WorldWideScience

Sample records for nuclear bomb test

  1. Hitlers' bomb. The secret story of Germanys' nuclear weapon tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsch, R.

    2005-01-01

    This book reveals a sensation: Under supervision of the SS German scientists tested 1944/45 nuclear bombs on Ruegen and in Thuringia. During this period several hundred prisoners of war and prisoners died. Besides proofs for nuclear weapon testing the author also found a draft for a patent on plutonium bombs and discovered the first functioning German atom reactor in the environs of Berlin. (GL) [de

  2. Hazards of radiation from continuous nuclear bomb tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leipunskii, O I

    1958-01-01

    The hazards from radioactive fallout due to continuous nuclear bomb tests equivalent in intensity to 11 megatons of TNT are studied. Concentrations of /sup 90/Sr in the bones, the rate of leukemia, and the number of the victims of genetic damage are evaluated. The calculations show that towards the end of the century the concentration of /sup 90/Sr in the spine in large groups of the population could exceed the officially permissible dose and each year of continuous tests would result in the birth of 44,000 persons burdened by hereditary sickness, and 29,000 cases of leukemia.

  3. Radioactivity of air caused by nuclear bomb tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aron, A; Gross, B

    1957-01-01

    Daily checks of radioactive fallout at the above institute (Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia, Rio de Janeiro) gave an activity 10 times as high as the average on June 25, 1957. By applying the decay law for fallout of Way and Wigner the origin could be traced to the British H-bomb test at Christmas Island on May 15, 1957. By autoradiography of the filter it was shown that the high activity was caused by only one highly radioactive particle.

  4. A mathematical model for the interpretation of nuclear bomb test derived {sup 14}C incorporation in biological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Samuel [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, INSA de Lyon, F-69621, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, CNRS, UMR5208, Institut Camille Jordan, 43 blvd du 11 novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne-Cedex (France); Frisen, Jonas [Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Spalding, Kirsty L., E-mail: kirsty.spalding@ki.s [Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-04-15

    Human tissues continually replace dying cells with newborn cells. However, the rate of renewal varies by orders of magnitudes between blood cells, which are renewed every day and neurons, for which renewal is non-existent or limited to specific regions of the brain. Between those extreme are many tissues that turnover on a time scale of years, although no direct measurements have been done. We present here a mathematical method to estimate cell turnover in slowly renewing biological systems. Age distribution of DNA can be estimated from the integration of radiocarbon derived from nuclear bomb-testing during the cold war (1955-1963). For slowly renewing tissues, this method provides a better estimate of the average age of the tissue than direct estimates from the bomb-curve. Moreover, death, birth and turnover rates can be estimated. We highlight this method with data from human fat cells.

  5. Homemade nuclear bomb syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, W.; Loyalka, S.K.; Nelson, W.E.; Williams, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    With the publication of Nuclear Theft: Risks and Safeguards by Willrich and Taylor, significant attention has been focused by the media and the public on the possibility of fissile materials being stolen by a terrorist organization and diverted to the actual building, or the threat of building, of a nuclear explosive device. The implication has been created that one or several relatively inexperienced individuals could obtain the materials necessary and fabricate a low-yield nuclear explosive. This article examines these contentions in some detail. The safeguards and use-denial methods presently used in the nuclear fuel cycle are considered and the difficulties they present in obtaining significant amounts of strategic nuclear materials are examined. The characteristics of reactor-grade plutonium are discussed, and the difficulties associated with the assembly of an efficient nuclear explosive device are outlined

  6. Homemade nuclear bomb syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, W.E.

    1977-01-01

    This work discusses the hindrances that a malefactor would have to overcome in his attempts to acquire the necessary materials for the construction of a nuclear device. The methods of nuclear materials control that were used in the past, are presently employed, and are envisioned for the future are discussed. Use denial methods are examined and are shown to complement the nuclear materials control programs. International nuclear materials controls are also discussed. The characteristics of reactor grade materials are presented. The problems associated with attempting to work with reactor grade plutonium; radiation hazard, metallurgical problems, self heating, predetonation, etc., are discussed. Also presented is a method for approximating the energy release from a nuclear device. A risk versus benefit study is presented. The societal risk method of examining the nuclear materials control programs is discussed and shown to be a valuable tool for pointing out possible weaknesses in the nuclear materials control programs. A comparison of plutonium and more conventional hazardous substances is presented in order to show that the desirability of plutonium as a terrorist weapon has been greatly overrated. Also discussed is the recent policy statement by President Carter that the United States will forego the utilization of plutonium in order to halt the proliferation of nuclear weapons. The problems that will arise from this policy are noted. It is concluded that while the present programs aimed at strengthening the nuclear materials controls should continue to be pursued, the public has been misled as to the ease of acquiring the requisite materials and the construction of a nuclear device. It is also clearly understood that while reactor grade materials do not lend themselves to ready assembly of a nuclear device, they must still be effectively safeguarded

  7. Leukemia among participants in military maneuvers at a nuclear bomb test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, G.G.; Kelley, D.B.; Heath, C.W.

    1980-01-01

    To test the possibility of a casual relationship between leukemia and exposure to nuclear radiation, the frequency of leukemia in personnel observing the detonation of a nuclear device called ''Smoky'' during August 1957 was determined. Of some 3224 men who witnessed the detonation, nine cases of leukemia were observed. They included four cases of acute myelocytic leukemia, three of chronic myelocytic leukemia, one of hairy cell lymphocyctic leukemia, and one of acute lymphocytic luekemia. These findings represent a significant increase over the expected leukemia incidence of 3.5 cases. Mean film-badge gamma radiation dose for the study group was 466.2 mrem

  8. Leukemia among participants in military maneuvers at a nuclear bomb test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, G.G.; Kelley, D.B.; Heath, C.W. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Preliminary studies indicate that nine cases of leukemia have occurred among 3224 men who participated in military maneuvers during the 1957 nuclear test explosion Smoky. This represents a significant increase over the expected incidence of 3.5 cases. They included four cases of acute myelocytic leukemia, three of chronic myelocytic leukemia, and one each of hairy cell and acute lymphocytic leukemia. At time of diagnosis, patient ages ranged from 21 to 60 years (mean, 41.8 years) and the interval from time of nuclear test to diagnosis from two to 19 years (mean, 14.2 years). Film-badge records, which are available for eight of the nine men, indicated gamma radiation exposure levels ranging from 0 to 2977 mrem (mean, 1033 mrem). Mean film-badge gamma dose for the entire Smoky cohort was 466.2 mrem

  9. Lack of tissue renewal in human adult Achilles tendon is revealed by nuclear bomb C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemeier, Katja Maria; Schjerling, Peter; Heinemeier, J.

    2013-01-01

    the 14C bomb-pulse method. This method takes advantage of the dramatic increase in atmospheric levels of 14C, produced by nuclear bomb tests in 1955-1963, which is reflected in all living organisms. Levels of 14C were measured in 28 forensic samples of Achilles tendon core and 4 skeletal muscle samples...... is revealed by nuclear bomb 14C....

  10. Vehicle bomb protection for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, J.W.; Veatch, J.D.; Goldman, L.; Massa, R.

    1989-01-01

    The six-step methodology presented in this paper can be applied to nuclear power reactors to provide protection measures and considerations against vehicle bomb threats. The methodology provides a structured framework for examining the potential vulnerability of a plant to a postulated vehicle bomb and for developing contingency planning strategies for dealing with such a possibility. The six steps are as follows: (1) identify system options available to establish and maintain a safe reactor shutdown; (2) identify buildings or other structures containing critical components and equipment associated with each system option; (3) determine survival envelopes for the system options; (4) review site features to determine vehicle access approach paths and distances as they relate to the survival envelopes; (5) identify measures to limit or thwart vehicle access, and protect and preserve preferred system options; (6) prepare contingency plans and make advance arrangements for implementation of contingency measures for a vehicle bomb attack. Portions of this methodology related to blast effects from vehicle bombs on power reactor components are implemented using BombCAD, a proprietary computer-aided design (CAD)-based blast effects analysis technique

  11. Bombs and reactors: the nuclear divide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikle, F.C.

    1980-01-01

    Many nations now possess, although few have used, the materials and technology to build nuclear weapons. One can wonder how rapidly and how far this awesomely destructive potential would have spread, had nuclear technology offered no peaceful applications. The author feels it is quite likely that such a situation would have made little difference to the four powers that followed the US in acquiring a substantial nuclear arsenal - the USSR, UK, France, and China. But beyond these nations, the diffusion of the knowhow and means to make the bomb would have been substantially slower. It can now be seen that projects for peaceful applications of nuclear technology provided the essential expeditor, or necessary cover, for gaining capabilities to make the bomb. Development of nuclear power in the US and globally is discussed for peaceful uses and for nuclear weapons. The fragility of the present restraints against nuclear proliferation is only partly to be blamed on the conflicting broad objectives in US foreign policy. Much damage has been caused by mistaken approaches to technical and organizational issues. The principal culprit, the author indicates, was the Atoms for Peace program, and it was not so much the idea that caused harm as the way in which it was executed

  12. The human sex odds at birth after the atmospheric atomic bomb tests, after Chernobyl, and in the vicinity of nuclear facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherb, Hagen; Voigt, Kristina

    2011-06-01

    Ever since the discovery of the mutagenic properties of ionizing radiation, the possibility of birth sex odds shifts in exposed human populations was considered in the scientific community. Positive evidence, however weak, was obtained after the atomic bombing of Japan. We previously investigated trends in the sex odds before and after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In a pilot study, combined data from the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Norway, Poland, and Sweden between 1982 and 1992 showed a downward trend in the sex odds and a significant jump in 1987, the year immediately after Chernobyl. Moreover, a significant positive association of the sex odds between 1986 and 1991 with Chernobyl fallout at the district level in Germany was observed. Both of these findings, temporality (effect after exposure) and dose response association, yield evidence of causality. The primary aim of this study was to investigate longer time periods (1950-2007) in all of Europe and in the USA with emphasis on the global atmospheric atomic bomb test fallout and on the Chernobyl accident. To obtain further evidence, we also analyze sex odds data near nuclear facilities in Germany and Switzerland. DATA AND STATISTICAL METHODS: National gender-specific annual live births data for 39 European countries from 1975 to 2007 were compiled using the pertinent internet data bases provided by the World Health Organization, United Nations, Council of Europe, and EUROSTAT. For a synoptic re-analysis of the period 1950 to 1990, published data from the USA and from a predominantly western and less Chernobyl-exposed part of Europe were studied additionally. To assess spatial, temporal, as well as spatial-temporal trends in the sex odds and to investigate possible changes in those trends after the atomic bomb tests, after Chernobyl, and in the vicinity of nuclear facilities, we applied ordinary linear logistic regression. Region-specific and eventually changing spatial

  13. Nuclear policies: fuel without the bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlstetter, A.; Gilinsky, V.; Gillette, R.; Wohlstetter, R.

    1978-01-01

    The essays, developed from studies conducted by the California seminar on arms control and foreign policy, address technical, political, and economic aspects of nonproliferation. How to halt nuclear proliferation commands worldwide attention today. The search for new energy resources by industrial as well as nonindustral nations has led to the spread of nuclear technology and the production of weapons grade fuel materials such as plutonium and enriched uranium in the name of energy independence. The background and consequences of this growing danger and possible solutions to it are the substance of the essays. Conceding the desirability (if not necessity) of developing nuclear power as an energy source, the writers focus on the different reactor technologies; an historical perspective of proliferation through the example of India; the rationales for stringent international monitoring; and finally, the link between proliferation and the spread of nuclear weapons. The chapters are: Nuclear technology: essential elements for decisionmakers, Robert Gillette; Must we decide now for worldwide commerce in plutonium fuel, Albert Wohlstetter; US peaceful aid and the Indian bomb, Roberta Wohlstetter; International discipline over the uses of nuclear energy, Victor Gilinsky; and Nuclear energy and the proliferation of nuclear weapons, Victor Gilinsky

  14. Radiological Situation at the Bomb Test Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkovic, V.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of radiological situation at the selected bomb test sites is presented. The report is based on the reports and measurements performed by IAEA while the author was a head of its Physics-Chemistry-Instrumentation Laboratory. Radiological conditions at Bikini Atoll (USA testing ground), Mururoa and Fangataufa Atolls (French testing ground) and Semipalatinsk (SSSR testing ground) have been discussed in some details. (author)

  15. The bomb, the dark side of the nuclear world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collin, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The reality of the nuclear world can be summarized in few words: a world arsenal of 26000 bombs, enough uranium and plutonium and the know-how to make much more, multiple non-proliferation and weapons limitation treaties which have troubles regulating the diffusion of this technology, indelible environmental and sanitary marks left by 2059 tests, governments secretly wishing to assume this supreme power attribute, a black market, spies and dealers, but also: opponents, political leaders, local representatives and non-governmental organizations who militate for a nuclear weapon-free world. However, this burning question paradoxically remains obscure to citizens and its obscure aspect is relayed by media and politicians. This book aims at decoding the wheels of the international nuclear weapons situation: from the five official nuclear powers to the proliferation actors, from the defense policies to the risks of accidents and the stakes of disarmament, from the bomb fabrication to its devastating effects. It shows how this ultimate weapon has durably pervaded the defense policies and strategies of countries who own it, and how difficult it will be to reconsider this situation

  16. Truck bomb and insider threats to nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, D.

    1987-01-01

    In the nuclear field, two the these weak links in the security chain are the truck bomb threat and the insider threat. The risks associated with terrorist use of vehicular bombs against nuclear targets surfaced (actually, resurfaced) followed the terrorist attacks on the US Embassy annex and the Marine compound in Leb Concern was expressed that similar attacks against nuclear facilities could result in substantial damage and release of radioactivity. Since the current regulations of the NRC require licensees to protect only against attacks on foot (and even then, only against very small attacking forces), shortly after the Lebanon bombings, that agency commenced an urgent rulemaking to require its licensees to protect against truck bombs. Inexplicably, that rulemaking was called off after research results indicated that the truck bomb threat to nuclear facilities was even more serious than previously thought. Even were nuclear facilities adequately protected against external attack, be the aim theft or sabotage, the greatest security risk to these sites - the threat of action by insiders - would remain. The traditional methods of protecting against the insider threat - such as the two-person rule, strict compartmentalization of vital areas, and design features that make damage to two or more redundant systems by one individual difficult - are generally expensive and have encountered substantial resistance from the nuclear industry, which has restrained the NRC from requiring them

  17. Pros and cons on ''Hitlers' bomb''. Studies on nuclear research in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsch, R.; Petermann, H.

    2007-01-01

    This book reveals a sensation: Under supervision of the SS German scientists tested 1944/45 nuclear bombs on Ruegen and in Thuringia. During this period several hundred prisoners of war and prisoners died. Besides proofs for nuclear weapon testing the author also found a draft for a patent on plutonium bombs and discovered the first functioning German atom reactor in the environs of Berlin. The succeeding book titled above enlarges the spectra of contributions from Saenger PLan to attack New York, researches on minimization of critical mass, the attempt to calculate TNT-equivalence as the presentation of important acteurs occuring during the researches. (GL)

  18. Deconstructing The Bomb: Confessions of a Nuclear Archeologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coster-Mullen, John

    2017-01-01

    I am the author of the groundbreaking book Atom Bombs: The Top Secret Inside Story of Little Boy and Fat Man. I will be sharing some of my quarter century of research and methodology that has allowed me to be the first researcher ever to unravel with an unprecedented level of accuracy, the most closely-guarded secrets of the first two Atomic Bombs (``Little Boy'' and ``Fat Man'') created by the Manhattan Project that were used to end WWII. I refer to this methodology as ``Nuclear Archeology'' and will demonstrate that this was done using entirely ``Open Sources'' of information.

  19. Imaginary Savior: the image of the nuclear bomb in Korea, 1945-1960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Won

    2009-01-01

    Two atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 brought the unexpected liberation of Korea from the 35-year Japanese occupation. Koreans therefore had a very favorable and positive image of the nuclear bomb and nuclear energy from the beginning. The image of the nuclear bomb as "savior" was strengthened during the Korean War when the United States openly mentioned the possible use of the nuclear bomb against North Korean and Chinese military. After the end of the Korean War in July 1953 South Koreans strongly supported the development of the nuclear bomb in order to deter another North Korean invasion. When the US government provided South Korea with a research nuclear reactor in the late 1950s, most South Koreans hailed it as the first step to developing their own nuclear bomb. This paper will analyze how and why the savior image of the nuclear bomb originated and spread in Korea during the 1950s.

  20. Detection at a distance of atomic bomb tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahmias, M E

    1954-01-01

    Nahmias describes the radioassay of air, rain, and snowfall as the basis for detecting atomic bomb tests. Tables and graphs give time vs. Ra equivalents, distance vs Roentgens/h of radiation, and distribution of radioelements which can be expected.

  1. Hitler's bomb: the secret story of Germans' attempts to get the nuclear weapon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsch, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    In this historical book, the author claims to have evidence concerning the development and testing of a possible 'nuclear weapon' by Nazi Germany in 1945. The 'weapon' in question is not alleged to be a standard nuclear weapon powered by nuclear fission, but something closer to either a radiological weapon (a so-called 'dirty bomb') or a hybrid-nuclear fusion weapon. Its new evidence is concerned primarily with the parts of the German nuclear energy project (an attempted clandestine scientific effort led by Germany to develop and produce atomic weapons during World War II) under Kurt Diebner, a German nuclear physicist who directed and administrated the project

  2. BombCAD - A new tool for bomb defense in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massa, D.J.; Howard, J.W.; Sturm, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a new tool for analysis of the specific vulnerability of diverse facilites to bomb attack and for computer-aided-design (CAD) of siting, screening and hardening/softening aspects of comprehensive bomb defense programs. BombCAD combines the extensive architectural and engineering data base and graphics capabilities of modern architectural CAD systems with the bomb effects computational capability of the ''SECUREPLAN'' BOMB UTILITY. BombCAD permits architects/engineers, security professionals and facility managers to analytically estimate and graphically display facility vulnerability and changes (reductions) in vulnerability which result from the adoption of various bomb defense measures

  3. Summary of fifty years research on the late effects of atomic bomb irradiation in Japan with special reference to possible similar late effects by nuclear weapons tests in Semipalatinsk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomonaga, M.

    2000-01-01

    The investigation clearly demonstrated statistically significant increases of risks for acute myeloid and lymphoid leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, and solid tumors including thyroid cancer, gastrointestinal cancers, lung cancer, hepatoma and skin cancer. The excess relative risks was highest for acute lymphoid leukemia, followed by chronic myeloid leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, and solid cancer. The increased risk for leukemia has almost completely disappeared after 50 years, whereas the risks for cancers are apparently persisting giving a great threat to general health of atomic bomb survivors. These observations can be directly referred to the possible late effects of the acute and chronic exposure to irradiation caused by nuclear tests in Semipalatinsk region. Recent dose-estimation efforts by Kazakhstan, US and Japanese scientists indicated that there had been Hiroshima/Nagasaki atomic bomb equivalent high-dose exposure in some residents around the test sites. Some researchers suggested increased risks for malignant diseases such as leukemia and cancers. Unfortunately there was a lack of high-quality statistics in the Semipalatinsk survey, providing a considerable difficulty in interpreting the estimated incidences of such malignant diseases

  4. Nuclear junkies: Those lovable little bombs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkin, W.M.

    1993-01-01

    When former Los Alamos scientist and noted nuclear weapons advisor Richard Garwin met with Russian Minister of Atomic Energy Victor Mikhailov in Moscow earlier this year, Mikhailov brought up US research on micronukes. The linkage is clear: the research of US nuclear scientists has seemingly justified similar programs in Russia. Until recently, references to these new weapons had apparently diminished. The rationalizations for the continued development of micronuke technology are described in this article. The extent to which programs for these weapons are still active is revealed. The discussion focuses on the political environment largely responsible for the proliferation of mini-nuke programs

  5. Invisible Nuclear Catastrophe Consequences of the U.S. Atomic and Hydrogen Bomb Testings in the Marshall Islands: Focusing on the “Overlooked” Ailuk Atoll

    OpenAIRE

    Takemine, Seiichiro

    2018-01-01

    The United States conducted sixty-seven nuclear tests in total at Bikini and Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands between 1946 and 1958. T his article discusses the U.S. nuclear test issues in the Marshall Islands, focusing on the local people who have not been able t o apply for the U.S. compensation, especially those on Ailuk Atoll. Until today, little attention has been given to these areas.Interviews with survivors as well as declassified U.S. documents make it clear that the nuclear te...

  6. Bomb tests attack the food chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruff, T. (Monash Medical School, Melbourne (Australia))

    1990-03-01

    Ciguatera poisoning, the most common type of fish poisoning in the world, has become a major public health problem in some parts of the South Pacific. This area has always been the site of periodic outbreaks, especially after severe storms or natural disasters that damage core reefs. But since World War II it has become evident that military activities and major construction projects that wreak havoc on corals also lead to ciguatera outbreaks. Extraordinarily high rates of ciguatera poisoning have occurred on the small Pacific islands that have been used for nuclear tests and on the islands that host the military infrastructures and activities that accompany the tests. This is true for both the Marshall Islands near Bikini and Eniwetok, where U.S. tests took place, and in French Polynesia, in the area around Moruroa Atoll where the French government continues to test. Ciguatera poisoning has a disastrous effect on people who depend on fishing as a way of life and on fish as the major source of protein. 10 refs.

  7. Cold pressor test on atomic bomb survivors, Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Tomoyoshi; Sweedler, D R; Okamoto, Akira

    1964-03-12

    Cold pressor test was performed on a sample of 1156 atomic bomb survivors and other persons (ages ranging between 15 to 81 years) residing in Nagasaki City. Response values differed according to such factors as age, sex, blood pressure and month of examination. The response in systolic pressure increased with age but no evidence was found to support an acceleration of aging by irradiation. The response in diastolic blood pressure showed no change with age, but differed between Comparison Groups during the summer months. However, this was apparently due to some other cause than exposure to the atomic bomb. 25 references, 8 tables.

  8. Accurate dating with radiocarbon from the atom bomb tests

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vogel

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The artificial radiocarbon produced by the thermonuclear bomb tests in the 1950s and 1960s significantly increased the level of C-14 in the environment. A detailed record of the subsequent changes in the C-14 concentration of the atmosphere can...

  9. The technical feasibility of uranium enrichment for nuclear bomb construction at the parallel nuclear program plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.P.

    1990-01-01

    It is discussed the hole of the Parallel Nuclear Program is Brazil and the feasibility of uranium enrichment for nuclear bomb construction. This program involves two research centers, one belonging to the brazilian navy and another to the aeronautics. Some other brazilian institutes like CTA, IPEN, COPESP and CETEX and also taking part in the program. (A.C.A.S.)

  10. The bomb black market - Inquiry about nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertrais, B.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear weapons remain for a long time in the hands of the five big powers: USA, Soviet Union, Great Britain, France and China. Things started to change when Israel, and then India acquired the atomic bomb as well. Pakistan took up the race too but Abdul Qadeer Khan, one of the nuclear program maker of the country, took profit of the situation to set up a huge international proliferation network for the spreading of the technologies, tools and materials necessary for weapons fabrication. He offered his services not only to Iran and North Korea, but to Iraq and Libya as well and probably to some other countries. Today, the Iranian nuclear program generates both envy and fear in the Middle East. Who is going to be the next domino of the nuclear game? Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Turkey are potential candidates. But while Pakistan sinks into crisis, the terrorists are taking interest in nukes. The author of this book has worked for more than 10 years on this dossier. He has had access to the most sensible documents and to essential testimonies. He now lifts the curtain on the secrets of nuclear proliferation. In this book, where reality sometimes surpasses fiction, he explains how the CIA finally succeeded in infiltrating the 'Khan ring' after having closed its eyes on his deals for a long time. He describes the branches of the Pakistani atomic complex and analyses with lucidity the nuclear terrorism risk

  11. Inseparable twins: nuclear bomb fuel and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruff, T.; University of Melbourne, Melbourne

    2006-01-01

    The spread of nuclear power increases the number of nations and organisations with opportunities to make nuclear weapons or buy or steal the materials to make them. Global warming demands real solutions, not nuclear diversions and dangers.

  12. Lack of tissue renewal in human adult Achilles tendon is revealed by nuclear bomb 14C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemeier, Katja Maria; Schjerling, Peter; Heinemeier, Jan; Magnusson, Stig Peter; Kjaer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Tendons are often injured and heal poorly. Whether this is caused by a slow tissue turnover is unknown, since existing data provide diverging estimates of tendon protein half-life that range from 2 mo to 200 yr. With the purpose of determining life-long turnover of human tendon tissue, we used the 14C bomb-pulse method. This method takes advantage of the dramatic increase in atmospheric levels of 14C, produced by nuclear bomb tests in 1955–1963, which is reflected in all living organisms. Levels of 14C were measured in 28 forensic samples of Achilles tendon core and 4 skeletal muscle samples (donor birth years 1945–1983) with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and compared to known atmospheric levels to estimate tissue turnover. We found that Achilles tendon tissue retained levels of 14C corresponding to atmospheric levels several decades before tissue sampling, demonstrating a very limited tissue turnover. The tendon concentrations of 14C approximately reflected the atmospheric levels present during the first 17 yr of life, indicating that the tendon core is formed during height growth and is essentially not renewed thereafter. In contrast, 14C levels in muscle indicated continuous turnover. Our observation provides a fundamental premise for understanding tendon function and pathology, and likely explains the poor regenerative capacity of tendon tissue.—Heinemeier, K. M., Schjerling, P., Heinemeier, J., Magnusson, S. P., Kjaer, M. Lack of tissue renewal in human adult Achilles tendon is revealed by nuclear bomb 14C. PMID:23401563

  13. Strictosidine activation in Apocynaceae: towards a "nuclear time bomb"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guirimand Grégory

    2010-08-01

    strictosidine vacuolar pool upon enzyme-substrate reunion occurring during potential herbivore feeding constituting a so-called "nuclear time bomb" in reference to the "mustard oil bomb" commonly used to describe the myrosinase-glucosinolate defence system in Brassicaceae.

  14. Strictosidine activation in Apocynaceae: towards a "nuclear time bomb"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    upon enzyme-substrate reunion occurring during potential herbivore feeding constituting a so-called "nuclear time bomb" in reference to the "mustard oil bomb" commonly used to describe the myrosinase-glucosinolate defence system in Brassicaceae. PMID:20723215

  15. Bombs grade 'spent' nuclear material removed from Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Spent nuclear fuel containing enough uranium to produce 2.5 nuclear weapons has been safely returned to Russia from Uzbekistan in a classified mission completed on 19 April 2006. It is the first time that fuel used in a nuclear research reactor - referred to as 'spent' - has been repatriated to Russia since the break-up of the Soviet Union. Under tight security, 63 kilograms of spent highly enriched uranium (HEU) was transported to Mayak in Russia, in four separate shipments. IAEA safeguards inspectors monitored and verified the packing of the fuel for transport over the course of 16 days. The secret operation, six years in the planning, was a joint undertaking of the IAEA, the United States, Uzbekistan, Russia and Kazakhstan as part of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI). The aim of the GTRI is to identify, secure and recover high-risk vulnerable nuclear and radiological materials around the world. 'There was particular concern about the Uzbek spent fuel given its significant quantity and that it was no longer 'self protecting', 'the IAEA's Crosscutting Co-ordinator for Research Reactors, Mr. Pablo Adelfang, said. 'This means that the fuel has lost its high radioactivity. In other words, it would no longer injure anyone who handled it and would not deter potential thieves,' Mr. Adelfang said. 'The shipment is an important step to reduce stockpiles of high-risk, vulnerable nuclear materials. Russia, the US, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan should be applauded for their successful cooperation. It will contribute to the security of both Uzbekistan and the international community,' he added. In Russia, the fuel will be processed so that it can not be used for atomic bombs. Russia originally supplied the nuclear fuel to Uzbekistan for use in its 10 megawatt research reactor. Located at the Institute of Nuclear Physics of Uzbekistan, 30 km from Tashkent, the reactor is currently used for research and to produce isotopes for medical purposes. The IAEA is

  16. Nuclear stress test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  17. Living with the bomb: American and Japanese cultural conflicts in the nuclear age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hein, L.; Selden, M.

    1997-01-01

    This is a book about how Japanese, Americans -- not the least Korean-Japanese and Japanese-Americans directly affected by the bombings -- and the rest of the world have lived with the history of atomic destruction, how they have remembered, forgotten, commemorated, and erased that history. A powerful collection that confronts the consequences of the atomic bombing of Japan for that nation, for the United States, and for the world. Stripping away the veils of carefully manufactured illusions, it brings readers face-to-face with the realities of the nuclear era

  18. Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: a test or tragedy ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faridah Mohd Idris

    2003-01-01

    Hiroshima and Nagasaki were left as monument by the history of the man civilization. This article discussed some of related issues i.e. the scenarios of the tragedy, the history of atomic bomb - starts with the discovery of neutrons to the day the tragedy happened

  19. Nuclear test watchers feel political heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, E.

    1987-01-01

    One year after US citizen diplomats signed a remarkable pact with the Soviet Union to monitor nuclear bomb tests, they are running into some of the obstacles that regular diplomats encounter - political flak from the Pentagon and harassment by the Soviet military. But they have devised some technical solutions that they hope will get them around the roadblocks. These solutions are discussed

  20. Precision closed bomb calorimeter for testing flame and gas producing initiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, D. R., Jr.; Taylor, A. C., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A calorimeter has been developed under this study to help meet the needs of accurate performance monitoring of electrically or mechanically actuated flame and gas producing devices, such as squib-type initiators. A ten cubic centimeter closed bomb (closed volume) calorimeter was designed to provide a standard pressure trace and to measure a nominal 50 calorie output, using the basic components of a Parr Model 1411 calorimeter. Two prototype bombs were fabricated, pressure tested to 2600 psi, and extensively evaluated.

  1. From the Dawn of Nuclear Physics to the First Atomic Bombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolbright, Stephen; Schumacher, Jacob; Michonova-Alexova, Ekaterina

    2014-03-01

    This work gives a fresh look at the major discoveries leading to nuclear fission within the historical perspective. The focus is on the main contributors to the discoveries in nuclear physics, leading to the idea of fission and its application to the creation of the atomic bombs used at the end of the World War II. The present work is a more complete review on the history of the nuclear physics discoveries and their application to the atomic bomb. In addition to the traditional approach to the topic, focusing mainly on the fundamental physics discoveries in Europe and on the Manhattan Project in the United States, the nuclear research in Japan is also emphasized. Along with that, a review of the existing credible scholar publications, providing evidence for possible atomic bomb research in Japan, is provided. Proper credit is given to the women physicists, whose contributions had not always been recognized. Considering the historical and political situation at the time of the scientific discoveries, thought-provoking questions about decision-making, morality, and responsibility are also addressed. The work refers to the contributions of over 20 Nobel Prize winners. EM-A is grateful to Prof. Walter Grunden and to Prof. Emeritus Shadahiko Kano, Prof. Emeritus Monitori Hoshi for sharing their own notes, documents, and references, and to CCCU for sponsoring her participation in the 2013 Nuclear Weapons Seminar in Japan.

  2. Comparative Test of the Effectiveness of Large Bombs against Reinforced Concrete Structures (Anglo-American Bomb Tests-Project RUBY).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1946-10-31

    reiiforced concrete structure at FMd ,, full details eof whis are given in Appudix "*C. 7. The Target for the uI= Z0OSIII Filled Bomb Trials# is to . be the...MODIFIED MIll FUZE) & ) CONDENSER rOR IGNITING SQUIBS INITIATING PR•OPELL ING & 7TAIL CHARGES ASSEMBLED DETAILS OF 4500 LB C•/ FtA DISNEY IBOMB, II "’m

  3. Crisis Management training at nuclear facilities: Simulations in bomb threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, L.

    1993-01-01

    Substantial enhancements to the study of the theoretical and applied foundations of crisis management have been achieved in recent years. Whereas risk managers study 'the probability that a harmful consequence of a particular event will occur during a given time,' crisis management explores unexpected, potentially negative events with short or long-term implications involving injury to life or property. In this regard, crisis management focuses on the mitigation of organizational after-shock; risk management is preventative in scope. While the risk management function of nuclear facilities has been addressed widely in the literature, comparatively little has been written that addresses the myriad, interdisciplinary challenges associated with managing organizational disarray. The issue of crisis management has assumed paramount importance in recent years due to unexpected geopolitical events (e.g., Persian Gulf War), rampant violence facing organizations (e.g., mass shootings in Killeen, Texas and several U.S. Post Offices) and an acceleration of serious crisis impacting large organizations (e.g., Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, Exxon Valdez, NASA Challenger disaster). Without question, the public is increasingly demanding that organizational managers possess a fundamental understanding of crisis management and its principal underpinnings: effective public communication regarding the event and a return to normalcy, employee and public safety and evacuation measures, and other mitigation measures will protect life and property

  4. Seeing the Light: Visibility of the July '45 Trinity Atomic Bomb Test from the Inner Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2006-01-01

    In his "The Making of the Atomic Bomb," Richard Rhodes remarks of the July 16, 1945, Trinity atomic bomb test in New Mexico that "had astronomers been watching they could have seen it reflected from the moon, literal moonshine," an allusion to Ernest Rutherford's famous dismissal of the prospect of atomic energy. Investigating…

  5. Sun, Ocean, Nuclear Bombs, and Fossil Fuels: Radiocarbon Variations and Implications for High-Resolution Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Koushik

    2016-06-01

    Radiocarbon, or 14C, is a radiometric dating method ideally suited for providing a chronological framework in archaeology and geosciences for timescales spanning the last 50,000 years. 14C is easily detectable in most common natural organic materials and has a half-life (5,730±40 years) relevant to these timescales. 14C produced from large-scale detonations of nuclear bombs between the 1950s and the early 1960s can be used for dating modern organic materials formed after the 1950s. Often these studies demand high-resolution chronology to resolve ages within a few decades to less than a few years. Despite developments in modern, high-precision 14C analytical methods, the applicability of 14C in high-resolution chronology is limited by short-term variations in atmospheric 14C in the past. This article reviews the roles of the principal natural drivers (e.g., solar magnetic activity and ocean circulation) and the anthropogenic perturbations (e.g., fossil fuel CO2 and 14C from nuclear and thermonuclear bombs) that are responsible for short-term 14C variations in the environment. Methods and challenges of high-resolution 14C dating are discussed.

  6. The birth of the atomic bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, Louis

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author proposes an overview of fifty years of researches and works which resulted in the fabrication and use of an atomic bomb. Thus, he evokes the discovery of radioactivity, experiments made by Rutherford, the discovery of nuclear fission induced uranium bombardment by slow neutrons, the discovery of a possibility of chain reaction with a very low critical mass, the first works on the development of a bomb in the USA and United-Kingdom, and finally the Manhattan project and the realisation of the first bombs, tests, and their use in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

  7. The nuclear bomb carbon curve recorded in tree-rings and lake sediments near Taal Volcano, Central Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, M. S.; Li, H. C.; Huang, S. K.; Guan, B. T.

    2017-12-01

    Dendrochronologies built from precisely dated annual rings have shown to record the regional bomb pulse and the C-14 concentration variations caused by local events. In this study, we collected teak trees Tectona grandis near the Lake Taal, Central Philippines in 2011 for dendrochronological analysis and radiocarbon dating. The tree-ring sample contains 90 rings dated from 1922 to 2011. Currently, 28 selected subsamples have been measured by AMS 14C on bulk carbon with a few samples on holocellulose. The 14C results of the samples indicate that: 1) the results of AMS 14C dating between holocellulose and whole wood from the same ring are similar, so we select whole wood for AMS 14C dating. 2) The nuclear bomb 14C pulse was clearly recorded in the Tectona grandis growth rings. The Δ14C values rose dramatically in 1960 and reached a maximum of 692‰ in 1966. The magnitude and the peak year of the bomb curve in the Tectona grandis tree-ring record are comparable to other published tree-ring records in the tropical regions. 3) The Δ14C values suddenly dropped in 1950, 1964 and 1968, probably affected by CO2 gas releasing due to the Taal volcanic activities. Further study on the tree-ring 14C dating will allow us to evaluate the bomb pulse trends more precisely, and the volcanic activities of Pinatubo and Taal Volcanoes. The tree-ring Δ14C record not only confirms existence of the bomb curve in Taal Lake area, but also allows us compare to the Δ14C record in the lake sediment for chronological construction. A 120-cm gravity core, TLS-2, collected from Lake Taal in 2008, shows the nuclear bomb carbon curve in the TOC of the core. However, the magnitude of the nuclear bomb 14C pulse in the TOC of TLS-2 is much lower than that in the tree-ring records, due to mixing effect of different organic carbon sources, smoothing effect of 14CO2 in multiple years plant growths, local old CO2 emission from volcanic activity, degassing from the lake bottom, and industrial and city

  8. Fallout: Hedley Marston and atomic bomb tests in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, R.T.

    2001-01-01

    This book tells the story of Australian scientists involved in the 1956 British atomic tests at Maralinga. The story involves several of the country's most respected and trusted scientists of the 1950s and spills over to the scientific organisations that mattered. As the drama unfolds we see how the controversy touched the lives of many senior Australian scientists, and in a few cases those of British scientists, too. What is described in this book, however, is more than an esoteric scientific dispute kept within laboratory walls; it is a story about the nature of science in relation to society that continues into the present day. This controversy was, and is, about the health effects of low-level ionising radiation. There is still, after all these years, intense debate about the health effects of low-level ionising radiation to which from time to time most Australians are exposed through the dental and medical industry

  9. Nuclear Test Personnel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    FOIA Electronic Reading Room Privacy Impact Assessment DTRA No Fear Act Reporting Nuclear Test Personnel Review NTPR Fact Sheets NTPR Radiation Dose Assessment Documents US Atmospheric Nuclear Test History Documents US Underground Nuclear Test History Reports NTPR Radiation Exposure Reports Enewetak

  10. The finish. About the reasons and events leading to the nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, S.

    1995-01-01

    The bombing was decided not only for military reasons. For the Manhattan Project managers, and for General Groves in particular, it was a question of justification of their own work and commitment. The bomb may have actually prolonged the war. (orig.) [de

  11. Nuclear Bombs and Coral: Guam Coral Core Reveals Operation-Specific Radiocarbon Signals from the Pacific Proving Grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, A. H.

    2016-12-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) analyses on a coral core extracted from the western Central Pacific (Guam) has revealed a series of early peaks in the marine bomb 14C record. The typical marine bomb 14C signal, one that is phase lagged and attenuated relative to atmospheric bomb 14C, is present in the coral core and is consistent with other North Pacific records. However, 14C levels that are well above what can be explained by air-sea diffusion alone punctuate this pattern. This anomaly has been demonstrated to a limited extent in other coral cores of the Indo-Pacific region, but is unmatched relative to the magnitude and temporal resolution recorded in the Guam coral core. Other records have shown an early Δ14C rise on the order of 40-50‰ above pre-bomb levels, with a subsequent decline before continuing the gradual Δ14C rise that is indicative of air-sea diffusion of 14CO2. The Guam coral Δ14C record provided three strong pulses in 1954-55, 1956-57, and 1958-59 that are superimposed on the pre-bomb to initial Δ14C rise from atmospheric bomb 14C. Each of these peaks can be directly linked to testing of thermonuclear devices in the Pacific Proving Grounds at Eniwetok and Bikini Atoll of the Marshall Islands. The measurable lag in reaching Guam can be tied to ocean surface currents and can be traced to other regional Δ14C records from corals, providing a transport timeline to places as distant as the Indonesian throughflow, Okinawa and Palmyra.

  12. Studies of Health Effects from Nuclear Testing near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site, Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Grosche

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear bomb testing conducted at the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in Kazakhstan is of great importance for today’s radiation protection research, particularly in the area of low dose exposures. This type of radiation is of particular interest due to the lack of research in this field and how it impacts population health. In order to understand the possible health effects of nuclear bomb testing, it is important to determine what studies have been conducted on the effects of low dose exposure and dosimetry, and evaluate new epidemiologic data and biological material collected from populations living in proximity to the test site. With time, new epidemiological data has been made available, and it is possible that these data may be linked to biological samples. Next to linking existing and newly available data to examine health effects, the existing dosimetry system needs to be expanded and further developed to include residential areas, which have not yet been taken into account. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of previous studies evaluating the health effects of nuclear testing, including some information on dosimetry efforts, and pointing out directions for future epidemiologic studies.

  13. Studies of Health Effects from Nuclear Testing near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site, Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosche, Bernd; Zhunussova, Tamara; Apsalikov, Kazbek; Kesminiene, Ausrele

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear bomb testing conducted at the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in Kazakhstan is of great importance for today's radiation protection research, particularly in the area of low dose exposures. This type of radiation is of particular interest due to the lack of research in this field and how it impacts population health. In order to understand the possible health effects of nuclear bomb testing, it is important to determine what studies have been conducted on the effects of low dose exposure and dosimetry, and evaluate new epidemiologic data and biological material collected from populations living in proximity to the test site. With time, new epidemiological data has been made available, and it is possible that these data may be linked to biological samples. Next to linking existing and newly available data to examine health effects, the existing dosimetry system needs to be expanded and further developed to include residential areas, which have not yet been taken into account. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of previous studies evaluating the health effects of nuclear testing, including some information on dosimetry efforts, and pointing out directions for future epidemiologic studies.

  14. The bomb and the men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroh, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Since 1945, more than 2000 nuclear weapon tests have been performed in the world, with a perfect knowledge of the irradiation risks. This book tells this story. The one of the men who designed the bombs, who used and improved them. It tells also the story of these men who were injured by nuclear weapons and those who were directly impacted by the fallouts of these tests. Finally, the book does not forget to mention the men who voluntarily dissimulated the ravages of nuclear weapons before discretely recognizing them and thinking of repairing the damage

  15. Sweden and the bomb. The Swedish plans to acquire nuclear weapons, 1945 - 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonter, T

    2001-09-01

    This study analyses the Swedish nuclear weapons research since 1945 carried out by the Swedish National Defence Research Establishment (FOA). The most important aspect of this research was dealing with protection in broad terms against nuclear weapons attacks. However, another aspect was also important from early on - to conduct research aiming at a possible production of nuclear weapons. FOA performed an extended research up to 1968, when the Swedish government signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), which meant the end of these production plans. Up to this date, five main investigations about the technical conditions were made, 1948, 1953, 1955, 1957 and 1965, which all together expanded the Swedish know-how to produce a bomb. The Swedish plans to procure nuclear weapons were not an issue in the debate until the mid-50's. The reason for this was simple, prior to 1954 the plans were secretly held within a small group of involved politicians, military and researchers. The change of this procedure did take place when the Swedish Supreme Commander in a public defence report in 1954 favoured a Swedish Nuclear weapons option. In 1958 FOA had reached a technical level that allowed the parliament to make a decision. Two programs were proposed - the L-programme (the Loading Programme), to be used if the parliament would say yes to a production of nuclear weapons, and the S-programme (the Protection Programme), if the parliament would say no. The debate on the issue had now created problems for the Social Democratic Government. The prime minister, Tage Erlander, who had earlier defended a procurement of nuclear weapons, was now forced to reach a compromise. The compromise was presented to the parliament in a creative manner that meant that only the S-programme would be allowed. The government argued that the technical level did allow a 'freedom of action' up to at least the beginning of the 60's when Sweden was mature to make a decision on the issue. During this period

  16. Estimates of radiation dose to the Australian population as a result of exposure to fallout from the French and the Chinese nuclear bomb tests over the period 1964-1972 and assessments of the adverse effects on public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.E.; Combe, Victoria.

    1973-03-01

    Measurements of fallout levels in Australia up to 1971 are reviewed and used to estimate Australian average individual dose commitments. An alternative set of numbers is given based on the most recent figures for global average dose commitments provided by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. The two sets of numbers show reasonable agreement; the larger are adopted for use in estimating adverse effects. The contribution of the French and Chinese weapons tests relative to that from all tests is derived by inspection and extrapolation where necessary of data on the injection of strontium-90 into the northern and southern hemispheres and its subsequent deposition as a function of time. The risk data reviewed and summarised in the 1972 UNSCEAR and BEIR reports are used to derive estimates of adverse effects. It is concluded that the French and Chinese test series to the end of 1972 may be responsible over the next 20 years for up to 1.4 and 0.2 cases of cancer per year respectively in Australia. Of these cases, 0.25 per year would be leukaemia, 0.75 per year thyroid cancer and 0.6 per year all other forms. Available evidence on the mutagenic effects of radiation suggests that the total number of cases of severe genetic diseases produced may be of the same order as the total number of cases of cancer, with the former spread over many generations whereas the latter are not. (author)

  17. A methodology to assist in contingency planning for protection of nuclear power plants against land vehicle bombs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, J.W.; Goldman, L.A.; Lobner, P.R.; Finn, S.P.; Koch, T.H.; Veatch, J.D.

    1989-04-01

    This report provides a methodology which could be used by operators of licensed nuclear power reactors to address issues related to contingency planning for a land vehicle bomb, should such a threat arise. The methodology presented in this report provides a structured framework for understanding factors to be considered in contingency planning for a land vehicle bomb including: (1) system options available to maintain a safe condition, (2) associated components and equipment, (3) preferred system options for establishing and maintaining a safe shutdown condition, and (4) contingency measures to preserve the preferred system options. Example applications of the methodology for a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) are provided along with an example of contingency plan changes necessary for implementation of this methodology, a discussion of some contingency measures that can be used to limit land vehicle access, and a bibliography. 2 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs

  18. Bomb-test 90Sr in Pacific and Indian Ocean surface water as recorded by banded corals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toggweiler, J.R.; Trumbore, S.

    1985-01-01

    We report here measurements of bomb-test 90 Sr activity in the CaCO 3 skeletons of banded head forming corals collected from nine locations in the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans. Density variations in skeletal carbonate demarcate annual growth bands and allow one to section individual years. Measurements of 90 Sr activity in the annual bands reconstruct the activity of the water in which the coral grew. Our oldest records date to the early years of the nuclear era and record not only fallout deposition from the major U.S. and Soviet tests of 1958-1962, but also the huge, and largely unappreciated, localized inputs from the U.S. tests at Eniwetok and Bikini atolls during 1952-1958. In the 1960's the 90 Sr activity in Indian Ocean surface water was twice as high as activity levels in the South Pacific at comparable latitudes. We suggest that substantial amounts of northern hemisphere fallout moved west and south into the Indian Ocean via passages through the Indonesian archipelago. Equatorial Pacific 90 Sr levels have remained relatively constant from the mid 1960's through the end of 1970's in spite of 90 Sr decay, reflecting a large-scale transfer of water between the temperate and tropical North Pacific. Activity levels at Fanning Is. (4 0 N, 160 0 W) appear to vary in conjunction with the 3-4 year El Nino cycle. (orig.)

  19. External radiation in Dolon village due to local fallout from the first USSR atomic bomb test in 1949.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Fukutani, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Sakaguchi, Aya; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2006-02-01

    Dolon village, located about 60 km from the border of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site, is known to be heavily contaminated by local fallout from the first USSR atomic bomb test in 1949. External radiation in Dolon was evaluated based on recent 137Cs data in soil and calculation of temporal change in the fission product composition. After fitting a log-normal distribution to the soil data, a 137Cs deposition of 32 kBq m-2, which corresponds to the 90th-percentile of the distribution, was tentatively chosen as a value to evaluate the radiation situation in 1949. Our calculation indicated that more than 95% of the cumulative dose for 50 y had been delivered within 1 y after the deposition. The resulting cumulative dose for 1 y after the deposition, normalized to the initial contamination containing 1 kBq m-2 of 137Cs, was 15.6 mGy, assuming a fallout arrival time of 3 h and a medium level of fractionation. Finally, 0.50 Gy of absorbed dose in air was derived as our tentative estimate for 1-year cumulative external dose in Dolon due to local fallout from the first USSR test in 1949.

  20. Bomb CAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massa, R.J.; Howard, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes BombCAD a computer-aided analysis technique for assessing the damage to diverse structures which results from specific high explosive detonations within or near the structure. BombCAD analyzes the vulnerability of specific facilities to bomb attach, and evaluates siting, screening and hardening/softening aspects of comprehensive bomb defense programs. The paper describes BombCAD's architectural models of specific structures, computations of blastwave effects and the paradigms which relate blast wave effects to both structural damage and human injury. The use of BombCAD in bomb attack vulnerability assessment, facility design, bomb threat response planning and post-incident analyses is described and field examples are presented

  1. Calibration and test of an aneroid mini-bomb combustion calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.; Pilcher, Geoffrey; Santos, Luis M.N.B.F.; Lima, Luis M. Spencer S.

    2007-01-01

    A new mini-bomb combustion calorimeter designed at the University of Lund was improved, installed and calibrated at the University of Porto. This calorimeter is suitable for high precision combustion calorimetry with samples of mass about (10 to 40)mg. The energy equivalent of the calorimeter, ε cal =(1946.45+/-0.11)J.K -1 , was obtained from 15 independent calibration experiments with benzoic acid SRM 39i. Anthracene, succinic acid, acetanilide, and 1,2,4-triazole were used as test compounds, with excellent agreement with the literature values. -Δ c H m o Δ f H m o (cr)kJ.mol -1 kJ.mol -1 Anthracene7062.6+/-2.1124.3+/-2.8Succinic acid1490.2+/-0.7-941.3+/-0.9Acetanilide4226.2+/-1.1-208.2+/-1.61,2, 4-Triazole1326.1+/-0.4110.3+/-0.5

  2. Sweden and the bomb. The Swedish plans to acquire nuclear weapons, 1945 - 1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonter, T [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of History

    2001-09-01

    This study analyses the Swedish nuclear weapons research since 1945 carried out by the Swedish National Defence Research Establishment (FOA). The most important aspect of this research was dealing with protection in broad terms against nuclear weapons attacks. However, another aspect was also important from early on - to conduct research aiming at a possible production of nuclear weapons. FOA performed an extended research up to 1968, when the Swedish government signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), which meant the end of these production plans. Up to this date, five main investigations about the technical conditions were made, 1948, 1953, 1955, 1957 and 1965, which all together expanded the Swedish know-how to produce a bomb. The Swedish plans to procure nuclear weapons were not an issue in the debate until the mid-50's. The reason for this was simple, prior to 1954 the plans were secretly held within a small group of involved politicians, military and researchers. The change of this procedure did take place when the Swedish Supreme Commander in a public defence report in 1954 favoured a Swedish Nuclear weapons option. In 1958 FOA had reached a technical level that allowed the parliament to make a decision. Two programs were proposed - the L-programme (the Loading Programme), to be used if the parliament would say yes to a production of nuclear weapons, and the S-programme (the Protection Programme), if the parliament would say no. The debate on the issue had now created problems for the Social Democratic Government. The prime minister, Tage Erlander, who had earlier defended a procurement of nuclear weapons, was now forced to reach a compromise. The compromise was presented to the parliament in a creative manner that meant that only the S-programme would be allowed. The government argued that the technical level did allow a 'freedom of action' up to at least the beginning of the 60's when Sweden was mature to make a decision on the issue

  3. Nuclear nonsense, black-market bombs, and fissile flim-flam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaninov, K.

    1994-01-01

    This article describes the findings of three undercover Russian journalists who broke into the black market for nuclear materials. They relate their experiences of contacting brokers, describe the proposed deals, and reveal the results of some of the tests of samples. The economic pressures behind the black market are described. The dangers to the participants of the black market and potential dangers to the public from uncontrolled trade in nuclear materials are discussed

  4. Underground Nuclear Testing Program, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-09-01

    The Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) continues to conduct an underground nuclear testing program which includes tests for nuclear weapons development and other tests for development of nuclear explosives and methods for their application for peaceful uses. ERDA also continues to provide nuclear explosive and test site support for nuclear effects tests sponsored by the Department of Defense. This Supplement extends the Environmental Statement (WASH-1526) to cover all underground nuclear tests and preparations for tests of one megaton (1 MT) or less at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during Fiscal Year 1976. The test activities covered include numerous continuing programs, both nuclear and non-nuclear, which can best be conducted in a remote area. However, if nuclear excavation tests or tests of yields above 1 MT or tests away from NTS should be planned, these will be covered by separate environmental statements

  5. Decades of nuclear testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miettinen, J.K.

    1995-01-01

    The United States carried out the world's first nuclear test in 1945. The test marked the beginning of an arms race between the great powers that lasted for decades. Innumerable nuclear test explosions were detonated to test and refine the weapons. The arms race picked up speed in the 1950s and culminated in 1958, when the United States detonated 77 and the Soviet Union 35 nuclear explosions. This was followed by the first pause in nuclear testing, brought about through the efforts of the Pugwash organisation consisting of the world's foremost scientists. Finland, too, received its share of the radioactive fallout coming from atmospheric nuclear explosions. Rain water samples have been studied for radioactivity in Finland since the mid-1950s. The first studies to determine the internal radiation doses caused by radioactive substances in man were conducted in the late 1950s by measuring cesium and strontium contents in grass and in milk. The efficiency of research and radiation monitoring improved in the 1960s, which was also a time when training in the sector developed rapidly. In consequence, when the accident in Chernobyl took place Finland had already gained valuable experience needed for rapid determination of unexpected fallout. (orig.) (3 figs.)

  6. Biomonitoring of Serbian population revealed by CB micronucleus test before and after the bombing of Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joksic, G.; Stankovic, M.; Guc-Scekic, M.; Vranjes, A.

    2002-01-01

    The induction of micronuclei in mitotically active cells has been widely used and promoted as a biological marker of exposure to environmental toxins. Biomonitoring of population using cytochalasin block micronucleus test (CBMN) has been performed for 11 years in our country; the incidence of micronuclei was evaluated in many groups of occupationally exposed persons as well as healthy unexposed controls. The spontaneous frequency of MN per 1000 binucleated cells was 9±3 (mean±SD) for woman, 7±2 for men. The average incidence of micronuclei in lymphocytes of newborns was 5.3±0.6, in their mothers 15±3 per 1000 binucleated cells, respectively. After the bombing of Yugoslavia significantly higher incidence of micronuclei was found in all groups of examines: health adults and newborns. In healthy adults, the average incidence of micronuclei was 28.16±14.63; in young pregnant woman 25.3±5.02 and their foetuses 20.14±9.6 respectively. One year latter (2001) the incidence of MN declined in all adults but enhance in foetal blood lymphocytes. (author)

  7. Calibration and test of an aneroid mini-bomb combustion calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: risilva@fc.up.pt; Pilcher, Geoffrey [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Santos, Luis M.N.B.F. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Lima, Luis M. Spencer S. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2007-05-15

    A new mini-bomb combustion calorimeter designed at the University of Lund was improved, installed and calibrated at the University of Porto. This calorimeter is suitable for high precision combustion calorimetry with samples of mass about (10 to 40)mg. The energy equivalent of the calorimeter, {epsilon}{sub cal}=(1946.45+/-0.11)J.K{sup -1}, was obtained from 15 independent calibration experiments with benzoic acid SRM 39i. Anthracene, succinic acid, acetanilide, and 1,2,4-triazole were used as test compounds, with excellent agreement with the literature values. -{delta}{sub c}H{sub m}{sup o}{delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup o}(cr)kJ.mol{sup -1}kJ.mol{sup -1}Anthracene7062.6+/-2.1124.3+/-2.8Succinic acid1490.2+/-0.7-941.3+/-0.9Acetanilide4226.2+/-1.1-208.2+/-1.61,2, 4-Triazole1326.1+/-0.4110.3+/-0.5.

  8. Nuclear test ban verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Kin-Yip

    1991-07-01

    This report describes verification and its rationale, the basic tasks of seismic verification, the physical basis for earthquake/explosion source discrimination and explosion yield determination, the technical problems pertaining to seismic monitoring of underground nuclear tests, the basic problem-solving strategy deployed by the forensic seismology resarch team at the University of Toronto, and the scientific significance of the team's research. The research carried out at the Univeristy of Toronto has two components: teleseismic verification using P wave recordings from the Yellowknife Seismic Array (YKA), and regional (close-in) verification using high-frequency L g and P n recordings from the Eastern Canada Telemetered Network. Major differences have been found in P was attenuation among the propagation paths connecting the YKA listening post with seven active nuclear explosion testing areas in the world. Significant revisions have been made to previously published P wave attenuation results, leading to more interpretable nuclear explosion source functions. (11 refs., 12 figs.)

  9. Why didn't Hitler get the atomic bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevassus-au-Louis, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    This bibliographical note presents a book in which the author reports his historical studies on the Nazi's nuclear activities as, by the end of the 1930's, Germany was probably the leader in this domain. He mentions and describes the various programs that were launched between 1939 and 1945, discusses some evidences related to the fact that the Germans probably tried to master nuclear energy production, and that they might have tested a weapon containing fissile materials (probably a dirty bomb). The author analyses the reasons of the failure of this nuclear sector: a lack of organization, war and bombings, and a relative lack of interest of political authorities

  10. Radiation exposure on residents due to semipalatinsk nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, J.; Hoshi, M.; Nagatomo, T.

    2000-01-01

    Accumulated external radiation doses for residents near Semipalatinsk nuclear test site of the former USSR are presented as a results of the first study by thermoluminescence technique for bricks sampled at several settlements between 1995 and 1997. The external doses which we evaluated from brick dose were up to ∼100 cGy for resident. The external doses at several points in the center of Semipalatinsk city were ∼60 cGy that was remarkably high comparing with the previously reported value based on the military data. A total of 459 nuclear explosions were conducted by the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) from 1949 to 1989 at the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS) Kazakhstan, including 87 atmospheric, 26 on the ground, and 364 underground explosions. Total energy release of about 18 Mt equivalent of trinitrotoluene is eleven hundreds times of Hiroshima atomic bomb. However previous reports concerning the effects of radiation on residents near the SNTS based on data provided by the Defense Department of the former USSR do not have direct experimental data concerning effective equivalent dose. They just measured some doses for particular settlements after some nuclear explosions. These do not indicate integrated dose for the residents due to the whole explosions. The technique of thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) which had been successfully applied to the dosimetry on Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs, enabled us to evaluate accumulated external gamma ray doses at specific places due to whole nuclear explosions in the Semipalatinsk test site. TLD technique is well-established one for not only instantaneous exposure like in A-bombs (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) but also prolonged exposure like in dating. Moreover this technique was applicable for dosimetry study of radioactive fallout as shown in studies of Chernobyl accident. The way of external dose estimation from TLD doses for brick will be discussed in case of radioactive fallout. We will

  11. Nuclear system test simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawyer, S.D.; Hill, W.D.; Wilson, P.A.; Steiner, W.M.

    1987-01-01

    A transportable test simulator is described for a nuclear power plant. The nuclear power plant includes a control panel, a reactor having actuated rods for moving into and out of a reactor for causing the plant to operate, and a control rod network extending between the control panel and the reactor rods. The network serially transmits command words between the panel and rods, and has connecting interfaces at preselected points remote from the control panel between the control panel and rods. The test simulator comprises: a test simulator input for transport to and connection into the network at at least one interface for receiving the serial command words from the network. Each serial command includes an identifier portion and a command portion; means for processing interior of the simulator for the serial command words for identifying that portion of the power plant designated in the identifier portion and processing the word responsive to the command portion of the word after the identification; means for generating a response word responsive to the command portion; and output means for sending and transmitting the response word to the nuclear power plant at the interface whereby the control panel responds to the response word

  12. Bombs and Umbrellas: Defending US Middle East Allies from a Nuclear-Armed Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    States Reconsider Their Nuclear Choices ed. Kurt Cambell , Robert Einhorn, and Mitchell Reiss. (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2004...Lippman, “Saudi Arabia: The Calculations of Uncertainty,” The Nuclear Tipping Point: Why States Reconsider Their Nuclear Choices ed. Kurt Cambell , Robert...a Non-Nuclear Course.” In The Nuclear Tipping Point: Why States Reconsider Their Nuclear Choices ed. Kurt Cambell , Robert Einhorn, and Mitchell

  13. Bomb parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, George D.; Young, Rebert W.; Cullings, Harry M.; Christry, Robert F.

    2005-01-01

    The reconstruction of neutron and gamma-ray doses at Hiroshima and Nagasaki begins with a determination of the parameters describing the explosion. The calculations of the air transported radiation fields and survivor doses from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs require knowledge of a variety of parameters related to the explosions. These various parameters include the heading of the bomber when the bomb was released, the epicenters of the explosions, the bomb yields, and the tilt of the bombs at time of explosion. The epicenter of a bomb is the explosion point in air that is specified in terms of a burst height and a hypocenter (or the point on the ground directly below the epicenter of the explosion). The current reassessment refines the energy yield and burst height for the Hiroshima bomb, as well as the locations of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki hypocenters on the modern city maps used in the analysis of the activation data for neutrons and TLD data for gamma rays. (J.P.N.)

  14. The Atomic Papers: A citizen's guide to selected books and articles on the bomb, the arms race, nuclear power, the peace movement, and related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, G.

    1984-01-01

    The Atomic Papers annotates over 800 books published since 1945 and approximately 300 periodical articles since 1980 on every facet of the nuclear dilemma: the development and effects of the bomb, the arms race, nuclear proliferation, and the peace movement. Work on both sides of the nuclear power controversy also receives substantial attention. All references are to English-language material, and nearly half are to work published since 1980. The concluding chapter, ''The Art of Fission,'' describes over one hundred novels and stories with nuclear themes published since 1945--and, in a few cases, before that date

  15. Study on liver function tests in A-bomb survivors, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Iwao; Mine, Yutaka; Ito, Naomi

    1989-01-01

    The incidence of liver function abnormality was examined in the health screening for A-bomb survivors performed at Nagasaki in l986. Parameters were as follows: GOT, GPT, ALP, ZTT, gamma-GTP, LAP, and LDH. A-bomb survivors were divided into Group A - those exposed within 2,000 m from the hypocenter, Group B - those exposed between 2,000 and l0,000 m, and Group C - those who entered the city within 2 weeks after A-bombing. The incidence of abnormality in GOT, GPT, gamma-GTP, and LAP was higher in men than women in every age group. Women aged 50 years or older had a higher incidence of abnormality in ALP and LDH, in contrast to men aged 60 years or older having a higher incidence for ZTT. There was no definitive tendency among groups for the incidence of abnormal findings, except for GOT showing a higher value among women in Group A. (Namekawa, K)

  16. The Bomb in the Museum: Nuclear Technology and the Human Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Gerster

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the commemorative role played by museums of nuclear technology in the United States, particularly those supported by the government agency responsible for the nation’s nuclear weapons and reactor programs, the Department of Energy. The management of public perceptions of America’s nuclear history in these museums reflects national defence and security imperatives in the post 9/11 era. The legacy of American nuclearism is complex and contradictory, and presents a daunting challenge to curators in museums sanctioned by vested interests. The many beneficial civilian applications of nuclear technology have be balanced by the recognition of the dire destructiveness of nuclear weapons; the compulsion to celebrate American technological achievement has to be checked by the acknowledgement of the damage wrought by the military use of nuclear energy both at home and abroad. A comparison with the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum suggests that nuclear ‘victory’ is more problematic to exhibit than nuclear victimhood.

  17. Nuclear proliferation and Latin American security : is the "Bomb" program dead in Brazil?

    OpenAIRE

    DeJesus, Eduardo De Jesus

    1994-01-01

    This thesis addresses the possibility of a Brazilian "hidden agenda" in order to support one of the most advanced nuclear research and nuclear power programs in Latin America. From the early 1970s to the late 1980s Brazilian military leaders pursued the development of nuclear weapons. With the emergence of democratic regimes during the 1980s, these covert projects were halted or terminated. The civilian administration in Brazil is now supporting an ambiguous and uncompromising position by ...

  18. Atomic energy - Bombs and nuclear power. Drivers and controversies during 65 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaerrmarck, Urban

    2010-10-01

    Over the years, written books, scientific papers, conducted parliamentary inquiries and public discussions have been published to describe and explain the Swedish nuclear power program. There is probably no other more thoroughly debated area. Still question marks are piling up. The report provides a broad illumination over the subject and fills in a number of explanations. No new unknown facts are presented, however, a number of factors are highlighted, whose importance has not received attention. One such factor is the well known link between a Swedish nuclear weapons program and the nuclear power program. By combining the information, especially from the last 15 years on nuclear weapons development with the nuclear power program, a new and largely unknown picture emerges. This issue is only superficially touched upon earlier. The ambition to develop Swedish nuclear weapons was the basis for all development until Sweden ratified the CTBT. The handling of the nuclear issue especially during the 1960s created a crisis of confidence which still affects the decisions and attitude toward nuclear power. The report finds it likely that the over-sized nuclear program was not the result of a forecast failure, but a deliberate effort by the power industry to get a hegemony in the heating sector by replacing oil with electricity. The report also shows that the only practical, working tool for an early phase-out of nuclear power was to financially compensate the plant owners. A massive increase of renewable electricity generation or a program for raising the energy use efficiency was not sufficient to compete with the reactors. However, seen in a longer perspective, renewable electricity can compete with nuclear power. With the current ambitious expansion rate, conditions are right for such a competition. Parliament's decision in June 2010 authorizing the replacement of the present 10 reactors does not necessarily mean that the nuclear debate is terminated

  19. Underwater research methods for study of nuclear bomb craters, Enewetak, Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, E.A.; Halley, R.B.; Kindinger, J.L.; Hudson, J.H.; Slate, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Three craters, created by the explosion of nuclear fusion devices, were mapped, sampled, core drilled and excavated with airlifts at Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands by using scuba and a research submersible. The craters studied were Mike, Oak, and Koa. Tests took place near sea level at the transition between lithified reef flat and unlithified lagoonal sediments, where water depth ranged from 1 to 4 m. Craters produced by the blasts ranged from 30 to 60 m in depth. The purpose of our study was to determine crater diameter and depth immediately after detonation. Observations of submerged roadways and testing structures and upturned crater rims similar to those characteristic of meteor impacts indicate that the initial, or transient, craters were smaller than their present size. At some later time, while the area was too radioactive for direct examination, the sides of the craters slumped owing to dewatering of under lying pulverized rock. Core drilling of crater margins with a diver-operated hydraulic coring device provided additional data. On the seaward margin of the atoll, opposite Mike, a large portion of the atoll rim approximately the size of a city block had slumped into the deep ocean, leaving a clean vertical rock section more than 400m high. An abundance of aggressive grey reef sharks displaying classic territorial behavior prevented use of scuba at the Mike slump site. The two-person submersible R.V. Delta provided protection and allowed observations down to 300 m. During the 6-week period of study, we made more than 300 scuba and 275 submersible dives. Mapping was with side scan sonar and continuous video sweeps supplemented by tape-recorded verbal descriptions made from within the submersible. A mini-ranger navigation system linked to the submersible allowed plotting of bottom features, depth and sediment type with spatial accuracy to within 2 m.

  20. Nuclear reactor can detonate like an atomic bomb: yes or no

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.

    1974-01-01

    The fission process in a nuclear weapon and in power reactor are compared. The operation of a power reactor is described and the various protective systems and shielding devices are mentioned. It is shown that it is not possible for a nuclear explosion to occur in a power reactor

  1. The feasibility of uranium enrichment in Brazil for use in nuclear bombs and the conceptual project of a nuclear explosive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.P.

    1990-05-01

    This work reports the steps to define a brazilian system of nuclear safeguards under the congress responsibility. It discusses as well the feasibility of uranium enrichment for nuclear weapons, the construction of a nuclear submarine and the conceptual project of a nuclear explosive. (A.C.A.S.)

  2. On the population dose around the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.; Dederichs, H.; Ostapczuk, P.; Hille, R.; Artemev, O.; Ptitskaya, L.; Akhmetov, M.; Pivovarov, S.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1949 the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (NTS) was extensively used by the former Soviet government as a testing range for atomic weapons. Atmospheric and underground tests were finally stopped in 1962 and 1989, respectively. The Ministry of the Russian Federation of Atomic Energy officially counts a total of 456 tests, including 116 atmospheric tests. The total yield of the nuclear explosions carried out was 6.3 Megatons equivalent with 6.7 PetaBq of 1 37C s and 3.7 PetaBq of 9 0S r being released into the athmosphere. Some of the athmospheric radioactive tests shielded plumes, which extended far beyond the outer borders of the NTS. Already the first Soviet atomic bomb test on August 29, 1949 due to unfavourable meteorological conditions affected the villages of Dolon and Moistik. Since 1995 joint investigations performed by the Research Centre Julich in cooperation with the Kazakh National Nuclear Centre in the region of the former nuclear test site near Semipalatinsk besides environmental measurents also involve the assessment of the current dose of the population at and around the test site in addition to the important retrospective determination of the dose of persons affected by the atmospheric tests

  3. Unmaking the bomb: Verifying limits on the stockpiles of nuclear weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    Verifying limits on the stockpiles of nuclear weapons may require the ability for international in-spectors to account for individual warheads, even when non-deployed, and to confirm the authenticity of nuclear warheads prior to dismantlement. These are fundamentally new challenges for nuclear verification, and they have been known for some time; unfortunately, due to a lack of sense of urgency, research in this area has not made substantial progress over the past 20 years. This chapter explores the central outstanding issues and offers a number of possible paths forward. In the case of confirming numerical limits, these in-clude innovative tagging techniques and approaches solely based on declarations using modern crypto-graphic escrow schemes; with regard to warhead confirmation, there has recently been increasing interest in developing fundamentally new measurement approaches where, in one form or another, sensitive infor-mation is not acquired in the first place. Overall, new international R&D efforts could more usefully focus on non-intrusive technologies and approaches, which may show more promise for early demonstration and adoption. In the meantime, while warhead dismantlements remain unverified, nuclear weapon states ought to begin to document warhead assembly, refurbishment, and dismantlement activities and movements of warheads and warhead components through the weapons complex in ways that international inspectors will find credible at a later time. Again, such a process could be enabled by modern cryptographic techniques such as blockchaining. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, it is important to recognize that the main reason for the complexity of technologies and approaches needed for nuclear disarmament verification is the requirement to protect information that nuclear weapon states consider sensitive. Ultimately, if information security concerns cannot be resolved to the satisfaction of all stakeholders, an alternative would be to "reveal the

  4. The nuclear dissuasion without tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-02-01

    Since the signature of the french treaty against the nuclear tests (Tice) in 1995, the french engineers must used the simulation to warrant the performance and the safety of weapons. This paper recalls the historical aspects of the french nuclear tests and presents the technological and scientific resources to simulate a nuclear weapon operating. a special interest is given to the computer TERA. (A.L.B.)

  5. A comprehensive nuclear test ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The conclusion of a comprehensive nuclear test ban is of critical importance for the future of arms limitation and disarmament. As the 1980 report of the Secretary-General concluded, a comprehensive nuclear test ban is regarded as the first and most urgent step towards the cessation of the nuclear arms race and, in particular, of its qualitative aspects. It could serve as an important measure for the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, both vertical and horizontal. It would have a major arms limitation impact in that it would make it difficult, if not impossible, to develop new designs of nuclear weapons and would also place constraints on the modification of existing weapon designs. The permanent cessation of all nuclear-weapon tests has long been sought by the world community and its achievement would be an event of great international significance

  6. Love Bomb

    OpenAIRE

    Caruana, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Love Bomb charts evidence of love and hate through a series of still lives constructed and informed by sourcery, chemistry and psychotherapy. The photographic work is a response to the breakup of relationship and metaphorical investigation of the links between the two emotions on wider scale. Restlessly the artist documents her attempts to stay in love, searching for love potions on the internet then making and photographing them in her studio. Interspersed amongst these attempts is the docum...

  7. Neutron bomb and European defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, W.

    1980-08-15

    France's development of the controversial neutron bomb is in line with the US goal of flexible response to a Soviet threat in Europe. US neutron bomb production is on a standby basis pending agreement among the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) members for deployment. Controversy over the bomb centers on its anti-personnel nature, which many see as immoral in comparison with weapons that primarily damage property. Opponents also see it as lowering the nuclear threshold and increasing the chance of nuclear war. Supporters view the bomb as a tactical weapon to be used on a limited scale as a last resort. If Germany's Chancellor Schmidt fails to negotiate a limit to European nuclear arms deployment with the Soviet Union, neutron-bomb production in the US and France will most likely proceed. The prospects for including European nuclear weapons in the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) III are jeopardized by the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the failure of an early SALT II ratification. 17 references. (DCK)

  8. Neutron bomb and European defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, W.

    1980-01-01

    France's development of the controversial neutron bomb is in line with the US goal of flexible response to a Soviet threat in Europe. US neutron bomb production is on a standby basis pending agreement among the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) members for deployment. Controversy over the bomb centers on its anti-personnel nature, which many see as immoral in comparison with weapons that primarily damage property. Opponents also see it as lowering the nuclear threshold and increasing the chance of nuclear war. Supporters view the bomb as a tactical weapon to be used on a limited scale as a last resort. If Germany's Chancellor Schmidt fails to negotiate a limit to European nuclear arms deployment with the Soviet Union, neutron-bomb production in the US and France will most likely proceed. The prospects for including European nuclear weapons in the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) III are jeopardized by the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the failure of an early SALT II ratification. 17 references

  9. (In)security factor atomic bomb. An analysis of the crisis with the Iranian nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, Andreas

    2012-04-01

    Iran is a rational actor in the international politics that decides on the basis of the perception of threat. Iran's security situation is comparable with that of Israel with the rational consequence to rely on the atomic program with respect to deterrence and self-defense. The solution of the Iran crisis is basically dependent on a change of the perception of threat. A military act against the Iranian nuclear facilities would be counterproductive, would only slowing down the program but not prevent further activities. In fact a military act would enhance the perception of threat. For the analysis of the Iran crises the author used the Cuba crisis as blueprint, were mislead perceptions were responsible for the escalation.

  10. Detection of radioactive dust from the British nuclear bombs of October 1953

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryder, N V; Watson-Munro, C N

    1954-01-01

    The dust collected from the atmosphere showed an absence of ..cap alpha..-activity and a ..beta..-activity characteristic of fission products. The material was collected in Wellington, approximately 3500 km from Woomera, Australia, the explosion site. The initial dust activity was found approximately 30 hours after the test.

  11. The NPT and nuclear testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howlett, D.; Simpson, J.

    1992-01-01

    One of the oldest unachieved aims of international nuclear disarmament and arms limitation negotiations is a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The history of the international negotiations, their outcomes and the consequences of Test Ban for the nuclear arsenals of the nuclear weapons states is discussed. The linkage between a CTBT and the Non-Proliferation Treaty is examined. Two strategies for moving towards a CTBT are compared; one a direct one, the other an incremental route. Both have several alternatives which are considered. (UK)

  12. DETECTION OF AN AIRPLANE BOMB BY GEOMAGNETIC TESTING OF THE »REDVIT« BUILDING IN SLAVONSKI BROD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Zagorac

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available An old abandoned building was examined in order to perform a restoration project. Due to the presence of a round opening in the roof and the fact that Slavonski Brod was heavely bombed in the last war, it was assumed that there might be a bomb left. Geomagnetic measurements using a proton magnetometer were performed. A magnetic anomaly was obtained indicating an iron object of more than 100 kilograms weight Position and depth was determined. The excavation is now expected to get the final solution is the object a bomb or not.

  13. Further limitations on nuclear testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, P.S.

    1991-11-01

    This document addresses a number of subjects related to further constraints on nuclear testing, briefly discussing each of the following topics: the current political situation, the kinds of steps that might next be taken in test limitations and the impacts of further testing limits, the need for a test ban readiness program, some issues related to verification, and the possibility of confidence building measures as alternative, or near-term, steps to further test limitations

  14. Nuclear test ban's last chance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnaby, F.

    1976-01-01

    It is argued that if nuclear disarmament is the aim then some arms control treaties have been counterproductive. The two great powers have conducted, albeit underground, more nuclear explosions in the 12 years since the partial test ban than they did in the preceding 18 years, 1945 to 1963. The partial test ban treaty obliges the parties to negotiate a ban on 'all test explosions of nuclear weapons for all time'. After 12 years of negotiations very little progress has been made to this end. The USA and the USSR signed a bilateral Threshold Test Ban Treaty in 1974 banning 'any underground nuclear weapon tests having a yield exceeding 150 kilo-tons... beginning 31 March, 1976', a protocol describes how compliance is to be verified, and Article III requires that an agreement is to be negotiated governing peaceful nuclear explosions. From the point of view of disarmament it would be much better if the threshold test ban treaty were not ratified and a comprehensive test ban treaty were negotiated instead. The main official reason given for the failure to negotiate such a treaty is the problem of verification. However it is argued that due to recent progress in seismology there are no longer significant technical obstacles to the negotiation of a comprehensive test ban treaty. But there is lack of political will to obtain such a treaty. (U.K.)

  15. Bomb Threats and Bomb Search Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet explains how to be prepared and plan for bomb threats and describes procedures to follow once a call has been received. The content covers (1) preparation for bomb threats, (2) evacuation procedures, (3) room search methods, (4) procedures to follow once a bomb has been located, and (5) typical problems that search teams will…

  16. Dating of streamwater using tritium in a post nuclear bomb pulse world: continuous variation of mean transit time with streamflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Morgenstern

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Tritium measurements of streamwater draining the Toenepi catchment, a small dairy farming area in Waikato, New Zealand, have shown that the mean transit time of the water varies with the flow rate of the stream. Mean transit times through the catchment are 2–5 years during high baseflow conditions in winter, increasing to 30–40 years as baseflow decreases in summer, and then dramatically older water during drought conditions with mean transit time of more than 100 years. Older water is gained in the lower reaches of the stream, compared to younger water in the headwater catchment. The groundwater store supplying baseflow was estimated from the mean transit time and average baseflow to be 15.4 × 106 m3 of water, about 1 m water equivalent over the catchment and 2.3 times total annual streamflow. Nitrate is relatively high at higher flow rates in winter, but is low at times of low flow with old water. This reflects both lower nitrate loading in the catchment several decades ago as compared to current intensive dairy farming, and denitrification processes occurring in the older groundwater. Silica, leached from the aquifer material and accumulating in the water in proportion to contact time, is high at times of low streamflow with old water. There was a good correlation between silica concentration and streamwater age, which potentially allows silica concentrations to be used as a proxy for age when calibrated by tritium measurements. This study shows that tritium dating of stream water is possible with single tritium measurements now that bomb-test tritium has effectively disappeared from hydrological systems in New Zealand, without the need for time-series data.

  17. Atomic bomb injury: radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunham, C L; Cronkite, E P; Le Roy, G V; Warren, S

    1959-01-01

    This document contains 3 reports. In the first report, the clinical diagnosis and treatment of radiation syndrome in survivors of the atomic explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki are described. The syndrome of acute radiation injury is applied to the symptom complex, or diseased state, which results from exposure of the whole body to the initial nuclear radiation of an atomic bomb. It is applied to injuries of the skin and subcutaneous tissues resulting from x-radiation or from contact with radioactive material. Internal radiation injury may result from the selective deposition, such as in bone or thyroid, of radioactive material that has been inhaled or absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract or wounds. Radiation syndrome is classified as very severe, severe, and mild. In the second report, a brief discussion is presented on the question of genetic effects in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In the third report, a study was carried out on 205 4-1/2 year old children who had been exposed to the atomic bomb blast during the first half of intra-uterine life. Correlation between head size and mental development of the child with distance from the hypocenter, symptoms of radiation effect and type of shielding of the mother is discussed. The conclusion drawn from the present study is that central nervous system defects can be produced in the fetus by atomic bomb radiation, provided that exposure occurs within approximately 1200 meters of the hypocenter and that no effective shielding, such as concrete, protects the fetus from direct irradiation.

  18. Nuclear Test-Experimental Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struble, G.L.; Donohue, M.L.; Bucciarelli, G.; Hymer, J.D.; Kirvel, R.D.; Middleton, C.; Prono, J.; Reid, S.; Strack, B.

    1988-01-01

    Fiscal year 1988 has been a significant, rewarding, and exciting period for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's nuclear testing program. It was significant in that the Laboratory's new director chose to focus strongly on the program's activities and to commit to a revitalized emphasis on testing and the experimental science that underlies it. It was rewarding in that revolutionary new measurement techniques were fielded on recent important and highly complicated underground nuclear tests with truly incredible results. And it was exciting in that the sophisticated and fundamental problems of weapons science that are now being addressed experimentally are yielding new challenges and understanding in ways that stimulate and reward the brightest and best of scientists. During FY88 the program was reorganized to emphasize our commitment to experimental science. The name of the program was changed to reflect this commitment, becoming the Nuclear Test-Experimental Science (NTES) Program

  19. SAFE testing nuclear rockets economically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, Steven D.; Travis, Bryan; Zerkle, David K.

    2003-01-01

    Several studies over the past few decades have recognized the need for advanced propulsion to explore the solar system. As early as the 1960s, Werner Von Braun and others recognized the need for a nuclear rocket for sending humans to Mars. The great distances, the intense radiation levels, and the physiological response to zero-gravity all supported the concept of using a nuclear rocket to decrease mission time. These same needs have been recognized in later studies, especially in the Space Exploration Initiative in 1989. One of the key questions that has arisen in later studies, however, is the ability to test a nuclear rocket engine in the current societal environment. Unlike the Rover/NERVA programs in the 1960s, the rocket exhaust can no longer be vented to the open atmosphere. As a consequence, previous studies have examined the feasibility of building a large-scale version of the Nuclear Furnace Scrubber that was demonstrated in 1971. We have investigated an alternative that would deposit the rocket exhaust along with any entrained fission products directly into the ground. The Subsurface Active Filtering of Exhaust, or SAFE, concept would allow variable sized engines to be tested for long times at a modest expense. A system overview, results of preliminary calculations, and cost estimates of proof of concept demonstrations are presented. The results indicate that a nuclear rocket could be tested at the Nevada Test Site for under $20 M

  20. DPRK's 4{sup th} Nuclear Test and its Tritium Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Soo; Lee, Sang Joon; Chang, Sun Young [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    On January 6, 2016 at 10:30am, the artificial earthquake in the DPRK was detected by multiple international seismic organizations. After 2 hours, the DPRK announced on state TV that 'The first H-bomb test was successfully conducted in the DPRK at 10:00 am on Wednesday, Juche 105(2016), pursuant to the strategic determination of the ruling communist party.' There has been a doubt about the real nature of the DPRK's 4th nuclear test, since 2 months have been passed after its nuclear test. To analyze the nature of the DPRK's nuclear test, it is necessary to check possible options for production of essential materials. The pathways to produce nuclear fusion material (tritium) and to have a relatively high possibility for the DPRK are described in this article. Tritium is key material for H-bomb. And there are two options for the DPRK which are 1) production and 2) illicit trafficking. And this study is focused on production possibility of DPRK. Determination of the nature of DPRK's nuclear test is very hard issue.

  1. DPRK's 4"t"h Nuclear Test and its Tritium Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Soo; Lee, Sang Joon; Chang, Sun Young

    2016-01-01

    On January 6, 2016 at 10:30am, the artificial earthquake in the DPRK was detected by multiple international seismic organizations. After 2 hours, the DPRK announced on state TV that 'The first H-bomb test was successfully conducted in the DPRK at 10:00 am on Wednesday, Juche 105(2016), pursuant to the strategic determination of the ruling communist party.' There has been a doubt about the real nature of the DPRK's 4th nuclear test, since 2 months have been passed after its nuclear test. To analyze the nature of the DPRK's nuclear test, it is necessary to check possible options for production of essential materials. The pathways to produce nuclear fusion material (tritium) and to have a relatively high possibility for the DPRK are described in this article. Tritium is key material for H-bomb. And there are two options for the DPRK which are 1) production and 2) illicit trafficking. And this study is focused on production possibility of DPRK. Determination of the nature of DPRK's nuclear test is very hard issue

  2. Gamma-ray spectrum of the radiaoctive dust produced by the super-hydrogen bomb test explosion on March 1, 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, S.

    1987-03-15

    The super-hydrogen bomb test explosion, the so-called Bravo test of a fission-fusion-fission bomb, was carried out on Bikini Atoll in the mid-Pacific on March 1, 1954. Twenty-three Japanese fishermen on board a fishing boat about 90 miles north-east of the test site were attacked unexpectedly by the fallout, radioactive fine debris of coral reef. Within several months after the accident by radiochemical analysis about 20 different nuclides of fission products and, in addition, a considerable amount of /sup 235/U were discovered from the fallout. As we have been preserving a minute amount of the original fallout dust collected on board the fishing boat 31 years ago, measurements of ..gamma.. rays from it have recently been used to find some active nuclides, if still existing. In the ..gamma..-ray spectrum observed there exist evident peaks of ..gamma.. and X-rays from /sup 241/Am, /sup 155/Eu, /sup 137/Cs and /sup 60/Co. Absolute intensities of these four nuclides, still remaining 31 years after the explosion of the bomb, have been estimated. Some discussion on our finding is presented.

  3. Pancreatic exocrine secretion in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Masataka; Kawanishi, Masahiro; Ohtaki, Megu

    1989-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of A-bombing on pancreatic exocrine secretion in 6 A-bomb survivors (an average age of 57 years) and the age- and sex-matched non-exposed 6 persons (an average age of 58 years). Six A-bomb survivors consisted of: three who had been directly exposed to A-bombing, one who had entered the city within 3 days after bombing, one who had worked in caring for A-bomb survivors, and one who had later entered the city. Caerulein-Secretin test revealed no significant difference in the total secretion of lipase, maximum bicarbonate, amylase output, or lipase output between the exposed and non-exposed groups. The concentration of lipase ten min after stimulation was significantly decreased in the exposed group than the control group. This suggests that radiation may be responsible for abnormality in the ability of pancreatic exocrine secretion. (N.K.)

  4. Introduction to nuclear test engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neal, W.C.; Paquette, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    The basic information in this report is from a vu-graph presentation prepared to acquaint new or prospective employees with the Nuclear Test Engineering Division (NTED). Additional information has been added here to enhance a reader's understanding when reviewing the material after hearing the presentation, or in lieu of attending a presentation

  5. Nuclear explosives testing readiness evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valk, T.C.

    1993-09-01

    This readiness evaluation considers hole selection and characterization, verification, containment issues, nuclear explosive safety studies, test authorities, event operations planning, canister-rack preparation, site preparation, diagnostic equipment setup, device assembly facilities and processes, device delivery and insertion, emplacement, stemming, control room activities, readiness briefing, arming and firing, test execution, emergency response and reentry, and post event analysis to include device diagnostics, nuclear chemistry, and containment. This survey concludes that the LLNL program and its supporting contractors could execute an event within six months of notification, and a second event within the following six months, given the NET group`s evaluation and the following three restraints: (1) FY94 (and subsequent year) funding is essentially constant with FY93, (2) Preliminary work for the initial event is completed to the historical sic months status, (3) Critical personnel, currently working in dual use technologies, would be recallable as needed.

  6. Dating human DNA with the 14C bomb peak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutschera, Walter; Liebl, Jakob; Steier, Peter [VERA Laboratory, University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    In 1963 the limited nuclear test ban treaty stopped nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere. By then the addition from bomb-produced {sup 14}C had doubled the {sup 14}C content of the atmosphere. Through the CO{sub 2} cycle this excess exchanged with the hydrosphere and biosphere leading to a rapidly decreasing {sup 14}C level in the atmosphere. Today we are almost back to the pre-nuclear level. As a consequence all people on Earth who lived during the second half of the 20th century were exposed to this rapidly changing {sup 14}C signal. A few years ago, a group at the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology of the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm started to use the {sup 14}C bomb peak signal in DNA to determine retrospectively the age of cells from various parts of the human body (brain, heart, fat). In a collaboration with this group, we have studied the age of olfactory bulb neurons in the human brain. For this investigation, {sup 14}C AMS measurements were developed at VERA for very small carbon samples in the range from 2 to 4 micrograms. In the presentation the general concept of {sup 14}C bomb peak dating of human DNA and several applications are discussed.

  7. Nuclear tests and health: conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaudeau, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    This conference was organized by the observatory of French nuclear weapons - CDRPC-, the 'Moruroa e Tatou' association and the association of nuclear test veterans. Its aim was to call upon the victims of nuclear tests to speak about their health problems and to the possible consequences on their children's health. It pleads in favour of a particular legislation and in favour of the creation of an organization which would take for responsibility the health and environmental impacts of nuclear tests. (J.S.)

  8. Carl Friedrich von Weizsaecker - a physicist and philosopher in the shade of the nuclear bomb. A conversation on nuclear weapons and the responsibility of nuclear scientists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaaf, M.

    1996-06-01

    The 50th anniversary of the first nuclear explosion (16th July 1945) prompted the editor of this collection to look again at the part played by German physicists in the nuclear weapons issue. Carl Friedrich von Weizsaecker, one of the last surviving witnesses of this period, kindly agreed to give a comprehensive interview on the German nuclear programme and the responsibility of physicists. The interview is published here for the first time and forms the central part of this brochure. It is complemented by two statements by Edward Teller and two historical letters. The author, in preparing this compilation, had in mind to contribute towards science-historical discussion and to give younger colleagues a graphic idea of the conflict surrounding nuclear research. (orig.) [de

  9. Ecological consequences of nuclear testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, R.G.; Kirkwood, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    Many of the terrestrial disturbances on Amchitka Island resulting from nuclear testing were superimposed on scars remaining from military occupation. Construction, road improvement, and the Milrow and Cannikin nuclear detonations resulted in the loss or deterioration of about 420 ha (1040 acres) of terrestrial habitat, or less than 1.5% of the total area of Amchitka. A few streams and lakes were polluted by drilling effluents or human wastes; normal flushing action is expected to restore the quality of most of these freshwater habitats. Irreversible effects in freshwaters include the drainage of several ponds, gross channel alteration in a part of one stream, and the creation of a new lake which is deeper and which has a greater volume than any of the more than 2100 natural lakes on the southeast half of Amchitka. About 6 ha (15 acres) of intertidal bench was displaced to a level above the intertidal zone, and an undetermined amount of similar habitat was altered to some degree by lesser vertical displacement. No type of habitat on the island was destroyed, and localized habitat losses in the terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems are believed to have been too slight to have permanent effects on associated biotic populations

  10. Anti-nuclear liberals and the bomb: A comparative history of Kampf dem Atomtod and the Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy, 1957-1963

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiede, B.

    1992-01-01

    The premises of Kampf dem Atomtod (KdA) and Citizens for a Sane Nuclear Policy (SANE) were based on nineteenth century traditions of liberal peace advocacy. Both groups gained substantial public support for their goals to prevent the nuclear armament of the Bundeswehr and to stop nuclear testing. Both organizations won well-educated middle-class and mostly white supporter. The dissertation examines the role of women: whether housewife or doctor, women stressed their special concerns as mothers. Both KdA and SANE had troubled relations with the labor movement. Their leaders hoped to gain government leaders' respect by winning a respectable, non-Communist constituency and claiming their goals were reasonable ones. Government officials attacked KdA and SANE as dupes of Moscow. Many supporters left the organizations because of their strict anti-Communism. Local groups accused their leaders of lacking initative. KdA and SANE's leaders wasted time and energy rehashing issues and postponing decisions. After a period of providing initiatives and ideas local committees disintegrated. Both organizations considered education their paramount goal but their arguments primarily reached the converted, who often preferred more political action. KdA and SANE's leaders instead chose to support respectable projects based on humanitarian ideals. Since these projects offered little in the way of concrete action agendas, supporters defected to more active organizations or slipped into apathy. Neither organization achieved its national goals. Both governments generally denied them access to the policymaking process, ignored them as irrelavant, or attacked them as Communist sympathizers. While SANE and KdA were heard by those concerned by nuclear policy, and while members of SANE's National Board did help muster support for the Partial Test Ban Treaty, both organizations failed to make liberal peace values productive in the nuclear decisionmaking process

  11. The bomb as option. Motivation for the development of a nuclear infrastructure in the Federal Republic of Germany until 1963

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanel, Tilmann

    2015-01-01

    The book on the motivation for the development of a nuclear infrastructure in the Federal Republic of Germany until 1963 discusses the following issues: History of the German reactor development during the time of the National Socialism and World War II, reactor research abroad (examples Sweden and Switzerland), protagonists and motivation (politics, science, economy, army), the development of a nuclear infrastructure, results and consequences of the German nuclear policy until 1963.

  12. Max-von-Laue-lecture: Unmaking the bomb: A fissile material approach to nuclear disarmament and nonproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Hippel, Frank N. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The number of operational nuclear weapons in the world has dropped from about 65,000 at the end of the Cold war to about 10,000 and can be driven much lower. But we have a huge amount of highly enriched uranium and separated plutonium from these dismantled Cold War nuclear weapons and from failed civilian plutonium breeder reactor commercialization programs. To make nuclear disarmament irreversible and prevent nuclear terrorism, all this material must be secured and disposed of. We also must abandon the idea of using a nuclear-weapon-usable material as a fuel * that is plutonium in power reactors and highly enriched uranium in naval-propulsion and research reactors. Fortunately, using plutonium as a fuel is uneconomic and research and naval reactors can be designed to use low-enriched uranium. Finally, we must move away from ambiguous national enrichment programs like Iran*s to multinational enrichment programs such as Urenco.

  13. The secret of the Soviet hydrogen bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellerstein, Alex; Geist, Edward

    2017-11-01

    Was the first Soviet thermonuclear device really a step in the wrong direction? No bomb design has been as much maligned or otherwise disparaged as the first Soviet thermonuclear weapon. Detonated in August 1953, the bomb, officially tested under the name RDS-6s but usually known as Sloika or "layer cake" (the name Andrei Sakharov coined for it), was nothing to sneeze at. Shown in Figure 1 and able to be dropped from aircraft, it released the explosive equivalent, or yield, of almost half a megaton of TNT. The result was a blazing fireball with 20 times the power of the bomb that leveled Nagasaki, Japan.

  14. Importance of tests in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemard, B.

    1985-10-01

    In nuclear facilities, safety related systems and equipments are subject, along their whole service-life, to numerous tests. This paper analyses the role of tests in the successive stages of design, construction, exploitation of a nuclear facility. It examines several aspects of test quality control: definition of needs, test planning, intrinsic quality of each test, control of interfaces (test are both the end and the starting point of many actions concerned by quality) and the application [fr

  15. Bomb pulse radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuniz, C.; Zoppi, U.; Hotchkis, M.A.C.

    2004-01-01

    Modern forensic science has to deal not only with homicides and other traditional crimes but also with more global threats such as the smuggling of nuclear materials, clandestine production of weapons of mass destruction, stockpiling of illicit drugs by state controlled groups and war crimes. Forensic applications have always benefited from the use of advanced analytical tools that can characterize materials found at crime scenes. In this paper we will discuss the use of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) as an ultrasensitive tool for the crime laboratories of the third millennium. An important objective in forensic science is to order past events chronologically by analysing materials associated with criminal actions. Radiocarbon dating is known to the general public for its application to historical and prehistorical investigations. Examples of forensic significance include the assassination of the Inca Atahualpa by Francisco Pizarro in the early 1530s, the possible murder of the Tyrolean Ice Man (Oetzi) 5300 years ago and the analysis of the burial cloths allegedly associated with the crucifixion of Jesus Christ . Recent murders, including those associated with war crimes in the Balkans during the 1990s, can be studied using 14 C bomb pulse dating. This method has other forensic applications, including investigation of frauds related to food and wine counterfeiting, dating of opium crops and dating of substances used in biological warfare. AMS extends the applicability of the radiocarbon method, allowing the analysis of 14 C in submilligram organic samples. Specific molecular compounds extracted from bones, hair, skin and other carbon bearing substances of forensic significance can now be dated, enhancing the sensitivity and reliability of chronological determinations. AMS can also be used to analyse rare actinide isotopes released into the environment during the clandestine production of nuclear weapons or associated with the smuggling of nuclear materials. In

  16. Influence on social life of atomic bomb, chapter 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Atomic bombs, for the first time in human history, were dropped on Hiroshima in August 6, and on Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. Though the powers of these bombs were far small as compared with those of present day nuclear weapons, the atomic bombs claimed many lives instantaneously, damaged human bodies, and destroyed all objects, annihilating the urban areas. Even today, the dreadful consequences of the bombings still remain in both body and mind of the victims. Meanwhile, the experiences of atomic bomb disasters are fading constantly. In order to maintain the vivid information, in Part 3 ''Influence on social life'', the following matters are described: relations of the atomic bombings to society; destroyed societies such as disruption of regional societies and loss of wealth; life of the sufferers such as occupation, marriage, hardships of life, orphans, livelihood variation, and suffering of foreigners; and mental process of the sufferers. (J.P.N.)

  17. Atmospheric nuclear weapon test history as characterized by the deposition of 14C in human teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, K.; Togari, A.; Matsumoto, S.; Nagatsu, T.

    1990-01-01

    The 14 C concentration in the collagen of human teeth was retrospectively investigated to determine whether its incorporation was related to atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons. Teeth were extracted for dental therapy from July 1987 to February 1988 from patients who were residents in Japan. Tooth collagen was extracted with HCl and converted to amorphous C by heating in a vacuum line. Specimens for 14 C analysis were prepared by mixing the amorphous C with silver powder. The 14 C concentration was measured by mass spectrometer. The 14 C concentration in tooth collagen rapidly increased in 1961 after the bomb tests, peaked around 1967-1968, and then gradually decreased. The collagen of human teeth maintains the 14 C concentration at the age of root completion for life. The results of this study indicate that the history of environmental contamination from atmospheric nuclear weapon's tests has been characterized by deposition of 14 C in the tooth collagen 14 C of human beings

  18. Bomb radiocarbon: imbalance in the budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joos, Fortunat

    1994-01-01

    An improved understanding of the global carbon cycle is crucial to global climate change research. The uncertainties surrounding the level of oceanic carbon uptake are discussed. A revision downwards of 25% in the currently accepted figure is suggested by authors who base their estimates on a new analysis of the oceanic uptake of radiocarbon released in the atomic bomb tests of the late 1950s and early 1960s. The reduction in uptake level is required to take account of a global imbalance in the bomb-radiocarbon budget in the post test-ban period which emerges from recent carbon-cycle models. Large uncertainties exist in the estimate of the imbalance, however, and bomb-radiocarbon and anthropogenic CO 2 do not behave identically. Any revision of CO 2 uptake estimates may be substantially smaller than the 25% put forward for the bomb-radiocarbon inventory. (UK)

  19. Business of Nuclear Safety Analysis Office, Nuclear Technology Test Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Masahiko

    1981-01-01

    The Nuclear Technology Test Center established the Nuclear Safety Analysis Office to execute newly the works concerning nuclear safety analysis in addition to the works related to the proving tests of nuclear machinery and equipments. The regulations for the Nuclear Safety Analysis Office concerning its organization, business and others were specially decided, and it started the business formally in August, 1980. It is a most important subject to secure the safety of nuclear facilities in nuclear fuel cycle as the premise of developing atomic energy. In Japan, the strict regulation of safety is executed by the government at each stage of the installation, construction, operation and maintenance of nuclear facilities, based on the responsibility for the security of installers themselves. The Nuclear Safety Analysis Office was established as the special organ to help the safety examination related to the installation of nuclear power stations and others by the government. It improves and puts in order the safety analysis codes required for the cross checking in the safety examination, and carries out safety analysis calculation. It is operated by the cooperation of the Science and Technology Agency and the Agency of Natural Resources and Energy. The purpose of establishment, the operation and the business of the Nuclear Safety Analysis Office, the plan of improving and putting in order of analysis codes, and the state of the similar organs in foreign countries are described. (Kako, I.)

  20. Testing of nuclear air-cleaning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    A standard is presented which describes methods for field-testing nuclear power plant air cleaning systems. Included are specifications for visual inspection; duct and housing leak test; mounting frame pressure leak test; airflow capacity, distribution, and residence time tests; air-aerosol mixing uniformity test; in place leak test of HEPA filter banks; multiple sampling technique; in-place leak test of adsorber stage; laboratory testing of adsorbent; and duct heater performance test

  1. Political aspects of nuclear test effects at Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sydykov, E.B.; Panin, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes tense struggle of Kazakhstan people for closure of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site. It reveals major foreign policy aspects and nuclear test effects for both Kazakhstan and the world community. (author)

  2. Drift of radioactive dust from the British nuclear bomb test in October

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabites, J F

    1954-01-01

    To account for the 2nd wave of radioactivity which reached Wellington 38 to 54 hrs after the blast in Woomera, Australia, it is apparently necessary to assume the material started from a height of 22,000 to 25,000 ft. The dust was dispersed downward by eddy diffusion and carried by lower level atmospheric circulations to New Zealand. The 1st wave which occurred 30 hrs after the blast remains unexplained.

  3. Radioactivity of fishes contaminated by nuclear-bomb test explosions with special reference to the nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, T; Saiki, M

    1957-01-01

    The nuclides formerly found in contaminated fish are /sup 89/Sr, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 90/Y, /sup 32/P, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 106/Ru in bones and scales and /sup 137/Cs, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 144/Ce, /sup 144/Pr, /sup 95/Zr, and /sup 95/Nb in viscera and muscles. Moreover the following were found newly by M. and S.: /sup 65/Zn, /sup 113m, 115/Cd, /sup 55/ /sup 59/Fe, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 140/Ba, and /sup 140/La in viscera and muscles.

  4. Nuclear: Water-testing time?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    With Florida Power and Light Co reporting that five unnamed independent power producers specified nuclear powerplants in response to the utility's Request for Proposal for 800 MW (EW, January 1990, p 15), along with a report in McGraw-Hill's Nucleonics Week that Florida Public Service Commission (PSC) Chairman Michael Wilson told Westinghouse Electric Corp - developer of the AP-600 reactor - he did not have a knee-jerk reaction against nuclear power if it's done right, speculation increases that the state of Florida is one of the top locations in the US for the next nuclear order

  5. FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS: The development of the first Soviet atomic bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, German A.; Ryabev, Lev D.

    2001-01-01

    In the late 1930s and early 1940s, two remarkable physical phenomena — the fission of heavy nuclei and the chain fission reaction — were discovered, implying that a new powerful source of energy (nuclear fission energy) might become a practical possibility for mankind. At that time, however, the political situation in the world made the development of the atomic bomb the main objective of nuclear energy research in the countries involved. The first atomic bombs, notoriously used in the war against Japan, were produced by the United States of America only six and a half years after the discovery of fission. Four years later, the first Soviet atomic bomb was tested. This was a major step toward the establishment of nuclear parity which led to stability and global peace and thus greatly influenced the destiny of human kind. Based on documentary materials covering the period from 1939 to 1949, this paper traces the origin and evolution of the physical ideas behind the first Soviet atomic bomb and discusses the most important events associated with the project.

  6. Health consequences and health systems response to the Pacific U.S. Nuclear Weapons Testing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palafox, Neal A; Riklon, Sheldon; Alik, Wilfred; Hixon, Allen L

    2007-03-01

    Between 1946 and 1958, the United States detonated 67 thermonuclear devices in the Pacific as part of their U.S. Nuclear Weapons Testing Program (USNWTP). The aggregate explosive power was equal to 7,200 Hiroshima atomic bombs. Recent documents released by the U.S. government suggest that the deleterious effects of the nuclear testing were greater and extended farther than previously known. The Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) government and affected communities have sought refress through diplomatic routes with the U.S. government, however, existing medical programs and financial reparations have not adequately addressed many of the health consequences of the USNWTP. Since radiation-induced cancers may have a long latency, a healthcare infrastructure is needed to address both cancer and related health issues. This article reviews the health consequences of the Pacific USNWTP and the current health systems ability to respond.

  7. Ground test facility for nuclear testing of space reactor subsystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quapp, W.J.; Watts, K.D.

    1985-01-01

    Two major reactor facilities at the INEL have been identified as easily adaptable for supporting the nuclear testing of the SP-100 reactor subsystem. They are the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR) and the Loss of Fluid Test Reactor (LOFT). In addition, there are machine shops, analytical laboratories, hot cells, and the supporting services (fire protection, safety, security, medical, waste management, etc.) necessary to conducting a nuclear test program. This paper presents the conceptual approach for modifying these reactor facilities for the ground engineering test facility for the SP-100 nuclear subsystem. 4 figs

  8. Concurrent Sr/Ca Ratios and Bomb Test 14C Records from a Porites evermanni Colony on Kure Atoll: SST, Climate Change, Ocean Circulation and Management Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarrubias, S.; Potts, D.; Siciliano, D.; Andrews, A.; Franks, R.

    2013-12-01

    timeline of when carbon isotope spikes appear in this region from large scale atomic testing. Changes in 14C along the length of our core have important implications for understanding regional oceanic circulation, and for the life history age validation of marine organisms, including long-lived fishes whose calcareous otoliths retain a 14C signal. These results have direct application for improved management of commercially important reef and bottom fishes of Hawaii. By tracing the bomb 14C signal in the otolith (ear bone) of regional fishes, important population parameters can be validated (e.g. age of maturity and longevity). At present, the bomb 14C record is incomplete for the Hawaiian Archipelago, but the work presented will fill the void.

  9. Bomb pulse biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falso, Miranda J. Sarachine [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Mail Stop L-397, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Buchholz, Bruce A., E-mail: buchholz2@llnl.gov [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Mail Stop L-397, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The past decade has seen an explosion in use of the {sup 14}C bomb pulse to do fundamental cell biology. Studies in the 1960s used decay counting to measure tissue turnover when the atmospheric {sup 14}C/C concentration was changing rapidly. Today bulk tissue measurements are of marginal interest since most of the carbon in the tissue resides in proteins, lipids and carbohydrates that turn over rapidly. Specific cell types with specialized functions are the focus of cell turnover investigations. Tissue samples need to be fresh or frozen. Fixed or preserved samples contain petroleum-derived carbon that has not been successfully removed. Cell or nuclear surface markers are used to sort specific cell types, typically by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Specific biomolecules need to be isolated with high purity and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements must accommodate samples that generally contain less than 40 {mu}g of carbon. Furthermore, all separations must not add carbon to the sample. Independent means such as UV absorbance must be used to confirm molecule purity. Approaches for separating specific proteins and DNA and combating contamination of undesired molecules are described.

  10. India and the nuclear test ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.

    1998-01-01

    India has sought a nuclear-test ban for the last 42 years bur is now unable to sign the Comprehensive Test ban Treaty (CTBT) when it is in its final form and moved to block its transmittal from the Conference on Disarmament to the UN General assembly. The negotiating mandate for the CTBT required it to effectively contribute to the process of disarmament. It is towards this end that India proposed amendments. Nuclear disarmament is fundamental for India's strategic and security interests. The only viable solution to India's security concerns related to nuclear weapons is in pursuing total elimination of nuclear weapons from national arsenals

  11. Australia - a nuclear weapons testing ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobbs, Michael.

    1993-01-01

    Between 1952 and 1958 Britain conducted five separate nuclear weapons trials in Australia. Australia had the uninhabited wide open spaces and the facilities which such tests need and Britain was able to use its special relationship with Australia to get agreement to conduct atomic tests in Australia and establish a permanent test site at Maralinga. Other non-nuclear tests were conducted between 1953-1963. The story of Britain's involvement in atomic weapons testing in Australia is told through its postal history. Both official and private covers are used to show how the postal communications were established and maintained throughout the test years. (UK)

  12. Reconversion of nuclear weapons

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitza, Sergei P

    1992-01-01

    The nuclear predicament or nuclear option. Synopsis of three lectures : 1- The physical basis of nuclear technology. Physics of fission. Chain reaction in reactors and weapons. Fission fragments. Separration of isotopes. Radiochemistry.2- Nuclear reactors with slow and fast neutrons. Power, size, fuel and waste. Plutonium production. Dose rate, shielding and health hazard. The lessons of Chernobyl3- Nuclear weapons. Types, energy, blast and fallout. Fusion and hydrogen bombs. What to do with nuclear weapons when you cannot use them? Testing. Nonmilittary use. Can we get rid of the nuclear weapon? Nuclear proliferation. Is there a nuclear future?

  13. Comprehensive Nuclear Test-ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty was adopted by the General Assembly on 10 September 1996 (Res/50/245) and was open for signature by all states on 24 September 1996. It will enter into force 180 days after the date of deposit of the instruments of ratification by all states listed in Annex 2 to the Treaty. This document reproduces the text of the Treaty and the Protocol to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Protocol to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty

  14. Comprehensive Nuclear Test-ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty was adopted by the General Assembly on 10 September 1996 (Res/50/245) and was open for signature by all states on 24 September 1996. It will enter into force 180 days after the date of deposit of the instruments of ratification by all states listed in Annex 2 to the Treaty. This document reproduces the text of the Treaty and the Protocol to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Protocol to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty. 4 tabs.

  15. Atomic bomb cataracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraeda, Kanji

    1992-01-01

    Eye disturbance caused by atomic bomb radiation can be divided into three groups: direct injury immediately after exposure, eye lesions associated with radiation syndrome, and delayed disturbance. The crystalline lens of the eye is the most radiosensitive. Atomic bomb cataract has been investigated in a number of studies. The first section of this chapter discusses radiation cataract in terms of the incidence and characteristics. The second section deals with atomic bomb cataract, which can be diagnosed based on the four criteria: (1) opacity of the crystalline lens, (2) a history of proximal exposure, (3) lack of eye disease complicating cataract, and (4) non-exposure to radiation other than atomic bombing. The prevalence of cataract and severity of opacity are found to correlate with exposure doses and age at the time of exposure. Furthermore, it is found to correlate with distance from the hypocenter, the condition of shielding, epilation, and the presence or absence or degree of radiation syndrome. (N.K.)

  16. High-resolution 129I bomb peak profile in an ice core from SE-Dome site, Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Angel T; Miyake, Yasuto; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Iizuka, Yoshinori; Horiuchi, Kazuho

    2018-04-01

    129 I in natural archives, such as ice cores, can be used as a proxy for human nuclear activities, age marker, and environmental tracer. Currently, there is only one published record of 129 I in ice core (i.e., from Fiescherhorn Glacier, Swiss Alps) and its limited time resolution (1-2 years) prevents the full use of 129 I for the mentioned applications. Here we show 129 I concentrations in an ice core from SE-Dome, Greenland, covering years 1956-1976 at a time resolution of ∼6 months, the most detailed record to date. Results revealed 129 I bomb peaks in years 1959, 1962, and 1963, associated to tests performed by the former Soviet Union, one year prior, in its Novaya Zemlya test site. All 129 I bomb peaks were observed in winter (1958.9, 1962.1, and 1963.0), while tritium bomb peaks, another prominent radionuclide associated with nuclear bomb testing, were observed in spring or summer (1959.3, and 1963.6; Iizuka et al., 2017). These results indicate that 129 I bomb peaks can be used as annual and seasonal age markers for these years. Furthermore, we found that 129 I recorded nuclear fuel reprocessing signals and that these can be potentially used to correct timing of estimated 129 I releases during years 1964-1976. Comparisons with other published records of 129 I in natural archives showed that 129 I can be used as common age marker and tracer for different types of records. Most notably, the 1963 129 I bomb peak can be used as common age marker for ice and coral cores, providing the means to reconcile age models and associated trends from the polar and tropical regions, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Soviet nuclear testing: The Republics say no

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, L.J.

    1990-01-01

    Massive protests are taking place in Russia against nuclear weapons testing. Efforts have been mounted to stop all testing at Kazakhstan test site near the town of Semipalatinsk, site of the first nuclear detonation in 1949 and of more than 500 test conducted since. Boris Yeltsin proposed just after his election as president of the federation the elimination of testing grounds for nuclear and biological weapons on Russian territory. The central government in Moscow has announced that it is considering closing the Semipalatinsk site. Reaction has also been strong to testing at the Arctic island of Novaya Zemlya, and severe constraints, such as Arctic cold, frozen rocks, high winds, difficult access, and protests by Greenpeace activists and USSR's Nordic neighbors do not make this site attractive. The author feels that this movement in the USSR has set in motion a politically dynamic situation that makes for the best chance for a comprehensive test ban treaty yet witnessed

  18. Atomic bomb and leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimaru, M; Tomonaga, M; Amenomori, T; Matsuo, T [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1991-12-01

    Characteristic features of the leukemia among atomic bomb survivors were studied. Dose estimates of atomic bomb radiation were based on T65D, but the new dosimetry system DS86 was used for some analyses. The ratio of a single leukemia type to all leukemias was highest for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in Hiroshima, and the occurrence of CML was thought to be most characteristic to atomic bomb radiation induced leukemia. The threshold of CML occurrence in Hiroshima is likely to be between 0.5{approx}0.09 Gy. However, the threshold of acute leukemia appears to be nearly 1 Gy. In the distribution of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) subtypes by French-American-British classification, there was no M3 case in 1 Gy or more group, although several atypical AML cases of survivors were observed. Although aplastic anemia has not increased as a late effect of the atomic bomb radiation exposure, many atypical leukemia or other myeloproliferative diseases who had been diagnosed as aplastic anemia or its related diseases have been experienced among atomic bomb survivors. Chromosome study was conducted using colony forming cells induced by hemopoietic stem cells of peripheral blood of proximal survivors. Same chromosome aberrations were observed in colony forming cells and peripheral T-cells in several atomic bomb survivors. (author).

  19. Cluster bomb ocular injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Ahmad M; Hamade, Haya; Ghaddar, Ayman; Mokadem, Ahmad Samih; El Hajj Ali, Mohamad; Awwad, Shady

    2012-01-01

    To present the visual outcomes and ocular sequelae of victims of cluster bombs. This retrospective, multicenter case series of ocular injury due to cluster bombs was conducted for 3 years after the war in South Lebanon (July 2006). Data were gathered from the reports to the Information Management System for Mine Action. There were 308 victims of clusters bombs; 36 individuals were killed, of which 2 received ocular lacerations and; 272 individuals were injured with 18 receiving ocular injury. These 18 surviving individuals were assessed by the authors. Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% (20/308) of cluster bomb victims. Trauma to multiple organs occurred in 12 of 18 cases (67%) with ocular injury. Ocular findings included corneal or scleral lacerations (16 eyes), corneal foreign bodies (9 eyes), corneal decompensation (2 eyes), ruptured cataract (6 eyes), and intravitreal foreign bodies (10 eyes). The corneas of one patient had extreme attenuation of the endothelium. Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% of cluster bomb victims and 67% of the patients with ocular injury sustained trauma to multiple organs. Visual morbidity in civilians is an additional reason for a global ban on the use of cluster bombs.

  20. Atomic bomb and leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimaru, M.; Tomonaga, M.; Amenomori, T.; Matsuo, T.

    1991-01-01

    Characteristic features of the leukemia among atomic bomb survivors were studied. Dose estimates of atomic bomb radiation were based on T65D, but the new dosimetry system DS86 was used for some analyses. The ratio of a single leukemia type to all leukemias was highest for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in Hiroshima, and the occurrence of CML was thought to be most characteristic to atomic bomb radiation induced leukemia. The threshold of CML occurrence in Hiroshima is likely to be between 0.5∼0.09 Gy. However, the threshold of acute leukemia appears to be nearly 1 Gy. In the distribution of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) subtypes by French-American-British classification, there was no M3 case in 1 Gy or more group, although several atypical AML cases of survivors were observed. Although aplastic anemia has not increased as a late effect of the atomic bomb radiation exposure, many atypical leukemia or other myeloproliferative diseases who had been diagnosed as aplastic anemia or its related diseases have been experienced among atomic bomb survivors. Chromosome study was conducted using colony forming cells induced by hemopoietic stem cells of peripheral blood of proximal survivors. Same chromosome aberrations were observed in colony forming cells and peripheral T-cells in several atomic bomb survivors. (author)

  1. Towards a nuclear-test ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In 1986 and again in 1987 the General Assembly adopted resolutions by which it called on States conducting nuclear-test explosions to notify the Secretary-General, within one week of each explosion, of the time, place, yield and site characteristics of the test and also invited all other States to provide any such data on nuclear explosions that they might have. Over the years, in the Conference on Disarmament, members of the Group of 21 (mostly neutral and non-aligned countries) have continued to attach the utmost importance to the urgent conclusion of a comprehensive test-ban treaty as a significant contribution to the aim of ending the qualitative refinement of nuclear weapons and the development of new types of such weapons as well as of reversing the nuclear-arms race and achieving nuclear disarmament. In 1995 a conference will be convened to decide whether the non-proliferation Treaty will continue in force indefinitely, or will be extended for an additional fixed period or periods. Many States support the view that a comprehensive test ban would be a significant contribution to the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons; and some believe that, without a cessation of nuclear testing, it may not be possible to extend the NPT well beyond 1995. Other States, however, are of the opinion that the NPT, independently, offers benefits for the security of all States and, by its extension, will continue to do so

  2. Characteristics of colon cancer among atomic bomb exposure obtained from autopsy specimen at data and specimens center of atomic bomb disaster at Research Institute for Nuclear Medicine and Biology of Hiroshima University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Akihiro; Kagawa, Naoki; Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Fukazawa, Kiichi; Hayakawa, Norihiko; Munaka, Masami

    1989-01-01

    Autopsy data of colon cancer from 135 A-bomb survivors (Group A) found during the period 1952-1981 were analyzed in terms of sex, age, site of occurrence, distance from the hypocenter, and histology. Control data were collected from 72 patients with surgery or biopsy proven colon cancer (Group B) found during the period 1983-1987. Patients consisted of 76 men and 59 women in Group A, and 44 men and 28 women in Group B. According to age groups, patients aged ≤50 years, between the ages of 51 and 70, and ≥71 years accounted for 16%, 44%, and 40%, respectively, in Group A. The corresponding figures in Group B were 18%, 36%, and 46%. The commonest site in Group A was the rectum (45.9%), followed by the descending colon and sigmoid colon (27.4%), and the ileocecum and ascending colon (20%). In Group B, the descending colon and sigmoid colon were the commonest site (41.7%), followed by the rectum (40.3%) and the ileocecum and ascending colon (9.7%). Patients in Group A tended to have colon cancer on the right side; it was observed in 23% of A-bomb survivors exposed at up to 2500 m from the hypocenter and in 14.8% of those exposed at a distance of over 2500 m. Histology revealed well differentiated adenocarcinoma in 78% in both groups. Both poorly differentiated and mucocellular adenocarcinomas occupied 13.4% in Group A, as compared with 4.2% in Group B. (N.K.)

  3. Pakistan and the bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalilzad, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Pakistan is thought to be the next candidate for the nuclear club. A civilian program inevitably greatly reduces the incremental time and cost for further steps that might be taken toward military uses. Pakistani leaders realized that a civilian nuclear program could bring their country close to a nuclear weapons capability, and that emphasis on the non-military importance and economic necessity of certain civilian technologies can provide a cover for essentially military programs. In 1975, Pakistan announced its energetic nuclear plan for the remainder of this century, in which it called for the installation of a 600-MW reactor in 1980 and 10 more reactors in the decade following. In 1976, Pakistan signed an agreement with France for the purchase of a nuclear reprocessing facility. With reprocessing and testing and construction of the non-nuclear parts of nuclear devices a nonweapon state can come anywhere from a few hours to a few days within putting a nuclear device together, depending on the technical capabilities of the countries concerned. But, Pakistan's interest in reprocessing has been taken as a serious indicator of a desire to be able to produce nuclear weapons. The effects and the impact of 1974 Indian explosion on Pakistan are examined. If India's 1974 explosion results in the production of nuclear weapons, Pakistan will probably follow suit. Pakistan has refused to become a party to the Partial Test Ban and the Non-Proliferation Treatly. 28 references

  4. On the hydrostatic test for nuclear vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmero, A.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison of the pressure test requirements, namely specified values of pressure and temperature, for nuclear vessels designed and constructed according to the ASME Code and Spanish Rules is presented. Also the relationship of the design criteria and the pressure test requirements is indicated with a particular emphasis on the test temperature in order to avoid brittle behaviour of the materials. (author)

  5. Helium leak testing methods in nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Anis

    2004-01-01

    Helium mass-spectrometer leak test is the most sensitive leak test method. It gives very reliable and sensitive test results. In last few years application of helium leak testing has gained more importance due to increased public awareness of safety and environment pollution caused by number of growing chemical and other such industries. Helium leak testing is carried out and specified in most of the critical area applications like nuclear, space, chemical and petrochemical industries

  6. Radiation injuries in atomic bomb survivors, chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Atomic bombs, for the first time in human history, were dropped on Hiroshima in August 6, and on Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. Though the powers of these bombs were small as compared with those of present day nuclear weapons, the atomic bombs claimed many lives instantaneously, damaged human bodies, and destroyed all objects, annihilating the urban areas. Even today, the dreadful consequences of the bombings still remain in both body and mind of the victims. Meanwhile, the experiences of atomic bomb disasters are fading constantly. In order to maintain the vivid information, in Part 2 ''Bodily injuries'', the following matters are described: early bodily injuries such as burns, (blast) external wounds, radiation injuries, and pathology in bodily injuries; later bodily injuries such as keloids, injuries to blood and eyes, injuries in exposed women, injuries in growth, aging and life, injuries in mental/nervous system, malignant tumors, and changes in chromosomes; and genetic effects. (J.P.N.)

  7. Nuclear Fuel Test Rod Fabrication for Data Acquisition Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joung, Chang-Young; Hong, Jin-Tae; Kim, Ka-Hye; Huh, Sung-Ho

    2014-01-01

    A nuclear fuel test rod must be fabricated with precise welding and assembly technologies, and confirmed for their soundness. Recently, we have developed various kinds of processing systems such as an orbital TIG welding system, a fiber laser welding system, an automated drilling system and a helium leak analyzer, which are able to fabricate the nuclear fuel test rods and rigs, and keep inspection systems to confirm the soundness of the nuclear fuel test rods and rids. The orbital TIG welding system can be used with two kinds of welding methods. One can perform the round welding for end-caps of a nuclear fuel test rod by an orbital head mounted in a low-pressure chamber. The other can do spot welding for a pin-hole of a nuclear fuel test rod in a high-pressure chamber to fill up helium gas of high pressure. The fiber laser welding system can weld cylindrical and 3 axis samples such as parts of a nuclear fuel test rod and instrumentation sensors which is moved by an index chuck and a 3 axis (X, Y, Z) servo stage controlled by the CNC program. To measure the real-time temperature change at the center of the nuclear fuel during the irradiation test, a thermocouple should be instrumented at that position. Therefore, a hole needs to be made at the center of fuel pellet to instrument the thermocouple. An automated drilling system can drill a fine hole into a fuel pellet without changing tools or breaking the work-piece. The helium leak analyzer (ASM-380 model of DEIXEN Co.) can check the leak of the nuclear fuel test rod filled with helium gas. This paper describes not only the assembly and fabrication methods used by the process systems, but also the results of the data acquisition test for the nuclear fuel test rod. A nuclear fuel test rod for the data acquisition test was fabricated using the welding and assembling echnologies acquired from previous tests

  8. Nuclear Fuel Test Rod Fabrication for Data Acquisition Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joung, Chang-Young; Hong, Jin-Tae; Kim, Ka-Hye; Huh, Sung-Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    A nuclear fuel test rod must be fabricated with precise welding and assembly technologies, and confirmed for their soundness. Recently, we have developed various kinds of processing systems such as an orbital TIG welding system, a fiber laser welding system, an automated drilling system and a helium leak analyzer, which are able to fabricate the nuclear fuel test rods and rigs, and keep inspection systems to confirm the soundness of the nuclear fuel test rods and rids. The orbital TIG welding system can be used with two kinds of welding methods. One can perform the round welding for end-caps of a nuclear fuel test rod by an orbital head mounted in a low-pressure chamber. The other can do spot welding for a pin-hole of a nuclear fuel test rod in a high-pressure chamber to fill up helium gas of high pressure. The fiber laser welding system can weld cylindrical and 3 axis samples such as parts of a nuclear fuel test rod and instrumentation sensors which is moved by an index chuck and a 3 axis (X, Y, Z) servo stage controlled by the CNC program. To measure the real-time temperature change at the center of the nuclear fuel during the irradiation test, a thermocouple should be instrumented at that position. Therefore, a hole needs to be made at the center of fuel pellet to instrument the thermocouple. An automated drilling system can drill a fine hole into a fuel pellet without changing tools or breaking the work-piece. The helium leak analyzer (ASM-380 model of DEIXEN Co.) can check the leak of the nuclear fuel test rod filled with helium gas. This paper describes not only the assembly and fabrication methods used by the process systems, but also the results of the data acquisition test for the nuclear fuel test rod. A nuclear fuel test rod for the data acquisition test was fabricated using the welding and assembling echnologies acquired from previous tests.

  9. French nuclear plant safeguard pump qualification testing: EPEC test loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guesnon, H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the specifications to which nuclear power plant safeguard pumps must be qualified, and surveys the qualification methods and program used in France to verify operability of the pump assembly and major pump components. The EPEC test loop is described along with loop capabilities and acheivements up to now. This paper shows, through an example, the Medium Pressure Safety Injection Pump designed for service in 1300 MW nuclear power plants, and the interesting possibilities offered by qualification testing

  10. Guarantying and testing the nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcu, Ilie

    2002-01-01

    Apparently, the nuclear power will ensure an important share of the world energy demand at least for the next decades because there is no viable alternative in the fan of energy sources neither one complying with the environment preservation requirements. The nuclear energy future depends not only on technical and economical aspects but also on preventing any danger of nuclear safeguards nature. The main international legal instrument which provides concrete commitments for nations in this field is the Nuclear Safeguard Convention. It provides guarantees and testings of the nuclear safeguards over the entire service life of the nuclear power plants. In the two general conferences (of 1999 and 2002) the status and measures adopted in the field of nuclear safeguards by the states adhering to the convention were discussed and reviewed, as well as the issues of financial resources, licensing and the adequate measures in emergency cases. The nuclear safeguards is a major issue among the criteria of integration in UE. Essential for maintaining and endorsing the provisions of nuclear safeguards in Romania are specific research and development activities aiming at integrating the equipment and structures, solving the operation problems of nuclear facilities, studying the behavior of installations in transient regimes, investigating the reliability and probabilistic assessing of nuclear safeguards, examining the phenomenology and simulating severe accidents or human factor behavior. Of major importance appears to be the international cooperation aiming that a permanent exchange of information and experience, dissemination of the best results, solutions and practices. The paper presents the status and trends at the world level, as well as in Romania, underlining the main issues of the strategy in this field and stressing the financial and human resources implied the implementing the nuclear safeguards provisions

  11. Animal Effects from Soviet Atmospheric Nuclear Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    describes the effect on animal models of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests performed by the Soviet Union at the Semipalatinsk Test Site . Part I describes...understand the pathogenic mechanisms of injury and the likelihood of efficacy of proposed treatment measures. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Semipalatinsk Test Site ...the Semipalatinsk Test Site . Part 1 describes the air blast and thermal radiation effects. Part 2 covers the effects of primary (prompt) radiation and

  12. Systems, Shocks and Time Bombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Nick

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Modelling strategies * Are time-bomb phenomena important? * Heuristic approaches to time-bomb phenomena * Three rational approaches to TBP * Two irrational approaches * Conclusions * References

  13. Cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigematsu, I.; Kagan, A.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: sampling of atomic bomb survivors and method of cancer detection in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; atomic bomb dosimetry for epidemiological studies of survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; tumor and tissue registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; the cancer registry in Nagasaki, with atomic bomb survivor data, 1973-1977; cancer mortality; methods for study of delayed health effects of a-bomb radiation; experimental radiation carcinogenesis in rodents; leukemia, multiple myeloma, and malignant lymphoma; cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands; malignant tumors in atomic bomb survivors with special reference to the pathology of stomach and lung cancer; colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors; breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors; and ovarian neoplasms in atomic bomb survirors

  14. Testing lifting systems in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kling, H.; Laug, R.

    1984-01-01

    Lifting systems in nuclear facilities must be inspected at regular intervals after having undergone their first acceptance test. These inspections are frequently carried out by service firms which not only employ the skilled personnel required for such jobs but also make available the necessary test equipment. The inspections in particular include a number of sophisticated load tests for which test load systems have been developed to allow lifting systems to be tested so that reactor specific boundary conditions are taken into account. In view of the large number of facilities to be inspected, the test load system is a modular system. (orig.) [de

  15. The bomb as option. Motivation for the development of a nuclear infrastructure in the Federal Republic of Germany until 1963; Die Bombe als Option. Motive fuer den Aufbau einer atomtechnischen Infrastruktur in der Bundesrepublik bis 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanel, Tilmann

    2015-07-01

    The book on the motivation for the development of a nuclear infrastructure in the Federal Republic of Germany until 1963 discusses the following issues: History of the German reactor development during the time of the National Socialism and World War II, reactor research abroad (examples Sweden and Switzerland), protagonists and motivation (politics, science, economy, army), the development of a nuclear infrastructure, results and consequences of the German nuclear policy until 1963.

  16. Can the deterrence survive to nuclear tests ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffney, F.J. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The problem of the soundness of the nuclear tests stopping is discussed here. The safety, the durability of nuclear weapons need nuclear tests. So, unless other means able to guarantee the deterrence, it is prejudicial to stop nuclear tests and to sign a non proliferation treaty with the option of zero nuclear explosion. (N.C.)

  17. Red China’s Capitalist Bomb: Inside the Chinese Neutron Bomb Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Moscow demanded, “What is the stand of the Peking leaders toward the neutron bomb and all nuclear weapons? Why have Chinese newspapers, magazines , and...for civilian and military use. Programs for laser technology, space, biotechnology , information technology, automation and manufacturing technology

  18. Thermohydraulic tests in nuclear fuel model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladeira, L.C.D.; Navarro, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The main experimental works performed in the Thermohydraulics Laboratory of the NUCLEBRAS Nuclear Technology Development Center, in the field of thermofluodynamics are briefly described. These works include the performing of steady-state flow tests in single tube test sections, and the design and construction of a rod bundle test section, which will be also used for those kind of testes. Mention is made of the works to be performed in the near future, related to steady-state and transient flow tests. (Author) [pt

  19. Nuclear test at Semipalatinsk test site and their environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logachev, V.A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper present classification of nuclear tests conducted at the Semipalatinsk test site by tier radiation hazards. The Institute of Biophysics of the Russian Ministry of Health established a data base the archival data on radiation situation parameters and compiled an album of radioactive plum footprints. The paper states that external and internal exposure doses received by population lived in the test vicinity can sufficiently reliably assesses using archival data. (author)

  20. Nondestructive testing of nuclear reactor components integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mala, M.; Miklos, M.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear energy must respond to current challenges in the energy market. The significant parameters are increase of the nuclear fuel price, closed fuel cycle, reduction and safe and the final disposal of high level radioactive waste. Nowadays, the discussions on suitable energy mix are taking place not only here in Czech Republic, but also in many other European countries. It is necessary to establish an appropriate ratio among the production of electricity from conventional, nuclear and renewable energy sources. Also, it is necessary to find ways how to streamline the economy, central part of the nuclear fuel cycle and thereby to increase the competitiveness of nuclear energy. This streamlining can be carried out by improving utilization of existing nuclear fuel with maintaining a high degree of nuclear facilities safety. Increasing operational reliability and safety together with increasing utilization of nuclear fuel place increasing demands on monitoring of changes during fuel burnup. The potential fuel assembly damages in light water reactors are prevented by the introduction of new procedures and programs of the fuel assembly monitoring. One of them is the Post Irradiation Inspection Program (PIIP) which is a good tool for monitoring of chemical regime impact on the fuel assembly cladding behavior. Main nondestructive techniques that are used at nuclear power plants for the fuel assembly integrity evaluation are ultrasonic measurements, eddy current measurements, radiographic testing, acoustic techniques and others. Ultrasonic system is usual tool for leak fuel rod evaluation and it is also used at Temelin NPP. Since 2009, Temelin NPP has cooperated with Research Center Rez Ltd in frame of PIIP program at both units WWER 1000. This program was established for US VVantage6 fuel assemblies and also it continues for Russian TVSA-T fuel assemblies. (author)

  1. Trash can bomb can fall into the hands of terrorists

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Leading scientists from CERN described how if terrorists were able to get their hands on plutonium or uranium, they would be able to manufacture a 'trash can' nuclear bomb simply by inserting the radioactive material into a normal bomb. Once detonated a large area could be contaminated leading to the immediate deaths of many with many more future casualties due to cancers caused by the radiation.

  2. The Freezing Bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Allan

    2010-01-01

    The extreme pressures that are generated when water freezes were traditionally demonstrated by sealing a small volume in a massive cast iron "bomb" and then surrounding it with a freezing mixture of ice and salt. This vessel would dramatically fail by brittle fracture, but no quantitative measurement of bursting pressure was available. Calculation…

  3. US Underground Nuclear Test History Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    History Documents US Underground Nuclear Test History Reports NTPR Radiation Exposure Reports Enewetak Atoll Cleanup Documents TRAC About Who We Are Our Values History Locations Our Leadership Director Support Center Contact Us FAQ Sheet Links Success Stories Contracts Business Opportunities Current

  4. Commemoration of the bombing of Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Shoji

    1999-01-01

    On the occasion of 52 anniversary of bombing Hiroshima this speech is given by one if the survivors, stating that it is obvious that using nuclear weapons is the cruelest and most inexcusable crime in human history. It never should be used against anyone, for any purpose, anywhere. In the Statement of the Pugwash Council, in 1995, the theory of nuclear deterrence was clearly rejected. This certainly played a significant role in the award of 1995 Nobel Prize to Pugwash Conferences. The close of 20th century provides the best occasion to affirm the international political will to prohibit nuclear weapons

  5. Nuclear weapon testing and the monkey business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, M.S.S.

    1978-01-01

    Reasons for India's total ban on the export of rhesus monkeys to U.S. have been explained. The major reason is that some of the animals were used in nuclear weapon related radiation experiments. This was a clear violation of a stricture in the agreement about supply of monkeys. The stricture prohibited the use of animals for research concerning military operations, including nuclear weapon testing. It is pleaded that a strict enforcement of strictures rather than a total ban on the export of monkeys would be better in the interest of advancement of knowledge in human medicine and disease control. (M.G.B.)

  6. Nuclear cask testing films misleading and misused

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audin, L. (Audin (Lindsay), Ossining, NY (United States))

    1991-10-01

    In 1977 and 1978, Sandia National Laboratories, located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, and operated for the US Department of Energy (DOE), filmed a series of crash and fire tests performed on three casks designed to transport irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies. While the tests were performed to assess the applicability of scale and computer modeling techniques to actual accidents, films of them were quickly pressed into service by the DOE and nuclear utilities as proof'' to the public of the safety of the casks. In the public debate over the safety of irradiated nuclear fuel transportation, the films have served as the mainstay for the nuclear industry. Although the scripts of all the films were reviewed by USDOE officials before production, they contain numerous misleading concepts and images, and omit significant facts. The shorter versions eliminated qualifying statements contained in the longer version, and created false impressions. This paper discusses factors which cast doubt on the veracity of the films and the results of the tests.

  7. Nuclear cask testing films misleading and misused

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audin, L. [Audin (Lindsay), Ossining, NY (United States)

    1991-10-01

    In 1977 and 1978, Sandia National Laboratories, located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, and operated for the US Department of Energy (DOE), filmed a series of crash and fire tests performed on three casks designed to transport irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies. While the tests were performed to assess the applicability of scale and computer modeling techniques to actual accidents, films of them were quickly pressed into service by the DOE and nuclear utilities as ``proof`` to the public of the safety of the casks. In the public debate over the safety of irradiated nuclear fuel transportation, the films have served as the mainstay for the nuclear industry. Although the scripts of all the films were reviewed by USDOE officials before production, they contain numerous misleading concepts and images, and omit significant facts. The shorter versions eliminated qualifying statements contained in the longer version, and created false impressions. This paper discusses factors which cast doubt on the veracity of the films and the results of the tests.

  8. Nuclear cask testing films misleading and misused

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audin, L.

    1991-10-01

    In 1977 and 1978, Sandia National Laboratories, located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, and operated for the US Department of Energy (DOE), filmed a series of crash and fire tests performed on three casks designed to transport irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies. While the tests were performed to assess the applicability of scale and computer modeling techniques to actual accidents, films of them were quickly pressed into service by the DOE and nuclear utilities as ''proof'' to the public of the safety of the casks. In the public debate over the safety of irradiated nuclear fuel transportation, the films have served as the mainstay for the nuclear industry. Although the scripts of all the films were reviewed by USDOE officials before production, they contain numerous misleading concepts and images, and omit significant facts. The shorter versions eliminated qualifying statements contained in the longer version, and created false impressions. This paper discusses factors which cast doubt on the veracity of the films and the results of the tests

  9. Traditional nuclear physics as a test of nuclear exotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapershtein, E.E.; Starodubskii, V.E.

    1989-01-01

    The review considers the testing of some exotic hypotheses about the properties of the nucleon in a nuclear medium in phenomena of traditional nuclear physics. The hypothesis of nucleon swelling proposed to explain the EMC effects is considered in detail. The consequences of this hypothesis for the charge densities and cross sections for scattering of fast electrons and protons by nuclei are analyzed. Also considered are the Nolen--Schiffer anomaly, the Coulomb sum rule for inelastic electron scattering, y scaling, and some other nuclear processes. It is shown that one can estimate the possible scale of nuclear exotics by analyzing many of these phenomena. Thus, examination of high-precision data on the elastic scattering of electrons with energy 500--700 MeV using density distributions calculated on the basis of the self-consistent theory of finite Fermi systems yields a restriction on the amount of nucleon swelling: α=δr N /r N approx-lt 10%. A similar analysis for protons with energy 0.8--1.0 GeV using Glauber theory gives α approx-lt 6%. An even more stringent restriction, α approx-lt 3%, follows from data on y scaling in 56 Fe

  10. Radiological criteria for underground nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, J.S.; Brownlee, R.R.; Costa, C.F.; Mueller, H.F.; Newman, R.W.

    1981-04-01

    The radiological criteria for the conduct of nuclear tests have undergone many revisions with the current criteria being 0.17 rad for uncontrolled populations and 0.5 rad for controllable populations. Their effect upon operations at the Nevada Test Site and the current off-site protective plans are reviewed for areas surrounding the Site. The few accidental releases that have occurred are used to establish estimates of probability of release and of hazard to the population. These are then put into context by comparing statistical data on other accidents and cataclysms. The guidelines established by DOE Manual Chapter MC-0524 have never been exceeded during the entire underground nuclear test program. The probability of real hazard to off-site populations appears to be sufficiently low as not to cause undue concern to the citizenry

  11. Radiological criteria for underground nuclear tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, J.S.; Brownlee, R.R.; Costa, C.F.; Mueller, H.F.; Newman, R.W.

    1981-04-01

    The radiological criteria for the conduct of nuclear tests have undergone many revisions with the current criteria being 0.17 rad for uncontrolled populations and 0.5 rad for controllable populations. Their effect upon operations at the Nevada Test Site and the current off-site protective plans are reviewed for areas surrounding the Site. The few accidental releases that have occurred are used to establish estimates of probability of release and of hazard to the population. These are then put into context by comparing statistical data on other accidents and cataclysms. The guidelines established by DOE Manual Chapter MC-0524 have never been exceeded during the entire underground nuclear test program. The probability of real hazard to off-site populations appears to be sufficiently low as not to cause undue concern to the citizenry.

  12. BOMB STABILIZING STRUCTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, J.L.; Runyan, C.E.

    1963-12-10

    A stabilizinig structure capable of minimizing deviations of a falling body such as a bomb from desired trajectory is described. The structure comprises a fin or shroud arrangement of double-wedge configuration, the feeding portion being of narrow wedge shape and the after portion being of a wider wedge shape. The structure provides a force component for keeping the body on essentially desired trajectory throughout its fall. (AEC)

  13. Testing of coatings for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, G.

    1977-01-01

    Commercial scale nuclear power generating plant coatings must be able to withstand simultaneous exposure both to high humidity, and to cumulative radiation dosage, at elevated temperatures, for the design life of the plant. The coatings must be decontaminable by means other than by stripping, that is, actual physical removal, and must be of sufficient durability to withstand projected conditions of a loss of coolant accident. Tests to show that coatings are expected to do more than retard corrosion and erosion are described

  14. Atmospheric methods for nuclear test monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. DOE sponsored research investigating atmospheric infrasound as a means of detecting both atmospheric and underground nuclear tests. Various detection schemes were examined and were found to be effective for different situations. It has been discovered that an enhanced sensitivity is realizable for the very lowest frequency disturbances by detecting the infrasound at the top of the atmosphere using ratio sound techniques. These techniques are compared to more traditional measurement schemes

  15. Environmental assessment report: Nuclear Test Technology Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonnessen, K.; Tewes, H.A.

    1982-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (USDOE) is planning to construct and operate a structure, designated the Nuclear Test Technology Complex (NTTC), on a site located west of and adjacent to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The NTTC is designed to house 350 nuclear test program personnel, and will accommodate the needs of the entire staff of the continuing Nuclear Test Program (NTP). The project has three phases: land acquisition, facility construction and facility operation. The purpose of this environmental assessment report is to describe the activities associated with the three phases of the NTTC project and to evaluate potential environmental disruptions. The project site is located in a rural area of southeastern Alameda County, California, where the primary land use is agriculture; however, the County has zoned the area for industrial development. The environmental impacts of the project include surface disturbance, high noise levels, possible increases in site erosion, and decreased air quality. These impacts will occur primarily during the construction phase of the NTTC project and can be mitigated in part by measures proposed in this report

  16. Determination of 239Pu and 240Pu isotope ratio for a nuclear bomb particle using X-ray spectrometry in conjunction with γ-ray spectrometry and non-destructive α-particle spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poellaenen, R.; Ruotsalainen, K.; Toivonen, H.

    2009-01-01

    A nuclear bomb particle from Thule containing Pu and U was analyzed using X-ray spectrometry in combination with γ-ray spectrometry and non-destructive α-spectrometry. The main objective was to investigate the possibility to determine the 239 Pu and 240 Pu isotope ratios. Previously, X-ray spectrometry together with the above-mentioned methods has been successfully applied for radiochemically processed samples, but not for individual particles. In the present paper we demonstrate the power of non-destructive analysis. The 239 Pu/( 239 Pu+ 240 Pu) atom ratio for the Thule particle was determined, using two different approaches, to be 0.93±0.07 and 0.91±0.05. These results are consistent with weapons-grade material and the results obtained by other investigators.

  17. Reconstruction of local fallout composition and gamma-ray exposure in a village contaminated by the first USSR nuclear test in the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Kawai, Kenta; Sakaguchi, Aya; Hoshi, Masaharu; Chaizhunusova, Nailya; Apsalikov, Kazbek

    2010-11-01

    After the disintegration of the USSR in end of 1991, it became possible for foreign scientists to visit Kazakhstan, in order to investigate the radiological consequences of nuclear explosions that had been conducted at the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS). Since the first visit in 1994, our group has been continuing expeditions for soil sampling at various areas around SNTS. The current level of local fallout at SNTS was studied through γ-spectrometry for (137)Cs as well as α-spectrometry for (239,240)Pu. Average values of soil inventory from wide areas around SNTS were 3,500 and 3,700 Bq m(-2) for (137)Cs and (239,240)Pu, respectively, as of January 1, 2000. The average level of (137)Cs is comparable to that in Japan due to global fallout, while the level of (239,240)Pu is several tens of times larger than that in Japan. Areas of strong contamination were found along the trajectories of radioactive fallout, information on which was declassified after the collapse of the USSR. Our recent efforts of soil sampling were concentrated on the area around the Dolon village heavily affected by the radioactive plume from the first USSR atomic bomb test in 1949 and located 110 km east from ground zero of the explosion. Using soil inventory data, retrospective dosimetry was attempted by reconstructing γ-ray exposure from fission product nuclides deposited on the ground. Adopting representative parameters for the initial (137)Cs deposition (13 kBq m(-2)), the refractory/volatile deposition ratio (3.8) and the plume arrival time after explosion (2.5 h), an absorbed dose in air of 600 mGy was obtained for the 1-year cumulative dose in Dolon village, due to the first bomb test in 1949. Considering possible ranges of the parameters, 350 and 910 mGy were estimated for high and low cases of γ-ray dose in air, respectively. It was encouraging that the deduced value was consistent with other estimations using thermal luminescence and archived monitoring data. The present

  18. Nuclear anxiety: a test-construction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunstein, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Anxiety Scale was administered to 263 undergraduate and graduate studies (on eight occasions in December, 1985 and January, 1986). (1) The obtained alpha coefficient was .91. This was significant at the .01 level, and demonstrated that the scale was internally homogeneous and consistent. (2) Item discrimination indices (point biserial correlation coefficients) computered for the thirty (30) items yielded a range of .25 to .64. All coefficients were significant at the .01 level, and all 30 items were retained as demonstrating significant discriminability. (3) The correlation between two administrations of the scale (with a 48-hour interval) was .83. This was significant at the .01 level, and demonstrated test-retest reliability and stability over time. (4) The point-biserial correlation coefficient between scores on the Nuclear Anxiety Scale, and the students' self-report of nuclear anxiety as being either a high or low ranked stressor, was .59. This was significant at the .01 level, and demonstrated concurrent validity. (5) The correlation coefficient between scores on the Nuclear Anxiety Scale and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, A-Trait, (1970), was .41. This was significant at the .01 level, and demonstrated convergent validity. (6) The correlation coefficient between positively stated and negatively stated items (with scoring reversed) was .76. This was significant at the .01 level, and demonstrated freedom from response set bias

  19. Field test of wireless sensor network in the nuclear environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L.; Wang, Q.; Bari, A.; Deng, C.; Chen, D.; Jiang, J.; Alexander, Q.; Sur, B.

    2014-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are appealing options for the health monitoring of nuclear power plants due to their low cost and flexibility. Before they can be used in highly regulated nuclear environments, their reliability in the nuclear environment and compatibility with existing devices have to be assessed. In situ electromagnetic interference tests, wireless signal propagation tests, and nuclear radiation hardness tests conducted on candidate WSN systems at AECL Chalk River Labs are presented. The results are favourable to WSN in nuclear applications. (author)

  20. Field test of wireless sensor network in the nuclear environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, L., E-mail: lil@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Wang, Q.; Bari, A. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Deng, C.; Chen, D. [Univ. of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Jiang, J. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Alexander, Q.; Sur, B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are appealing options for the health monitoring of nuclear power plants due to their low cost and flexibility. Before they can be used in highly regulated nuclear environments, their reliability in the nuclear environment and compatibility with existing devices have to be assessed. In situ electromagnetic interference tests, wireless signal propagation tests, and nuclear radiation hardness tests conducted on candidate WSN systems at AECL Chalk River Labs are presented. The results are favourable to WSN in nuclear applications. (author)

  1. Second study of UK nuclear test participants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darby, S.; Doll, R.; Kendall, G.

    1994-01-01

    A second epidemiological analysis of mortality and cancer incidence in UK participants in the UK atmospheric nuclear tests and associated experimental programmes has provided broadly reassuring results. Overall death rates in test participants are lower than those in the general population and similar to those in a closely matched control group. Observations in the extended period of follow-up suggest that the excess of multiple myeloma seen in the first analysis was a chance finding. The extended follow-up does not provide any new evidence to support the finding of apparent excess of leukaemia found in the first analysis. However, the possibility that test participation may have caused a small risk of leukaemia in the early years after the tests cannot be ruled out. (author)

  2. A history of US nuclear testing and its influence on nuclear thought, 1945-1963

    CERN Document Server

    Blades, David M

    2014-01-01

    As states continue to pursue nuclear weaponry, nuclear testing remains an important political issue in the twenty-first century. This survey examines how and why the U.S. conducted nuclear tests from 1945 through 1963 and the resulting influence on key questions from normalization and de-normalization up to the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty of 1963.

  3. Simulations of radiocarbon in a coarse-resolution world ocean model 2. Distributions of bomb-produced Carbon 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toggweiler, J.R.; Dixon, K.; Bryan, K.

    1989-01-01

    Part 1 of this study examined the ability of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) primitive equation ocean general circulation model to simulate the steady state distribution of naturally produced 14 C in the ocean prior to the nuclear bomb tests of the 1950's and early 1960's. In part 2 begin with the steady state distributions of part 1 and subject the model to the pulse of elevated atmospheric 14 C concentrations observed since the 1950's

  4. The development of the atomic bomb, Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, R.W.

    1993-11-01

    The historical presentation begins with details of the selection of Los Alamos as the site of the Army installation. Wartime efforts of the Army Corps of Engineers, and scientists to include the leader of Los Alamos, Robert Oppenheimer are presented. The layout and construction of the facilities are discussed. The monumental design requirements of the bombs are discussed, including but not limited to the utilization of the second choice implosion method of detonation, and the production of bomb-grade nuclear explosives. The paper ends with a philosophical discussion on the use of nuclear weapons.

  5. Memory from the Vel d'Hiv to the H bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dautray, R.

    2007-01-01

    Robert Dautray plays a major role in the french scientist and military history. He is in particular the father of the french H bomb. He relates in this book the bomb history and in particular the help of other countries via the secret services. He brings his account of the french civil and military nuclear, its hopes and risks. (A.L.B.)

  6. Nuclear fuels for material test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanathan, L.V.; Durazzo, M.; Freitas, C.T. de

    1982-01-01

    Experimental results related do the development of nuclear fuels for reactors cooled and moderated by water have been presented cylindrical and plate type fuels have been described in which the core consists of U compouns dispersed in an Al matrix and is clad with aluminium. Fabrication details involving rollmilling, swaging or hot pressing have been described. Corrosion and irradiation test results are also discussed. The performance of the different types of fuels indicates that it is possible to locally fabricate fuel plates with U 3 O 8 +Al cores (20% enriched U) for use in operating Brazilian research reactors. (Author) [pt

  7. Bomb Threats Taking Financial Toll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    Despite all its efforts to crack down on the bomb scares that disrupted classes again and again in 2003, North Carolina's Orange County district fell victim to yet another false alarm this school year, 2004. For some schools, bomb threats have become more routine than fire drills, with each incident ringing up multi-thousand-dollar tabs for…

  8. Clinical studies on gastric cancer and breast cancer among A-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagata, S; Ohya, M; Nagusa, Y; Harada, T; Tani, T [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology

    1977-04-01

    Fifty-five cases of gastric cancer and 14 cases of breast cancer among A-Bomb survivors, which had been treated at Dept. of Surgery, Research Institute for Nuclear Medicine and Biology of Hiroshima Univ., were discussed. Both gastric cancer and breast cancer were recognized more in A-Bomb survivors of advanced age. Particularly, the number of gastric cancer in A-Bomb survivors of over 65-year old was about double the number of unexposed persons. Ratio of male to female in A-Bomb survivors with gastric cancer was 1.6:1, and the ratio of female was higher as compared to the ratio in unexposed persons (2.6:1). Gastric cancer of stage III and IV in A-Bomb survivors was 54.5%, and advanced cancer was comparatively few in A-Bomb survivors as compared to in unexposed persons (78.2%). Similarly, comparatively early stage breast cancer of stage I and II was recognized more in A-Bomb survivors. Particularly, T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ in which tumor was small in size showed very high percentage of 92.9% in A-Bomb survivors. In gastric cancer in A-Bomb survivors, poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma showed the highest percentage of 34.5%. However, there was no significant difference according to the exposure conditions. As to histological type of breast cancer, medullary tubular adenocarcinoma abounds mostly in both A-Bomb survivors (71.4%) and unexposed persons (75.9%). As the influence of operation, anemia was recognized before operation strongly in A-Bomb survivors with gastric cancer of over 65-year old. After the operation, transient rise of GOT and GPT was recognized in A-Bomb survivors of advanced age with gastric cancer. However, there was no difference in postoperative complications between A-Bomb survivors and unexposed persons.

  9. History of radiation research. On radiation, radioactivity and radiation protection. Pt. 2. The sword of Damocles. Decade of the atomic bomb 1940-1950

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, B.

    2006-01-01

    The book includes contributions with the following titles: Szilards bomb; the excess neutrons; Napoleon's successor; Einstein's letter; the interim year 1940; administration and research; the sailor from India; the production facilities; ''I am the death, destroyer of the world''; Heisenberg's bomb; from other horizons; Potsdam and the atomic bomb decision; Hiroshima and Nagasaki; the beginning of nuclear power; renewed contacts; epilogue.

  10. Experimental test of nuclear magnetization distribution and nuclear structure models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beirsdorfer, P; Crespo-Lopez-Urrutia, J R; Utter, S B.

    1999-01-01

    Models exist that ascribe the nuclear magnetic fields to the presence of a single nucleon whose spin is not neutralized by pairing it up with that of another nucleon; other models assume that the generation of the magnetic field is shared among some or all nucleons throughout the nucleus. All models predict the same magnetic field external to the nucleus since this is an anchor provided by experiments. The models differ, however, in their predictions of the magnetic field arrangement within the nucleus for which no data exist. The only way to distinguish which model gives the correct description of the nucleus would be to use a probe inserted into the nucleus. The goal of our project was to develop exactly such a probe and to use it to measure fundamental nuclear quantities that have eluded experimental scrutiny. The need for accurately knowing such quantities extends far beyond nuclear physics and has ramifications in parity violation experiments on atomic traps and the testing of the standard model in elementary particle physics. Unlike scattering experiments that employ streams of free particles, our technique to probe the internal magnetic field distribution of the nucleus rests on using a single bound electron. Quantum mechanics shows that an electron in the innermost orbital surrounding the nucleus constantly dives into the nucleus and thus samples the fields that exist inside. This sampling of the nucleus usually results in only minute shifts in the electron s average orbital, which would be difficult to detect. By studying two particular energy states of the electron, we can, however, dramatically enhance the effects of the distribution of the magnetic fields in the nucleus. In fact about 2% of the energy difference between the two states, dubbed the hyperfine splitting, is determined by the effects related to the distribution of magnetic fields in the nucleus, A precise measurement of this energy difference (better than 0.01%) would then allow us to place

  11. Rehabilitation of nuclear test site at Maralinga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grad, P.

    1997-01-01

    A program to rehabilitate contaminated areas at the Maralinga Nuclear Test Range in South Australia is being undertaken by the Australian Department of Primary Industries and Energy (DPIE). A major part of the program is directed at reducing the risk presented by the contaminated debris buried at Taranaki, Maralinga's most heavily contaminated site. The rehabilitation program is using the insitu vitrification technology developed for the US Department of Energy. The program is now in its third phase, involving the construction of the full-scale treatment plant. This will be completed later this year. The fourth and last phase will involve the treatment of the Taranaki pits. This will commence in 1998. Tests carried out so far indicated that the normalized leach rates for all oxides in the vitrified product were less than 0.1g/m 2 . ills

  12. Radiation standards and A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, R.

    1984-01-01

    For more than 33 years, the US government has supported the Life Span Study of Japanese survivors as a follow-up of the 1945 nuclear bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Since 1975, the study has been funded jointly by the United States and Japan under the auspices of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. In the May issue of this bulletin radiation epidemiologists Dr. Alice Stewart and George Kneale raise perhaps the most fundamental question of all: Does the Japanese A-bomb survivor study have any value in deriving risk estimates for low-level radiation. On the basis of data published by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in 1978, Stewart and Kneale suggest that Foundation analysts have confused long-term effects of tissue-destructive high doses with single-cell low-dose effects. If they are correct, the method of linear extrapolation from high-dose studies for low-level radiation risk estimates is invalid. The author feels the A-bomb survivors study should be opened up to an independent peer review process

  13. The nuclear barons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pringle, P.; Spigelman, J.

    1982-01-01

    The following topics are included: development, testing and use of atomic bombs in various countries; attempts to secure control over atomic energy, in particular over the proliferation of atomic weapons; discussion of government policies; political issues, national and international, concerning atomic weapons and atomic power; development of atomic power in various countries, involving governmental institutions and private industry; international cooperation in peaceful uses; fallout from weapon testing; radiation hazards; opposition to nuclear weapons and nuclear power; economics of nuclear power; reactor accidents; public relations; forecasts of nuclear power plant generating capacity; alternative energy sources. The careers, actions and decisions of individual participants are discussed in detail throughout the account. (U.K.)

  14. The 20th nuclear explosion test of the Peoples' Republic of China (underground nuclear test)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    (1) The New China News Agency and the Radio Peking announced that China conducted the underground nuclear explosion test on 17 October, 1976. However, no exact data concerning the data, the place and the scale of this test was stated in above announcement. (2) However, relatively high radioactivity than that of normal level was detected in the rain and dry fallout samples collected from several prefectures. (author)

  15. Reload Startup Physics Tests for Tianwan Nuclear Power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaoqiang; Li Wenshuang; Li Youyi; Yao Jinguo; Li Zaipeng Jiangsu

    2010-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the test purposes, test items, test schedules and test equipment's for reload startup physics test's on Unit 1 and 2 of Tianwan Nuclear Power station. Then, an overview of the previous thrice tests and evaluations on the tests results are presented. In the end, the paper shows the development and work direction of optimization project for reload startup physics tests on Unit 1 and 2 of Tianwan Nuclear Power station. (Authors)

  16. The relationship of thyroid cancer with radiation exposure from nuclear weapon testing in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tatsuya; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Trott, Klaus R; Simon, Steven L; Fujimori, Keisei; Nakashima, Noriaki; Fukao, Akira; Saito, Hiroshi

    2003-03-01

    The US nuclear weapons testing program in the Pacific conducted between 1946 and 1958 resulted in radiation exposure in the Marshall Islands. The potentially widespread radiation exposure from radio-iodines of fallout has raised concerns about the risk of thyroid cancer in the Marshallese population. The most serious exposures and its health hazards resulted from the hydrogen-thermonuclear bomb test, the Castle BRAVO, on March 1, 1954. Between 1993 and 1997, we screened 3,709 Marshallese for thyroid disease who were born before the BRAVO test. It was 60% of the entire population at risk and who were still alive at the time of our examinations. We diagnosed 30 thyroid cancers and found 27 other study participants who had been operated for thyroid cancer before our screening in this group. Fifty-seven Marshallese born before 1954 (1.5%) had thyroid cancer or had been operated for thyroid cancer. Nearly all (92%) of these cancers were papillary carcinoma. We derived estimates of individual thyroid dose proxy from the BRAVO test in 1954 on the basis of published age-specific doses estimated on Utirik atoll and 137Cs deposition levels on the atolls where the participants came from. There was suggestive evidence that the prevalence of thyroid cancer increased with category of estimated dose to the thyroid.

  17. The relationship of thyroid cancer with radiation exposure from nuclear weapon testing in the Marshall Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Tatsuya; Fukao, Akira [Yamagata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Schoemaker, M.J. [Inst. of Cancer Research, Sutton, Surry (United Kingdom); Trott, K.R. [Gray Cancer Inst., Northwood, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Simon, S.L. [National Cancer Inst., Rockville, MD (United States); Fujimori, Keisei; Nakashima, Noriaki [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Saito, Hiroshi [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2003-03-01

    The US nuclear weapons testing program in the Pacific conducted between 1946 and 1958 resulted in radiation exposure in the Marshall Islands. The potentially widespread radiation exposure from radioiodines of fallout has raised concerns about the risk of thyroid cancer in the Marshallese population. The most serious exposures and its health hazards resulted from the hydrogen-thermonuclear bomb test, the Castle BRAVO, on March 1, 1954. Between 1993 and 1997, we screened 3,709 Marshallese for thyroid disease who were born before the BRAVO test. It was 60% of the entire population at risk and who were still alive at the time of our examinations. We diagnosed 30 thyroid cancers and found 27 other study participants who had been operated for thyroid cancer before our screening in this group. Fifty-seven Marshallese born before 1954 (1.5%) had thyroid cancer or had been operated for thyroid cancer. Nearly all (92%) of these cancers were papillary carcinoma. We derived estimates of individual thyroid dose proxy from the BRAVO test in 1954 on the basis of published age-specific doses estimated on Utirik atoll and {sup 137}Cs deposition levels on the atolls where the participants came from. There was suggestive evidence that the prevalence of thyroid cancer increased with category of estimated dose to the thyroid. (author)

  18. The relationship of thyroid cancer with radiation exposure from nuclear weapon testing in the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Tatsuya; Fukao, Akira; Trott, K.R.; Simon, S.L.; Fujimori, Keisei; Nakashima, Noriaki; Saito, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    The US nuclear weapons testing program in the Pacific conducted between 1946 and 1958 resulted in radiation exposure in the Marshall Islands. The potentially widespread radiation exposure from radioiodines of fallout has raised concerns about the risk of thyroid cancer in the Marshallese population. The most serious exposures and its health hazards resulted from the hydrogen-thermonuclear bomb test, the Castle BRAVO, on March 1, 1954. Between 1993 and 1997, we screened 3,709 Marshallese for thyroid disease who were born before the BRAVO test. It was 60% of the entire population at risk and who were still alive at the time of our examinations. We diagnosed 30 thyroid cancers and found 27 other study participants who had been operated for thyroid cancer before our screening in this group. Fifty-seven Marshallese born before 1954 (1.5%) had thyroid cancer or had been operated for thyroid cancer. Nearly all (92%) of these cancers were papillary carcinoma. We derived estimates of individual thyroid dose proxy from the BRAVO test in 1954 on the basis of published age-specific doses estimated on Utirik atoll and 137 Cs deposition levels on the atolls where the participants came from. There was suggestive evidence that the prevalence of thyroid cancer increased with category of estimated dose to the thyroid. (author)

  19. Tests of a Coulomb-nuclear polarimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauletta, G.; University of Texas, Austin, TX, 78712)

    1989-01-01

    We report on the development and testing of a polarimeter for the high energy polarized proton and antiproton beam at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). The polarimeter was designed to make use of a small but well-known analyzing power in the region of Coulomb-nuclear interference (CNI) in order to obtain an absolute measurement of the polarization. Feasibility was established in the course of a brief running period at the end of the last fixed-target period at FNAL and potential for considerable improvement was revealed. Beam-time was insufficient to measure polarization accurately but the data obtained bears out design expectations for the beam-line and confirms polarization-tagging techniques to within uncertainties

  20. Oxygen Containment System Options for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — All nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) ground testing conducted in the 1950s and 1960s during the ROVER/(Nuclear Engine Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program...

  1. The Bomb-Gyroscopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri F. Katorin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article it is described about the attack at night 16 of May 1943 of year by the English aircraft of 617-y of the squadron of German dams in the Ruhr pond with the use of bombs “Upkeep” and the history of their creation by designer Barns Neville Wallis, is described the device of this weapon and the tactics of its application. The motion of operation is analyzed, in detail it is told about the actions of the crews of the aircraft, тhe motion of operation is analyzed, the losses of sides and consequence of the destruction of dams for the German defense industry are given.

  2. Xenon monitoring and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowyer, Theodore W. [Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Program, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2014-05-09

    How do you monitor (verify) a CTBT? It is a difficult challenge to monitor the entire world for nuclear tests, regardless of size. Nuclear tests 'normally' occur underground, above ground or underwater. Setting aside very small tests (let's limit our thinking to 1 kiloton or more), nuclear tests shake the ground, emit large amounts of radioactivity, and make loud noises if in the atmosphere (or hydroacoustic waves if underwater)

  3. Australia: Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Model Treaty text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The scope of the proposed Treaty includes the following: Each State Party undertakes not to carry out any nuclear weapon test explosion, and to prohibit and prevent any such nuclear explosion at any place under its jurisdiction or control; each State Party undertakes, furthermore, to refrain from causing, encouraging, or in any way participating in the carrying out of any nuclear weapon tests explosion or any other nuclear explosion

  4. Yesterday's, today's and tomorrow's nuclear tests of India and Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, M.; Le Guelte, G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the historical aspects that led India and Pakistan to develop nuclear weapons and to perform nuclear weapon tests: weapons acquisition: today's military capacity, help from foreign countries; motivations: nuclear programs, geo-political aspects; results and potentialities; consequences for the non-proliferation systems and for the cut-off convention and test-ban treaties; and the geo-strategic consequences of todays's military nuclear capacity of India and Pakistan. (J.S.)

  5. Development of nuclear technologies and conversion of nuclear weapon testing system infrastructure in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepnin, Yu.; Takibaev, Zh.

    2000-01-01

    The article gives a brief description of the work done by the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan in development of nuclear technology and conversion of nuclear weapon testing infrastructure in Kazakhstan. Content and trends of works are as follows: 1. Peaceful use of all physical facilities, created earlier for nuclear tests in Kazakhstan; 2. Development of methods and technologies for safe nuclear reactors use; 3. Examination of different materials in field of great neutron flow for thermonuclear reactor's first wall development; 4. Liquidation of all wells, which were formed in the results of underground nuclear explosions in Degelen mountain massif of former Semipalatinsk test site; 5. Study of consequences of nuclear tests in West Kazakhstan (territory of Azgir test site and Karachaganak oil field); 6. Study of radiological situation on the Semipalatinsk test site and surrounding territories; 7. Search of ways for high-level radioactive wastes disposal; 8. Construction of safe nuclear power plants in Kazakhstan

  6. Transfer of Sr-90 in the environment to human bone, and radiation dose due to the atomic bomb and weapons testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, H.; Shiraishi, K.; Igarashi, Y.; Sakurai, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The major source of artificial radioactivities in Japan has been the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. Some results obtained for activities of Sr-90 in bone, particulary in Japanese, are mentioned, including trends in levels, distribution in bone, transfer from diet to bone and absorbed doses. Some litterature data on pathways of Sr-90 from environment to man are referred to, that is on contribution of different foods to the ingestion intake and transfer of Sr-90 from soil to crops. Recent topics of radioecological studies on soil-plant relationships are shortly introduced

  7. Aging studies in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belsky, J.L.; Moriyama, I.M.; Fujita, Seiichiro; Kawamoto, Sadahisa.

    1980-01-01

    Though acceleration of aging induced by radiation could not be demonstrated in many investigations on delayed effects of ionizing radiation on a-bomb survivors, studies on acceleration of aging after the exposure to ionizing radiation in human and animals have been carried out. To investigate whether physiological function was related to the exposure to ionizing radiation, a series of examinations concerning age was carried out at the time of general health examinations at ABCC. Simple examinations concerning aging were carried out on 11,351 a-bomb survivors, but the result was essentially negative. If biological or physiological age was defined clearly, the results of functional test would be used as criterion of aging. (Tsunoda, M.)

  8. Iodine-129 measurements in soil samples from Dolon village near the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Satoru; Tomita, Junpei; Tanaka, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Fukutani, Satoshi; Imanaka, Tetsuji; Sakaguchi, Aya; Amano, Hikaru; Kawamura, Hidehisa; Kawamura, Hisao; Apsalikov, Kazbek N; Gusev, Boris I; Whitehead, Neil E; Shinkarev, Sergey; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2008-07-01

    Dolon village, located about 60 km from the border of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site, is known to be heavily contaminated by the first USSR atomic bomb test in August 1949. Soil samples around Dolon were taken in October 2005 in an attempt to evaluate internal thyroid dose arising from incorporation of radioiodine isotopes (mainly (131)I). Iodine-129 in soil was measured by using the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry. The (129)I/(127)I atom ratios measured were in the range from 3.3 x 10(-9) to 3.3 x 10(-7). These values were within the range of the current background level ( approximately 10(-9) to 10(-7)) in the environment, including contributions from the global fallout of atmospheric nuclear tests and local fallout of nuclear facilities. The (129)I atom accumulated level in soil ranged from 1.28 x 10(13) to 1.59 x 10(14) atoms m(-2), the average (8.0 x 10(13)) of which was higher than the background level of (2-5) x 10(13). From the relationship between (129)I and( 137)Cs (corrected for background and decay from 1949 to 2005) accumulated levels, the background level of (129)I and the (129)I/(137)Cs ratio around Dolon were estimated to be (6.4 +/- 0.4) x 10(13) atoms m(-2) and 0.25 +/- 0.16, respectively. This (129)I/(137)Cs ratio is almost similar to the fission yield ratio for (239)Pu fast fission (0.24).

  9. The Indian nuclear test in a global perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subrahmanyam, K.

    1974-01-01

    A peaceful nuclear explosion test was carried out by India on 18 May, 1974 at Pokharan in the Rajasthan Desert. The test was carried out as a part of India's steady programme to develop nuclear energy for peaceful purposes and there was no diversion of resources from development as is charged by some nations. The test has broken the monopoly of the nuclear superpowers to conduct nuclear tests for which they are entiltled by the Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) and at the same time, sharply focussed the attention on the discriminatory character of the NPT which does not allow non-nuclear states to carry out nuclear tests even for peaceful purposes. It is argued that India's going nuclear may prove, in the long run, beneficial to the cause of disarmament. (M.G.B.)

  10. Some Qualitative Requirements for Testing of Nuclear Emergency Response Robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Heungseop; Cho, Jai Wan; Choi, Youngsoo; Jeong, Kyungmin

    2014-01-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is carrying out the project 'Development of Core Technology for Remote Response in Nuclear Emergency Situation', and as a part of the project, we are studying the reliability and performance requirements of nuclear emergency response robots. In this paper, we described some qualitative requirements for testing of nuclear emergency response robots which are different to general emergency response robots. We briefly introduced test requirements of general emergency response robots and described some qualitative aspects of test requirements for nuclear emergency response robots. When considering an immature field-robot technology and variety of nuclear emergency situations, it seems hard to establish quantitative test requirements of these robots at this time. However, based on studies of nuclear severe accidents and the experience of Fukushima NPP accident, we can expect some test requirements including quantitative ones for nuclear emergency response robots

  11. Radiation exposures from nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, G M

    1958-12-01

    A summary of the pertinent data on radiation exposures from nuclear tests in Nevada is presented. The data are presented in categories of external ..gamma.. radiation, activity concentrations in air, and activity concentrations in water. Methods used to estimate exposure and to evaluate data are described. The data are tabulated. The maximum external exposure was 7 to 8 r for 15 persons involved. In terms of relatively large populations, the average exposure for the 1,000,000 people living nearest the site was at the rate of 1/2 r/30 yr. The highest concentration of fallout activity in the air was about 1.3 ..mu..c/m/sup 3/ averaged over the 30 hr that the activity was present in significant quantities. The highest concentration of fallout activity in a potential drinking water supply was about 1.4 x 10/sup -/ ..mu..c/me extrapolated to D + 3 days. Evaluation of these data is given.

  12. Atomic energy - Bombs and nuclear power. Drivers and controversies during 65 years; Atomenergi - Bomber och kaernkraft. Drivkrafter och kontroverser under 65 aar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerrmarck, Urban

    2010-10-15

    Over the years, written books, scientific papers, conducted parliamentary inquiries and public discussions have been published to describe and explain the Swedish nuclear power program. There is probably no other more thoroughly debated area. Still question marks are piling up. The report provides a broad illumination over the subject and fills in a number of explanations. No new unknown facts are presented, however, a number of factors are highlighted, whose importance has not received attention. One such factor is the well known link between a Swedish nuclear weapons program and the nuclear power program. By combining the information, especially from the last 15 years on nuclear weapons development with the nuclear power program, a new and largely unknown picture emerges. This issue is only superficially touched upon earlier. The ambition to develop Swedish nuclear weapons was the basis for all development until Sweden ratified the CTBT. The handling of the nuclear issue especially during the 1960s created a crisis of confidence which still affects the decisions and attitude toward nuclear power. The report finds it likely that the over-sized nuclear program was not the result of a forecast failure, but a deliberate effort by the power industry to get a hegemony in the heating sector by replacing oil with electricity. The report also shows that the only practical, working tool for an early phase-out of nuclear power was to financially compensate the plant owners. A massive increase of renewable electricity generation or a program for raising the energy use efficiency was not sufficient to compete with the reactors. However, seen in a longer perspective, renewable electricity can compete with nuclear power. With the current ambitious expansion rate, conditions are right for such a competition. Parliament's decision in June 2010 authorizing the replacement of the present 10 reactors does not necessarily mean that the nuclear debate is terminated

  13. Bomb Threat Becomes Real News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastaldo, Evann

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how the staff of the newspaper at Camarillo High School (California) covered a bomb threat at their school. Describes how they, overnight, conducted interviews, took and developed photographs, produced the layout, and published the newspaper. (RS)

  14. Development of a Dirigible Bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    1943-04-15

    X - ¥ control for all future high-angle dirigible bombs in spite of the instrumental complications involved. /. two gyro system consisting of t...ts found thet the bomb wos in roll equilibrium £.t aero roll orientetion . Moreover, these roll equilibrium positions ire stt-ble ss indicated by...tirflow giving rise to voll torques in the seme direction fcs roll dis- placements from the «ero orientetion , the roll equilibrium found for equel pitch

  15. Dirty Bomb Risk and Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connell, Leonard W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    We examined the relative risk and impact of a dirty bomb employing Co-60 and Cs-137, the two most common high activity source materials. We found that the risk of an area denial dirty bomb attack is greater for Cs-137 due to the form and chemistry of CsCl, the soft, powdery salt form currently in use for high activity Cs-137 sources, found in blood and research irradiators.

  16. Nuclear explosions and their effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-01-01

    A brief historical background is given of the development of the atomic bomb. Also included is an account of the Hiroshima-Nagasaki bombing, plus some information on the testing and production of nuclear weapons by the United States, United Kingdom, and Russia. More detailed consideration is given to the following: the scientific principles of fission and fusion explosions; the energy released in fission and the radioactivity of fission products; blast, thermal, and radiologicalal effects of nuclear explosions; long-term radiological hazards from fall-out; and genetic effects of nuclear explosions. A brief account is given of the fission chain process, the concept of critical size, and the principles of implosion as applied to nuclear explosions. Limited information is presented on the controlled release of thermonuclear energy and catalyzed fusion reaction. Discussions are included on dose rates from radiation sources inside and outside the body, the effect of nuclear explosions on the weather, and the contamination of fish and marine organisms.

  17. Surface Disturbances at the Punggye-ri Nuclear Test Site: Another Indicator of Nuclear Testing?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pabian, Frank V. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Coblentz, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2017-02-03

    A review of available very high-resolution commercial satellite imagery (bracketing the time of North Korea’s most recent underground nuclear test on 9 September 2016 at the Punggye-ri Underground Nuclear Test Site) has led to the detection and identification of several minor surface disturbances on the southern flank of Mt. Mantap. These surface disturbances occur in the form of small landslides, either alone or together with small zones of disturbed bare rock that appear to have been vertically lofted (“spalled”) as a result of the most recent underground explosion. Typically, spall can be uniquely attributed to underground nuclear testing and is not a result of natural processes. However, given the time gap of up to three months between images (pre- and post-event), which was coincident with a period of heavy typhoon flooding in the area1, it is not possible to determine whether the small landslides were exclusively explosion induced, the consequence of heavy rainfall erosion, or some combination of the two.

  18. Testing techniques in nuclear, petroleum and metallurgic industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The nondestructive testing techniques by ultrasonic waves, eddy currents, acoustic emission used by Intercontrole (a CEA's affiliated firm in nuclear petrochemical, and engineering site measurements) are presented [fr

  19. Calculated concentrations of any radionuclide deposited on the ground by release from underground nuclear detonations, tests of nuclear rockets, and tests of nuclear ramjet engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, H.G.

    1981-11-01

    This report presents calculated gamma radiation exposure rates and ground deposition of related radionuclides resulting from three types of event that deposited detectable radioactivity outside the Nevada Test Site complex, namely, underground nuclear detonations, tests of nuclear rocket engines and tests of nuclear ramjet engines

  20. The role of inertial containment fusion in replacing nuclear tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaper, Annette [Hessische Stiftung Friedens- und Konfliktforschung, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Nuclear weapon physicists need to understand the process of a nuclear explosion, and their major experimental tools had been nuclear tests. Since a couple of years, the established nuclear weapon states observe a testing moratorium. Nevertheless, they still want to keep their nuclear arsenals, and consequently to ensure the reliability, safety, and security of their nuclear warheads. For this purpose, they use experimental tools that replace nuclear tests, among them ICF. ICF plays a central role in the so-called ''stockpile stewardship program'' that the U.S. has implemented when it participated in the negotiations on a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Several questions arise and are discussed in the presentation: Does ICF allow to simulate the extreme conditions of a nuclear explosion? Which are the functions of nuclear testing that ICF can replace and which are beyond its capabilities? Would ICF be a useful tool for the design of new nuclear warheads? Why are so huge sums spent on ICF in a military context although the usefulness for nuclear weapons seems rather limited?.

  1. Nuclear Materials Management for the Nevada Test Site (NTS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesse C. Schreiber

    2007-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) has transitioned from its historical role of weapons testing to a broader role that is focused on being a solution to multiple National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) challenges and opportunities with nuclear materials for the nation. NTS is supporting other NNSA sites challenged with safe nuclear materials storage and disposition. NNSA, with site involvement, is currently transforming the nuclear stockpile and supporting infrastructure to meet the 2030 vision. Efforts are under way to make the production complex smaller, more consolidated, and more modern. With respect to the nuclear material stockpile, the NNSA sites are currently reducing the complex nuclear material inventory through dispositioning and consolidating nuclear material. This includes moving material from other sites to NTS. State-of-the-art nuclear material management and control practices at NTS are essential for NTS to ensure that these new activities are accomplished in a safe, secure, efficient, and environmentally responsible manner. NTS is aggressively addressing this challenge

  2. Nuclear Analyses of Indian LLCB Test Blanket System in ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, H. L.; Shaw, A. K.; Danani, C.; Chaudhuri, Paritosh

    2017-04-01

    Heading towards the Nuclear Fusion Reactor Program, India is developing Lead Lithium Ceramic Breeder (LLCB) tritium breeding blanket for its future fusion Reactor. A mock-up of the LLCB blanket is proposed to be tested in ITER equatorial port no.2, to ensure the overall performance of blanket in reactor relevant nuclear fusion environment. Nuclear analyses play an important role in LLCB Test Blanket System design & development. It is required for tritium breeding estimation, thermal-hydraulic design, coolants process design, radioactive waste management, equipment maintenance & replacement strategies and nuclear safety. The nuclear behaviour of LLCB test blanket module in ITER is predicated in terms of nuclear responses such as tritium production, nuclear heating, neutron fluxes and radiation damages. Radiation shielding capability of LLCB TBS inside and outside bio-shield was also assessed to fulfill ITER shielding requirements. In order to supports the rad-waste and safety assessment, nuclear activation analyses were carried out and radioactivity data were generated for LLCB TBS components. Nuclear analyses of LLCB TBS are performed using ITER recommended nuclear analyses codes (i.e. MCNP, EASY), nuclear cross section data libraries (i.e. FENDL 2.1, EAF) and neutronic model (ITER C-lite v.l). The paper describes a comprehensive nuclear performance of LLCB TBS in ITER.

  3. Analysis of North Korea's Nuclear Tests under Prospect Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Han Myung; Ryu, Jae Soo; Lee, Kwang Seok; Lee, Dong Hoon; Jun, Eunju; Kim, Mi Jin

    2013-01-01

    North Korea has chosen nuclear weapons as the means to protect its sovereignty. Despite international society's endeavors and sanctions to encourage North Korea to abandon its nuclear ambition, North Korea has repeatedly conducted nuclear testing. In this paper, the reason for North Korea's addiction to a nuclear arsenal is addressed within the framework of cognitive psychology. The prospect theory addresses an epistemological approach usually overlooked in rational choice theories. It provides useful implications why North Korea, being under a crisis situation has thrown out a stable choice but taken on a risky one such as nuclear testing. Under the viewpoint of prospect theory, nuclear tests by North Korea can be understood as follows: The first nuclear test in 2006 is seen as a trial to escape from loss areas such as financial sanctions and regime threats; the second test in 2009 was interpreted as a consequence of the strategy to recover losses by making a direct confrontation against the United States; and the third test in 2013 was understood as an attempt to strengthen internal solidarity after Kim Jong-eun inherited the dynasty, as well as to enhance bargaining power against the United States. Thus, it can be summarized that Pyongyang repeated its nuclear tests to escape from a negative domain and to settle into a positive one. In addition, in the future, North Korea may not be willing to readily give up its nuclear capabilities to ensure the survival of its own regime

  4. Sellafield and the bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, P.

    1994-01-01

    One aspect of reprocessing, deliberately incorporated into the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is the right of Nuclear Weapon States (NWSs) to use civilian nuclear materials, including plutonium, in their weapons programmes. Evidence has slowly emerged over the past few years that the UK has diverted nuclear material, of UK and foreign origin, from civil to military programmes. The most immediate threat is the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP). Unless its foreign customers have made special arrangements, the UK could use their plutonium in its nuclear weapons. This link between civil and military plutonium is examined. (author)

  5. Development of standard testing methods for nuclear-waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, J.E.; Nelson, R.D.

    1981-11-01

    Standard test methods for waste package component development and design, safety analyses, and licensing are being developed for the Nuclear Waste Materials Handbook. This paper describes mainly the testing methods for obtaining waste form materials data

  6. Chain reaction. History of the atomic bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mania, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    Henri becquerel tracked down in 1896 a strange radiation, which was called radioactivity by Marie Curie. In the following centuries German scientists Max Planck, Albert Einstein and Werner Heisenberg presented fundamental contributions to understand processes in the atomic nucleus. At Goettingen, center of the international nuclear physics community, the American student J. Robert Oppenheimer admit to this physical research. In the beginning of 1939 the message of Otto Hahns' nuclear fission electrified researchers. The first step, unleashing atomic energy, was done. A half year later the Second World War begun. And suddenly being friend with and busily communicating physicians were devided into hostile power blocs as bearers of official secrets. The author tells in this exciting book the story of the first atomic bomb as a chain reaction of ideas, discoveries and visions, of friendships, jealousy and intrigues of scientists, adventurers and genius. (orig./GL)

  7. Nuclear test-experimental science annual report, Fiscal year 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struble, G.L.; Middleton, C.; Anderson, S.E.; Cherniak, J.; Donohue, M.L.; Francke, A.; Hedman, I.; Kirvel, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    Fiscal year 1990 was another year of outstanding accomplishments for the Nuclear Test-Experimental Science (NTES) Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). We continued to make progress to enhance the experimental science in the Weapons Program and to improve the operational efficiency and productivity of the Nuclear Test Program

  8. United States nuclear tests, July 1945 through September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This document lists chronologically and alphabetically by name all nuclear tests and simultaneous detonations conducted by the United States from July 1945 through September 1992. Several tests conducted during Operation Dominic involved missile launches from Johnston Atoll. Several of these missile launches were aborted, resulting in the destruction of the missile and nuclear device either on the pad or in the air.

  9. Overview on Fusion Nuclear Technology Experimental Testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Entler, Slavomír; Kysela, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2016), č. článku 021018. ISSN 2332-8983 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : fusion * corrosion * thermohydraulic * LiPb * HHF * ITER Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  10. Stopping the greenhouse effect - recommendations submitted by the Bundestag Enquete Commission. - Why nuclear energy cannot solve the global-warming problem - on the urgency of a low-risk, efficient future energy economy. - The latest cancer statistics of the Hiroshima/Nagasaki A-bomb survivors - a higher radiation risk at dose rates below 50cGy (rad) - consequences for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, W.; Kohler, S.; Koehnlein, W.

    1991-01-01

    The report compiles three contributions two of which discuss the issues of global warming, trace gases and ozone depletion. The measures proposed by a German enquete commision to stop the greenhouse effect, i.e. utilization of renewable energy sources, nuclear phaseout because nuclear power is not supposed to solve the global-warming problem, are described. The third contribution gives the latest cancer statistics of the Hiroshima/Nagasaki a-bomb survivors while taking into account the higher radiation risk due to low dose rates. (DG) [de

  11. Tuberculosis among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Tadao; Matsushita, Hiroshi.

    1980-01-01

    Effects of atomic bomb on tuberculosis among atomic bomb survivors necropsied after 1956 when Atomic Bomb Hospital was opened were observed statistically and the following results were obtained. The morbidity of tuberculosis in the group exposed within 2 km from the hypocenter was higher than that of the control group, but there was not a significant difference between the both groups. The morbidity of all types of tuberculosis was significantly higher in the group exposed within 2 km from the hypocenter than in the control group. The morbidity of tuberculosis tended to decrease in both exposed and non-exposed groups with time. However, the morbidity of miliary or active tuberculosis has tended to rise in the exposed since 1975. The morbidity in young a-bomb survivors exposed within 2 km was higher than that in those of other groups, but there was not a difference in the morbidity among the aged. The higher the rate of complication of active tuberculosis with stomach cancer or acute myelocytic leukemia or liver cirrhosis, the nearer the places of exposure were to the hypocenter. Out of 26 patients with miliary tuberculosis, 6 were suspected to have leukemia while they were alive and were suggested to have leukemoid reaction by autopsy. They all were a-bomb survivors, and 4 of them were exposed within 2 km from the hypocenter. (Tsunoda, M.)

  12. The struggle of the veterans of the French nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The question debated in this article concerns the demand of compensation and recognition of the impact on their health of nuclear tests. The military personnel that worked during nuclear tests in French Polynesia and the Sahara sites, but also the inhabitants of the atolls of Moruroa and Fangataufa equally in French Polynesia. An observatory of the veterans health has been created in order to improve the medical management of military personnel and former military personnel. An association 'Moruroa e tatou' contains the Polynesian former workers of the Nuclear tests of the Pacific and the association A.V.E.N. contains the veterans of nuclear tests. numerous examples are detailed. The question is tackled too for the consequences on health of the British nuclear tests, in Australia, Christmas Islands, and New Zealand. (N.C.)

  13. Asia nuclear-test-ban network for nuclear non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Nobuo; Kokaji, Lisa; Ichimasa, Sukeyuki

    2010-01-01

    In Global Center of Excellence Program of The University of Tokyo, Non- Proliferation Study Committee by the members of nuclear industries, electricity utilities, nuclear energy institutes and universities has initiated on October 2008 from the viewpoints of investigating a package of measures for nuclear non-proliferation and bringing up young people who will support the near-future nuclear energy system. One of the non-proliferation issues in the Committee is the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Objective of this treaty is to cease all nuclear weapon test explosions and all other nuclear explosion. This purpose should be contributed effectively to the political stability of the Asian region by continuous efforts to eliminate the nuclear weapons. In the Committee, by extracting several issues related to the CTBT, conception of 'Asia nuclear-test-ban network for nuclear non-proliferation' has been discussed with the aim of the nuclear-weapon security in Asian region, where environmental nuclear-test monitoring data is mainly treated and utilized. In this paper, the conception of the 'network' is presented in detail. (author)

  14. Designing stability tests of nuclear instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viererbl, L.; Novakova, O.

    1981-01-01

    The stability tests used are described including the test of the peak maximum position differential measurement, the test of the pulse rate measurement using integral evaluation, the quality test, the chi 2 test, the 3σ test. The test of measuring pulse rate by integral evaluation was found to be the most accurate. Its modifications and generalization gave the proposed stability tests, viz., the A test and the B test. Examples are described of stability tests for a spectrometric system, the NRG 302 dose rate converter, a proportional counter. (H.S.)

  15. Some thoughts on Hiroshima: 50 years after the bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Shuichi

    1997-01-01

    Commemorating the fiftieth anniversary of Hiroshima, this paper covers three issues: Personal experience, concluding that the bomb was an extraordinary cruel weapon beyond imagination, Japanese experience, i.e. Japanese attitude against nuclear weapons and the actions to be undertaken in order to achieve nuclear-weapon-free world. The support of Non-proliferation Treaty, as well as the support of the protest against any kind of nuclear weapon experiments should be related to the understanding of the cause of the events against which one is protesting. The radical therapy would be the removal of the cause, i.e. the striking discrepancy of nuclear armaments

  16. Study on the plasma proteins of A-bomb survived patients including those suffered by the remained radioactivities. Report 2. Quantitative observation of the plasma protein fractions by electrophoretic test and to solve the problems for physiological clinical significance of its patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makidono, J; Takanashi, S; Yoshimoto, T; Kai, T; Yoshimoto, K; Matsutani, M; Miura, M

    1963-10-01

    The plasma proteins of A-bombed survivors, healthy persons, long term x-ray equipment handling people (for instance the radiologists and x-ray technicians), cancer patients, and tumor irradiated cancer patients were examined by the electrophoretic test. It was found that the electrophoretic patterns of plasma proteins could be divided into normal (N-pattern) and abnormal (..beta.. and ..gamma.. patterns) patterns, when they were classified according to the accents of each fraction. The patterns of the healthy persons and the long term x-ray handling people showed normal (N) pattern, however, it showed 43% abnormal patterns in A-bombed survivors and 48% in cancer patients. Furthermore, the patterns could be changed by radiotherapy to cancer, ie., from N to ..beta.. or vice versa. As a result of the quantitative observation about individual pattern, the accents of ..beta..-globulins in ..beta..-patterns and ..gamma..-globulins in ..gamma..-patterns were found. The globulins increased in the A bomb survivors and the long term x-ray handling people, and this increase was also seen in the cases of cancer patients which showed 85% of them were effected with uclers (self disintegrated) by clinical examinations. A physiological clinical significance of these abnormal patterns (..beta.. and ..gamma..) in the plasma proteins indicates the disorders in its body and an important immunological meaning. Abnormal patterns in those who suffered by the remained radioactivities caused by the A-bomb showed 70%, whose average was much higher than those of direct A-bombed survivors. It is pointed out that, in recent days, there is a trend of more and gradual increase in the malignant neoplamsm than the disorders of direct A-bombed survivors.

  17. Dose survival of G0 lymphocytes irradiated in vitro: A test for a possible population bias in the cohort of atomic-bomb survivors exposed to high doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Nori; Sposto, R.; Akiyama, Mitoshi.

    1993-04-01

    An in-vitro colony assay was employed for X-ray dose-survival studies of peripheral-blood lymphocytes from 117 Adult Health Study participants with Dosimetry System 1986 doses 10 values (the X-ray dose required to kill 90% of cells) for these two groups were 3.40 Gy (7.5%) and 3.34 Gy (7.8%), respectively. No statistically significant differences in their distributions were detected. In addition, neither sex nor age affected the in-vitro radiosensitivity of lymphocytes for either group or for all subjects combined. Therefore it was concluded that, as far as the G 0 -lymphocyte colony assay is concerned, there is no evidence for preferential loss of individuals with higher cellular radiosensitivity among the high-dose atomic bomb survivors. However, it should be noted that the interindividual variations in cellular radiosensitivity were not large compared with the experimental variations. Consequently, the above-mentioned results should be considered due to the small heterogeneity of lymphocyte radiosensitivity among the survivors. (J.P.N.)

  18. Verification methods for treaties limiting and banning nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voloshin, N.P.

    1998-01-01

    Treaty on limitation of underground nuclear weapon tests and treaty on world banning of nuclear tests contribute to and accompany the process of nuclear disarmament. Test ban in three (Moscow treaty of 1963) as well as the Threshold Test Ban up to 1991 was controlled only with national means. But since 1991 nuclear test threshold of 150 kt has been measured with hydrodynamic and tele seismic methods and checked by the inspection. Distinctive feature of this control is that control is that it is bilateral. This conforms to Treaty on limitation of underground nuclear weapon tests signed by two countries - USA and USSR. The inspection at the place of tests requires monitoring of the test site of the party conducting a test and geological information of rock in the area of explosion. In the treaty of the World Nuclear Test Ban the following ways of international control are provided for: - seismologic measurements; - radionuclide measurements; - hydro-acoustics measurements; - infra-sound measurements; - inspection at the place of the tests conduction

  19. Test facilities for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, D.F.; Allen, G.C.; Shipers, L.R.; Dobranich, D.; Ottinger, C.A.; Harmon, C.D.; Fan, W.C.; Todosow, M.

    1992-01-01

    Interagency panels evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) development options have consistently recognized the need for constructing a major new ground test facility to support fuel element and engine testing. This paper summarizes the requirements, configuration, and baseline performance of some of the major subsystems designed to support a proposed ground test complex for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion fuel elements and engines being developed for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. Some preliminary results of evaluating this facility for use in testing other NTP concepts are also summarized

  20. Recent irradiation tests for future nuclear system at HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Man Soon; Choo, Kee Nam; Yang, Seong Woo; Park, Sang Jun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The capsule at HANARO is a device that evaluates the irradiation effects of nuclear materials and fuels, which can reproduce the environment of nuclear power plants and accelerate to reach to the end of life condition. As the integrity assessment and the extension of lifetime of nuclear power plants are recently considered as important issues in Korea, the requirements for irradiation test are gradually being increased. The capacity and capability irradiation tests at HANARO are becoming important because Korea strives to develop SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) and VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) among the future nuclear system and to export the research reactors and to develop the fusion reactor technology.

  1. Design of blast simulators for nuclear testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark, A.; Opalka, K.O.; Kitchens, C.W. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A quasi-one-dimensional computational technique is used to model the flow of a large, complicated shock tube. The shock tube, or Large Blast Simulator, is used to simulate conventional or nuclear explosions by shaping the pressure history. Results from computations show favorable agreement when compared with data taken in the facility at Gramat, France. Such future shock tubes will include a thermal irradiation capability to better simulate a nuclear event. The computations point to the need for venting of the combustion products since the pressure history will be considerably altered as the shock propagates through these hot gases

  2. Atom bombs and genetic damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Comments are made on a 1981 review on genetic damage in the off-spring of the atom bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The main criticisms of the review concerned, 1) the 'minimal' doubling dose value for radiation-induced mutation in man, 2) the gametic doubling dose value for sex chromosome aneuploidy and 3) the validity of trebling an observed acute doubling dose to measure the effect of chronic irradiation. The firmest conclusion which may be deduced from the studies on A-bomb survivors is that humans are fairly resistant to genetic damage from radiation. (U.K.)

  3. North Korea’s 2009 Nuclear Test: Containment, Monitoring, Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    inspections as prima facie evidence of a violation. One generally-accepted means of evading detection of nuclear tests, especially low-yield tests...In an attempt to extend these bans to cover all nuclear tests, negotiations on the CTBT were completed in 1996. The treaty’s basic obligation is to...Verification refers to determining whether a nation is in compliance with its treaty obligations , which in this case means determining whether a suspicious

  4. A perspective on atomspheric nuclear tests in Nevada fact book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesen, H.N.

    1992-04-01

    This Fact Book provides historical background and perspective on the nuclear testing program at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Nuclear tests contributing to the off-site deposition of radioactive fallout are identified, and the concept of cumulative estimated exposure is explained. The difficulty of associating health effects with radiation is presented also. The status of litigation against the government and legislation (as of December 1991) are summarized

  5. Database on radioecological situation in Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkebaev, T.Eh.; Kislitsin, S.B.; Lopuga, A.D.; Kuketaev, A.T.; Kikkarin, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    One of the main objectives of the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakstan is to define radioecological situation in details, conduct a continuous monitoring and eliminate consequences of nuclear explosions at Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. Investigations of Semipalatinsk nuclear test site area contamination by radioactive substances and vindication activity are the reasons for development of computer database on radioecological situation of the test site area, which will allow arranging and processing the available and entering information about the radioecological situation, assessing the effect of different testing factors on the environment and health of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site area population.The described conception of database on radioecological situation of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site area cannot be considered as the final one. As new information arrives, structure and content of the database is updated and optimized. New capabilities and structural elements may be provided if new aspects in Semipalatinsk nuclear test site area contamination study (air environment study, radionuclides migration) arise

  6. Environmental contamination due to nuclear weapon tests and peaceful uses of nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petr, I.; Jandl, J.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of nuclear weapons tests and of the peaceful uses of nuclear explosions on the environment is described. The local and global fallout and the fallout distribution are analysed for the weapon tests. The radiation effects of external and internal irradiation on the population are discussed and the overall radiation risk is estimated. (author)

  7. Standard leach tests for nuclear waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, D.M.; Barnes, B.O.; Turcotte, R.P.

    1980-01-01

    Five leach tests were conducted to study time-dependent leaching of waste forms (glass). The first four tests include temperature as a variable and the use of three standard leachants. Three of the tests are static and two are dynamic (flow). This paper discusses the waste-form leach tests and presents some representative data. 4 figures

  8. The behavior of fission products during nuclear rocket reactor tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokor, P.C.; Kirk, W.L.; Bohl, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Fission product release from nuclear rocket propulsion reactor fuel is an important consideration for nuclear rocket development and application. Fission product data from the last six reactors of the Rover program are collected in this paper to provide as basis for addressing development and testing issues. Fission product loss from the fuel will depend on fuel composition and reactor design and operating parameters. During ground testing, fission products can be contained downstream of the reactor. The last Rover reactor tested, the Nuclear Furnance, was mated to an effluent clean-up system that was effective in preventing the discharge of fission products into the atmosphere

  9. Semipalatinsk nuclear test site: History of building and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergazina, G.M.; Balmukhanov, S.B.

    1999-01-01

    A vast materials on history of Semipalatinsk nuclear test site creation and it building and function are presented. Authors with big reliability report one page of Kazakhstan's history. In steppe on naked place thousands of soldiers and officers, construct and military specialists have built the nuclear site on which during 40 years were conducting nuclear tests . Prolonged chronic radiation on population living near by site results to tragedy which is confessed by General Assembly of United Nations. In the book aspects of test site conversion and rehabilitation of injured population are considered. The book consists of introduction, three chapters and conclusion. The book is intended to wide circle of readers. (author)

  10. Managing the bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basrur, Rajesh M.

    1997-01-01

    It is one of the great tragedies associated with the progress of human civilization that human ingenuity should have produced a technology for universal destruction. The dilemma posed by nuclear weapons is inescapable. Their possession brings a security that is based on the uncomfortable hope that they will never be used. Their absence carries with it the fear that, in the hands of others, they just might be used. Each nation seeks to grapple with this contradiction in its own way, none a measure of trepidation. India's new nuclear status and Pakistan's matching response mark a perceptible shift in their ongoing efforts to wrestle with the nuclear dilemma. The judicious management of this new status is now the central issue

  11. Nuclear Hybrid Energy System Model Stability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, Michael Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cetiner, Sacit M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fugate, David W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-04-01

    A Nuclear Hybrid Energy System (NHES) uses a nuclear reactor as the basic power generation unit, and the power generated is used by multiple customers as combinations of thermal power or electrical power. The definition and architecture of a particular NHES can be adapted based on the needs and opportunities of different localities and markets. For example, locations in need of potable water may be best served by coupling a desalination plant to the NHES. Similarly, a location near oil refineries may have a need for emission-free hydrogen production. Using the flexible, multi-domain capabilities of Modelica, Argonne National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are investigating the dynamics (e.g., thermal hydraulics and electrical generation/consumption) and cost of a hybrid system. This paper examines the NHES work underway, emphasizing the control system developed for individual subsystems and the overall supervisory control system.

  12. Nuclear Weapons: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-30

    reference/legal_resources/prepcom_resolution.pdf]. 75 Of these amounts, $47.077 million and 48.564 million are financed by contributions from states...and associated plutonium. Another SCE, “ Unicorn ,” was conducted in a “down-hole” or vertical shaft configuration similar to an underground nuclear...2006: Krakatau (jointly with U.K.), February 23; Unicorn , August 30. NNSA’s FY2006 request stated that, for pit certification, “The major activities in

  13. Medicine and the bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.; Smith, T.

    1981-01-01

    In the last of four articles giving a medical view of nuclear war, the attitudes towards civil defence and the psychological effects of nuclear war are examined. The general training and information programmes on civil defence in the West are briefly discussed particularly in relation to fallout shelters. Psychological reactions to the threat of attack, the discomforts of being confined in a fallout shelter, the large numbers of dead and injured who will not be rescued, an eventual emergence into a society where normal services and supplies are disrupted may well disable otherwise healthy survivors and hamper their efforts at recovery. (U.K.)

  14. Thermal dynamics of bomb calorimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Richard E

    2015-12-01

    The thermal dynamics of bomb calorimeters are modeled using a lumped heat transfer analysis in which heat is released in a pressure vessel/bomb immersed in a stirred water bath that is surrounded by a static air space bounded by an insulated (static) jacket, a constant/controlled temperature jacket (isoperibol), or a changing temperature (adiabatic) jacket. The temperature history of the water bath for each of these boundary conditions (methods) is well described by the two-term solution for the calorimeter response to a heat impulse (combustion), allowing the heat transfer coefficients and thermal capacities of the bomb and water bath to be determined parametrically. The validated heat transfer model provides an expression for direct calculation of the heat released in an arbitrary process inside a bomb calorimeter using the temperature history of the water bath for each of the boundary conditions (methods). This result makes possible the direct calculation of the heat of combustion of a sample in an isoperibol calorimeter from the recorded temperature history without the need for semi-empirical temperature corrections to account for non-adiabatic behavior. Another useful result is that the maximum temperature rise of the water bath in the static jacket method is proportional to the total heat generated, and the empirical proportionality constant, which is determined by calibration, accounts for all of the heat losses and thermal lags of the calorimeter.

  15. Bomb Threat Assessments. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunkel, Ronald F.

    2010-01-01

    This information provides a brief, summary outline of how investigators should assess anonymous bomb threats at schools. Applying these principles may help administrators and law enforcement personnel accurately assess the viability and credibility of a threat and appropriately gauge their response. Any credible evidence provided by teachers or…

  16. Bombe udstiller Sinn Feins dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Natten til mandag den 12. april sprang en bombe lige udenfor Belfast. Hverken tid eller sted var tilfældigt. Bomben sprang nemlig på den dag, hvor det justitspolitiske område blev overført til Nordirland. Og den sprang lige bagved den bygning hvor den britiske sikkerhedstjeneste MI5 har deres nye...

  17. Testing for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems: Identification of Technologies for Effluent Treatment in Test Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Key steps to ensure identification of relevant effluent treatment technologies for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) testing include the following. 1. Review of...

  18. (In)security factor atomic bomb. An analysis of the crisis with the Iranian nuclear program; (Un-)Sicherheitsfaktor Atombombe. Eine Analyse der Krise um das iranische Nuklearprogramm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, Andreas [Augsburg Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Friedens- und Konfliktforschung

    2012-04-15

    Iran is a rational actor in the international politics that decides on the basis of the perception of threat. Iran's security situation is comparable with that of Israel with the rational consequence to rely on the atomic program with respect to deterrence and self-defense. The solution of the Iran crisis is basically dependent on a change of the perception of threat. A military act against the Iranian nuclear facilities would be counterproductive, would only slowing down the program but not prevent further activities. In fact a military act would enhance the perception of threat. For the analysis of the Iran crises the author used the Cuba crisis as blueprint, were mislead perceptions were responsible for the escalation.

  19. Smart bomb for cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karagiannis, Tom

    2006-01-01

    recognise cell-surface receptors on cancer cells that are either not found on healthy cells or that are found on healthy cells but are expressed at much lower levels. The main focus of our research in the Molecular Radiation Biology Laboratory at the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre is to develop a type of monoclonal antibody-based cancer therapy referred to as radio-immunotherapy. In its simplest form, radio-immunotherapy involves the use of a monoclonal antibody to deliver a radioactive atom specifically to cancer cells. The idea is that targeting the radiation specifically to cancer cells using a monoclonal antibody will deliver a sufficient radiation dose to kill diseased cells, while minimising the damage to healthy surrounding tissue. To date, the monoclonal antibodies ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin) and tositumomab (Bexxar), which are labelled with a radioactive atom, have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for radio-immunotherapy of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Our strategy is a more complex multi-step approach. It involves targeting the radioactive atom not only to cancer cells but also to the DNA of those cells. Our smart molecular bombs that consist of three different parts. The first part is a special type of radioactive atom known as an Auger electron-emitting isotope, which is used to destroy the cancer cell. The radioactive atom is then linked to a small drug molecule that binds very tightly to DNA. This DNA-binding drug delivers the radiation in close proximity to the DNA so that the radioactive atom can kill the cancer cell by breaking the genetic material. To make our potential therapy specific for cancer cells we then chemically link the radiation-containing DNA-binding drug to an anti-cancer monoclonal antibody

  20. Around Semipalatinsk nuclear test site: Progress of dose estimations relevant to the consequences of nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanenko, Valeriy F.; Hoshi, Masaharu; Bailiff, Ian K.

    2006-01-01

    The paper is an analytical overview of the main results presented at the 3rd Dosimetry Workshop in Hiroshima (9-11 of March 2005), where different aspects of the dose reconstruction around the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS) were discussed and summarized. The results of the international intercomparison of the retrospective luminescence dosimetry (RLD) method for Dolon' village (Kazakhstan) were presented at the Workshop and good concurrence between dose estimations by different laboratories from 6 countries (Japan, Russia, USA, Germany, Finland and UK) was pointed out. The accumulated dose values in brick for a common depth of 10 mm depth of 10 mm depth obtained independently by all participating laboratories were in good agreement for all four brick samples from Dolon' village, Kazakhstan, with the average value of the local gamma dose due to fallout (near the sampling locations) being about 220 mGy (background dose has been subtracted). Furthermore, using a conversion factor of about 2 to obtain the free-in-air dose, a value of local dose ∼440 mGy is obtained, which supports the results of external dose calculations for Dolon': recently published soil contamination data, archive information and new models were used for refining dose calculations and the external dose in air for Dolon village was estimated to be about 500 mGy. The results of electron spin resonance (ESR) dosimetry with tooth enamel have demonstrated the notable progress in application of ESR dosimetry to the problems of dose reconstruction around the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. At the present moment, dose estimates by the ESR method have become more consistent with calculated values and with retrospective luminescence dosimetry data, but differences between ESR dose estimates and RLD/calculation data were noted. For example mean ESR dose for eligible tooth samples from Dolon' village was estimated to be about 140 mGy (above background dose), which is less than dose values obtained

  1. Stress Tests Worldwide - IAEA Nuclear Safety Action Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    The IAEA nuclear safety action plan relies on 11 important issues. 1) Safety assessments in light of the Fukushima accident: the IAEA secretariat will develop a methodology for stress tests against specific extreme natural hazards and will provide assistance for their implementation; 2) Strengthen existing IAEA peer reviews; 3) Emergency preparedness and response; 4) National Regulatory bodies in terms of independence and adequacy of human and financial resources; 5) The development of safety culture and scientific and technical capacity in Operating Organizations; 6) The upgrading of IAEA safety standards in a more efficient way; 7) A better implementation of relevant conventions concerning nuclear safety and nuclear accidents; 8) To provide a broad assistance on safety standard for countries embarking on a nuclear power program; 9) To facilitate the use of available information, expertise and techniques concerning radiation protection; 10) To enhance the transparency of nuclear industry; and 11) To promote the cooperation between member states in nuclear safety. (A.C.)

  2. Stop nuclear testing as soon as possible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meerburg, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    The article is the text of a speech presented by the Netherlands' delegate to the 1975 Conference of the Committee on Disarmament. The delegate endorses a proposal to study the possibilities of a reduction in military budgets via a comparative evaluation of the budgets of several states. Reduction of national budgets might serve as a safeguard. An expert group was instituted by CCD to realize this proposal. Further, a ban on peaceful nuclear explosions with perhaps a few internationally-licensed exceptions is advocated

  3. Measurement implications for effective testing in nuclear training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaret, R.; Pawlowski, V.

    1983-01-01

    The primary thrust of this paper is to present an overview of the measurement concepts of reliability and validity. Techniques and issues are presented which will allow Nuclear Training Personnel to have greater confidence in the accuracy of scores obtained from in-house developed tests. While it is realized that the conditions under which tests are developed in Nuclear Training environments are less than ideal, the concepts and techniques addressed can be applied under any conditions

  4. Medical Effects of a Transuranic "Dirty Bomb".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durakovic, Asaf

    2017-03-01

    The modern military battlefields are characterized by the use of nonconventional weapons such as encountered in the conflicts of the Gulf War I and Gulf War II. Recent warfare in Iraq, Afghanistan, and the Balkans has introduced radioactive weapons to the modern war zone scenarios. This presents the military medicine with a new area of radioactive warfare with the potential large scale contamination of military and civilian targets with the variety of radioactive isotopes further enhanced by the clandestine use of radioactive materials in the terrorist radioactive warfare. Radioactive dispersal devices (RDDs), including the "dirty bomb," involve the use of organotropic radioisotopes such as iodine 131, cesium 137, strontium 90, and transuranic elements. Some of the current studies of RDDs involve large-scale medical effects, social and economic disruption of the society, logistics of casualty management, cleanup, and transportation preparedness, still insufficiently addressed by the environmental and mass casualty medicine. The consequences of a dirty bomb, particularly in the terrorist use in urban areas, are a subject of international studies of multiple agencies involved in the management of disaster medicine. The long-term somatic and genetic impact of some from among over 400 radioisotopes released in the nuclear fission include somatic and transgenerational genetic effects with the potential challenges of the genomic stability of the biosphere. The global contamination is additionally heightened by the presence of transuranic elements in the modern warzone, including depleted uranium recently found to contain plutonium 239, possibly the most dangerous substance known to man with one pound of plutonium capable of causing 8 billion cancers. The planning for the consequences of radioactive dirty bomb are being currently studied in reference to the alkaline earths, osteotropic, and stem cell hazards of internally deposited radioactive isotopes, in particular

  5. Mental health conditions in Korean atomic bomb survivors. A survey in Seoul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshimoto, Rika; Nakane, Hideyuki; Kim, Hyen

    2011-01-01

    More than 60 years have elapsed since the atomic bombings to Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and since all of the atomic bomb survivors have become old, the importance of caring their mental health has become increasing in Japan. Although approximately 70% of overseas atomic bomb are living in Korea, there have been quite few studies on their mental health. The objectives of the present study were to elucidate whether the mental health conditions of atomic bomb survivor in Korea are similar to those in Japan. The subjects were 181 Korean atomic bomb survivors living in Korea (cases) and 209 outpatients of a hospital in Seoul who were not exposed to atomic bombs (controls). Interviewers administered them at the hospital a questionnaire with Impact of Event Scale-Revised, General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12), Korean version of short form Geriatric Depression Scale and the K scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Excluding subjects with incomplete responses we analyzed 162 cases and 189 controls. The proportion of subjects with high score of GHQ-12 (≥4) was significantly higher in cases (78/162 or 48.1%) than in controls (42/189 or 22.2%) (p<0.0001, Fisher's exact test). The present results, though preliminary, indicate that atomic bomb survivors in Korea have also mental health problems similar to those observed in Japanese atomic bomb survivors, indicating the necessity of a larger study. (author)

  6. Myth-building: The open-quotes Islamicclose quotes bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoodbhoy, P.

    1993-01-01

    The open-quotes Islamic Bombclose quotes is roughly understood to be a nuclear weapon aquired for broad ideological reasons--a weapon that supposedly belongs to the Muslim ummah or community and, as such, is the ultimate expression of Islamic solidarity. Concern about the Islamic bomb is at the heart of the intense effort to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons to Muslim countries. The official justification is a general one: proliferation must be curbed globally. But unofficially, the Islamic bomb gets special attention. The reasons behind this special attention are described in this article. The reasons include fear of terrorism, of a jihad willing to indiscriminately use nuclear weapons in hope of a reward in the Hereafter, and of the transfer of nuclear arms from nuclear to non-nuclear Muslim countries in times of crisis. Possibilities for controlling the proliferation of nuclear weapons in Muslim countries are addressed. Reasons are cited as to why various Muslim countries wish to acquire nuclear weapons

  7. Recent status and supplementary review of lenticular opacities in proximally exposed A-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, S [Sugimoto Ophthalmic Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1978-04-01

    A review was made on the progress of lenticular opacities in proximally exposed A-bomb survivors on the basis of three experimental cases. A-bomb cataract is the first late effect of A-bomb radiation which appeared in A-bomb survivors and is the only disorder which can still be visualized at the present time. We have therefore continued to use this as one major evidence that A-bomb injuries have not been cured in spite of our for a complete ban of nuclear weapons. According to the findings of lenticular opacities of typical A-bomb cataract observed in experimental cases, there was in some cases after a latent period progression of opacities from several years to more than 10 years followed by a gradual decrease in opacities, whereas in some cases there was after a latent period a remarkable progress in opacities for several years followed by a marked decrease in the lesions. At the present time there is no evidence of progression and it appears that the progression has ceased. Incipient senile cataract which developed concurrently has completely no transitional relationship to A-bomb cataract and appears to progress slowly but steadily.

  8. Recent status and supplementary review of lenticular opacities in proximally exposed A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Shigenori

    1978-01-01

    A review was made on the progress of lenticular opacities in proximally exposed A-bomb survivors on the basis of three experimental cases. A-bomb cataract is the first late effect of A-bomb radiation which appeared in A-bomb survivors and is the only disorder which can still be visualized at the present time. We have therefore continued to use this as one major evidence that A-bomb injuries have not been cured in spite of our for a complete ban of nuclear weapons. According to the findings of lenticular opacities of typical A-bomb cataract observed in experimental cases, there was in some cases after a latent period progression of opacities from several years to more than 10 years followed by a gradual decrease in opacities, whereas in some cases there was after a latent period a remarkable progress in opacities for several years followed by a marked decrease in the lesions. At the present time there is no evidence of progression and it appears that the progression has ceased. Incipient senile cataract which developed concurrently has completely no transitional relationship to A-bomb cataract and appears to progress slowly but steadily. (auth.)

  9. Nuclear instrumentation system operating experience and nuclear instrument testing in the EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yingling, G.E.; Curran, R.N.

    1980-01-01

    In March of 1972 three wide range nuclear channels were purchased from Gulf Atomics Corporation and installed in EBR-II as a test. The three channels were operated as a test until April 1975 when they became a permanent part of the reactor shutdown system. Also described are the activities involved in evaluating and qualifying neutron detectors for LMFBR applications. Included are descriptions of the ANL Components Technology Division Test Program and the EBR-II Nuclear Instrument Test Facilities (NITF) used for the in-reactor testing and a summary of program test results from EBR-II

  10. The environment of the nuclear test sites on Novaya Zemlya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skorve, J.

    1995-01-01

    A Norwegian study of the effects of Soviet nuclear testing on the arctic island of Novaya Zemlya is underway. The study has used aerial photographs and satellite images and has revealed major rockslides and crater features that may be attributable to testing. It has been claimed that underground testing carries little risk of post-explosion contaminant release, as the explosion vitrifies and seals the surrounding rock mass. Some experts doubt the validity of this claim, and elucidation of the hydrogeological aspects of such nuclear testing is one of the aims of the study

  11. Atmospheric methods for nuclear test monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simons, D.J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This report describes two atmomospheric methods for the monitoring and detection of underground nuclear explosions: Near infrasound technique, and ionospheric monitoring. Ground motion from underground explosions cause induced air pressure perturbations. The ionospheric technique utilizes the very strong air pressure pulse which is launched straight up above an underground explosion. When the pressure disturbance reaches the ionosphere, it becomes a 10 % pressure perturbation. Detection involves sending radio waves through the ionosphere with transmitters and recievers on the ground. Radar analysis yields interpretable signals. The near infrasound method detects the signal which is projected into the side lobes of the main signal. Both of the atmospheric methods were utilized on the monitoring of the NPE underground chemical explosion experiment. Results are described.

  12. Tritium as an indicator of venues for nuclear tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyakhova, O N; Lukashenko, S N; Mulgin, S I; Zhdanov, S V

    2013-10-01

    Currently, due to the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons there is a highly topical issue of an accurate verification of nuclear explosion venues. This paper proposes to consider new method for verification by using tritium as an indicator. Detailed studies of the tritium content in the air were carried in the locations of underground nuclear tests - "Balapan" and "Degelen" testing sites located in Semipalatinsk Test Site. The paper presents data on the levels and distribution of tritium in the air where tunnels and boreholes are located - explosion epicentres, wellheads and tunnel portals, as well as in estuarine areas of the venues for the underground nuclear explosions (UNE). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Performance tests for integral reactor nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Dong-Seong; Yim, Jeong-Sik; Lee, Chong-Tak; Kim, Han-Soo; Koo, Yang-Hyun; Lee, Byung-Ho; Cheon, Jin-Sik; Oh, Je-Yong

    2006-02-15

    An integral type reactor SMART plans to utilize metallic Zr-U fuel which is Zr-based alloy with 34{approx}38 wt% U. In order to verify the technologies for the design and manufacturing of the fuel and get a license, performance tests were carried out. Experimental Fuel Assembly (EFA) manufactured in KAERI is being successfully irradiated in the MIR reactor of RIAR from September 4 2004, and it has achieved burnup of 0.21 g/cc as of January 25 2006. Thermal properties of irradiated Zr-U fuel were measured. Up to the phase transformation temperature, thermal diffusivity increased linearly in proportion to temperature. However its dependence on the burnup was not significant. RIA tests with 4 unirradiated Zr-U fuel rods were performed in Kurchatov Institute to establish a safety criterion. In the case of the un-irradiated Zr-U fuel, the energy deposition during the control rod ejection accident should be less than 172 cal/g to prevent the failure accompanying fuel fragmentation and dispersal. Finally the irradiation tests of fuel rods have been performed at HANARO. The HITE-2 test was successfully completed up to a burnup of 0.31 g/cc. The HITE-3 test began in February 2004 and will be continued up to a target burnup of 0.6 g/cc.

  14. The threat of a dirty bomb and possible verification measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meer, Klaas van der; Hardeman, Frank; Meier, Oliver

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses technical aspects of the dirty (radiological dispersion) bomb and the threat that this type of bomb poses to societies and international security. Based on the technology and materials needed to construct a dirty bomb, the relevance of the safeguards system for nuclear material accountancy and chemical and biological control systems is discussed. A dirty bomb consists of a conventional explosive charge combined with radioactive material. Its purpose is to contaminate a large area with radioactive material. The main consequences would be loss of life through direct impact and contamination. In comparison with use of nuclear fission devices, the number of direct casualties due to the impact of the explosion are likely to be small. In the long run, there may be casualties due to radioactive contamination, however, probably fewer than is mentioned in public discussions. Other consequences of the use of a radiological device include widespread panic, fear and uncertainty among the public, high decontamination costs, loss of real estate value and disruption of economic activity in the area concerned. If a terrorist is intent on causing maximum havoc and disruption, the radioactive material of choice should have a reasonably long half life. Access should be easy and such material should be available in sufficient quantities. The most obvious candidates from this perspective are 60 Co and 137 Cs and to a lesser extent 90 Sr. Also some more 'exotic' radionuclides or mixtures cannot absolutely be excluded. 60 Co and 137 Cs are frequently used in medical and industrial equipment. There is currently no international material accountancy system for these materials and thousands of sources have been produced in many countries. One or several of these sources contain sufficient material for the construction of an effective 'dirty bomb'. Approximative dispersion calculations will be performed to determine the spread of radioactive material. Dependent on the

  15. Aging studies in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belsky, J.L.; Moriyama, I.M.; Fujita, Shoichiro; Kawamoto, Sadahisa.

    1979-07-01

    Although the studies of the effect of ionizing radiation on atomic bomb survivors have not produced any evidence of radiation-induced aging, there have been studies on experimental animals and man which suggest accelerated aging after exposure to ionizing radiation. To determine if certain physiologic functions could be related to exposure to ionizing radiation, a battery of age-related tests was given at the time of the physical examinations at ABCC. Some 11,351 persons were given these non-invasive age-related tests. The results were essentially negative. Until a satisfactory operational definition of biologic or physiologic age is developed, the administration of functional tests as a measure of aging does not seem justified. (author)

  16. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, the relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Thomas Jr. [7609 Glenbrook Rd., Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States)

    2014-05-09

    The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is the most important international security arrangement that we have that is protecting the world community and this has been true for many years. But it did not happen by accident, it is a strategic bargain in which 184 states gave up the right forever to acquire the most powerful weapon ever created in exchange for a commitment from the five states allowed to keep nuclear weapons under the NPT (U.S., U.K., Russia, France and China), to share peaceful nuclear technology and to engage in disarmament negotiations aimed at the ultimate elimination of their nuclear stockpiles. The most important part of this is the comprehensive nuclear test ban (CTBT); the thinking by the 184 NPT non-nuclear weapon states was and is that they understand that the elimination of nuclear weapon stockpiles is a long way off, but at least the NPT nuclear weapon states could stop testing the weapons. The CTBT has been ratified by 161 states but by its terms it can only come into force if 44 nuclear potential states ratify; 36 have of the 44 have ratified it, the remaining eight include the United States and seven others, most of whom are in effect waiting for the United States. No state has tested a nuclear weapon-except for complete outlier North Korea-in 15 years. There appears to be no chance that the U.S. Senate will approve the CTBT for ratification in the foreseeable future, but the NPT may not survive without it. Perhaps it is time to consider an interim measure, for the UN Security Council to declare that any future nuclear weapon test any time, anywhere is a 'threat to peace and security', in effect a violation of international law, which in today's world it clearly would be.

  17. NUCLEBRAS' installations for tests of nuclear power plants components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos Paiva, I.P. de; Horta, J.A.L.; Avelar Esteves, F. de; Pinheiro, R.B.

    1983-05-01

    The reasons for NUCLEBRAS' Nuclear Technology Development Center to implement a laboratory for supporting Brazilian manufacturers, giving to them the means for performing functional tests of industrial products, are presented. A brief description of the facilities under construction: the Components Test Loop and the Facility for Testing N.P.P. Components under Accident Conditions, and of other already in operation, is given, as well as its objectives and main technical characteristics. Some test results already obtained are also presented. (Author) [pt

  18. Nuclebras' installations for performance tests of nuclear power plants components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos Paiva, I.P. de; Avelar Esteves, F. de; Horta, J.A.L.; Resende, M.F.R.; Pinheiro, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    The reasons for Nuclebras' Nuclear Technology Development Center to implement a laboratory for supporting Brazilian manufactures, giving to them the means for performing functional tests of industrial products, are presented. A brief description of facilities under construction: the components Test Loop and Facility for Testing N.P.P. components under Accident conditions, and other already in operation, as well as its objectives and main technical characteristics. Some test results had already obtained are also presented. (Author) [pt

  19. Proving test on the reliability for nuclear valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajiyama, Yasuo; Tashiro, Hisao; Uga, Takeo; Maeda, Shunichi.

    1986-01-01

    Since valves are the most common components, they could be the most frequent causes of troubles in nuclear power plants. This proving test, therefore, has an important meaning to examine and verify the reliability of various valves under simulating conditions of abnormal and transient operations of the nuclear power plant. The test was performed mainly for the various types and pressure ratings of valves which were used in the primary and secondary systems in BWR and PWR nuclear power plants and which had major operating or safety related functions in those nuclear power plants. The results of the proving test, confirmed for more than four years, showed relatively favourable performance of the tested valves. It is concluded that performances of valves including operability, seat sealing and structural integrity were proved under the thermal cycling, vibration and pipe reaction load conditions. Operating functions during and after accident such as loss of coolant accident were satisfactory. From these results, it was considered that the purpose of this proving test was satisfactorily fulfilled. Several data accumulated by the test would be useful to get better reliability if it was evaluated with the actually experienced data of valves in the nuclear power plants. (Nogami, K.)

  20. Psychology's Atomic Bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsboom, Denny; Wijsen, Lisa D.

    2017-01-01

    The central role of educational testing practices in contemporary societies can hardly be overstated. It is furthermore evident that psychometric models regulate, justify, and legitimize the processes through which educational testing practices are used. In this commentary, the authors offer some observations that may be relevant for the analyses…

  1. OPG nuclear - deaerator gravity flow test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidge, E.; Sanchez, R.; Misra, A.; Vecchiarelli, J.

    2013-01-01

    Following a total loss of all AC power, preexisting SG and SGECS are consumed to maintain fuel cooling. These inventories last ~3.5 hours. Additional time is needed to establish offsite Emergency Mitigating Equipment (EME). EME are portable generators/pumps which pump screened lake water directly to boilers, moderator, HTS, vault, etc., as required. Deaerator storage tank inventory can provide water to SGs by gravity draining (additional ~5.5 hours). Deaerator and deaerator storage tank are the highest points in the feedwater system and are normally used to remove air and impurities from the secondary side and store demineralized water. Calculations were done to determine minimum flow requirements to steam generators in a Beyond Design Basis Accident (BDBA). Additional calculations were performed to determine how long deaerator water can achieve this minimum flow rate. A validation test was required to demonstrate that the required flow rates could be achieved, and interim heat sink could be established. Tests were performed on shut-down units during planned outages. Tests successfully demonstrated capability of the interim deaerator gravity drain heat sink. Tests results were very close to analytical predictions. As expected, actual flow rate was slightly higher than predicted since conservative assumptions were used.

  2. Towards a nuclear-test ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A survey of international efforts from the partial test-ban Treaty (in atmosphere, in outer space and under water) in 1963 to the Soviet-USA negotiations on verification measures for the threshold test-ban Treaty is given. As was the case in the bilateral and trilateral negotiations, the question of adequate verification procedures has remained one of the major problems in the multilateral considerations on a comprehensive test ban. Over the years, a number of proposals have been made in order to solve the issue, in particular by Sweden and by the Soviet Union. In 1988, the four experimental data centres, situated in Canberra, Moscow, Stockholm and Washington, carried out separate and joint experiments in analysis methodology. Communication techniques between the four international data centres and a number of national seismological stations were also tested. In addition, a global data-gathering experiment was conducted, resulting in the creation of an initial research data base at the experimental data centre in Canberra. Further technical experiments are planned for 1989, an in 1990 a large-scale experiment in data exchange and analysis, involving up to a hundred seismological stations globally and lasting several months, is foreseen

  3. Task force for integral test of High Energy nuclear data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-11-01

    According to completion of the JENDL-High Energy file for neutron nuclear cross sections up to 50 MeV, a task force for integral test of high energy nuclear data was organized to discuss a guide line for integral test activities. A status of existing differential and integral experiments and how to perform such a test were discussed in the task force. Here the purpose and outline of the task force is explained with some future problems raised in discussion among the task member. (author)

  4. International Symposium of Scientists for Nuclear test Stopping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Problems discussed at International Symposium of Scientists for Nuclear Test Stopping in July 1986 in Moscow were considered. Scientists discussed complex of possible measures directed at strengthening of peace supporting mechanism, spoke in support of prohibition of all nuclear weapon tests. Necessity of measures preventing the weapon delivery to space, construction of the regime of using cosmic equipment exclusively for peace was noted. Attention was paid to the problem of control for test stopping (by means of sattelites and seismic methods), cooperation establishment between the USSR Academy of Sciences and the Council for the protection of the USA Natural Resources

  5. Nuclear Test-Experimental Science: Annual report, fiscal year 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struble, G.L.; Donohue, M.L.; Bucciarelli, G.; Hymer, J.D.; Kirvel, R.D.; Middleton, C.; Prono, J.; Reid, S.; Strack, B. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    Fiscal year 1988 has been a significant, rewarding, and exciting period for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's nuclear testing program. It was significant in that the Laboratory's new director chose to focus strongly on the program's activities and to commit to a revitalized emphasis on testing and the experimental science that underlies it. It was rewarding in that revolutionary new measurement techniques were fielded on recent important and highly complicated underground nuclear tests with truly incredible results. And it was exciting in that the sophisticated and fundamental problems of weapons science that are now being addressed experimentally are yielding new challenges and understanding in ways that stimulate and reward the brightest and best of scientists. During FY88 the program was reorganized to emphasize our commitment to experimental science. The name of the program was changed to reflect this commitment, becoming the Nuclear Test-Experimental Science (NTES) Program.

  6. Verifying seismic design of nuclear reactors by testing. Volume 1: test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-20

    This document sets forth recommendations for a verification program to test the ability of operational nuclear power plants to achieve safe shutdown immediately following a safe-shutdown earthquake. The purpose of the study is to develop a program plan to provide assurance by physical demonstration that nuclear power plants are earthquake resistant and to allow nuclear power plant operators to (1) decide whether tests should be conducted on their facilities, (2) specify the tests that should be performed, and (3) estimate the cost of the effort to complete the recommended test program.

  7. Verifying seismic design of nuclear reactors by testing. Volume 1: test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This document sets forth recommendations for a verification program to test the ability of operational nuclear power plants to achieve safe shutdown immediately following a safe-shutdown earthquake. The purpose of the study is to develop a program plan to provide assurance by physical demonstration that nuclear power plants are earthquake resistant and to allow nuclear power plant operators to (1) decide whether tests should be conducted on their facilities, (2) specify the tests that should be performed, and (3) estimate the cost of the effort to complete the recommended test program

  8. Outline of developing projects of atomic bomb in Japan and USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Shuji

    2007-01-01

    The content of the title connecting with the World War II is described hoping that younger researchers of nuclear physics could know some of the facts that scientists and the military of Japan and USA, respectively, had have developing projects of atomic bomb by fission reaction, although there are no official documents of those in Japan, even if there are some unofficial documents that are uncertain partly in Japan. Described are a chronological table, the content of research and development of atomic bombs, Japan's experiments by Kikuchi Laboratory of Osaka Imperial University and Nishina Laboratory of RIKEN, as well as the USA's action such as production of fissile nuclide, Pu-239 and U-235, selection of the site to fabricate atomic bomb, investigation the state of research and development of atomic bombs in Germany, Italy and Japan. (S.Y.)

  9. The media and dirty bombs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanley, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    During the recent Jose Padilla 'dirty bomb' scare, an indignant US citizen wrote to his local newspaper in Florida complaining that the news media were giving terrorists a recipe for making dirty bombs. 'Unless the media eases up on scaring us, he wrote, the public won't feel safe even leaving their homes. Or perhaps that is what they want, he said, 'us staying inside our homes watching the news on how terrorists can destroy us all.' It seems our real motivations have finally been uncovered we in the media want to scare them so much they won't leave their TV screens. Based on the previous event an analysis of the role of media and journalists is discussed. Leaders of the news media would, first of all, universally advise full and rapid and authoritative disclosure of what is known. If it isn't coming quickly from the highest levels, then the news will soon deteriorate to what's being heard on the streets, from police officers and fire fighters and other emergency personnel, and from passers-by. Journalists are the first to acknowledge their ignorance.That is why they ask questions. However, they seem to learn fast. It was found that that the term dirty bomb never appeared on Associated Press news wires before the 11 September 2001 attacks. Now it appears every day, and increasingly we are getting the facts right and helping to prepare our audience of millions for this dangerous new world

  10. Research and test facilities required in nuclear science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Experimental facilities are essential research tools both for the development of nuclear science and technology and for testing systems and materials which are currently being used or will be used in the future. As a result of economic pressures and the closure of older facilities, there are concerns that the ability to undertake the research necessary to maintain and to develop nuclear science and technology may be in jeopardy. An NEA expert group with representation from ten member countries, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the European Commission has reviewed the status of those research and test facilities of interest to the NEA Nuclear Science Committee. They include facilities relating to nuclear data measurement, reactor development, neutron scattering, neutron radiography, accelerator-driven systems, transmutation, nuclear fuel, materials, safety, radiochemistry, partitioning and nuclear process heat for hydrogen production. This report contains the expert group's detailed assessment of the current status of these nuclear research facilities and makes recommendations on how future developments in the field can be secured through the provision of high-quality, modern facilities. It also describes the online database which has been established by the expert group which includes more than 700 facilities. (authors)

  11. Quality assurance in the nuclear test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, J.N.

    1979-01-01

    In February 1979 Test Program laid the ground work for a new quality assurance structure. The new approach was based on the findings and recommendations of the Ad Hoc QA Program Review panel, which are summarized in this report. The new structure places the responsibility for quality assurance in the hands of the line organizations, both in the programmatic and functional elements of the LLL matrix

  12. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty: options before nuclear Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattanaik, Smruti S.

    1998-01-01

    The post-nuclear period has rendered Pakistan's strategic calculations more vulnerable. The decision to go nuclear after seventeen days of debate have started proving costly to Pakistan. This is revealed by the economic crisis resulting out of the foreign currency shortage, leading the country to default on the payment of debts. The pressure imposed by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank and their patrons to sign the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) have exposed Pakistan's economic vulnerability. Under this growing pressure, many have started questioning the decision to go nuclear

  13. Radioactive fallout in the southern hemisphere from nuclear weapons tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroney, J.R.

    1979-11-01

    Fallout in the southern hemisphere, and its origins in the national programs of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing in both hemispheres, are reviewed. Of the 390 nuclear tests conducted in the atmosphere to date, 53 were carried out in the southern hemisphere and it is the second phase of these, between 1966 and 1974, that is seen to have been responsible for the main fallout of short-lived fission products in the southern hemisphere. In contrast to this, the programs of atmospheric nuclear testing in the northern hemisphere up to 1962 are shown to have been the main source of long-lived fission products in fallout in the southern hemisphere. The course followed by this contamination through the environment of the southern hemisphere is traced for the national programs of nuclear testing after 1962 taken separately (France, China) and for the earlier national programs taken together (U.S.S.R., U.S.A. and U.K.). The impact on populations in the southern hemisphere of fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests to date is assessed

  14. Radioactive fallout in the southern hemisphere from nuclear weapons tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroney, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    Fallout in the southern hemisphere, and its origins in the national programs of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing in both hemispheres, are reviewed. Of the 390 nuclear tests conducted in the atmosphere to date, 53 were carried out in the southern hemisphere and it is the second phase of these, between 1966 and 1974, that is seen to have been responsible for the main fallout of short-lived fission products in the southern hemisphere. In contrast to this, the programs of atmospheric nuclear testing in the northern hemisphere up to 1962 are shown to have been the main source of long-lived fission products in fallout in the southern hemisphere. The course followed by this contamination through the environment of the southern hemisphere is traced for the national programs of nuclear testing after 1962 taken separately (France, China) and for the earlier national programs taken together (U.S.S.R., U.S.A. and U.K.). The impact on populations in the southern hemisphere of fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests to date is assessed. (author)

  15. International conference - Papeete - French Polynesia - June 29, 2006. Scientists and nuclear tests consequence on health. The Colloquium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, Lyn; Cavillon, Arlette; Rowland, Al; Parmentier, Claude; Vahaire, Florent de; Brindel, Pauline; Doyon, Francoise; Drozdovich, Vladimir; Rachedi, Frederique; Boissin; Sebag, Joseph; Shan, Larys; Bezeaud, Frederique; Petitdidier, Patrick; Paaoafaite, John; Teuri, Joseph; Hirshon, Unutea; Luc, Helene; ONG, Cara; Bouveret, Patrice; Ruff, Tilman A.; Smith, Nick; Okumura, Eiji; Valatx, Jean-Louis; Tardieu, Arlette; Hervieux, J.C.; NOONAN, Anne; Sercombe, Robert

    2006-06-01

    Forty years after the first bomb in Moruroa, a conference to promote recognition and justice for all victims of nuclear tests. More than thirty speakers, scientists, legal experts, parliamentarians and members of associations from French Polynesia, Australia, Fiji, New Zealand, the United States, Japan, the Netherlands and France debated on June 29-30, at the President's palace in Papeete, on the rights of the victims of nuclear tests to be recognized by nuclear powers. During this conference, we heard scientists explain very clearly that contamination and irradiation had widespread consequences including on the gene pool of the victims. Today, damage found on the chromosomes of Polynesian thyroid cancer patients who lived 1000 km away from Moruroa is ten times higher than damage found on average nuclear workers. Researchers tell us that many of those who worked on nuclear sites die earlier. Average life expectancy for the veterans from New Zealand is for example 51 years - and for most of them a life marred by suffering and cancers. Researchers tell us that conducting credible surveys is becoming more and more difficult as the impact of radiations that were absorbed 20, 30 or even 40 years earlier is getting more difficult to discern from damages due to old age or other illnesses. Testimonies and information given at this conference are indispensable for the public to realize the actual impact of the nuclear tests as well as show the elected representatives how urgent it is to meet the expectations of the victims. The suffering and strong discontent of the former test site workers moved the parliamentarians as well as the public. The strong words that were said will have to give a human face to the law we will have to implement in order to do justice to the victims. An impact of nuclear testing on health and environment are experienced by many peoples in the world. The testing nations are of course the ones who should compensate the victims. But there is also

  16. Nuclear Testing and Comprehensive Test Ban: Chronology Starting September 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-18

    unless the Secretary determines that a different number of months is preferable. 09/00/03 — A conference on facilitating the CTBT’s entry into force was... Unicorn ,” at the Nevada Test Site. 09/20/06 — Fifty-nine foreign ministers called on states that have not done so to ratify the treaty. 09/28/06

  17. Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-439 Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense... Bomb Increment II (SDB II) DoD Component Air Force Joint Participants Department of the Navy Responsible Office References SAR Baseline (Production...Mission and Description Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II) is a joint interest United States Air Force (USAF) and Department of the Navy

  18. Poisoned reign: French nuclear colonialism in the Pacific. Revised ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielsson, Bengt; Danielsson, Marie-Therese.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1966, France has used Moruroa, a small atoll in the Pacific, as the testing site for its nuclear bombs - despite opposition from both the Polynesian people and nations throughout the world. Levels of radioactive fallout and sea contamination, and the extent of damage to Moruroa itself have remained a closely-guarded military secret. This book traces the history of French nuclear involvement in the Pacific and shows how the tests have been used to strengthen colonial rule in French Polynesia

  19. Subcritical tests - nuclear weapon testing under the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeibraaten, S.

    1998-10-01

    The report discusses possible nuclear weapons related experiments and whether these are permitted under the 1996 Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The term ''subcritical experiments'' as used in the United States includes experiments in which one studies fissile materials (so far only plutonium) under extreme conditions generated by conventional high explosives, and in which a self-sustained chain reaction never develops in the fissile material. The known facts about the American subcritical experiments are presented. There is very little reason to doubt that these experiments were indeed subcritical and therefore permitted under the CTBT. Little is known about the Russian efforts that are being made on subcritical experiments

  20. Technical management on commissioning test of nuclear heating reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yajun; Su Qingshan

    1999-01-01

    The commissioning is the last construction stage of a nuclear heating project. The commissioning quality will directly affect on the safe operation and availability of the heating reactor. The author presents the whole test process until the completion of the test report from the point of test documents, including the preparation and execution of the test, the management of the various unexpected events during the test. And it will be emphatically discussed that the managing procedures of the various unexpected events during the test, including temporary control change, setpoint change, unexpected events and design change

  1. Crash testing of nuclear fuel shipping containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferson, R.M.; Yoshimura, H.R.

    1977-08-01

    In an attempt to understand the dynamics of extra severe transportation accidents and to evaluate state-of-the-art computational techniques for predicting the dynamic response of shipping casks involved in vehicular system crashes, the Environmental Control Technology Division of ERDA undertook a program with Sandia to investigate these areas. The program encompasses the following distinct major efforts. The first of these utilizes computational methods for predicting the effects of the accident environment and, subsequently, to calculate the damage incurred by a container as the result of such an accident. The second phase involves the testing of 1 / 8 -scale models of transportation systems. Through the use of instrumentation and high-speed motion photography the accident environments and physical damage mechanisms are studied in detail. After correlating the results of these first two phases, a full scale event involving representative hardware is conducted. To date two of the three selected test scenarios have been completed. Results of the program to this point indicate that both computational techniques and scale modeling are viable engineering approaches to studying accident environments and physical damage to shipping casks

  2. Crash testing of nuclear fuel shipping containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferson, R.M.; Yoshimura, H.R.

    1977-12-01

    In an attempt to understand the dynamics of extra severe transportation accidents and to evaluate state-of-the-art computational techniques for predicting the dynamic response of shipping casks involved in vehicular system crashes, the Environmental Control Technology Division of ERDA undertook a program with Sandia to investigate these areas. This program, which began in 1975, encompasses the following distinct major efforts. The first of these utilizes computational methods for predicting the effects of the accident environment and, subsequently, to calculate the damage incurred by a container as the result of such an accident. The second phase involves the testing of 1 / 8 -scale models of transportation systems. Through the use of instrumentation and high-speed motion photography, the accident environments and physical damage mechanisms are studied in detail. After correlating the results of these first two phases, a full scale event involving representative hardware is conducted. To date two of the three selected test scenarios have been completed. Results of the program to this point indicate that both computational techniques and scale modeling are viable engineering approaches to studying accident environments and physical damage to shipping casks

  3. Experiences with drug testing at a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, H.B.

    1987-01-01

    After more than 2 yr of operation of a drug testing program at the San Onofre nuclear power plant site, the Southern California Edison Co. has had a number of experiences and lessons considered valuable. The drug testing program at San Onofre, implemented in September of 1984, continues in essentially the same form today. Prior to describing the program, the paper reviews several underlying issues that believed to be simultaneously satisfied by the program: trustworthiness, fitness and safety, public trust, and privacy and search. The overall drug testing program, periodic drug monitoring program, and unannounced drug testing program are described. In addition to the obvious features of a good drug testing program, which are described in the EEI guide, it is essential to consider such issues as the stated program rationale, employee relations, and disciplinary action measures when contemplating or engaging in drug testing at nuclear power plants

  4. Re-evaluation of atomic bomb radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Shunzo

    1984-01-01

    The background and current status of the re-evaluation of atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation doses are presented. Problems in re-evaluating radiation doses are discussed: spectra of gamma-rays and neutrons emitted in the air, A-bomb structures, and meterological elements should be taken into account. In Japan, in an attempt to estimate A-bomb radiation doses, radioactive residues contained in roof tiles, bricks, rocks, and teeth and shell button of clothes are being actually measured. (Namekawa, K.)

  5. The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-ban Treaty : an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty ushers in the post-nuclear testing era. The Treaty is the result of many years of intensive international negotiation, and is an impressive document of some 48 pages plus 15 pages of annexes which, by April 1997, 143 nations including New Zealand had signed. New Zealand has consistently maintained a strong opposition to the testing of nuclear weapons and has had a long involvement in negotiations towards this Treaty. This is the first of a series of articles on the Treaty, its enforcement, and its implications for New Zealand, and provides an overview of the treaty by means of a quick tour through its main provisions. (author)

  6. On-site tests on the nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morilhat, P.; Favennec, J.M.; Neau, P.; Preudhomme, E.

    1996-01-01

    On-site tests and experiments are performed by EDF Research and Development Division on the nuclear power plants to assess the behaviour of major components submitted to thermal and vibratory solicitations. On-going studies deal with the qualification of new nuclear power plant standard and with the feedback of plants under operation. The tests, particularly the investigation tests, correspond to large investments and entail an important data volume which must ensure the continuity over a long period of the order of magnitude of the in-service plant life (around 40 years). This paper addresses the on-site experimental activities, describes the means to be used, and gives an example: the qualification of SG of new 1450 MW nuclear power plants. (author)

  7. Penetration Testing Model for Web sites Hosted in Nuclear Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Dzul Aiman Aslan; Mohamad Safuan Sulaiman; Siti Nurbahyah Hamdan; Saaidi Ismail; Mohd Fauzi Haris; Norzalina Nasiruddin; Raja Murzaferi Mokhtar

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear Malaysia web sites has been very crucial in providing important and useful information and services to the clients as well as the users worldwide. Furthermore, a web site is important as it reflects the organisation image. To ensure the integrity of the content of web site, a study has been made and a penetration testing model has been implemented to test the security of several web sites hosted at Nuclear Malaysia for malicious attempts. This study will explain how the security was tested in the detailed condition and measured. The result determined the security level and the vulnerability of several web sites. This result is important for improving and hardening the security of web sites in Nuclear Malaysia. (author)

  8. Recognition structure of semipalatinsk residents caused by nuclear explosion tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirabayashi, Kyoko; Satoh, Kenichi; Ohtaki, Megu; Muldagaliyev, T.; Apsalikov, K.; Kawano, Noriyuki

    2012-01-01

    Authors' team of Hiroshima University and Scientific Research Institute of Radiation Medicine and Ecology (Kazakhstan) has been investigating the health state, exposure route, contents and mental effect of nuclear explosion tests of Semipalatinsk residents through their witness and questionnaire since 2002, to elucidate the humanistic damage of nuclear tests. Reported here is the recognition structure in the title statistically analyzed with use of frequently spoken words in the witness. The audit was performed in 2002-2007 to 994 residents who had experienced ground explosion tests during the period from 1949 to 1962 and were living in 26 villages near the old test site. Asked questions concerning nuclear tests involved such items as still unforgettable matters, dreadful events, regretting things, thought about the test, requests; and matters about themselves, their family, close friends and anything. The frequency of the test site-related words heard in the interview were analyzed with hierarchical clustering and multi-dimensional scaling with a statistic software R for computation and MeCab for morphological analysis. Residents' recognition was found to be of two structures of memory at explosion tests and anger/dissatisfaction/anxiety to the present state. The former contained the frequent words of mushroom cloud, flash, blast, ground tremble and outdoor evacuation, and the latter, mostly anxiety about health of themselves and family. Thus residents have had to be confronted with uneasiness of their health even 20 years after the closure of the test site. (T.T.)

  9. A compilation of nuclear weapons test detonation data for U.S. Pacific ocean tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, S L; Robison, W L

    1997-07-01

    Prior to December 1993, the explosive yields of 44 of 66 nuclear tests conducted by the United States in the Marshall Islands were still classified. Following a request from the Government of the Republic of the Marshall Islands to the U.S. Department of Energy to release this information, the Secretary of Energy declassified and released to the public the explosive yields of the Pacific nuclear tests. This paper presents a synopsis of information on nuclear test detonations in the Marshall Islands and other locations in the mid-Pacific including dates, explosive yields, locations, weapon placement, and summary statistics.

  10. Nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Recent reports of alleged terrorist plans to build a 'dirty bomb' have heightened longstanding concerns about nuclear terrorism. This briefing outlines possible forms of attack, such as: detonation of a nuclear weapon; attacks involving radioactive materials; attacks on nuclear facilities. Legislation addressing these risks and the UK's strategy for coping with them are also considered

  11. The nuclear arms race

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    During his visit to South Africa, dr. Edward Teller, one of the most outstanding nuclear physicists of the age, and intimately associated with American research during the most sensitive period in the development of nuclear energy, were interviewed. Dr. Teller was questioned on the following: his feelings about nuclear weapons; the American atomic bomb that was dropped on Japan; the Soviet Union's development of a hydrogen bomb and the nuclear balance between the Soviet Union and America

  12. Demand: a total nuclear disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hessel, Stephane; Jacquard, Albert

    2012-01-01

    This bibliographical note presents a book, in which the authors make a plea for a total nuclear disarmament. They think that humanity cannot be found in competition, but in emulation, and examine how we can get rid of the nuclear bomb. They discuss the background of nuclear energy, state that nuclear weapons have always been useless and extremely dangerous, consider arms race as crazy and as a crime against humanity, recall that nuclear weapons already made numerous victims (Hiroshima, Nagasaki, nuclear tests), that they are a sword of Damocles over 7 billions human beings, that nuclear winter would be an apocalypse, that the Non Proliferation Treaty is a decoy. They discuss the political role of nuclear weapons, and outline that the only solution is their abolition. They discuss what has already been done and what is still to be done, and formulate a strategy for the future

  13. Handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipers, L.R.; Allen, G.C.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

  14. Effluent treatment options for nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipers, L.R.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

  15. The initial criticality and nuclear commissioning test program at HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Choong-Sung; Seo, Chul-Gyo; Jun, Byung-Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Dukjin-Dong 150, Yusung-Ku, Taejon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    The construction of the Korea Multipurpose Research Reactor - HANARO of 3MW, developed by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, was completed at the beginning of this year. The first fuel loading began on February 2 1995, and initial criticality was achieved on February 8, when the core had four 18-element assemblies and thirteen 36-element assemblies. The critical control rod position was 600.8 mm which represents excess reactivity of 0.71 $. Currently the nuclear commissioning test is on going under the zero power range. This paper describes the initial criticality approach of the HANARO, and its nuclear commissioning test program. (author)

  16. Why nuclear power failed the market test in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesshire, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Conservative Party's manifesto for the general election of May 1987 contained two pledges of relevance to the UK electricity supply industry (ESI). These were to privatize the industry; and to continue to support the development of civil nuclear power in the private sector. As anticipated by some independent commentators, in the event these objectives proved incompatible. The costs of nuclear power have long been a vexed issue and UK nuclear costs have been higher than those in many other countries. While most of the UK ESI has now been privatized, nuclear generation remains in the public sector. This article seeks to explore the reasons for this fundamental and politically embarrassing policy reversal, a rarity under three successive Conservative administrations since 1979. It would be incorrect to argue that private ownership and nuclear power are inherently incompatible. Rather the specific - competitive - form of privatization proposed for the UK failed to provide sufficient guarantees for the London capital market. Thus, at least in this specific case, nuclear power failed the market test. The implications of this for the UK nuclear industry have been profound. As a result, the UK case has wider international lessons as the pressures for privatization, liberalization and greater cost transparency bear down upon electric utilities in other countries. (author)

  17. Nuclear tests of lepton number and CP nonconservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    I will discuss two topics, double beta decay and time-reversal-odd nuclear moments, in which important questions of nuclear structure must be addressed. These problems are taken from a growing class of nuclear and atomic experiments in which the special properties of many-body systems are exploited to test properties of elementary particles. Nuclei can serve as filters for interactions by providing kinematic windows where only certain processes can occur and by isolating quantum numbers such as spin, isospin, and parity. In addition, the strengths of interesting interactions can be enhanced through the mixing of nearly degenerate levels in nuclei. However, the most important asset of nuclear and atomic experiments is their precision. For example, experiments searching for T-odd nuclear moments exploit techniques for measuring changes in atomic energies of 10 -22 eV. Such precision techniques will play an increasingly important role in particle physics. In the discussion of double beta decay and T-odd nuclear moments it will become clear that important nuclear structure issues must be resolved in order to fully exploit the experimental results. During this talk I will highlight this aspect. 29 references

  18. Nuclear waste repository transparency technology test bed demonstrations at WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betsill J, David; Elkins, Ned Z.; Wu, Chuan-Fu; Mewhinney, James D.; Aamodt, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Secretary of Energy, Bill Richardson, has stated that one of the nuclear waste legacy issues is ''The challenge of managing the fuel cycle's back end and assuring the safe use of nuclear power.'' Waste management (i.e., the back end) is a domestic and international issue that must be addressed. A key tool in gaining acceptance of nuclear waste repository technologies is transparency. Transparency provides information to outside parties for independent assessment of safety, security, and legitimate use of materials. Transparency is a combination of technologies and processes that apply to all elements of the development, operation, and closure of a repository system. A test bed for nuclear repository transparency technologies has been proposed to develop a broad-based set of concepts and strategies for transparency monitoring of nuclear materials at the back end of the fuel/weapons cycle. WIPP is the world's first complete geologic repository system for nuclear materials at the back end of the cycle. While it is understood that WIPP does not currently require this type of transparency, this repository has been proposed as realistic demonstration site to generate and test ideas, methods, and technologies about what transparency may entail at the back end of the nuclear materials cycle, and which could be applicable to other international repository developments. An integrated set of transparency demonstrations was developed and deployed during the summer, and fall of 1999 as a proof-of-concept of the repository transparency technology concept. These demonstrations also provided valuable experience and insight into the implementation of future transparency technology development and application. These demonstrations included: Container Monitoring Rocky Flats to WIPP; Underground Container Monitoring; Real-Time Radiation and Environmental Monitoring; Integrated level of confidence in the system and information provided. As the world's only operating deep geologic

  19. Nuclear material control and accountancy planning and performance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mike Enhinger; Dennis Wilkey; Rod Martin; Ken Byers; Brian Smith

    1999-01-01

    An overview of performance testing as used at U.S. Department of Energy facilities is provided. Performance tests are performed on specific aspects of the regulations or site policy. The key issues in establishing a performance testing program are: identifying what needs to be tested; determining how to test; establishing criteria to evaluate test results. The program elements of performance testing program consist of: planning; coordination; conduct; evaluation. A performance test may be conducted of personnel or equipment. The DOE orders for nuclear material control and accountancy are divided into three functional areas: program administration, material accounting, and material control. Examples performance tests may be conducted on program administration, accounting, measurement and measurement control, inventory, and containment [ru

  20. Dynamic testing of nuclear power plant structures: an evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, H.J.

    1980-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) evaluated the applications of system identification techniques to the dynamic testing of nuclear power plant structures and subsystems. These experimental techniques involve exciting a structure and measuring, digitizing, and processing the time-history motions that result. The data can be compared to parameters calculated using finite element or other models of the test systems to validate the model and to verify the seismic analysis. This report summarizes work in three main areas: (1) analytical qualification of a set of computer programs developed at LLL to extract model parameters from the time histories; (2) examination of the feasibility of safely exciting nuclear power plant structures and accurately recording the resulting time-history motions; (3) study of how the model parameters that are extracted from the data be used best to evaluate structural integrity and analyze nuclear power plants

  1. Layout of the objects of underground nuclear tests at the Balapan test field of the former Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konovalov, V.E.; Gryaznov, O.V.

    2000-01-01

    Integrated research of practical and scientific interest is conducted at the Balapan test field of the Semipalatinsk test site. The lack of the reliable locations for features associated with nuclear testing causes considerable difficulties while carrying out the research. To fill this gap the authors present data available at the Institute of Geophysical Research of the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan. (author)

  2. Techniques to eliminate nuclear weapons testing infrastructure at former Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erofeev, I.E.; Kovalev, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    It was at the former Semipalatinsk Test Site where for the first time in the world the nuclear weapons testing infrastructure elimination was put into practice. Fundamentally new procedures for blasting operations have been developed by specialists of the Kazakh State Research and Production Center of Blasting Operations (KSCBO), National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan (NNC) and Degelen Enterprise to enhance reliability and provide safety during elimination of various objects and performance of large-scale experiments. (author)

  3. Lightning vulnerability of nuclear explosive test systems at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasbrouck, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    A task force chartered to evaluate the effects of lightning on nuclear explosives at the Nevada Test Site has made several recommendations intended to provide lightning-invulnerable test device systems. When these recommendations have been implemented, the systems will be tested using full-threat-level simulated lightning

  4. Environmental qualification test of electrical penetration for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooziro, Tetsuya; Nakagawa, Akitoshi; Toyoda, Shigeru; Uno, Shunpei

    1979-01-01

    Environmental qualification test was conducted according to IEEE Std. 323-1974 in order to evaluate the safety and reliability of electrical penetration of PWR type nuclear power station. Electrical penetration is the assemblies of electric cables attached to the containment vessel and penetrate through the vessel. Since it is a part of the vessel, it is deemed to be one of the primary safety equipments that are important for the safety and reliability of nuclear power stations. Environmental tests were conducted continuously as to heat cycle, vibration and LOCA with the full size specimens of bushing type, pigtail type and triaxial cable type and at the same time thermal life and irradiation tests were conducted on the insulation materials used, in order to obtain the comprehensive evaluation of their electrical and mechanical characteristics. As the result, they all satisfied the requirements for the circuits for actual use during and after various environmental qualification tests according to IEEE Std. 323. (author)

  5. Modeling and Simulation of a Nuclear Fuel Element Test Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Robert P.; Emrich, William

    2011-01-01

    "The Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator" test section closely simulates the internal operating conditions of a thermal nuclear rocket. The purpose of testing is to determine the ideal fuel rod characteristics for optimum thermal heat transfer to their hydrogen cooling/working fluid while still maintaining fuel rod structural integrity. Working fluid exhaust temperatures of up to 5,000 degrees Fahrenheit can be encountered. The exhaust gas is rendered inert and massively reduced in temperature for analysis using a combination of water cooling channels and cool N2 gas injectors in the H2-N2 mixer portion of the test section. An extensive thermal fluid analysis was performed in support of the engineering design of the H2-N2 mixer in order to determine the maximum "mass flow rate"-"operating temperature" curve of the fuel elements hydrogen exhaust gas based on the test facilities available cooling N2 mass flow rate as the limiting factor.

  6. Mortality study of Canadian military personnel exposed to radiation: atomic test blasts and Chalk River nuclear reactor clean-ups, 1950's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, S.; Dulberg, C.S.; Spasoff, R.A.

    1984-08-01

    This report describes a historical cohort study of the group of Canadian military personnel exposed to radiation in the 1950s at atomic bomb test blasts in the U.S. and Australia, and at clean-up operations at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. Overall and cause-specific mortality in the exposed group was compared to that of the control cohort of unexposed military personnel, matched on age, service, rank and trade. Analyses indicated no elevation in the exposed cohort, in overall or cause-specific mortality due to diseases associated with radiation. Since this study was restricted to an investigation of mortality, we must stress that we cannot generalize these results or conclusions to current morbidity experienced by the exposed cohort

  7. A nuclear power plant certification test plan and checklist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halverson, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    Regulations within the nuclear industry are requiring that all reference plant simulators be certified prior to or during 1991. A certification test plan is essential to ensure that this goal is met. A description of each step in the certification process is provided in this paper, along with a checklist to help ensure completion of each item

  8. A new role of proficiency testing in nuclear analytical work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj

    2008-01-01

    The most recent definition of measurement result requires a statement of uncertainty whenever results obtained by nuclear or other quantitative methods of analysis are reported. Proficiency testing (PT) therefore must include the ability of laboratories to present not only unbiased quantity values...

  9. Couplex1 test case nuclear - Waste disposal far field simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This first COUPLEX test case is to compute a simplified Far Field model used in nuclear waste management simulation. From the mathematical point of view the problem is of convection diffusion type but the parameters are highly varying from one layer to another. Another particularity is the very concentrated nature of the source, both in space and in time. (author)

  10. Game of thrown bombs in 3D: using high speed cameras and photogrammetry techniques to reconstruct bomb trajectories at Stromboli (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, D.; Taddeucci, J.; Scarlato, P.; Del Bello, E.; Houghton, B. F.; Orr, T. R.; Andronico, D.; Kueppers, U.

    2015-12-01

    Large juvenile bombs and lithic clasts, produced and ejected during explosive volcanic eruptions, follow ballistic trajectories. Of particular interest are: 1) the determination of ejection velocity and launch angle, which give insights into shallow conduit conditions and geometry; 2) particle trajectories, with an eye on trajectory evolution caused by collisions between bombs, as well as the interaction between bombs and ash/gas plumes; and 3) the computation of the final emplacement of bomb-sized clasts, which is important for hazard assessment and risk management. Ground-based imagery from a single camera only allows the reconstruction of bomb trajectories in a plan perpendicular to the line of sight, which may lead to underestimation of bomb velocities and does not allow the directionality of the ejections to be studied. To overcome this limitation, we adapted photogrammetry techniques to reconstruct 3D bomb trajectories from two or three synchronized high-speed video cameras. In particular, we modified existing algorithms to consider the errors that may arise from the very high velocity of the particles and the impossibility of measuring tie points close to the scene. Our method was tested during two field campaigns at Stromboli. In 2014, two high-speed cameras with a 500 Hz frame rate and a ~2 cm resolution were set up ~350m from the crater, 10° apart and synchronized. The experiment was repeated with similar parameters in 2015, but using three high-speed cameras in order to significantly reduce uncertainties and allow their estimation. Trajectory analyses for tens of bombs at various times allowed for the identification of shifts in the mean directivity and dispersal angle of the jets during the explosions. These time evolutions are also visible on the permanent video-camera monitoring system, demonstrating the applicability of our method to all kinds of explosive volcanoes.

  11. Special Nuclear Material Portal Monitoring at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeAnn Long; Michael Murphy

    2008-01-01

    Prior to April 2007, acceptance and performance testing of the various Special Nuclear Material (SNM) monitoring devices at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was performed by the Radiological Health Instrumentation department. Calibration and performance testing on the PM-700 personnel portal monitor was performed, but there was no test program for the VM-250 vehicle portal monitor. The handheld SNM monitors, the TSA model 470B, were being calibrated annually, but there was no performance test program. In April of 2007, the Material Control and Accountability Manager volunteered to take over performance testing of all SNM portal monitors at NTS in order to strengthen the program and meet U.S. Department of Energy Order requirements. This paper will discuss the following activities associated with developing a performance testing program: changing the culture, learning the systems, developing and implementing procedures, troubleshooting and repair, validating the process, physical control of equipment, acquisition of new systems, and implementing the performance test program

  12. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    response, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States warned of consequences if North Korea conducted a test; South Korea expressed “deep regret and... Unicorn ,” was conducted in a “down-hole” or vertical shaft configuration similar to an underground nuclear test...26; 2003: Piano, September 19; 2004: Armando, May 25; 2006: Krakatau (jointly with UK), February 23; Unicorn , August 30; 2010: Bacchus, September 15

  13. Approach to testing fusion components in existing nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, P.Y.; Miller, L.G.; Longhurst, G.R.; Masson, L.S.; Kulcinski, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    The concept presented makes use of the fast spectrum in the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Preliminary results show that an asymmetric, nuclear test environment with particle and radiant energy fluxes impinging on a first wall/blanket or divertor surface appears feasible in a neutron/gamma field not greatly different from that seen by a representative first wall/blanket module

  14. The consequences of underground nuclear testing in French Polynesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, E.T.

    1998-01-01

    France began atmospheric nuclear testing at Mururoa and Fangataufa atolls in the South Pacific in July 1966. Following international protest, atmospheric testing ceased in August 1970. In late 1995, an International Geomechanical Commission (IGC) was created to assess the short- and long-term effects of underground nuclear testing on the stability and hydrology of Mururoa and Fangataufa. With the aid of its consultants, the Commission sought to develop its own understanding of the mechanics and consequences of the underground nuclear tests. It carried out extensive numerical analyses of shock wave effects, seismic wave propagation, slope stability and pre- and post-test hydrology. However, in its studies, the IGC was constrained to use the data made available to it by the French authorities. The Commission's report (International Geomechanical Commission 1998) has been submitted to the French Government. This article draws heavily on parts of that report. The Commission's observations and analyses show that there has been no apparent change, on the atoll scale, to the overall mechanical stability of either atoll as a consequence of the underground nuclear tests. The main observable consequences of the tests are underwater slope failures, open fractures on the rim surface and surface settlements. The fractures visible on the surface are generally associated with subsurface slope displacements and occur only in the carbonates. There is no evidence that slope failures or settlements have occurred in the underlying volcanics. There has been no significant change in the long-term (beyond 500 years) hydrology of either atoll. The IGC estimates that the long-term change in the natural groundwater flow will be no more than 1%. There are, however, significant short-term changes locally around the test sites, which are briefly outlined

  15. The night of the physicists. Heisenberg, Hahn, Weizsaecker, and the German bomb; Die Nacht der Physiker. Heisenberg, Hahn, Weizsaecker und die deutsche Bombe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirach, Richard von

    2014-07-01

    Finally the German atomic physicists around Heisenberg, von Weizsaecker, and Hahn worked on their ''uranium machine'' in a Swabian beer-cellar - and took themselves for the world elite of nuclear research. In imprisonment they heared from the dropping of the Hiroshima bomb - a shock. Richard von Schirach shows the hindered ''fathers of the German atomic bomb'' in close-up, their eagerness, their hybris, their true importance, and their attempts to give after the war a new interpretation of their own role. A book, which raises in the sense of Duerrenmatt the question for the responsibility of science.

  16. Geologic surface effects of underground nuclear testing, Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasso, D.N.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents a new Geographic Information System composite map of the geologic surface effects caused by underground nuclear testing in the Yucca Flat Physiographic Area of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The Nevada Test Site (NTS) was established in 1951 as a continental location for testing nuclear devices (Allen and others, 1997, p.3). Originally known as the ''Nevada Proving Ground'', the NTS hosted a total of 928 nuclear detonations, of which 828 were conducted underground (U.S. Department of Energy, 1994). Three principal testing areas of the NTS were used: (1) Yucca Flat, (2) Pahute Mesa, and (3) Rainier Mesa including Aqueduct Mesa. Underground detonations at Yucca Flat and Pahute Mesa were typically emplaced in vertical drill holes, while others were tunnel emplacements. Of the three testing areas, Yucca Flat was the most extensively used, hosting 658 underground tests (747 detonations) located at 719 individual sites (Allen and others, 1997, p.3-4). Figure 1 shows the location of Yucca Flat and other testing areas of the NTS. Figure 2 shows the locations of underground nuclear detonation sites at Yucca Flat. Table 1 lists the number of underground nuclear detonations conducted, the number of borehole sites utilized, and the number of detonations mapped for surface effects at Yucca Flat by NTS Operational Area

  17. Mr. John Hall (Debate on link between nuclear weapons testing and subsequent leukaemia in participants)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, Keith; Hamilton, Archie.

    1992-01-01

    A debate in the House of Commons is recorded on the case of Mr John Hall, formerly a member of the British Armed Forces who was involved in the hydrogen bomb test at Christmas Island in 1958. Mr Hall is currently being treated for high-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the centribalistic type. The debate centred round the difficulty in establishing a causal link between participation in the weapons testing programme and any subsequent illness diagnosed in Mr Hall and other service men. (UK)

  18. Nuclear physics at PEP: First test and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Bibber, K.; Dietrich, F.S.; Melnikoff, S.O.

    1986-09-01

    A test run of internal target nuclear physics at the PEP storage ring is described. The Time Projection Chamber (TPC-2γ detector) was used to detect the inelastically scattered electron and complete hadronic final state in the interaction of 14.5 GeV electrons with D 2 , Ar and Xe gas targets. The data comprise mostly low-x low-Q 2 events, but some deep inelastic scattering as well. The future possibilities of a dedicated nuclear physics program at PEP are outlined. 15 refs., 25 figs

  19. Testing the predictive power of nuclear mass models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza-Temis, J.; Morales, I.; Barea, J.; Frank, A.; Hirsch, J.G.; Vieyra, J.C. Lopez; Van Isacker, P.; Velazquez, V.

    2008-01-01

    A number of tests are introduced which probe the ability of nuclear mass models to extrapolate. Three models are analyzed in detail: the liquid drop model, the liquid drop model plus empirical shell corrections and the Duflo-Zuker mass formula. If predicted nuclei are close to the fitted ones, average errors in predicted and fitted masses are similar. However, the challenge of predicting nuclear masses in a region stabilized by shell effects (e.g., the lead region) is far more difficult. The Duflo-Zuker mass formula emerges as a powerful predictive tool

  20. Resettlement of Bikini Atoll U.S. Nuclear Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Stuart, M.L.; Stoker, A.C.; Hamilton, T.F.

    1999-01-01

    The US conducted a nuclear testing program at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls in the Marshall Islands from 1946 through 1958. Several atolls, including Bikini, were contaminated as a result of the nuclear detonations. Since 1974 the authors have conducted an extensive research and monitoring program to determine the radiological conditions at the atolls, identify the critical radionuclides and pathways, estimate the radiological dose to current or resettling populations, and develop remedial measures to reduce the dose to atoll populations. This paper describes exposure pathways and radionuclides; composition of atoll soils; radionuclide transport and dose estimates; remedial measures; and reduction in dose from a combined option

  1. The organisation of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopecky, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    The author presents the international control system implemented by the CTBT (Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty) organisation to permanently control the globe and to detect any indicator of a nuclear explosion from war or civil origin or seismic activities. He briefly indicates how many countries are members of this organisation, and positions of some others. He describes how a North-Korean explosion has been detected in January 2016. He evokes the existence of validation techniques, and comments the relationship between the European Union and this organisation. He outlines the role played by France, and outlines the need for a world-based control system

  2. Uranium tetrafluoride reduction closed bomb. Part I: Reduction process general conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anca Abati, R.; Lopez Rodriguez, M.

    1961-01-01

    General conditions about the metallo thermic reduction in small bombs (250 and 800 gr. of uranium) has been investigated. Factors such as kind and granulometry of the magnesium used, magnesium excess and preheating temperature, which affect yields and metal quality have been considered. magnesium excess increased yields in a 15% in the small bomb, about the preheating temperature, there is a range between which yields and metal quality does not change. All tests have been made with graphite linings. (Author) 18 refs

  3. Atomic bombs and conspiracy theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binnie, A.

    2001-01-01

    There have been a number of articles in the press concerning Australia's bid to get the atomic bomb. These articles are based on the recent publication of a book, 'Australia's Bid for the Bomb' by Wayne Reynolds. The book at first sight appears to be very well researched, with many archival references from a number of countries, and the hypotheses appear to be well supported and argued. Its major shortcoming is the way that the science and technology involved is presented. The author seems to have a complete lack of understanding of basic science and engineering principles, and the manner in which scientists and politicians communicate with each other. This paper will attempt to redress these shortcomings, I shall look at the way communities of scientists and politicians present their ideas to each other and to the public at large. By investigating the backgrounds to the establishment of the Snowy Mountains Scheme and the later establishment of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission, the author is able to explain how such a hypothesis ever saw the light of day

  4. Drop testing of the Westinghouse fresh nuclear fuel package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shappert, L.B.; Sanders, C.F.

    1993-01-01

    The Westinghouse Columbia Fuel Fabrication Facility has decided to develop and certify a new fresh fuel package design (type A, fissile) that has the capability to transport more highly enriched fuel than was previously possible. A prototype package was tested in support of the Safety Analysis Report of the Packaging (SARP). This paper provides detailed information on the tests and test results. A first prototype test was carried out at the STF, and the design did not give the safety margin that Westinghouse wanted for their containers. The data from the test were used to redesign the connection between the clamping frame and the pressure pad, and the tests were reinitiated. Three packages were then tested at the STF. All packages met the acceptance criteria and acceleration information was obtained that provided an indication of the behavior of the cradle and strongback which holds the fuel assemblies and nuclear poison in place. (J.P.N.)

  5. Space nuclear thermal propulsion test facilities accommodation at INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, T.J.; Reed, W.C.; Welland, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force (USAF) has proposed to develop the technology and demonstrate the feasibility of a particle bed reactor (PBR) propulsion system that could be used to power an advanced upper stage rocket engine. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is cooperating with the USAF in that it would host the test facility if the USAF decides to proceed with the technology demonstration. Two DOE locations have been proposed for testing the PBR technology, a new test facility at the Nevada Test Site, or the modification and use of an existing facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The preliminary evaluations performed at the INEL to support the PBR technology testing has been completed. Additional evaluations to scope the required changes or upgrade needed to make the proposed USAF PBR test facility meet the requirements for testing Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear thermal propulsion engines are underway

  6. Space nuclear thermal propulsion test facilities accommodation at INEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Thomas J.; Reed, William C.; Welland, Henry J.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force (USAF) has proposed to develop the technology and demonstrate the feasibility of a particle bed reactor (PBR) propulsion system that could be used to power an advanced upper stage rocket engine. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is cooperating with the USAF in that it would host the test facility if the USAF decides to proceed with the technology demonstration. Two DOE locations have been proposed for testing the PBR technology, a new test facility at the Nevada Test Site, or the modification and use of an existing facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The preliminary evaluations performed at the INEL to support the PBR technology testing has been completed. Additional evaluations to scope the required changes or upgrade needed to make the proposed USAF PBR test facility meet the requirements for testing Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear thermal propulsion engines are underway.

  7. Guidelines for inservice testing at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, P.

    1995-04-01

    The staff of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) gives licensees guidelines and recommendations for developing and implementing programs for the inservice testing of pumps and valves at commercial nuclear power plants. The staff discusses the regulations; the components to be included in an inservice testing program; and the preparation and content of cold shutdown justifications, refueling outage justifications, and requests for relief from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Code requirements. The staff also gives specific guidance on relief acceptable to the NRC and advises licensees in the use of this information at their facilities. The staff discusses the revised standard technical specifications for the inservice testing program requirements and gives guidance on the process a licensee may follow upon finding an instance of noncompliance with the Code

  8. Statistical aspects of the program of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beebe, G W

    1961-02-24

    The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) is a medical research institute in Hiroshima and Nagasaki devoted to long term study of the late effects of nuclear radiation upon man. The work draws its great interest from the paucity of existing information on the effect of radiation on man; from the unique radiation experience of the atomic bomb survivors; from the increasing utilization of nuclear energy in modern technology; and from humanitarian concern for the survivors of the bombs. The ABCC program provides the statistician with an important opportunity to apply the tools and concepts of statistics, for the inferences to be drawn are largely statistical inferences growing out of the comparison of samples defined as to radiation exposure. The work is of international as well as statistical interest by virtue of its subject matter and as a meeting-ground for statisticians trained in different countries.

  9. Health examination for A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Chikako

    1996-01-01

    The health examination for A-bomb survivors by national, prefectural and city administrations was described and discussed on its general concept, history, time change of examinee number, improvement of examination, prevalence of individual diseases, significance of cancer examinations, examinees' point of view and future problems. Subjects were the survivors living in Hiroshima city: in 1994, their number was 100,188, whose ages were 63 y in average for males consisting of 39.5% and 67 y for females of 60.5%. The examination was begun in 1957 on the law for medical care for the survivors firstly and then systematically in 1961. From 1965, it was performed 4 times a year, and in 1988, one examination in the four was made for cancer. Authors' Center examined previously 90% but recently 70% of the examinees. The remainder underwent the examination in other medical facilities. Tests are blood analysis, electrocardiography and computed radiography of chest with imaging plate, of which data have been accumulated either in photodisc or in host computer. From 1973 to 1993, the cardiovascular diseases increased from 6.1% to 26.9%, metabolic and endocrinic ones like diabetes, 3.6% to 19.7%, and bowel ones, 0.9% to 12.3%. Correlations of these diseases with A-bomb irradiation are not elucidated and possibly poor. Five classes of cancer examinations are performed but the examinee rate in the survivors is as low as 7.6-21.8% (1993). The cancer of the large intestine is increasing. The overall examinee rates in the survivors were 70.6% in 1965-1967, 69.5% in 1976-1977 and 58.2% in 1990. In conclusion, how to examine the survivors, who are getting older, as many as possible is the future problem. (H.O.)

  10. Review of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Ground Test Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coote, David J.; Power, Kevin P.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen

    2015-01-01

    High efficiency rocket propulsion systems are essential for humanity to venture beyond the moon. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is a promising alternative to conventional chemical rockets with relatively high thrust and twice the efficiency of highest performing chemical propellant engines. NTP utilizes the coolant of a nuclear reactor to produce propulsive thrust. An NTP engine produces thrust by flowing hydrogen through a nuclear reactor to cool the reactor, heating the hydrogen and expelling it through a rocket nozzle. The hot gaseous hydrogen is nominally expected to be free of radioactive byproducts from the nuclear reactor; however, it has the potential to be contaminated due to off-nominal engine reactor performance. NTP ground testing is more difficult than chemical engine testing since current environmental regulations do not allow/permit open air testing of NTP as was done in the 1960's and 1970's for the Rover/NERVA program. A new and innovative approach to rocket engine ground test is required to mitigate the unique health and safety risks associated with the potential entrainment of radioactive waste from the NTP engine reactor core into the engine exhaust. Several studies have been conducted since the ROVER/NERVA program in the 1970's investigating NTP engine ground test options to understand the technical feasibility, identify technical challenges and associated risks and provide rough order of magnitude cost estimates for facility development and test operations. The options can be divided into two distinct schemes; (1) real-time filtering of the engine exhaust and its release to the environment or (2) capture and storage of engine exhaust for subsequent processing.

  11. Chinese nuclear heating test reactor and demonstration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dazhong; Ma Changwen; Dong Duo; Lin Jiagui

    1992-01-01

    In this report the importance of nuclear district heating is discussed. From the viewpoint of environmental protection, uses of energy resources and transport, the development of nuclear heating in China is necessary. The development program of district nuclear heating in China is given in the report. At the time being, commissioning of the 5 MW Test Heating Reactor is going on. A 200 MWt Demonstration Plant will be built. In this report, the main characteristics of these reactors are given. It shows this type of reactor has a high inherent safety. Further the report points out that for this type of reactor the stability is very important. Some experimental results of the driving facility are included in the report. (orig.)

  12. In pursuit of a nuclear test ban treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalberger, T.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this guide is to focus on the political issues in the test ban debate in the conference of Disarmament, and to produce a guide providing diplomats, researchers, and the interested public with background information. Such a complex negotiating process requires a selection of proposals, comments and technical details. The criterion from selecting material was based upon the importance for present negotiations. The first part of this guide provides a historical perspective on the arguments used for and against nuclear testing, and on the record of negotiating activities on this subject. The second part examines the test ban debate in the Conference on Disarmament during the past ten years. Figs

  13. Smart built-in test for nuclear thermal propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombrozo, P.C.

    1992-03-01

    Smart built-in test (BIT) technologies are envisioned for nuclear thermal propulsion spacecraft components which undergo constant irradiation and are therefore unsafe for manual testing. Smart BIT systems of automated/remote type allow component and system tests to be conducted; failure detections are directly followed by reconfiguration of the components affected. The 'smartness' of the BIT system in question involves the reduction of sensor counts via the use of multifunction sensors, the use of components as integral sensors, and the use of system design techniques which allow the verification of system function beyond component connectivity

  14. Nuclear-waste-package materials degradation modes and accelerated testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    This report reviews the materials degradation modes that may affect the long-term behavior of waste packages for the containment of nuclear waste. It recommends an approach to accelerated testing that can lead to the qualification of waste package materials in specific repository environments in times that are short relative to the time period over which the waste package is expected to provide containment. This report is not a testing plan but rather discusses the direction for research that might be considered in developing plans for accelerated testing of waste package materials and waste forms

  15. ASEAN and the commitment to end nuclear testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-02-01

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a regional political and economic organization. It was established on 8 August 1967 by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Brunei Darussalam joined in 1984, Viet Nam in 1995, Laos and Myanmar in 1997 and Cambodia in 1999. ASEAN aims to accelerate economic growth, social progress and cultural development in its Member States and to promote regional peace and stability. All ASEAN States are parties to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). The NPT aims to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, and to further the goal of nuclear disarmament. It also promotes international cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The ten ASEAN countries are all Member States of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). They all signed the CTBT early on, some on the very first day that it opened for signature on 24 September 1996. But four have yet to ratify the Treaty: Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Myanmar and Thailand. Indonesia's ratification is particularly important as it is one of those States whose ratification is required for the Treaty's entry into force.

  16. Nuclear anapole moment and tests of the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flambaum, V. V.

    1999-01-01

    There are two sources of parity nonconservation (PNC) in atoms: the electron-nucleus weak interaction and the magnetic interaction of electrons with the nuclear anapole moment. A nuclear anapole moment has recently been observed. This is the first discovery of an electromagnetic moment violating fundamental symmetries--the anapole moment violates parity and charge-conjugation invariance. We describe the anapole moment and how it can be produced. The anapole moment creates a circular magnetic field inside the nucleus. The interesting point is that measurements of the anapole allow one to study parity violation inside the nucleus through atomic experiments. We use the experimental result for the nuclear anapole moment of 133 Cs to find the strengths of the parity violating proton-nucleus and meson-nucleon forces. Measurements of the weak charge characterizing the strength of the electron-nucleon weak interaction provide tests of the Standard Model and a way of searching for new physics beyond the Standard Model. Atomic experiments give limits on the extra Z-boson, leptoquarks, composite fermions, and radiative corrections produced by particles that are predicted by new theories. The weak charge and nuclear anapole moment can be measured in the same experiment. The weak charge gives the mean value of the PNC effect while the anapole gives the difference of the PNC effects for the different hyperfine components of an electromagnetic transition. The interaction between atomic electrons and the nuclear anapole moment may be called the ''PNC hyperfine interaction.''

  17. Stress test of the nuclear power plants performed in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, C.H.; Teng, W.C.; Chang, S.; Chen, Y.B. [Atomic Energy Council, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-01

    In the wake of Japan's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants event, the Atomic Energy Council (AEC) has asked Taiwan's Nuclear Power Plant operator (TPC) to re-examine and re-evaluate the vulnerabilities of its nuclear units, and furthermore, take possible countermeasures against extreme natural disasters, including earthquake, tsunami and rock-and-mud slide. The evaluation process should be based on both within and beyond Design Basis Accidents, by reference to the actions recommended by the world nuclear authorities and groups, namely, IAEA, USNRC, NEI, ENSREG and WANO. Taiwan is a very densely populated region of the world. Furthermore, like Japan, due to its geophysical position, Taiwan is prone to large scale earthquakes, and although historically rare, Taiwan also faces the potential risk of tsunamis. AEC also asked TPC to perform the stress test following the specification given by WENRA (later ENSREG) and conducted in all the EU's nuclear reactors. After completion of the stress test for all the nuclear power plants, AEC was trying to have the reports peer reviewed by international organizations, as EU did. The OECD/NEA accepted AEC's request and formed a review team specific to the review of Taiwan's National Report for the Stress Test. There were 18 follow-up items after the NEA's review. Based on these items, AEC developed five orders to require TPC further enhancing their capabilities to cope with extreme natural hazards. The ENSREG also formed a nine-expert review team for Taiwan's Stress Test in response to AEC's request almost at the same time as the OECD/NEA. The ENSREG review team began their works in June 2013 by desktop review, and ended in early October 2013 by country visit to Taiwan. While the assessment of post-Fukushima evaluation reveals neither immediate nuclear safety concerns nor threats to the public health and safety, AEC requested that TPC focus on strengthening its re-evaluation on design

  18. Stress test of the nuclear power plants performed in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.H.; Teng, W.C.; Chang, S.; Chen, Y.B.

    2014-01-01

    In the wake of Japan's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants event, the Atomic Energy Council (AEC) has asked Taiwan's Nuclear Power Plant operator (TPC) to re-examine and re-evaluate the vulnerabilities of its nuclear units, and furthermore, take possible countermeasures against extreme natural disasters, including earthquake, tsunami and rock-and-mud slide. The evaluation process should be based on both within and beyond Design Basis Accidents, by reference to the actions recommended by the world nuclear authorities and groups, namely, IAEA, USNRC, NEI, ENSREG and WANO. Taiwan is a very densely populated region of the world. Furthermore, like Japan, due to its geophysical position, Taiwan is prone to large scale earthquakes, and although historically rare, Taiwan also faces the potential risk of tsunamis. AEC also asked TPC to perform the stress test following the specification given by WENRA (later ENSREG) and conducted in all the EU's nuclear reactors. After completion of the stress test for all the nuclear power plants, AEC was trying to have the reports peer reviewed by international organizations, as EU did. The OECD/NEA accepted AEC's request and formed a review team specific to the review of Taiwan's National Report for the Stress Test. There were 18 follow-up items after the NEA's review. Based on these items, AEC developed five orders to require TPC further enhancing their capabilities to cope with extreme natural hazards. The ENSREG also formed a nine-expert review team for Taiwan's Stress Test in response to AEC's request almost at the same time as the OECD/NEA. The ENSREG review team began their works in June 2013 by desktop review, and ended in early October 2013 by country visit to Taiwan. While the assessment of post-Fukushima evaluation reveals neither immediate nuclear safety concerns nor threats to the public health and safety, AEC requested that TPC focus on strengthening its re-evaluation on design

  19. Leak testing United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission type b packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacy, K.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WTPP) is a one of its kind research and development facility operated by the Department of Energy, Carlsbad Area Office. Located in southeastern New Mexico, the WTPP is designed to demonstrate the safe, permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive nuclear waste, accumulated from 40 years of nuclear weapons production. Before the waste can be disposed of, it must first be safely transported from generator storage sites to the WIPP. To accomplish this, the TRUPACT-II was designed and fabricated. This double containment, non-vented waste packaging successfully completed a rigorous testing program, and in 1989 received a Certificate of Compliance (C of C) from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Currently, the TRUPACT-II is in use at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to transport waste on site for characterization. The DOE/CAO is responsible for maintaining the TRUPACT-II C of C. The C of C requires performance of nondestructive examination (NDE), e.g., visual testing (VT), dimensional inspections, Liquid Dye Penetrant testing (PT), and Helium Leak Detection (HLD). The Waste Isolation Division (WID) uses HLD for verification of the containment integrity. The following HLD tests are performed on annual basis or when required, i.e. repairs or component replacement: (1) fabrication verification leak tests on both the outer containment vessel (OCV) and the inner containment vessel (ICV); (2) assembly verification leak tests on the OCV and ICV upper main o-rings; and (3) assembly verification leak tests on the OCV and the ICV vent port plugs. These tests are addressed in detail as part of this presentation

  20. Development of fracture toughness test method for nuclear grade graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C. H.; Lee, J. S.; Cho, H. C.; Kim, D. J.; Lee, D. J. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    Because of its high strength and stability at very high temperature, as well as very low thermal neutron absorption cross-section, graphite has been widely used as a structural material in Gas Cooled Reactors (GCR). Recently, many countries are developing the Very High Temperature gas cooled Reactor (VHTR) because of the potentials of hydrogen production, as well as its safety and viable economics. In VHTR, helium gas serves as the primary coolant. Graphite will be used as a reflector, moderator and core structural materials. The life time of graphite is determined from dimensional changes due to neutron irradiation, which closely relates to the changes of crystal structure. The changes of both lattice parameter and crystallite size can be easily measured by X-ray diffraction method. However, due to high cost and long time of neutron irradiation test, ion irradiation test is being performed instead in KAERI. Therefore, it is essential to develop the technique for measurement of ion irradiation damage of nuclear graphite. Fracture toughness of nuclear grade graphite is one of the key properties in the design and development of VHTR. It is important not only to evaluate the various properties of candidate graphite but also to assess the integrity of nuclear grade graphite during operation. Although fracture toughness tests on graphite have been performed in many laboratories, there have been wide variations in values of the calculated fracture toughness, due to the differences in the geometry of specimens and test conditions. Hence, standard test method for nuclear graphite is required to obtain the reliable fracture toughness values. Crack growth behavior of nuclear grade graphite shows rising R-curve which means the increase in crack growth resistance as the crack length increases. Crack bridging and microcracking have been proposed to be the dominant mechanisms of rising R-curve behavior. In this paper, the technique to measure the changes of crystallite size and

  1. Effects of bombing after five years: Development of early maladaptive cognitive schemas in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoloski-Končar Nataša

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study is to examine effects of bombing on development of early maladaptive schemas in children who live in directly bombed towns in comparison with children who live in towns not directly exposed to bombing. The subjects were twelve years old at the moment of testing (February 2005 meaning that they were at the age of seven during the bombing. Additional aim was to examine gender differences in development of early maladaptive schemas. The theory of Young (1990 provided framework for the study. According to the theory, early maladaptive cognitive schemas, which present basis for psychological disorder later in life, begin to develop in childhood in connection with traumatic experiences and/or other aversive circumstances. The results showed that the early maladaptive schemas are more frequent in children from directly exposed towns; and in male subjects comparing with females.

  2. Field vibration test of principal equipment of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiraki, Kazuhiro; Fujita, Katsuhisa; Kajimura, Motohiko; Ikegami, Yasuhiko; Hanzawa, Katsumi; Sakai, Yoshiyuki; Kokubo, Eiji; Igarashi, Shigeru

    1984-09-01

    Japan is one of the most earthquake-stricken countries in the world, and demands for aseismic design have become severer recently. In a nuclear power plant in particular, consisting of a reactor vessel and other facilities dealing with a radioactive substance in some form or other, it is essential from the standpoint of safety to eliminate any possibility of radioactive hazards for the local public, and the employees at the plant as well, if these facilities are struck by an earthquake. This paper is related to the reactor vessel, reactor primary cooling equipment and piping system and important general piping as examples of important facilities of a nuclear power plant, and discusses vibration tests of an actual plant in the field from the standpoint of enhancing the aseismic safety of the Mitsubishi PWR nuclear power plant. Especially concerning vibration test technology, the effects in the evaluation of aseismic safety and its limits are studied to prove how it contributes to the enhancement of the reliability of aseismic design of nuclear power plants.

  3. Mineral inventory of the Nevada Test Site, and portions of Nellis Bombing and Gunnery Range Southern Nye County, Nevada. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quade, J.; Tingley, J.V.

    1983-09-01

    The Nevada Test Site Mineral Inventory was completed in two stages. First, a search of the literature was made, and data on mineral occurrences within the project were compiled on short form Nevada CRIB forms. Mining activity in the area was plotted on maps for field use. Folios were then prepared for each mining district of area which included CRIB forms, geologic data, and pertinent references. This material was used for planning the field examinations. During the field phase of the project, every accessible mining district within the study area was examined. All important properties in each district as well as many outlying prospects were examined and described in order to provide more complete and accurate information beyond that provided in the literature. During the field examination, emphasis was placed on collecting geologic information on mineral occurrences and on noting past activity. In addition, samples showing typical mineralization were collected from most properties visited. All of the samples were high-graded from dumps, ore piles, outcrops, and from subsurface mine workings where access was possible. In some areas, samples of nearby intrusive rock or altered material were collected for comparison purposes

  4. Out-pile Test of Double Cladding Fuel Rod Mockups for a Nuclear Fuel Irradiation Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Jaemin; Park, Sungjae; Kang, Younghwan; Kim, Harkrho; Kim, Bonggoo; Kim, Youngki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    An instrumented capsule for a nuclear fuel irradiation test has been developed to measure fuel characteristics, such as a fuel temperature, internal pressure of a fuel rod, a fuel pellet elongation and a neutron flux during an irradiation test at HANARO. In the future, nuclear fuel irradiation tests under a high temperature condition are expected from users. To prepare for this request, we have continued developing the technology for a high temperature nuclear fuel irradiation test at HANARO. The purpose of this paper is to verify the possibility that the temperature of a nuclear fuel can be controlled at a high temperature during an irradiation test. Therefore we designed and fabricated double cladding fuel rod mockups. And we performed out-pile tests using these mockups. The purposes of a out-pile test is to analyze an effect of a gap size, which is between an outer cladding and an inner cladding, on the temperature and the effect of a mixture ratio of helium gas and neon gas on the temperature. This paper presents the design and fabrication of double cladding fuel rod mockups and the results of the out-pile test.

  5. Nuclear power in Russia: status, problems, prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev-Stepnoy, N.

    1992-01-01

    To solve the problem of atomic bomb, a powerful nuclear industrial complex has been established in the Soviet Union. This complex has developed a high scientific and engineering potential and enlisted the best science and engineering experts. Strict administration, rigid discipline in execution and operation, to secrecy limiting both internal and external interactions were typical of the complex which presented a state within the state with the inside divide by rigid barriers and protected from the outside by iron curtain. When the atomic bomb was designed and tested the search for a field of application for the nuclear potential available was started: nuclear power plants, nuclear power facilities for submarines and ships, nuclear aircraft and rocket engines, space nuclear facilities. Such were the conditions of forming the nuclear power in USSR. But this nuclear military complex has failed to prevent the Chelyabinsk accident which involved considerable radiological effects. The national industry could not adopt quickly the work style established in a nuclear complex and relative high technologies because of low educational and technical level and poor technological discipline. The results are known: the Chernobyl accident coincided in time with the beginning of the reconstruction of the System, the result of which was this accident. This paper describes the current status of the nuclear park, shows the problems of safety, maintenance, retrofitting, reconstruction or decommissioning. Statistical data on nuclear power in the power production program are also given

  6. Local variations in {sup 14}C - How is bomb-pulse dating of human tissues and cells affected?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenstroem, Kristina, E-mail: Kristina.Stenstrom@nuclear.lu.s [Lund University, Department of Physics, Division of Nuclear Physics, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Skog, Goeran [Lund University, GeoBiosphere Science Centre, Geocentrum II, Soelvegatan 12, SE-223 672 Lund (Sweden); Nilsson, Carl Magnus [Lund University, Department of Physics, Division of Nuclear Physics, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Lund University, Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Malmoe University Hospital, SE-205 02 Malmoe (Sweden); Hellborg, Ragnar [Lund University, Department of Physics, Division of Nuclear Physics, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Svegborn, Sigrid Leide [Lund University, Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Malmoe University Hospital, SE-205 02 Malmoe (Sweden); Georgiadou, Elisavet [Lund University, Department of Physics, Division of Nuclear Physics, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Mattsson, Soeren [Lund University, Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Malmoe University Hospital, SE-205 02 Malmoe (Sweden)

    2010-04-15

    Atmospheric nuclear weapons testing in the late 1950s and early 1960s almost doubled the amount of {sup 14}C in the atmosphere. The resulting {sup 14}C 'bomb-pulse' has been shown to provide useful age information in e.g. forensic and environmental sciences, biology and the geosciences. The technique is also currently being used for retrospective cell dating in man, in order to provide insight into the rate of formation of new cells in the human body. Bomb-pulse dating relies on precise measurements of the declining {sup 14}C concentration in atmospheric CO{sub 2} collected at clean-air sites. However, it is not always recognized that the calculations can be complicated in some cases by significant local variations in the specific activity of {sup 14}C in carbon in the air and foodstuff. This paper presents investigations of local {sup 14}C variations in the vicinities of nuclear installations and laboratories using {sup 14}C. Levels of {sup 14}C in workers using this radioisotope are also discussed.

  7. Gastric cancer in atomic bomb survivors, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshiro, Hisashi; Odan, Hideki; Hinoi, Takao; Inagaki, Kazuo; Tanaka, Issei

    1992-01-01

    During 22 years from 1968 through 1989, 538 A-bomb survivors were operated on for gastric cancer, accounting for 30.9% of 1,741 surgical cases of gastric cancer during that period. To determine whether age at the time of exposure to A-bombing might influenced the occurrrence of gastric cancer, these A-bomb survivors were compared with 1,138 other non-exposed gastric cancer patients. According to age at the time of exposure, the 538 A-bomb survivors were divided into those under the age of 19 (118), those in their twenties (134), those in their thirties (178), and those over the age of 40 (108). The largest number of gastric cancer was those in their thirties at the time of exposure, followed by the twenties, 19 years or less, and 40 years or more in the exposed group. The younger A-bomb survivors were at the time of exposure, the earlier gastric cancer occurred. These findings were common to the non-exposed group. Postoperative 5-year survival rate was 72.0% in A-bomb survivors aged 19 years or less at the time of exposure, which was better than the other age groups. This may be explained by active participation in health examination for A-bomb survivors. (N.K.)

  8. Seismological analysis of the fourth North Korean nuclear test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Gernot; Gestermann, Nicolai; Ceranna, Lars

    2016-04-01

    The Democratic People's Republic of Korea has conducted its fourth underground nuclear explosions on 06.01.2016 at 01:30 (UTC). The explosion was clearly detected and located by the seismic network of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Additional seismic stations of international earthquake monitoring networks at regional distances, which are not part of the IMS, are used to precisely estimate the epicenter of the event in the North Hamgyong province (41.38°N / 129.05°E). It is located in the area of the North Korean Punggye-ri nuclear test site, where the verified nuclear tests from 2006, 2009, and 2013 were conducted as well. The analysis of the recorded seismic signals provides the evidence, that the event was originated by an explosive source. The amplitudes as well as the spectral characteristics of the signals were examined. Furthermore, the similarity of the signals with those from the three former nuclear tests suggests very similar source type. The seismograms at the 8,200 km distant IMS station GERES in Germany, for example, show the same P phase signal for all four explosions, differing in the amplitude only. The comparison of the measured amplitudes results in the increasing magnitude with the chronology of the explosions from 2006 (mb 4.2), 2009 (mb 4.8) until 2013 (mb 5.1), whereas the explosion in 2016 had approximately the same magnitude as that one three years before. Derived from the magnitude, a yield of 14 kt TNT equivalents was estimated for both explosions in 2013 and 2016; in 2006 and 2009 yields were 0.7 kt and 5.4 kt, respectively. However, a large inherent uncertainty for these values has to be taken into account. The estimation of the absolute yield of the explosions depends very much on the local geological situation and the degree of decoupling of the explosive from the surrounding rock. Due to the missing corresponding information, reliable magnitude-yield estimation for the

  9. SCOPE-RADTEST: Radioactivity from nuclear test explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, C.S.; Tsaturov, Y.

    1993-10-01

    The SCOPE-RADTEST program consists of an international collaborative study involving Russia, the USA, China, and Kazakhstan. It will focus on the releases of radioactivity that resulted from nuclear test explosions that have taken place at various test sites around the world for peaceful and military purposes. RADTEST will focus on these principal tasks: (1) To inventory data on measurements of radionuclide deposition densities, and identify gaps in these data. (2) To compare old and develop new models of radioactive transport to better understand the deposition densities of radionuclides both on and near the nuclear test sites, including areas downwind where potentially significant episodes of fallout have occurred (such as the Altaj Region of Russia). (3) To study the migration of the radionuclides through the biosphere, including all pathways to humans. This will include the study of the effects on other biota that have impacts on humans. The main focus will be to characterize the nature and magnitude of the dose to humans. This will include dose reconstructions from past events, and also an increased capability for dose prediction from possible future accidental or deliberate explosions. (4)To analyze the data on the effects of these doses (including low doses) on human health. The test sites to be studied would include the Nevada Test Site (USA), South Pacific Islands (USA), Novaja Zemla (Russia), Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan) and Luc Bu Pu (Lop Nor) (China). Tests at these sites include most of the total of nuclear explosions that have been conducted. Other sites, (including the sites of the U.K. and France), as appropriate, may also be included where tests were conducted for peaceful or military purposes

  10. Nuclear test - The French nuclear strike force in the 21. century: challenges, ambitions and strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wodka-Gallien, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    This bibliographical note presents a book in which the author, after having recalled the history of the French nuclear force since the first nuclear test in 1960, and outlined the fact that France has been living under the protection of its own nuclear deterrence force since that date, presents the components of this nuclear strike force with its four nuclear submarines equipped to launch new generation missiles, its fifty fighter bomber aircraft equipped with the ASMP-A missile. He presents and discusses the mission of this nuclear force, discusses the relevancy of the deterrence strategy in the present context, and the significance of such a strategy for a European country like France. He wanders whether this strike force is still affordable for our country, which can be its benefits, whether this arsenal remains useful as it has been designed in the Cold War context. He also discusses the disarmament perspectives in an unsteady international environment where power and arms race logics prevail again

  11. Summary of Numerical Modeling for Underground Nuclear Test Monitoring Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, S.R.; Kamm, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    This document contains the Proceedings of the Numerical Modeling for Underground Nuclear Test Monitoring Symposium held in Durango, Colorado on March 23-25, 1993. The symposium was sponsored by the Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation of the United States Department of Energy and hosted by the Source Region Program of Los Alamos National Laboratory. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss state-of-the-art advances in numerical simulations of nuclear explosion phenomenology for the purpose of test ban monitoring. Another goal of the symposium was to promote discussion between seismologists and explosion source-code calculators. Presentation topics include the following: numerical model fits to data, measurement and characterization of material response models, applications of modeling to monitoring problems, explosion source phenomenology, numerical simulations and seismic sources

  12. The Potentialities of the Atomic Bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meade, Roger Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bradbury, Norris E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-07

    In January 1949, Norris Bradbury gave a lecture at the National War College which summarized the progress Los Alamos had made since the end of the war. The transcript of the talk was filed and forgotten until it surfaced fifty years later. It is, perhaps, one of the best summaries of the state of the United States nuclear weapons program in 1949. It is also evidence of how Bradbury saw the future of atomic weapons. It is presented in full, with minor editing, and begins as follows: Since the first use of an atomic bomb on August 5 [sic], 1945, over the city of Hiroshima, Japan, there has been a continual flood of speculation and discussion concerning the effect of this new weapon on military technology. Much of this speculation and discussion has been intelligent and fruitful; much, I regret to say, has had neither of these characteristics. The enormity of the device, in terms of potential destruction and loss of life, and the practical necessity to surround the technical facts with full security restrictions have only combined to make the problem more difficult. At the same time, it is imperative that policymaking personnel in charge of long range national planning know the basic facts concerning atomic weapons and have these facts in a reasonable perspective. This document describes these potentialities in detail.

  13. Sources of Radioactive Isotopes for Dirty Bombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubenau, Joel

    2004-05-01

    From the security perspective, radioisotopes and radioactive sources are not created equal. Of the many radioisotopes used in industrial applications, medical treatments, and scientific research, only eight, when present in relatively large amounts in radioactive sources, pose high security risks primarily because of their prevalence and physical properties. These isotopes are americium-241, californium-252, cesium-137, cobalt-60, iridium-192, radium-226, plutonium-238, and strontium-90. Except for the naturally occurring radium-226, nuclear reactors produce the other seven in bulk commercial quantities. Half of these isotopes emit alpha radiation and would, thus, primarily pose internal threats to health; the others are mainly high-energy gamma emitters and would present both external and internal health hazards. Therefore, the response to a "dirty bomb" event depends on what type of radioisotope is chosen and how it is employed. While only a handful of major corporations produce the reactor-generated radioisotopes, they market these materials to thousands of smaller companies and users throughout the world. Improving the security of the high-risk radioactive sources will require, among other efforts, cooperation among source suppliers and regulatory agencies.

  14. A quality assurance program for nuclear power reactor materials tests at the Ford nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burn, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    The University of Michigan Nuclear Reactor Laboratory Quality Assurance Program has been established to assure that materials testing services provided to electric utilities produce accurate results in accordance with industry standards, sound engineering practice, and customer requirements. The program was prepared to comply with applicable requirements of 10CFR50, Appendix B, of the Code of Federal Regulations and a standard of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), N45.2. The paper discusses the quality assurance program applicability, organization, qualification and training of personnel, material identification and control, examination and testing, measuring and test equipment, nonconforming test equipment, records, audits, and distribution

  15. Nuclear-physical methods in macro- and microanalytical investigations of contamination with radionuclides at Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solodukhin, V.P.

    2005-01-01

    A complex of nuclear-physical methods developed in the Institute of Nuclear Physics of Kazakhstan National Nuclear Center for the investigations of the rate, character and peculiarities of contamination with radionuclides of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) is presented. The developed method combines both macroinvestigations (radionuclide analysis, NAA, XRFA, ESR- and NGR-spectroscopy) and microinvestigations (MS, micro-PIXE, electron microscopy). The results of the investigations at the main SNTS test sites 'Opytnoye pole' and 'Degelen' are presented. (author)

  16. Letter Report: Contaminant Boundary at the Shoal Underground Nuclear Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greg Pohll; Karl Pohlmann

    2004-01-01

    As part of the corrective action strategy reached between the U.S. Department of Energy and the State of Nevada, the extent and potential impact of radionuclide contamination of groundwater at underground nuclear test locations must be addressed. This report provides the contaminant boundary for the Project Shoal Site, based on the groundwater flow and transport model for the site, by Pohlmann (and others)

  17. Quantitative tests of pion physics in simple nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, T.E.O.

    1984-01-01

    The need for quantitative tests of pion physics in simple nuclear systems is discussed under eight topic headings. These include: one-pion exchange potential, p-wave NN scattering lengths, opep pole in forward NN dispersion relations, np → pn near the forward direction, pionic interactions, deuteron D/S ratio eta, deuteron quadrupole moment, and finally the joint case of eta and Q. (U.K.)

  18. A registry for exposure and population health in the Altai region affected by fallout from the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoikhet, Y N; Kiselev, V I; Zaitsev, E V; Kolyado, I B; Konovalov, B Y; Bauer, S; Grosche, B; Burkart, W

    1999-09-01

    A registry of the rural population in the Altai region exposed to fallout from nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk test site (STS) was established more than four decades after the first Soviet nuclear explosion on August 29, 1949. Information about individuals living in an exposed and a control area was collected using all available local sources, such as kolkhoz documentation, school registries, medical treatment records and interviews with residents. As a result, a database comprising an exposed group of 39 179 individuals from 53 Altai region villages, 6769 external and 3303 internal controls was compiled. For several settlements, effective dose estimates reached the level of 1.5 Sv, while the average effective dose estimate in the exposed group was 340 mSv. Dosimetric data, vital status information and health records gathered at rayon and village medical facilities are held in the registry. Cause-of-death information for deceased residents is obtained from death registration forms archived at the Altai region vital statistics office. At present, a follow-up of approximately 40% of the population exposed in 1949 has been done. More will be added by searching for migrants to the larger towns of the Altai region, i.e. Barnaul, Rubtsovsk and Biisk. In order to assess the influence of radiation exposure, analytical studies with a case-control design for stomach and lung cancer are currently being prepared. The number of known cases is sufficient to detect an odds ratio of 1.5 at the 95% confidence level. Epidemiological studies in populations affected by fallout from STS may be equally important to the atomic bomb survivors' study for the direct quantification of radiation effects. The range of exposure rates experienced will extend the acute high-dose-rate findings from Hiroshima/Nagasaki towards acute and protracted lower exposures, which are more relevant for radiation protection issues.

  19. A registry for exposure and population health in the Altai region affected by fallout from the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoikhet, Ya.N.; Kiselev, V.I.; Zaitsev, E.V.; Kolyado, I.B.; Konovalov, B.Yu.; Bauer, S.; Grosche, B.; Burkart, W.

    1999-01-01

    A registry of the rural population in the Altai region exposed to fallout from nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk test site (STS) was established more than four decades after the first Soviet nuclear explosion on August 29, 1949. Information about individuals living in an exposed and a control area was collected using all available local sources, such as kolkhoz documentation, school registries, medical treatment records and interviews with residents. As a result, a database comprising an exposed group of 39 179 individuals from 53 Altai region villages, 6769 external and 3303 internal controls was compiled. For several settlements, effective dose estimates reached the level of 1.5 Sv, while the average effective dose estimate in the exposed group was 340 mSv. Dosimetric data, vital status information and health records gathered at rayon and village medical facilities are held in the registry. Cause-of-death information for deceased residents is obtained from death registration forms archived at the Altai region vital statistics office. At present, a follow-up of approximately 40% of the population exposed in 1949 has been done. More will be added by searching for migrants to the larger towns of the Altai region, i.e. Barnaul, Rubtsovsk and Biisk. In order to assess the influence of radiation exposure, analytical studies with a case-control design for stomach and lung cancer are currently being prepared. The number of known cases is sufficient to detect an odds ratio of 1.5 at the 95% confidence level. Epidemiological studies in populations affected by fallout from STS may be equally important to the atomic bomb survivors' study for the direct quantification of radiation effects. The range of exposure rates experienced will extend the acute high-dose-rate findings from Hiroshima/Nagasaki towards acute and protracted lower exposures, which are more relevant for radiation protection issues. (orig.)

  20. Testing of Small Graphite Samples for Nuclear Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Chapman

    2010-11-01

    Accurately determining the mechanical properties of small irradiated samples is crucial to predicting the behavior of the overal irradiated graphite components within a Very High Temperature Reactor. The sample size allowed in a material test reactor, however, is limited, and this poses some difficulties with respect to mechanical testing. In the case of graphite with a larger grain size, a small sample may exhibit characteristics not representative of the bulk material, leading to inaccuracies in the data. A study to determine a potential size effect on the tensile strength was pursued under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant program. It focuses first on optimizing the tensile testing procedure identified in the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard C 781-08. Once the testing procedure was verified, a size effect was assessed by gradually reducing the diameter of the specimens. By monitoring the material response, a size effect was successfully identified.

  1. SP-100 nuclear assembly test: Test assembly functional requirements and system arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallas, T.T.; Gluck, R.; Motwani, K.; Clay, H.; O'Neill, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the functional requirements and the system that will be tested to validate the reactor, flight shield, and flight controller of the SP-100 Generic Flight System (GFS). The Nuclear Assembly Test (NAT) consists of the test article (SP-100 reactor with control devices and the flight shield) and its supporting systems. The NAT test assembly is being designed by GE. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is designing the test cell and vacuum vessel system that will contain the NAT test assembly (Renkey et al. 1989). Preliminary design reviews have been completed and the final design is under way

  2. HTTR demonstration test plan for industrial utilization of nuclear heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Yan, Xing L.; Kubo, Shinji; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Tachibana, Yukio; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki

    2014-09-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been conducting research and development with a central focus on the utilization of High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR), the first High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) in Japan, towards the realization of industrial use of nuclear heat. Several studies have made on the integration of the HTTR with thermochemical iodine-sulfur process and steam methane reforming hydrogen production plant (H 2 plant) as well as helium gas turbine power conversion system. In addition, safety standards for coupling a H 2 plant to a nuclear facility has been investigated. Based on the past design information, the present study identified test items to be validated in the HTTR demonstration test to accomplish a formulation of safety requirement and design consideration for coupling a H 2 plant to a nuclear facility as well as confirmation of overall performance of helium gas turbine system. In addition, plant concepts for the heat utilization system to be connected with the HTTR are investigated. (author)

  3. Review of dosimetry for the atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    This paper summarizes and discusses results of some 1980-1981 studies of neutron and γ-ray exposure to the atomic bomb survivors by W.E. Loewe and E. Mendelsohn of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, D.C. Kaul and W.H. Scott of Science Applications, Inc., and J.V. Pace of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Some other special studies which are now underway to complete the review will also be discussed. The expert assistance of others in these special studies is being supported in part by the US Department of Energy and in part by the US Defense Nuclear Agency

  4. The 129iodine bomb pulse recorded in Mississippi River Delta sediments: results from isotopes of I, Pu, Cs, Pb, and C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktay, S. D.; Santschi, P. H.; Moran, J. E.; Sharma, P.

    2000-03-01

    129I ( t1/2 = 1.56 × 10 7 yr) has both natural as well as anthropogenic sources. Anthropogenic sources from nuclear reprocessing discharges and bomb test fallout have completely overwhelmed the natural signal on the surface of the earth in the last 50 years. However, the transfer functions in and out of environmental compartments are not well known due to temporal variations in the sources of 129I and to a lack of knowledge regarding the forms of iodine. From a vertical profile of 129I/ 127I ratios in sediments located in the Mississippi Delta region in approximately 60 meters water depth, the 129I input function to this region was reconstructed. Dates in the core were assigned based on the plutonium peak at 20 cm depth (assumed to have been deposited in 1963) and the excess 210Pb profile in the same depth interval, and below that, based on the steadily decreasing 240Pu/ 239Pu ratios from a ratio of 0.18 at 22 cm to 0.05 at 57 cm depth, the 1953 horizon. These low 240Pu/ 239Pu values are attributed to low yield, close-in, tropospherically transported bomb fallout produced from the Nevada test site in the early 1950s, which had a value of about 0.035, and strongly suggest a terrestrial source for Pu isotopes. 129I/ 127I ratios increased from 2 × 10 -10 at 3 cm to 4 × 10 -10 at 20 cm, and from there decreased monotonously to pre-anthropogenic values at 53 cm and below. 129I concentrations ranged from 8-13 × 10 6 atoms/g in the top 20 cm, and decreased to values of less than 1 × 10 6 atoms/g below 50 cm. Atom ratios of 129I/ 137Cs, decay corrected to 1962, the year of maximum radionuclide production, are about 0.3, very close to the production ratios of about 0.2 during atomic bomb tests. This evidence, combined with other observations, strongly suggests that 129I in Mississippi River Delta sediments originates from atomic bomb fallout eroded from soils of the Mississippi River drainage basin, with little alteration of the isotopic ratios during transport from

  5. Pump testing in the nuclear industry: The comprehensive test and other considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyle, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    The American Society of Mechanical Engineers Operations and Maintenance Working Group on Pumps and Valves is working on a revision to their pump testing Code, ISTB-1990. This revision will change the basic philosophy of pump testing in the nuclear industry. Currently, all pumps are required to be tested quarterly, except those installed in dry sumps. In the future standby pumps will receive only a start test quarterly to ensure the pump comes up to speed and pressure or flow. Then, on a biennial basis all pumps would receive a more extensive test. This comprehensive test would require high accuracy test gauges to be used, and the pumps would be required to be tested near pump design flow. Testing on minimum flow loops would not be permitted except in rare cases. Additionally. during the comprehensive test, measurements of vibration, flow, and pressure would all be taken. The OM-6 standard (ISTB Code) will also require that reference values of flow rate and differential pressure be taken at several points instead of just one point, which is current practice. The comprehensive test is just one step in ensuring the adequacy of pump testing in the nuclear industry. This paper also addresses other concerns and makes recommendations for increased quality of testing of certain critical pumps and recommendations for less stringent or no tests on less critical pumps

  6. Software engineers and nuclear engineers: teaming up to do testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, D.; Cote, N.; Shepard, T.

    2007-01-01

    The software engineering community has traditionally paid little attention to the specific needs of engineers and scientists who develop their own software. Recently there has been increased recognition that specific software engineering techniques need to be found for this group of developers. In this case study, a software engineering group teamed with a nuclear engineering group to develop a software testing strategy. This work examines the types of testing that proved to be useful and examines what each discipline brings to the table to improve the quality of the software product. (author)

  7. Childhood leukemia and fallout from the Nevada nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, C.E.; McKay, F.W.; Machado, S.G.

    1984-01-01

    Cancer mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics, covering the period 1950 through 1978, were used to test a reported association between childhood leukemia and exposure to radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons tests in Nevada between 1951 and 1958. No pattern of temporal and geographic variation in risk supportive of the reported association was found. Comparison of these results with those presented in support of an association of risk with fallout suggests that the purported association merely reflects an anomalously low leukemia rate in southern Utah during the period 1944 to 1949. 14 references, 4 figures, 7 tables

  8. Thermal performance test for steam turbine of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bu Yubing; Xu Zongfu; Wang Shiyong

    2014-01-01

    Through study of steam turbine thermal performance test of CPR1000 nuclear power plant, we solve the enthalpy calculation problems of the steam turbine in wet steam zone using heat balance method which can help to figure out the real overall heat balance diagram for the first time, and we develop a useful software for thermal heat balance calculation. Ling'ao phase II as an example, this paper includes test instrument layout, system isolation, risk control, data acquisition, wetness measurement, heat balance calculation, etc. (authors)

  9. Pressure test behaviour of embalse nuclear power plant containment structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruschi, S.; Marinelli, C.

    1984-01-01

    It's described the structural behaviour of the containment structure during the pressure test of the Embalse plant (CANDU type, 600MW), made of prestressed concrete with an epoxi liner. Displacement, strain, temperature, and pressure measurements of the containment structure of the Embalse Nuclear Power Plant are presented. The instrumentation set up and measurement specifications are described for all variables of interest before, during and after the pressure test. The analytical models to simulate the heat transfer due to sun heating and air convenction and to predict the associated thermal strains and displacements are presented. (E.G.) [pt

  10. Nuclear waste package materials testing report: basaltic and tuffaceous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.J.; Coles, D.G.; Hodges, F.N.; McVay, G.L.; Westerman, R.E.

    1983-03-01

    The disposal of high-level nuclear wastes in underground repositories in the continental United States requires the development of a waste package that will contain radionuclides for a time period commensurate with performance criteria, which may be up to 1000 years. This report addresses materials testing in support of a waste package for a basalt (Hanford, Washington) or a tuff (Nevada Test Site) repository. The materials investigated in this testing effort were: sodium and calcium bentonites and mixtures with sand or basalt as a backfill; iron and titanium-based alloys as structural barriers; and borosilicate waste glass PNL 76-68 as a waste form. The testing also incorporated site-specific rock media and ground waters: Reference Umtanum Entablature-1 basalt and reference basalt ground water, Bullfrog tuff and NTS J-13 well water. The results of the testing are discussed in four major categories: Backfill Materials: emphasizing water migration, radionuclide migration, physical property and long-term stability studies. Structural Barriers: emphasizing uniform corrosion, irradiation-corrosion, and environmental-mechanical testing. Waste Form Release Characteristics: emphasizing ground water, sample surface area/solution volume ratio, and gamma radiolysis effects. Component Compatibility: emphasizing solution/rock, glass/rock, glass/structural barrier, and glass/backfill interaction tests. This area also includes sensitivity testing to determine primary parameters to be studied, and the results of systems tests where more than two waste package components were combined during a single test

  11. Upgrade and Development of Nuclear Data Production Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-04-15

    It is necessary to improve the Pohang Neutron Facility (PNF) in order to be used as a nuclear data production facility for users in both domestic and abroad. We improved following items: (1) upgrade the electron linac, (2) collimators inside the TOF beam pipe, (3) the development and installation of an automatic sample changer, (4) the extension of the TOF beam line, and (5) the data acquisition system. We would like to establish a utilization system for users to measure the nuclear data at the PNF. To do this, we made manuals for the accelerator operation and the data acquisition system. We also made an application form to apply for users to measure the nuclear data in both domestic and abroad. The main object of the Pohang Neutron Facility is to measure the nuclear data in the neutron energy region from thermal neutron to few hundreds of eV. In addition to neutron beams produced at the PNF, photon and electron beams are produced in this facility. We thus utilize this facility for other fields, such as test facility for detectors, activation experiments, polarized neutron beam source, and so on. In addition to these, we could use this facility for training students

  12. Upgrade and development of nuclear data production test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namkung, Won; Ko, I. S.; Cho, M. H.; Lee, Y. S.; Kang, H. S. [Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, G. N. [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Koh, S. K. [Univ. of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Ro, T. I. [Donga Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, G. U. [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-04-15

    It is necessary to improve the Pohang Neutron Facility (PNF) in order to be used as a nuclear data production facility for users in both domestic and abroad. We improved following items: upgrade the electron linac, collimators inside the TOF beam pipe, the development and installation of an automatic sample changer, the extension of the TOF beam line, and the data acquisition system. We would like to establish a utilization system for users to measure the nuclear data at the PNF. To do this, we made manuals for the accelerator operation and the data acquisition system. We also made an application form to apply for users to measure the nuclear data in both domestic and abroad. The main object of the Pohang Neutron Facility is to measure the nuclear data in the neutron energy region from thermal neutron to few hundreds of eV. In addition to neutron beams produced at the PNF, photon and electron beams are produced in this facility. We thus utilize this facility for other fields, such as test facility for detectors, activation experiments, polarized neutron beam source, and so on. In addition to these, we could use this facility for training students.

  13. History of creation of Semipalatinsk test nuclear site. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    In 1949 August USSR's Government adopted decision about creation of nuclear site with conditional name Uchebnyj polygon 2. For its building was chosen territory in 140 km from Semipalatinsk city. Semipalatinsk test site consists of the land of three regions: Semipalatinsk, Pavlodar, Karaganda and it occupies 18,500 km 2 of fertile land, rich with minerals. Now this territory was alienated from national using. Polygon was complex object and it incorporated three main zones: Opytnoe Pole, zone of radiation safety, site Sh. Opytnoe Pole was equipped by special constructions ensuring nuclear test conducting, its observing and registration of physical measurements and occupied 2,300 km 2 . Around of the Opytnoe Pole is situated zone of radiation safety with area 45 thousand ha. Site Sh was situated in 14 km from center of Opytnoe Pole and it was intended for distribution of individual protection devices, dosimeters and for conducting of dis-activation and sanitary works. History of the site creation is connected with building of Kurchatov city. In dozen and hundred of kilometers from Kurchatov city there were top secret objects: site Balapan with total area 100,000 ha intended for conducting of nuclear tests in wells with threshold capacity 100-200 kt. Here simultaneously with main problems on the site the military-applied works were conducted on mechanics, physics of combustion, simulation of Earthquakes and determination of seismic stability of buildings and constructions. Research site Degelen with total area 33,100 ha which has been used for underground testing of nuclear charges with small capacity. Site 10 one of large research technical complex on which two reactor units were installed. Main tasks of the complex were as follows: high-temperature fuel materials testing, conducting of fundamental researches in field of physics of fissile products, thermal physics and gas hydrodynamics. On site M a laboratory base for radiochemical, radiological and chemical

  14. Estimation of the Hiroshima bomb yield and weather conditions at the time of the bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Eizo

    1984-01-01

    The results of the survey made immediately after the bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were compiled in Collection of Reports on the Investigation of the Atomic Bomb Casualties published in 1953. Much valuable information for the reassessment of dose are included in this document. One of the major problems to be solved for the dose reassessment is the yield of the Hiroshima bomb. Two articles with relatively detailed description were selected, and the estimation of the yield was attempted, based on them. The data on roof tile melting were used for the purpose. Assuming the yield of the Nagasaki bomb as 22 kt, the yield of the Hiroshima bomb was given as 12.4 kt. By the experiment using the charred state of cypress boards, the total radiant energy from the bomb was calculated as 4.6 x 10 12 cal, and the yield of the Hiroshima bomb was estimated as 14.2 kt and 13.2 kt. The true value is likely between 12 and 13 kt. The vapor pressure at the time of bombing significantly affected the neutron spectrum. On the day of bombing, Japan was covered by hot, humid maritime air mass, namely summer monsoon pattern. The air density and water vapor content in the atmosphere were determined by the Japan Weather Association, and compared with the data of Dr. Kerr et al. (Kako, I.)

  15. Operation of the nuclear fuel cycle test facilities -Operation of the hot test loop facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, S. Y.; Jeong, M. K.; Park, C. K.; Yang, S. K.; Won, S. Y.; Song, C. H.; Jeon, H. K.; Jeong, H. J.; Cho, S.; Min, K. H.; Jeong, J. H.

    1997-01-01

    A performance and reliability of a advanced nuclear fuel and reactor newly designed should be verified by performing the thermal hydraulics tests. In thermal hydraulics research team, the thermal hydraulics tests associated with the development of an advanced nuclear fuel and reactor haven been carried out with the test facilities, such as the Hot Test Loop operated under high temperature and pressure conditions, Cold Test Loop, RCS Loop and B and C Loop. The objective of this project is to obtain the available experimental data and to develop the advanced measuring techniques through taking full advantage of the facilities. The facilities operated by the thermal hydraulics research team have been maintained and repaired in order to carry out the thermal hydraulics tests necessary for providing the available data. The performance tests for the double grid type bottom end piece which was improved on the debris filtering effectivity were performed using the PWR-Hot Test Loop. The CANDU-Hot Test Loop was operated to carry out the pressure drop tests and strength tests of CANFLEX fuel. The Cold Test Loop was used to obtain the local velocity data in subchannel within HANARO fuel bundle and to study a thermal mixing characteristic of PWR fuel bundle. RCS thermal hydraulic loop was constructed and the experiments have been carried out to measure the critical heat flux. In B and C Loop, the performance tests for each component were carried out. (author). 19 tabs., 78 figs., 19 refs

  16. Operation of the nuclear fuel cycle test facilities -Operation of the hot test loop facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, S. Y.; Jeong, M. K.; Park, C. K.; Yang, S. K.; Won, S. Y.; Song, C. H.; Jeon, H. K.; Jeong, H. J.; Cho, S.; Min, K. H.; Jeong, J. H.

    1997-01-01

    A performance and reliability of a advanced nuclear fuel and reactor newly designed should be verified by performing the thermal hydraulics tests. In thermal hydraulics research team, the thermal hydraulics tests associated with the development of an advanced nuclear fuel and reactor haven been carried out with the test facilities, such as the Hot Test Loop operated under high temperature and pressure conditions, Cold Test Loop, RCS Loop and B and C Loop. The objective of this project is to obtain the available experimental data and to develop the advanced measuring techniques through taking full advantage of the facilities. The facilities operated by the thermal hydraulics research team have been maintained and repaired in order to carry out the thermal hydraulics tests necessary for providing the available data. The performance tests for the double grid type bottom end piece which was improved on the debris filtering effectivity were performed using the PWR-Hot Test Loop. The CANDU-Hot Test Loop was operated to carry out the pressure drop tests and strength tests of CANFLEX fuel. The Cold Test Loop was used to obtain the local velocity data in subchannel within HANARO fuel bundle and to study a thermal mixing characteristic of PWR fuel bundle. RCS thermal hydraulic loop was constructed and the experiments have been carried out to measure the critical heat flux. In B and C Loop, the performance tests for each component were carried out. (author). 19 tabs., 78 figs., 19 refs.

  17. Module Testing Techniques for Nuclear Safety Critical Software Using LDRA Testing Tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Kwon-Ki; Kim, Do-Yeon; Chang, Hoon-Seon; Chang, Young-Woo; Yun, Jae-Hee; Park, Jee-Duck; Kim, Jae-Hack

    2006-01-01

    The safety critical software in the I and C systems of nuclear power plants requires high functional integrity and reliability. To achieve those requirement goals, the safety critical software should be verified and tested according to related codes and standards through verification and validation (V and V) activities. The safety critical software testing is performed at various stages during the development of the software, and is generally classified as three major activities: module testing, system integration testing, and system validation testing. Module testing involves the evaluation of module level functions of hardware and software. System integration testing investigates the characteristics of a collection of modules and aims at establishing their correct interactions. System validation testing demonstrates that the complete system satisfies its functional requirements. In order to generate reliable software and reduce high maintenance cost, it is important that software testing is carried out at module level. Module testing for the nuclear safety critical software has rarely been performed by formal and proven testing tools because of its various constraints. LDRA testing tool is a widely used and proven tool set that provides powerful source code testing and analysis facilities for the V and V of general purpose software and safety critical software. Use of the tool set is indispensable where software is required to be reliable and as error-free as possible, and its use brings in substantial time and cost savings, and efficiency

  18. 78 FR 25488 - Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory guide; request for... regulatory guide (DG), DG-1235, ``Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants... entitled ``Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants'' is temporarily...

  19. Summarisation of construction and commissioning experience for nuclear power integrated test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Zejun; Jia Dounan; Jiang Xulun; Chen Bingde

    2003-01-01

    Since the foundation of Nuclear Power Institute of China, it has successively designed various engineering experimental facilities, and constructed nuclear power experimental research base, and accumulated rich construction experiences of nuclear power integrated test facility. The author presents experience on design, construction and commissioning of nuclear power integrated test facility

  20. Neuropsychiatric and psychologic effects of A-bomb radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Michiko; Sasaki, Hideo

    1992-01-01

    Few studies have assessed the influences of A-bombing from both psychiatric and psychologic points of view. This chapter deals with the knowledge of neuropsychiatric and psychologic influences of A-bombing. Many A-bomb survivors were exposed not only to radiation but also to rapid environmental alterations, such as death of family members and destruction of living. In addition, they suffered from sequelae and anxiety. Naturally, these were considered to cause psychological disturbance including autonomic imbalance and neurosis. Psychological survey, made immediately after A-bombing, is presented, with special attention to behavioral patterns in 54 A-bomb survivors by dividing them into 5 stimulation groups. Radiation syndrome occurring early after exposure and leukemia or cancer occurring later were referred to as 'Genbaku-sho' (A-bomb disease). A-bomb survivors' physically eventful conditions tended to induce mental anxiety or the contrary. Depression and phobia seemed to have correlated with physical conditions. In addition to 'A-bomb disease', mass media, dealing with 'A-bomb neurosis,' 'marriage in A-bomb survivors,' 'suicide in A-bomb survivors,' 'A-bomb survivors orphan,' and 'lonely old A-bomb survivors,' had a great impact on A-bomb survivors. For in uterus exposed and infantile A-bomb survivors, there was no significant difference between the exposed and non-exposed groups, although the incidence of eye tremor and sleeping disorder is found to be higher in the in uterus exposed group than the control group. (N.K.)

  1. Dynamic analysis and qualification test of nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B.K.; Lee, C.H.; Park, S.H.; Kim, Y.M.; Kim, B.S.; Kim, I.G.; Chung, C.W.; Kim, Y.M.

    1981-01-01

    This report contains the study on the dynamic characteristics of Wolsung fuel rod and on the dynamic balancing of rotating machinery to evaluate the performance of nuclear reactor components. The study on the dynamic characteristics of Wolsung fuel rod was carried out by both experimental and theoretical methods. Forced vibration testing of actual Wolsung fuel rod using sine sweep and sine dwell excitation was conducted to find the dynamic and nonlinear characteristics of the fuel rod. The data obtained by the test were used to analyze the nonlinear impact characteristics of the fuel rod which has a motion-constraint stop in the center of the rod. The parameters used in the test were the input force level of the exciter, the clearance gap between the fuel rod and the motion constraints, and the frequencies. Test results were in good agreement with the analytical results

  2. Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons at an Inflection Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    B61 Mod 12 Nuclear Bomb, US Department of Energy, “NNSA Reaches B61-12 Life Extension Program Milestone: First Full-System Mechanical Environment Test...free planet articulated in President Obama’s 2009 Prague speech,2 developed a document that radically reordered national security priorities. In...was abandoned except for those efforts required to support life extension programs.43 The intent was to sustain a subset of the aging elements of

  3. Full scale dynamic testing of Paks nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Rin, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    This report refers to the full-scale dynamic structural testing activities that have been performed in December 1994 at the Paks (H) Nuclear Power Plant, within the framework of: the IAEA Coordinated research Programme 'Benchmark Study for the Seismic Analysis and Testing of WWER-type Nuclear Power Plants, and the nuclear research activities of ENEL-WR/YDN, the Italian National Electricity Board in Rome. The specific objective of the conducted investigation was to obtain valid data on the dynamic behaviour of the plant's major constructions, under normal operating conditions, for enabling an assessment of their actual seismic safety to be made. As described in more detail hereafter, the Paks NPP site has been subjected to low level earthquake like ground shaking, through appropriately devised underground explosions, and the dynamic response of the plant's 1 st reactor unit important structures was appropriately measured and digitally recorded. In-situ free field response was measured concurrently and, moreover, site-specific geophysical and seismological data were simultaneously acquired too. The above-said experimental data is to provide basic information on the geophysical and seismological characteristics of the Paks NPP site, together with useful reference information on the true dynamic characteristics of its main structures and give some indications on the actual dynamic soil-structure interaction effects for the case of low level excitation

  4. Smoking habits among atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Suminori; Kimura, Masafumi

    1992-01-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation made a research through mailing, the smoking habits among the A-bomb survivors in 1978-79. Statistic analysis was made on the smoking habits and radiation doses. (J.P.N.)

  5. Yale and the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, J.Z.

    1983-01-01

    This is a description, based largely on personal discussions, of the contributions of men from the Yale University School of Medicine to the saga of the immediate and long-term studies on the medical effects of the atomic bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. They played key roles in the immediate studies of bomb effects, in the creation of long-term studies of delayed effects, and in elevating the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission after 1955 to a position of excellence in its studies and relations with the Japanese. The accumulation of the information presented in this paper derives from research for the preparation of the history of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission. In 1975, the commission was passed to Japanese leadership as the Radiation Effects Research Foundation

  6. Accident in science history. Hitler's atomic bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Up to now the historical explanation for the fact that NS Germany did not develop an atomic bomb was that there was enough scientific and technical knowledge but not enough resources. Recent historical research showed that the German scientists in the ''Uranverein'' did not know the cross section of U-235 and had no possibility to measure these cross sections. There exist only very few documents dealing with the bomb. The bomb was treated as a special case of a reactor. Obviously the German scientists did not know he bomb technology. It seems that the project was not success-oriented because the scientists expected to be sent to the front in case of a project stop.

  7. The Neutron Bomb - a new dread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1977-01-01

    This text was written by Engelbert Broda, an Austrian chemist and physicist, in 1977. He is discussing the fundamental principles and the devastating effects of neutron bombs and the emitted fast neutrons. (nowak)

  8. Thyroid disorders in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yoshikiyo; Inoue, Keisuke; Sugihara, Toru; Oshima, Tetuya; Matsueda, Kazuhiro

    1984-01-01

    There was no difference in blood levels of thyroid stimulating hormones among atomic bomb survivors having normal thyroid function, irrespective of the exposure distance from the explosion. Of 336 atomic bomb survivors admitted to the hospital for health examinations, hyperthyroidism was seen in one patient, hypothyroidism in four, malignant struma in three, and benign tumor in one. The incidence of struma associated with positive antithyroidglobulin antibody tended to be high in atomic bomb survivors living within 1.0 km from the explosion. The overall study in patients visiting the department of internal medicine, in addition to the 336 survivors, revealed that the incidence of thyroid disorders, especially hypothyroidism, was high in survivors directly exposed to atomic bomb. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. The night of the physicists. Heisenberg, Hahn, Weizsaecker, and the German bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirach, Richard von

    2014-01-01

    Finally the German atomic physicists around Heisenberg, von Weizsaecker, and Hahn worked on their ''uranium machine'' in a Swabian beer-cellar - and took themselves for the world elite of nuclear research. In imprisonment they heared from the dropping of the Hiroshima bomb - a shock. Richard von Schirach shows the hindered ''fathers of the German atomic bomb'' in close-up, their eagerness, their hybris, their true importance, and their attempts to give after the war a new interpretation of their own role. A book, which raises in the sense of Duerrenmatt the question for the responsibility of science.

  10. Genius in the shadows a biography of Leo Szilard, the man behind the bomb

    CERN Document Server

    Lanouette, William

    2013-01-01

    Well-known names such as Albert Einstein, Enrico Fermi, J. Robert Oppenheimer, and Edward Teller are usually those that surround the creation of the atom bomb. One name that is rarely mentioned is Leo Szilard, known in scientific circles as "father of the atom bomb." The man who first developed the idea of harnessing energy from nuclear chain reactions, he is curiously buried with barely a trace in the history of this well-known and controversial topic.Born in Hungary and educated in Berlin, he escaped Hitler's Germany in 1933 and that first year developed his concept of nucle

  11. Non Nuclear Testing of Reactor Systems In The Early Flight Fission Test Facilities (EFF-TF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dyke, Melissa; Martin, James

    2004-01-01

    The Early Flight Fission-Test Facility (EFF-TF) can assist in the design and development of systems through highly effective non-nuclear testing of nuclear systems when technical issues associated with near-term space fission systems are 'non-nuclear' in nature (e.g. system's nuclear operations are understood). For many systems, thermal simulators can be used to closely mimic fission heat deposition. Axial power profile, radial power profile, and fuel pin thermal conductivity can be matched. In addition to component and subsystem testing, operational and lifetime issues associated with the steady state and transient performance of the integrated reactor module can be investigated. Instrumentation at the EFF-TF allows accurate measurement of temperature, pressure, strain, and bulk core deformation (useful for accurately simulating nuclear behavior). Ongoing research at the EFF-TF is geared towards facilitating research, development, system integration, and system utilization via cooperative efforts with DOE laboratories, industry, universities, and other Nasa centers. This paper describes the current efforts for the latter portion of 2003 and beginning of 2004. (authors)

  12. Low Cost Nuclear Thermal Rocket Cermet Fuel Element Environment Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, David E.; Mireles, Omar R.; Hickman, Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    Deep space missions with large payloads require high specific impulse (Isp) and relatively high thrust in order to achieve mission goals in reasonable time frames. Conventional, storable propellants produce average Isp. Nuclear thermal rockets (NTR) capable of high Isp thrust have been proposed. NTR employs heat produced by fission reaction to heat and therefore accelerate hydrogen which is then forced through a rocket nozzle providing thrust. Fuel element temperatures are very high (up to 3000K) and hydrogen is highly reactive with most materials at high temperatures. Data covering the effects of high temperature hydrogen exposure on fuel elements is limited. The primary concern is the mechanical failure of fuel elements which employ high-melting-point metals, ceramics or a combination (cermet) as a structural matrix into which the nuclear fuel is distributed. It is not necessary to include fissile material in test samples intended to explore high temperature hydrogen exposure of the structural support matrices. A small-scale test bed designed to heat fuel element samples via non-contact RF heating and expose samples to hydrogen is being developed to assist in optimal material and manufacturing process selection without employing fissile material. This paper details the test bed design and results of testing conducted to date.

  13. Radiation exposure of inhabitants around Semipalatinsk nuclear weapon test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Jun; Hoshi, Masaharu

    1997-01-01

    This paper described and reviewed the data reported by Russia and Kazakhstan and authors' studies on the exposed doses as follows. History of nuclear explosion tests in Semipalatinsk: From 1949 to 1989 in old Russia, 459 explosion tests involving 26 on the ground, 87 in the air and 346 in underground were performed, of which TNT equivalence was 0.6 Mt, 6 Mt and 11 Mt, respectively. A mystery in the reports of radiation doses by Russia and Kazakhstan. Present status of the regions after the end of nuclear weapon tests: Environment radiation doses in μSv/h in following regions were 0.06 in Mostik, 0.1 in Dolon and Semipalatinsk, 0.07 in Izvyestka and Znamenka, 0.08 in Tchagan and 21 in Atomic Lake. Evaluation of external exposure dose of the living regions with thermoluminescence method: External exposure dose was estimated to be about 90 cGy in a certain village and 40 cGy in Semipalatinsk which being 150 km far from the test site. (K.H.)

  14. Nuclear thermal rocket nozzle testing and evaluation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidian, K.O.; Kacynski, K.J.

    1993-01-01

    Performance characteristics of the Nuclear Thermal Rocket can be enhanced through the use of unconventional nozzles as part of the propulsion system. In this report, the Nuclear Thermal Rocket nozzle testing and evaluation program being conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center is outlined and the advantages of a plug nozzle are described. A facility description, experimental designs and schematics are given. Results of pretest performance analyses show that high nozzle performance can be attained despite substantial nozzle length reduction through the use of plug nozzles as compared to a convergent-divergent nozzle. Pretest measurement uncertainty analyses indicate that specific impulse values are expected to be within plus or minus 1.17%

  15. Testing of mobile surveillance robot at a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.R.; Harvey, H.W.; Farnstrom, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    In-plant testing of a mobile surveillance robot (SURBOT) was performed at the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant by TVA personnel. The results verified that SURBOT can be used for remote surveillance in 54 separate controlled radiation rooms at the plant. High-quality color video, audio, and other data are collected, digitized by an on-board computer, and transmitted through a cable to the control console for real-time display and videotaping. TVA projects that the use of SURBOT for surveillance during plant operation will produce annual savings of about 100 person-rem radiation exposure and $200,000 in operating costs. Based on the successful results of this program, REMOTEC is now commercializing the SURBOT technology on both wheeled and tracked mobile robots for use in nuclear power plants and other hazardous environments

  16. UV spectra, bombs, and the solar atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Judge, Philip G.

    2015-01-01

    A recent analysis of UV data from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph {\\em IRIS} reports plasma "bombs" with temperatures near \\hot{} within the solar photosphere. This is a curious result, firstly because most bomb plasma pressures $p$ (the largest reported case exceeds $10^3$ dyn~cm$^{-2}$) fall well below photospheric pressures ($> 7\\times10^3$), and secondly, UV radiation cannot easily escape from the photosphere. In the present paper the {\\em IRIS} data is independently analyzed. I...

  17. The cost of French military nuclear programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrillot, B.

    1999-02-01

    The author tries to find out the real cost of French nuclear weaponry. According to this study the total cost of the French military nuclear programs for 1960-1998 period is about 1499 milliard francs (MdF). This cost can be distributed as follows: i) fabrication of the bomb: 690 MdF; ii) display of the bomb: 727 MdF; iii) control of the bomb: 50 Mdf; iv) protection against nuclear attacks: 9 MdF; and v) dismantling of the bomb: 23 MdF. It goes without saying that these figures exceed by far those given by French authorities. (A.C.)

  18. Radiological effluents released from nuclear rocket and ramjet engine tests at the Nevada Test Site 1959 through 1969: Fact Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friesen, H.N.

    1995-06-01

    Nuclear rocket and ramjet engine tests were conducted on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Area 25 and Area 26, about 80 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, from July 1959 through September 1969. This document presents a brief history of the nuclear rocket engine tests, information on the off-site radiological monitoring, and descriptions of the tests.

  19. Dose Prediction for surface nuclear explosions: case studies for Semipalatinsk and Lop Nur tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Dose prediction method RAPS after surface nuclear explosion has been developed by using the empirical dose function of USA nuclear test. This method which provides us external total dose, dose rate at any distant, at any time for any yield of nuclear explosion, is useful for radiation protection in case of nuclear events such as terrorism and nuclear war. The validity of RAPS has been confirmed by application to historical surface nuclear test explosions. The first test case study which was done for the first test explosion of the former USSR at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site on August 29th 1949, shows a good agreement with luminescence dosimetry on a brick. This dose prediction method was applied nuclear tests in Lop Nur. The results indicate dangerous nuclear radiation influences including fatal risk in the wide Uygur area. (author)

  20. Off-site monitoring for the Mighty Oak nuclear test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, S.C.; Smith, A.E.; Costa, C.F.

    1986-07-01

    After a nuclear explosives test, code name Mighty Oak, the tunnel leading to the test point became contaminated with radioactive debris. To re-enter and recover valuable equipment and data, the DOE purged the tunnel air using particulate and charcoal filters to minimize discharge of radioactivity to the atmosphere. During this purging, the EPA established special air samples supplementing their routine air monitoring networks. Analysis of the collected samples for radioactive noble gases and for gamma-emitting radionuclides indicated that only low levels of xenon-133 were released in amounts detectable in populated areas near the Nevada Test Site. The maximum dose to an individual was calculated to be 0.36 microrem, assuming that person remained in the open field at the measurement site during the whole period of the purging

  1. Testing Systems and Results for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooyen, I.J. van; Griffith, G.W.; Garnier, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuel Development (ALFD) Pathway. Development and testing of high performance fuel cladding identified as high priority to support: enhancement of fuel performance, reliability, and reactor safety. One of the technologies being examined is an advanced fuel cladding made from ceramic matrix composites (CMC) utilizing silicon carbide (SiC) as a structural material supplementing a commercial Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) tube. A series of out-of-pile tests to fully characterize the SiC CMC hybrid design to produce baseline data. The planned tests are intended to either produce quantitative data or to demonstrate the properties required to achieve two initial performance conditions relative to standard zircaloybased cladding: decreased hydrogen uptake (corrosion) and decreased fretting of the cladding tube under normal operating and postulated accident conditions. These two failure mechanisms account for approximately 70% of all in-pile failures of LWR commercial fuel assemblies

  2. Operation of a nuclear test gage at low multiplications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, N.P.

    1977-01-01

    The Nuclear Test Gage (NTG) at the Savannah River Plant is a subcritical multiplying facility (low k) with H 2 O moderator and 2.54-cm-diameter fuel slugs of 5 wt percent 235 U in aluminum alloy at a 4.285-cm triangular pitch. The core of the facility is 61-cm long with a normal diameter of 27 cm. The NTG is used for quality control of reactor components, such as 235 U-Al fuel tubes, Li--Al target tubes, control and safety rods, and miscellaneous special irradiation elements. A component is tested by passing it through an axial test port 11.63 cm in diameter. The ion chamber response from the resultant change in neutron source multiplication is then compared with corresponding responses from known standards

  3. Development and testing of restraints for nuclear piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.M.; Skinner, M.S.

    1980-06-01

    As an alternative to current practice of pipe restraint within nuclear power plants it has been proposed to adopt restraints capable of dissipating energy in the piping system. The specific mode of energy dissipation focused upon in these studies is the plastic yielding of steels utilizing relative movement between the pipe and the base of the restraint, a general mechanism which has been proven as reliable in several allied studies. This report discusses the testing of examples of two energy-absorbing devices, the results of this testing and the conclusions drawn. This study concentrated on the specific relevant performance characteristics of hysteretic behavior and degradation with use. The testing consisted of repetitive continuous loadings well into the plastic ranges of the devices in a sinusoidal or random displacement controlled mode

  4. Aging study on atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Shunzo; Aoyama, Takashi; Norimura, Toshiyuki; Nishimori, Issei; Shiomi, Toshio

    1976-01-01

    This is an ad interim report on the survey which is being performed at the Atomic Disease Institute, Nagasaki University School of Medicine for the acceleration of aging in atomic bomb survivors. The survivors group consisted of 50 females between 40 and 49 years of age who were exposed somewhere within 1.4 km where exposure dose could be estimated accurately and whose mean estimated exposure dose was 225.9+-176.8 rads. The control group consisted of females of the same age group who were exposed at sites more than 2.5 km apart (atmospheric dose 2.9 rads). The items for the judgement of aging included physical measurements, external findings, functional findings, and special tests (urine, blood, pattern of serum protein fraction, and chromosome aberrations). As far as chromosome aberrations were concerned, the number of cells with stable aberrations, Cs, showed differences between the two groups, and the number of cells with exchange-type aberrations was large in the survivors group. No significant differences were observed in the other tests. (Serizawa, K.)

  5. Mass survey of lung cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Hideo; Itoh, Chikako; Mitsuyama, Toyofumi; Mishima, Yasuhiro; Ohmura, Toshio.

    1980-01-01

    Mass survey of lung cancer was performed only by questionnaire together with general health examinations of a-bomb survivors during 3 years between April 1976 and March 1979, and the following results were obtained. The number of men aged more than 40 years old who had questionnaire was 89,778, and those who were required to have detailed examinations because they had bloody sputum and paroxysmal cough + a history of smoking were 1,453. Out of them, 861 a-bomb survivors had detailed examinations. The performance rate of detailed examinations was 59.3%. Lung cancer was found in 23 a-bomb survivors. The discovery rate was 25.6 per 100,000 persons, and it was a little higher than discovery rates reported by many researchers. It was low in men aged more than 40 years old. There was a straight line relationship between logarithm values of the discovery rate of lung cancer and age, and the discovery rate increased markedly with aging. Cytodiagnosis of sputum by Saccomanno method showed a positive test which was 20% higher than that by 3 days serial smear method. To discover lung cancer at an early stage, it is advisable to perform the first screening by chest x-ray examination and questionnaire on men aged over 40 years old, and to perform cytodiagnosis by Saccomanno method on men who were required to have detailed examinations. (Tsunoda, M.)

  6. The age of the bomb: History of the atomic threat from Hiroshima through today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salewski, M.

    1995-01-01

    The booklet describes the history of the ''bomb'' from the ''Manhattan project'' to the present, tracing the drastic changes provoked by the nuclear weapons for world politics, but also for ethical thought and cultural conception of ourselves. Both the crises at the brink of nuclear war - Suez crisis, Berlin crisis, Cuba crisis - and the development of strategic doctrines, the arms race, the history of arms control, and the anti-atomic movement are dealt with in the contributions written by renowned authorities. The concluding paper on the role of nuclear weapons in a world politics that has become more intricate shows insistently that the age of the bomb is anything but over since the end of the East-West conflict. The example of North Korea or of the ''plutonium transfer deals'' from nuclear installations of the Soviet Union has recently shown that also the future will remain ''atomic''. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Special Nuclear Material Portal Monitoring at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mike Murphy

    2008-01-01

    In the past, acceptance and performance testing of the various Special Nuclear Material (SNM) monitoring devices at the Nevada Test Site has been performed by the Radiological Health Instrumentation Department. Calibration and performance tests on the PM-700 personnel portal monitor were performed but there was no test program for the VM-250 vehicle portal monitor because it had never been put into service. The handheld SNM monitors, the TSA model 470B, were being calibrated annually, but there was no program in place to test them quarterly. In April of 2007, the Material Control and Accountability (MC and A) Manager at the time decided that the program needed to be strengthened and MC and A took over performance testing of all SNM portal monitoring equipment. This paper will discuss the following activities associated with creating a performance testing program: changing the culture, learning the systems, writing procedures, troubleshooting/repairing, validating the process, control of equipment, acquisition of new systems, and running the program

  8. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Nuclear Test Effects and Geologic Data Bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, N.W.

    1976-01-01

    Data on the geology of the USERDA Nevada Test Site have been collected for the purpose of evaluating the possibility of release of radioactivity at proposed underground nuclear test sites. These data, including both the rock physical properties and the geologic structure and stratigraphy of a large number of drill-hole sites, are stored in the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Earth Sciences Division Nuclear Test Effects and Geologic Data Bank. Retrieval programs can quickly provide a geological and geophysical comparison of a particular site with other sites where radioactivity was successfully contained. The data can be automatically sorted, compared, and averaged, and information listed according to site location, drill-hole construction, rock units, depth to key horizons and to the water table, and distance to faults. These programs also make possible ordered listings of geophysical properties (interval bulk density, overburden density, interval velocity, velocity to the surface, grain density, water content, carbonate content, porosity, and saturation of the rocks). The characteristics and capabilities of the data bank are discussed

  9. Test results for cables used in nuclear power plants by a new environmental testing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handa, Katsue; Fujimura, Shun-ichi; Hayashi, Toshiyasu; Takano, Keiji; Oya, Shingo

    1982-12-01

    In the nuclear power plants using PWRs or BWRs in Japan, environmental tests are provided, in which simulated LOCA conditions are considered so as to conform with Japanese conditions, and many cables which passed these tests are presently employed. Lately, the new environmental testing, in which a credible accident called MSLB (main steam line breakage) is taken into account, is investigated in PWR nuclear power plants, besides LOCA. This paper reports on the results of evaluating some PWR cables for this new environmental testing conditions. The several cables tested were selected out of PH cables (fire-retardant, ethylene propylene rubber insulated, chlorosulfonated polyethylene sheathed cables) as the cables for safety protecting circuits and to be used in containment vessels where the cables are to be exposed to severe environmental test conditions of 2 x 10/sup 8/ Rad ..gamma..-irradiation and simulated LOCA. All these cables have been accepted after the vertical tray burning test provided in the IEEE Standard 383. The new testing was carried out by sequentially applying thermal deterioration, ..gamma..-irradiation, and the exposure to steam (twice 300 s exposures to 190 deg C superheated steam). After completing each step, tensile strength, elongation, insulation resistance and breakdown voltage were measured, respectively. Every cable tested showed satisfactory breakdown voltage after the exposure to steam, thus it was decided to be acceptable. In future, it is required to investigate the influence of the rate of temperature rise on the cable to be tested in MSLB simulation.

  10. Test results for cables used in nuclear power plants by a new environmental testing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handa, Katsue; Fujimura, Shun-ichi; Hayashi, Toshiyasu; Takano, Keiji; Oya, Shingo

    1982-01-01

    In the nuclear power plants using PWRs or BWRs in Japan, environmental tests are provided, in which simulated LOCA conditions are considered so as to conform with Japanese conditions, and many cables which passed these tests are presently employed. Lately, the new environmental testing, in which a credible accident called MSLB (main steam line breakage) is taken into account, is investigated in PWR nuclear power plants, besides LOCA. This paper reports on the results of evaluating some PWR cables for this new environmental testing conditions. The several cables tested were selected out of PH cables (fire-retardant, ethylene propylene rubber insulated, chlorosulfonated polyethylene sheathed cables) as the cables for safety protecting circuits and to be used in containment vessels where the cables are to be exposed to severe environmental test conditions of 2 x 10 8 Rad γ-irradiation and simulated LOCA. All these cables have been accepted after the vertical tray burning test provided in the IEEE Standard 383. The new testing was carried out by sequentially applying thermal deterioration, γ-irradiation, and the exposure to steam (twice 300 s exposures to 190 deg C superheated steam). After completing each step, tensile strength, elongation, insulation resistance and breakdown voltage were measured, respectively. Every cable tested showed satisfactory breakdown voltage after the exposure to steam, thus it was decided to be acceptable. In future, it is required to investigate the influence of the rate of temperature rise on the cable to be tested in MSLB simulation. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  11. Proposed experimental test of Bell's inequality in nuclear beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalsey, M.

    1986-01-01

    A β decay experiment is proposed for testing Bell's inequality, related to hidden-variables alternatives to quantum mechanics. The experiment uses Mott scattering for spin polarization analysis of internal conversion electrons. Beta-decay electrons, in cascade with the conversion electrons, are longitudinally polarized due to parity violation in the weak interaction. So simply detecting the β electron direction effectively measures the spin. A two-particle spin-spin correlation can thus be investigated and related, within certain assumptions, to Bell's inequality. The example of 203 Hg decay is used for a calculation of expected results. Specific problems related to nuclear structure and experimental inconsistencies are also discussed

  12. External doses of residents near semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Jun; Hoshi, Masaharu; Nagatomo, Tsuneto

    1999-01-01

    Accumulated external radiation doses of residents near the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site of the former USSR are presented as a results of study by the thermoluminescence technique for bricks sampled at several settlements in 1995 and 1996. The external doses that we evaluated from exposed bricks were up to about 100 cGy for resident. The external doses at several points in the center of Semipalatinsk City ranged from a background level to 60 cGy, which was remarkably high compared with the previously reported values based on military data. (author)

  13. Contaminant Boundary at the Faultless Underground Nuclear Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greg Pohll; Karl Pohlmann; Jeff Daniels; Ahmed Hassan; Jenny Chapman

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) have reached agreement on a corrective action strategy applicable to address the extent and potential impact of radionuclide contamination of groundwater at underground nuclear test locations. This strategy is described in detail in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 2000). As part of the corrective action strategy, the nuclear detonations that occurred underground were identified as geographically distinct corrective action units (CAUs). The strategic objective for each CAU is to estimate over a 1,000-yr time period, with uncertainty quantified, the three-dimensional extent of groundwater contamination that would be considered unsafe for domestic and municipal use. Two types of boundaries (contaminant and compliance) are discussed in the FFACO that will map the three-dimensional extent of radionuclide contamination. The contaminant boundary will identify the region wi th 95 percent certainty that contaminants do not exist above a threshold value. It will be prepared by the DOE and presented to NDEP. The compliance boundary will be produced as a result of negotiation between the DOE and NDEP, and can be coincident with, or differ from, the contaminant boundary. Two different thresholds are considered for the contaminant boundary. One is based on the enforceable National Primary Drinking Water Regulations for radionuclides, which were developed as a requirement of the Safe Drinking Water Act. The other is a risk-based threshold considering applicable lifetime excess cancer-risk-based criteria The contaminant boundary for the Faultless underground nuclear test at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) is calculated using a newly developed groundwater flow and radionuclide transport model that incorporates aspects of both the original three-dimensional model (Pohlmann et al., 1999) and the two-dimensional model developed for the Faultless data decision

  14. Mortality of veteran participants in the crossroads nuclear test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.C.; Thaul, S.; Page, W.F.

    1997-01-01

    Operation CROSSROADS, conducted at Bikini Atoll in 1946, was the first post World War II test of nuclear weapons. Mortality experience of 40,000 military veteran participants in CROSSROADS was compared to that of a similar cohort of nonparticipating veterans. All-cause mortality of the participants was slightly increased over nonparticipants by 5% (p < .001). Smaller increases in participant mortality for all malignancies (1.4%, p = 0.26) or leukemia (2.0%, p = 0.9) were not statistically significant. These results do not support a hypothesis that radiation had increased participant cancer mortality over that of nonparticipants. 8 refs

  15. Ground test facilities for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion engines and fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, G.C.; Beck, D.F.; Harmon, C.D.; Shipers, L.R.

    1992-01-01

    Interagency panels evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion development options have consistently recognized the need for constructing a major new ground test facility to support fuel element and engine testing. This paper summarizes the requirements, configuration, and design issues of a proposed ground test complex for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion engines and fuel elements being developed for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. 2 refs

  16. ["Living with the bomb" - Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's path from physics to politics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker spanned a spectrum from physics to politics, with philosophy in-between. This chapter surveys the most controversial part of his career, including his work on nuclear weapons and participation in cultural propaganda during the Second World War, his subsequent active political engagement during the postwar Federal German Republic, in particular the role of nuclear weapons, and his participation in myths surrounding Hitler's Bomb".

  17. Tests of cooling water pumps at Dukovany nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travnicek, J.

    1986-01-01

    Tests were performed to examine the operating conditions of the 1600 BQDV cooling pumps of the main coolant circuit of unit 1 of the Dukovany nuclear power plant. For the pumps, the performance was tested in the permissible operating range, points were measured below this range and the guaranteed operating point was verified. Pump efficiency was calculated from the measured values. The discussion of the measurement of parameters has not yet been finished because the obtained values of the amount delivered and thus of the pump efficiency were not up to expectation in all detail. It was also found that for obtaining the guaranteed flow the pump impeller had to be opened to 5deg -5.5deg instead of the declared 3deg. Also tested were pump transients, including the start of the pump, its stop, the operation and failure of one of the two pumps. In these tests, pressures were also measured at the inlet and the outlet of the inner part of the TG 11 turbine condenser. It was shown that the time course and the pressure course of the processes were acceptable. In addition to these tests, pressure losses in the condenser and the cooling water flow through the feed pump electromotor cooler wre tested for the case of a failure of one of the two pumps. (E.S.)

  18. The story of an A-bomb by Oppenheimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Eun Yeong

    2005-06-01

    This book concentrates on an A-bomb by Oppenheimer. It is divided into eleven class, which are exile of excellent scientists, uranium atomic fission, situation the U.S. and Germany I, situation the U.S. and Germany II, air strike in pearl Harbor, plan for development of an A-bomb, military action to blow up heavy water plant, select on spot to drop an A-bomb, surrender and drop for an A-bomb and science of an A-bomb. This book is written to explain an A-bomb with form of storytelling.

  19. The story of an A-bomb by Oppenheimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Eun Yeong

    2005-06-15

    This book concentrates on an A-bomb by Oppenheimer. It is divided into eleven class, which are exile of excellent scientists, uranium atomic fission, situation the U.S. and Germany I, situation the U.S. and Germany II, air strike in pearl Harbor, plan for development of an A-bomb, military action to blow up heavy water plant, select on spot to drop an A-bomb, surrender and drop for an A-bomb and science of an A-bomb. This book is written to explain an A-bomb with form of storytelling.

  20. PIE of test assembly of Qinshan nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran, M.; Yan, J.; Wang, S.

    2000-01-01

    The small dimensional test fuel assembly (3x3-2) for the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant was irradiated up to 25.7 Gwd/tU in the in-pile loop (15.5 Mpa,320 C) in Heavy Water Research Reactor (HWRR), CIAE, at simulative condition to Qinshan PWR normal and short time overpower operation for verifying the design, technology, and material properties of the fuel assembly. Comprehensive post-irradiation examination (PIE) including dimension measurement, gamma scanning, eddy current test, X ray, radiography, measurement of fission gas release, and quantitative metallography etc. were performed. PIE results show that the diameter of the fuel rods changed, ridges appeared on the cladding, pellets swelled, and the rate of fission gas release was higher than what we expected. The results would be an important basis for further improvement of design, technology and material properties for Qinshan PWR assembly. (author)

  1. Drop testing of the Westinghouse fresh nuclear fuel package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shappert, L.B.; Sanders, C.F.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, the Westinghouse Columbia Fuel Fabrication Facility has been faced with increasing pressure from utilities that wished to take the fuel in their nuclear power plants to higher burnups. To help accommodate this trend, Westinghouse has determined that it needs the ability to increase the enrichment of the fresh fuel it delivers to its customers. One critical step in this process is to certify a new (Type A, fissile) fresh fuel package design that has the capability to transport fuel with a higher enrichment than was previously available. A prototype package was tested in support of the Safety Analysis Report of the Packaging. This paper provides detailed information on those tests and their results

  2. Y-12 defense programs. Nuclear Packaging Systems testing capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The Nuclear Packaging Systems (NPS) Department can manage/accomplish any packaging task. The NPS organization is responsible for managing the design, testing, certification, procurement, operation, refurbishment, maintenance, and disposal of packaging used to transport radioactive materials, other hazardous materials, and general cargoes on public roads and within the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Additionally, the NPS Department has developed a Quality Assurance plan for all packaging, design and procurement of nonweapon shipping containers for radioactive materials, and design and procurement of performance-oriented packaging for hazardous materials. Further, the NPS Department is responsible for preparation and submittal of Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging (SARP). The NPS Department coordinates shipping container procurement and safety certification activities that have lead-times of up to two years. A Packaging Testing Capabilities Table at the Oak Ridge complex is included as a table

  3. Irradiation test on connector part for nuclear instrumentation of nuclear powered ship 'Mutsu'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Takahiro; Mizushima, Toshihiko; Tsunoda, Tsunemi; Nakazawa, Toshio

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear instrumetnation facility of the nuclear powered ship 'Mutsu' is composed of neutron detectors, signal cables and the circuits for measurement, and ocntinuously monitors neutron flux. Since this facility treats very faint signals, for the signal cables, coaxial cables and triple coaxial cables are used. The coaxial cables for the nuclear instrumentation are equipped with connectors at both ends, and those are called prefabricated cable. The prefabricated cables are connected to neutron detectors, and installed in the detection holes of the primary shielding tank in the containment vessel. Therefore, at the time of reactor operation, they are exposed to high radiation, and the deterioration of the characteristics of the prefabricated cables is feared. For the purpose of confirming that the part of deteriorating the insulation of the prefabricated cables is connectors, and clarifying the cause of the deterioration of insulation in connector part, the irradiation test of this time was carried out. The environment in which the prefabricated cables are laid, the specifications of the cables and connectors, the materials, gamma ray irradiation and the test results are reported. (K.I.)

  4. Fast recovery strain measurements in a nuclear test environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, W.R.; Nauman, W.J.; Vollmer, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    The recovery of early-time (50 μs or less) strain gage data on structural response experiments in underground nuclear tests has been a continuing problem for experimenters at the Nevada Test Site. Strain measurement is one of the primary techniques used to obtain experimental data for model verification and correlation with predicted effects. Peak strains generally occur within 50 to 100 μs of the radiation exposure. Associated with the exposure is an intense electromagnetic impulse that produces potentials of kilovolts and currents of kiloamperes on the experimental structures. For successful operation, the transducer and associated recording system must recover from the initial noise overload and accurately track the strain response within about 50 μs of the nuclear detonation. A gaging and fielding technique and a recording system design that together accomplish these objectives are described. Areas discussed include: (1) noise source model; (2) experimental cassette design, gage application, grounding, and shielding; (3) cable design and shielding between gage and recorder; (4) recorder design including signal conditioner/amplifier, digital encoder, buffer memory, and uphole data transmission; and (5) samples of experimental data

  5. Bikini Atoll coral biodiversity resilience five decades after nuclear testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, Zoe T.; Beger, Maria; Pinca, Silvia; Wallace, Carden C.

    2008-01-01

    Five decades after a series of nuclear tests began, we provide evidence that 70% of the Bikini Atoll zooxanthellate coral assemblage is resilient to large-scale anthropogenic disturbance. Species composition in 2002 was assessed and compared to that seen prior to nuclear testing. A total of 183 scleractinian coral species was recorded, compared to 126 species recorded in the previous study (excluding synonomies, 148 including synonomies). We found that 42 coral species may be locally extinct at Bikini. Fourteen of these losses may be pseudo-losses due to inconsistent taxonomy between the two studies or insufficient sampling in the second study, however 28 species appear to represent genuine losses. Of these losses, 16 species are obligate lagoonal specialists and 12 have wider habitat compatibility. Twelve species are recorded from Bikini for the first time. We suggest the highly diverse Rongelap Atoll to the east of Bikini may have contributed larval propagules to facilitate the partial resilience of coral biodiversity in the absence of additional anthropogenic threats

  6. Qualification tests for shift personnel in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fechner, J B [Bundesministerium des Innern, Bonn (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-02-01

    The selection of personnel for training as shift supervisors or reactor operators so far used to be made by a plant operator mainly on the basis of such criteria as examinations, diplomas and other documents verifying the educational background, the type of activity exercised, and professional success. In addition, there are the opininons of trainers and supervisors based on personal observation of future shift personnel on training for specific plants at a training center, at the manufacturer's, the operator's or in activities in the construction and commissioning of the respective nuclear power plant. In the course of this phase, which normally takes several years, supervisors asses not only the professional capabilities of a trainee, but also bis psychic and physical performance and aptitude, e.g., with respect to decision making, leadership qualifications or behavior unter stress. The advisability of introducing psychological aptitude tests was also studied. However, a decision was recently taken to defer such psychological tests for the time being. Yet, nuclear power plant operators are required to submit a statement to their responsible authorities about industrial medical checkups and qualification assessments by supervisors.

  7. Qualification tests for shift personnel in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fechner, J.B.

    1978-01-01

    The selection of personnel for training as shift supervisors or reactor operators so far used to be made by a plant operator mainly on the basis of such criteria as examinations, diplomas and other documents verifying the educational background, the type of activity exercised, and professional success. In addition, there are the opininons of trainers and supervisors based on personal observation of future shift personnel on training for specific plants at a training center, at the manufacturer's, the operator's or in activities in the construction and commissioning of the respective nuclear power plant. In the course of this phase, which normally takes several years, supervisors asses not only the professional capabilities of a trainee, but also bis psychic and physical performance and aptitude, e.g., with respect to decision making, leadership qualifications or behavior unter stress. The advisability of introducing psychological aptitude tests was also studied. However, a decision was recently taken to defer such psychological tests for the time being. Yet, nuclear power plant operators are required to submit a statement to their responsible authorities about industrial medical checkups and qualification assessments by supervisors. (orig.) [de

  8. Bikini Atoll coral biodiversity resilience five decades after nuclear testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Zoe T. [Museum of Tropical Queensland, Flinders St, Townsville, QLD 4810 (Australia) and Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811 (Australia) and School of Marine and Tropical Biology, James Cook University, Townsville QLD 4811 (Australia); NRAS - Marshall Islands: Natural Resource Assessment Surveys (Australia)], E-mail: zoe.richards@jcu.edu.au; Beger, Maria [Ecology Centre and Commonwealth Research Facility for Applied Environmental Decision Analysis, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); NRAS - Marshall Islands: Natural Resource Assessment Surveys (Australia); Pinca, Silvia [College of the Marshall Islands, Majuro, Marshall Islands, NRAS - Marshall Islands: Natural Resource Assessment Surveys (Australia); Wallace, Carden C. [Museum of Tropical Queensland, Flinders St, Townsville, QLD 4810 (Australia)

    2008-03-15

    Five decades after a series of nuclear tests began, we provide evidence that 70% of the Bikini Atoll zooxanthellate coral assemblage is resilient to large-scale anthropogenic disturbance. Species composition in 2002 was assessed and compared to that seen prior to nuclear testing. A total of 183 scleractinian coral species was recorded, compared to 126 species recorded in the previous study (excluding synonomies, 148 including synonomies). We found that 42 coral species may be locally extinct at Bikini. Fourteen of these losses may be pseudo-losses due to inconsistent taxonomy between the two studies or insufficient sampling in the second study, however 28 species appear to represent genuine losses. Of these losses, 16 species are obligate lagoonal specialists and 12 have wider habitat compatibility. Twelve species are recorded from Bikini for the first time. We suggest the highly diverse Rongelap Atoll to the east of Bikini may have contributed larval propagules to facilitate the partial resilience of coral biodiversity in the absence of additional anthropogenic threats.

  9. Health effects of atomic-bomb radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Nori

    2000-01-01

    This review described carcinogenic and genetic effects of A-bomb radiation. Effects have been investigated on 120,000 exposed people for their life span, 20,000 for health examinations, 3,000 people exposed in the womb and 80,000 second-generations of the exposed people. Epidemiological data revealed the presence of carcinogenic effects: Cancer death amounted to 9% from 1950 to 1990. However, carcinogenic mechanism is unknown yet. Genetic effects have been studied from the points of lesion at birth, sex ratio, chromosome aberration, biochemical test and mortality rate of children of exposed people and, although the effects have been experimentally shown in animals, are not observed in those children. This may be derived from the fact that there are few people who were exposed to such a high dose as used experimentally (0.2 Sv exposure to people within 2.5 km diameter-area from the explosion point vs >3 Sv in animals). Data are presented in Research Foundation home page. (K.H.)

  10. Small Punch Tests applied to the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, M.; Gongora, P.; Bertolino, G; Yawny, A.

    2012-01-01

    The interest on miniaturized specimen techniques for the characterization of the mechanical behavior of materials was strongly motivated in the early eighties by the different programs associated with the development of fusion reactor technology. The importance of such developments is obvious in the case of the nuclear industry where the limited space available, the presence of fluence gradients in large specimens, the concern about gamma heating and dose to personnel in post-irradiation testing have all been motivations for reducing specimen size. Testing of miniature specimen includes a wide spectrum of techniques such as tensile, instrumented micro-hardness, small punch, bend, fracture, impact and fatigue. Small Punch Testing (SPT) techniques use a spherical penetrator which deforms to failure a miniature disc shaped flat specimen (typically, 3-10 mm in diameter and 0.25-0.50 mm in thickness) supported on its outer rim. Analysis of load-displacement data recorded along the test is performed for the determination of the property of interest. The present work focuses on the characterization of the elastoplastic response of pure Al, ADN 420 structural steel and AISI 304L using SPT and its correlation with the associated standard uniaxial testing behavior. In addition, the sensitivity of the technique to the specific material under study and to different experimental parameters, i.e. specimen diameter and thickness, clearance or clamping force and friction between disc and dies have been assessed both experimentally and by performing simulations using the finite element method (author)

  11. 78 FR 67206 - Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Revision to regulatory guide; issuance..., ``Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants.'' This RG is being revised to provide... Operators Installed Inside the Containment of Nuclear Power Plants,'' dated January 1974. ADDRESSES: Please...

  12. After fifty years of the nuclear age: Non-proliferation of nuclear weapons or elimination of them?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugie, Ei-Ichi

    1997-01-01

    Ever since the first test of the atomic bomb and the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945, mankind lived with nuclear weapons. Nuclear weapons were inevitably connected with the Cold War, with its end new opportunity has come concerning prohibition of the use of nuclear weapons. Steps are to be undertaken in order to eliminate the nuclear weapons. First, would be the prohibition of the use or the threat of use of nuclear weapons. By excluding the possibility of the use of nuclear weapons, the world could be closer to nuclear disarmament than ever. The prohibition of the use of some type of weapons could be a breakthrough towards the elimination of such weapons. While the negotiations to eliminate nuclear weapons would be difficult, as were those to ban chemical weapons, a ban on the use of nuclear weapons would eventually lead to their elimination. During the Cold War, the imminent goal of disarmament was to stop the nuclear arms race between the two superpowers. But in the post-Cold War era an opportunity has developed for further steps towards nuclear disarmament, the elimination of nuclear weapons

  13. An assessment of testing requirement impacts on nuclear thermal propulsion ground test facility design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipers, L.R.; Ottinger, C.A.; Sanchez, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    Programs to develop solid core nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems have been under way at the Department of Defense (DoD), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the Department of Energy (DOE). These programs have recognized the need for a new ground test facility to support development of NTP systems. However, the different military and civilian applications have led to different ground test facility requirements. The Department of Energy (DOE) in its role as landlord and operator of the proposed research reactor test facilities has initiated an effort to explore opportunities for a common ground test facility to meet both DoD and NASA needs. The baseline design and operating limits of the proposed DoD NTP ground test facility are described. The NASA ground test facility requirements are reviewed and their potential impact on the DoD facility baseline is discussed

  14. Characteristics of North Korea nuclear test and KMA magnitude scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Y. S.; Lee, D.; Min, K.; Hwang, E. H.; Lee, J.; Park, E.; Jo, E.; Lee, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Democratic People's Republic of Korea(DPRK) carried out 6th nuclear test on 3 Sep. 2017 at 03:30 UTC. Korea Meteorological Administration(KMA) announced to the public that the event took place in the DPRK's test site, Punggye-ri with the magnitude 5.7. This event is larger than previous one in terms of magnitude and showed that measured magnitude strongly depends on the frequency band of data. After we applied several magnitude scales such as Everdon(1967), Nuttli(1967), and Hong & Lee(2012) to this event, we found that magnitude ranges from 5.3 to 6.7 which depends on frequency band and epicentral distance of signal. 6th DPRK test experiment indicated that spectral amplitude ratio of 6th/5th near 2.37 Hz shows similar amplification compatible to relative spectral magnitude 5.7, while spectral amplitude ratio of 6th/5th near 1.0 Hz marks relative spectral magnitude about 6.1. Relative spectral magnitude varies with frequencies and decreases as frequency increase. We found that systematic non-linearity exists for spectral amplitude ratio of 6th/5th from 1.0 to 10.0 Hz, while it's characteristic is not found at 5th/4th and 4th/3th. A methodology is presented for determining mb(Pn) magnitude of underground nuclear explosions from local Pn phase. 582 waveforms from vertical component of broadband and acceleration seismographs at 120 stations in the epicenter distance from 340 to 800 km are used to calibrate mb(Pn) magnitude scaling for DPRK's nuclear tests. The mb(Pn) estimates of regional events for Korean Peninsula are determined to be mb(Pn) ? = log10(A) + 2.1164×log10(d) - 0.2721, where A is the peak-to-peak Pn amplitude in μm and d is the epicentral distance in km. Systematic non-linearity does not observed at frequency band from 0.1 to 1.0 Hz. The magnitude of 6th event is mb(Pn) 6.08 and mb(Pn) 4.52, 4.92, 4.84 and 5.03 for 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th respectively. Further research of applicable mb(Pn) magnitude scaling is required for all frequency band and

  15. Colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, H.; Ezaki, H.

    1986-01-01

    Studies on autopsied and surgical cases of colorectal cancer in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have not shown a relationship to radiation. In a recent epidemiologic study made on a fixed population at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), the risk of colon cancer was found to increase significantly with increasing radiation dose in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and also in both males and females. The dose effect for the cities and sexes combined was especially pronounced for cancer of the sigmoid colon. The effect of radiation was found to vary by age at the time of the bomb (ATB) and the effect was remarkable among those under age 20 ATB. The risk of rectal cancer was not found to increase significantly with radiation and the distribution of histological types for cancer of either the colon or rectum was unrelated to radiation dose. The effect of A-bomb exposure on the postoperative survival rate for colorectal cancer patients was studied. No difference by radiation dose could be demonstrated. In Japan, the incidence of colorectal cancer, and of colon cancer in particular, has been increasing. Therefore, close attention should be paid to changes occuring in A-bomb survivors

  16. Colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Hirofumi; Ezaki, Haruo.

    1986-01-01

    Studies on autopsied and surgical cases of colorectal cancer in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have not shown a relationship to radiation. In a recent epidemiologic study made on a fixed population at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), the risk of colon cancer was found to increase significantly with increasing radiation dose in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and also in both males and females. The dose effect for the cities and sexes combined was especially pronounced for cancer of the sigmoid colon. The effect of radiation was found to vary by age at the time of the bomb (ATB) and the effect was remarkable among those under age 20 ATB. The risk of rectal cancer was not found to increase significantly with radiation and the distribution of histological types for cancer of either the colon or rectum was unrelated to radiation dose. The effect of A-bomb exposure on the postoperative survival rate for colorectal cancer patients was studied. No difference by radiation dose could be demonstrated. In Japan, the incidence of colorectal cancer, and of colon cancer in particular, has been increasing. Therefore, close attention should be paid to changes occurring in A-bomb survivors. (author)

  17. Triggering soft bombs at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapen, Simon; Griso, Simone Pagan; Papucci, Michele; Robinson, Dean J.

    2017-08-01

    Very high multiplicity, spherically-symmetric distributions of soft particles, with p T ˜ few×100 MeV, may be a signature of strongly-coupled hidden valleys that exhibit long, efficient showering windows. With traditional triggers, such `soft bomb' events closely resemble pile-up and are therefore only recorded with minimum bias triggers at a very low efficiency. We demonstrate a proof-of-concept for a high-level triggering strategy that efficiently separates soft bombs from pile-up by searching for a `belt of fire': a high density band of hits on the innermost layer of the tracker. Seeding our proposed high-level trigger with existing jet, missing transverse energy or lepton hardware-level triggers, we show that net trigger efficiencies of order 10% are possible for bombs of mass several × 100 GeV. We also consider the special case that soft bombs are the result of an exotic decay of the 125 GeV Higgs. The fiducial rate for `Higgs bombs' triggered in this manner is marginally higher than the rate achievable by triggering directly on a hard muon from associated Higgs production.

  18. An Evaluation of North Korea’s Nuclear Test by Belbasi Nuclear Tests Monitoring Center-KOERI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necmioglu, O.; Meral Ozel, N.; Semin, K.

    2009-12-01

    Bogazici University and Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) is acting as the Turkish National Data Center (NDC) and responsible for the operation of the International Monitoring System (IMS) Primary Seismic Station (PS-43) under Belbasi Nuclear Tests Monitoring Center for the verification of compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) since February 2000. The NDC is responsible for operating two arrays which are part of the IMS, as well as for transmitting data from these stations to the International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna. The Belbasi array was established in 1951, as a four-element (Benioff 1051) seismic array as part of the United States Atomic Energy Detection System (USAEDS). Turkish General Staff (TGS) and U.S. Air Force Technical Application Center (AFTAC) under the Defense and Economic Cooperation Agreement (DECA) jointly operated this short period array. The station was upgraded and several seismometers were added to array during 1951 and 1994 and the station code was changed from BSRS (Belbasi Seismic Research Station) to BRTR-PS43 later on. PS-43 is composed of two sub-arrays (Ankara and Keskin): the medium-period array with a ~40 km radius located in Ankara and the short-period array with a ~3 km radius located in Keskin. Each array has a broadband element located at the middle of the circular geometry. Short period instruments are installed at depth 30 meters from the surface while medium and broadband instruments are installed at depth 60 meters from surface. On 25 May 2009, The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) claimed that it had conducted a nuclear test. Corresponding seismic event was recorded by IMS and IDC released first automatic estimation of time (00:54:43 GMT), location (41.2896°N and 129.0480°E) and the magnitude (4.52 mb) of the event in less than two hours time (USGS: 00:54:43 GMT; 41.306°N, 129.029°E; 4.7 mb) During our preliminary analysis of the 25th May 2009 DPRK

  19. Ground motion effects of underground nuclear testing on perennial vegetation at Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoads, W.A.

    1976-07-01

    In this study to estimate the potential injury to vegetation from earth movement caused by underground nuclear detonations and to estimate the extent to which this may have occurred at NTS, two explosions in the megaton range on Pahute Mesa were studied in some detail: Boxcar, which caused a surface subsidence, and Benham, which did not. Because of the subsidence phenomenology, shock propagation through the earth and along the surface, and the resulting fractures, shrubs were killed at Boxcar around the perimeter of the subsidence crater. Both trees and shrubs were killed along tectonic faults, which became the path for earth fractures, and along fractures and rock falls elsewhere. There was also evidence at Boxcar of tree damage which antedated the nuclear testing program, presumably from natural earthquakes. With the possible exception of damage to aged junipers this investigation did not reveal any good evidence of immediate effects from underground testing on vegetation beyond that recognized earlier as the edge effect

  20. Thyroid disorders in atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaizumi, M.; Neriishi, K.; Akahoshi, M.; Suzuki, G.; Nakashima, E.; Nagataki, S.; Eguchi, K.

    2003-01-01

    It is known from several studies, including those from RERF that radiation exposure can cause thyroid tumors (Socolow, N Engl J Med. 1963;268:406, Parker, Ann Intern Med. 1974;80:600). Effects of radiation on autoimmune thyroid disease are not well understood. We have conducted thyroid disease screening on a population of 2856 individuals from the Adult Health Study (AHS) cohort of atomic-bomb survivors for the period of 1984-1987. This study, which for logistical reasons involved survivors only from Nagasaki, revealed a statistically significant relationship between radiation dose and prevalence of solid nodules, including cancer, and that of autoimmune hypothyroidism (Nagataki, JAMA. 1994;272:364). Because the previous thyroid study was conducted only in Nagasaki, the new comprehensive thyroid disease screening study has been ongoing in Hiroshima and Nagasaki AHS participants since March 2000. For about 4,000 participants in Hiroshima and Nagasaki AHS cohort, thyroid ultrasonography, aspiration biopsy of nodules, thyroid function test, thyroid autoantibody (thyroid peroxidase antibody and thyroglobulin antibody) test by highly sensitive assay using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay were performed for the diagnosis of thyroid diseases. Analysis of data from the 1874 people examined through July 2001 (915 people from Hiroshima, 959 people from Nagasaki) provides evidence that thyroid cancer increases with radiation dose. The prevalence of positive result for thyroid autoantibody test is increased in the people exposed to relative low dose of radiation (0.01-0.99 Sv). Examination and measurements was completed in February 2003 for all patients. The analysis of these data is providing new and more complete insights into relationships between thyroid diseases and low doses of radiation

  1. AFSC/REFM: Bomb-produced age validation study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish age validation with bomb-produced radiocarbon (14C) requires a known-age Delta14C reference chronology spanning the era of a marine increase in bomb-produced...

  2. Thermal analysis of pyrotechnic mixture-fireworks, atom-bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendran, Jeya; Thanulingam, T.L.

    2008-01-01

    Sound level produced from two varieties of sound producing fireworks of atom-bomb, cake bomb and thunder bomb were measured. The pyrotechnic mixture, KNO 3 /S/Al(H 3 BO 3 ) of compositions 57.5/19.9/22.1(0.5)% very much similar to commercial atom-bomb were taken and five cake bomb and seven thunder bomb with different net weight of chemicals were manufactured specifically for analysis. Cake bomb with 1g pyrotechnic mixture and thunder bomb with 2g pyrotechnic mixture produce -3 . Ignition temperature of the mixture is above the melting point of the metallic fuel, Al (660 deg C) and self propagating decomposition occurred at high temperature. The pyrotechnic mixture, KNO 3 /S/Al(H 3 BO 3 ) is a safe mixture from accidental factor, static electricity. DSC studies indicate slight formation of potassium nitrite with evolution of NO above 400 deg C. (author)

  3. Nuclear start-up, testing and core management of the Fast Test Reactor (FTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, R.A.; Daughtry, J.W.; Harris, R.A.; Jones, D.H.; Nelson, J.V.; Rawlins, J.A.; Rothrock, R.B.; Sevenich, R.A.; Zimmerman, B.D.

    1980-01-01

    Plans for the nuclear start-up, low and high power physics testing, and core management of the Fast Test Reactor (FTR) are described. Owing to the arrangement of the fuel-handling system, which permits continuous instrument lead access to experiments during refuelling, it is most efficient to load the reactor in an asymmetric fashion, filling one-third core sectors at a time. The core neutron level will be monitored during this process using both in-core and ex-core detectors. A variety of physics tests are planned following the core loading. Because of the experimental purpose of the reactor, these tests will include a comprehensive characterization programme involving both active and passive neutron and gamma measurements. Following start-up tests, the FTR will be operated as a fast neutron irradiation facility, to test a wide variety of fast reactor core components and materials. Nuclear analyses will be made prior to each irradiation cycle to confirm that the planned arrangement of standard and experimental components satisfies all safety and operational constraints, and that all experiments are located so as to achieve their desired irradiation environment. (author)

  4. Specification and acceptance testing of nuclear medicine equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegst, A.V.; Erickson, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    The purchase of nuclear medicine equipment is of prime importance in the operation of a clinical service. Failure to properly evaluate the potential uses of the instrumentation and the various operational characteristics of the equipment can often result in the purchase of inappropriate or inferior instruments. The magnitude of the purchase in terms of time and financial investments make it imperative that the purchase be approached in a systematic manner. Consideration of both the intended clinical functions and personnel requirements is important. It is necessary also to evaluate the ability of the equipment vendor to support the instrumentation after the purchase has been completed and the equipment installed in the clinical site. The desired specifications of the instrument characteristics should be stated in terms that can be verified by acceptance testing. The complexity of modern instrumentation and the sensitivity of it to the environment require the buyer to take into account the potential problems of controlling the temperature, humidity, and electrical power of the installation site. If properly and systematically approached, the purchase of new nuclear medicine instrumentation can result in the acquisition of a powerful diagnostic tool which will have a useful lifetime of many years. If not so approached, it may result in the expenditure of a large amount of money and personnel time without the concomitant return in useful clinical service. (author)

  5. International benchmark tests of the FENDL-1 Nuclear Data Library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, U.

    1997-01-01

    An international benchmark validation task has been conducted to validate the fusion evaluated nuclear data library FENDL-1 through data tests against integral 14 MeV neutron experiments. The main objective of this task was to qualify the FENDL-1 working libraries for fusion applications and to elaborate recommendations for further data improvements. Several laboratories and institutions from the European Union, Japan, the Russian Federation and US have contributed to the benchmark task. A large variety of existing integral 14 MeV benchmark experiments was analysed with the FENDL-1 working libraries for continuous energy Monte Carlo and multigroup discrete ordinate calculations. Results of the benchmark analyses have been collected, discussed and evaluated. The major findings, conclusions and recommendations are presented in this paper. With regard to the data quality, it is summarised that fusion nuclear data have reached a high confidence level with the available FENDL-1 data library. With few exceptions this holds for the materials of highest importance for fusion reactor applications. As a result of the performed benchmark analyses, some existing deficiencies and discrepancies have been identified that are recommended for removal in theforthcoming FENDL-2 data file. (orig.)

  6. Iraq's bomb: Blueprints and artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, D.; Hibbs, M.

    1992-01-01

    After more than half a year of investigating Iraq's clandestine nuclear program, UN and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors found the biggest remaining piece of the puzzle: details of Iraq's effort to design and develop a nuclear explosive device. On September 22, an inspection team - the seventh sent by the UN Special Commission to uncover Iraq's weapons of mass destruction - discovered the nuclear weapons program archives at program headquarters in Baghdad. Many of the documents found there recorded Iraq's plans and progress. Less than a week earlier, Rahim Al-Kital, Iraq's ambassador to the IAEA, informed the agency's 1991 conference in Vienna that Iraq had already 'told the United Nations everything,' and that inspectors were 'guessing' about a nuclear weapons program that did not exist. But the find put an end to any doubts that Iraq's secret effort to enrich uranium was for weapons purposes. The documents showed that since 1988 or 1989 Iraq had invested heavily in facilities to develop and make nuclear weapons. By mid 1990, Iraqi scientists had made some progress in understanding how a relatively crude nuclear explosive device with a core of highly enriched uranium would work, and they had done some experiments on parts of the technology. By that time, an experimental program was under way for using shaped conventional charges to activate a nuclear explosion by uniformly compressing a uranium sphere. But on the eve of the Kuwait invasion, Iraqi experts still had many theoretical and experimental questions to answer

  7. High energy nuclear database: a test-bed for nuclear data information technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.A.; Vogt, R.; Beck, B.; Pruet, J.; Vogt, R.

    2008-01-01

    We describe the development of an on-line high-energy heavy-ion experimental database. When completed, the database will be searchable and cross-indexed with relevant publications, including published detector descriptions. While this effort is relatively new, it will eventually contain all published data from older heavy-ion programs as well as published data from current and future facilities. These data include all measured observables in proton-proton, proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions. Once in general use, this database will have tremendous scientific payoff as it makes systematic studies easier and allows simpler benchmarking of theoretical models for a broad range of experiments. Furthermore, there is a growing need for compilations of high-energy nuclear data for applications including stockpile stewardship, technology development for inertial confinement fusion, target and source development for upcoming facilities such as the International Linear Collider and homeland security. This database is part of a larger proposal that includes the production of periodic data evaluations and topical reviews. These reviews would provide an alternative and impartial mechanism to resolve discrepancies between published data from rival experiments and between theory and experiment. Since this database will be a community resource, it requires the high-energy nuclear physics community's financial and manpower support. This project serves as a test-bed for the further development of an object-oriented nuclear data format and database system. By using 'off-the-shelf' software tools and techniques, the system is simple, robust, and extensible. Eventually we envision a 'Grand Unified Nuclear Format' encapsulating data types used in the ENSDF, Endf/B, EXFOR, NSR and other formats, including processed data formats. (authors)

  8. Performance testing of thermal analysis codes for nuclear fuel casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, L.C.

    1987-01-01

    In 1982 Sandia National Laboratories held the First Industry/Government Joint Thermal and Structural Codes Information Exchange and presented the initial stages of an investigation of thermal analysis computer codes for use in the design of nuclear fuel shipping casks. The objective of the investigation was to (1) document publicly available computer codes, (2) assess code capabilities as determined from their user's manuals, and (3) assess code performance on cask-like model problems. Computer codes are required to handle the thermal phenomena of conduction, convection and radiation. Several of the available thermal computer codes were tested on a set of model problems to assess performance on cask-like problems. Solutions obtained with the computer codes for steady-state thermal analysis were in good agreement and the solutions for transient thermal analysis differed slightly among the computer codes due to modeling differences

  9. Very high temperature measurements: Applications to nuclear reactor safety tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parga, Clemente-Jose

    2013-01-01

    This PhD dissertation focuses on the improvement of very high temperature thermometry (1100 deg. C to 2480 deg. C), with special emphasis on the application to the field of nuclear reactor safety and severe accident research. Two main projects were undertaken to achieve this objective: - The development, testing and transposition of high-temperature fixed point (HTFP) metal-carbon eutectic cells, from metrology laboratory precision (±0.001 deg. C) to applied research with a reasonable degradation of uncertainties (±3-5 deg. C). - The corrosion study and metallurgical characterization of Type-C thermocouple (service temp. 2300 deg. C) prospective sheath material was undertaken to extend the survivability of TCs used for molten metallic/oxide corium thermometry (below 2000 deg. C)

  10. Tracking the debris cloud from a Chinese nuclear test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, K.R.

    1977-01-01

    As the radioactive debris cloud from a Chinese nuclear test on September 26, 1976 began drifting eastward, the Laboratory's computational facilities were pressed into service to predict the possible environmental effects. ERDA asked us to calculate cloud trajectories and to estimate the fallout dose. The FAA asked us to provide dose estimates both for commercial aircraft flights within the U.S. and for transatlantic flights of the Concorde SST. Our dose estimates, calculated with 2BPUFF, a large-cloud diffusion code, proved to be accurate predictions, correlating well with later observations. At FAA and ERDA request, we also worked with EG and G to measure cabin dose rates in some transatlantic SST and subsonic flights while the debris cloud moved out over the Atlantic Ocean

  11. The resumption-stopping of nuclear tests: between fear and hope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillis, B.

    1996-01-01

    The situation of French deterrence, with the resumption of nuclear weapons tests until the nuclear explosions simulation with the mega joules laser and the PALEN programme, is described here. (N.C.). 1 map

  12. Environmental monitoring associated with nuclear testing in French Polynesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, R.; Arnould, C.; Bory, P.; Ducousso, R.; Sarbach, J.

    2009-01-01

    The realization of the programme of nuclear experiments in French Polynesia was accompanied by the installation by a radiological monitoring device of the environment, either the physical environment or biological, continental or marine, vegetable or animal, in order to make sure of the absence of risk for the populations. This device took all its importance with the tests carried out in the atmosphere between 1966 and 1974. Its implementation required important means in hardware and manpower with the intervention of civil and military or sometimes mixed organizations. The monitoring was naturally done in a very complete way in the zones close to the sites of tests, but also on the whole of the Polynesian territory, in particular the most populated atolls. It also carried, but in a less extended way, on remote zones, like the Andean countries, because of their geographical location. The results obtained by the various involved laboratories were gathered and interpreted in order to ensure information of the persons in charge and the authorities, in particular in Polynesia and through them the population. They were each year transmitted to the scientific committee of the United Nations for the study of the effects of ionizing radiations (UNSCEAR). The surveillance device is thus described, apart from the zones close to the zones of testing, with the presentation of the various implied organizations and the various monitoring programs. (authors)

  13. Experience with RTD response time testing in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.; Kerlin, T.W.

    1985-01-01

    The reactor coolant temperatures in pressurized water reactors are measured with platinum resistance temperature detectors (RTDs). The information furnished by these RTDs is used for plant protection as well as control. As a part of the plant protection system, the RTDs must respond to temperature changes in a timely fashion. The RTD response time requirements are different for the various plant types. These requirements are specified in the plant technical specifications in terms of an RTd time constant. The current time constant requirements for nuclear plant RTDs varies from 0.5 seconds to 13.0 seconds depending on the type of the plant. Therefore, different types of RTDs are used in different plants to achieve the required time constants. In addition, in-situ response time tests are periodically performed on protective system RTDs to ensure that the in-service time constants are within acceptable limits as the plant is operating. The periodic testing is important because response time degradation may occur while the RTD ages in the process. Recent response time tests in operating plants revealed unacceptable time constants for several protection system RTDs. As a result, these plants had to be shut down to resolve the problem which in one case was due to improper installation and in another case was because of degradation of a thermal compound used in the thermowell

  14. Rehabilitation of former nuclear test sites in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    A range of options with indicative cost estimates and timescale has been defined for clean-up of the former British nuclear test sites at Maralinga and Emu in South Australia. The situation at the former test sites on the Monte Bello Islands has been reported separately. The predominant contributor to potential radiation dose at the test sites is residual plutonium contamination of soil which may be incorporated into the body through inhalation of resuspended dust. Acceptable levels of radioactive soil contamination based upon organ doses from incorporated plutonium and the associated health detriment are proposed by the Technical Assessment Group for a series of land-use options ranging from fully unrestricted habitation by Aboriginals including the case of high dependence on local plants and animals for food: to casual access by Aboriginals assuming retained or, if necessary, extended fences. The area of land affected and the quantity of soil and other material with more than the proposed limit of contamination as well as a range of remedial measures for reduction of the contamination to a level acceptable for each of the land-use options has been assessed and methods proposed for safe disposal of the contaminated materials. The associated costs of these remedial measures and disposal methods have also been estimated. 28 refs., 71 tabs., 45 figs

  15. Techniques of the snubber testing in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Soon Sin; Kim, Byung Chul

    1994-05-01

    The performance of PSI/ISI is one of the important inspections which improve the safety, reliability and operability of nuclear power plant. Therefore, KAERI has performed the inspections for the safety-related piping systems, pressure vessel and support components of NPP by the NDT methods in accordance with the related technical codes and standards. ASME Sec.XI of 1989 requires to perform the visual inspection and functional test of snubbers in accordance with ASME/ANSI OM-Part 4 additionally. Especially, the inspection and functional test of heavy duty hydraulic snubbers attached to the steam generator and RC pump have also been added. The main role of snubbers protects the piping system and pressure vessel from the transient events such as water hammer and earthquake during operation. Throughout the analysis of the status of snubbers in NPP, the snubber failure cases in domestic and foreign countries, the requirements and technical standards of the inspection and test, problems of snubbers in NPP, and snubber reduction program, this report requires to follow the technical codes and standards for the inspection and functional test of snubbers now being insufficient in Korean NPP. As a following action, the safety verification analysis for the reliability of piping systems and components of NPP due to snubber failure causes will be studied, and also the snubber reduction program of NPP will simplify the control and maintenance of the expensive snubbers. The objective of this report is to provide the problems of snubber in Korean NPP and contribute to the integrity assurance of the piping systems and components by the inspection and test of snubbers. 17 figs., 9 tabs., 19 refs. (Author)

  16. Thyroid gland status among population living around the semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhumadilov, Z.; Land, C.; Hartshorne, M.

    2000-01-01

    From 1949-1962, regions of Kazakstan near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) were contaminated with high levels of radioactive fallout from atomic bomb tests carried out at the SNTS. The effective-dose is a principal criterion for the evaluation of the effect of radioactive fallout upon population. Thyroid disease prevalence may be ascertained, as a biomarker of radiation exposure and because it is of interest in itself. Some features from three studies of thyroid gland status among population living around SNTS will be reported. The first study is a case review of pathological findings of 7,271 patients from three regions adjacent to the SNTS, who were surgically treated during 1966-96; the second is a thyroid screening study of a cohort of 3000 village residents who were <20 years of age at the time of major fallout events in the Semipalatinsk region; the third is a complex molecular, morphological investigation and some approaches to rehabilitation of patients with thyroid abnormalities. Our first study revealed that there is a significant trend for the proportion of thyroid cancer to increase over time in the Semipalatinsk region of Kazakstan 20-29 years after onset of testing in 1949, which might be related to radiation exposure. There are many ethnic groups in this region. Our research among two main ethnic groups (native Kazakh and European extraction) detected that the initial level of thyroid abnormalities and thyroid cancer was higher among residents of European extraction. The total number of surgical cases increased among both ethnic groups over the years, but the numbers of cases with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid cancer increased dramatically among ethnic Kazakhs. Overall, papillary and follicular cancers predominated, but it should be noted the relatively high percentage of follicular cancers after 1982 in the Semipalatinsk region. The primary screening outcome measure was the prevaleance of thyroid nodules as determined by ultrasound

  17. Thyroid gland status among population living around the semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhumadilov, Z. [Semipalatinsk State Medical Academy (Kazakstan); Land, C.; Hartshorne, M. [and others

    2000-05-01

    From 1949-1962, regions of Kazakstan near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) were contaminated with high levels of radioactive fallout from atomic bomb tests carried out at the SNTS. The effective-dose is a principal criterion for the evaluation of the effect of radioactive fallout upon population. Thyroid disease prevalence may be ascertained, as a biomarker of radiation exposure and because it is of interest in itself. Some features from three studies of thyroid gland status among population living around SNTS will be reported. The first study is a case review of pathological findings of 7,271 patients from three regions adjacent to the SNTS, who were surgically treated during 1966-96; the second is a thyroid screening study of a cohort of 3000 village residents who were <20 years of age at the time of major fallout events in the Semipalatinsk region; the third is a complex molecular, morphological investigation and some approaches to rehabilitation of patients with thyroid abnormalities. Our first study revealed that there is a significant trend for the proportion of thyroid cancer to increase over time in the Semipalatinsk region of Kazakstan 20-29 years after onset of testing in 1949, which might be related to radiation exposure. There are many ethnic groups in this region. Our research among two main ethnic groups (native Kazakh and European extraction) detected that the initial level of thyroid abnormalities and thyroid cancer was higher among residents of European extraction. The total number of surgical cases increased among both ethnic groups over the years, but the numbers of cases with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid cancer increased dramatically among ethnic Kazakhs. Overall, papillary and follicular cancers predominated, but it should be noted the relatively high percentage of follicular cancers after 1982 in the Semipalatinsk region. The primary screening outcome measure was the prevaleance of thyroid nodules as determined by

  18. A-bomb radiation effects digest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigematsu, Itsuzo; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Sasaki, Hideo; Ito, Chikako; Kamada, Nanao.

    1993-01-01

    This publication is the digest of the book 'Genbaku Hoshasen no Jintai Eikyo (Effects of A-bomb Radiation on the Human Body)' (365p.), published in Japanese by Hiroshima International Council for Medical Care of the Radiation-Exposed. Following a brief description on the damage of the atomic bomb, the subjects of malignant tumors, endocrine and metabolic deseases, ocular lesions, dermatologic effects, prenatal exposure, chromosoal aberrations, mutations, sensitivity to radiation, immune function, genetic effects and other effects of radiation are summarized. (J.P.N.)

  19. Terror, tortur og den tikkende bombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, Morten

    2012-01-01

    The so-called "war on terror" has renewed the interest in torture in practice as well as in theory. The philosophical debate about possible justifications for torture has to a large extent revolved about the ticking bomb scenario: would it be justified to torture a terrorist in order to prevent...... a catastrophe? I criticize arguments based on ticking bomb scenarios in two steps. First, I show that exceptional resort to torture will not be possible in the situations where it is most needed. Second, I state several pragmatic as well as principled objections against a state sanctioned or tolerated practice...

  20. Indonesian Salafism on Jihad and Suicide Bombings

    OpenAIRE

    Rusli, Rusli

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with jihad and suicide bombings from the perspective of Indonesian salafism. It is argued that there are two different points of view related to this issue. The first is those who are affiliated with Wahhabi salafists such as those involved in Salafi-based foundations like As-Sunnah, Ihyaut Turats, al-Sofwah, Lajnah al-Khairiyah, Lajnah al-Istiqamah, and Wahdah Islamiyyah. They do not agree with suicide bombing directed to Western targets—mainly America—and its symbols. Suici...

  1. 49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 Section 1546... Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign air carrier may land or take off an airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that airplane, unless the...

  2. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight.... (d) Notification. Upon receipt of any bomb threat against the security of a flight or facility, or...

  3. Domestic nuclear power plants tested in the Earth's orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryaznov, G.M.; Pupko, V.Ya.

    1995-01-01

    The authors review the history of developing the TOPAZ nuclear power units, their design, the fall of the Kosmos-954 satellite with a nuclear unit of thermoelectric type on the territory of Canada. The details of the structural scheme of the TOPAZ nuclear power unit, the main directions of its modification, some aspects of ensuring nuclear and radiation safety are considered as well as the importance of thermoemission units for telecommunication satellites

  4. Maralinga: British A-bomb Australian legacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tame, A.; Robotham, F.P.J.

    1982-01-01

    During the 1950s a series of nuclear weapons tests was conducted at Maralinga, South Australia. Events at the time of the tests and during the subsequent clean up are described. Effects of exposure to radiation on Aborigines and military personnel are considered. A section on the biological effects of ionizing radiations is also included

  5. Current Ground Test Options for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    About 20 different NTP engines/ reactors were tested from 1959 to 1972 as part of the Rover and Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program. Most were tested in open air at test cell A or test cell C, at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Even after serious engine breakdowns of the reactor (e.g., Phoebus 1A), the test cells were cleaned up for other engine tests. The engine test stand (ETS) was made for high altitude (approximately 1 psia) testing of an NTP engine with a flight configuration, but still had the exhaust released to open air. The Rover/NERVA program became aware of new environmental regulations which would prohibit the release of any significant quantity of radioactive particulates and noble gases into the open air. The nuclear furnace (NF-1) was the last reactor tested before the program was cancelled in 1973, but successfully demonstrated a scrubber concept on how to filter the NTP exhaust. The NF-1 was demonstrated in the summer of 1972. The NF-1 used a 44MW reactor and operated each run for approximately 90 minutes. The system cooled the hot hydrogen exhaust from the engine with a water spray before entering a particle filter. The exhaust then passed through a series of heat exchangers and water separators to help remove water from the exhaust and further reduce the exhaust temperatures. The exhaust was next prepared for the charcoal trap by passing through a dryer and effluent cooler to bring exhaust temperatures close to liquid nitrogen. At those low temperatures, most of the noble gases (e.g., Xe and Kr made from fission products) get captured in the charcoal trap. The filtered hydrogen is finally passed through a flare stack and released to the air. The concept was overall successful but did show a La plating on some surfaces and had multiple recommendations for improvement. The most recent detailed study on the NTP scrubber concept was performed by the ARES Corporation in 2006. The concept is based on a 50,000 lbf thrust engine

  6. Airflow Patterns In Nuclear Workplace - Computer Simulation And Qualitative Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haim, M.; Szanto, M.; Weiss, Y.; Kravchick, T.; Levinson, S.; German, U.

    1999-01-01

    Concentration of airborne radioactive materials inside a room can vary widely from one location to another, sometimes by orders of magnitude even for locations that are relatively close. Inappropriately placed samplers can give misleading results and. therefore, the location of air samplers is important. Proper placement of samplers cannot be determined simply by observing the position of room air supply and exhaust vents. Airflow studies, such as the release of smoke aerosols, should be used. The significance of airflow pattern studies depends on the purpose of sampling - for estimating worker intakes, warning of high concentrations. defacing airborne radioactive areas, testing for confinement of sealed radioactive materials. etc. When sampling air in rooms with complex airflow patterns, it may be useful to use qualitative airflow studies with smoke tubes, smoke candles or isostatic bubbles. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission - Regulatory Guide 8.25 [1]. suggests that an airflow study should be conducted after any changes at work area including changes in the setup of work areas, ventilation system changes, etc. The present work presents an airflow patterns study conducted in a typical room using two methods: a computer simulation and a qualitative test using a smoke tube

  7. Mine seismicity and the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiappetta, F. [Blasting Analysis International, Allentown, PA (United States); Heuze, F.; Walter, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hopler, R. [Powderman Consulting Inc., Oxford, MD (United States); Hsu, V. [Air Force Technical Applications Center, Patrick AFB, FL (United States); Martin, B. [Thunder Basin Coal Co., Wright, WY (United States); Pearson, C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Stump, B. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Zipf, K. [Univ. of New South Wales (Australia)

    1998-12-09

    Surface and underground mining operations generate seismic ground motions which are created by chemical explosions and ground failures. It may come as a surprise to some that the ground failures (coal bumps, first caves, pillar collapses, rockbursts, etc.) can send signals whose magnitudes are as strong or stronger than those from any mining blast. A verification system that includes seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic and radionuclide sensors is being completed as part of the CTBT. The largest mine blasts and ground failures will be detected by this system and must be identified as distinct from signals generated by small nuclear explosions. Seismologists will analyze the seismic records and presumably should be able to separate them into earthquake-like and non earthquake-like categories, using a variety of so-called seismic discriminants. Non-earthquake essentially means explosion- or implosion-like. Such signals can be generated not only by mine blasts but also by a variety of ground failures. Because it is known that single-fired chemical explosions and nuclear explosion signals of the same yield give very similar seismic records, the non-earthquake signals will be of concern to the Treaty verification community. The magnitude of the mine-related events is in the range of seismicity created by smaller nuclear explosions or decoupled tests, which are of particular concern under the Treaty. It is conceivable that legitimate mining blasts or some mine-induced ground failures could occasionally be questioned. Information such as shot time, location and design parameters may be all that is necessary to resolve the event identity. In rare instances where the legitimate origin of the event could not be resolved by a consultation and clarification procedure, it might trigger on On-Site Inspection (OSI). Because there is uncertainty in the precise location of seismic event as determined by the International Monitoring System (IMS), the OSI can cover an area of up to 1

  8. SFC/SFBMN guidelines update for nuclear cardiology procedures: stress testing in adults and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manrique, A.; Marie, P.Y.; Maunoury, Ch.; Acar, Ph.; Agostini, D.

    2002-01-01

    The guidelines update for nuclear cardiology procedures are studied in this article. We find the minimum technique conditions for the stress testing practice, the recommendations for the different ischemia activation tests, the choice of the stress test. (N.C.)

  9. North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons Development and Diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-03

    December 23, 2006. P. A12. Many of Kim Jong-il’s luxury goods purchases have been in Europe. They include Mercedes Benz and BMW automobiles, expensive...small scale atomic bomb. Most believed that North Korea had not reached the technology level to test the prototype of a small nuclear warhead.1 The...and possibly other weapons technology to Iran. There are known divisions within the Chinese government and Communist Party over the issue of support

  10. Bomb-Pulse Chlorine-36 At The Proposed Yucca Mountain Repository Horizon: An Investigation Of Previous Conflicting Results And Collection Of New Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Cizdziel

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies by scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) found elevated ratios of chlorine-36 to total chloride ( 36 Cl/Cl) in samples of rock collected from the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) and the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) at Yucca Mountain as the tunnels were excavated. The data were interpreted as an indication that fluids containing 'bomb-pulse' 36 Cl reached the repository horizon in the ∼50 years since the peak period of above-ground nuclear testing. Moreover, the data support the concept that so-called fast pathways for infiltration not only exist but are active, possibly through a combination of porous media, faults and/or other geologic features. Due to the significance of 36 Cl data to conceptual models of unsaturated zone flow and transport, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) was requested by the Department of Energy (DOE) to design and implement a study to validate the LANL findings. The USGS chose to drill new boreholes at select locations across zones where bomb-pulse ratios had previously been identified. The drill cores were analyzed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for 36 Cl/Cl using both active and passive leaches, with the USGS/LLNL concluding that the active leach extracted too much rock-Cl and the passive leach did not show bomb-pulse ratios. Because consensus was not reached between the USGS/LLNL and LANL on several fundamental points, including the conceptual strategy for sampling, interpretation and use of tritium ( 3 H) data, and the importance and interpretation of blanks, in addition to the presence or absence of bomb-pulse 36 Cl, an evaluation by an independent entity, the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), using new samples was initiated. This report is the result of that study. The overall objectives of the UNLV study were to investigate the source or sources of the conflicting results from the previous validation study, and to obtain additional data to

  11. Sustainable land use planning at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughtrey, P.J.; Ridgway, R.B.; Baumann, P.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The UK Department for International Development (DFID) has recently agreed to support a project to develop a participatory sustainable land use plan for areas affected by nuclear weapons testing at Semipalatinsk. This three year project is expected to be initiated in April 2001 and will form one component of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Semipalatinsk Rehabilitation Programme. The project will be undertaken by a combination of Kazakh organizations working with UK consultants and will meet its overall aim through the following main activities: Development of institutional capacity in data management and analysis; Provision of information and education on environmental contamination, hazards and risks; Development of a participatory land use planning process and piloting of the process in specific areas and communities around the test site; Integration of mineral resource extraction in the land planning process with a focus- on water resource and environmental protection and participatory approaches to resolving land use conflicts; Development of legislative tools to permit the implementation of environmental management of resource exploitation. The project will make use of both modern satellite-based imagery and more traditional methods to determine the potential for different land uses within the test site. The results obtained will be incorporated with additional information on land use. radiological and hydrological conditions at the test site through a geographical information system (GIS) provided by the project. The GIS will form the core component for collation and distribution of information on options available for use of different areas of the test site and its vicinity. A participatory rural appraisal, using tried and tested techniques, will identify local interest groups in land use planning and identify the details of their stake in the process. The groups will include owners-herders, employee-herders, and subsistence

  12. Cataracts in A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neriishi, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Described is the process leading to the revision of ICRP recommendation for the threshold dose of cataracts (CA) to be 0.5 Sv (2011). The threshold for CA, posterior subcapsular (ps), was defined to be 2 Gy. However, recent investigations for 837 A-bomb survivors by slit lamp test revealed that, in addition to the CA above, the cortical CA was found to have also responded to the dose. The reanalysis afterward of their stored images showed for the estimated threshold of cortical CA to be 0.6 Sv, and significant dose response with Odds ratio (OR)/Sv of 1.30. For ps-CA, the threshold to be 0.7 Sv and OR/Sv, 1.44 were found. These thresholds were not significantly different from zero. Also found was the dose effect to be significantly decreased with increase of the age at exposure. Similar results had been suggested in cases of Swedish infants, of astronauts, and of Chernobyl clean-up workers. The dose response was further investigated for prevalence and incidence by spreading the criterion of patients to those undergone the operation to remove the lens assuming it had been derived from CA. Analysis of the dose-incidence revealed that the threshold was 0.5 Gy as estimated by the excess relative risk model and 0.45 Gy, by the excess absolute risk model. Findings above indicate that thresholds of CA found recently is much lower than the past 2-5 Gy and can be absent from the statistic aspect, which lead to the revision of the recommendation. The difference between the past and recent threshold is due to the difference of CA tissue types, of the age at exposure and of estimation. (T.T.)

  13. ELLERMAN BOMBS AT HIGH RESOLUTION. IV. VISIBILITY IN Na I AND Mg I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutten, R. J.; Rouppe van der Voort, L. H. M.; Vissers, G. J. M., E-mail: R.J.Rutten@uu.nl [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway)

    2015-08-01

    Ellerman bombs are transient brightenings of the wings of the solar Balmer lines that mark reconnection in the photosphere. Ellerman noted in 1917 that he did not observe such brightenings in the Na i D and Mg i b lines. This non-visibility should constrain EB interpretation, but has not been addressed in published bomb modeling. We therefore test Ellerman’s observation and confirm it using high-quality imaging spectrometry with the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope. However, we find a diffuse brightness in these lines that seems to result from prior EBs. We tentatively suggest this is a post-bomb hot-cloud phenomenon also found in recent EB spectroscopy in the ultraviolet.

  14. Mass survey of gastric diseases in over 60 years of atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, C; Kawase, T; Sato, K; Kumasawa, T [Hiroshima A-Bomb Survivors Health Control Clinic

    1980-11-01

    Gastric diseases screening examination was received by 2165 of A-bomb survivors over 60 years for one year. The close investigation was required in 11.5% of them, and 96% of them received the close examination. The detection rate of gastric cancer was estimated to be 1.00% in males and 0.51% in females. This investigation disclosed 14 gastric cancers. The rate of early cancer was 64.2%, which was significantly higher than 24.2% in the investigation on A-bomb survivors who had anemia and occult blood positive test results. It is considered that 66.7% of the early cancer which was found this time could not have been detected unless the present general screening examination was used. Qualitative reevaluation of general screening examination is necessary for aged A-bomb survivors.

  15. Sulfur activation at the Little Boy-Comet Critical Assembly: a replica of the Hiroshima bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.; Emery, J.F.; Pace, J.V. III.

    1985-04-01

    Studies have been completed on the activation of sulfur by fast neutrons from the Little Boy-Comet Critical Assembly which replicates the general features of the Hiroshima bomb. The complex effects of the bomb's design and construction on leakage of sulfur-activation neutrons were investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Our sulfur activation studies were performed as part of a larger program to provide benchmark data for testing of methods used in recent source-term calculations for the Hiroshima bomb. Source neutrons capable of activating sulfur play an important role in determining neutron doses in Hiroshima at a kilometer or more from the point of explosion. 37 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  16. The effect of using bomb calorimeter in improving science process skills of physics students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edie, S. S.; Masturi; Safitri, H. N.; Alighiri, D.; Susilawati; Sari, L. M. E. K.; Marwoto, P.; Iswari, R. S.

    2018-03-01

    The bomb calorimeter is laboratory equipment which serves to calculate the value of combustion heat or heat capacity of a sample in excess oxygen combustion. This study aims to determine the effect of using bomb calorimeter on science process skill of physics students. Influences include the effectiveness of using the equipment and knowing the improvement of students’ science process skills before and after using tools. The sample used simple random sampling with one group pretest-posttest research design. The instrument that used is written test that adjusts with science process skills aspect. Analysis of the effectiveness of bomb calorimeter showed useful result 87.88%, while the study of science skill improvement showed n-gain value 0.64 that is the medium category.

  17. Case for one nuclear waste facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgate, S.A.

    1979-01-01

    There should be only one nuclear waste disposal facility, and that should be located adjacent to the Nevada Test Site where prior experience has demonstrated the relative impervious nature of bomb produced cavities. Federal dedication in perpetuity, security, management, experience, stratigraphy, and land values dictate the location. Proven natural mineral aqueous surface chemistry assures against radioactive migration. An additional level of assurance - stress engineering - a new technology, can be developed to mimic, far exceed, and then be applied retroactively, similar to the same phenomena occurring in underground nuclear explosions

  18. 8 Museve NBI BombBlast.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Professionals, executives, managers, semi professionals and skilled workers comprised 89.5% of the victims when ... dependants. Being inside a building and within 100 metres from the blast carried the largest risk of injury. A ... Kenya had never experienced a suicidal terrorist bombing ..... Rapid assessment of Injuries.

  19. Chromosome abnormalities in atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomonaga, Y [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1976-09-01

    Chromosome abnormalities in bone marrow cells were recognized in 6 cases which consisted of one case of chronic myelogenous leukemia, two cases of acute myelogenous leukemia, one case of sideroblastic anemia, and two cases of myelodysplasis. Frequency of stable type chromosome abnormalities in bone marrow cells was investigated in 45 atomic bomb survivors without hematologic disorders and 15 controls. It was 1.4% (15 cases) in the group exposed to atomic bomb within 1 km from the hypocenter, which was significantly higher as compared with 0.1% (15 cases) in the group exposed to atomic bomb over 2.5 km from the hypocenter and 0.2% in normal controls. Examination of chromosome was also made on 2 of 3 cases which were the seconds born of female with high chromosome abnormality, who was exposed to within 1 km from the hypocenter, and healthy male exposed 3 km from the hypocenter. These two cases showed chromosome of normal male type, and balanced translocation was not recognized. There was not a significant difference in chromosome abnormalities between the seconds of atomic bomb survivors and controls.

  20. Bomb apologetics: Farm Hall, August 1945

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, J. [Professor of Physics at Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken New Jersey (United States); Cassidy, D. [Professor at Hofstra University, in Hempstead, New York (United States)

    1995-08-01

    On hearing the news from Hiroshima, the incredulous internees came up with a self-serving story to explain their failures in nucleus research: To keep Hitler from winning, they had deliberately not developed the atomic bomb. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.