addition, the ultrastructure of Lipofundin N and Lipofundin MCT was investigated by cryo-electron microscopy. All different particle sizing methods gave different mean sizes and size distributions but overall, results were in reasonable...... agreement. By all methods, a larger mean droplet size (between 350 and 400 nm) as well as a broader distribution was measured for Lipofundin N compared to Lipofundin MCT and Lipidem (mean droplet size between about 280 and 320 nm). Size distributions of Lipofundin MCT and Lipidem were very similar...

  5. Omega-3s in food emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in the use of healthy long chain omega-3 oils in foods. Incorporation of omega-3 oils into foods decreases their oxidative stability and therefore precautions need to be taken to avoid lipid oxidation. This review summarises the major factors to take into considera...... into consideration when developing food emulsions enriched with omega-3 oils and examples on how oxidation can be reduced in products such as mayonnaise, spreads, milk, yoghurt are also given.......There is an increasing interest in the use of healthy long chain omega-3 oils in foods. Incorporation of omega-3 oils into foods decreases their oxidative stability and therefore precautions need to be taken to avoid lipid oxidation. This review summarises the major factors to take...

  6. The structure of omega3 food emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Loussert, C.; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt

    Fish oil is rich in polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs) which are generally recognized as being beneficial to the health [1]. The addition of fish oil to food products is attractive to both the consumers and the food industry. Indeed, these components will improve nutritional value...... and add product value. Omega-3 PUFAs are rich in double bonds in their fatty acid chains and this attribute renders them highly susceptible to lipid oxidation. Omega-3 PUFAs can be added to food products as neat oil or as a delivery system such as oil-in-water emulsions. In this last configuration...... and the prooxidants. But this protective aspect is a really complex process and it is dependent on the food matrix to which the oil is added [2]. Oxidation is presumed to be initiated at the emulsifier layer, i.e. the interface layer between the oil and water where the oil is most likely to come into contact...

  7. Influence of asphaltene aggregation and pressure on crude oil emulsion stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auflem, Inge Harald

    2002-07-01

    Water-in-crude oil emulsions stabilised by various surface-active components are one of the major problems in relation to petroleum production. This thesis presents results from high-pressure separation experiments on ''live'' crude oil and model oil emulsions, as well as studies of Interactions between various indigenous stabilising materials in crude oil. A high-pressure separation rig was used to study the influence of gas and gas bubbles on the separation of water-in-crude oil emulsions. The results were interpreted as a flotation effect from rising gas bubbles, which led to increased separation efficiency. The separation properties of a ''live'' crude oil were compared to crude oil samples recombined with various gases. The results showed that water-in-oil emulsions produced from the ''live'' crude oil samples, generally separated faster and more complete, than emulsions based on recombined samples of the same crude oil. Adsorption of asphaltenes and resins onto a hydrophilic surface from solutions with varying aromatic/aliphatic character was investigated by a quarts crystal microbalance. The results showed that asphaltenes adsorbed to a larger degree than the resins. The resins were unable to desorb pre-adsorbed asphaltenes from the surface, and neither did they adsorb onto the asphaltene-coated surface. In solutions of both of resins and asphaltenes the two constituents associated in bulk liquid and adsorbed to the surface in the form of mixed aggregates. Near infrared spectroscopy and pulsed field gradient spin echo nuclear magnetic resonance were used to study asphaltene aggregation and the influence of various amphiphiles on the asphaltene aggregate size. The results showed Interactions between the asphaltenes and various chemicals, which were proposed to be due to acid-base interactions. Among the chemicals used were various naphthenic acids. Synthesised monodisperse acids gave a reduction of size of the asphaltene aggregates, whereas polydisperse

  8. Influence of asphaltene aggregation and pressure on crude oil emulsion stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auflem, Inge Harald

    2002-07-01

    Water-in-crude oil emulsions stabilised by various surface-active components are one of the major problems in relation to petroleum production. This thesis presents results from high-pressure separation experiments on ''live'' crude oil and model oil emulsions, as well as studies of Interactions between various indigenous stabilising materials in crude oil. A high-pressure separation rig was used to study the influence of gas and gas bubbles on the separation of water-in-crude oil emulsions. The results were interpreted as a flotation effect from rising gas bubbles, which led to increased separation efficiency. The separation properties of a ''live'' crude oil were compared to crude oil samples recombined with various gases. The results showed that water-in-oil emulsions produced from the ''live'' crude oil samples, generally separated faster and more complete, than emulsions based on recombined samples of the same crude oil. Adsorption of asphaltenes and resins onto a hydrophilic surface from solutions with varying aromatic/aliphatic character was investigated by a quarts crystal microbalance. The results showed that asphaltenes adsorbed to a larger degree than the resins. The resins were unable to desorb pre-adsorbed asphaltenes from the surface, and neither did they adsorb onto the asphaltene-coated surface. In solutions of both of resins and asphaltenes the two constituents associated in bulk liquid and adsorbed to the surface in the form of mixed aggregates. Near infrared spectroscopy and pulsed field gradient spin echo nuclear magnetic resonance were used to study asphaltene aggregation and the influence of various amphiphiles on the asphaltene aggregate size. The results showed Interactions between the asphaltenes and various chemicals, which were proposed to be due to acid-base interactions. Among the chemicals used were various naphthenic acids. Synthesised monodisperse acids gave a reduction of

  9. Content iodine in sauces of type emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bakirov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The scarcity of natural resources arouse a necessity to find additional sources of protein, fat, carbohydrates, and their complexes with scarce mineral compounds. Therefore, a relevant issue is to enrich the diets deficient iodine compounds through research and development of new food products. Materials and methods. Investigation of iodine content in emulsion-type sauces at all stages was performed using Xray -fluorescence analyzer «Elvax». X-ray -fluorescence method consists of the appearance characteristic X-radiation of atoms of a chemical element at infringement they the primary X-ray irradiation. Results and discussion. Investigated for the determination of organic and inorganic forms of iodine in content of food items, and installed the total loss of iodine in sauces after cooking and storage at +5 ... +10 ° C for 30 days. Using iodine-proteinaceous additive from 0.5 ... 2.5% by mass of iodine 0.01% can be achieved from 15 to 50% of the human daily requirement by iodine. The resulting product does not lose its organoleptic, physico - chemical, consumer characteristics and meets the requirements of normative documents. As a result of our research, it was found that the addition of the supplements enriched protein-mineral (SEPM in composition sauces does not adversely affect the physical -chemical characteristics of sauces, but due to the stabilizing effect of additives iodine-proteinaceous increased emulsion stability up to 98 - 100% without additional foo d additives (emulsifiers. This additive has passed a series of tests that indicate on compliance with requirements normative and technical documentation. Conclusions. Used methodical approach allowed us to estimate the level of organic and inorganic iodine, as well as describe in more detail and correctly interpret the chemical composition of foods fortified with iodine and predict their health properties.

  10. Stabilization of Model Crude Oil Emulsion using Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2015-12-31

    Dec 31, 2015 ... interaction of asphaltene with the prepared model oils can be used as a ... techniques, microscopy, interfacial pressure, and ... conclusion that these compounds were asphaltene .... The emulsion may invert from oil in water.

  11. Emulsions, Foams, and Suspensions: The Microscience of the Beverage Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Vilela

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Emulsions and foams form the basis of an extensive variety of materials used in the beverage industry. One of the characteristics of beverage emulsions is that they are rather diluted, contain little amounts of a dispersed oil phase in the finished product, and must remain physically stable for long periods of time. Nowadays, the consumers ask for more than a drink. Thus, in the market, we can find a vast variety of beverages, where emulsion science seems to be the main factor for controlling flavor, color, the presence of constituents of technological or nutritional value, nutraceutical/bioactive components and, also, turbidity. This work intends to make an overview of the recent advances in beverage-emulsions technology. Some examples are given within the very large world of the beverage industry, from cream liqueurs, soft drinks, and functional beverages, to bottled water, fruit drinks, sparkling wine, and beer.

  12. Synthesis of polyanthranilic acid–Au nanocomposites by emulsion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    PANA–Au nanocomposites are characterized by SEM, equipped with EDS, TGA, FT–IR, XRD and electrochemical techniques. XRD of ... Polyanthranilic acid; nanocomposite; in situ polymerization; emulsion polymerization; nano- particles. 1.

  13. Encapsulation of emulsion droplets by organo–silica shells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoldesi, C.; Steegstra, Patrick; Imhof, Arnout

    2007-01-01

    Surfactant-stabilized emulsion droplets were used as templates for the synthesis of hollow colloidal particles. Monodisperse silicone oil droplets were prepared by hydrolysis and polymerization of dimethyldiethoxysiloxane monomer, in the presence of surfactant: sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, anionic)

  14. Reduced Fat Food Emulsions: Physicochemical, Sensory, and Biological Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Cheryl; Smith, Gordon; Degner, Brian; McClements, David Julian

    2016-01-01

    Fat plays multiple important roles in imparting desirable sensory attributes to emulsion-based food products, such as sauces, dressings, soups, beverages, and desserts. However, there is concern that over consumption of fats leads to increased incidences of chronic diseases, such as obesity, coronary heart disease, and diabetes. Consequently, there is a need to develop reduced fat products with desirable sensory profiles that match those of their full-fat counterparts. The successful design of high quality reduced-fat products requires an understanding of the many roles that fat plays in determining the sensory attributes of food emulsions, and of appropriate strategies to replace some or all of these attributes. This paper reviews our current understanding of the influence of fat on the physicochemical and physiological attributes of food emulsions, and highlights some of the main approaches that can be used to create high quality emulsion-based food products with reduced fat contents.

  15. Oxidative enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin for emulsion stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Pectin from sugar beet is derived from the sugar beet pulp residue which results when sugar beets are processed for sucrose extraction. The sugar beet pectin has poor gelationability by the classic divalentcation molecular mechanism because of a relatively high acetylation degree and short...... polygalacturonate backbone chain length. However, due to the feruloyl-substitutions on the side chains, the sugar beet pectic polysaccharides can be cross-linked via enzyme catalyzed oxidation. The enzyme kinetics and functionality of such oxidativelycross-linked sugar beet pectin, in relation to stabilizing...... emulsions has recently been investigated in model food emulsions. This paper reviews the pectin chemistry, enzymatic oxidative gelation mechanisms, interaction mechanisms of the sugar beet pectin with the emulsion droplets and explores how the gelation affects the rheology and stability of emulsion systems...

  16. Pickering emulsions stabilized by paraffin wax and Laponite clay particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Caifu; Liu, Qian; Mei, Zhen; Wang, Jun; Xu, Jian; Sun, Dejun

    2009-08-01

    Emulsions containing wax in dispersed droplets stabilized by disc-like Laponite clay particles are prepared. Properties of the emulsions prepared at different temperatures are examined using stability, microscopy and droplet-size analysis. At low temperature, the wax crystals in the oil droplets can protrude through the interface, leading to droplet coalescence. But at higher temperatures, the droplet size decreases with wax concentration. Considering the viscosity of the oil phase and the interfacial tension, we conclude that the wax is liquid-like during the high temperature emulsification process, but during cooling wax crystals appear around the oil/water interface and stabilize the droplets. The oil/water ratio has minimal effect on the emulsions between ratios of 3:7 and 7:3. The Laponite is believed to stabilize the emulsions by increasing the viscosity of the continuous phase and also by adsorbing at the oil/water interface, thus providing a physical barrier to coalescence.

  17. Binding of long-lasting local anesthetics to lipid emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazoit, Jean-Xavier; Le Guen, Régine; Beloeil, Hélène; Benhamou, Dan

    2009-02-01

    Rapid infusion of lipid emulsion has been proposed to treat local anesthetic toxicity. The authors wanted to test the buffering properties of two commercially available emulsions made of long- and of long- and medium-chain triglycerides. Using the shake-flask method, the authors measured the solubility and binding of racemic bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine to diluted Intralipid (Fresenius Kabi, Paris, France) and Medialipide (B-Braun, Boulogne, France). The apparent distribution coefficient expressed as the ratio of mole fraction was 823 +/- 198 and 320 +/- 65 for racemic bupivacaine and levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine, respectively, at 500 mg in the Medialipide/buffer emulsion; and 1,870 +/- 92 and 1,240 +/- 14 for racemic bupivacaine and levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine, respectively, in the Intralipid/buffer emulsion. Decreasing the pH from 7.40 to 7.00 of the Medialipide/buffer emulsion led to a decrease in ratio of molar concentration from 121 +/- 3.8 to 46 +/- 2.8 for bupivacaine, and to a lesser extent from 51 +/- 4.0 to 31 +/- 1.6 for ropivacaine. The capacity of the 1% emulsions was 871 and 2,200 microM for the 1% Medialipide and Intralipid emulsions, respectively. The dissociation constant was 818 and 2,120 microM for racemic bupivacaine and levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine, respectively. Increasing the temperature from 20 to 37 degrees C led to a greater increase in affinity for ropivacaine (55%) than for bupivacaine (27%). When the pH of the buffer was decreased from 7.40 to 7.00, the affinity was decreased by a factor of 1.68, similar for both anesthetics. The solubility of long-acting local anesthetics in lipid emulsions and the high capacity of binding of these emulsions most probably explain their clinical efficacy in case of toxicity. The long-chain triglyceride emulsion Intralipid appears to be about 2.5 times more efficacious than the 50/50 medium-chain/long-chain Medialipide emulsion. Also, because of their higher hydrophobicity

  18. Interactions between Parenteral Lipid Emulsions and Container Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonyon, Thomas; Tomaso, Anthony E; Kotha, Priyanka; Owen, Heather; Patel, Dipa; Carter, Phillip W; Cronin, Jim; Green, John-Bruce D

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between changes in emulsion globule size distributions and container uptake of lipid emulsions in total nutrient admixtures. A total nutrient admixture was prepared from a commercial lipid emulsion, 20% ClinOleic®, separated into glass (borosilicate) and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) plastic containers, and then stored at ambient conditions for approximately 24 h. The large globule size distribution was monitored continuously for both containers, and the quantity of triglycerides associated with both containers was measured by liquid chromatography. The changes in mass of the EVA containers were also measured gravimetrically. The volume percent of globules greater than 5 microns in diameter (PFAT5) levels for an emulsion admixture in EVA containers showed a 75% reduction compared to a marginal decrease of PFAT5 when in the glass container. Extraction of the containers showed that the quantity of triglycerides associated with the EVA surfaces steadily increased with emulsion exposure time, while the glass showed a significantly lower triglyceride content compared to the EVA. Gravimetric measurements confirmed that the EVA containers gained significant mass during exposure to the emulsion admixture. A time-dependent decrease in PFAT5 values for an emulsion admixture was associated with container triglyceride absorption where EVA containers had a greater uptake than glass containers. The larger globules appear to absorb preferentially, and the admixture globule size distribution fraction represented by PFAT5 accounts for 15-20% of the total triglyceride adsorption to the container. The goal of this work is to evaluate how emulsions in total nutrition admixtures are affected by the containers within which they are stored. Specifically, the study examines how the emulsion globule size distribution in different containers is related to adsorption or absorption of the lipids onto or into the container. The admixtures were prepared from a

  19. Generation of colloidal granules and capsules from double emulsion drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Kathryn S.

    Assemblies of colloidal particles are extensively used in ceramic processing, pharmaceuticals, inks and coatings. In this project, the aim was to develop a new technique to fabricate monodispersed colloidal assemblies. The use of microfluidic devices and emulsion processing allows for the fabrication of complex materials that can be used in a variety of applications. A microfluidic device is used to create monodispersed water/oil/water (w/o/w) double emulsions with interior droplets of colloidal silica suspension ranging in size from tens to hundreds of microns. By tailoring the osmotic pressure using glycerol as a solute in the continuous and inner phases of the emulsion, we can control the final volume size of the monodispersed silica colloidal crystals that form in the inner droplets of the double emulsion. Modifying the ionic strength in the colloidal dispersion can be used to affect the particle-particle interactions and crystal formation of the final colloidal particle. This w/o/w technique has been used with other systems of metal oxide colloids and cellulose nanocrystals. Encapsulation of the colloidal suspension in a polymer shell for the generation of ceramic-polymer core-shell particles has also been developed. These core-shell particles have spawned new research in the field of locally resonant acoustic metamaterials. Systems and chemistries for creating cellulose hydrogels within the double emulsions have also been researched. Water in oil single emulsions and double emulsions have been used to create cellulose hydrogel spheres in the sub-100 micron diameter range. Oil/water/oil double emulsions allow us to create stable cellulose capsules. The addition of a second hydrogel polymer, such as acrylate or alginate, further strengthens the cellulose gel network and can also be processed into capsules and particles using the microfluidic device. This work could have promising applications in acoustic metamaterials, personal care products, pharmaceuticals

  20. Instant polysaccharide-based emulsions: impact of microstructure on lipolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torcello-Gómez, Amelia; Foster, Timothy J

    2017-06-21

    The development of emulsion-based products through optimisation of ingredients, reduction in energy-input during manufacture, while fulfilling healthy attributes, are major objectives within the food industry. Instant emulsions can meet these features, but comprehensive studies are necessary to investigate the effect of the initial formulation on the final microstructure and, in turn, on the in vitro lipolysis, comprising the double aim of this work. The instant emulsion is formed within 1.5-3 min after pouring the aqueous phase into the oil phase which contains a mixture of emulsifier (Tween 20), swelling particles (Sephadex) and thickeners (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, HPMC, and guar gum, GG) under mild shearing (180 rpm). The creation of oil-in-water emulsions is monitored in situ by viscosity analysis, the final microstructure visualised by microscopy and the release of free fatty acids under simulated intestinal conditions quantified by titration. Increasing the concentration and molecular weight (M w ) of GG leads to smaller emulsion droplets due to increased bulk viscosity upon shearing. This droplet size reduction is magnified when increasing the M w of HPMC or swelling capacity of viscosifying particles. In addition, in the absence of the emulsifier Tween 20, the sole use of high-Mw HPMC is effective in emulsification due to combined increased bulk viscosity and interfacial activity. Hence, optimisation of the ingredient choice and usage level is possible when designing microstructures. Finally, emulsions with larger droplet size (>20 μm) display a slower rate and lower extent of lipolysis, while finer emulsions (droplet size ≤20 μm) exhibit maximum rate and extent profiles. This correlates with the extent of emulsion destabilisation observed under intestinal conditions.

  1. Fragrance encapsulation in polymeric matrices by emulsion electrospinning

    OpenAIRE

    Camerlo Agathe; Vebert-Nardin Corinne; Rossi René Michel; Popa Ana Maria

    2013-01-01

    We present the successful application of emulsion electrospinning for the encapsulation of a model for highly volatile fragrances namely (R) (+) limonene in a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) fibrous matrix. The influence of the emulsion formulation and of its colloidal properties on the fiber morphology as well as on the limonene encapsulation efficiency is described. The release profile of the fragrance from the electrospun nanofibers over a fifteen days range shows that this type of nanofibrous m...

  2. Properties of emulsions stabilised by sodium caseinate–chitosan complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zinoviadou, K.; Scholten, E.; Moschakis, T.; Biliaderis, C.G.

    2012-01-01

    Oil-in-water emulsions (10%, w/w, oil) were prepared at pH 5.7 by using electrostatically formed complexes of 0.5% (w/w) sodium caseinate (Na-CAS) and 0–0.6% (w/w) chitosan. Emulsions stabilized by complexes with increased levels of chitosan (>0.2% w/w) had a smaller average droplet size and

  3. Emulsion detectors for the antihydrogen detection in AEgIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pistillo, C., E-mail: ciro.pistillo@cern.ch [University of Bern, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Laboratory for High Energy Physics (Switzerland); Aghion, S. [Politecnico of Milano (Italy); Amsler, C.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T. [University of Bern, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Laboratory for High Energy Physics (Switzerland); Belov, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Science (Russian Federation); Bonomi, G. [University of Brescia, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering (Italy); Bräunig, P. [Heidelberg University, Kirchhoff-Institute for Physics (Germany); Bremer, J. [CERN, Physics Department (Switzerland); Brusa, R. S. [University of Trento, Department of Physics (Italy); Cabaret, L. [University of Paris-Sud, Laboratory Aim Cotton, CNRS (France); Caccia, M. [INFN Milano (Italy); Caravita, R. [University of Genova, Department of Physics (Italy); Castelli, F. [INFN Milano (Italy); Cerchiari, G. [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics (Germany); Chlouba, K. [Czech Technical University (Czech Republic); Cialdi, S. [INFN Milano (Italy); Comparat, D. [University of Paris-Sud, Laboratory Aim Cotton, CNRS (France); Consolati, G. [Politecnico of Milano (Italy); Demetrio, A. [Heidelberg University, Kirchhoff-Institute for Physics (Germany); and others

    2015-08-15

    The AEgIS experiment at CERN aims to perform the first direct measurement of gravitational interaction between matter and antimatter by measuring the deviation of a cold antihydrogen beam in the Earth gravitational field. The design of the experiment has been recently updated to include emulsion films as position sensitive detector. The submicrometric position accuracy of emulsions leads indeed to a significant improvement of the experimental sensitivity. We present results of preliminary tests and discuss perspectives for the final measurement.

  4. Preparation of Lipid Nano emulsions Incorporating Curcumin for Cancer Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anuchapreeda, S.; Anuchapreeda, S.; Fukumori, Y.; Ichikawa, H.; Okonogi, S.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new formulation of a curcumin lipid nano emulsion having the smallest particle size, the highest loading, and a good physical stability for cancer chemotherapy. Curcumin lipid nano emulsions were prepared by a modified thin-film hydration method followed by sonication. Soybean oil, hydrogenated L-α-phosphatidylcholine from egg yolk, and co surfactants were used to formulate the emulsions. The resultant nano emulsions showed mean particle diameter of 47-55 nm, could incorporate 23-28 mg curcumin per 30 mL, and were stable in particle size for 60 days at 4 degree C. The cytotoxicity studies of curucumin solution and curcumin-loaded nano emulsion using B16F10 and leukemic cell lines showed IC 50 values ranging from 3.5 to 30.1 and 22.2 to 53.7μM, respectively. These results demonstrated the successful incorporation of curcumin into lipid nano emulsion particles with small particle size, high loading capacity, good physical stability, and preserved cytotoxicity

  5. Submicron Emulsions and Their Applications in Oral Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundada, Veenu; Patel, Mitali; Sawant, Krutika

    2016-01-01

    A "submicron emulsion" is an isotropic mixture of drug, lipids, and surfactants, usually with hydrophilic cosolvents and with droplet diameters ranging from 10 to 500 nm. Submicron emulsions are of increasing interest in medicine due to their kinetic stability, high solubilizing capacity, and tiny globule size. Because of these properties, they have been applied in various fields, such as personal care, cosmetics, health care, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. Submicron emulsions are by far the most advanced nanoparticulate systems for the systemic delivery of biologically active agents for controlled drug delivery and targeting. They are designed mainly for pharmaceutical formulations suitable for various routes of administration like parenteral, ocular, transdermal, and oral. This review article describes the marked potential of submicron emulsions for oral drug delivery owing to their numerous advantages like reduced first pass metabolism, inhibition of P-glycoprotein efflux system, and enhanced absorption via intestinal lymphatic pathway. To overcome the limitations of liquid dosage forms, submicron emulsions can be formulated into solid dosage forms such as solid self-emulsifying systems. This article covers various types of submicron emulsions like microemulsion, nanoemulsion, and self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS), and their potential pharmaceutical applications in oral delivery with emphasis on their advantages, limitations, and advancements.

  6. Oxygen carrying perfluorochemical emulsion as an adjuvant to radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teicher, B.A.; Rose, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The potential of a perfluorochemical emulsion which as an excellent carrying capacity for oxygen to enhance the ability of radiation therapy to delay the growth of Lewis lung tumor was examined. There was a highly significant effect produced by the addition of perfluorochemical emulsion and carbogen breathing in combination with irradiation. With single dose x-ray treatment the dose of perfluorochemical emulsion was varied from 0.05-0.6 ml addition to the blood volume of the animals. The dose response effect was very broad peaking at 0.3-0.4 ml which gave a dose modifying effect of 2.8 +- 0.6 with 1000 rad of x-rays. The addition of 0.3 ml of perfluorochemical free annex solution with carbogen breathing produced a small enhancement in tumor growth delay addition of the same volume of the complete emulsion increased the tumor growth delay time about 3-fold compared to the annex solution. When the perfluorochemical emulsion was added to a fractionated course of radiation therapy a dose modifying effect of 1.8 +- 0.3 was obtained. Oxygen carrying perfluorochemical emulsions may provide a nontoxic clinically useful means of increasing the effectiveness of radiation therapy and of certain chemotherapeutic agents

  7. Sardine Fish Oil By Sentrifugation and Adsorbent for Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Haryati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sardine fish meal by-product contain eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic (DHA and it can be made as emulsion. The purpose of this study were to determine the best fish oil emulsion by mixingthe oil phase (lecithin 3% and oil and water phase (carboxymethyl cellulose/CMC 2% and fruit juice and then stored until creaming, and the emulsion is analyzed their viscosity, pH, percent of stability and longseparation. Sardine oil is separated from the emulsion and tested oxidation parameters. The best emulsion was fish oil emulsion after refined without citric acid (RTS with viscosity (2470.31 cP, pH (5.64, percent of stability (56.14% and long separation (14 days. Primary and secondary oxidation parameters of RTS  were FFA (14.87%, PV (14.43 meq/kg, AV (32.57 meq KOH/g, AnV (17.3 meq/kg, and Totox (46.16 meq/kg.

  8. Emulsifier development for high-concentrated reverse emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.L. Kovalenko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The reverse emulsions have found broad application in ore mining industry as matrixes of emulsion explosive substances and boring washing waters. The defining characteristic of reverse emulsions of industrial explosive substances is the high stability and immunity to crystallization. Aim: The aim of this work is to assess the mechanism of emulsifiers effect like SMO and some PIBSA-derivatives, that are most abundantly used in world practice, and also to develop an effective domestic emulsifier of reverse emulsions. Materials and methods: Using the semi-dynamic method with use of the reverse stalagmometer it was determined the decreasing in interfacial tension on “water / diesel fuel” border in the presence of 0.5 wt % sorbitan monooleate of various producers. Emulsions with use of the chosen emulsifiers using the dynamic mixer on the basis of monosolution of ammonium nitrate and diesel fuel have been produced. The emulsions have the following composition, wt %: ammonium nitrate – 76.8; water – 15.6; diesel fuel – 6.0; emulsifier – 1.6. Results: By the researches results of the interfacial tension “surfactant water / solution in diesel fuel”, the stability of emulsions using monosolution of ammonium nitrate and the IR spectrums of SMO of various producers it is established that presence in product of impurity of oleic acid, di- and trioleates leads to decreasing in interphase activity, increasing of emulsifier oil solubility and decreasing the resistance of emulsions to crystallization. On the basis of the spectral data analysis it is suggested about possibility of specific interaction on the mechanism of “spectral resonance” between emulsifiers of the PIBSA-MEA, LZX type and crystals nucleus of NH4NO3 ammonium nitrate in dispersed phase of emulsion. Amidation of vegetable oils by monoethanol amine is implemented at the reduced temperatures (90…100 °C. It was proved the availability mainly of fatty acids amides in product

  9. Development of novel zein-sodium caseinate nanoparticle (ZP)-stabilized emulsion films for improved water barrier properties via emulsion/solvent evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Juan; Yin, Ye-Chong; Yin, Shou-Wei; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Shi, Wei-Jian; Tang, Chuan-He; Wang, Jin-Mei

    2013-11-20

    This work attempted to develop novel high barrier zein/SC nanoparticle (ZP)-stabilized emulsion films through microfluidic emulsification (ZPE films) or in combination with solvent (ethyl acetate) evaporation techniques (ZPE-EA films). Some physical properties, including tensile and optical properties, water vapor permeability (WVP), and surface hydrophobicity, as well as the microstructure of ZP-stabilized emulsion films were evaluated and compared with SC emulsion (SCE) films. The emulsion/solvent evaporation approach reduced lipid droplets of ZP-stabilized emulsions, and lipid droplets of ZP-stabilized emulsions were similar to or slightly lower than that of SC emulsions. However, ZP- and SC-stabilized emulsion films exhibited a completely different microstructure, nanoscalar lipid droplets were homogeneously distributed in the ZPE film matrix and interpenetrating protein-oil complex networks occurred within ZPE-EA films, whereas SCE films presented a heterogeneous microstructure. The different stabilization mechanisms against creaming or coalescence during film formation accounted for the preceding discrepancy of the microstructures between ZP-and SC-stabilized emulsion films. Interestingly, ZP-stabilized emulsion films exhibited a better water barrier efficiency, and the WVP values were only 40-50% of SCE films. A schematic representation for the formation of ZP-stabilized emulsion films was proposed to relate the physical performance of the films with their microstructure and to elucidate the possible forming mechanism of the films.

  10. To Model Chemical Reactivity in Heterogeneous Emulsions, Think Homogeneous Microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Díaz, Carlos; Romsted, Laurence Stuart; Liu, Changyao; Losada-Barreiro, Sonia; Pastoriza-Gallego, Maria José; Gao, Xiang; Gu, Qing; Krishnan, Gunaseelan; Sánchez-Paz, Verónica; Zhang, Yongliang; Dar, Aijaz Ahmad

    2015-08-25

    Two important and unsolved problems in the food industry and also fundamental questions in colloid chemistry are how to measure molecular distributions, especially antioxidants (AOs), and how to model chemical reactivity, including AO efficiency in opaque emulsions. The key to understanding reactivity in organized surfactant media is that reaction mechanisms are consistent with a discrete structures-separate continuous regions duality. Aggregate structures in emulsions are determined by highly cooperative but weak organizing forces that allow reactants to diffuse at rates approaching their diffusion-controlled limit. Reactant distributions for slow thermal bimolecular reactions are in dynamic equilibrium, and their distributions are proportional to their relative solubilities in the oil, interfacial, and aqueous regions. Our chemical kinetic method is grounded in thermodynamics and combines a pseudophase model with methods for monitoring the reactions of AOs with a hydrophobic arenediazonium ion probe in opaque emulsions. We introduce (a) the logic and basic assumptions of the pseudophase model used to define the distributions of AOs among the oil, interfacial, and aqueous regions in microemulsions and emulsions and (b) the dye derivatization and linear sweep voltammetry methods for monitoring the rates of reaction in opaque emulsions. Our results show that this approach provides a unique, versatile, and robust method for obtaining quantitative estimates of AO partition coefficients or partition constants and distributions and interfacial rate constants in emulsions. The examples provided illustrate the effects of various emulsion properties on AO distributions such as oil hydrophobicity, emulsifier structure and HLB, temperature, droplet size, surfactant charge, and acidity on reactant distributions. Finally, we show that the chemical kinetic method provides a natural explanation for the cut-off effect, a maximum followed by a sharp reduction in AO efficiency with

  11. STUDY REGARDING THE DESTABILIZATION OF STABLE EMULSIONS FROM SUPLAC AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IULIANA VERONICA GHEŢIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Emulsions from the wells in the Suplac area create great difficulties in removing water due to their specifications. A complex study was conducted in order to eliminate water from emulsions using alkaline-surfactants. The choice of surfactant was made after the chromatographic SARA analysis of emulsions and the determination of their physical properties: density, viscosity, organic acidity. The samples were taken from two wells in the Suplac area. In the case of samples from A well the variation of density is 907 - 955 kg·m-3 for crude oil and 928 - 970 kg·m-3 for emulsion, while the rheological behavior of the emulsion varies between 0.680 to 0.995 Pa·s at a temperature of 25 °C and between 0.049 to 0.328 Pa·s at a temperature of 80 °C. For samples from B well the variation of density is 855 - 905 kg·m-3 for crude oil and 939 - 970 kg·m-3 for emulsion, while the rheological behavior of the emulsion varies between 0.149 to 0.797 Pa·s at a temperature of 25 °C and between 0.014 to 0.397 Pa·s at a temperature of 80 °C. The justification for choosing R - DP surfactant like reagent was based on laboratory tests which showed a maximum efficiency at 80 °C (95.69 for B and 98.75 % for A.

  12. The Morphology of Emulsion Polymerized Latex Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wignall, G. D.; Ramakrishnan, V. R.; Linne, M. A.; Klein, A.; Sperling, L. H.; Wai, M. P.; Gelman, R. A.; Fatica, M. G.; Hoerl, R. H.; Fisher, L. W.

    1987-11-01

    Under monomer starved feed conditions, emulsion polymerization of perdeuterated methyl methacrylate and styrene in the presence of preformed polymethylmethacrylate latexes resulted in particles with a core-shell morphology, as determined by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) analysis for a hollow sphere. The locus of polymerization of the added deuterated monomer is therefore at the particle surface. In similar measurements a statistical copolymer of styrene and methyl methacrylate was used as seed particles for further polymerization of trideuteromethyl methacrylate. The resulting polymer latex was again shown to have a core-shell morphological structure as determined by SANS. SANS experiments were also undertaken on polystyrene latexes polymerized by equilibrium swelling methods, with deuterated polymer forming the first or second step. The experiments covered a molecular weight range of 6 x 10{sup 4} 10{sup 6} the molecular weights are consistent with the experimental errors, indicating that the deuterium labeled molecules are randomly distributed in the latex. These results led to the finding that the polymer chains were constrained in the latex particles by factors of 2 to 4 from the relaxed coil dimensions. For M molecules. Several models were examined, including the possible development of core-shell structures at lower molecular weights.

  13. Emulsion Inks for 3D Printing of High Porosity Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Nicholas A; Dhavalikar, Prachi S; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth M

    2016-08-01

    Photocurable emulsion inks for use with solid freeform fabrication (SFF) to generate constructs with hierarchical porosity are presented. A high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) templating technique was utilized to prepare water-in-oil emulsions from a hydrophobic photopolymer, surfactant, and water. These HIPEs displayed strong shear thinning behavior that permitted layer-by-layer deposition into complex shapes and adequately high viscosity at low shear for shape retention after extrusion. Each layer was actively polymerized with an ultraviolet cure-on-dispense (CoD) technique and compositions with sufficient viscosity were able to produce tall, complex scaffolds with an internal lattice structure and microscale porosity. Evaluation of the rheological and cure properties indicated that the viscosity and cure rate both played an important role in print fidelity. These 3D printed polyHIPE constructs benefit from the tunable pore structure of emulsion templated material and the designed architecture of 3D printing. As such, these emulsion inks can be used to create ultra high porosity constructs with complex geometries and internal lattice structures not possible with traditional manufacturing techniques. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Influence of processing parameters on morphology of polymethoxyflavone in emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Yuwen; Li, Colin C; Wang, Yin; Ho, Chi-Tang; Huang, Qingrong

    2015-01-21

    Polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) are groups of compounds isolated from citrus peels that have been documented with wide arrays of health-promoting bioactivities. Because of their hydrophobic structure and high melting point, crystallized PMFs usually have poor systemic bioavailability when consumed orally. To improve the oral efficiency of PMFs, a viscoelastic emulsion system was formulated. Because of the crystalline nature, the inclusion of PMFs into the emulsion system faces great challenges in having sufficient loading capacity and stabilities. In this study, the process of optimizing the quality of emulsion-based formulation intended for PMF oral delivery was systematically studied. With alteration of the PMF loading concentration, processing temperature, and pressure, the emulsion with the desired droplet and crystal size can be effectively fabricated. Moreover, storage temperatures significantly influenced the stability of the crystal-containing emulsion system. The results from this study are a good illustration of system optimization and serve as a great reference for future formulation design of other hydrophobic crystalline compounds.

  15. KINETICS OF SUSPENDED EMULSION POLYMERIZATION OF METHYL METHACRYLATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-zhong Bao; Cheng-xi Wang; Zhi-ming Huang; Zhi-xue Weng

    2004-01-01

    The kinetics of suspended emulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA), in which water acted as the dispersed phase and the mixture of MMA and cyclohexane as the continuous phase, was investigated. It showed that the initial polymerization rate (Rp0) and steady-state polymerization rate (Rp) were proportional to the mass ratio between water and oil phase, and increased as the polymerization temperature, the potassium persulphate concentration ([I]) and the Tween20 emulsifier concentration ([S]) increased. The relationships between the polymerization rate and [I] and [S] were obtained as follows: Rp0 ∝ [I]0.73[S]0.32 and Rp ∝ [I]0.71[S]0.23. The above exponents were close to those obtained from normal MMA emulsion polymerization. It also showed that the average molecular weight of the resulting poly(methyl methacrylate) decreased as the polymerization temperature, [I] and [S] increased. Thus, MMA suspended emulsion polymerization could be considered as a combination of many miniature emulsion polymerizations proceeding in water drops and obeyed the classical kinetics of MMA emulsion polymerization.

  16. Quantifying Asphalt Emulsion-Based Chip Seal Curing Times Using Electrical Resistance Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Chip sealing typically consists of covering a pavement surface with asphalt emulsion into which aggregate chips are embedded. The asphalt emulsion cures through the evaporation of water, thus providing mechanical strength to adhere to the pavement wh...

  17. An update on safety and immunogenicity of vaccines containing emulsion-based adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Christopher B; Haensler, Jean

    2013-07-01

    With the exception of alum, emulsion-based vaccine adjuvants have been administered to far more people than any other adjuvant, especially since the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. The number of clinical safety and immunogenicity evaluations of vaccines containing emulsion adjuvants has correspondingly mushroomed. In this review, the authors introduce emulsion adjuvant composition and history before detailing the most recent findings from clinical and postmarketing data regarding the effects of emulsion adjuvants on vaccine immunogenicity and safety, with emphasis on the most widely distributed emulsion adjuvants, MF59® and AS03. The authors also present a summary of other emulsion adjuvants in clinical development and indicate promising avenues for future emulsion-based adjuvant development. Overall, emulsion adjuvants have demonstrated potent adjuvant activity across a number of disease indications along with acceptable safety profiles.

  18. Intermittency in nuclear multifragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploszajczak, M.; Tucholski, A.

    1990-07-01

    Fluctuations of the fragment size distribution in a percolation model and in nuclear multifragmentation following the breakup of high energy nuclei in the nuclear emulsion are studied using the method of scaled factorial moments. An intermittent patern of fluctuations is found in the data as well as in the percolation lattice calculation. This is a consequence of both a self-similarity in the fragment size distribution and a random character for the scaling law. These fluctuations are in general well-described by percolation model. The multifractal dimensions are calculated and their relevance to the study of possible critical behaviour is pointed out. (orig.)

  19. Application of pork fat diacylglycerols in meat emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miklos, Rikke; Xu, Xuebing; Lametsch, Rene

    2011-01-01

    The properties of fat are of major importance when meat products are produced. By enzymatic modification triacylglycerols (TAGs) can be converted to diacylglycerols (DAGs) resulting in changes of the physical and chemical properties of the fat. In this study the texture as well as the hydration...... and binding properties were investigated in meat emulsions prepared with lard substituted with different amounts of DAGs derived from the lard. In emulsions prepared with DAGs the percentage of total expressible fluid decreased from 28.2% in products prepared with lard to 11.8% in emulsions prepared with 100....... The results suggest future opportunities for the application of DAGs to improve the quality of meat products....

  20. Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease and lipid emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugasti Murillo, Ana; Petrina Jáuregui, Estrella; Elizondo Armendáriz, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) is a particularly important problem in patients who need this type of nutritional support for a long time. Prevalence of the condition is highly variable depending on the series, and its clinical presentation is different in adults and children. The etiology of PNALD is not well defined, and participation of several factors at the same time has been suggested. When a bilirubin level >2 mg/dl is detected for a long time, other causes of liver disease should be ruled out and risk factors should be minimized. The composition of lipid emulsions used in parenteral nutrition is one of the factors related to PNALD. This article reviews the different types of lipid emulsions and the potential benefits of emulsions enriched with omega-3 fatty acids. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Arrested of coalescence of emulsion droplets of arbitrary size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbanga, Badel L.; Burke, Christopher; Blair, Donald W.; Atherton, Timothy J.

    2013-03-01

    With applications ranging from food products to cosmetics via targeted drug delivery systems, structured anisotropic colloids provide an efficient way to control the structure, properties and functions of emulsions. When two fluid emulsion droplets are brought in contact, a reduction of the interfacial tension drives their coalescence into a larger droplet of the same total volume and reduced exposed area. This coalescence can be partially or totally hindered by the presence of nano or micron-size particles that coat the interface as in Pickering emulsions. We investigate numerically the dependance of the mechanical stability of these arrested shapes on the particles size, their shape anisotropy, their polydispersity, their interaction with the solvent, and the particle-particle interactions. We discuss structural shape changes that can be induced by tuning the particles interactions after arrest occurs, and provide design parameters for the relevant experiments.

  2. Analysis of Multiallelic CNVs by Emulsion Haplotype Fusion PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Jess; Armour, John A L

    2017-01-01

    Emulsion-fusion PCR recovers long-range sequence information by combining products in cis from individual genomic DNA molecules. Emulsion droplets act as very numerous small reaction chambers in which different PCR products from a single genomic DNA molecule are condensed into short joint products, to unite sequences in cis from widely separated genomic sites. These products can therefore provide information about the arrangement of sequences and variants at a larger scale than established long-read sequencing methods. The method has been useful in defining the phase of variants in haplotypes, the typing of inversions, and determining the configuration of sequence variants in multiallelic CNVs. In this description we outline the rationale for the application of emulsion-fusion PCR methods to the analysis of multiallelic CNVs, and give practical details for our own implementation of the method in that context.

  3. Spreading of oil from protein stabilised emulsions at air/water interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schokker, E.P.; Bos, M.A.; Kuijpers, A.J.; Wijnen, M.E.; Walstra, P.

    2002-01-01

    Spreading of a drop of an emulsion made with milk proteins on air/water interfaces was studied. From an unheated emulsion, all oil molecules could spread onto the air/water interface, indicating that the protein layers around the oil globules in the emulsion droplet were not coherent enough to

  4. 40 CFR 467.60 - Applicability; description of the drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory. 467.60 Section 467.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Drawing With Emulsions or Soaps Subcategory § 467.60 Applicability; description of the drawing with... operations of the drawing with emulsions or soaps subcategory. ...

  5. Pickering emulsions stabilized by whey protein nanoparticles prepared by thermal cross-linking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Jiande; Shi, Mengxuan; Li, Wei; Zhao, Luhai; Wang, Ze; Yan, Xinzhong; Norde, Willem; Li, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    A Pickering (o/w) emulsion was formed and stabilized by whey protein isolate nanoparticles (WPI NPs). Those WPI NPs were prepared by thermal cross-linking of denatured WPI proteins within w/o emulsion droplets at 80. °C for 15. min. During heating of w/o emulsions containing 10% (w/v) WPI

  6. Effects of Adopol EVS-9279X on the emulsion and film properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of Adopol EVS-9279X on the emulsion and film properties of emulsion paint were investigated using 5% - 10% w/w sample formulations. Results indicate that Adopol EVS-9279X did not alter the apparent viscosities of the emulsion paint samples. It was found to have lowered the specific gravity from 1.53 to 1.47 ...

  7. Variation Of The Effects Of Adopol EVS-9279X On The Emulsion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of Adopol EVS-9279X on the emulsion and film properties of emulsion paint using 5%-10% w/w sample formulations have been examined. Variation of these effects with time was investigated in this study using the same 5%-10% w/w sample formulations. The emulsion and film properties were measured at four ...

  8. Separation kinetics of an oil-in-water emulsion under enhanced gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krebs, T.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Boom, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    The breakup of crude oil emulsions to produce clean oil and water phases is an important task in crude oil processing. We have investigated the demulsification kinetics of a model oil-in-water emulsion in a centrifugal field to mimic the forces acting on emulsion droplets in oil/water separators

  9. Evaporation of Particle-Stabilized Emulsion Sunscreen Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Bernard P; Fletcher, Paul D I; Johnson, Andrew J; Marinopoulos, Ioannis; Crowther, Jonathan M; Thompson, Michael A

    2016-08-24

    We recently showed (Binks et al., ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2016, DOI: 10.1021/acsami.6b02696) how evaporation of sunscreen films consisting of solutions of molecular UV filters leads to loss of UV light absorption and derived sun protection factor (SPF). In the present work, we investigate evaporation-induced effects for sunscreen films consisting of particle-stabilized emulsions containing a dissolved UV filter. The emulsions contained either droplets of propylene glycol (PG) in squalane (SQ), droplets of SQ in PG or droplets of decane in PG. In these different emulsion types, the SQ is involatile and shows no evaporation, the PG is volatile and evaporates relatively slowly, whereas the decane is relatively very volatile and evaporates quickly. We have measured the film mass and area, optical micrographs of the film structure, and the UV absorbance spectra during evaporation. For emulsion films containing the involatile SQ, evaporation of the PG causes collapse of the emulsion structure with some loss of specular UV absorbance due to light scattering. However, for these emulsions with droplets much larger than the wavelength of light, the light is scattered only at small forward angles so does not contribute to the diffuse absorbance and the film SPF. The UV filter remains soluble throughout the evaporation and thus the UV absorption by the filter and the SPF remain approximately constant. Both PG-in-SQ and SQ-in-PG films behave similarly and do not show area shrinkage by dewetting. In contrast, the decane-in-PG film shows rapid evaporative loss of the decane, followed by slower loss of the PG resulting in precipitation of the UV filter and film area shrinkage by dewetting which cause the UV absorbance and derived SPF to decrease. Measured UV spectra during evaporation are in reasonable agreement with spectra calculated using models discussed here.

  10. Fast helium production in interactions of 3.7 A GeV 24Mg with emulsion nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jilany, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    We have studied the properties of the relativistic helium fragments emitted from the projectile in the interactions of 24 Mg ions accelerated at an energy of 3.7 A GeV with emulsion nuclei. The total, partial nuclear cross-sections and production rates of helium fragmentation channels in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions and their dependence on the mass and energy of the incident projectile nucleus are investigated. The yields of multiple helium projectile fragments disrupted from the interactions of 24 Mg projectile nuclei with hydrogen H, light CNO and heavy AgBr groups of target emulsion nuclei are discussed and they indicate that the breakup mechanism of the projectile seems to be independent of the target mass. Limiting fragmentation behavior of fast-moving helium fragments is observed in both the projectile and target nuclei. The multiplicity distributions of helium projectile fragments emitted in the interactions of 24 Mg projectile nuclei with the different target nuclei of the emulsion are well described by the KNO scaling presentation. The mean multiplicities of the different charged secondary particles, normally defined shower, grey and black (left angle n s right angle, left angle n g right angle and left angle n b right angle) emitted in the interactions of 3.7 A GeV 24 Mg with the different groups of emulsion nuclei at different ranges of projectile fragments are decreasing when the number of He fragments stripped from projectile increases. These values of left angle n i right angle (i=s, g, band h particles) in the events where the emission of fast helium fragments were accompanied by heavy fragments having Z≥3 seem to be constant as the He multiplicity increases, and exhibit a behavior independent of the He multiplicity. (orig.)

  11. Physical Stability of Whippable Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Merete Bøgelund

    Whippable emulsions based on vegetable fat are increasingly used as replacement for dairy whipping creams. One of the quality criteria of whippable emulsions is that it should be low-viscous prior to whipping, but sudden viscosity increase or even solidification during storage and transport...... the impact of ingredient composition, with focus on low-molecular-weight (LMW) emulsifiers. Three monoglyceride-based LMW-emulsifiers were selected: Lactic acid ester of saturated monoglyceride (LACTEM), unsaturated monoglyceride (GMU), and saturated monoglyceride (GMS). LMW-emulsifiers had major impact...

  12. Conditioning in laser skin resurfacing - betulin emulsion and skin recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metelmann, Hans-Robert; Podmelle, Fred; Waite, Peter D; Müller-Debus, Charlotte Friederieke; Hammes, Stefan; Funk, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    Laser skin resurfacing of the face by CO₂-laser ablation is causing superficial wounds that need rapid recovery to reduce the risk of infection, the risk of chronification and as a result the risk of unaesthetic scars. The question being addressed by this study is to demonstrate benefit of betulin emulsion skin care after CO₂-laser wounds. The outcome of this aesthetic comparison between betulin emulsion, moist wound dressing and gauze covering in promoting the recovery process in laser skin ablation is to demonstrate improved aesthetic benefit for the patient. Copyright © 2012 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Application of mathematical planning in production of filled emulsion rubbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugacheva, I. N.; Molokanova, L. V.; Popova, L. V.; Repin, P. S.

    2018-05-01

    The applicability of mathematical planning of experiment in the field of chemistry and chemical engineering, in particular in the industrial production of synthetic rubbers, is considered in the article. Possibility of using secondary material resources, which are waste products of light industry, in the production of elastomeric compositions is studied. The method of obtaining a powdered cellulose additive from wastes containing cellulose fiber is described. The best way of introducing the obtained additive into elastomeric compositions based on the emulsion rubber is established. Optimal conditions for obtaining filled emulsion rubber with the help of a powdered cellulose additive were established basing on the mathematical planning of experiment.

  14. A Kinetic Study of the Emulsion Polymerization of Vinyl Acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, N.; Nyhagen, L.

    1973-01-01

    The emulsion polymerization of vinyl acetate was studied at 50°C. It was found that the rate of polymerization was proportional to the 0.5 power of the initiator concentration and the 0.25 power of the number of particles. The number of particles was proportional to the power 0.5 ± 0.......05 of the emulsifier concentration, but independent of the initiator concentration. The limiting viscosity number of the polymers produced was independent of the initiator concentration and number of polymer particles. It is suggested that the mechanism of vinyl acetate emulsion polymerization is similar...

  15. A study of the angular distribution of the secondary particles of anti pAg/Br reactions at 1.4 GeV/c incident momentum observed in photographic emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breivik, F.O.; Jacobsen, T.; Soerensen, S.O.

    1983-04-01

    Some features of anti pAg/Br reactions at 1.4 GeV/c incident momentum are studied by means of the emulsion technique. The distributions of the number of charged particles/event are presented. The angular distributions indicate som anisotropic process in the nuclear matter, possibly shock waves, and some back-to-back emission

  16. Study of the angular distribution of the secondary particles of anti pAg/Br reactions at 1. 4 GeV/c incident momentum observed in photographic emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breivik, F.O.; Jacobsen, T.; Soerensen, S.O. (Oslo Univ. (Norway). Fysisk Inst.)

    1983-09-01

    Some features of anti pAg/Br reactions at 1.4 GeV/c incident momentum are studied by means of the emulsion technique. The distribution of the number of charged particles/event are presented. The angular distributions indicate some anisotropic process in the nuclear matter, possibly shock-waves, and some back-to-back emission.

  17. A study of the angular distribution of the secondary particles of anti pAg/Br reactions at 1.4 GeV/c incident momentum observed in photographic emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breivik, F.O.; Jacobsen, T.; Soerensen, S.O.

    1983-01-01

    Some features of anti pAg/Br reactions at 1.4 GeV/c incident momentum are studied by means of the emulsion technique. The distribution of the number of charged particles/event are present. The angular distributions indicate some anisotropic process in the nuclear matter, possibly shock-waves, and some back-to-back emission. (Auth.)

  18. Study of the multiparticle production in the coherent production for π- 340 GeV/c and K±70 GeV/c interaction with emulsion nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nadi, M.; Yasin El-Bakry, M.N.; Abd El-Halim, S.

    1992-10-01

    The coherent multiparticle production in π - (340 GeV/c) and in K ± (70 GeV/c) interactions with nuclei is studied using the nuclear emulsion technique. The mean free path and cross-sections of the three prong events are estimated and compared with other data. A Σ sin θ i analysis, pseudorapidity and azimuthal angular distributions are discussed. (author). 42 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs

  19. The double associated production of charmed particles by the interaction of 350 GeV/cπ- mesons with emulsion nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, S.; Chiba, K.; Hoshino, K.; Kobayashi, M.; Kodama, K.; Miyanishi, M.; Nakamura, M.; Nakazawa, K.; Niu, K.; Niwa, K.; Ohashi, M.; Sasaki, H.; Tajima, H.; Tomita, Y.; Yanagisawa, Y.; Baroni, G.; Dell'Uomo, S.; Di Liberto, S.; Manfredini, A.; Mazzoni, M.A.; Meddi, F.; Romano, G.; Rosa, G.; Scarbi, C.; Barth, M.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Roosen, R.; Bartley, J.H.; Davis, D.H.; Heymann, F.F.; Imrie, D.C.; Lush, G.J.; Tovee, D.N.; Bisi, V.; Gamba, D.; Giubellino, P.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Ramello, L.; Riccati, L.; Breslin, A.C.; Donnelly, W.; Montwill, A.; Coupland, M.; Trent, P.; Hazama, M.; Isokane, Y.; Tsuneoka, Y.; Kazuno, M.; Minakawa, F.; Shibuya, H.; Yamakawa, O.; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bari; Bari Univ.

    1987-01-01

    Evidence is reported for the simultaneous production of four charmed particles in interactions induced by 350 GeV/c π - mesons in stacks of nuclear emulsions. The events were found during a search for beauty particles among a sample of about 200 interactions with candidates for charmed particles. The events selected required the presence of at least one muon with a high component of momentum transverse to the beam direction. (orig.)

  20. Investigation of inelastic interactions of 400 GeV protons with emulsion nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boos, E.G.

    1978-01-01

    Proton-nucleus (pA) interactions registered in nuclear emulsion irradiated at the Batavian accelerator at 400 GeV/c are analyzed. Presented are energy dependences of some main parameters of hadron-nucleus (hA) interactions using experimental data on pA interactions for lesser energies. Quantitative and qualitative data comparison with predictions of a series of popular models of multiple particle production resulted from collisions with nuclei has been carried out. It is shown that most models can not explain all the experimental results. An analysis of the experimental data obtained permits to suggest that the production mechanism in hA interactions has two- or multi-component character

  1. Flow effects in high-energy nucleus collisions with Ag(Br) in emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamovich, M I; Chernyavsky, M M; Kharlamov, S P; Larionova, V G; Orlova, G I; Peresadko, N G; Salmanova, N A; Tretyakova, M I [Lebedev Institute of Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii pr. 53, Moscow, 117924 (Russian Federation); Andreeva, N P; Bubnov, V I; Gaitinov, A S; Kanygina, E K; Lebedev, I A; Musaeva, A K; Philippova, L N; Seitimbetov, A M [Energy Physics Institute, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Basova, E S; Nasyrov, S Z; Trofimova, T P [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Bradnova, V [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow oblast, 141980 (Russian Federation); and others

    2004-02-01

    Various flow phenomena observed by a unique emulsion method are reviewed. The experimental data of the emission of projectile and target fragments and relativistic particles in collisions of 1-160 A GeV/c {sup 16}O, {sup 22}Ne, {sup 28}Si, {sup 32}S, {sup 84}Kr, {sup 197}Au, and {sup 208}Pb nuclei with {sup 108}Ag ({sup 80}Br) targets are investigated. The transverse-momentum approach, the flow-angle analysis using principal vectors, the azimuthal correlation functions, the method of azimuthal correlations between charged secondaries, and the method of Fourier expansion of the azimuthal angle distributions are applied. Evidence of the directed flow of spectators has been obtained in the medium-impact nuclear interactions. In azimuthal distributions, with respect to the reaction plane, the signal of the elliptic flow of participants has been observed.

  2. Flow effects in high-energy nucleus collisions with Ag(Br) in emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamovich, M.I.; Chernyavsky, M.M.; Kharlamov, S.P.; Larionova, V.G.; Orlova, G.I.; Peresadko, N.G.; Salmanova, N.A.; Tretyakova, M.I.; Andreeva, N.P.; Bubnov, V.I.; Gaitinov, A.S.; Kanygina, E. K.; Lebedev, I.A.; Musaeva, A.K.; Philippova, L.N.; Seitimbetov, A.M.; Basova, E.S.; Nasyrov, S.Z.; Trofimova, T.P.; Bradnova, V.

    2004-01-01

    Various flow phenomena observed by a unique emulsion method are reviewed. The experimental data of the emission of projectile and target fragments and relativistic particles in collisions of 1-160 A GeV/c 16 O, 22 Ne, 28 Si, 32 S, 84 Kr, 197 Au, and 208 Pb nuclei with 108 Ag ( 80 Br) targets are investigated. The transverse-momentum approach, the flow-angle analysis using principal vectors, the azimuthal correlation functions, the method of azimuthal correlations between charged secondaries, and the method of Fourier expansion of the azimuthal angle distributions are applied. Evidence of the directed flow of spectators has been obtained in the medium-impact nuclear interactions. In azimuthal distributions, with respect to the reaction plane, the signal of the elliptic flow of participants has been observed

  3. Waterborne hyperbranched alkyd-acrylic resin obtained by mini emulsion polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murillo, Edwin, E-mail: edwinalbertomurillo@gmail.com [Grupo de Investigacion en Materiales Polimericos (GIMAPOL), Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, San Jose de Cucuta (Colombia); Lopez, Betty [Grupo de Investigacion en Ciencia de los Materiales, Universidad de Antioquia, Calle, Medellin (Colombia)

    2016-10-15

    Four waterborne hyper branched alkyd-acrylic resins (HBRAA) were synthesized by mini emulsion polymerization from a hyper branched alkyd resin (HBR), methyl methacrylate (MMA), butyl acrylate (BA) and acrylic acid (AA), by using benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and ammonium persulfate (AP) as initiators. The reaction between HBR and acrylic monomers was evidenced by differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The conversion percentage, glass transition temperature (T{sub g}), content of acrylic polymer (determined by soxhlet extraction) and molecular weight increased with the content of acrylic monomers used in the synthesis. The main structure formed during the synthesis was the HBRAA. The analysis by dynamic light scattering (DLS) showed that the particle size distribution of HBRAA2, HBRAA3 and HBRAA4 resins were mainly mono modal. The film properties (gloss, flexibility, adhesion and drying time) of the HBRAA were good. (author)

  4. Immunomodulatory and Physical Effects of Oil Composition in Vaccine Adjuvant Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Christopher B.; Baldwin, Susan L.; Duthie, Malcolm S.; Reed, Steven G.; Vedvick, Thomas S.

    2011-01-01

    Squalene-based oil-in-water emulsions have been used for years in some seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccines. However, concerns have been expressed regarding squalene source and potential biological activities. Little information is available regarding the immunomodulatory activity of squalene in comparison with other metabolizable oils in the context of oil-in-water emulsions formulated with vaccines. The present work describes the manufacture and physical characterization of emulsions composed of different classes of oils, including squalene, long chain triglycerides, a medium chain triglyceride, and a perfluorocarbon, all emulsified with egg phosphatidylcholine. Some differences were apparent among the non-squalene oils in terms of emulsion stability, including higher size polydispersity in the perfluorocarbon emulsion, more rapid visual instability at 60 °C for the long-chain triglyceride and perfluorocarbon emulsions, and an increased creaming rate in the medium-chain triglyceride emulsion at 60 °C as detected by laser scattering optical profiling. The biological activity of each of these emulsions was compared when formulated with either a recombinant malaria antigen or a split-virus inactivated influenza vaccine. Overall, vaccines containing the squalene emulsion elicited higher antibody titers and more abundant long-lived plasma cells than vaccines containing emulsions based on other oils. Since squalene-based emulsions show higher adjuvant potency compared to the other oils tested, non-squalene oils may be more suitable as carriers of amphiphilic or hydrophobic immunostimulatory molecules (such as TLR agonists) rather than as stand-alone adjuvants. PMID:21906648

  5. Ultra-High Pressure Homogenization enhances physicochemical properties of soy protein isolate-stabilized emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ávila, C; Escriu, R; Trujillo, A J

    2015-09-01

    The effect of Ultra-High Pressure Homogenization (UHPH, 100-300MPa) on the physicochemical properties of oil-in-water emulsions prepared with 4.0% (w/v) of soy protein isolate (SPI) and soybean oil (10 and 20%, v/v) was studied and compared to emulsions treated by conventional homogenization (CH, 15MPa). CH emulsions were prepared with non-heated and heated (95°C for 15min) SPI dispersions. Emulsions were characterized by particle size determination with laser diffraction, rheological properties using a rotational rheometer by applying measurements of flow curve and by transmission electron microscopy. The variation on particle size and creaming was assessed by Turbiscan® analysis, and visual observation of the emulsions was also carried out. UHPH emulsions showed much smaller d 3.2 values and greater physical stability than CH emulsions. The thermal treatment of SPI prior CH process did not improve physical stability properties. In addition, emulsions containing 20% of oil exhibited greater physical stability compared to emulsions containing 10% of oil. Particularly, UHPH emulsions treated at 100 and 200MPa with 20% of oil were the most stable due to low particle size values (d 3.2 and Span), greater viscosity and partial protein denaturation. These results address the physical stability improvement of protein isolate-stabilized emulsions by using the emerging UHPH technology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Centrifugal Pump Effect on Average Particle Diameter of Oil-Water Emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, A.; Eskin, A.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we review the process of oil-water emulsion particles fragmentation in a turbulent flow created by a centrifugal pump. We examined the influence of time necessary for oil-water emulsion preparation on the particle size of oil products and the dependence of a centrifugal pump emulsifying capacity on the initial emulsion dispersion. The investigated emulsion contained the brand fuel oil M-100 and tap water; it was sprayed with a nozzle in a gas-water flare. After preparation of the emulsion, the centrifugal pump was turned on and the emulsion samples were taken before and after the pump passing in 15, 30 and 45 minutes of spraying. To determine the effect the centrifugal pump has on the dispersion of the oil-water emulsion, the mean particle diameter of the emulsion particles was determined by the optical and microscopic method before and after the pump passing. A dispersion analysis of the particles contained in the emulsion was carried out by a laser diffraction analyzer. By analyzing the pictures of the emulsion samples, it was determined that after the centrifugal pump operation a particle size of oil products decreases. This result is also confirmed by the distribution of the obtained analyzer where the content of fine particles with a diameter less than 10 μm increased from 12% to 23%. In case of increasing emulsion preparation time, a particle size of petroleum products also decreases.

  7. Transdermal delivery of forskolin from emulsions differing in droplet size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Elżbieta; Llinas, Meritxell; Garcia-Celma, Maria Jose; Escribano, Elvira; Solans, Conxita

    2015-02-01

    The skin permeation of forskolin, a diterpene isolated from Coleus forsholii, was studied using oil in water (O/W) emulsions as delivery formulations and also an oil solution for comparative purposes. Two forskolin-loaded emulsions of water/Brij 72:Symperonic A7/Miglyol 812:Isohexadecane, at 0.075 wt% forskolin concentration were prepared with the same composition and only differing in droplet size (0.38 μm and 10 μm). The emulsions showed high kinetic stability at 25 °C. In vitro study of forskolin penetration through human skin was carried out using the MicroettePlus(®) system. The concentration of the active in the receptor solution (i.e. ethanol/phosphate buffer 40/60, v/v) was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. The obtained results showed that forskolin permeation from the emulsions and the oil solution, through human skin, was very high (up to 72.10%), and no effect of droplet size was observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Topological microfluidic structures for rapid mixing of emulsions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, KJ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel use for topological structures inside microfluidic channels is presented. These structures have been successfully utilised to aid in mixing of two water-in-oil emulsions in order to force coalescence, thereby introducing a cross linker...

  9. Dielectric Properties of Flocculated Water-in-Oil Emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skodvin, T.

    1995-12-31

    When an offshore oil field is near completion, water occupies a large fraction of the available pore volume. Thus, in collecting the oil and gas reserves, one has to deal with a high co-production of either formation- or injected water. This doctoral thesis focuses on the effect of water-in-oil emulsions on the dielectric properties, in particular the effect of flocculation. Various dielectric models are applied to obtain methods for qualitative and quantitative characterization of the flocculated state. Permittivity and measurement of dielectric properties are discussed as a basis for the interpretation of the dielectric properties of the emulsions. Various flocculation models are presented. It is concluded that the dielectric properties of water-in-oil emulsions are strongly influenced by continuously ongoing processes in the system. Because of flocculation and sedimentation the traditional dielectric mixture models cannot satisfactorily predict the dielectric behaviour. The experimentally obtained permittivities for the emulsions can be reproduced by including flocculation in the models and treating the floc aggregates as spheroids or subsystems with dielectric properties given by the degree of flocculation. The models discussed have difficulties reproducing the complete frequency behaviour found experimentally. This is probably because the dielectric relaxation may be influenced by processes not included in the models, such as the effects of dipolar or multipolar interactions between the droplets. For further research it is recommended that rheological and dielectric measurements be combined. 227 refs., 61 figs., 16 tabs.

  10. [Emulsion spectrometer experiment for B and C particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    An experiment is proposed which employs a hybrid emulsion spectrometer to measure lifetimes and decay properties of beauty particles and charmed particles produced by interactions of high energy hadrons. The key to the experiment is a position-sensitive silicon detector. The physics motivation of the experiment and the design of the experimental apparatus and treatment of data are discussed

  11. Effect of bitumen emulsion on setting, strength, soundness and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Effect of bitumen emulsion on setting, strength, soundness and moisture resistance of oxychloride cement. M P S CHANDRAWAT†, T N OJHA and R N YADAV*. Department of Chemistry, R N Ruia Government College, Ramgarh-Shekhawati (Sikar) 331 024, India. †Department of Chemistry, R R Government College, ...

  12. Excretion and organic distribution of 57Co-bleomycin emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lathan, B.

    1982-01-01

    Excretion and organic distributions of 57 Co-bleomycin were studied in normal and tumour-bearing mice with the objective of obtaining high 57 Co-bleomycin concentrations in the tumour and the regional lymph nodes. Aqueous 57 Co-bleomycin and various 57 Co-bleomycin emulsions were used for the studies and applied either locally or systemically. Excretion of 57 Co-bleomycin was slowest after local administration of 57 Co-bleomycin oil-in-water emulsion and fastest after systemic application of aqueous 57 Co-bleomycin. Organic distribution studies showed the highest values in the tumour and the regional lymph nodes after local injection of 57 Co-bleomycin oil-in-water emulsion while the lowest values were measured after systemic application of aqueous 57 Co-bleomycin. These kinetic studies suggest that intratumoral treatment with oil-in-water emulsions of bleomycin may be a new approach in the therapy of epithelial tumours with lymphogenic metastases. (orig.) [de

  13. Lipid emulsions in parenteral nutrition: does one size fits all ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary lipids significantly contribute to preserve the efficiency of human metabolism and restore it during disease. Therefore, in the absence of absolute contraindications, it would not appear reasonable to exclude lipid emulsions when prescribing parenteral nutrition (PN). The metabolic role of lipids has been elucidated, ...

  14. Adherence of fluid interfaces and colloidal aggregation in emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulin, Philippe

    1995-01-01

    This research thesis addresses some aspects of the behaviour of emulsions in which droplets are adhesive, and are thus characterised by their ability to stick to one another or on surfaces. The objective is also to identify various adhesive systems while describing their behaviour in order to start to build up a rationale of these phenomena. The author mainly focuses on the adherence of single layers of adsorbed surfactants: by inducing and controlling this adherence, it is possible to make the droplets stick. After a brief presentation of the wetting phenomenon and of the adherence of emulsion droplets, the author presents theoretical backgrounds of adherence, and describes the thermodynamics of liquid films. He presents the general approach which has been adopted to search for and control adherence phenomena in emulsions, and outlines challenges and difficulties related to the use of adhesive particles in industrial applications. A method of measurement of the contact angle between droplets of some tens of microns is described. In the next part, the author reports the characterisation of adherence properties of different emulsions: measurement of adherence energy with respect to some parameters by using contact angle measurements, study of mixed systems (mixtures of surfactants) to illustrate the applicability to industrial formulas. In a last part, the author reports measurements of film thickness between stuck droplets by using experiments of small angle neutron scattering [fr

  15. Particle Shape Anisotropy in Pickering Emulsions: Cubes and Peanuts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Folter, J.W.J.; Hutter, E.M.; Castillo, S.I.R.; Klop, K.E.; Philipse, A.P.; Kegel, W.K.

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of particle shape in Pickering emulsions by employing, for the first time, cubic and peanut-shaped particles. The interfacial packing and orientation of anisotropic microparticles are revealed at the single-particle level by direct microscopy observations. The uniform

  16. Dose-response of photographic emulsions under gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Dai Nghiep; Do Thi Nguyet Minh; Le Van Vinh

    2003-01-01

    Photographic emulsion is irradiated under gamma rays irradiation of 137 Cs in the IAEA/WHO secondary standard dosimetry laboratory. Dose-response of the film is established. The sensitivity of the film is determined. The dose-rate effect is studied. (author)

  17. Factors governing partial coalescence in oil-in-water emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fredrick, E.; Walstra, P.; Dewettinck, K.

    2010-01-01

    The consequences of the instability mechanism partial coalescence in oil-in-water food emulsions show a discrepancy. On the one hand, it needs to be avoided in order to achieve an extended shelf life in food products like sauces, creams and several milk products. On the other hand, during the

  18. The use of alternative lipid emulsions in paediatric and neonatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The newer lipid emulsion containing fish oil has been shown to reduce the risk ... Prolonged parenteral nutrition (PPN) is essential in those paediatric patients who are ... stress, prolonged inflammation and the role of phytosterols.7,8. Oxidative .... risk of hypertrygliceridaemia due to their limited muscle and fat mass and ...

  19. Continuous emulsion copolymerisation of styrene and methyl acrylate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomen, van den F.H.A.M.; Meuldijk, J.; Thoenes, D.

    1996-01-01

    For emulsion polymerisation the reactor type has a strong influence on the final product properties, for example the particle size (distribution) and the polymer composition. A batch copolymerisation of styrene and methyl acrylate shows strong composition drift. The course of the batch reaction has

  20. Oxidative desulfurization of dibenzothiophene with molecular oxygen using emulsion catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Hongying; Gao, Jinbo; Jiang, Zongxuan; Yang, Yongxing; Song, Bo; Li, Can

    2007-01-14

    Dibenzothiophene (DBT) is oxidized to the corresponding sulfoxide and sulfone in an emulsion system (W/O) composed of polyoxometalate anion [C(18)H(37)N(CH(3))3](5)[PV(2)Mo(10)O(40)] as both the surfactant and catalyst, using molecular oxygen as the oxidant and aldehyde as the sacrificial agent under mild conditions.

  1. Interactions of flavoured oil in-water emulsions with polylactide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Rómulo; Domenek, Sandra; Ducruet, Violette

    2014-04-01

    Polylactide (PLA), a biobased polymer, might prove suitable as eco-friendly packaging, if it proves efficient at maintaining food quality. To assess interactions between PLA and food, an oïl in-water model emulsion was formulated containing aroma compounds representing different chemical structure classes (ethyl esters, 2-nonanone, benzaldehyde) at a concentration typically found in foodstuff (100 ppm). To study non-equilibrium effects during food shelf life, the emulsions were stored in a PLA pack (tray and lid). To assess equilibrium effects, PLA was conditioned in vapour contact with the aroma compounds at concentrations comparable to headspace conditions of real foods. PLA/emulsion interactions showed minor oil and aroma compound sorption in the packaging. Among tested aroma compounds, benzaldehyde and ethyl acetate were most sorbed and preferentially into the lid through the emulsion headspace. Equilibrium effects showed synergy of ethyl acetate and benzaldehyde, favouring sorption of additional aroma compounds in PLA. This should be anticipated during the formulation of food products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Caffeates as antioxidants in emulsions and the effect of tocopherols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Durand, E.; Villeneuve, P.

    Lipid oxidation is a major issue in foods containing LC PUFA. To protect these food products antioxidant addition can be a solution. Many food products are emulsions. According to the “polar paradox” hypothesis, polar compounds are more efficient as antioxidants in bulk oil, whereas lipophilic co...

  3. Optimization of Finasteride Nano-Emulsion Preparation Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Sari, 2Department of Chemistry, ... Chemometric approach was applied for optimizing the size of the nano-emulsion droplets. ... water dispersions, having droplets with 100 .... Colloid. Interf. Sci. 2004; 108-109: 207–226. 4. Anton N, Benoit JP, Saulnier P.

  4. From bijels to Pickering emulsions: A lattice Boltzmann study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, F.; Harting, J.

    2011-01-01

    Particle stabilized emulsions are ubiquitous in the food and cosmetics industry, but our understanding of the influence of microscopic fluid-particle and particle-particle interactions on the macroscopic rheology is still limited. In this paper we present a simulation algorithm based on a

  5. The effect of electrolytes on emulsions stabilized by nonionic surfactants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomgaard, van den A.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of high electrolyte concentrations on the stability of oil-in-water- emulsions stabilized by nonionic surfactants.

    In chapter 1 several stability mechanisms are briefly outlined and the distinction between coalescence and

  6. Synthesis of polyanthranilic acid–Au nanocomposites by emulsion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polyanthranilic acid (PANA) and polyanthranilic acid–gold (PANA–Au) nanocomposites have been synthesized through emulsion polymerization technique. Use of gold chloride as an oxidant for anthranilic acid not only provides a new route for chemical synthesis of PANA, but also explores a facile method for the formation ...

  7. Synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanopowders by sol–gel emulsion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    gel emulsion technique, where the sol (water medium) is emulsified, in a support ... The sol was prepared by mixing a 2 M solution of calcium acetate dissolved in ... powder using a punch and die set and a KBr press (model. M-15) with a ...

  8. Preparation of LDPE/LNR Blend Via Emulsion Dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusli Daik; Yee Lee Ching

    2007-01-01

    Low density polyethylene (LDPE)/ liquid natural rubber (LNR) blends with the composition of 100LDPE/ 0LNR, 70LDPE/ 30LNR, 60LDPE/ 40LNR and 40LDPE/ 60LNR were prepared via dispersion of LDPE and LNR emulsion. LNR was obtained via photochemical sensitization of natural rubber (NR). Emulsion of LNR was prepared by using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and 1-hexanol as the emulsifier and co- emulsifier respectively. Emulsion of LDPE was prepared in the same way by using LDPE solution in carbon tetrachloride, SDS and 1-hexanol. LDPE/ LNR blends were prepared via mixing of LNR and LDPE emulsions. Mechanical properties of the blends were analyzed by tensile, hardness and impact test. Optimum mechanical properties were observed for composite with composition of 60LDPE/ 40LNR that showed the maximum value of stress and strain. The glass transition temperature, T g , of the blends as obtained from differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) showed that the blends were homogeneous. Morphology study by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) also indicates the homogeneity of LDPE/ LNR blends produced. (author)

  9. The separation of stable water-in-oil emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velicogna, D.; Koundakjiian, A.; Beausejour, I.

    1993-01-01

    Stable oil-in-water emulsions are a major problem in the recovery of spilled oils. Such emulsions can contain as little as 10% oil and can have properties very different from the original oils, making their storage and disposal difficult. These problems have led to experiments testing the feasibility of a process for separating these stable emulsions into dischargeable water and reusable oil. The technique investigated involves use of a recyclable solvent to remove the oil and subsequent distillation and/or membrane treatment to recover the oil and recycle the solvent. Results of preliminary tests show that stable water-in-oil emulsions can be separated quite readily with a regenerated solvent system. The only products of these systems are oil, which can be sent to a refinery, and dischargeable water. The recycled solvent can be used many times without any significant decrease in separation efficiency. In order to enhance the throughput of the system, a solvent vapor stripping method was invented. This stripping method also improves the quality of the products and the recycled solvent. Membrane methods can be used as a post-treatment for the produced water in order to achieve more adequate compliance with discharge limits. 4 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Dielectric Properties of Flocculated Water-in-Oil Emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skodvin, T

    1996-12-31

    When an offshore oil field is near completion, water occupies a large fraction of the available pore volume. Thus, in collecting the oil and gas reserves, one has to deal with a high co-production of either formation- or injected water. This doctoral thesis focuses on the effect of water-in-oil emulsions on the dielectric properties, in particular the effect of flocculation. Various dielectric models are applied to obtain methods for qualitative and quantitative characterization of the flocculated state. Permittivity and measurement of dielectric properties are discussed as a basis for the interpretation of the dielectric properties of the emulsions. Various flocculation models are presented. It is concluded that the dielectric properties of water-in-oil emulsions are strongly influenced by continuously ongoing processes in the system. Because of flocculation and sedimentation the traditional dielectric mixture models cannot satisfactorily predict the dielectric behaviour. The experimentally obtained permittivities for the emulsions can be reproduced by including flocculation in the models and treating the floc aggregates as spheroids or subsystems with dielectric properties given by the degree of flocculation. The models discussed have difficulties reproducing the complete frequency behaviour found experimentally. This is probably because the dielectric relaxation may be influenced by processes not included in the models, such as the effects of dipolar or multipolar interactions between the droplets. For further research it is recommended that rheological and dielectric measurements be combined. 227 refs., 61 figs., 16 tabs.

  11. Fabrication, Rheology and Antioxidant Activity of Palm Esters-based Emulsions Loaded with Tocotrienol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H NG

    2014-06-01

    The yield stress of the emulsions increased with increasing acoustic amplitudes. The viscoelasticity of the emulsions were enhanced by the increase in the oil and surfactant concentrations. The emulsions with higher oil phase concentration [30% (w/w] showed greater elasticity which implied strong dynamic rigidity of the emulsions. The cohesive energy increased significantly with surfactant concentration especially for the emulsions with 30% (w/w oil phase concentration. The palm oil esters emulsions containing tocotrienol gave higher Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values which implied higher antioxidant capability. The tocotrienol in emulsion with 30% (w/w dispersed phase showed that they were the most stable with longest shelf life and exhibited greater inhibitory effects on the ABTS".

  12. Nano-emulsions of fluorinated trityl radicals as sensors for EPR oximetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, N.; Driesschaert, B.; Wauthoz, N.; Beghein, N.; Préat, V.; Amighi, K.; Marchand-Brynaert, J.; Gallez, B.

    2009-04-01

    This article reports the development and evaluation of two nano-emulsions (F45T-03/HFB and F15T-03/PFOB) containing fluorinated trityl radicals dissolved in perfluorocarbons. Preparation with a high-pressure homogenizer conferred sub-micronic size to both nano-emulsions. In vitro and in vivo EPR spectroscopy showed that the nano-emulsions had much greater oxygen sensitivity than the hydrophilic trityl, CT-03. In vivo experiments in rodents confirmed the ability of the nano-emulsions to follow the changes in oxygen concentration after induced ischemia. Histological evaluation of the tissue injected with the nano-emulsions revealed some acute toxicity for the F45T-03/HFB nano-emulsion but none for the F15T-03/PFOB nano-emulsion. These new formulations should be considered for further EPR oximetry experiments in pathophysiological situations where subtle changes in tissue oxygenation are expected.

  13. Development of water-borne thermosetting paint by radiation-induced emulsion polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, K.; Katakai, A.; Nakayama, H.

    1981-01-01

    In previous papers the features of γ-ray induced emulsion polymerization were studied to use the emulsion as vehicles for water-borne paint. In this paper, the physical properties of thermosetting paints made with emulsions containing N-(n-butoxymethyl)acrylamide (NBM) and hydroxyl and carboxyl functionality were investigated. Since NBM moieties can react with amide, hydroxyl, and carboxyl groups, NBM copolymer emulsions prepared in this study have the self-crosslinking capability. As far as it was investigated, it was difficult to prepare a stable emulsion containing 10% of NBM by the conventional emulsion polymerization by using a water soluble radical initiator such as persulfate. In addition to 1-liter reactor, a pilot-scale plant of 70 liters reactor was used for γ-ray induced emulsion polymerization. Experimental details are given, and results are discussed. (author)

  14. Oil-in-water emulsions stabilised by cellulose ethers: stability, structure and in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borreani, Jennifer; Espert, María; Salvador, Ana; Sanz, Teresa; Quiles, Amparo; Hernando, Isabel

    2017-04-19

    The effect of cellulose ethers in oil-in-water emulsions on stability during storage and on texture, microstructure and lipid digestibility during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was investigated. All the cellulose ether emulsions showed good physical and oxidative stability during storage. In particular, the methylcellulose with high methoxyl substituents (HMC) made it possible to obtain emulsions with high consistency which remained almost unchanged during gastric digestion, and thus could enhance fullness and satiety perceptions at gastric level. Moreover, the HMC emulsion slowed down lipid digestion to a greater extent than a conventional protein emulsion or the emulsions stabilised by the other cellulose ethers. Therefore, HMC emulsions could be used in weight management to increase satiation capacity and decrease lipid digestion.

  15. Stabilization of oil-in-water emulsions by enzyme catalyzed oxidative gelation of sugar beet pectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Chronakis, Ioannis S.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Enzyme catalyzed oxidative cross-linking of feruloyl groups can promote gelation of sugar beet pectin (SBP). It is uncertain how the enzyme kinetics of this cross-linking reaction are affected in emulsion systems and whether the gelation affects emulsion stability. In this study, SBP (2.5% w...... larger average particle sizes than the emulsions in which the SBP was homogenized into the emulsion system during emulsion preparation (referred as Mix B). Mix B type emulsions were stable. Enzyme catalyzed oxidative gelation of SBP helped stabilize the emulsions in Mix A. The kinetics of the enzyme...... catalyzed oxidative gelation of SBP was evaluated by small angle oscillatory measurements for horseradish peroxidase (HRP) (EC 1.11.1.7) and laccase (EC 1.10.3.2) catalysis, respectively. HRP catalyzed gelation rates, determined from the slopes of the increase of elastic modulus (G0) with time, were higher...

  16. Evaluation of short-term and long-term stability of emulsions by centrifugation and NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tcholakova, S.; Denkov, N.; Ivanov, I.; Marinov, R.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of storage time on the coalescence stability and drop size distribution of egg yolk and whey protein concentrate stabilized emulsions is studied. The emulsion stability is evaluated by centrifugation, whereas the drop size distribution is measured by means of NMR and optical microscopy. The experimental results show that there is no general relation between the emulsion stability and the changes in the mean drop diameter upon shelf-storage of protein emulsions. On the other hand, it is shown that the higher short-term stability, measured by centrifugation immediately after emulsion preparation, corresponds to higher long-term stability (after their self-storage up to 60 days) for emulsions stabilized by the same type of emulsifier. In this way, we are able to obtain information for the long-term stability of emulsions in a relatively short period of time.(authors)

  17. Ultrasonic Studies of Emulsion Stability in the Presence of Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Józefczak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pickering emulsions are made of solid particle-stabilized droplets suspended in an immiscible continuous liquid phase. A magnetic emulsion can be obtained using magnetic particles. Solid magnetic nanoparticles are adsorbed strongly at the oil-water interface and are able to stabilize emulsions of oil and water. In this work emulsions stabilized by magnetite nanoparticles were obtained using high-energy ultrasound waves and a cavitation mechanism and, next, their stability in time was tested by means of acoustic waves with a low energy, without affecting the structure. An acoustic study showed high stability in time of magnetic emulsions stabilized by magnetite particles. The study also showed a strong influence of an external magnetic field, which can lead to changes of the emulsion properties. It is possible to control Pickering emulsion stability with the help of an external stimulus—a magnetic field.

  18. Thiolated alkyl-modified carbomers: Novel excipients for mucoadhesive emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonengel, Sonja; Hauptstein, Sabine; Leonaviciute, Gintare; Griessinger, Julia; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2015-07-30

    The aim of this study was the design and evaluation of mucoadhesive emulsifying polymeric excipients. Three thiol bearing ligands with increasing pKa values of their sulfhydryl group, namely 4-aminothiophenol (pKa=6.86), l-cysteine (pKa=8.4) and d/l-homocysteine (pKa=10.0) were coupled to the polymeric backbone of alkyl-modified carbomer (PA1030). Resulting conjugates displayed 818.5μmol 4-aminothiophenol, 698.5μmol cysteine and 651.5μmol homocysteine per gram polymer and were evaluated regarding the reactivity of thiol groups, emulsifying and mucoadhesive properties. In general, the synthesized conjugates showed a pH dependent reactivity, whereby the fastest oxidation occurred in PA1030-cysteine, as almost no free thiol groups could be detected after 120min. Emulsification of medium chain triglycerides was feasible with all synthesized conjugates leading to oil-in-water-emulsions. Emulsions with PA1030-cysteine displayed the highest stability and the smallest droplet size among the tested formulations. Oxidation and consequently cross-linking of the thiomers prior to the emulsification process led to an overall decreased emulsion stability. Evaluating mucosal residence time of thiomer emulsions on porcine buccal mucosa, a 9.2-fold higher amount of formulation based on PA1030-cysteine remained on the mucosal tissue within 3h compared to the unmodified polymer. According to these results, the highest reactive ligand l-cysteine seems to be most promising in order to obtain thiolated polymers for the preparation of mucoadhesive o/w-emulsions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Emulsion-Based Intradermal Delivery of Melittin in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Mi Han

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bee venom (BV has long been used as a traditional medicine. The aim of the present study was to formulate a BV emulsion with good rheological properties for dermal application and investigate the effect of formulation on the permeation of melittin through dermatomed rat skin. A formulated emulsion containing 1% (w/v BV was prepared. The emulsion was compared with distilled water (DW and 25% (w/v N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP in DW. Permeation of melittin from aqueous solution through the dermatomed murine skin was evaluated using the Franz diffusion cells. Samples of receptor cells withdrawn at pre-determined time intervals were measured for melittin amount. After the permeation study, the same skin was used for melittin extraction. In addition, a known amount of melittin (5 μg/mL was added to stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis of the rat skin, and the amount of melittin was measured at pre-determined time points. The measurement of melittin from all samples was done with HPLC-MS/MS. No melittin was detected in the receptor phase at all time points in emulsion, DW, or NMP groups. When the amount of melittin was further analyzed in stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis from the permeation study, melittin was still not detected. In an additional experiment, the amount of melittin added to all skin matrices was corrected against the amount of melittin recovered. While the total amount of melittin was retained in the stratum corneum, less than 10% of melittin remained in epidermis and dermis within 15 and 30 min, respectively. Skin microporation with BV emulsion facilitates the penetration of melittin across the stratum corneum into epidermis and dermis, where emulsified melittin could have been metabolized by locally-occurring enzymes.

  20. Emulsion-Based Intradermal Delivery of Melittin in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang Mi; Kim, Se Gun; Pak, Sok Cheon

    2017-05-19

    Bee venom (BV) has long been used as a traditional medicine. The aim of the present study was to formulate a BV emulsion with good rheological properties for dermal application and investigate the effect of formulation on the permeation of melittin through dermatomed rat skin. A formulated emulsion containing 1% ( w / v ) BV was prepared. The emulsion was compared with distilled water (DW) and 25% ( w / v ) N -methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) in DW. Permeation of melittin from aqueous solution through the dermatomed murine skin was evaluated using the Franz diffusion cells. Samples of receptor cells withdrawn at pre-determined time intervals were measured for melittin amount. After the permeation study, the same skin was used for melittin extraction. In addition, a known amount of melittin (5 μg/mL) was added to stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis of the rat skin, and the amount of melittin was measured at pre-determined time points. The measurement of melittin from all samples was done with HPLC-MS/MS. No melittin was detected in the receptor phase at all time points in emulsion, DW, or NMP groups. When the amount of melittin was further analyzed in stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis from the permeation study, melittin was still not detected. In an additional experiment, the amount of melittin added to all skin matrices was corrected against the amount of melittin recovered. While the total amount of melittin was retained in the stratum corneum, less than 10% of melittin remained in epidermis and dermis within 15 and 30 min, respectively. Skin microporation with BV emulsion facilitates the penetration of melittin across the stratum corneum into epidermis and dermis, where emulsified melittin could have been metabolized by locally-occurring enzymes.

  1. Acquisition of Co metal from spent lithium-ion battery using emulsion liquid membrane technology and emulsion stability test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliusman; Wulandari, P. T.; Amiliana, R. A.; Huda, M.; Kusumadewi, F. A.

    2018-03-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are the most common type to be used as energy source in mobile phone. The amount of lithium-ion battery wastes is approximated by 200 – 500 ton/year. In one lithium-ion battery, there are 5 – 20% of cobalt metal, depend on the manufacturer. One of the way to recover a valuable metal from waste is leaching process then continued with extraction, which is the aim of this study. Spent lithium-ion batteries will be characterized with EDX and AAS, the result will show the amount of cobalt metal with form of LiCoO2 in the cathode. Hydrochloric acid concentration used is 4 M, temperature 80°C, and reaction time 1 hour. This study will discuss the emulsion stability test on emulsion liquid membrane. The purpose of emulsion stability test in this study was to determine optimum concentration of surfactant and extractant to produce a stable emulsion. Surfactant and extractant used were SPAN 80 and Cyanex 272 respectively with both concentrations varied. Membrane and feed phase ratios used in this experiment was 1 : 2. The optimum results of this study were SPAN 80 concentrations of 10% w/v and Cyanex 272 0.7 M.

  2. Effects of Partial Beef Fat Replacement with Gelled Emulsion on Functional and Quality Properties of Model System Meat Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdaroğlu, Meltem; Nacak, Berker; Karabıyıkoğlu, Merve; Keser, Gökçen

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of partial beef fat replacement (0, 30, 50, 100%) with gelled emulsion (GE) prepared with olive oil on functional and quality properties of model system meat emulsion (MSME). GE consisted of inulin and gelatin as gelling agent and characteristics of gelled and model system meat emulsions were investigated. GE showed good initial stability against centrifugation forces and thermal stability at different temperatures. GE addition decreased the pH with respect to increase in GE concentration. Addition of GE increased lightness and yellowness but reduced redness compared to control samples. The results of the study showed that partial replacement of beef fat with GE could be used for improving cooking yield without negative effects on water holding capacity and emulsion stability compared to C samples when replacement level is up to 50%. The presence of GE significantly affected textural behaviors of samples ( p <0.05). In conclusion, our study showed that GE have promising impacts on developing healthier meat product formulations besides improving technological characteristics.

  3. Status of automated nuclear scanning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.; Roberts, J.H.; Preston, C.C.; McNeece, J.P.; Ruddy, F.H.

    1983-07-01

    Present day minicomputers and microprocessors enable a range of automation, from partial to total, of tasks once thought beyond approach. The status of three computer controlled systems for quantitative track measurements is reviewed. Two systems, the Hanford optical track scanner (HOTS) and an automated scanning electron microscope (ASEM) are used for scanning solid state track recorders (SSTR). The third systems, the emulsion scanning processor (ESP), is an interactive system used to measure the length of proton tracks in nuclear research emulsions (NRE). Current limitations of these systems for quantitative track scanning are presented. Experimental uncertainties attained with these computer controlled systems are described using results obtained from reactor neutron dosimetry

  4. Dual function of tributyrin emulsion: solubilization and enhancement of anticancer effect of celecoxib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung Nam; Hong, Soon-Seok; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Lim, Soo-Jeong

    2012-05-30

    Tributyrin, a triglyceride analogue of butyrate, can act as a prodrug of an anticancer agent butyrate after being cleaved by intracellular enzymes. We recently demonstrated that the emulsion containing tributyrin as an inner oil phase possesses a potent anticancer activity. Herein we sought to develop tributyrin emulsion as a carrier of celecoxib, a poorly-water soluble drug with anticancer activity. Combined treatment of human HCT116 colon cancer cells with free celecoxib plus tributyrin emulsion inhibited the cellular proliferation more effectively than that of each drug alone, suggesting the possibility of tributyrin emulsion as a potential celecoxib carrier. The mean droplet size of emulsions tended to increase as the tributyrin content in emulsion increases and the concentration of celecoxib loaded in emulsions was affected by tributyrin content and the initial amount of celecoxib, but not by the total amount of surfactant mixture. The concentration of celecoxib required to inhibit the growth of HCT116 and B16-F10 cancer cells by 50% was 2.6- and 3.1-fold lowered by loading celecoxib in tributyrin emulsions, compared with free celecoxib. These data suggest that the anticancer activity of celecoxib was enhanced by loading in tributyrin emulsions, probably due to the solubilization capacity and anticancer activity of tributyrin emulsion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Heat Transfer in Boiling Dilute Emulsion with Strong Buoyancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeburg, Eric Thomas

    Little attention has been given to the boiling of emulsions compared to that of boiling in pure liquids. The advantages of using emulsions as a heat transfer agent were first discovered in the 1970s and several interesting features have since been studied by few researchers. Early research focuses primarily on pool and flow boiling and looks to determine a mechanism by which the boiling process occurs. This thesis looks at the boiling of dilute emulsions in fluids with strong buoyant forces. The boiling of dilute emulsions presents many favorable characteristics that make it an ideal agent for heat transfer. High heat flux electronics, such as those seen in avionics equipment, produce high heat fluxes of 100 W/cm2 or more, but must be maintained at low temperatures. So far, research on single phase convection and flow boiling in small diameter channels have yet to provide an adequate solution. Emulsions allow the engineer to tailor the solution to the specific problem. The fluid can be customized to retain the high thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of the continuous phase while enhancing the heat transfer coefficient through boiling of the dispersed phase component. Heat transfer experiments were carried out with FC-72 in water emulsions. FC-72 has a saturation temperature of 56 °C, far below that of water. The parameters were varied as follows: 0% ≤ epsilon ≤ 1% and 1.82 x 1012 ≤ RaH ≤ 4.42 x 1012. Surface temperatures along the heated surface reached temperature that were 20 °C in excess of the dispersed phase saturation temperature. An increase of ˜20% was seen in the average Nusselt numbers at the highest Rayleigh numbers. Holography was used to obtain images of individual and multiple FC-72 droplets in the boundary layer next to the heated surface. The droplet diameters ranged from 0.5 mm to 1.3 mm. The Magnus effect was observed when larger individual droplets were injected into the boundary layer, causing the droplets to be pushed

  6. The uranium waste fluid processing examination by liquid and liquid extraction method using the emulsion flow method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, Nobuhiro; Daiten, Masaki; Endo, Yuji; Yoshida, Hideaki; Mita, Yutaka; Naganawa, Hirochika; Nagano, Tetsushi; Yanase, Nobuyuki

    2015-03-01

    Spent centrifuges which had used for the development of the uranium enrichment technology are stored in the uranium enrichment facility located in Ningyo-toge Environmental Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Our technology of the centrifugal machine processing are supposed to separate the radioactive material adhered on surface of inner parts of centrifuges by the wet way decontamination method using the ultrasonic bath filled dilute sulfuric acid and water, and it is generated the neutralization sediment (sludge) by the processing of the radioactive waste fluid with the decontamination. JAEA had been considering the applicability of a streamlining and reduction of the processing of the sludge by decreases radioactive concentration including the sludge through the removes uranium from the radioactive waste fluid. As part of considerations, JAEA have been promoting technological developments of the uranium extraction separation using The Emulsion Flow Extraction Method (a theory propounded by JAEA-Nuclear Science and Engineering Center) in close coordination and cooperation between with JAEA-Nuclear Science and Engineering Center and Ningyo-toge Environmental Center from 2007 fiscal year. This report describes the outline of the application test using actual waste fluid of dilute sulfuric acid and water by developed the examination system introducing the emulsion flow extraction method. (author)

  7. Numerical modelling and experimental validation of hydrodynamics of an emulsion in an extraction column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paisant, Jean-Francois

    2014-01-01

    Industrial reprocessing of spent fuel is based on chemical separation processes by liquid-liquid extraction into pulsed column. The current context of sustainable development and acceptance of nuclear energy drive the industry to improve the efficiency of this process. Pulsed column efficiency is bound to the amount of available exchange surface, which depends on the geometrical parameters of the column and the operating conditions. A better design would improve the efficiency. In this context, the work presented in this manuscript revolves around physical and numerical modelling of the hydrodynamics of the emulsion coupled with the evolution of the interfacial area, as well as an experimental characterization of the quantities which describe the emulsion. The emulsion is modelled based on the work of D. LHUILLIER. It is an Eulerian approach which describes each phase as a continuous medium as well as the interface which is thought as a third phase moving continuously in the flow field. This thesis contributes to describe of the hydrodynamics of dispersed and continuous phases, in order to determine the slip velocity needed for the design. The written transport equation for interfacial area is based on the thesis of T. RANDRIAMANANTENA. The simulation of this physical model was performed using the method of finite elements (FEM) and implementation was carried out under the software CAST3M. The numerical simulation have shown their abilities to correctly reproduce the expected physical behaviour, in particular, they allow to obtain the slip velocity which is essential to the scale up. In a first experimental approach, the single phase flow has been studied in a pulsed column using particle image velocimetry (PIV), for different amplitude and frequency parameters. A method of synchronization between the recording and the pulsation cycle was used in order to achieve this study. The average behavior, for different regimes of pulsation, has been studied by this way. In

  8. Volatile release from self-assembly structured emulsions: effect of monoglyceride content, oil content, and oil type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Like; Roos, Yrjö H; Miao, Song

    2013-02-20

    Monoglycerides (MGs) can form self-assembled structures in emulsions, which can be used to control volatile release. In this study, initial headspace concentrations (C(initial)), maximum headspace concentrations (C(max)), release rates, and partition coefficients of propanol, diacetyl, hexanal, and limonene were determined in MG structured oil-in-water emulsions using dynamic and static headspace analyses. For all of the volatile compounds, C(initial) values above structured emulsions were significantly lower than those above unstructured emulsions and decreased with increasing MG contents (p triglyceride emulsions than in soybean oil emulsions (p structured emulsions than in unstructured emulsions (p structured emulsions can be potentially used as delivery systems to modulate volatile release.

  9. A Novel Submicron Emulsion System Loaded with Doxorubicin Overcome Multi-Drug Resistance in MCF-7/ADR Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, W P; Hua, H Y; Sun, P C; Zhao, Y X

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop the Solutol HS15-based doxorubicin submicron emulsion with good stability and overcoming multi-drug resistance. In this study, we prepared doxorubicin submicron emulsion, and examined the stability after autoclaving, the in vitro cytotoxic activity, the intracellular accumulation and apoptpsis of doxorubicin submicron emulsion in MCF-7/ADR cells. The physicochemical properties of doxorubicin submicron emulsion were not significantly affected after autoclaving. The doxorubicin submicron emulsion significantly increased the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin submicron emulsion and enhanced cytotoxic activity and apoptotic effects of doxorubicin. These results may be correlated to doxorubicin submicron emulsion inhibitory effects on efflux pumps through the progressive release of intracellular free Solutol HS15 from doxorubicin submicron emulsion. Furthermore, these in vitro results suggest that the Solutol HS15-based submicron emulsion may be a potentially useful drug delivery system to circumvent multi-drug resistance of tumor cells.

  10. Water-in-oil emulsions results of formation studies and applicability to oil spill modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, Merv; Fieldhouse, Ben; Mullin, Joe

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarises studies of water-in-oil emulsions, their stability, and modelling of their formation. Studies show that water-in-oil emulsions might be characterised into three categories (stable, mesostable and unstable). These categories were established by visual appearance, elasticity and viscosity difference. It was also shown that water content was not an important factor. A fourth category of water-in-oil exists, that of water entrainment, which is not an emulsion. Water-in-oil emulsions made from crude oils have different classes of stabilities as a result of the asphaltene and resin contents. The differences in the emulsion types are readily distinguished both by their rheological properties, and simply by appearance. The apparent viscosity of a stable emulsion at a shear rate of one reciprocal second, is at least three orders-of-magnitude greater than the starting oil. An unstable emulsion usually has a viscosity no more than one order-of-magnitude greater than that of the starting oil. A stable emulsion has a significant elasticity, whereas an unstable emulsion does not. Stable emulsions have sufficient asphaltenes (>∼7%) to establish films of these compounds around water droplets. Mesostable emulsions have insufficient asphaltenes to render them completely stable. Stability is achieved by visco-elastic retention of water and secondarily by the presence of asphaltene or resin films. Mesostable emulsions display apparent viscosities of about 80-600 times that of the starting oil and true viscosities of 20-200 times that of the starting oil. Mesostable emulsions have an asphaltene and resin content greater than 3%. Entrained water occurs when a viscous oil retains larger water droplets, but conditions are not suitable for the formation of an emulsion. Entrained water may have a viscosity that is similar or slightly greater (∼ 2-10 times) than the starting oil. It was found that emulsion formation occurs at a threshold energy, however this energy

  11. Antioxidant activity and emulsion-stabilizing effect of pectic enzyme treated pectin in soy protein isolate-stabilized oil/water emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ping-Hsiu; Lu, Hao-Te; Wang, Yuh-Tai; Wu, Ming-Chang

    2011-09-14

    The antioxidant activity of pectic enzyme treated pectin (PET-pectin) prepared from citrus pectin by enzymatic hydrolysis and its potential use as a stabilizer and an antioxidant for soy protein isolate (SPI)-stabilized oil in water (O/W) emulsion were investigated. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) was found to be positively associated with molecular weight (M(w)) of PET-pectin and negatively associated with degree of esterification (DE) of PET-pectin. PET-pectin (1 kDa and 11.6% DE) prepared from citrus pectin after 24 h of hydrolysis by commercial pectic enzyme produced by Aspergillus niger expressed higher α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, TEAC, and reducing power than untreated citrus pectin (353 kDa and 60% DE). The addition of PET-pectin could increase both emulsifying activity (EA) and emulsion stability (ES) of SPI-stabilized O/W emulsion. When the SPI-stabilized lipid droplet was coated with the mixture of PET-pectin and pectin, the EA and ES of the emulsion were improved more than they were when the lipid droplet was coated with either pectin or PET-pectin alone. The amount of secondary oxidation products (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) produced in the emulsion prepared with the mixture of SPI and PET-pectin was less than the amount produced in the emulsion prepared with either SPI or SPI/pectin. These results suggest that PET-pectin has an emulsion-stabilizing effect and lipid oxidation inhibition ability on SPI-stabilized emulsion. Therefore, PET-pectin can be used as a stabilizer as well as an antioxidant in plant origin in SPI-stabilized O/W emulsion and thus prolong the shelf life of food emulsion.

  12. Egg white powder-stabilised multiple (water-in-olive oil-in-water) emulsions as beef fat replacers in model system meat emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Burcu; Urgu, Müge; Serdaroğlu, Meltem

    2017-05-01

    Today, multiple emulsions are believed to have a considerable application potential in food industry. We aimed to investigate physical, chemical and textural quality characteristics of model system meat emulsions (MSME) in which beef fat (C) was totally replaced by 10% (E-10), 20% (E-20) or 30% (E-30) multiple emulsions (W 1 /O/W 2 ) prepared with olive oil and egg white powder (EWP). Incorporation of W 1 /O/W 2 emulsion resulted in reduced fat (from 11.54% to 4.01%), increased protein content (from 13.66% to 14.74%), and modified fatty acid composition, significantly increasing mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acid content and decreasing saturated fatty acid content. E-20 and E-30 samples had lower jelly and fat separation (5.77% and 5.25%) compared to C and E-10 (9.67% and 8.55%). W 1 /O/W 2 emulsion treatments had higher water-holding capacity (93.96-94.35%) than C samples (91.84%), and also showed the desired storage stability over time. Emulsion stability results showed that E-20 and E-30 samples had lower total expressible fluid (14.05% and 14.53%) and lower total expressible fat (5.06% and 5.33%) compared to C samples (19.13% and 6.09%). Increased concentrations of W 1 /O/W 2 emulsions led to alterations in colour and texture parameters. TBA values of samples were lower in W 1 /O/W 2 emulsion treatments than control treatment during 60 days of storage. Our results indicated that multiple emulsions prepared with olive oil and EWP had promising impacts on reducing fat, modifying the lipid composition and developing both technologically and oxidatively stable meat systems. These are the first findings concerning beef matrix fat replacement with multiple emulsions stabilised by EWP. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings. 1979 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L.; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.

    1980-06-01

    Uranium mill tailings are a source of low-level radiation and radioactive materials that may be released into the environment. Stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is necessary to minimize radon exhalation and other radioactive releases. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing uranium tailings is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory: the use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and other potentially hazardous materials in uranium tailings. Results of these studies indicate that radon flux from uranium tailings can be reduced by greater than 99% by covering the tailings with an asphalt emulsion that is poured on or sprayed on (3.0 to 7.0 mm thick), or mixed with some of the tailings and compacted to form an admixture seal (2.5 to 15.2 cm) containing 18 wt % residual asphalt

  14. Cheese powder as an ingredient in emulsion sausages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xiang; Ruiz Carrascal, Jorge; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2017-01-01

    Different types of cheese powder were added to meat emulsion sausages in order to address its influence on chemical composition, volatile compounds profile and sensory properties, and its potential to reduce salt content through boosting saltiness. Addition of cheese powder to emulsion sausages...... modified their profile of volatile compounds. Blue cheese increased some ketones, alcohols, and esters, while brown cheese brought typical Maillard reaction compounds. Overall, addition of cheese powders to sausages enhanced the intensity of flavour traits. A mixture of hard and blue cheese powder showed...... the highest effect on boosting saltiness, while brown cheese powder showed the strongest umami and meat flavour boosting effect, and sausages with added blue cheese powder showed a more intense aftertaste. Hardness significantly increased due to the addition of blue cheese powder. Addition of cheese powder...

  15. Highly tailorable thiol-ene based emulsion-templated monoliths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafleur, J. P.; Kutter, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    The attractive surface properties of thiol-ene polymers combined with their ease of processing make them ideal substrates in many bioanalytical applications. We report the synthesis of highly tailorable emulsion-templated porous polymers and beads in microfluidic devices based on off-stoichiometr......The attractive surface properties of thiol-ene polymers combined with their ease of processing make them ideal substrates in many bioanalytical applications. We report the synthesis of highly tailorable emulsion-templated porous polymers and beads in microfluidic devices based on off......-stoichiometry thiolene chemistry. The method allows monolith synthesis and anchoring inside thiol-ene microchannels in a single step. Variations in the monomer stoichiometric ratios and/or amount of porogen used allow for the creation of extremely varied polymer morphologies, from foam-like materials to dense networks...

  16. Structural study of the continuous medium of spontaneous ternary emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desforge, Christine

    1993-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of the structure of a continuous medium of spontaneous ternary emulsions of oil-in-water type, composed of water and octane, and stabilised by means of a cationic surfactant (DDAB, didodecyldimethyl ammonium bromide). It shows that the kinetic stability is due to electrostatic repulsions between octane drops, and that these repulsions are due to the presence of positive charges on the DDAB mono-layer located at the interface between water and oil. Various aspects are highlighted by neutron and X ray scattering. In this study, the DDAB is replaced by a non-ionic surfactant. Its use results in very steady oil/water emulsions [fr

  17. Bioreactor droplets from liposome-stabilized all-aqueous emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Daniel C.; Strulson, Christopher A.; Cacace, David N.; Bevilacqua, Philip C.; Keating, Christine D.

    2014-08-01

    Artificial bioreactors are desirable for in vitro biochemical studies and as protocells. A key challenge is maintaining a favourable internal environment while allowing substrate entry and product departure. We show that semipermeable, size-controlled bioreactors with aqueous, macromolecularly crowded interiors can be assembled by liposome stabilization of an all-aqueous emulsion. Dextran-rich aqueous droplets are dispersed in a continuous polyethylene glycol (PEG)-rich aqueous phase, with coalescence inhibited by adsorbed ~130-nm diameter liposomes. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and dynamic light scattering data indicate that the liposomes, which are PEGylated and negatively charged, remain intact at the interface for extended time. Inter-droplet repulsion provides electrostatic stabilization of the emulsion, with droplet coalescence prevented even for submonolayer interfacial coatings. RNA and DNA can enter and exit aqueous droplets by diffusion, with final concentrations dictated by partitioning. The capacity to serve as microscale bioreactors is established by demonstrating a ribozyme cleavage reaction within the liposome-coated droplets.

  18. A Dewetting Model for Double-Emulsion Droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanxiao Kang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of double-emulsion droplets is of great importance for the application of microdroplets and microparticles. We study the driving force of the dewetting process, the equilibrium configuration and the dewetting time of double-emulsion droplets. Through energy analysis, we find that the equilibrium configuration of a partial engulfed droplet depends on a dimensionless interfacial tension determined by the three relevant interfacial tensions, and the engulfing part of the inner phase becomes larger as the volume of the outer phase increases. By introducing a dewetting boundary, the dewetting time can be calculated by balancing the driving force, caused by interfacial tensions, and the viscous force. Without considering the momentum change of the continuous phase, the dewetting time is an increasing function against the viscosity of the outer phase and the volume ratio between the outer phase and inner phase.

  19. On the transport of emulsions in porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortis, Andrea; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.

    2007-06-27

    Emulsions appear in many subsurface applications includingbioremediation, surfactant-enhanced remediation, and enhancedoil-recovery. Modeling emulsion transport in porous media is particularlychallenging because the rheological and physical properties of emulsionsare different from averages of the components. Current modelingapproaches are based on filtration theories, which are not suited toadequately address the pore-scale permeability fluctuations and reductionof absolute permeability that are often encountered during emulsiontransport. In this communication, we introduce a continuous time randomwalk based alternative approach that captures these unique features ofemulsion transport. Calculations based on the proposed approach resultedin excellent match with experimental observations of emulsionbreakthrough from the literature. Specifically, the new approach explainsthe slow late-time tailing behavior that could not be fitted using thestandard approach. The theory presented in this paper also provides animportant stepping stone toward a generalizedself-consistent modeling ofmultiphase flow.

  20. Optimisation of bitumen emulsion properties for ballast stabilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Angelo, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Thom, N.

    2017-01-01

    Ballasted track, while providing economical and practical advantages, is associated with high costs and material consumption due to frequent maintenance. More sustainable alternatives to conventional ballasted trackbeds should therefore aim at extending its durability, particularly considering ongoing increases in traffic speed and loads. In this regard, the authors have investigated a solution consisting of bitumen stabilised ballast (BSB), designed to be used for new trackbeds as well as in reinforcing existing ones. This study presents the idea behind the technology and then focuses on a specific part of its development: the optimisation of bitumen emulsion properties and dosage in relation to ballast field conditions. Results showed that overall bitumen stabilisation improved ballast resistance to permanent deformation by enhancing stiffness and damping properties. Scenarios with higher dosage of bitumen emulsion, higher viscosity, quicker setting behaviour, and harder base bitumen seem to represent the most desirable conditions to achieve enhanced in-field performance. [es

  1. Various aspects of ultrasound assisted emulsion polymerization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkut, Ibrahim; Bayramoglu, Mahmut

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, the effects of ultrasonic (US) power, pulse ratio, probe area and recipe composition were investigated on two process responses namely, monomer (methyl methacrylate, MMA) conversion and electrical energy consumption per mass of product polymer (PMMA). Pulsed mode US is more suitable than continuous mode US for emulsion polymerization. The probe (tip) area has little effect on the yield of polymerization when comparing 19 and 13 mm probes, 13 mm probe performing slightly better for high conversion levels. Meanwhile, large probe area is beneficial for high conversion efficiency of electric energy to US energy as well as for high radical generation yield per energy consumed. The conversion increased slightly and electrical energy consumption decreased substantially by using a recipe with high SDS and monomer concentrations. Conclusions presented in this paper may be useful for scale-up of US assisted emulsion polymerization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of irradiated pork on physicochemical properties of meat emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Sung, Jung-Min; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-02-01

    The effect of pork irradiated with doses up to 10 kGy on meat emulsions formulated with carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) was investigated. Raw pork was vacuums packaged at a thickness of 2.0 cm and irradiated by X-ray linear accelerator (15 kW, 5 MeV). The emulsion had higher lightness, myofibrillar protein solubility, total protein solubility, and apparent viscosity with increasing doses, whereas cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, and hardness decreased. There were no significant differences in fat separation, sarcoplasmic protein solubility, springiness, and cohesiveness. Our results indicated that it is treatment by ionizing radiation which causes the effects the physicochemical properties of the final raw meat product.

  3. Monitoring emulsion homopolymerization reactions using FT-Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Reis

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes a methodology for estimation of monomer concentration during homopolymerization reactions by Raman spectroscopy. The estimation is done using linear models based on two different approaches: a univariate approach and a multivariate approach (with principal component regression, PCR, or partial least squares regression, PLS. The linear models are fitted with data from spectra collected from synthetic samples, i.e., samples prepared by dispersing a known concentration of monomer in polymer emulsions. Homopolymerizations of butyl acrylate and of vinyl acetate were monitored by collecting samples from the reactor, and results show that the methodology is efficient for the model fitting and that Raman spectroscopy is a promising technique for on-line monitoring of the emulsion polymerization process.

  4. Lipid oxidation in omega-3 emulsions prepared with milk proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Andersen, Ulf

    An increasing body of evidence supports the health beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Therefore, incorporation of marine oils into foods has also gained an increasing interest. However, the highly unsaturated lipids present in marine oils are prone to lipid oxidation......, and their addition to foods is therefore limited by the development of unpleasant off-flavors. Hence, efficient strategies are necessary to protect the lipids and thereby make fish oil-enriched food products successful in the marketplace. In an attempt to increase the oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched food...... stable product. Thus, a better understanding of factors influencing lipid oxidation in delivery emulsions themselves is therefore needed to understand the differences observed between food systems. In oil-in-water emulsions, lipid oxidation is expected to be initiated at the oil-water interface...

  5. A novel energy regeneration system for emulsion pump tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilei, Li; Zhencai, Zhu; Guohua, Cao [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China); Guoan, Chen [Command Academy of the Corps of Engineers, Xuzhou (China)

    2013-04-15

    A novel energy regeneration system based on cylinders and a rectifier valve for emulsion pump tests is presented and studied. The overall structure and working principles of this system are introduced. Both simulation and experiments are carried out to investigate the energy regeneration feasibility and capability of this novel system. The simulation and experimental results validate that this system is able to save energy and satisfy the test requirement. The energy recovery coefficient and overall energy regeneration coefficient of the test bench are 0.785 and 0.214, respectively. Measures to improve these two coefficients are also given accordingly after analysis of power loss. This novel system brings a new method of energy regeneration for emulsion pump tests.

  6. Five-dimensional imaging of freezing emulsions with solute effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedovets, Dmytro; Monteux, Cécile; Deville, Sylvain

    2018-04-20

    The interaction of objects with a moving solidification front is a common feature of many industrial and natural processes such as metal processing, the growth of single crystals, the cryopreservation of cells, or the formation of sea ice. Interaction of solidification fronts with objects leads to different outcomes, from total rejection of the objects to their complete engulfment. We imaged the freezing of emulsions in five dimensions (space, time, and solute concentration) with confocal microscopy. We showed that the solute induces long-range interactions that determine the solidification microstructure. The local increase of solute concentration enhances premelting, which controls the engulfment of droplets by the front and the evolution of grain boundaries. Freezing emulsions may be a good analog of many solidification systems where objects interact with a solidification interface. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  7. Photoacoustic monitoring of inhomogeneous curing processes in polystyrene emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas-Luna, M.; Gutierrez-Juarez, G.; Rodriguez-Vizcaino, J.M.; Varela-Nsjera, J.B.; Rodriguez-Palencia, J.M.; Bernal-Alvarado, J.; Sosa, M.; Alvarado-Gil, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The time evolution of the inhomogeneous curing process of polystyrene emulsions is studied using a variant of the conventional photoacoustic (PA) technique. The thermal effusivity, as a function of time, is determined in order to monitor the sintering process of a styrene emulsion in different steps of the manufacturing procedure. PA measurements of thermal effusivity show a sigmoidal growth as a function of time during the curing process. The parameterization of these curves permits the determination of the characteristic curing time and velocity of the process. A decreasing of the curing time and an increasing curing velocity for the final steps of the manufacturing process are observed. The feasibility of our approach and its potentiality for the characterization of other curing process are discussed. (author)

  8. Nuclear physics with hyperons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povh, B.

    1981-01-01

    Results of hypernuclear spectroscopy and their interpretations are presented. The kinematical properties and, in particular, the distortion in strangeness exchange reactions are considered and experimental methods developed for hypernuclear spectroscopy discussed. The present understanding and knowledge of the Λ-nucleus interaction obtained from classical emulsion work on the ground state of light hypernuclei and the systematic study of the (K - , π - ) reaction on nuclei in more recent counter experiments are reviewed. The problem of the quasiparticle behaviour in nuclear matter is considered in the light of interactions. Finally recent results on the Σ-nucleus interactions are presented. (U.K.)

  9. Factors Influencing the Effect of Milkbased Emulsifiers on Lipid Oxidation in Omega-3 Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt

    and thereby protect the fatty acids in an emulsion before they are added to the food product. However, the use of these so-called delivery emulsions in different food products has shown contradictory results. On this background, the overall goal of the present PhD work was to increase our knowledge about...... for preparing the delivery emulsions. Independent of the introduction method of fish oil to cream cheese (neat oil vs a 70% delivery emulsion), the fish oil enriched cream cheese oxidized during a 20 weeks storage period to a degree where the sensory quality of the product was significantly impacted. However......, the aim was to utilize this knowledge for designing delivery emulsions for the addition of fish oil to foods, and thereby achieve oxidatively stable fish oil enriched products. In simple emulsions, sodium caseinate, whey protein isolate, soy lecithin and combinations of milk proteins and milk...

  10. Effects of different dairy ingredients on the rheological behaviour and stability of hot cheese emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelimu, Abulimiti; Felix da Silva, Denise; Geng, Xiaolu

    2017-01-01

    The influence of sodium caseinate (SC), butter milk powder (BMP) and their combinations on particle size, rheological properties, emulsion stability and microstructure of hot cheese emulsions made from mixtures of Cheddar and soft white cheese was studied. All emulsions exhibited shear-thinning f......The influence of sodium caseinate (SC), butter milk powder (BMP) and their combinations on particle size, rheological properties, emulsion stability and microstructure of hot cheese emulsions made from mixtures of Cheddar and soft white cheese was studied. All emulsions exhibited shear......-thinning flow behaviour and increasing SC concentration (1–4%) led to an increase in particle size and a decrease in apparent viscosity. In contrast, increasing BMP concentration caused significant decrease in particle size and slightly reduced the apparent viscosity. Stability against creaming...

  11. Foamed emulsion drainage: flow and trapping of drops

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Maxime; Zou, Ziqiang; Langevin, Dominique; Salonen, Anniina

    2017-01-01

    Foamed emulsions are ubiquitous in our daily life but the ageing of such systems is still poorly understood. In this study we investigate foam drainage and measure the evolution of the gas, liquid and oil volume fractions inside the foam. We evidence three regimes of ageing. During an initial period of fast drainage, both bubbles and drops are very mobile. As the foam stabilises drainage proceeds leading to a gradual decrease of the liquid fraction and slowing down of drainage. Clusters of oi...

  12. Farco Mining makes productivity gains using emulsion-Anfo blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, N. [Nelson Brothers, Inc., Parrish, AL (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Describes the use of a 40:60 emulsion: Auto blend for overburden removal at Farco Minings surface coal mine near Laredo, Texas. The use of this explosives mixture maximized the explosive per foot of blasthole, increasing overburden removal to 925,000 buy per month and improving mine productivity. Increases in powder factors produced further increases in cast yardage and mine production. 2 figs.

  13. Fluid emulsion base potential of shea butter | Oyedele | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SB emulsion formulations were prepared from the fluid SB/LP blends by homogenizing each at 1:9 ratio (v/v) with potassium hydroxide (KOH) aqueous solution (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 M concentration, respectively), and with 0.2 M KOH at different mixing ratios (2:8, 3:7, 4:6, or 5:5 v/v), respectively. The physical consistency and ...

  14. Modulation of Cyclodextrin Particle Amphiphilic Properties to Stabilize Pickering Emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Yongkang; Luo, Zhigang; Lu, Xuanxuan; Peng, Xichun

    2018-01-10

    Cyclodextrins have been proven to form complexes with linear oil molecules and stabilize emulsions. Amphiphilic properties of cyclodextrin particles were modulated through esterification reaction between β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and octadecenyl succinic anhydride (ODSA) under alkaline conditions. ODS-β-CD particles with degree of substitution (DS) of 0.003, 0.011, and 0.019 were obtained. The introduced hydrophobic long chain that was linked within β-CD cavity led to the change of ODS-β-CD in terms of morphological structure, surface charge density, size, and contact angle, upon which the properties and stability of the emulsions stabilized by ODS-β-CD were highly dependent. The average diameter of ODS-β-CD particles ranged from 449 to 1484 nm. With the DS increased from 0.003 to 0.019, the contact angle and absolute zeta potential value of these ODS-β-CD particles improved from 25.7° to 47.3° and 48.1 to 62.8 mV, respectively. The cage structure of β-CD crystals was transformed to channel structure, then further to amorphous structure after introduction of the octadecenyl succinylation chain. ODS-β-CD particles exhibited higher emulsifying ability compared to β-CD. The resulting Pickering emulsions formed by ODS-β-CD particles were more stable during storage. This study investigates the ability of these ODS-β-CD particles to stabilize oil-in-water emulsions with respect to their amphiphilic character and structural properties.

  15. FORMULATION AND STABILITY EVALUATION OF BAUHINIA VARIEGATA EXTRACT TOPICAL EMULSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsin, Sabeeh; Akhtar, Naveed

    2017-05-01

    This study presents the results for the development of water in oil (W/O) emulsion containing 2 % Bauhinia variegata (BV) extract with good antioxidant potential for cosmetic application. Different ratios of surfactant, oil and water were investigated to optimize the ratio of ingredients. It was found that emulsifier and oil4ratio were important in improving the stability of emulsion. The formulation having 2.5% Abil EM90, 12% liquid paraffin, 83.5% distilled water and 2% BV extract was found to be most stable. Stability of the formulation was further evaluated by characterizing for organoleptic, sedimentation, microscopic and rheological properties at a range of storage conditions for a period of 12 weeks. Experimental findings showed stable formulation behavior with respect to color change, liquefaction and phase separation. Centrifugation test was carried out to predict the long term stability..The rheological parameters were evaluated from Power Law and the flow index value less than 1 suggested non-Newtonian behavior of the W/O emulsion. The mean droplet size of the internal phase of freshly prepared formulation was 4.06 ? 1.99 pm that did not change significantly (p > 0.05) during the storage. The newly developed formulation exhibited promising attributes over long term storage and open opportunities for the topical delivery of natural antioxidants for cosmetic and pharmaceutical objectives.

  16. Olive Oil Based Emulsions in Frozen Puff Pastry Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, D.; Migliori, M.; Lupi, F. R.; de Cindio, B.

    2008-07-01

    Puff pastry is an interesting food product having different industrial applications. It is obtained by laminating layers of dough and fats, mainly shortenings or margarine, having specific properties which provides required spreading characteristic and able to retain moisture into dough. To obtain these characteristics, pastry shortenings are usually saturated fats, however the current trend in food industry is mainly oriented towards unsatured fats such as olive oil, which are thought to be safer for human health. In the present work, a new product, based on olive oil, was studied as shortening replacer in puff pastry production. To ensure the desired consistency, for the rheological matching between fat and dough, a water-in-oil emulsion was produced based on olive oil, emulsifier and a hydrophilic thickener agent able to increase material structure. Obtained materials were characterized by rheological dynamic tests in linear viscoelastic conditions, aiming to setup process and material consistency, and rheological data were analyzed by using the weak gel model. Results obtained for tested emulsions were compared to theological properties of a commercial margarine, adopted as reference value for texture and stability. Obtained emulsions are characterized by interesting rheological properties strongly dependent on emulsifier characteristics and water phase composition. However a change in process temperature during fat extrusion and dough lamination seems to be necessary to match properly typical dough rheological properties.

  17. Photographic emulsion versus bubble chambers in charm and beauty searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacton, J.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses the use of visual detectors in the search for charm and other flavors. The photographic emulsion and the bubble chamber techniques are compared. The main difficulties encounted in searching for charmed and beautiful hadrons are related to the short lifetimes of these particles and to their small production cross-sections, even at SPS energies. Resolution, visibility, the data analysis rate, and exposure time are considered. Most of the charmed hadrons present a large variety of decay modes of which only a fraction has been identified to date. First results from CESR indicate that the average charged particle multiplicity in the hadronic decay of beautiful hadrons is as high as 6.31 + or - 0.35; no B meson decay has yet been kinematically reconstructed. The case of hadronic charmed particle production at SPS energies is examined. The data show that 1) the bubble chamber technique (high resolution or holographic optics) is well suited to the study of charmed hadrons with lifetimes in the range 10 -13 to 10 -12 s; 2) searches for beautiful hadrons remain presently a domain for triggered emulsion experiments due to the smallness of the production cross-sections (provided the lifetime is not much shorter than 10 -14 s); and 3) for particles of lifetimes shorter than a few times 10 -14 s the emulsion technique is still without competitor

  18. Characterization and stability studies of emulsion systems containing pumice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Estanqueiro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Emulsions are the most common form of skin care products. However, these systems may exhibit some instability. Therefore, when developing emulsions for topical application it is interesting to verify whether they have suitable physical and mechanical characteristics and further assess their stability. The aim of this work was to study the stability of emulsion systems, which varied in the proportion of the emulsifying agent cetearyl alcohol (and sodium lauryl sulfate (and sodium cetearyl sulfate (LSX, the nature of the oily phase (decyl oleate, cyclomethicone or dimethicone and the presence or absence of pumice (5% w/w. While maintaining the samples at room temperature, rheology studies, texture analysis and microscopic observation of formulations with and without pumice were performed. Samples were also submitted to an accelerated stability study by centrifugation and to a thermal stress test. Through the testing, it was found that the amount of emulsifying agent affects the consistency and textural properties such as firmness and adhesiveness. So, formulations containing LSX (5% w/w and decyl oleate or dimethicone as oily phase had a better consistency and remained stable with time, so exhibited the best features to be used for skin care products.

  19. Hot-wire ignition of AN-based emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcotte, Richard; Goldthorp, Sandra; Badeen, Christopher M. [Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory, Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0G1 (Canada); Chan, Sek Kwan [Orica Canada Inc., Brownsburg-Chatham, Quebec (Canada)

    2008-12-15

    Emulsions based on ammonium nitrate (AN) and water locally ignited by a heat source do not undergo sustained combustion when the pressure is lower than some threshold value usually called the Minimum Burning Pressure (MBP). This concept is now being used by some manufacturers as a basis of safety. However, before a technique to reliably measure MBP values can be designed, one must have a better understanding of the ignition mechanism. Clearly, this is required to avoid under ignitions which could lead to the erroneous interpretation of failures to ignite as failures to propagate. In the present work, facilities to prepare and characterize emulsions were implemented at the Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory. A calibrated hot-wire ignition system operated in a high-pressure vessel was also built. The system was used to study the ignition characteristics of five emulsion formulations as a function of pressure and ignition source current. It was found that these mixtures exhibit complicated pre-ignition stages and that the appearance of endotherms when the pressure is lowered below some threshold value correlates with the MBP. Thermal conductivity measurements using this hot-wire system are also reported. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Emulsion Liquid Membrane Technology in Organic Acid Purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norela Jusoh; Norasikin Othman; Nur Alina Nasruddin

    2016-01-01

    Emulsion Liquid Membrane (ELM) process have shown a great potential in wide application of industrial separations such as in removal of many chemicals, organic compounds, metal ions, pollutants and biomolecules. This system promote many advantages including simple operation, high selectivity, low energy requirement, and single stage extraction and stripping process. One potential application of ELM is in the purification of succinic acid from fermentation broth. This study outline steps for developing emulsion liquid membrane process in purification of succinic acid. The steps include liquid membrane formulation, ELM stability and ELM extraction of succinic acid. Several carrier, diluent and stripping agent was screened to find appropriate membrane formulation. After that, ELM stability was investigated to enhance the recovery of succinic acid. Finally, the performance of ELM was evaluated in the extraction process. Results show that formulated liquid membrane using Amberlite LA2 as carrier, palm oil as diluent and sodium carbonate, Na_2CO_3 as stripping agent provide good performance in purification. On the other hand, the prepared emulsion was observed to be stable up to 1 hour and sufficient for extraction process. In conclusion, ELM has high potential to purify succinic acid from fermentation broth. (author)

  1. Tannin-based monoliths from emulsion-templating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczurek, A.; Martinez de Yuso, A.; Fierro, V.; Pizzi, A.; Celzard, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Efficient preparation procedures are presented for new and “green” tannin-based organic polyHIPEs. • Highest homogeneity and strength are obtained at an oil fraction near the close-packing value. • Structural and mechanical properties abruptly change above such critical value. - Abstract: Highly porous monoliths prepared by emulsion-templating, frequently called polymerised High Internal Phase Emulsions (polyHIPEs) in the literature, were prepared from “green” precursors such as Mimosa bark extract, sunflower oil and ethoxylated castor oil. Various oil fractions, ranging from 43 to 80 vol.%, were used and shown to have a dramatic impact on the resultant porous structure. A critical oil fraction around 70 vol.% was found to exist, close to the theoretical values of 64% and 74% for random and compact sphere packing, respectively, at which the properties of both emulsions and derived porous monoliths changed. Such change of behaviour was observed by many different techniques such as viscosity, electron microscopy, mercury intrusion, and mechanical studies. We show and explain why this critical oil fraction is the one leading to the strongest and most homogeneous porous monoliths

  2. Effectiveness of perfluorochemical emulsions and carbogen breathing with fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulder, J.E.; Fish, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    Oxygen-carrying perfluorochemical emulsions have been shown to enhance the response of experimental tumors to large single doses of radiation. Clinically, however, perfluorochemical emulsions will be used with only some fractions of multiple fraction radiation courses. To test the efficacy of a perfluorochemical emulsion (Fluosol-DA 20%, supplied by Alpha Therapeutic Co) under these conditions, BA1112 rat sarcomas were treated with three fractions/week of 6.25 Gy/fraction. Once a week, animals were given Fluosol-DA at 15 ml/kg, and allowed to breathe 95% O/sub 2/:5% CO/sub 2/ (carbogen) for 30 min prior to and during irradiation. The tumor regression rate during treatment was significantly greater in the Fluosol arm than in the control arm. Preliminary data analysis shows a 50% tumor control dose of 86.0 Gy (95% cl:78.0 - 94.3 Gy) in the control arm compared to 69.1 Gy (95% cl:58.3 - 77.3 Gy) in the Fluosol arm. The dose modification factor for intermittent Fluosol and carbogen breathing is 1.26 (95% cl:1.08 - 1.50). In the same fractionated schedule 0.4 mg/kg misonidazole, given once per week, gave a sensitizer enhancement ratio of 1.15 (95% cl:1.03 - 1.33)

  3. Electric field induced instabilities in free emulsion films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tchoukov, P.; Dabros, T. [Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada); Mostowfi, F. [Schlumberger DBR Technology Center, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Panchev, N. [Champion Technologies Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Czarnecki, J. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2009-07-01

    This presentation reported on a study that investigated the mechanism of electric field-induced breakdown of free emulsion films. Instability patterns were observed on the plane of a water-oil-water film following electric polarization. The length-scales of the instabilities were measured by analyzing images immediately after applying the electric field. Linear stability analysis was used to calculate the theoretical dominant wavelengths. The calculated values were found to be in good agreement with measured values. The films were formed in a thin film apparatus modified so that the oil film separated 2 aqueous phase compartments, each in contact with a platinum electrode. This enabled the measurement of disjoining pressure while applying the electric field to the film. It was concluded that breakdown of thin films induced by electric field has many applications, including electrostatic de-emulsification/desalination of crude oil and emulsion stability measurements. It was concluded that electroporation and dielectric breakdown may be responsible for electric field-induced breakdown. This study also presented evidence of an increase in electric field-induced instabilities in emulsion films resulting in rupture. tabs., figs.

  4. Breaking emulsions in Navy bilge collection and treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, R.C.; Patterson, R.L.

    1978-05-01

    A new bilge waste collection and treatment system, which serves as the collector, transporter, and gravity separator for ship's bilge waste, was used as a medium for the application of chemical demulsification techniques to emulsified oily wastes that are reluctant to separate into the constituent phases. Laboratory tests on 27 demulsifying agents showed that three cation active quaternary ammonium salts were acceptable. They were effective in breaking 5% oil-in-sea-water emulsions over a 20 hr period at 4/sup 0/-45/sup 0/C. The demuslifier concentration required to break the emulsions generally ranged from 1-2% at 4/sup 0/C to 0.1-0.2% at 45/sup 0/C. At 4/sup 0/C, the oil concentration in the separated water was in the 100-500 ppm range; at 45/sup 0/C, no more than 55 ppm was observed with most oil level readings of the order of 25 ppm or less. The demulsifiers were useful in breaking emulsions of Navy distillate oil, used motor oil, turbine oil, and bilge wastes containing unknown oil mixtures. A field demonstration supported the laboratory tests.

  5. Cosmetic Potential of a Liotropic Liquid Crystal Emulsion Containing Resveratrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bonato Alves Oliveira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is a natural substance that has been the target of many researchers over the years since it presents a variety of potential applications in the areas of cosmetics and medicine as a treatment for some diseases. Due to its high antioxidant capacity but low bioavailability, we evaluated the antiaging potential of resveratrol as a liotropic liquid crystal emulsion. Initially, we performed in vitro assays to quantify both the organoleptic characteristics and stability of the emulsion. Next, an in vivo trial was performed on the faces of 30 volunteers to determine the cream’s cosmetic potential and to measure porphyrins, skin barrier function, skin pigmentation, expression lines, and porosity. The emulsion maintained its characteristics during the in vitro assays and, in the in vivo trial, it had some effect only on pore size in forehead, without any significant effects on the other parameters. We had 6 dropouts throughout the study, then the final number of volunteers was 24. Most volunteers did not show any changes in skin pigmentation throughout the study. Similarly, there was not any noticeable improvement on any other parameters evaluated. However, volunteers related a high level of satisfaction with the product.

  6. Neurotrophic effects of perfluorocarbon emulsion gel: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaacs Jonathan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Positive neurotrophic effects of hyperbaric oxygen treatment may be more easily achieved by applying a Perflourocarbon (PFC emulsion gel to the repair site. PFCs are halogen substituted carbon oils with unique oxygen transport potentials that are capable of increasing oxygen availability in local tissues. The purpose of this study was to determine if the application of a PFC emulsion to a repaired nerve would improve recovery. Materials and methods The left tibial nerve of 21 immature female Sprague-Dawley rats was transected, immediately repaired, and then circumferentially coated with PFC gel (Group A, n = 7, PFC-less gel (Group B, n = 7, or nothing (suture only, Group C, n = 7. At eight weeks post surgery, electrophysiological testing and histological and morphological analysis was performed. Results No statistically significant differences between experimental groups were found for muscle size and weight, axon counts, or nerve conduction velocity. Group A had a significantly smaller G-ratio than Groups B and C (p Conclusion Overall results do not indicate a functional benefit associated with application of a PFC emulsion gel to rodent tibial nerve repairs. A positive effect on myelination was seen.

  7. The development of polyurethane modified bitumen emulsions for cold mix applications

    OpenAIRE

    Carrera Páez, Virginia; Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad; García Morales, Moisés; Partal López, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Bitumen emulsions stand for an alternative paving practice to the traditional hot-mix asphalts. In addition, modified bitumen emulsions show a better performance than unmodified ones. This work studies the feasibility of obtaining polyurethane modified bitumen emulsions, in which an isocyanate-functionalized polyol constitutes the bitumen modifier (in varying concentration from 1 to 4 wt.%). Storage stability and high in-service performance are evaluated by means of evolution of droplet size ...

  8. Physico-chemical characterization of nano-emulsions in cosmetic matrix enriched on omega-3

    OpenAIRE

    Kabri, Tin-hinan; Arab-Tehrany, Elmira; Belhaj, Nabila; Linder, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Nano-emulsions, as non-equilibrium systems, present characteristics and properties which depend not only on composition but also on their method of preparation. To obtain better penetration, nanocosmeceuticals use nano-sized systems for the delivery of active ingredients to targeted cells. In this work, nano-emulsions composed of miglyol, rapeseed oil and salmon oil were developed as a cosmetic matrix. Measurements of different physico-chemical properties of nano-emulsions...

  9. Homogenization Pressure and Temperature Affect Protein Partitioning and Oxidative Stability of Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Barouh, Nathalie; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2013-01-01

    The oxidative stability of 10 % fish oil-in-water emulsions was investigated for emulsions prepared under different homogenization conditions. Homogenization was conducted at two different pressures (5 or 22.5 MPa), and at two different temperatures (22 and 72 °C). Milk proteins were used...... prior to homogenization did not have any clear effect on lipid oxidation in either of the two types of emulsions....

  10. Anomalous nuclear fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmanov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental data are given, the status of anomalon problem is discussed, theoretical approaches to this problem are outlined. Anomalons are exotic objects formed following fragmentation of nuclei-targets under the effect of nuclei - a beam at the energy of several GeV/nucleon. These nuclear fragments have an anomalously large cross section of interaction and respectively, small free path, considerably shorter than primary nuclei have. The experimental daa are obtained in accelerators following irradiation of nuclear emulsions by 16 O, 56 Fe, 40 Ar beams, as well as propane by 12 C beams. The experimental data testify to dependence of fragment free path on the distance L from the point of the fragment formation. A decrease in the fragment free path is established more reliably than its dependence on L. The problem of the anomalon existence cannot be yet considered resolved. Theoretical models suggested for explanation of anomalously large cross sections of nuclear fragment interaction are variable and rather speculative

  11. High-Surface-Area, Emulsion-Templated Carbon Foams by Activation of polyHIPEs Derived from Pickering Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert T. Woodward

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon foams displaying hierarchical porosity and excellent surface areas of >1400 m2/g can be produced by the activation of macroporous poly(divinylbenzene. Poly(divinylbenzene was synthesized from the polymerization of the continuous, but minority, phase of a simple high internal phase Pickering emulsion. By the addition of KOH, chemical activation of the materials is induced during carbonization, producing Pickering-emulsion-templated carbon foams, or carboHIPEs, with tailorable macropore diameters and surface areas almost triple that of those previously reported. The retention of the customizable, macroporous open-cell structure of the poly(divinylbenzene precursor and the production of a large degree of microporosity during activation leads to tailorable carboHIPEs with excellent surface areas.

  12. Relative viscosity of emulsions in simple shear flow: Temperature, shear rate, and interfacial tension dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Se Bin; Lee, Joon Sang [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei Unversity, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    We simulate an emulsion system under simple shear rates to analyze its rheological characteristics using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). We calculate the relative viscosity of an emulsion under a simple shear flow along with changes in temperature, shear rate, and surfactant concentration. The relative viscosity of emulsions decreased with an increase in temperature. We observed the shear-thinning phenomena, which is responsible for the inverse proportion between the shear rate and viscosity. An increase in the interfacial tension caused a decrease in the relative viscosity of the decane-in-water emulsion because the increased deformation caused by the decreased interfacial tension significantly influenced the wall shear stress.

  13. Development of soy lecithin based novel self-assembled emulsion hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vinay K; Pandey, Preeti M; Agarwal, Tarun; Kumar, Dilip; Banerjee, Indranil; Anis, Arfat; Pal, Kunal

    2015-03-01

    The current study reports the development and characterization of soy lecithin based novel self-assembled emulsion hydrogels. Sesame oil was used as the representative oil phase. Emulsion gels were formed when the concentration of soy lecithin was >40% w/w. Metronidazole was used as the model drug for the drug release and the antimicrobial tests. Microscopic study showed the apolar dispersed phase in an aqueous continuum phase, suggesting the formation of emulsion hydrogels. FTIR study indicated the formation of intermolecular hydrogen bonding, whereas, the XRD study indicated predominantly amorphous nature of the emulsion gels. Composition dependent mechanical and drug release properties of the emulsion gels were observed. In-depth analyses of the mechanical studies were done using Ostwald-de Waele power-law, Kohlrausch and Weichert models, whereas, the drug release profiles were modeled using Korsmeyer-Peppas and Peppas-Sahlin models. The mechanical analyses indicated viscoelastic nature of the emulsion gels. The release of the drug from the emulsion gels was diffusion mediated. The drug loaded emulsion gels showed good antimicrobial activity. The biocompatibility test using HaCaT cells (human keratinocytes) suggested biocompatibility of the emulsion gels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Emulsions: the cutting edge of development in blasting agent technology - a method for economic comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayat, M.G.; Allen, S.G.

    1988-03-01

    This work examines the history and development of blasting agents beginning with ANFO in the 1950's and concluding with a specific look at the 1980's blasting technology: the emulsion. Properties of emulsions and Emulsion Blend Explosive Systems are compared with ANFO and a method of comparing their costs, useful for comparing any two explosives, is developed. Based on this comparison, the Emulsion Blend Explosive System is determined superior to ANFO on the basis of cost per unit of overburden broken. 4 refs.

  15. Emulsifier type, metal chelation and pH affect oxidative stability of n-3-enriched emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Anne-Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    -enriched oil-in-water emulsion. The selected food emulsifiers were Tween 80, Citrem, sodium caseinate and lecithin. Lipid oxidation was evaluated by determination of peroxide values and secondary volatile oxidation products. Moreover, the zeta potential and the droplet sizes were determined. Twen resulted...... in the least oxidatively stable emulsions, followed by Citrem. When iron was present, caseinate-stabilized emulsions oxidized slower than lecithin emulsions at pH 3, whereas the opposite was the case at pH 7. Oxidation generally progressed faster at pH 3 than at pH 7, irrespective of the addition of iron. EDTA...

  16. Formulation, Characterization and Properties of Hemp Seed Oil and Its Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Mikulcová

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The formulation, characterization, and anticipated antibacterial properties of hemp seed oil and its emulsions were investigated. The oil obtained from the seeds of Cannabis sativa L. in refined and unrefined form was characterized using iodine, saponification, acid values, and gas chromatography, and was employed for the preparation of stable oil-in-water emulsions. The emulsions were prepared using pairs of non-ionic surfactants (Tween, Span. The effects of the emulsification method (spontaneous emulsification vs. high-intensity stirring, hydrophilic lipophilic balance (HLB, type and concentration of surfactant, and oil type on the size and distribution of the emulsion particles were investigated. It was found that the ability to form stable emulsions with small, initial particle sizes is primarily dependent on the given method of preparation and the HLB value. The most efficient method of emulsification that afforded the best emulsions with the smallest particles (151 ± 1 nm comprised the high-energy method, and emulsions stable over the long-term were observed at HBL 9 with 10 wt % concentration of surfactants. Under high-intensity emulsification, refined and unrefined oils performed similarly. The oils as well as their emulsions were tested against the growth of selected bacteria using the disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The antibacterial effect of hemp seed oil was documented against Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus. The formulated emulsions did not exhibit the antibacterial activity that had been anticipated.

  17. Physical stability of R-(+)-Limonene emulsions stabilized by Ulva fasciata algae polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Ping; Ma, Huiling; Qiu, Qiang; Jing, Weiping

    2016-11-01

    The physical stability of R-(+)-Limonene emulsions stabilized by Ulva fasciata polysaccharide (UFP) was investigated in this study. Emulsion physical stability was evaluated under different polysaccharide concentrations (1%-5%, wt/wt) and pH values (3.0-11.0). The stability of R-(+)-Limonene emulsions was demonstrated by droplet size distribution, rheological properties, zeta potential and visual phase separation. R-(+)-Limonene emulsions displayed monomodal droplet size distributions, high absolute values of zeta potential and good storage stability when 3% (wt/wt) UFP was used. The rheological properties and stability of R-(+)-Limonene emulsions appeared to be dependent on polysaccharide concentration. The emulsion stability was impacted by pH. Higher zeta potential (-52.6mV) and smaller mean droplet diameter (2.45μm) were achieved in neutral liquid environment (pH 7.0). Extreme acidity caused the flocculation of emulsions, which was manifested as phase separation, while emulsions were quite stable in an alkaline environment. Through comparing the stabilities of emulsions stabilized by different emulsifiers (i.e. UFP, GA and Gelatin), the result suggested that UFP was the best emulsifying agent among them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Rheological behavior of water-in-oil emulsions stabilized by hydrophobic bentonite particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Bernard P; Clint, John H; Whitby, Catherine P

    2005-06-07

    A study of the rheological behavior of water-in-oil emulsions stabilized by hydrophobic bentonite particles is described. Concentrated emulsions were prepared and diluted at constant particle concentration to investigate the effect of drop volume fraction on the viscosity and viscoelastic response of the emulsions. The influence of the structure of the hydrophobic clay particles in the oil has also been studied by using oils in which the clay swells to very different extents. Emulsions prepared from isopropyl myristate, in which the particles do not swell, are increasingly flocculated as the drop volume fraction increases and the viscosity of the emulsions increases accordingly. The concentrated emulsions are viscoelastic and the elastic storage and viscous loss moduli also increase with increasing drop volume fraction. Emulsions prepared from toluene, in which the clay particles swell to form tactoids, are highly structured due to the formation of an integrated network of clay tactoids and drops, and the moduli of the emulsions are significantly larger than those of the emulsions prepared from isopropyl myristate.

  19. Applications of nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medveczky, L.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a scientific research-work are summarized. Nuclear track detectors were used for new applications or in unusual ways. Photographic films, nuclear emulsions and dielectric track detectors were investigated. The tracks were detected by optical microscopy. Empirical formulation has been derived for the neutron sensitivity of certain dielectric materials. Methods were developed for leak testing of closed alpha emitting sources. New procedures were found for the application and evaluation of track detector materials. The results were applied in the education, personnel dosimetry, radon dosimetry etc. (R.J.)

  20. Engine performance and emissions characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with diesel-biodiesel-bioethanol emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Yie Hua; Abdullah, Mohammad Omar; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Zauzi, Nur Syuhada Ahmad; Abdullah, Georgie Wong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Different composition of diesel fuel, biodiesel and bioethanol emulsions were examined. • The fuels were tested in a direct injection diesel engine and parameters were evaluated. • Engine power, torque, exhaust gas temperature & fuel consumptions were compared. • Emulsions fuels emitted lower CO and CO_2 than fossil diesel. • Lower NOx emission was observed at medium engine speeds and loads for emulsion fuels. - Abstract: In this research work, the experimental investigation of the effect of diesel-biodiesel-bioethanol emulsion fuels on combustion, performance and emission of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine are reported. Four kind of emulsion fuels were employed: B (diesel-80%, biodiesel-20% by volume), C (diesel-80%, biodiesel-15%, bioethanol-5%), D (diesel-80%, biodiesel-10%, bioethanol-10%) and E (diesel-80%, biodiesel-5%, bioethanol-15%) to compare its’ performance with the conventional diesel, A. These emulsion fuels were prepared by mechanical homogenizer machine with the help of Tween 80 (1% v/v) and Span 80 (0.5% v/v) as surfactants. The emulsion characteristics were determined by optical electron microscope, emulsification stability test, FTIR, and the physiochemical properties of the emulsion fuels which were all done by following ASTM test methods. The prepared emulsion fuels were then tested in diesel engine test bed to obtain engine performance and exhaust emissions. All the engine experiments were conducted with engine speeds varying from 1600 to 2400 rpm. The results showed the heating value and density of the emulsion fuels decrease as the bioethanol content in the blend increases. The total heating value of the diesel-biodiesel-bioethanol fuels were averagely 21% higher than the total heating value of the pure biodiesel and slightly lower (2%) than diesel fuel. The engine power, torque and exhaust gas temperature were reduced when using emulsion fuels. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) for the emulsion fuels

  1. Effects of a fish oil-based emulsion on rat hepatoma cell invasion in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagi, Akifumi; Nakayama, Mitsuo; Miura, Yutaka; Yagasaki, Kazumi

    2007-01-01

    Total parenteral nutrition containing a lipid emulsion is often employed after surgical tumor resection. This study investigated the effects of a fish oil-based infusion on rat hepatoma cell invasion. Rat ascites hepatoma cell line AH109A was precultured with a fish oil-based or safflower oil-based emulsion for 48 h. Changes in membranous fatty acid composition were evaluated by gas chromatography. The invasiveness of hepatoma cells was assessed by coculturing with mesentery-derived mesothelial cells. To examine ex vivo effects of the fish oil-based infusion on hepatoma invasion, sera were prepared from rats infused with fish oil- or safflower oil-based emulsion and the effects of these sera were assessed. To clarify the mechanism of inhibition of invasion by the fish oil-based emulsion, the effects of prostaglandin (PG) E(2) and PGE(3) on invasion were examined. Pretreatment with the fish oil-based emulsion reduced invasiveness without affecting growth compared with the safflower oil-based emulsion. Pretreatment with the sera from rats infused with the fish oil-based emulsion also reduced invasiveness compared with the sera from rats infused with the safflower oil-based emulsion. The addition of PGE(2) eliminated the inhibitory effect of the fish oil-based emulsion, and the addition of PGE(3) reduced the invasiveness of hepatoma cells pretreated with the safflower oil-based emulsion. These results suggest that the fish oil-based emulsion may have anti-invasive effects. Changes in the membranous fatty acid composition and consequent changes in the prostaglandins produced may be involved in this inhibitory effect.

  2. Emulsion design for the delivery of β-carotene in complex food systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Like; Wang, Di; Liu, Fuguo; Gao, Yanxiang

    2018-03-24

    β-Carotene has been widely investigated both in the industry and academia, due to its unique bioactive attributes as an antioxidant and pro-vitamin A. Many attempts were made to design delivery systems for β-carotene to improve its dispersant state and chemical stability, and finally to enhance the functionality. Different types of oil-in-water emulsions were proved to be effective delivery systems for lipophilic bioactive ingredients, and intensive studies were performed on β-carotene emulsions in the last decade. Emulsions are thermodynamically unstable, and emulsions with intact structures are preferable in delivering β-carotene during processing and storage. β-Carotene in emulsions with smaller particle size has poor stability, and protein-type emulsifiers and additional antioxidants are effective in protecting β-carotene from degradation. Recent development in the design of protein-polyphenol conjugates has provided a novel approach to improve the stability of β-carotene emulsions. When β-carotene is consumed, its bioaccessibility is highly influenced by the digestion of lipids, and β-carotene in smaller oil droplets containing long-chain fatty acids has a higher bioaccessibility. In order to better deliver β-carotene in complex food products, some novel emulsions with tailor-made structures have been developed, e.g., multilayer emulsions, solid lipid particles, Pickering emulsions. This review summarizes the updated understanding of emulsion-based delivery systems for β-carotene, and how emulsions can be better designed to fulfill the benefits of β-carotene in functional foods.

  3. Spatial dose and microdose distribution in tissues. Ionization, nuclear reactions, multiple scattering simulation of beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquot, C.

    1976-01-01

    Computer simulation and nuclear emulsion and gelatin techniques enabled to give the total elastic and inelastic cross sections and to forecast the spatial microdose distributions in cells, nuclei and molecules. For this purpose, the transport of a beam into tissues having a given composition is calculated, the nuclear reactions are generated and the energy depositions in standard planes perpendicular to the beam are recorded

  4. The occurrence of in-mouth coalescence of emulsion droplets in relation to perception of fat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dresselhuis, D.M.; Hoog, de E.H.A.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Aken, van G.A.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the relation between sensitivity of emulsions for in-mouth coalescence and perception of fat-related attributes, such as creaminess as well as the relation with in vivo perceived and ex vivo measured friction. Emulsions with varying expected sensitivity towards in-mouth coalescence were

  5. Phagocytosis and killing of Candida albicans by human neutrophils after exposure to structurally different lipid emulsions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanten, G.J.A.; Curfs, J.H.A.J.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Naber, A.H.J.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To test the hypothesis that structurally different lipid emulsions have distinct immune-modulating properties, we analyzed the elimination of Candida albicans by neutrophils after exposure to various emulsions. METHODS: Neutrophils from 8 volunteers were incubated in physiologic 5 mmol/L

  6. Coalescence and compression in centrifuged emulsions studied with in situ optical microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krebs, T.; Ershov, D.S.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Boom, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    We report an experimental method to investigate droplet dynamics in centrifuged emulsions and its application to study droplet compression and coalescence. The experimental setup permits in situ monitoring of an ensemble of droplets in a centrifuged monolayer of monodisperse emulsion droplets using

  7. Scaling Behavior of Delayed Demixing, Rheology, and Microstructure of Emulsions Flocculated by Depletion and Bridging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijdenstein, T.B.J.; Linden, van der E.; Vliet, van T.; Aken, van G.A.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: This paper describes an experimental comparison of microstructure, rheology, and demixing of bridging- and depletion-flocculated oil-in-water emulsions. Confocal scanning laser microscopy imaging showed that bridging-flocculated emulsions were heterogeneous over larger length scales than

  8. Serum separation and structure of depletion- and bridging-flocculated emulsions: a comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijdenstein, T.B.J.; Winden, van A.J.M.; Vliet, van T.; Aken, van G.A.

    2004-01-01

    Stability against demixing, rheology and microstructure of emulsions that were flocculated by depletion or bridging were compared. Flocculation by depletion and bridging was induced by addition of the polysaccharide carboxy-methylcellulose (CMC) to emulsions that were stabilised by ß-lactoglobulin

  9. Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine Tests with Unstabilized Water-in-Fuel Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    A single-cylinder, four-stroke cycle diesel engine was operated on unstabilized water-in-fuel emulsions. Two prototype devices were used to produce the emulsions on-line with the engine. More than 350 test points were run with baseline diesel fuel an...

  10. An Evaluation of Emulsions in Wear-Metal-in-Oil Analyses | Fischer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The oil samples were treated with acid and emulsified in water (1% w/w) using tetralin as a solvent and Triton X-100 as a surfactant. The performance characteristics (detection limits, accuracy, precision and spike recovery) of the emulsion methodology were evaluated. The calibration for the emulsion method compared ...

  11. Emulsion droplet spreading at air/water interfaces: mechanisms and relevance to the whipping of cream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hotrum, N.E.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords:emulsion, spreading coefficient, surface tension, emulsifier, whipped cream, dairy foam, partial coalescence In this thesis, the interaction between emulsion droplets and expanding air/water interfaces was investigated. The

  12. Food-grade double emulsions as effective fat replacers in meat systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisinaite, Viktorija; Juraite, Dovile; Schroën, Karin; Leskauskaite, Daiva

    2017-01-01

    Double emulsions were used to not only replace 7 and 11% of animal fat in meat products, but also as a way to enhance the product colour. The coarse emulsion containing native beetroot juice as inner water phase, sunflower oil as oil phase and 0.5% whey protein isolate as outer water phase was

  13. Endocytosis of Corn Oil-Caseinate Emulsions In Vitro: Impacts of Droplet Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yuting; Yokoyama, Wally; Yi, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    The relative uptake and mechanisms of lipid-based emulsions of three different particle diameters by Caco-2 cells were studied. The corn oil-sodium caseinate emulsions showed little or no cytotoxicity even at 2 mg/mL protein concentration for any of the three droplet size emulsions. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) of Nile red containing emulsions showed that the lipid-based emulsions were absorbed by Caco-2 cells. A negative correlation between the mean droplet size and cellular uptake was observed. There was a time-dependent and energy-dependent uptake as shown by incubation at different times and treatment with sodium azide a general inhibitor of active transport. The endocytosis of lipid-based emulsions was size-dependent. The internalization of nanoemulsion droplets into Caco-2 cells mainly occurred through clathrin- and caveolae/lipid raft-related pathways, while macropinocytosis route played the most important role for 556 nm emulsion endocytosis as shown by the use of specific pathway inhibitors. Permeability of the emulsion through the apical or basal routes also suggested that active transport may be the main route for lipid-based nanoemulsions. The results may assist in the design and application of lipid-based nanoemulsions in nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals delivery. PMID:29072633

  14. Emulsification technique affects oxidative stability of fish oil-in-water emulsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard

    of this study was therefore to compare lipid oxidation in 10% fish oil-in-water emulsions prepared by two different kinds of high pressure homogenizers i.e. a microfluidizer and a two valve high pressure homogenizer. Emulsions were made with equal droplet sizes, and with either 1% sodium caseinate or 1% whey...

  15. Emulsification technique affects oxidative stability of fish oil-in-water emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard

    of this study was to compare lipid oxidation in 10% fish oil-in-water emulsions prepared by two different kinds of high pressure homogenizers i.e. a microfluidizer and a two valve high pressure homogenizer. Emulsions were made with equal droplet sizes, and with either 1% sodium caseinate or 1% whey protein...

  16. Development and characterization of emulsions containing purple rice bran and brown rice oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aims of this study were to characterize purple rice bran oil (PRBO) as extracted from the bran, and to produce and characterize a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil. An emulsion was prepared using PRBO (10%), sodium caseinate (5%) and water (85%). The mixture was sonicated followed ...

  17. Endocytosis of Corn Oil-Caseinate Emulsions In Vitro: Impacts of Droplet Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuting Fan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The relative uptake and mechanisms of lipid-based emulsions of three different particle diameters by Caco-2 cells were studied. The corn oil-sodium caseinate emulsions showed little or no cytotoxicity even at 2 mg/mL protein concentration for any of the three droplet size emulsions. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM of Nile red containing emulsions showed that the lipid-based emulsions were absorbed by Caco-2 cells. A negative correlation between the mean droplet size and cellular uptake was observed. There was a time-dependent and energy-dependent uptake as shown by incubation at different times and treatment with sodium azide a general inhibitor of active transport. The endocytosis of lipid-based emulsions was size-dependent. The internalization of nanoemulsion droplets into Caco-2 cells mainly occurred through clathrin- and caveolae/lipid raft-related pathways, while macropinocytosis route played the most important role for 556 nm emulsion endocytosis as shown by the use of specific pathway inhibitors. Permeability of the emulsion through the apical or basal routes also suggested that active transport may be the main route for lipid-based nanoemulsions. The results may assist in the design and application of lipid-based nanoemulsions in nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals delivery.

  18. Uncoupling the Impact of Fracture Properties and Composition on Sensory Perception of Emulsion-Filled Gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devezeaux de Lavergne, Marine; Strijbosch, V.M.G.; Broek, Van den A.W.M.; Velde, Van de Fred; Stieger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of fracture properties and composition of emulsion-filled gels on dynamic texture perception. Twelve emulsion-filled gels varying in fracture stress (High/Low) and strain (High/Low) were prepared from three binary gel mixtures. Mechanical

  19. Food gels filled with emulsion droplets : linking large deformation properties to sensory perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala, G.

    2007-01-01

    Key words: polymer gels, particle gels, emulsion, large deformation, friction, sensory This thesis reports studies on the large deformation and lubrication properties of emulsion-filled gels and the way these properties are related to the sensory perception of the gels. The design of the studies

  20. Absorption properties of water-in-oil emulsions in the low THz frequency range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe; Folkenberg, Jacob Riis; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    We use transmission THz spectroscopy to investigate the absorption properties of water-in-oil emulsions with water content varying in the 0-20% range, relevant for a range of food products. We find that at low frequencies the effective absorption coefficient of the emulsion is suppressed compared...... to bulk water....

  1. Measurement and three dimensional reconstruction of particle tracks in emulsion chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, S.

    1989-01-01

    A software package for making fast and accurate measurements of particle tracks in emulsion chambers is described. In a chamber, which is designed for high particle multiplicities, the emulsion layers are interspersed with air and placed perpendicular to the beam direction during exposure. (orig.)

  2. Transition from Spherical to Irregular Dispersed Phase in Water/Oil Emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, M.; Limage, S.; Grigoriev, D.O.; Krägel, J.; Dutschk, Victoria; Vincent-Bonnieu, S.; Miller, R.; Antoni, M.

    2014-01-01

    Bulk properties of transparent and dilute water in paraffin oil emulsions stabilized with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) are analyzed by optical scanning tomography. Each scanning shot of the considered emulsions has a precision of 1 mu m. The influence of aluminum oxide nanoparticles in the structure

  3. Matrix properties affect the sensory perception of emulsion-filled gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala, G.; Wijk, de R.A.; Velde, van de F.; Aken, van G.A.

    2008-01-01

    The breakdown properties and sensory perception of emulsion-filled gels with different matrices were studied at varying emulsion concentrations. The gel matrices used were cold-set whey protein isolate (WPI), gelatin, ¿-carrageenan and a mixture of ¿-carrageenan and ¿-carrageenan. The oil-in-water

  4. Experimental and numerical studies of emulsion formation in a microfluidic T-junction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mbanjwa, MB

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions in T-junction microfluidic channels was studied through experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). W/o emulsions were produced in the microchannels from deionised water and mineral oil...

  5. The emulsifying and tribological properties of modified graphene oxide in oil-in-water emulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Yinglei; Zeng, Xiangqiong; Ren, Tianhui; de Vries, Erik G.; van der Heide, Emile

    2017-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) was asymmetric chemically modified with myristyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTAB) to get modified graphene oxide (MGO). This MGO was used as an emulsifier and additive in oil-in-water emulsion. The emulsifying tests showed MGO greatly improved the stability of base emulsion and

  6. Coalescence kinetics of oil-in-water emulsions studied with microfluidics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krebs, T.; Schroen, C.G.P.H.; Boom, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of experiments on the coalescence dynamics in flowing oil-in-water emulsions using an integrated microfluidic device. The microfluidic circuit permits direct observation of shear-induced collisions and coalescence events between emulsion droplets. Three mineral oils with a

  7. Nanostructured barium titanate thin films from nanoparticles obtained by an emulsion precipitation method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudenberg, F.C.M.; Sager, W.F.C.; ten Elshof, Johan E.; Verweij, H.

    2005-01-01

    Spherical non-agglomerated BaTiO3 precursor particles of 3–5 nm size were prepared by an emulsion precipitation method that consisted of the complexation of Ba- and Ti-precursors in separate water-in-decane emulsions, followed by mixing and controlled precipitation upon reactive decomposition of

  8. Membrane modification to avoid wettability changes due to protein adsorption in an emulsion/membrane bioreactor.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroen, C.G.P.H.; Wijers, M.C.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Padt, van der A.; Riet, van 't K.

    1993-01-01

    This study addresses problems encountered with an emulsion/membrane bioreactor. In this reactor, enzyme- (lipase) catalyzed hydrolysis in an emulsion was combined with two in-line separation steps. One is carried out with a hydrophilic membrane, to separate the water phase, the other with a

  9. Complex formation in mixtures of lysozyme-stabilized emulsions and human saliva

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silletti, E.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Norde, W.; Aken, van G.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we studied the interaction between human unstimulated saliva and lysozyme-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions (10 wt/wt% oil phase, 10 mM NaCl, pH 6.7), to reveal the driving force for flocculation of these emulsions. Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) showed formation of

  10. Preparation and Application of Water-in-Oil Emulsions Stabilized by Modified Graphene Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoma Fei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of alkyl chain modified graphene oxides (AmGO with different alkyl chain length and content was fabricated using a reducing reaction between graphene oxide (GO and alkyl amine. Then AmGO was used as a graphene-based particle emulsifier to stabilize Pickering emulsion. Compared with the emulsion stabilized by GO, which was oil-in-water type, all the emulsions stabilized by AmGO were water-in-oil type. The effects of alkyl chain length and alkyl chain content on the emulsion properties of AmGO were investigated. The emulsions stabilized by AmGO showed good stability within a wide range of pH (from pH = 1 to pH = 13 and salt concentrations (from 0.1 to 1000 mM. In addition, the application of water-in-oil emulsions stabilized by AmGO was investigated. AmGO/polyaniline nanocomposite (AmGO/PANi was prepared through an emulsion approach, and its supercapacitor performance was investigated. This research broadens the application of AmGO as a water-in-oil type emulsion stabilizer and in preparing graphene-based functional materials.

  11. Study on superhigh energy γ-ray family events with large-scale Fe emulsion chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Jingru; Lu Suiling; Su Shi

    1990-01-01

    Using a large-scale iron emulsion chamber, a big γ-ray family event with observed energy ΣE r = 7631 TeV was obtained. This paper described the advantages of iron emulsion chamber for studying big families and the characteristics of the event observed, together with a comparison with the Monte-Carlo simulation results

  12. Oil-in-Water Emulsions Stabilized by Saponified Epoxidized Soybean Oil-Grafted Hydroxyethyl Cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xujuan; Li, Qiaoguang; Liu, He; Shang, Shibin; Shen, Minggui; Song, Jie

    2017-05-03

    An oil-in-water emulsion stabilized by saponified epoxidized soybean oil-grafted hydroxyethyl cellulose (H-ESO-HEC) was investigated. By using an ultrasonic method, oil-in-water emulsions were prepared by blending 50 wt % soybean oil and 50 wt % H-ESO-HEC aqueous suspensions. The influence of H-ESO-HEC concentrations on the properties of oil-in-water emulsions was examined. The H-ESO-HEC concentrations in the aqueous phase varied from 0.02 to 0.40 wt %. When the H-ESO-HEC concentration was 0.4 wt %, the emulsion remained stable for >80 days. The mean droplet sizes of the emulsions decreased by increasing the H-ESO-HEC concentration and extending the ultrasonic time. The adsorption amounts of H-ESO-HEC at the oil-water interface increased when the H-ESO-HEC concentrations in the aqueous phase increased. The rheological property revealed that the apparent viscosity of the H-ESO-HEC-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions increased when the H-ESO-HEC concentrations increased. Steady flow curves indicated an interfacial film formation in the emulsions. The evolution of G', G″, and tan η indicated the predominantly elastic behaviors of all the emulsions.

  13. Performance and behaviour of bitumen emulsion treated road bases in South Africa.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Horak, E

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available Emulsion treatment of granular bases is used mostly as a rehabilitation option in South Africa. Emulsion treated bases (ETBs) have been used on an ad hoc basis in South Africa in the past. Considerable work has gone into the mix design of ETBs...

  14. Sensory analysis of cosmetic powders: personal care ingredients and emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussour, M; Lavarde, M; Pensé-Lhéritier, A-M; Bouton, F

    2017-02-01

    The powders are ingredients increasingly used in the formulation of cosmetic products for the sensory qualities they give. The objective of this study was the development of a lexicon and a referential for sensory characterization of these pure raw materials as well as formulations which contain them. Eleven expert panellists from Ecole de biologie industrielle de Cergy (France) developed a lexicon and a referential based on 12 powders of different chemical natures. The selected attributes were then used for performing a quantitative descriptive profile of two powders and an emulsion containing or not one of these two powders. A lexicon has been established through a consensus approach of the panel. It contains seven attributes that allow the evaluation of the powders in four phases: the appearance, the pickup, the application and the after-feel. This lexicon contains definitions and assessment protocols and provides references products. The quantitative descriptive profile of two powders of the same chemical nature, but different in physical quality showed significant differences in sensory level between products. These same attributes used to evaluate an emulsion containing the powder or not allowed to prove the contribution of these raw materials on the sensory specificities of the emulsion. The lexicon developed in this study can be used for assessment of other powders but also to define the quantities necessary to put in the formulation to meet the sensory characteristics of these raw materials powder. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  15. Fragmentation of Relativistic 56Fe Nuclei in Emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernov, G.M.; Gulamov, K.G.; Gulyamov, U.G.; Navotny, V.Sh.; Petrov, N.V.; Svechnikova, L.N.; Jakobsson, B.; Oskarsson, A.; Otterlund, I.

    1983-03-01

    Experimental data on general characteristics of projectile fragments in inelastic interactions of relativistic 56 Fe nuclei in emulsion (multiplicities, transverse momentum distributions, azimuthal correlations) are presented and discussed. A strong dependence on the mass number of the projectile nucleus is observed for the transverse momenta of the emitted projectile fragments. These fragments exhibit an azimuthal asymmetry caused by the transverse motion of the fragmenting residue, but it is shown that this motion can be responsible only for a part of the increase in the average transverse momentum of the fragments with increasing mass of the projectile. (author)

  16. Modification of natural leather by grafting emulsion copolymerization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badran, A.S.; Nasr, H.E.; El-Halawany, N.R.; Mohamed, W.S.

    2005-01-01

    Grafting emulsion copolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) with butyl acrylate of different molar ratios onto natural leather with different molar ratios was carried out using developed redox initiation system of potassium persulphate (PPS) as an oxidizing agent and some sodium bisulphite adducts as reducing agent, as well as sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) was used as an anionic emulsifier. The grafted leather was characterized via FTIR, SEM and thermal gravimetric analysis. Moreover, the grafted leather was evaluated through water absorption, tensile strength, dyeing performance and hardness measurements. The obtained results revealed that the physical and mechanical properties of the modified leather were enhanced

  17. The Surface Imprinted Polystyrene Beads Prepared via Emulsion Templates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Xiang CHENG; Guang Ling PEI; Ling Gang ZENG; Li Yong ZHANG; Chao LIU

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the surface imprinted cross-linked polystyrene beads were prepared via suspension polymerization with styrene (St), divinylbezene (DVB), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA1788), the mixture of Span 85 and xylene or the mixture of Span 85 and paraffin as monomer, cross-linking agent, dispersion stabilizer and templates, respectively. The results indicate that there are dense cavities on the surface of beads, and the diameter and density of cavity are related with the composition and amount of emulsion template. The forming mechanism of cavity from thermodynamics and dynamics was proposed.

  18. Physical properties of a frozen yogurt fortified with a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to develop and evaluate a frozen yogurt (FY) fortified with a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil (NPRBO). A nano-emulsion with a droplet size range of 150-300 nm was produced by sonication followed by ultra-shear homogenization. The nano-emulsion was mi...

  19. Exploiting the pliability and lateral mobility of Pickering emulsion for enhanced vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yufei; Wu, Jie; Wei, Wei; Du, Yiqun; Wan, Tao; Ma, Xiaowei; An, Wenqi; Guo, Aiying; Miao, Chunyu; Yue, Hua; Li, Shuoguo; Cao, Xuetao; Su, Zhiguo; Ma, Guanghui

    2018-02-01

    A major challenge in vaccine formulations is the stimulation of both the humoral and cellular immune response for well-defined antigens with high efficacy and safety. Adjuvant research has focused on developing particulate carriers to model the sizes, shapes and compositions of microbes or diseased cells, but not antigen fluidity and pliability. Here, we develop Pickering emulsions--that is, particle-stabilized emulsions that retain the force-dependent deformability and lateral mobility of presented antigens while displaying high biosafety and antigen-loading capabilities. Compared with solid particles and conventional surfactant-stabilized emulsions, the optimized Pickering emulsions enhance the recruitment, antigen uptake and activation of antigen-presenting cells, potently stimulating both humoral and cellular adaptive responses, and thus increasing the survival of mice upon lethal challenge. The pliability and lateral mobility of antigen-loaded Pickering emulsions may provide a facile, effective, safe and broadly applicable strategy to enhance adaptive immunity against infections and diseases.

  20. Tailoring the Wettability of Colloidal Particles for Pickering Emulsions via Surface Modification and Roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meina Xiao

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Pickering emulsions are water or oil droplets that are stabilized by colloidal particles and have been intensely studied since the late 90s. The surfactant-free nature of these emulsions has little adverse effects such as irritancy and contamination of environment and typically exhibit enhanced stability compared to surfactant-stabilized emulsions. Therefore, they offer promising applications in cosmetics, food science, controlled release, and the manufacturing of microcapsules and porous materials. The wettability of the colloidal particles is the main parameter determining the formation and stability of Pickering emulsions. Tailoring the wettability by surface chemistry or surface roughness offers considerable scope for the design of a variety of hybrid nanoparticles that may serve as novel efficient Pickering emulsion stabilizers. In this review, we will discuss the recent advances in the development of surface modification of nanoparticles.

  1. Rheology of Emulsion-Filled Gels Applied to the Development of Food Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana M. Geremias-Andrade

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Emulsion-filled gels are classified as soft solid materials and are complex colloids formed by matrices of polymeric gels into which emulsion droplets are incorporated. Several structural aspects of these gels have been studied in the past few years, including their applications in food, which is the focus of this review. Knowledge of the rheological behavior of emulsion-filled gels is extremely important because it can measure interferences promoted by droplets or particle inclusion on the textural properties of the gelled systems. Dynamic oscillatory tests, more specifically, small amplitude oscillatory shear, creep-recovery tests, and large deformation experiments, are discussed in this review as techniques present in the literature to characterize rheological behavior of emulsion-filled gels. Moreover, the correlation of mechanical properties with sensory aspects of emulsion-filled gels appearing in recent studies is discussed, demonstrating the applicability of these parameters in understanding mastication processes.

  2. Interstitial administration of perfluorochemical emulsions for reoxygenation of hypoxic tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, D.V.; Seegenschmiedt, H.; Schweighardt, F.K.; Emrich, J.; McGarvey, K.; Caridi, M.; Brady, L.W.

    1987-01-01

    Microparticulate perfluorochemical (PFC) emulsions have the capacity to solubilize significant quantities of oxygen compared to water. Although systemic administration of such emulsions may enhance oxygen delivery to some tissues, hypoxic tumor cells have marginal vascular supplies. The authors report studies which directly attempt to oxygenate hypoxic tumor cells by interstitial administration of oxygenated PFC emulsions followed by radiation therapy. Fortner MMI malignant melanomas (21 day old) grown in Syrian Golden hamsters were injected directly with either oxygenated PFC emulsions or Ringers solution. The volume of test substance administered was equal to 50% of the tumor volume. The tumors were immediately irradiated with 25 Gy of 10 MeV photons (Clinac 18). The tumor dimensions were measured daily post irradiation and the tumor doubling time determined. The results suggest that interstitial administration of oxygenated PFC emulsions directly into tumors followed by radiation therapy may increase the likelihood of killing hypoxic tumor cells

  3. Antioxidant Behavior of Olive Phenolics in Oil-in-Water Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Vito Michele; Di Mattia, Carla; Giarnetti, Mariagrazia; Chiarini, Marco; Andrich, Lucia; Caponio, Francesco

    2016-07-27

    The effect of the surrounding molecular environment (β-lactoglobulin as an emulsion stabilizer and maltodextrin as a viscosity modifier) on the antioxidant activity of three olive oil phenolic compounds (PCs) in olive oil-in-water emulsions was investigated. Oxidation potential, phenolic partitioning, and radical quenching capacity were assessed in solution and in emulsion for oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, and tyrosol; the influence of β-lactoglobulin and maltodextrin concentration was also evaluated. Finally, the observed properties were related to the oxidative stability of the emulsions containing the PCs to explain their behavior. The order hydroxytyrosol > oleuropein > tyrosol was observed among the antioxidants for both oxidation potential and radical quenching activity. Radical quenching capacity in emulsion and anodic potential were complementary indices of antioxidant effectiveness. As the intrinsic susceptibility of an antioxidant to oxidation expressed by its anodic potential decreased, the environmental conditions (molecular interactions and changes in continuous phase viscosity) played a major role in the antioxidant effectiveness in preventing hydroperoxide decomposition.

  4. Report: Potential of nano-emulsions as phytochemical delivery system for food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Zaffar; Jahangir, Muhammad; Liaquat, Muhammad; Shah, Syed Wasim Ahmad; Khan, Muhammad Mumtaz; Stanley, Roger; D'Arcy, Bruce

    2017-11-01

    Nature is a rich source of bioactive phytochemicals. These plant based compounds have rich scope as antioxidants, antimicrobial compounds and food preservatives and so for long time to be used in meat, fruits, vegetables and processed food items, either as added preservative or as coating material in various food applications, but the major limitation is their limited solubility in a food grade medium. Nano-emulsion is a best choice as a medium having vast area of application. The major advantage of nano-emulsion would be the solubility of a vast group of compounds, due to the presence of water and lipid phases. In this way, nano-emulsions can be proved to be the most suitable candidate as phytochemical delivery system for food preservation. In present article, the use of phytochemicals as potent food preservatives has been reviewed, in context of solubility of phytochemicals in nano-emulsion and applications of food grade nano-emulsions to food systems.

  5. Performance of single cylinder, direct injection Diesel engine using water fuel emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Zaid, M.

    2004-01-01

    A single cylinder Diesel engine study of water-in-Diesel emulsions was conducted to investigate the effect of water emulsification on the engine performance and gases exhaust temperature. Emulsified Diesel fuels of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 water/Diesel ratios by volume, were used in a single cylinder, direct injection Diesel engine, operating at 1200-3300 rpm. The results indicate that the addition of water in the form of emulsion improves combustion efficiency. The engine torque, power and brake thermal efficiency increase as the water percentage in the emulsion increases. The average increase in the brake thermal efficiency for 20% water emulsion is approximately 3.5% over the use of Diesel for the engine speed range studied. The proper brake specific fuel consumption and gases exhaust temperature decrease as the percentage of water in the emulsion increases

  6. Effect of citronella essential oil fractions as oil phase on emulsion stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septiyanti, Melati; Meliana, Yenny; Agustian, Egi

    2017-11-01

    The emulsion system consists of water, oil and surfactant. In order to create stable emulsion system, the composition and formulation between water phase, surfactant and oil phase are very important. Essential oil such as citronella oil has been known as active ingredient which has ability as insect repellent. This research studied the effect of citronella oil and its fraction as oil phase on emulsion stability. The cycle stability test was conducted to check the emulsion stability and it was monitored by pH, density, viscosity, particle size, refractive index, zeta potential, physical appearance and FTIR for 4 weeks. Citronellal fraction has better stability compared to citronella oil and rhodinol fraction with slight change of physical and chemical properties before and after the cycle stability test. However, it is need further study to enhance the stability of the emulsion stability for this formulation.

  7. Pickering interfacial catalysis for biphasic systems: from emulsion design to green reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pera-Titus, Marc; Leclercq, Loïc; Clacens, Jean-Marc; De Campo, Floryan; Nardello-Rataj, Véronique

    2015-02-09

    Pickering emulsions are surfactant-free dispersions of two immiscible fluids that are kinetically stabilized by colloidal particles. For ecological reasons, these systems have undergone a resurgence of interest to mitigate the use of synthetic surfactants and solvents. Moreover, the use of colloidal particles as stabilizers provides emulsions with original properties compared to surfactant-stabilized emulsions, microemulsions, and micellar systems. Despite these specific advantages, the application of Pickering emulsions to catalysis has been rarely explored. This Minireview describes very recent examples of hybrid and composite amphiphilic materials for the design of interfacial catalysts in Pickering emulsions with special emphasis on their assets and challenges for industrially relevant biphasic reactions in fine chemistry, biofuel upgrading, and depollution. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Numerical simulation and experimental verification of oil recovery by macro-emulsion floods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khamharatana, F. [Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand); Thomas, S.; Farouq Ali, S. M. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1997-08-01

    The process of emulsion flooding as an enhanced oil recovery method was described. The process involves several mechanisms that occur at the same time during displacement, therefore, simulation by emulsion flooding requires a good understanding of flow mechanics of emulsions in porous media. This paper provides a description of the process and its mathematical representation. Emulsion rheology, droplet capture and surfactant adsorption are represented mathematically and incorporated into a one-dimensional, three-phase mathematical model to account for interactions of surfactant, oil, water and the rock matrix. The simulator was validated by comparing simulation results with the results from linear core floods performed in the laboratory. Best match was achieved by a multi-phase non-Newtonian rheological model of an emulsion with interfacial tension-dependent relative permeabilities and time-dependent capture. 13 refs., 1 tab., 42 figs.

  9. Distribution of Tocopherols and Tocotrienols in Guinea Pig Tissues Following Parenteral Lipid Emulsion Infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhidong; Harvey, Kevin A; Pavlina, Thomas M; Zaloga, Gary P; Siddiqui, Rafat A

    2016-07-01

    Tocopherols and tocotrienols possess vitamin E activity and function as the major lipid-soluble antioxidants in the human body. Commercial lipid emulsions are composed of different oils and supply different amounts of vitamin E. The objective of this study was to measure all 8 vitamin E homologs within 4 different commercial lipid emulsions and evaluate their distribution in guinea pig tissues. The distribution of vitamin E homologs within plasma and guinea pig tissues was determined using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system. Lipid hydroperoxides in lipid emulsions were determined using a commercial kit (Cayman Chemical Company, Ann Arbor, MI), and malondialdehyde tissue levels were determined using an HPLC system. The lipid emulsions contained variable amounts of tocopherols, which were significantly different between emulsions. Tocotrienols were present at very low concentrations (≤0.3%). We found no correlation between the amount of vitamin E present in the lipid emulsions and lipid peroxidation. Hydroperoxides were the lowest with an olive oil-based emulsion and highest with a fish oil emulsion. The predominant vitamin E homolog in guinea pig tissues was α-tocopherol. No tissues had detectable levels of tocotrienols. Vitamin E levels (primarily α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol) were highly variable among organ tissues. Plasma levels were a poor reflection of most tissue levels. Vitamin E levels within different lipid emulsions and plasma/tissues are highly variable, and no one tissue or plasma sample serves as a good proxy for levels in other tissues. All study emulsions were well tolerated and did not significantly increase systemic lipid peroxidation. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  10. Thermal stability and mechanism of decomposition of emulsion explosives in the presence of pyrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhi-Xiang; Wang, Qian [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Fu, Xiao-Qi, E-mail: xzx19820708@163.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • An exothermic reaction occurs at about 200 °C between pyrite and ammonium nitrate (emulsion explosives). • The essence of reaction between emulsion explosives and pyrite is reaction between ammonium nitrate and pyrite. • The excellent thermal stability of emulsion explosives does not mean it was also showed when pyrite was added. • A new overall reaction has been proposed as: • 14FeS{sub 2}(s) + 91NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}(s) → 52NO(g) + 26SO{sub 2}(g) + 6Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(s) + 78NH{sub 3}(g) + 26N{sub 2}O(g) + 2FeSO{sub 4}(s) + 65H{sub 2}O(g). - Abstract: The reaction of emulsion explosives (ammonium nitrate) with pyrite was studied using techniques of TG-DTG-DTA. TG–DSC–MS was also used to analyze samples thermal decomposition process. When a mixture of pyrite and emulsion explosives was heated at a constant heating rate of 10 K/min from room temperature to 350 °C, exothermic reactions occurred at about 200 °C. The essence of reaction between emulsion explosives and pyrite is the reaction between ammonium nitrate and pyrite. Emulsion explosives have excellent thermal stability but it does not mean it showed the same excellent thermal stability when pyrite was added. Package emulsion explosives were more suitable to use in pyrite shale than bulk emulsion explosives. The exothermic reaction was considered to take place between ammonium nitrate and pyrite where NO, NO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, SO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O gases were produced. Based on the analysis of the gaseous, a new overall reaction was proposed, which was thermodynamically favorable. The results have significant implication in the understanding of stability of emulsion explosives in reactive mining grounds containing pyrite minerals.

  11. Thermal stability and mechanism of decomposition of emulsion explosives in the presence of pyrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Zhi-Xiang; Wang, Qian; Fu, Xiao-Qi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An exothermic reaction occurs at about 200 °C between pyrite and ammonium nitrate (emulsion explosives). • The essence of reaction between emulsion explosives and pyrite is reaction between ammonium nitrate and pyrite. • The excellent thermal stability of emulsion explosives does not mean it was also showed when pyrite was added. • A new overall reaction has been proposed as: • 14FeS_2(s) + 91NH_4NO_3(s) → 52NO(g) + 26SO_2(g) + 6Fe_2O_3(s) + 78NH_3(g) + 26N_2O(g) + 2FeSO_4(s) + 65H_2O(g). - Abstract: The reaction of emulsion explosives (ammonium nitrate) with pyrite was studied using techniques of TG-DTG-DTA. TG–DSC–MS was also used to analyze samples thermal decomposition process. When a mixture of pyrite and emulsion explosives was heated at a constant heating rate of 10 K/min from room temperature to 350 °C, exothermic reactions occurred at about 200 °C. The essence of reaction between emulsion explosives and pyrite is the reaction between ammonium nitrate and pyrite. Emulsion explosives have excellent thermal stability but it does not mean it showed the same excellent thermal stability when pyrite was added. Package emulsion explosives were more suitable to use in pyrite shale than bulk emulsion explosives. The exothermic reaction was considered to take place between ammonium nitrate and pyrite where NO, NO_2, NH_3, SO_2 and N_2O gases were produced. Based on the analysis of the gaseous, a new overall reaction was proposed, which was thermodynamically favorable. The results have significant implication in the understanding of stability of emulsion explosives in reactive mining grounds containing pyrite minerals.

  12. Dietary protein and fat emulsions, processed by ultrasound and pulsed magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Verboloz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the baking of baked goods in order to save fats, different types of endorsement and protein-fatty emulsions which are used as ingredients in goods and for the protection of metal moulds from burning. Usually emulsion is prepared on bakery enterprises by National State Standard Р 51785–2001, involving mechanical beating up of ingredients. The authors suggested and studied the way of manufacturing of more stable food protein-fatty emulsions using ultrasonic transmitter with rigid neodymium magnets on its thickener. As ingredients, there were applied curd whey diluted with water, unpurified sunflower oil and sunflower phosphatides. Ratio of whey and water is 1:7. Physical effects of ultrasound and field of magnets in contact layer of liquid ingredients being dispersed have increased the viscosity and dispersion of protein-fatty emulsions. Hypothesis of increase of stability and sterility of protein-fatty emulsion by the selection of parameters of magnetic field and power of ultrasound transmitter is confirmed experimentally. Microscopic analysis shows high degree of homogeneity of emulsion under the time of processing 3-4 minutes and intensity of ultrasound 2 W/cm2, that is energetically profitable. There was revealed synergism of influence of physical effects of ultrasound and magnetic field on the durability and steadiness of emulsion to mechanical and temperature effect and also cidal effect, prolonging terms of product using. Manufacture of emulsions by the declared way using the ultrasound and magnetic field of constant neodymium magnets decreases number of injected elements-emulsifiers by 3-4 times or excludes their use at all. Existing piezoelectric ultrasound units as well as neodymium magnets have small sizes and low energy consumption, easily built into the line of continuous manufacture of emulsion for the bread production. Such emulsions are less demanding to the storage and transportation.

  13. Formulation and Characterization of Benzoyl Peroxide Gellified Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Naresh Kumar; Bharti, Pratibha; Mahant, Sheefali; Rao, Rekha

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out with the objective of formulating a gellified emulsion of benzoyl peroxide, an anti-acne agent. The formulations were prepared using four different vegetable oils, viz. almond oil, jojoba oil, sesame oil, and wheat germ oil, owing to their emollient properties. The idea was to overcome the skin irritation and dryness caused by benzoyl peroxide, making the formulation more tolerable. The gellified emulsions were characterized for their homogeneity, rheology, spreadability, drug content, and stability. In vitro permeation studies were performed to check the drug permeation through rat skin. The formulations were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity, as well as their acute skin irritation potential. The results were compared with those obtained for the marketed formulation. Later, the histopathological examination of the skin treated with various formulations was carried out. Formulation F3 was found to have caused a very mild dysplastic change to the epidermis. On the other hand, the marketed formulation led to the greatest dysplastic change. Hence, it was concluded that formulation F3, containing sesame oil (6%w/w), was the optimized formulation. It exhibited the maximum drug release and anti-microbial activity, in addition to the least skin irritation potential. PMID:23264949

  14. Ethylene Separation via Hydrate Formation in W/O Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Pan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An hybrid absorption-hydration method was adopted to recover C2H4 from C2H4/CH4 binary gas mixtures and the hydrate formation conditions of C2H4/CH4 mixtures was studied experimentally in diesel in water (w/o emulsions. Span 20 at a concentration of 1.0 wt% in the aqueous phase was added to form water in diesel emulsions before hydrate formation and then hydrate in diesel slurry was separated after hydrate formation. The influences of initial gas-liquid volume ratio (53–142, pressure (3.4–5.4 MPa, temperature (274.15–278.15 K, water cuts (10–30 vol%, and the mole fraction of C2H4 in feed gas (13.19–80.44 mol% upon the C2H4 separation efficiency were systematically investigated. The experimental results show that ethylene can be enriched in hydrate slurry phase with high separation factor (S and recovery ratio (R. Most hydrate formation finished in 20 min, after that, the hydrate formation rate became very slow. The conclusion is useful for determining the suitable operation conditions when adopting an absorption-hydration method to separate C2H4/CH4.

  15. Computation of shear-induced collective-diffusivity in emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malipeddi, Abhilash Reddy; Sarkar, Kausik

    2017-11-01

    The shear-induced collective-diffusivity of drops in an emulsion is calculated through simulation. A front-tracking finite difference method is used to integrate the Navier-Stokes equations. When a cloud of drops is subjected to shear flow, after a certain time, the width of the cloud increases with the 1/3 power of time. This scaling of drop-cloud-width with time is characteristic of (sub-)diffusion that arises from irreversible two-drop interactions. The collective diffusivity is calculated from this relationship. A feature of the procedure adopted here is the modest computational requirement, wherein, a few drops ( 70) in shear for short time ( 70 strain) is found to be sufficient to get a good estimate. As far as we know, collective-diffusivity has not been calculated for drops through simulation till now. The computed values match with experimental measurements reported in the literature. The diffusivity in emulsions is calculated for a range of Capillary (Ca) and Reynolds (Re) numbers. It is found to be a unimodal function of Ca , similar to self-diffusivity. A sub-linear increase of the diffusivity with Re is seen for Re < 5 . This work has been limited to a viscosity matched case.

  16. LET dependence of bubbles evaporation pulses in superheated emulsion detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Fulvio, Angela; Huang, Jean; Staib, Lawrence [Yale University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, TAC N140, New Haven, CT 06520-8043 (United States); D’Errico, Francesco [Yale University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, TAC N140, New Haven, CT 06520-8043 (United States); Scuola di Ingegneria, Universitá di Pisa, Largo Lucio Lazzarino 1, Pisa (Italy)

    2015-06-01

    Superheated emulsion detectors are suspensions of metastable liquid droplets in a compliant inert medium. Upon interaction with ionizing radiation, the droplets evaporate, generating visible bubbles. Bubble expansion associated with the boiling of the droplets is accompanied by pressure pulses in both the sonic and ultrasonic frequency range. In this work, we analyzed the signal generated by bubble evaporation in the frequency and time domain. We used octafluoropropane (R-218) based emulsions, sensitive to both photons and neutrons. The frequency content of the detected pulses appears to extend well into the hundreds of kHz, beyond the range used in commercial devices to count bubbles as they are formed (typically 1–10 kHz). Kilohertz components characterize the early part of the waveforms, potentially containing information about the energetics of the explosive bubble initial growth phase. The power spectral density of the acoustic signal produced by neutron-induced evaporation shows a characteristic frequency pattern in the 200–400 kHz range, which is not observed when bubbles evaporate upon gamma ray-induced irradiation. For practical applications, detection of ultrasonic pulses associated with the boiling of the superheated drops can be exploited as a fast readout method, negligibly affected by mechanical ambient noise.

  17. Ultrasonic splitting of oil-in-water emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Jens; König, Ralf; Benes, Ewald

    1999-01-01

    Standing resonant ultrasonic wave fields can be utilized for liquid–liquid separation of the dispersed particles and the fluid caused by the acoustic radiation pressure and the induced particle agglomeration or coagulation/coalescence process. For the splitting of oil-in-water emulsions, the avai......Standing resonant ultrasonic wave fields can be utilized for liquid–liquid separation of the dispersed particles and the fluid caused by the acoustic radiation pressure and the induced particle agglomeration or coagulation/coalescence process. For the splitting of oil-in-water emulsions......, the available piezoelectric composite transducer technology was improved and a dedicated resonator with crossed plane wave sonication geometry has been developed. The resonator chamber is entirely made of aluminium or tempax glass and the PZT piezoceramic transducer delivers an acoustic energy flow density...... of up to 24 W/cm2 into the sonication volume. The chosen resonance frequency is kept stable by automatic frequency control utilizing the maximum true power criterion. Physically and chemically well-defined low and high density pure laboratory and also industrially used cooling-lubricating oil...

  18. Singly and Doubly Charged Projectile Fragments in Nucleus-Emulsion Collisions at Dubna Energy in the Framework of the Multi-Source Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Er-Qin, Wang; Fu-Hu, Liu; Jian-Xin, Sun; Rahim, Magda A.; Fakhraddin, S.

    2011-01-01

    The multiplicity distributions of projectile fragments emitted in interactions of different nuclei with emulsion are studied by using a multi-source model. Our calculated results show that the projectile fragments can be described by the model and each source contributes an exponential distribution. As the weighted sum of the folding result of many exponential distributions, a multi-component Erlang distribution is used to describe the experimental data. The relationship between the height (or width) of the distribution and the mass of the incident projectile, as well as the dependence of projectile fragments on target groups, are investigated too. (nuclear physics)

  19. Fragmentation of 12C nuclei in emulsion at 50 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naghy, A.

    1981-01-01

    A total of 852 12 C-emulsion interactions at 4.2 GeV/nucleon was investigated. In 86% of these events, at least one projectile fragment was oberserved in each. The angular distributions of Z = 1,2, and >= 3 projectile fragments are narrow, and the dispersion of the distribution decreases with the increasing of Z. The production cross section of the reaction 12 C + Em → Li (from the projectile) + anything is about 6 x 10 -3 sigmasub(in). Only the projectile-fragmentation events, nsub(h) = O, were studied in detail; the percentage of these events is 10% of the total inelastic events. The events with the maximum probability are those in which α-fragment is the maximum-charged projectile fragment emitted. This indicates that the projectile nuclear structure plays an important role in the fragmentation process. In 1.2% of the total events, 12 C has been dissociated into 3 α-particles. (orig.)

  20. The distribution of intergranular gaps along α tracks recorded in ionographic emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittendorp-Rechenmann, E.; Senger, B.; Koziel-Vigneron, V.; Rechenmann, R.V.

    1990-01-01

    Detailed microscopic analyses performed at high statistics (size: 1100) on 8.776 MeV α tracks materialised in nuclear emulsion demonstrated a distribution of intergranular gaps along the primary ion's path that was not only non-random but also fluctuated significantly with the energy of the projectile. The highest and lowest gap frequencies measured correspond to the energy region of 0.7 - 1.5 MeV and 7 MeV, respectively. The gap length distributions followed an exponential law, a known characteristic of the intergranular gaps distributed along the tracks of high energy charged particles. A tentative interpretation of these observations has been undertaken in terms of spatial distributions of δ rays around the incoming ion's path, by applying the Double-Differential Cross-Section Mixed Treatment to the geometrical configuration of the AgBr microcrystals embedded in the gelatin matrix. At this preliminary stage of our modelling, the main experimental data could already be reproduced satisfactorily. (author)

  1. Production of slow particle in 1.7 AGeV 84Kr induced emulsion interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huiling; Zhang Donghai; Li Xueqin; Jia Huiming

    2008-01-01

    The production of slow particle in 1.7 AGeV 84 Kr induced emulsion interaction was studied. The experimental results show that the average multiplicity of black, grey and heavily ionized track particle increases with the increase of impact centrality and target size. The average multiplicity of grey track particle and heavily ionized track particle increases with the increase of the number of black track particle. The average multiplicity of heavily ionized track particle increases with the increase of the number of grey track particle, but average multiplicity of black track particle increases with the increase of the number of grey track particle and then saturated. The average multiplicity of grey track particle increases with the increase of the number of heavily ionized track particle, but average multiplicity of black track particle increases with the increase of the number of heavily ionized track particle and then saturated. Those experimental results can be well explained by using the nuclear impact geometry model. (authors)

  2. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT K2 HPO4, NaCl LEVELS AND TWO DIFFERENT TEMPARATURES ON SOME EMULSION PROPERTIES OF GOAT MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa KARAKAYA

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Different levels of K2 HPO4 (0.00 %, 0.25 % and 0.50 % and NaCl (2.5 % and 3.0 % were added into goat meat, at the two different temperatures (11o C and 18o C in order to investigate the emulsion properties in the model emulsion system. Emulsion capacity (EK, emulsion viscocity (EV, emulsion stability ratio (ES, the ratio of separated water (ESO and oil (EYO ratio from the emulsion, and the emulsion pH were determined. K2 HPO4 and NaCl levels and the oil temperatures have significant effect (p

  3. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT K2 HPO4, NaCl LEVELS AND TWO DIFFERENT TEMPARATURES ON SOME EMULSION PROPERTIES OF GOAT MEAT

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa KARAKAYA; Hüsnü Yusuf GÖKALP; Ramazan BAYRAK

    1996-01-01

    Different levels of K2 HPO4 (0.00 %, 0.25 % and 0.50 %) and NaCl (2.5 % and 3.0 %) were added into goat meat, at the two different temperatures (11o C and 18o C) in order to investigate the emulsion properties in the model emulsion system. Emulsion capacity (EK), emulsion viscocity (EV), emulsion stability ratio (ES), the ratio of separated water (ESO) and oil (EYO) ratio from the emulsion, and the emulsion pH were determined. K2 HPO4 and NaCl levels and the oil temperatures have significant ...

  4. Ultra-High Pressure Homogenization improves oxidative stability and interfacial properties of soy protein isolate-stabilized emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Avila, C; Trujillo, A J

    2016-10-15

    Ultra-High Pressure Homogenization (100-300MPa) has great potential for technological, microbiological and nutritional aspects of fluid processing. Its effect on the oxidative stability and interfacial properties of oil-in-water emulsions prepared with 4% (w/v) of soy protein isolate and soybean oil (10 and 20%, v/v) were studied and compared to emulsions treated by conventional homogenization (15MPa). Emulsions were characterized by particle size, emulsifying activity index, surface protein concentration at the interface and by transmission electron microscopy. Primary and secondary lipid oxidation products were evaluated in emulsions upon storage. Emulsions with 20% oil treated at 100 and 200MPa exhibited the most oxidative stability due to higher amount of oil and protein surface load at the interface. This manuscript addresses the improvement in oxidative stability in emulsions treated by UHPH when compared to conventional emulsions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Boosting the bioavailability of hydrophobic nutrients, vitamins, and nutraceuticals in natural products using excipient emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClements, David Julian; Saliva-Trujillo, Laura; Zhang, Ruojie; Zhang, Zipei; Zou, Liqiang; Yao, Mingfei; Xiao, Hang

    2016-10-01

    Many highly hydrophobic bioactives, such as non-polar nutrients, nutraceuticals, and vitamins, have a relatively low or variable oral bioavailability. The poor bioavailability profile of these bioactives may be due to limited bioaccessibility, poor absorption, and/or chemical transformation within the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The bioavailability of hydrophobic bioactives can be improved using specially designed oil-in-water emulsions consisting of lipid droplets dispersed within an aqueous phase. The bioactives may be isolated from their natural environment and then incorporated into the lipid phase of emulsion-based delivery systems. Alternatively, the bioactives may be left in their natural environment (e.g., fruits or vegetables), and then ingested with emulsion-based excipient systems. An excipient emulsion may have no inherent health benefits itself, but it boosts the biological activity of bioactive ingredients co-ingested with it by altering their bioaccessibility, absorption, and/or chemical transformation. This review discusses the design and fabrication of excipient emulsions, and gives some examples of recent research that demonstrates their potential efficacy for improving the bioavailability of hydrophobic bioactives. The concept of excipient emulsions could be used to formulate emulsion-based food products (such as excipient sauces, dressings, dips, creams, or yogurts) specifically designed to increase the bioavailability of bioactive agents in natural foods, such as fruits and vegetables. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Solvent-free formation of hydroxyapatite coated biodegradable particles via nanoparticle-stabilized emulsion route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Masahiro; Fujii, Syuji; Nishimura, Taiki; Nakamura, Yoshinobu; Takeda, Shoji; Furuzono, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles stabilized polymer melt-in-water emulsions without any molecular surfactants. ► Interaction between polymer and HAp played a crucial role. ► HAp-coated polymer particles were obtained from the emulsions without any organic solvents. - Abstract: Hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticle-coated biodegradable polymer particles were fabricated from a nanoparticle-stabilized emulsion in the absence of any molecular surfactants or organic solvents. First, a polymer melt-in-water emulsion was prepared by mixing a water phase containing nanosized HAp particles as a particulate emulsifier and an oil phase consisting of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) or poly(L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (P(LLA-CL)) above its melting point. It was clarified that the interaction between ester/carboxyl groups of the polymers and the HAp nanoparticles at the polymer–water interface played a crucial role to prepare the nanoparticle-stabilized emulsion. The HAp nanoparticle-coated biodegradable polymer particle (a polymer solid-in-water emulsion) was fabricated by cooling the emulsion. The particle morphology and particle size were evaluated using scanning electron microscope.

  7. Use of micro-emulsion technology for the directed evolution of antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhr, Diane L; Acca, Felicity E; Holland, Erika G; Johnson, Katie; Maksymiuk, Gail M; Vaill, Ada; Kay, Brian K; Weitz, David A; Weiner, Michael P; Kiss, Margaret M

    2012-09-01

    Affinity reagents, such as antibodies, are needed to study protein expression patterns, sub-cellular localization, and post-translational modifications in complex mixtures and tissues. Phage Emulsion, Secretion, and Capture (ESCape) is a novel micro-emulsion technology that utilizes water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions for the identification and isolation of cells secreting phage particles that display desirable antibodies. Using this method, a large library of antibody-displaying phage will bind to beads in individual compartments. Rather than using biopanning on a large mixed population, phage micro-emulsion technology allows us to individually query clonal populations of amplified phage against the antigen. The use of emulsions to generate microdroplets has the promise of accelerating phage selection experiments by permitting fine discrimination of kinetic parameters for binding to targets. In this study, we demonstrate the ability of phage micro-emulsion technology to distinguish two scFvs with a 300-fold difference in binding affinities (100nM and 300pM, respectively). In addition, we describe the application of phage micro-emulsion technology for the selection of scFvs that are resistant to elevated temperatures. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Influence of Steam Injection and Water-in-Oil Emulsions on Diesel Fuel Combustion Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Meagan

    Water injection can be an effective strategy for reducing NOx because water's high specific heat allows it to absorb heat and lower system temperatures. Introducing water as an emulsion can potentially be more effective at reducing emissions than steam injection due to physical properties (such as microexplosions) that can improve atomization and increase mixing. Unfortunately, the immiscibility of emulsions makes them difficult to work with so they must be mixed properly. In this effort, a method for adequately mixing surfactant-free emulsions was established and verified using high speed cinematography. As the water to fuel mass ratio (W/F) increased, emulsion atomization tests showed little change in droplet size and spray angle, but a shorter overall breakup point. Dual-wavelength planar laser induced fluorescence (D-PLIF) patternation showed an increase in water near the center of the spray. Steam injection flames saw little change in reaction stability, but emulsion flames experienced significant losses in stability that limited reaction operability at higher W/F. Emulsions were more effective at reducing NOx than steam injection, likely because of liquid water's latent heat of vaporization and the strategic injection of water into the flame core. OH* chemiluminescence showed a decrease in heat release for both methods, though the decrease was greater for emulsions. Both methods saw decreases in flame length for W/F 0.15. Lastly, flame imaging showed a shift towards a redder appearance with the addition or more water, as well as a reduction in flame flares.

  9. Stability and in vitro digestibility of emulsions containing lecithin and whey proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Raphaela Araujo; Cavallieri, Ângelo Luiz Fazani; Netto, Flavia Maria; Cunha, Rosiane Lopes

    2013-09-01

    The effect of pH and high-pressure homogenization on the properties of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions stabilized by lecithin and/or whey proteins (WPI) was evaluated. For this purpose, emulsions were characterized by visual analysis, droplet size distribution, zeta potential, electrophoresis, rheological measurements and their response to in vitro digestion. Lecithin emulsions were stable even after 7 days of storage and WPI emulsions were unstable only at pH values close to the isoelectric point (pI) of proteins. Systems containing the mixture of lecithin and WPI showed high kinetic instability at pH 3, which was attributed to the electrostatic interaction between the emulsifiers oppositely charged at this pH value. At pH 5.5 and 7, the mixture led to reduction of the droplet size with enhanced emulsion stability compared to the systems with WPI or lecithin. The stability of WPI emulsions after the addition of lecithin, especially at pH 5.5, was associated with the increase of droplet surface charge density. The in vitro digestion evaluation showed that WPI emulsion was more stable against gastrointestinal conditions.

  10. Thermal stability and mechanism of decomposition of emulsion explosives in the presence of pyrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhi-Xiang; Wang, Qian; Fu, Xiao-Qi

    2015-12-30

    The reaction of emulsion explosives (ammonium nitrate) with pyrite was studied using techniques of TG-DTG-DTA. TG-DSC-MS was also used to analyze samples thermal decomposition process. When a mixture of pyrite and emulsion explosives was heated at a constant heating rate of 10K/min from room temperature to 350°C, exothermic reactions occurred at about 200°C. The essence of reaction between emulsion explosives and pyrite is the reaction between ammonium nitrate and pyrite. Emulsion explosives have excellent thermal stability but it does not mean it showed the same excellent thermal stability when pyrite was added. Package emulsion explosives were more suitable to use in pyrite shale than bulk emulsion explosives. The exothermic reaction was considered to take place between ammonium nitrate and pyrite where NO, NO2, NH3, SO2 and N2O gases were produced. Based on the analysis of the gaseous, a new overall reaction was proposed, which was thermodynamically favorable. The results have significant implication in the understanding of stability of emulsion explosives in reactive mining grounds containing pyrite minerals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A Computational Study of Internal Flows in a Heated Water-Oil Emulsion Droplet

    KAUST Repository

    Sim, Jaeheon

    2015-01-05

    The vaporization characteristics of water-oil emulsion droplets are investigated by high fidelity computational simulations. One of the key objectives is to identify the physical mechanism for the experimentally observed behavior that the component in the dispersed micro-droplets always vaporizes first, for both oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsion droplets. The mechanism of this phenomenon has not been clearly understood. In this study, an Eulerian-Lagrangian method was implemented with a temperature-dependent surface tension model and a dynamic adaptive mesh refinement in order to effectively capture the thermo-capillary effect of a micro-droplet in an emulsion droplet efficiently. It is found that the temperature difference in an emulsion droplet creates a surface tension gradient along the micro-droplet surface, inducing surface movement. Subsequently, the outer shear flow and internal flow circulation inside the droplet, referred to as the Marangoni convection, are created. The present study confirms that the Marangoni effect can be sufficiently large to drive the micro-droplets to the emulsion droplet surface at higher temperature, for both water-in-oil and oil-and-water emulsion droplets. A further parametric study with different micro-droplet sizes and temperature gradients demonstrates that larger micro-droplets move faster with larger temperature gradient. The oil micro-droplet in oil-in-water emulsion droplets moves faster due to large temperature gradients by smaller thermal conductivity.

  12. A magnetic nanoparticle stabilized gas containing emulsion for multimodal imaging and triggered drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Li, Diancheng; Zhu, Jia-an; Wei, Xiaohui; Men, Weiwei; Yin, Dazhi; Fan, Mingxia; Xu, Yuhong

    2014-06-01

    To develop a multimodal imaging guided and triggered drug delivery system based on a novel emulsion formulation composed of iron oxide nanoparticles, nanoscopic bubbles, and oil containing drugs. Iron oxide paramagnetic nanoparticles were synthesized and modified with surface conjugation of polyethylenimide (PEI) or Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA). Both particles were used to disperse and stabilize oil in water emulsions containing coumarin-6 as the model drug. Sulfur hexafluoride was introduced into the oil phase to form nanoscopic bubbles inside the emulsions. The resulted gas containing emulsions were evaluated for their magnetic resonance (MR) and ultrasound (US) imaging properties. The drug release profile triggered by ultrasound was also examined. We have successfully prepared the highly integrated multi-component emulsion system using the surface modified iron oxide nanoparticles to stabilize the interfaces. The resulted structure had distinctive MR and US imaging properties. Upon application of ultrasound waves, the gas containing emulsion would burst and encapsulated drug could be released. The integrated emulsion formulation was multifunctional with paramagnetic, sono-responsive and drug-carrying characteristics, which may have potential applications for disease diagnosis and imaging guided drug release.

  13. Demulsification based on the thermal treatment (cooling and heating of W/O emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaković Vladana N.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An important step in waste water treatment is the removal of oil from an O/W emulsion and the separation of oil and water into two phases, a process usually called demulsification. Modern methods of oil removal from waste water were described in the present study. Typical demulsification techniques include thermal, electrical, chemical, acoustic, or mechanical methods of emulsion treatment. The freeze/thaw process was found to be very effective for demulsification. In the freeze/thaw process, water removal from the W/O emulsion depends on the initial oil content, freezing temperature, freezing time, thawing rate and temperature. The described method is a non-destructive and physical method of emulsion treatment and because there is no addition of chemical agents there is no problem of further waste water treatment, which usually exists when chemicals are applied for demulsification. Different methods for oil content determination in the O/W emulsion were also applied and compared in this study (gravimetric, volumetric, measurement of oxygen consumption and emulsion pH, IR analysis of the emulsion, electro analytical measurement.

  14. Helix aspersa gelatin as an emulsifier and emulsion stabilizer: functional properties and effects on pancreatic lipolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarai, Zied; Balti, Rafik; Sila, Assaâd; Ben Ali, Yassine; Gargouri, Youssef

    2016-01-01

    Emulsions are widely used in food and pharmaceutical applications for the encapsulation, solubilization, entrapment, and controlled delivery of active ingredients. In order to fulfill the increasing demand for clean label excipients, natural polymers could be used to replace the potentially irritative synthetic surfactants used in emulsion formulation. In the present study, we have studied the properties of oil-in-water emulsions prepared with land snail gelatin (LSG) as the sole emulsifying agent, extracted and described for the first time. LSG was evaluated in terms of proximate composition, oil and water holding capacity, emulsifying and foaming properties, color and amino acid composition. Emulsions of trioctanoylglycerol (TC8) and olive oil were made at different gelatin/oil ratios and changes in droplet-size distribution were determined. The superior emulsifying properties of LSG, the susceptibility of gelatin protein emulsions increasing flocculation on storage, and the coalescence of gelatin emulsions following centrifugation were demonstrated. Furthermore, the effect of LSG on the activity of turkey pancreatic lipase (TPL) was evaluated through the pH-stat methodology with TC8 and olive oil emulsions. The LSG affected the TPL activity in a concentration-dependent way. Our results showed that LSG, comparably to gum arabic, increases the pancreatic lipase activity and improves its stability at the oil-water interface.

  15. Stability of bisphenol A (BPA) in oil-in water emulsions under riboflavin photosensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun Yeong; Park, Chan Uk; Kim, Mi-Ja; Lee, JaeHwan

    2012-08-01

    Effects of riboflavin photosensitization on the degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) were determined in oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or sodium azide, which are a metal chelator or a singlet oxygen quencher, respectively. Also, the distribution of BPA between the continuous and dispersed phases in O/W emulsions was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The concentration of BPA in O/W emulsions significantly decreased by 38.6% after 2 h under visible light irradiation and in the presence of riboflavin (P riboflavin photosensitization (P riboflavin photodegradation in O/W emulsions. Concentration of BPA, an endocrine disrupting chemical, was decreased significantly in oil-in-water emulsions under riboflavin and visible light irradiation. BPA in continuous aqueous phase was major target of riboflavin photosensitization. However, BPA was distributed more densely in lipid phase and more protected from riboflavin photosensitized O/W emulsions. This study can help to decrease the level of BPA in foods made of O/W emulsions containing riboflavin, which could be displayed under visible light irradiation. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Globule-size distribution in injectable 20% lipid emulsions: Compliance with USP requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, David F

    2007-10-01

    The compliance of injectable 20% lipid emulsions with the globule-size limits in chapter 729 of the U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) was examined. As established in chapter 729, dynamic light scattering was applied to determine mean droplet diameter (MDD), with an upper limit of 500 nm. Light obscuration was used to determine the size of fat globules found in the large-diameter tail, expressed as the volume-weighted percent fat exceeding 5 microm (PFAT(5)), with an upper limit of 0.05%. Compliance of seven different emulsions, six of which were stored in plastic bags, with USP limits was assessed. To avoid reaching coincidence limits during the application of method II from overly concentrated emulsion samples, a variable dilution scheme was used to optimize the globule-size measurements for each emulsion. One-way analysis of variance of globule-size distribution (GSD) data was conducted if any results of method I or II exceeded the respective upper limits. Most injectable lipid emulsions complied with limits established by USP chapter 729, with the exception of those of one manufacturer, which failed limits as proposed for to meet the PFAT(5) three of the emulsions tested. In contrast, all others studied (one packaged in glass and three packaged in plastic) met both criteria. Among seven injectable lipid emulsions tested for GSD, all met USP chapter 729 MDD requirements and three, all from the same manufacturer and packaged in plastic, did not meet PFAT(5) requirements.

  17. Water-Resistant Material from Recovered Fibers and Acrylic Emulsion Terpolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fushan Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Styrene (SM, methyl methacrylate (MMA, and butyl acrylate (BA were used to synthesize a polyacrylic emulsion by core-shell emulsion polymerization. The solid content of the emulsion reached 40% using reasonable reactive emulsifier contents and feeding modes. Then, the emulsion and a fiber were dispersed, coated, and dried together. Finally, fiber-based water-resistant material was successfully fabricated. The experimental results showed that under the conditions of a monomer mass ratio of 1:1:1 and a mass ratio of polyacrylic emulsion to fiber of 2:1, the Cobb value of the material reached 5.0 g/m2. The tensile strength, elongation, and breaking length were 7.4225 kN/m, 1.0%, and 11.706 km, respectively. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM to analyze the surface morphology and internal structure of products, the reasons for the high water resistance of fiber-based material was due to the bonding and filling effects of the polyacrylic emulsion on the fibers. For tightly bound fibers, the porous structures formed in fiber-based boards were reduced. On the other hand, the polyacrylic emulsion filled the gaps between fibers. This filling effect led to a continuous structure, and the water resistance of the material was further enhanced.

  18. A simple and low-cost fully 3D-printed non-planar emulsion generator

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jiaming

    2015-12-23

    Droplet-based microfluidic devices provide a powerful platform for material, chemical and biological applications based on droplet templates. The technique traditionally utilized to fabricate microfluidic emulsion generators, i.e. soft-lithography, is complex and expensive for producing three-dimensional (3D) structures. The emergent 3D printing technology provides an attractive alternative due to its simplicity and low-cost. Recently a handful of studies have already demonstrated droplet production through 3D-printed microfluidic devices. However, these devices invariably use purely two-dimensional (2D) flow structures. Herein we apply 3D printing technology to fabricate simple and low-cost 3D miniaturized fluidic devices for droplet generation (single emulsion) and droplet-in-droplet (double emulsion) without need for surface treatment of the channel walls. This is accomplished by varying the channel diameters at the junction, so the inner liquid does not touch the outer walls. This 3D-printed emulsion generator has been successfully tested over a range of conditions. We also formulate and demonstrate, for the first time, uniform scaling laws for the emulsion drop sizes generated in different regimes, by incorporating the dynamic contact angle effects during the drop formation. Magnetically responsive microspheres are also produced with our emulsion templates, demonstrating the potential applications of this 3D emulsion generator in chemical and material engineering.

  19. Impact of Protein Gel Porosity on the Digestion of Lipid Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Anwesha; Juan, Jean-Marc; Kolodziejczyk, Eric; Acquistapace, Simone; Donato-Capel, Laurence; Wooster, Tim J

    2015-10-14

    The present study sought to understand how the microstructure of protein gels impacts lipolysis of gelled emulsions. The selected system consisted of an oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion embedded within gelatin gels. The gelatin-gelled emulsions consisted of a discontinuous network of aggregated emulsion droplets (mesoscale), dispersed within a continuous network of gelatin (microscale). The viscoelastic properties of the gelled emulsions were dominated by the rheological behavior of the gelatin, suggesting a gelatin continuous microstructure rather than a bicontinuous gel. A direct relationship between the speed of fat digestion and gel average mesh size was found, indicating that the digestion of fat within gelatin-gelled emulsions is controlled by the ability of the gel's microstructure to slow lipase diffusion to the interface of fat droplets. Digestion of fat was facilitated by gradual breakdown of the gelatin network, which mainly occurred via surface erosion catalyzed by proteases. Overall, this work has demonstrated that the lipolysis kinetics of gelled emulsions is driven by the microstructure of protein gels; this knowledge is key for the future development of microstructures to control fat digestion and/or the delivery of nutrients to different parts of the gastrointestinal tract.

  20. Destabilization of Oil-in-Water Emulsions Formed Using Highly Hydrolyzed Whey Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agboola; Singh; Munro; Dalgleish; Singh

    1998-01-19

    Oil-in-water emulsions (4 wt % soy oil) were prepared with 0.5-5 wt % whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) (27% degree of hydrolysis), in a two-stage homogenizer using various first-stage pressures of 10.3, 20.6, and 34.3 MPa and a constant second-stage pressure of 3.4 MPa. Destabilization studies on the emulsions were carried out for up to 24 h, using both laser light scattering and confocal laser microscopy. It was found that emulsions formed with oiling off and coalescence at all homogenization pressures. Emulsions formed with 2, 3, and 4% WPH showed coalescence and creaming only, while slight flocculation but no creaming occurred in emulsions formed with 5% WPH. Furthermore, the apparent rate of coalescence increased with homogenization pressure but decreased with WPH concentration. In contrast, the surface concentration of WPH increased with the WPH concentration in the emulsions but decreased with homogenization pressure. Analysis of WPH by high-performance liquid chromatography showed an increase in the concentration of high molecular weight peptides at the droplet surface compared to the WPH solution. This was considered very important for the stability of these oil-in-water emulsions.