WorldWideScience

Sample records for nuclear arms control

  1. Nuclear physicist, arms control advocate

    CERN Multimedia

    Chang, K

    2002-01-01

    Victor F. Weisskopf, a nuclear physicist who worked on the Manhattan Project to build the first atomic bomb in World War II and later became an ardent advocate of arms control, died Monday at his home in Newton, MA, USA. He was 93 (1 page).

  2. Status and prospects of nuclear arms control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xiangli; Wang Deli

    1995-01-01

    Some main issues and problems involved in nuclear arms control study, such as nuclear policy, NPT regime, verification technologies for a CTBT and disposal of military nuclear materials are introduced, in which both the current state and prospects of these issues are analyzed

  3. The future of U.S.-Russia nuclear arms control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifer, Steven

    2017-11-01

    Nuclear arms control has long made contributions to U.S.-Soviet and U.S.-Russian security, but the current regime is at risk. The 1987 Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces Treaty may be headed for collapse. Both the United States and Russia are modernizing their strategic forces, and the fate of the 2010 New Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty is unclear. In the unlikely case that the sides are prepared to go beyond New START, there are ways to address further reductions and related issues. A collapse of the arms control regime, on the other hand, would mean the end of constraints on U.S. and Russian nuclear forces, a significant loss of transparency, and potential costs to U.S. security.

  4. Supporting the President's Arms Control and Nonproliferation Agenda: Transparency and Verification for Nuclear Arms Reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, James E.; Meek, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The President's arms control and nonproliferation agenda is still evolving and the details of initiatives supporting it remain undefined. This means that DOE, NNSA, NA-20, NA-24 and the national laboratories can help define the agenda, and the policies and the initiatives to support it. This will require effective internal and interagency coordination. The arms control and nonproliferation agenda is broad and includes the path-breaking goal of creating conditions for the elimination of nuclear weapons. Responsibility for various elements of the agenda will be widely scattered across the interagency. Therefore an interagency mapping exercise should be performed to identify the key points of engagement within NNSA and other agencies for creating effective policy coordination mechanisms. These can include informal networks, working groups, coordinating committees, interagency task forces, etc. It will be important for NA-20 and NA-24 to get a seat at the table and a functional role in many of these coordinating bodies. The arms control and nonproliferation agenda comprises both mature and developing policy initiatives. The more mature elements such as CTBT ratification and a follow-on strategic nuclear arms treaty with Russia have defined milestones. However, recent press reports indicate that even the START follow-on strategic arms pact that is planned to be complete by the end of 2009 may take significantly longer and be more expansive in scope. The Russians called for proposals to count non-deployed as well as deployed warheads. Other elements of the agenda such as FMCT, future bilateral nuclear arms reductions following a START follow-on treaty, nuclear posture changes, preparations for an international nuclear security summit, strengthened international safeguards and multilateral verification are in much earlier stages of development. For this reason any survey of arms control capabilities within the USG should be structured to address potential needs across the

  5. Conventional arms control and the nuclear weapons dilemma in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopmann, P.T.

    1988-01-01

    This paper sets forth some fundamental propositions about the role of conventional arms control in connection with the nuclear weapons dilemma in Europe. A fundamental underlying premise of this analysis is that nuclear and non-nuclear issues in European security are inextricably linked with one another. Therefore, they should not be separated either conceptually or at the level of policy analysis and prescription. An additional basic assumption is that the attainment of an appropriate security regime in Europe is hindered by the security dilemma, in which measures that enhance the security of one side in the East-West conflict are often perceived by the other as detracting from their own security. Therefore, a regime intended to enhance common security throughout the continent must be designed so as to reduce rather than exacerbate this dilemma. The analysis of the requirements for confidence-building measures and arms control rests on several propositions that have been introduced by numerous other authors in this volume. These propositions will be summarized here briefly in order to lay the foundation for the subsequent analysis of confidence-building and arms control initiatives

  6. Nuclear Arms Control, Nonproliferation, and Counterterrorism: Impacts on Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregenzer, Arian

    2014-01-01

    Reducing the risks of nuclear war, limiting the spread of nuclear weapons, and reducing global nuclear weapons stockpiles are key national and international security goals. They are pursued through a variety of international arms control, nonproliferation, and counterterrorism treaties and agreements. These legally binding and political commitments, together with the institutional infrastructure that supports them, work to establish global norms of behavior and have limited the spread of weapons of mass destruction. Beyond the primary security objectives, reducing the likelihood of the use of nuclear weapons, preventing environmental releases of radioactive material, increasing the availability of safe and secure nuclear technology for peaceful purposes, and providing scientific data relevant to predicting and managing the consequences of natural or human-caused disasters worldwide provide significant benefits to global public health. PMID:24524501

  7. Safety in the nuclear era. Politics - strategy - arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebel, G.

    1988-01-01

    Details are given on safety and the factors specifying safety in Europe; the history of the NATO and development of an alliance of sovereign states; nuclear deterrence - the politico-strategic standard of the nuclear era; the East/West struggle for military power; co-operative arms control - theory and practice of stability in the nuclear era; alternative schemes and models; SDI and EURECA - present and future chances and risks. The world is at the beginning of a fascinating development likely to be culminating in the control over and utilization of space, and the mastering of various technical problems be they of a civil or military nature. It remains to be seen whether man will be able to handle the new additional technical capacities in an ethically and politically responsible way. Be that as it may, political scepticism and negative reactions will not succeed in blocking the dynamic forces inherent in the development described. This is especially true for SDI and EURECA. Both schemes are full of both chances and risks. While chances ought to be made the most of risks must be controlled through policies guided by reason. (orig./HSCH) [de

  8. The arms race control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemo, J.

    2010-01-01

    Written in 1961, this paper presents the content of a book entitled 'The arms race control' where the author outlined the difference between disarmament and arms control, described the economic and moral role of arms race, the importance of force balance for international security. He wandered whether arms control could ensure this balance and whether nuclear balance meant force balance. Force balance then appears to be a precarious and unsteady component of international security. He commented the challenges of disarmament, recalled some arguments for a nuclear disarmament. Then he discussed what would be an arms control with or without disarmament (either nuclear or conventional)

  9. Arms control and disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acton, P.

    1992-01-01

    Article VI of the Non-Proliferation Treaty commits each party to work towards nuclear disarmament and to negotiations to stop the nuclear arms race. All parties to the Treaty are included and a wide range of arms control and disarmament issues are covered. However the main focus at Treaty review conferences has been on nuclear disarmament by the nuclear weapon states which are party to the Treaty. This has led to bilateral United States - Soviet Union negotiations resulting in the Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces Treaty in December 1987 and the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) in July followed by unilateral arms control measures in September and October 1991. (UK)

  10. Progress to a nuclear-weapon-free world through tactical nuclear arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matseiko, Youri

    1999-01-01

    At a time when, after some years of passivity, nuclear disarmament is becoming more of an urgent item on the international agenda and receiving accordingly more attention on the part of politicians and non-governmental experts. This is partly reflected in the Report of the Canberra Commission, and the statement on nuclear weapons by international generals and admirals. At the same time some developments such as uncertainties with START II ratification and the process of NATO enlargement make the task of nuclear arms control even more demanding. What is needed now is to pursue at last without any further delay negotiations on effective measures relating to the cessation of the nuclear arms race and to nuclear disarmament. And these effective measures must include both strategic and tactical nuclear weapons. Only a sustained commitment at the highest political level will legitimate serious discussions of the elimination option and ensure that resources and personnel are devoted to finding solutions to the problems associated with moving to zero, and to crafting appropriate transition strategies. In the absence of such a commitment, the nations of the world may never reach the point at which the desirability and feasibility of a nuclear-free world can be evaluated with greater certainty. This Pugwash Conference is trying to make a modest contribution in helping to make possible such a vitally important commitment

  11. Security and arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolodziej, E.A.; Morgan, P.M.

    1989-01-01

    This book attempts to clarify and define selected current issues and problems related to security and arms control from an international perspective. The chapters are organized under the following headings. Conflict and the international system, Nuclear deterrence, Conventional warfare, Subconventional conflict, Arms control and crisis management

  12. Evolution in nuclear strategy in US and Russia and its implications in arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokov, N

    2003-07-01

    Today, there is a growing tendency in war-fighting scenarios to include limited use of nuclear weapons. New developments in nuclear policy could be attributed to changes in the international situation like the multiplication of low level conflicts and the threat of terrorism. This paper analyzes the evolution of the Russian nuclear doctrine, the transformation of the US nuclear policy and their consequences on arms control. (J.S.)

  13. Evolution in nuclear strategy in US and Russia and its implications in arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokov, N.

    2003-01-01

    Today, there is a growing tendency in war-fighting scenarios to include limited use of nuclear weapons. New developments in nuclear policy could be attributed to changes in the international situation like the multiplication of low level conflicts and the threat of terrorism. This paper analyzes the evolution of the Russian nuclear doctrine, the transformation of the US nuclear policy and their consequences on arms control. (J.S.)

  14. Lessons from UNSCOM/IAEA applicable to nuclear arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorn, D.W.

    1995-12-05

    In early 1991, the Security Council of the United Nations tasked the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency, with the assistance and cooperation of the United Nations Special Commission, to oversee the destruction, removal or rendering harmless of nuclear weapons material and capabilities in Iraq. The conduct of the nuclear inspections, and the subsequent activities (identification, destruction, removal rendering harmless), have provided a wealth of experience and insight into the inspection and monitoring process as well as into the political realities of such an operation. The early inspections were conducted in an atmosphere of discovery and inexperience on both the part of the Iraqis and the IAEA and UNSCOM. As time went on, the Iraqis became more adept at hiding and obscuring relevant documents and equipment, and the inspection teams became more knowledgeable about inspection and investigative techniques, and the pre-existing Iraqi programs. A continuous monitoring presence in Iraq has now been established and an import/export monitoring regime is being developed. While steps taken to date have proven effective in inhibiting resumption of nuclear weaponization activities, it remains to be seen how effective these measures will be in the future. The external and internal conditions which led the Iraqi leadership to undertake a nuclear weaponization program have not changed, and the prognosis for the long term is uncertain. The entire process in Iraq has shown how fragile are the tools available to the international community, and how a determined proliferator can evade inspection and monitoring measures. Such measures cannot prevent nuclear proliferation, they can only hope to deter it, or, failing in that, detect it.

  15. Nuclear Sanctions: Section 102(b) of the Arms Export Control Act and its Application to India and Pakistan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grimmett, Jeanne J

    2001-01-01

    Section 102(b) of the Arms Export Control Act (AECA) requires the President to impose sanctions on any country that he has determined is a "non-nuclear-weapon state" and has received or detonated a "nuclear explosive device...

  16. The rejection of the comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty by the US Senate: a reverse for the nuclear arms control?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitt, B.

    2000-01-01

    On October 13, 1999, after a hasty debate, the US Senate rejected the comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty (CTBT) signed 3 years ago. This article analyses this event with respect to the US domestic context (discussions at the Senate, reaction of the Presidency) and with respect to the international context (international reactions, future of the treaty, consequences on arms control policy). (J.S.)

  17. JPRS Report Arms Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1993-01-01

    Table of Contents: (1) COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES - (A) GENERAL Flaws in U.S.-Russian SSD Agreement Viewed, Khariton - Espionage Not Crucial in Soviet Nuclear Arms Development, Further on Espionage Role in Nuclear Arms Projects...

  18. Cooperation of nuclear reactor controller ARM-5S and turbine TVER-02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, K.; Lnenicka, B.; Pokorny, F.; Prochazka, F.

    1985-01-01

    Turbines of Czechoslovak make provided with controllers TVER-02 are installed in WWER-440 nuclear power plants under construction in Czechoslovakia. Reactor output is controlled using Soviet-made controllers ARM-5S which already comprise turbine controllers. The problems are analyzed of cooperation of both controllers, especially their parameters and transient processes in typical operating situations. The analysis uses the results of measurements performed during the power start-up of Unit 1 of the V-2 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice. The results show that two types of control modes can be selected for the operation of the entire unit: the control to constant unit output, and control of unit output varying with turbine load selected on the TVER-02 controller or given by the demand of the power network. (Z.M.)

  19. Domestic politics, citizen activism, and U.S. nuclear arms control policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knopf, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The author seeks to ascertain whether and how citizens' movements concerning nuclear arms control and disarmament affect US arms control policy. The author employs a comparative case study methodology. He examines cases of the Eisenhower and Kennedy Administrations during the period of protest against nuclear testing, and the Reagan Administration during the nuclear weapons freeze campaign and the subsequent campaign for a comprehensive test ban. He hows there are four mechanisms through which public advocacy efforts can influence arms control policy, identifies the conditions under which each can be effective, and details the type of impact each mechanism has. Domestic activism interacts with broader public opinion in a way that creates electoral pressure; with elite-level debates in a way that removes a consensus behind presidential policy or changes the winning coalition in Congress; with bureaucratic politics, by generating ideas that have utility for some agents within the Executive; or with the public diplomacy of foreign governments, especially the Soviet Union. Citizens' movements had an impact on policy in each of the cases studied. The type and extent of impact, and the mechanisms involved in giving activism influence, are different for each case

  20. Safeguarding arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    This essay reviews the evolution of various safeguards concepts associated with U.S. Soviet arms control negotiations over the past twenty-five years. It explore in some detail the origins, nature, and effectiveness of the safeguards packages associated with six agreements: the Limited Test Ban Treaty (1963), the SALT I Interim Agreement (1972), the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty (1972), the Threshold Test Ban Treaty (1974), the Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty (1976) and the SALT II Treaty (1979). Finally, the implications of this historical record for developing future nuclear and conventional arms control accords and for shoring up existing pacts, such as the ABM Treaty, are assessed with a view towards practicable prescriptions for Western policymakers. The treaty eliminating intermediate-range nuclear forces (INF) incorporates several verification safeguards, and it is very likely that analogous measures would be attached to any accord constraining conventional forces in Europe

  1. Nuclear weapons, scientists, and the post-Cold War challenge selected papers on arms control

    CERN Document Server

    Drell, Sidney D

    2007-01-01

    This volume includes a representative selection of Sidney Drell's recent writings and speeches (circa 1993 to the present) on public policy issues with substantial scientific components. Most of the writings deal with national security, nuclear weapons, and arms control and reflect the author's personal involvement in such issues dating back to 1960. Fifteen years after the demise of the Soviet Union, the gravest danger presented by nuclear weapons is the spread of advanced technology that may result in the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Of most concern would be their acquisition by hostile governments and terrorists who are unconstrained by accepted norms of civilized behavior. The current challenges are to prevent this from happening and, at the same time, to pursue aggressively the opportunity to escape from an outdated nuclear deterrence trap.

  2. Simulation of neutron multiplicity measurements using Geant4. Open source software for nuclear arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuett, Moritz

    2016-07-07

    Nuclear arms control, including nuclear safeguards and verification technologies for nuclear disarmament typically use software as part of many different technological applications. This thesis proposes to use three open source criteria for such software, allowing users and developers to have free access to a program, have access to the full source code and be able to publish modifications for the program. This proposition is presented and analyzed in detail, together with the description of the development of ''Open Neutron Multiplicity Simulation'', an open source software tool to simulate neutron multiplicity measurements. The description includes physical background of the method, details of the developed program and a comprehensive set of validation calculations.

  3. Some possible applications of measurements on mu mesons to nuclear safeguards, nonproliferation, and arms control activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, W.R.; Vanier, P.E.

    1997-01-01

    In the nuclear safeguards and arms control areas, well-developed methodologies exist for determining the properties of nuclear materials via measurements of the gamma rays and neutrons emitted from these materials, or in the arms control area, by the use of radiography. In certain favorable instances, it may by feasible to perform comparable measurements with the use of a ubiquitous, naturally-occurring radiation--cosmic ray mu mesons (muons). At the earth's surface these charged particles have a broad energy distribution peaking at about 500 MeV with a flux of approximately 10 -2 /cm 2 -sec-steradian. In traversing matter, muons lose energy at a rate of approximately 2 MeV/gram almost independent of atomic number. Muons can readily be detected by either plastic scintillators or wire planes. While the flux is small, a scintillator of one meter area, for example, will register about 20,000 events/min. these particles should have utility in the detection and imaging of objects with sectional densities of a few hundred grams/cm 2 . The degree of intrusiveness of the imaging can be controlled through the detector configuration. Some possible applications include: (1) mass measurements on large UF 6 cylinders, (2) determination of the size of treaty-limited objects, e.g., missiles, in rail cars or other containment; (3) verification of single or multiple warheads or components; (4) the detection of concealed, underground cavities. Examples will be presented

  4. Nuclear arms cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.H.

    1994-01-01

    The Soviet Union's demise five years ago brought an end to the Cold War, the 45-year arms race between the Soviet superpower and the United States. The euphoria that greeted the end of this bloodless conflict has dampened somewhat, however, as U.S. officials and their counterparts in the former Soviet republics come to grips with its legacy: thousands of highly toxic and politically destabilizing nuclear weapons. With no more perceived need for much of their vast arsenals, the governments have agreed to dismantle large numbers of nuclear warheads. But the agencies involved in this task face a daunting technical and political problem: what to do with the thousands of tons of plutonium and uranium that are the main ingredients of nuclear weapons

  5. International security and arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekeus, R.

    2000-01-01

    The end of the cold war also ended the focus on the bilateral approach to arms control and disarmament. Key concepts of security needed to be revisited, along with their implications for the disarmament and arms control agenda. Though there is currently a unipolar global security environment, there remain important tasks on the multilateral arms control agenda. The major task is that of reducing and eliminating weapons of mass destruction, especially nuclear weapons. The author contends that maintaining reliance on the nuclear-weapons option makes little sense in a time when the major Powers are strengthening their partnerships in economics, trade, peacemaking and building. (author)

  6. Disarmament and arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elzen, B.

    1979-01-01

    This report discusses how far science and technology can provide methods of making arms control and disarmament agreements more controlable in an objective way. Two case studies have been considered, the test ban treaty and the verification of the number of strategic nuclear weapons. These lead to the conclusion that both science and politics are closely interwoven and that within what appear to be scientific arguments, political positions are being defended. Consequently scientists and technologists and the contexts in which they work, play a prominent role. (C.F.)

  7. New concepts in nuclear arms control: verified cutoff and verified disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, W.H.

    1990-01-01

    Limiting the numbers of nuclear warheads by reducing military production and stockpiles of fissionable materials has been a constant item on the nuclear arms control agenda for the last 45 years. It has become more salient recently, however, because of two events: the enforced closure for safety reasons of the current United States military plutonium production facilities; and the possibility that the US and USSR may soon conclude an agreement providing for the verified destruction of significant numbers of nuclear warheads and the recovery of the fissionable material they contain with the option of transferring these materials to peaceful uses. A study has been made of the practical problems of verifying the cut off of fissionable material production for military purposes in the nuclear weapon states, as well as providing assurance that material recovered from warheads is not re-used for proscribed military purposes and facilitating its transfer to civil uses. Implementation of such measures would have important implications for non-proliferation. The resultant paper was presented to a meeting of the PPNN Core Group held in Baden, close to Vienna, over the weekend of 18/19th November 1989 and is reprinted in this booklet. (author)

  8. Nuclear Arms Race and Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Anpeng

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a new factor, environment, into nuclear arms race model. In this model, nuclear weapons produce larger defense power compared with conventional arms, but hurt the environment meanwhile. In the global welfare maximum level, both conventional and nuclear weapons budget are zero. However, the competitive equilibrium may not achieve the optimum. I give the condition to jump out of the prisoner's dilemma.

  9. Command and Control in a Nuclear-Armed Iran - Proliferation Papers No. 45

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubin, Shahram

    2013-01-01

    In the long standoff regarding its nuclear ambition, Iran has cultivated ambiguity and been loath to reliably assure the international community of its ultimate intentions, complicating Western efforts to understand, let alone constrain, Tehran's endeavors. While many analyses have focused on how to prevent or contain a potential nuclear-armed Iran, the posture Iran would adopt once it has developed its nuclear weapons remains elusive. This paper highlights that while opting for command-and-control (C2) arrangements, Iran would have to reconcile two contrasting imperatives: first, to disperse assets and decentralize C2 to minimize the risks and potential damages of a disabling strike, which has been seen as a real - even imminent - threat in recent years. A contrasting concern emerged as the Iranian Revolutionary Guards' Corps became a key formulator and executor of Tehran's security policy: how to guard against the risk of unauthorized use of major weapons systems? Among the factors that could influence Iran's choices in terms of C2 arrangements, this paper focuses on Tehran's national security experience, the lessons it may have derived from it, as well as from the experience of other countries. (author)

  10. Powered manipulator control arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Mouee, Theodore; Vertut, Jean; Marchal, Paul; Germon, J.C.; Petit, Michel

    1975-01-01

    A remote operated control arm for powered manipulators is described. It includes an assembly allowing several movements with position sensors for each movement. The number of possible arm movements equals the number of possible manipulator movements. The control systems may be interrupted as required. One part of the arm is fitted with a system to lock it with respect to another part of the arm without affecting the other movements, so long as the positions of the manipulator and the arm have not been brought into complete coincidence. With this system the locking can be ended when complete concordance is achieved [fr

  11. Structure and behavior as determinants: United States nuclear test ban and chemical and biological arms control policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    US efforts to control chemical and biological warfare and nuclear testing are examined with the aim of explaining the paucity of US backed agreements in these areas. Two theoretical perspectives, the behavioral and structural approaches, are used to explore US arms control outcomes. In the behavioral approach, the effects of governmental organization and the bargaining dynamics of policy-making elites with different cognitive styles are posited as important influences on US nuclear test ban and chemical and biological arms control policy outcomes. The behavioral perspective accounts for the timing of all US failed and successful entries (with one exception) into nuclear test bans and chemical and biological warfare restraints. A shortcoming of the behavior approach, however, is that it tends to overemphasize the chances for successful US entry into nuclear test and chemical and biological warfare limitations. Analysis of the same events from the structural perspective helps to correct for expectations generated by behavioral variables for a higher success rate than ultimately resulted. In the structural approach, the focus is on the effect of the organization of international politics on US nuclear test ban and chemical and biological arms control policy outcomes

  12. The Development of Control System Design for 5 DOF Nuclear Malaysia Robot Arm v2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zaid Hassan; Anwar Abdul Rahman; Rosli Darmawan; Mohd Arif Hamzah

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a general design and implementation approach used for programming and controlling robotic systems such as remotely operated robotic manipulator systems. A hierarchical approach to control system design is adopted. The hierarchical design is translated into a component-based software design. A low-cost robotic arm and controller system is presented. The controller is a modular model of the robotic arm with the same degrees of freedom whose joints are equipped with sensors. The system takes advantage of the low cost and wide availability of control components and uses a low-cost, easy-to-program microprocessor. Furthermore, it presents the design and the construction of electronic systems for the control of an articulated robot developed for research and development related with instrumentation and control. The system is simple but it is designed the motor to move the robot arm to proper angular position according to the input controller. Limitations of the micro controller are discussed, and suggestions for further development of the robot arm and control are made. (author)

  13. Cognitive Targeting: A Coercive Air Power Theory for Conventional Escalation Control Against Nuclear Armed Adversaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    strategic,” in the cognitive targeting paradigm , are those that directly disable - in the strategic audience’s mind – the attractiveness or...This study analyses the applicability of three operational targeting paradigms to coerce a nuclear-armed adversary in a regional crisis, while...principles and elements of war and understand the coercive ability of utility targeting (a capabilities-based targeting paradigm , CBTP), axiological

  14. The Microsoft Visual Studio Software Development For 5 DOF Nuclear Malaysia Robot Arm V2 Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zaid Hassan; Anwar Abdul Rahman; Azraf Azman; Mohd Rizal Mamat; Mohd Arif Hamzah

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the Microsoft visual studio development for 5DOF Nuclear Malaysia Robot Arm V2 control system. The kinematics analysis is the study of the relationship between the individual joints of robot manipulator, the position and orientation of the end-effector. The Denavit-Hartenberg (DH) model is used to model the robot links and joints. Both forward and inverse kinematic are presented. The simulation software has been developed by using Microsoft visual studio to solve the robot arms kinematic behavior. (author)

  15. The nuclear arms race

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    During his visit to South Africa, dr. Edward Teller, one of the most outstanding nuclear physicists of the age, and intimately associated with American research during the most sensitive period in the development of nuclear energy, were interviewed. Dr. Teller was questioned on the following: his feelings about nuclear weapons; the American atomic bomb that was dropped on Japan; the Soviet Union's development of a hydrogen bomb and the nuclear balance between the Soviet Union and America

  16. ARMS CONTROL: U.S. Efforts to Control the Transfer of Nuclear-Capable Missile Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Plunkett, R

    1990-01-01

    ...). Through the MTCR, the United States and seven of its allies are attempting to limit the availability of certain systems, equipment, and technologies necessary for developing nuclear-capable missiles...

  17. Scientists of Russian Federal Nuclear Centre - ARSRITP and arms control and nuclear weapons non-proliferation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avrorin, E.N.; Andrusenko, B.A.; Voznyuk, R.I.; Voloshin, N.P.

    1994-01-01

    The activity of scientists of Russian Federal Nuclear Centre (RFNC) -ARSRITP in the field of nuclear disarmament control for the period of 1974 -1993 is discussed. RFNC - ARSRITP scientists in collaboration with american specialists have developed and employed in practice the techniques and equipment to control the bilateral Treaty on the limitation of Nuclear -Weapon Test. Experience of control over nuclear tests of threshold power and realization of new RFNC - ARSRITP scientific and technical projects have made a basis for development of measures and means of possible control methods to observe complete nuclear test ban

  18. Arms control, nonproliferation, and US national security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilat, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The continuation of the arms race and the failure of arms control and disarmament negotiations lend support to the belief that US and Soviet power, prestige, and security depend upon nuclear weapons. Therefore, the argument goes, the non-nuclear-weapon states (particularly those that are not allied with nuclear-weapon states and do not share their nuclear shield) may conclude that they would be well served by possession of these weapons. In this sense, the failure of nuclear arms reductions could create incentives for further proliferation

  19. Nuclear weapon relevant materials and preventive arms control. Uranium-free fuels for plutonium elimination and spallation neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebert, Wolfgang; Englert, Matthias; Pistner, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Today, the most significant barrier against the access to nuclear weapons is to take hold on sufficient amounts of nuclear weapon-relevant nuclear materials. It is mainly a matter of fissionable materials (like highly enriched uranium and plutonium) but also of fusionable tritium. These can be used as reactor fuel in civil nuclear programmes but also in nuclear weapon programmes. To stop or to hinder nuclear proliferation, in consequence, there is not only a need to analyse open or covered political objectives and intentions. In the long term, it might be more decisive to analyse the intrinsic civil-military ambivalence of nuclear materials and technologies, which are suitable for sensitive material production. A farsighted strategy to avoid proliferation dangers should take much more account to technical capabilities as it is done in the political debate on nuclear non-proliferation so far. If a technical option is at a state's disposal, it is extremely difficult and lengthy to revert that again. The dangers, which one has to react to, are stemming from already existing stocks of nuclear weapon-relevant materials - in the military as well as in the civil realm - and from existing or future technologies, which are suitable for the production of such materials (cf. info 1 and 2). Therefore, the overall approach of this research project is to strive for a drastic reduction of the access to nuclear weapon-relevant material and its production capabilities. Thus, on one hand the nuclear proliferation by state actors could be answered more effectively, on the other hand by that approach a decisive barrier against the access on nuclear weapons by sub-national groups and terrorists could also be erected. For this purpose, safeguards of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and other measures of physical accountancy will remain indispensable elements of arms control. However, one has to consider that the goal of nuclear non-proliferation could not be achieved and

  20. Nuclear disarmament or survival of nuclear arms?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroot, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    START II has not yet been ratified by the US or Russian parliaments. Doubts may be raised over whether it will ever be. In the best case there will be more than 20,000 nuclear warheads in the arsenals of these two countries by the year 2003. All five nuclear states consider that nuclear weapons are an essential component of their national defense. It might sound childish but, the whole story is is so often childish: the five powers refuse to break their nuclear toys. They take even all possible measures to maintain and improve them and to ensure the survivability of their arsenals. To prepare for the next arms race..

  1. Keeping the lid on nuclear arms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milhollin, G.; Weeks, J.

    1991-01-01

    In November 1990 Brazil and Argentina agreed not to produce nuclear weapons and to allow mutual inspections of their secret nuclear sites. This exciting move towards nuclear arms control may form the basis of a model of international inspection which other countries may seek to follow. However, neither country will yet unconditionally accept the verification scale proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The IAEA seeks to ensure that civilian nuclear materials are not diverted for military use. Military authorities in both countries oppose the plan. It is anticipated that existing difficulties will be overcome. (UK)

  2. Nuclear Testing: Arms Control Opportunities. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Arms Control, International Security and Science of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, US House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session, June 28, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The results of this hearing before the Subcommittee on Arms Control, International Security and Science that had a three-fold purpose are recorded. The three-fold purpose was: (1) to examine the nuclear testing policy of the USA and how that policy fits into a larger USA arms control and national security strategy; (2) to discuss the status of the USA-Soviet Nuclear Testing Talks in Geneva, i.e. what is the status of the protocols of the Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT) and the Peaceful Nuclear Explosion Treaty (PNET)? and what is the next step in the US negotiating strategy after the protocols are completed?; and (3) to examine the conclusions of a 139 page report completed by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) on 'Seismic Verification of Nuclear Testing Treaties'. The OTA report addressed two key questions: (1) down to what size explosion can underground testing be seismically monitored with high confidence; and (2) how accurately can the yields of underground explosions be measured seismically? The answers to these questions are featured in the hearings

  3. Qualitative Considerations of Nuclear Forces at Lower Numbers and Implications for Future Arms Control Negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    source of dangerous and confused policy guidance. Pifer, Steven, Richard C. Bush, Vanda Felbab- Brown , Martin S. Indyk, Michael O’Hanlon and Kenneth M...Japanese hedging option, while progressives, including Gareth Evans, are committed to global reductions of nuclear weapons. South Korea is primarily...September 2009. http://www.mda.mil/global/documents/pdf/paa.pdf Pifer, Steven, Richard C. Bush, Vanda Felbab- Brown , Martin S. Indyk, Michael E

  4. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-28

    NACHRICHTEN , 18 Oct 85) 39 Presummit Polish Reporting on SDI Issues (Warsaw RZECZPOSPOLITA, 19-20 Oct 85; Warsaw ZYCIE WARSZAWY, 15 Oct 85) 42...28 February 1986 SDI AND SPACE ARMS MEETING REVEALS SOME SUPPORT FOR EUREKA LINK TO MILITARY Puesseldbrf VDI NACHRICHTEN in German 18 Oct 85 p 10

  5. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-04

    8217Unpredictable Consequences’ of SDI (Moscow PRAVDA, 7 Dec 85) 22 Moscow TV on ASTEC Meeting, Military Monopolies, SDI (Tomas Kolesnichenko; Moscow...planet. /8309 CSO: 5200/1228 22 JPRS-TAO86*014 4 February 1986 SDI AND SPACE ARMS MOSCOW TV ON ASTEC MEETING, MILITARY MONOPOLIES, SDI

  6. Some major challenges: Nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear arms control and nuclear terrorism. Vienna, 29 October 2001. Statement to the symposium on international safeguards: Verification and nuclear material security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2001-01-01

    The main topics dealt with the ensuring of an effective, universal and adequately financed system for the verification of nuclear non-proliferation, namely as follows: Effectiveness of the system; Participation in the system ; Financing of the system; Making Progress in Nuclear Arms Control; Protection Against Nuclear Terrorism. In the Safeguards Implementation Report (SIR) for 2000, the Agency was able to conclude that for all 140 states with safeguards agreements in place the nuclear material and other items placed under safeguards remained in peaceful nuclear activities or were otherwise adequately accounted for. The Agency currently safeguards over 900 facilities in 70 countries on a regular safeguards budget of approximately US $80 million per year. Turning to the major recent challenge, protection against nuclear terrorism, the IAEA has long been active in encouraging States to make security an integral part of the management of their nuclear programmes. The recent attacks in the United States were, however, a wake-up call to all that more can and must be done. In the week immediately following the tragedy, the IAEA General Conference adopted a resolution which requested a thorough review of Agency activities and programmes relevant to preventing acts of nuclear terrorism

  7. Systems Approach to Arms Control Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, K; Neimeyer, I; Listner, C; Stein, G; Chen, C; Dreicer, M

    2015-05-15

    Using the decades of experience of developing concepts and technologies for verifying bilateral and multilateral arms control agreements, a broad conceptual systems approach is being developed that takes into account varying levels of information and risk. The IAEA has already demonstrated the applicability of a systems approach by implementing safeguards at the State level, with acquisition path analysis as the key element. In order to test whether such an approach could also be implemented for arms control verification, an exercise was conducted in November 2014 at the JRC ITU Ispra. Based on the scenario of a hypothetical treaty between two model nuclear weapons states aimed at capping their nuclear arsenals at existing levels, the goal of this exercise was to explore how to use acquisition path analysis in an arms control context. Our contribution will present the scenario, objectives and results of this exercise, and attempt to define future workshops aimed at further developing verification measures that will deter or detect treaty violations.

  8. Passive detection of nuclear-armed SLCMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagdeev, R.Z.; Prilutsky, O.F.; Frolov, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    Effective procedures have been developed, using national technical measures (photoreconnaissance satellites, radiointercept stations, etc.), for verification of reductions in land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles, such as marine-based ballistic missiles, and strategic bombers. However, there is agreement on procedures for verifying limitations of numbers of long-range nuclear-armed cruise missiles. The difficulties in developing such procedures are sometimes regarded (by opponents of nuclear disarmament) as a reason why cruise missiles based on ships and submarines ought not to be limited by future arms-reduction treaties. This paper considers the detectability of nuclear-armed cruise missiles through the penetrating radiation emitted spontaneously from their warheads

  9. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-11-22

    dinosaurs (and a large number of other species which disappeared "simultaneously") might have become extinct because a large comet hit the earth’s...clear yet aeain the reasons why Washington is in such haste in the arms race for "star wars" and why it refuses to assume a commitment not to be...Kolesnichenko says: [Begin Kolesnichenko recording in Russian with English translation] In an effort to calm the American public and provide a logical reason

  10. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-13

    Addresses UN on Disarmament [AGERPRES 24 Oct] 21 LATIN AMERICA MEXICO USSR’s Marcha Praises Anti-Nuclear Policy [UNOMASUNO 27 Oct] 23 NEAR...23 MEXICO USSR’s Marcha Praises Anti-Nuclear Policy PA0111002389 Mexico City UNOMASUNO in Spanish 27 Oct 89 p 6 [Text] Soviet Vice President... Marcha I. Snegur ratified the Soviet’s intention of ridding the world of the threat of nuclear war and highly praised Mexico’s contribution to this

  11. Keeping nuclear hazards at arm's length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    As national and international regulations are tightened, the permitted radiation dose limits for nuclear workers are being lowered. But sharing the same dose among more people is raising nuclear industry costs. At the same time tasks such as refurbishment and decommissioning are multiplying as the nuclear industry matures. As a result of these trends, work in the nuclear power sector is increasingly having to be done under remote control. European and American progress in the technology was reported recently at a two-day international conference held in London and is reported here. In France 'Frastar' carries out tours of inspection inside reactor buildings under remote control and 'Suzy' is a finger walker robot carrying an arm which is a 3-actuator manipulator. Anglo-American advances are reported; robots with manipulator, cameras, audio signalling and the ability to climb stairs and ramps. A European Community research programme called Teleman was started in 1989 to develop advanced teleoperators for the nuclear industry. The projects underway in this programme are listed. (UK)

  12. Gorbachev’s Arms Control Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-22

    on- site inspection for verifying nuclear tests as well as for dismantling missiles on Soviet territory. Clearlv Gorbachev wants an arms , -4- control...bring its seismological test equipment to what he called the "holy of holies", the area adjoining the Soviet proving ground near Semipalatinsk to offer...prenotification and observation of military exercises including on- site inspection on Soviet territory. But on the big issues--- nuclear testing , strategic weapons

  13. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-10

    to be taken. Specifically, study of the 1970s detente period affords abundant food for thought. Many of the procedural propositions of the foreign...parts of Europe. He even feels that if Franch nuclear deterrent forces did not exist, it would now be time to create them. But this does not tally

  14. China and nuclear arms limitation agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, E.V.

    1980-01-01

    The Chinese attitudes from 1949 to 1980 towards nuclear arms limitation are divided into four distinct periods: 1949-1956, 1957-1963, 1964-1972 and 1973-1980. During 1949-1956, China held the view that an atom bomb or nuclear weapons are not decisive for the outcome of any war. It is the people who decide the outcome of a war. The period 1957-1963, after Soviet refusal to transfer nuclear technology, is marked by the development of the nuclear programme which led to the explosion of a nuclear device in 1964. China continued to build nuclear capability during 1964-1972. Mao died in 1976 and the relations with the U.S.A. were normalised in 1979. Taking an anti-Soviet stance China now takes the view that any nuclear arms agreement with Soviet Union is futile and describes SALT II agreement as an absolute farce. (M.G.B.)

  15. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-21

    Intersoft- ware, Logic Control Control y Aplicaciones , Dielsa, Eliop, EISA, Sainco CTNE, Fagor Electronica, Standard CTNE, Fagor Electronica, Piher...regulation systems Industrial turbine of advanced design Alfa Sewing Machines Control y Aplicaciones , Danobat, Etxe-Tar C02, CO and ultraviolet lasers

  16. The purposes, achievements, and priorities of arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, P.S.

    1987-09-01

    Arms control purposes include strengthening the framework of deterrence and reducing the threat of the use of nuclear weapons, reducing the dangers of attack and accidental nuclear war, and allowing more resources for the civilian economy. The paper briefly describes achievements in arms control since World War II. These include the Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABMT)-SALT I, SALT II, Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT), Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty (PNET), and Nuclear-Free Zones treaties. The author also discusses his views on what the priorities of arms control activities should be

  17. Experimental nuclear explosions and the arms race

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenci, F.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses how experimental nuclear explosions have basically three aims: a study of the effects of nuclear weapons; the development of new nuclear weapons; and control of the efficiency and security of nuclear weapons

  18. Farewell to arms. What's blocking nuclear disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Harald

    2005-01-01

    In the 1960s, when the United States and Soviet Union submitted their draft non-proliferation treaty to the 18-member Disarmament Committee in Geneva, it was exactly that - a treaty to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons to more States. It prohibited non-nuclear weapon States from acquiring nuclear weapons and prohibited the five acknowledged nuclear-weapon States from supplying them. However, it was not possible to conclude a treaty on those terms alone. Consequently, Article IV (on peaceful nuclear cooperation) and VI (on disarmament) were added. Only on the basis of this 'bargain' could the global Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) come into existence. It is ironic that the nuclear-weapon States that care for their own sovereignty rights would overlook that sovereignty is also dear to other States.Today, in an era of stagnating nuclear disarmament, one hears voices from some nuclear-weapon States that the disarmament stipulation was without substance and unnecessary. They argue that non-nuclear weapon States care only about their security and nothing else. If the Treaty is perceived as losing its value, withdrawing from it might eventually be seen as a consideration. At this point, non-nuclear weapon States had believed that they shared with their nuclear-armed counterparts a solid outlook on how to proceed with the implementation of Article VI. No one had the illusion that all the steps would be strictly implemented. Most accepted that the failure to achieve an agreed amendment to the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty between Washington and Moscow led to the scrapping of that Treaty. But the pathetic under-achievement of the 'Thirteen Steps,' accompanied by statements of several nuclear-weapon States that they did not feel bound by these agreed measures came as a shock and led to great frustration among the majority of NPT members. If we start from the notion of the 'bargain' and accept that nuclear disarmament will not happen overnight, nuclear

  19. Borehole tool outrigger arm displacement control mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    As the outrigger arms of a borehole logging tool are flexed inwardly and outwardly according to the diameter of the borehole opening through which they pass, the corresponding axial displacements of the ends of the arms are controlled to determine the axial positions of the arms relative to the tool. Specifically, as the arm ends move, they are caused to rotate by a cam mechanism. The stiffness of the arms causes the arm ends to rotate in unison, and the exact positions of the arms on the tool are then controlled by the differential movements of the arm ends in the cams

  20. US-Russian relations: the arms control agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, W

    2001-07-01

    At a time when US-Russian relations are widely regarded to be in a state of flux, it is appropriate to examine the degree of continuity and change in the sphere of nuclear arms control. More specifically, this brief essay identifies a number of propositions about nuclear weapons, arms control, and nonproliferation that increasingly reflect the conventional wisdom in Washington, although these propositions may be neither true nor wise; and assesses the prospects for arms control progress in the areas of strategic and non-strategic nuclear weapons and nonproliferation in light of these prevailing views. (author)

  1. US-Russian relations: the arms control agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, W.

    2001-01-01

    At a time when US-Russian relations are widely regarded to be in a state of flux, it is appropriate to examine the degree of continuity and change in the sphere of nuclear arms control. More specifically, this brief essay identifies a number of propositions about nuclear weapons, arms control, and nonproliferation that increasingly reflect the conventional wisdom in Washington, although these propositions may be neither true nor wise; and assesses the prospects for arms control progress in the areas of strategic and non-strategic nuclear weapons and nonproliferation in light of these prevailing views. (author)

  2. The arms race control; Le controle de la course aux armements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemo, J.

    2010-07-15

    Written in 1961, this paper presents the content of a book entitled 'The arms race control' where the author outlined the difference between disarmament and arms control, described the economic and moral role of arms race, the importance of force balance for international security. He wandered whether arms control could ensure this balance and whether nuclear balance meant force balance. Force balance then appears to be a precarious and unsteady component of international security. He commented the challenges of disarmament, recalled some arguments for a nuclear disarmament. Then he discussed what would be an arms control with or without disarmament (either nuclear or conventional)

  3. Dual arm master controller concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    The Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented. 6 references, 3 figures

  4. Dual arm master controller development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuban, D. P.; Perkins, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    The advanced servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed to human factor design and performance tradeoffs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented.

  5. Dual arm master controller development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    The advanced servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented. This work was performed as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  6. Arms control: moral, political and historical lesson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Many of the world's most influential policy-makers and analysts view arms control as a scientific and technological problem. They measure a nation's nuclear power exclusively by megatonnage and throw-weights leaving the intangible elements of military and political power to philosophers and historians. They tend to ignore the human and qualitative aspects of power. This is a book that shift the emphasis to aspects of the nuclear problem which are sometimes overlooked. Basically, these elements are bound up in the moral, political, and historical lessons of the nuclear age. Nonquantitative factors have been central to studies of national defense and military power since the rise of the modern nation state system. However, most students of present-day nuclear weapons tend to stress their revolutionary character. Because they are considered wholly unique, analysts tend to write about them in a historical and apolitical terms. One purpose of the collection of papers in this little volume is to redirect attention to the moral, political, and historical lessons that the nuclear age presents. What most distinguishes the writings of contributors to this volume is their use of certain well-established principles and concepts long acknowledged in military and foreign policy analysis. Thus Father Hehir asks many of the same questions that students of ethics and foreign policy have asked for four hundred years

  7. Nuclear arms race gearing for speedup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heylin, M.

    1981-01-01

    To probe the rationale behind the big buildup in US strategic arms that is presaged by the current enhanced R and D effort - and to explore the broader, more long-term role of science and technology in the nuclear arms race - C and EN in recent months spoke with a host of experts both within and outside the defense establishment. It is a topic of incredible complexity, high controversy, and of the highest stakes imaginable - the survival of civilization. This buildup will include over the next decade, apart from the MX, a new, highly accurate, submarine-launched ballistic missile and a fleet of very large submarines to carry it; an air-launched cruise missile; a new long-range bomber; a new intermediate-range missile and a new ground-launched cruise missile, both capable of hitting targets in the Soviet Union from proposed bases in Western Europe; and a new sea-launched cruise missile that can be fired from conventional submarines or other naval vessels. To spokesmen for, and members of, the defense establishment the US buildup is prudent, even minimal. According to them, it is needed to keep the US at least on a par with the growth of Soviet strategic might which was very substantial in the 1970's and which will carry over into the 1980's with further major gains. It also is needed to keep the lid on Soviet expansionism; and it is the best way to prevent a nuclear war. To critics, the proposed buildup is the height of lunacy. According to them, the US strategic arsenal is more than adequate today. And it can continue to serve its only legitimate purpose - to deter nuclear war, no matter how much the Soviets may choose to build up their nuclear forces - with a much-more-modest modernization program

  8. International law and arms control: Soviet Union and Russia’s stance on nuclear test ban treaties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Hessmann Dalaqua

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The long-lasting struggle against nuclear tests can be examined through different perspectives. In this paper, the focus will be on the part played by the USSR and Russia in the international efforts aimed at establishing legal instruments to outlaw nuclear explosions in space, underground, under water and in the atmosphere.  A luta contra os testes nucleares pode ser examinada sob diferentes perspectivas. Aqui, o foco recairá sobre o papel desempenhado pela União Soviética e Rússia na criação de instrumentos legais para proibir explosões nucleares no espaço, no subsolo, debaixo da água e na atmosfera.

  9. Preventing the spread of nuclear weapons : The law of arms control and the international non-proliferation regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppen, T.

    2016-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons remains a severe threat to international peace, security and stability. In order to counter this threat, the international community has taken numerous measures, legal and otherwise, resulting in a global framework of treaties and political agreements known as

  10. Nuclear reactor control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cearley, J.E.; Izzo, K.R.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a vertically oriented bottom entry control rod from a nuclear reactor: a frame including an elongated central spine of cruciform cross section connected between an upper support member and a lower support member both of cruciform shape having four laterally extending arms. The arms are in alignment with the arms of the lower support member and each aligned upper and lower support members has a sheath extending between; absorber plates of neutron absorber material, different from the material of the frame, one of the absorber plates is positioned within a sheath beneath each of the arms; attachment means suspends the absorber plates from the arms of the upper support member within a sheath; elongated absorber members positioned within a sheath between each of the suspended absorber plates and an arm of the lower support member; and joint means between the upper ends of the absorber members and the lower ends of the suspended absorber plates for minimizing gaps; the sheath means encloses the suspended absorber plates and the absorber members extending between aligned arms of the upper and lower support members and secured

  11. Sensory-Feedback Exoskeletal Arm Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Bin; Massie, Thomas H.; Vayner, Vladimir

    2004-01-01

    An electromechanical exoskeletal arm apparatus has been designed for use in controlling a remote robotic manipulator arm. The apparatus, called a force-feedback exoskeleton arm master (F-EAM) is comfortable to wear and easy to don and doff. It provides control signals from the wearer s arm to a robot arm or a computer simulator (e.g., a virtual-reality system); it also provides force and torque feedback from sensors on the robot arm or from the computer simulator to the wearer s arm. The F-EAM enables the wearer to make the robot arm gently touch objects and finely manipulate them without exerting excessive forces. The F-EAM features a lightweight design in which the motors and gear heads that generate force and torque feedback are made smaller than they ordinarily would be: this is achieved by driving the motors to power levels greater than would ordinarily be used in order to obtain higher torques, and by providing active liquid cooling of the motors to prevent overheating at the high drive levels. The F-EAM (see figure) includes an assembly that resembles a backpack and is worn like a backpack, plus an exoskeletal arm mechanism. The FEAM has five degrees of freedom (DOFs) that correspond to those of the human arm: 1. The first DOF is that of the side-to-side rotation of the upper arm about the shoulder (rotation about axis 1). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 1 via drum 1 and a planar four-bar linkage. 2. The second DOF is that of the up-and-down rotation of the arm about the shoulder. The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 2 via drum 2. 3. The third DOF is that of twisting of the upper arm about its longitudinal axis. This DOF is implemented in a cable remote-center mechanism (CRCM). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 3, which drives the upper-arm cuff and the mechanism below it. A bladder inflatable by gas or liquid is placed between the cuff and the wearer s upper arm to compensate for misalignment

  12. Arms control and the rule of law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanzman, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    Many who speak of the end of the Cold War emphasize the warming of international relations when they speak of the momentous consequences of this event. According to this image, the half century since Trinity has been a period of sparse international communication during which the Eastern and Western blocs hibernated in their isolated dens of security alliances. Yet it is equally valid to consider the implications of the end of the war footing that has underlain the policies of all of the major military powers during the last fifty years. While meaningful international dialogue was in a state of relative lethargy during much of this period, the military establishments of the Great Powers were actively engaged in using as much force as possible in their efforts to control world affairs, short of triggering a nuclear holocaust. International discourse, at least in English, was rife with such military images as appeasement, containment, crisis stability, and tripwires. From the military posture of the U.S. and Russia a tense peace ironically emerged, but the terms by which decisions were made about controlling weapons of mass destruction (i.e., nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons) were the terms of war. The thesis of this paper is that the end of the Cold War marks a shift away from reliance on military might toward an international commitment to control weapons of mass destruction through the rule of law developed by John Rawls. The progression of agreements during this century to limit weapons of mass destruction testifies to this new development. A review of arms control agreements that the U.S. is a part of show clear growth of the rule of law as the world has left the Cold War

  13. Arms control and the rule of law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzman, E.A.

    1995-03-01

    Many who speak of the end of the Cold War emphasize the warming of international relations when they speak of the momentous consequences of this event. According to this image, the half century since Trinity has been a period of sparse international communication during which the Eastern and Western blocs hibernated in their isolated dens of security alliances. Yet it is equally valid to consider the implications of the end of the war footing that has underlain the policies of all of the major military powers during the last fifty years. While meaningful international dialogue was in a state of relative lethargy during much of this period, the military establishments of the Great Powers were actively engaged in using as much force as possible in their efforts to control world affairs, short of triggering a nuclear holocaust. International discourse, at least in English, was rife with such military images as appeasement, containment, crisis stability, and tripwires. From the military posture of the U.S. and Russia a tense peace ironically emerged, but the terms by which decisions were made about controlling weapons of mass destruction (i.e., nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons) were the terms of war. The thesis of this paper is that the end of the Cold War marks a shift away from reliance on military might toward an international commitment to control weapons of mass destruction through the rule of law developed by John Rawls. The progression of agreements during this century to limit weapons of mass destruction testifies to this new development. A review of arms control agreements that the U.S. is a part of show clear growth of the rule of law as the world has left the Cold War.

  14. Remote sensing and geoinformation technologies in support of nuclear non-proliferation and arms control verification regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemeyer, Irmgard [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institut fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung, IEK-6: Nukleare Entsorgung und Reaktorsicherheit (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    A number of international agreements and export control regimes have been concluded in order to reduce the risk and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. In order to provide confidence that Member States are complying with the agreed commitments, most of the treaties and agreements include verification provisions. Different types of verification measures exist, e.g. cooperative measures; national technical means; technical monitoring or measurement devices placed at or near sites; on-site inspections; intelligence information; open-source information, such as commercial internet data and satellite imagery. The study reviews the technical progress in the field of satellite imaging sensors and explores the recent advances in satellite imagery processing and geoinformation technologies as to the extraction of significant observables and signatures. Moreover, it discusses how satellite data and geoinformation technologies could be used complementary for confirming information gathered from other systems or sources. The study also aims at presenting the legal and political aspects and the cost benefits of using imagery from both national and commercial satellites in the verification procedure. The study concludes that satellite imagery and geoinformation technologies are expected to enhance the verification efficiency and effectiveness.

  15. Neurobiology: motor control of flexible octopus arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumbre, Germán; Fiorito, Graziano; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2005-02-10

    Animals with rigid skeletons can rely on several mechanisms to simplify motor control--for example, they have skeletal joints that reduce the number of variables and degrees of freedom that need to be controlled. Here we show that when the octopus uses one of its long and highly flexible arms to transfer an object from one place to another, it employs a vertebrate-like strategy, temporarily reconfiguring its arm into a stiffened, articulated, quasi-jointed structure. This indicates that an articulated limb may provide an optimal solution for achieving precise, point-to-point movements.

  16. Fuzzy Control of Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kyaw Kyaw; Soe, Aung Kyaw; Thu, Theint Theint

    2008-10-01

    This research work investigates a Self-Tuning Proportional Derivative (PD) type Fuzzy Logic Controller (STPDFLC) for a two link robot system. The proposed scheme adjusts on-line the output Scaling Factor (SF) by fuzzy rules according to the current trend of the robot. The rule base for tuning the output scaling factor is defined on the error (e) and change in error (de). The scheme is also based on the fact that the controller always tries to manipulate the process input. The rules are in the familiar if-then format. All membership functions for controller inputs (e and de) and controller output (UN) are defined on the common interval [-1,1]; whereas the membership functions for the gain updating factor (α) is defined on [0,1]. There are various methods to calculate the crisp output of the system. Center of Gravity (COG) method is used in this application due to better results it gives. Performances of the proposed STPDFLC are compared with those of their corresponding PD-type conventional Fuzzy Logic Controller (PDFLC). The proposed scheme shows a remarkably improved performance over its conventional counterpart especially under parameters variation (payload). The two-link results of analysis are simulated. These simulation results are illustrated by using MATLAB® programming.

  17. Robot-Arm Dynamic Control by Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejczy, Antal K.; Tarn, Tzyh J.; Chen, Yilong J.

    1987-01-01

    Feedforward and feedback schemes linearize responses to control inputs. Method for control of robot arm based on computed nonlinear feedback and state tranformations to linearize system and decouple robot end-effector motions along each of cartesian axes augmented with optimal scheme for correction of errors in workspace. Major new feature of control method is: optimal error-correction loop directly operates on task level and not on joint-servocontrol level.

  18. New Horizons and New Strategies in Arms Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J. editor

    1998-12-04

    In the last ten years, since the break-up of the Soviet Union, remarkable progress in arms control and disarmament has occurred. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the completion of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), and the Chemical Weapons Treaty (CWC) are indicative of the great strides made in the non- proliferation arena. Simultaneously, the Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF), the Conventional Forces Treaty in Europe (CFE), and the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties (START), all associated with US-Soviet Union (now Russia) relations have assisted in redefining European relations and the security landscape. Finally, it now appears that progress is in the offing in developing enhanced compliance measures for the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC). In sum, all of these achievements have set the stage for the next round of arms control activities, which may lead to a much broader, and perhaps more diffused multilateral agenda. In this new and somewhat unpredictable international setting, arms control and disarmament issues will require solutions that are both more creative and innovative than heretofore.

  19. Arms Control, Disarmament, and Peace Newsletters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Stephen

    1986-01-01

    Considers the research value of four types of newsletters on arms control, disarmament, and peace: direct-action, informational, scholarly, and single-issue. An annotated list of 58 newsletters includes those considered most significant of their type and recommended for library collections. (EM)

  20. Space nonweaponization. An urgent task for arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Xiangwan; Pan Jusheng; Zhang Xinwei; Du Shuhua; Xu Changgen

    1990-05-01

    The authors attempt to expound the basic points of veiw and put forward a proposal on the space nonweaponization. The authors analyse the nature of space weaponry and its impact on arms race and point out that the space nonweaponization is an urgent task for arms control. The relations between prohibition of space and ASAT weapons, between prohibition of space weapons and reduction of nuclear weapons and between space weapon and nuclear test are all analysed. The inadequacy of the existing space treaties is made clear based on the evaluation. It is hoped that a verifiable treaty on the prohibition of space weapons should be made and international cooperation on peaceful use of outer space is necessary

  1. Monitoring and Controlling an Underwater Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, John; Todd, Brian Keith; Woodcock, Larry; Robinson, Fred M.

    2009-01-01

    The SSRMS Module 1 software is part of a system for monitoring an adaptive, closed-loop control of the motions of a robotic arm in NASA s Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory, where buoyancy in a pool of water is used to simulate the weightlessness of outer space. This software is so named because the robot arm is a replica of the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS). This software is distributed, running on remote joint processors (RJPs), each of which is mounted in a hydraulic actuator comprising the joint of the robotic arm and communicating with a poolside processor denoted the Direct Control Rack (DCR). Each RJP executes the feedback joint-motion control algorithm for its joint and communicates with the DCR. The DCR receives joint-angular-velocity commands either locally from an operator or remotely from computers that simulate the flight like SSRMS and perform coordinated motion calculations based on hand-controller inputs. The received commands are checked for validity before they are transmitted to the RJPs. The DCR software generates a display of the statuses of the RJPs for the DCR operator and can shut down the hydraulic pump when excessive joint-angle error or failure of a RJP is detected.

  2. Physicians' group seeks nuclear arms ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, M S

    1985-08-02

    The history and recent activities of the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW) are reported. Founded in 1980 by cardiologists Bernard Lown of the United States and Eugene Chazov of the Soviet Union, the group has attracted well over 100,000 members from 51 countries. Following the organization's fifth congress in Budapest in June 1985, a four-city tour of the United States by three American and four Soviet physicians was co-sponsored by IPPNW, Physicians for Social Responsibility, and the Soviet Committee of Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War. Through separate lecture series aimed at physicians and laypersons, the doctors sought to persuade colleagues to take an active stand against nuclear war, and to increase public awareness of the medical realities of a nuclear attack. A similar tour of the Soviet Union is planned.

  3. Red lights flash in nuclear arms race

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This article discusses the main objections of South Africa - and other countries - to the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) which was opened for signature in 1968. The Kremlin has recently claimed that South Africa is about to explode a nuclear bomb in spite of the fact that South Africa has been relying on the American Energy and Research Development Agency to honour its contract to provide a few kilograms of enriched uranium to start up Koeberg A and also a little plutonium for the research reactors of Safari 1, which is open to full international scrutiny and safeguards. The article considers the amount of nuclear materials which will have been produced by 1980, and what this could mean in terms of nuclear weapons

  4. Arms control agency faces uncertain future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ember, L.

    1993-01-01

    National security cognoscenti are busy sifting tea leaves trying to puzzle out the fate of arms control and nonproliferation policy in the new Administration. Of special concern to these policy gurus is the future of the semiautonomous Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA). ACDA's existence as a separate entity on the executive branch's organization chart is precarious. The agency has never functioned as intended since Congress created it in 1961. Its stock over the decades has ebbed and flowed, paralleling the prominence and clout of its director. And except for a few notable successes--the conclusion of the chemical weapons treaty being one--the agency's authority has plummeted in the past 14 years. Today, almost every interested party agrees that something has to be done, that the agency cannot continue as it now functions. Several recent studies have called for its rejuvenation. Still other studies have suggested that ACDA be dismantled, and those activities relevant to national security in a post-Cold War environment be shifted to and integrated into the State Department. Observers expect ACDA to evolve into an agency whose primary focus is on problems of proliferation. In a world in which tighter export controls on dual-use technologies, restraint on arms transfers, and economic assistance conditional on a recipients's security behavior will be the norm for security and stability, a role for ACDA as the U.S.'s nonproliferation nanny is not a bad one

  5. Arms control verification costs: the need for a comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLean, G.; Fergusson, J.

    1998-01-01

    The end of the Cold War era has presented practitioners and analysts of international non-proliferation, arms control and disarmament (NACD) the opportunity to focus more intently on the range and scope of NACD treaties and their verification. Aside from obvious favorable and well-publicized developments in the field of nuclear non-proliferation, progress also has been made in a wide variety of arenas, ranging from chemical and biological weapons, fissile material, conventional forces, ballistic missiles, to anti-personnel landmines. Indeed, breaking from the constraints imposed by the Cold War United States-Soviet adversarial zero-sum relationship that impeded the progress of arms control, particularly on a multilateral level, the post Cold War period has witnessed significant developments in NACD commitments, initiatives, and implementation. The goals of this project - in its final iteration - will be fourfold. First, it will lead to the creation of a costing analysis model adjustable for uses in several current and future arms control verification tasks. Second, the project will identify data accumulated in the cost categories outlined in Table 1 in each of the five cases. By comparing costs to overall effectiveness, the application of the model will demonstrate desirability in each of the cases (see Chart 1). Third, the project will identify and scrutinize 'political costs' as well as real expenditures and investment in the verification regimes (see Chart 2). And, finally, the project will offer some analysis on the relationship between national and multilateral forms of arms control verification, as well as the applicability of multilateralism as an effective tool in the verification of international non-proliferation, arms control, and disarmament agreements. (author)

  6. Nuclear non-proliferation and arms control: Are we making progress? 7 November 2005, Washington, DC, Carnegie International Non-Proliferation Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, four developments have radically altered the security landscape - the emergence of clandestine nuclear supply networks, the spread of nuclear fuel cycle technology, the efforts by more countries to acquire nuclear weapons, and the declared ambition of terrorists to acquire and use weapons of mass destruction. Four 'yardsticks' are proposed against which to gauge the IAEA's recent performance and to set future goals: (1) the effectiveness of nuclear verification; (2) the control of sensitive nuclear technology; (3) the protection of nuclear material; and (4) compliance with commitments. The effectiveness of nuclear verification depends on the extend of access to information and locations in a given country and inspections can only verify what countries declare. The expanded access provided by the Additional Protocol to safeguards agreements enables the Agency to verify possible undeclared activities however both safeguards agreements are focused on nuclear material and therefore the Agency's authority to investigate possible parallel weaponization activity is limited. In addition only 70 countries have the additional protocol on force. A dditional transparency measures' may be required. The IAEA is exploring innovative technologies (such as noble gas sampling) for detecting undeclared nuclear facilities and activities. The Agency has yet to establish a mechanism under which states systematically share information with the IAEA on the export of sensitive nuclear material and certain technology. The control of sensitive nuclear technology focuses on the control over activities that involve uranium enrichment and plutonium separation. A group of international experts proposes to 1) provide assurance of supply of reactor technology and nuclear fuel; 2) accept a time-limited moratorium (of perhaps 5-10 years) on new uranium enrichment and plutonium separation facilities - at the very least for countries that do not currently have such technologies; 3

  7. Who's bound by the former Soviet Union's arms control treaties?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhinelander, J.B.; Bunn, G.

    1991-01-01

    A crucial issue raised by the disintegration of the Soviet central government is what happens to Soviet arms control obligations. As the Soviet government transforms or collapses in the wake of the failed August coup, which of the resulting entities will be bound by the treaties the Soviet Union entered into? Under international law, the obligations of a state are not affected by even such dramatic changes in government. No one yet knows, however, what the end result of the ongoing devolution of power in the erstwhile Soviet Union will be. As illustrations of what could happen to Soviet arms control obligations - not predictions of the future - the authors pose two alternative scenarios. In the first, they assume that most of the current 12 republics, including all of the big four where substantial nuclear forces and the largest conventional forces are located (Russia, Ukraine, Khazakhstan, and Belarus), ultimately form a loose confederation with sufficient central authority to be called a nation-state and to carry out the essence of Soviet obligations under major arms control treaties. In the second, they assume that the union disintegrates further, with these four key republics seceding entirely and recognizing one another as independent states - a step which is apparently one of the US criteria for granting its own recognition. In this scenario, the Russian republic maintains its basic territory and replaces the central government as the power center for military and foreign affairs. In each of these cases, they will describe the general issues affecting the Soviet Union's international obligations, and consider specifically the two most important arms control agreements now in force - the multilateral nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) and the bilateral Antiballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty

  8. Current problems of nuclear arms: some options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocharov, I.F.

    1992-01-01

    Possible solutions of certain problems of the soviet nuclear weapons resulting from spontaneously changing military-political situation and social-economical living conditions on geostrategical space of the former USSR are discussed. Reliable stabilization of military-political situation on the former USSR territory is required for solving the above problems, which in its turn will possibly require active efforts of the international community. The idea on creation the Committee on non-prolifiration by the UN Security Council is proposed

  9. An Approach to Naval Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    commentary pro and con on the control of SLCM’s has 9 I: been uttered by people not known to be expert on maritime strategy and the roles of navies in crisis ... transcultural misunderstanding is indeed deep and widespread (e.g., witness the surprise on the part of America’s leading television pundits that China’s...force on behalf of (U.S definition of) international order in situations short of war; 0 alliance cohesion; 37 i * crisis , arms race, and political

  10. Europe, arms control and American security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, W.F.

    1992-01-01

    What has come to be called the Revolution of 1989 has swept away longstanding political and economic arrangements in Eastern Europe. Perhaps more important, it has also called into question the fundamental underpinnings of European security created during the nonpeace that followed World War II. In June 1990, the Warsaw Treaty Organization abandoned the notion that NATO was the ideological enemy. At the same time, NATO ministers agreed at Tunberry, Scotland, to consider defining the Atlantic Alliance as more of a partner of the Soviet Union than as an enemy. The Washington summit of May 1990 between president Mikhail Gorbachev and president George Bush further highlighted the recent changes in the Soviet Union and its former satellites. Issues going to the heart of the viability of the Soviet Union and the communist system of political and economic organization competed with German reunification as central themes. Arms control issues, particularly as they pertain in European military stability, became contingent and dependent on the development of a broader political and economic framework for a new Europe. Whether this framework is viable remains an open question as Gorbachev's role is challenged more and more within the Soviet Union. This paper deals with European arms control issues from the point of view of the United States and its own security interests. The United States involved its security inextricably with that of Western Europe as a conscious decision in the turmoil following World War II

  11. Controlling robot arm with the mind

    National Science Foundation

    2017-05-31

    Full Text Available Research test subjects at the University of Minnesota who were fitted with a specialized noninvasive brain cap were able to move a robotic arm just by imagining moving their own arms.

  12. Development of a Multi-Arm Mobile Robot for Nuclear Decommissioning Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed J. Bakari

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the design of a two-arm mobile delivery platform for application within nuclear decommissioning tasks. The adoption of the human arm as a model of manoeuvrability, scale and dexterity is the starting point for operation of two seven-function arms within the context of nuclear decommissioning tasks, the selection of hardware and its integration, and the development of suitable control methods. The forward and inverse kinematics for the manipulators are derived and the proposed software architecture identified to control the movements of the arm joints and the performance of selected decommissioning tasks. We discuss the adoption of a BROKK demolition machine as a mobile platform and the integration with its hydraulic system to operate the two seven-function manipulators separately. The paper examines the modelling and development of a real-time control method using Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID and Proportional-Integral-Plus (PIP control algorithms in the host computer with National Instruments functions and tools to control the manipulators and obtain feedback through wireless communication. Finally we consider the application of a third party device, such as a personal mobile phone, and its interface with LabVIEW software in order to operate the robot arms remotely.

  13. The politics of arms control treaty ratification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krepon, M.; Caldwell, D.

    1991-01-01

    This book presents a critical examination of executive-congressional relations and the domestic politics of arms control treaty ratification within the United States during the twentieth century. The staring point of this study is the hypothesis that the politics of treaty ratification can be as important as the negotiations leading up to agreements. Benefits to international peace and security sought in years of painstaking diplomatic effort can be lost without Senate consent, as was the case with the Treaty of Versailles and the second treaty arising from the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT II). The authors of the case studies were requested to present first a brief, historical introduction to the case indicating why the case was important, the background concerning the origins of the treaty, and the treaty's major provisions. The purpose of the introduction to the case was not to provide a complete picture of the negotiating record but to set the stage for a more in-depth discussion of the events that followed after the treaty was signed. The authors address five substantive areas: the international political context of the treaty, the domestic political context, the role of the president, executive-congressional relations, and public opinion and the role of interest groups. The questions and issues concerning each of these areas are briefly summarized

  14. Robotic arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwech, H.

    1989-01-01

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube is disclosed. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel. 23 figs

  15. Robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwech, Horst

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel.

  16. Research on ARM Numerical Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xu; JiHong, Chen

    Computerized Numerical Control (CNC) machine tools is the foundation of modern manufacturing systems, whose advanced digital technology is the key to solve the problem of sustainable development of machine tool manufacturing industry. The paper is to design CNC system embedded on ARM and indicates the hardware design and the software systems supported. On the hardware side: the driving chip of the motor control unit, as the core of components, is MCX314AL of DSP motion control which is developed by NOVA Electronics Co., Ltd. of Japan. It make convenient to control machine because of its excellent performance, simple interface, easy programming. On the Software side, the uC/OS-2 is selected as the embedded operating system of the open source, which makes a detailed breakdown of the modules of the CNC system. Those priorities are designed according to their actual requirements. The ways of communication between the module and the interrupt response are so different that it guarantees real-time property and reliability of the numerical control system. Therefore, it not only meets the requirements of the current social precision machining, but has good man-machine interface and network support to facilitate a variety of craftsmen use.

  17. Robust coordinated control of a dual-arm space robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lingling; Kayastha, Sharmila; Katupitiya, Jay

    2017-09-01

    Dual-arm space robots are more capable of implementing complex space tasks compared with single arm space robots. However, the dynamic coupling between the arms and the base will have a serious impact on the spacecraft attitude and the hand motion of each arm. Instead of considering one arm as the mission arm and the other as the balance arm, in this work two arms of the space robot perform as mission arms aimed at accomplishing secure capture of a floating target. The paper investigates coordinated control of the base's attitude and the arms' motion in the task space in the presence of system uncertainties. Two types of controllers, i.e. a Sliding Mode Controller (SMC) and a nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (MPC) are verified and compared with a conventional Computed-Torque Controller (CTC) through numerical simulations in terms of control accuracy and system robustness. Both controllers eliminate the need to linearly parameterize the dynamic equations. The MPC has been shown to achieve performance with higher accuracy than CTC and SMC in the absence of system uncertainties under the condition that they consume comparable energy. When the system uncertainties are included, SMC and CTC present advantageous robustness than MPC. Specifically, in a case where system inertia increases, SMC delivers higher accuracy than CTC and costs the least amount of energy.

  18. SIPRI's new conceptual approach to arms control and disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotfeld, Adam Daniel

    2000-01-01

    The end of the cold war deprioritized arms control and disarmament, and progress in the field was no longer a measure of relations among the major powers. In that context, the future of arms control and disarmament was discussed at the Nobel Symposium in October 1999. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) views arms control as an instrument for shaping a new inclusive and cooperative security order. The author questions whether arms control challenges today can and should be resolved in the institutions established and the procedures elaborated in the bipolar framework. (author)

  19. Organization of octopus arm movements: a model system for studying the control of flexible arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutfreund, Y; Flash, T; Yarom, Y; Fiorito, G; Segev, I; Hochner, B

    1996-11-15

    Octopus arm movements provide an extreme example of controlled movements of a flexible arm with virtually unlimited degrees of freedom. This study aims to identify general principles in the organization of these movements. Video records of the movements of Octopus vulgaris performing the task of reaching toward a target were studied. The octopus extends its arm toward the target by a wave-like propagation of a bend that travels from the base of the arm toward the tip. Similar bend propagation is seen in other octopus arm movements, such as locomotion and searching. The kinematics (position and velocity) of the midpoint of the bend in three-dimensional space were extracted using the direct linear transformation algorithm. This showed that the bend tends to move within a single linear plane in a simple, slightly curved path connecting the center of the animal's body with the target location. Approximately 70% of the reaching movements demonstrated a stereotyped tangential velocity profile. An invariant profile was observed when movements were normalized for velocity and distance. Two arms, extended together in the same behavioral context, demonstrated identical velocity profiles. The stereotyped features of the movements were also observed in spontaneous arm extensions (not toward an external target). The simple and stereotypic appearance of the bend trajectory suggests that the position of the bend in space and time is the controlled variable. We propose that this strategy reduces the immense redundancy of the octopus arm movements and hence simplifies motor control.

  20. Control of octopus arm extension by a peripheral motor program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumbre, G; Gutfreund, Y; Fiorito, G; Flash, T; Hochner, B

    2001-09-07

    For goal-directed arm movements, the nervous system generates a sequence of motor commands that bring the arm toward the target. Control of the octopus arm is especially complex because the arm can be moved in any direction, with a virtually infinite number of degrees of freedom. Here we show that arm extensions can be evoked mechanically or electrically in arms whose connection with the brain has been severed. These extensions show kinematic features that are almost identical to normal behavior, suggesting that the basic motor program for voluntary movement is embedded within the neural circuitry of the arm itself. Such peripheral motor programs represent considerable simplification in the motor control of this highly redundant appendage.

  1. March to Armageddon: The United States and the nuclear arms race, 1939 to the present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powaski, R.

    1987-01-01

    This history of the events, forces, and factors that have brought the world to the brink of nuclear holocaust probes two basic questions: what factors perpetuate the nuclear arms race and why is it so difficult to end. Starting with the opening days of World War II, this study traces the escalating arms race up to the present and notes that, while nuclear arsenals continue to grow, nuclear arms treaties are on the verge of collapse.

  2. Resource Letter PNAR-1: Physics and the nuclear arms race

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeer, D.; Dowling, J.

    1982-01-01

    This collection of article and book references was assembled to help physicists understand and teach about the nuclear arms race. Both technical and political aspects are covered. Entries are therefore marked as elementary for the layman (E), intermediate for college freshman (I), and advanced for the college senior or graduate student (A) for both the technical (t) and the social (s) aspects. Articles or books which are excerpted in a reprint volume (to be published separately by the American Association of Physics Teachers) are marked with an asterisk

  3. The Implications of a New ERa in Arms Control -- Perspectives and Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mladineo, Stephen V.; Durbin, Karyn R.; Indusi, Joseph P.; Smoot, John L.; Vannoni, Michael G.; Satkowiak, Lawrence J.

    2004-01-01

    On November 13, 2003 the INMM hosted a workshop in Washington, DC entitled 'The Implications of a New Era in Arms Control on Regional Nonproliferation and Nuclear Materials Management'. In this paper we summarize the workshop's highlights and provide our analysis of the dominant themes. Ambassador Linton Brooks, Administrator of the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA), delivered the keynote address and focused on four points that are key to understanding the new era: (1) The demise of traditional East/West arms control; (2) The new strategic relationship between Russia and the United States; (3) The blurring of the distinction between nonproliferation and counter-terrorism; (4) The growing recognition that the nonproliferation regime is no longer adequate and needs to be strengthened. He issued a set of challenges to the workshop participants: if his premises were right, what should replace the lexicon of arms control? He described a four-part strategy for nuclear materials protection in Russia, and asked if that model should be replicated globally - potentially by leveraging the new relationship with Russia. Should it be through the IAEA, bilaterally, or some other mechanism? Asserting that the old Nonproliferation Treaty regime was inadequate, he asked what should replace it, and how do we bring it about? Three panel discussions were presented: (1) Implications of a New Era in US/Russia Arms Control Agreements; (2) Implications of a New in Arms Control Upon Regional Nuclear Nonproliferation: South Asia/East Asia/Middle East; and (3) Nuclear Materials Management in a New Era of Arms Control In the first panel, Daryl Kimball, Executive Director of the Arms Control Association argued that arms control agreements provided predictability in the reduction of arms, and had been successful in advancing the methods of verification. Lucas Fischer, the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Arms Control at the US State Department acknowledged that INF and START provide a basis

  4. Cooperative Remote Monitoring, Arms control and nonproliferation technologies: Fourth quarter 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonzo, G M [ed.

    1995-01-01

    The DOE`s Cooperative Remote Monitoring programs integrate elements from research and development and implementation to achieve DOE`s objectives in arms control and nonproliferation. The contents of this issue are: cooperative remote monitoring--trends in arms control and nonproliferation; Modular Integrated Monitoring System (MIMS); Authenticated Tracking and Monitoring Systems (ATMS); Tracking and Nuclear Materials by Wide-Area Nuclear Detection (WAND); Cooperative Monitoring Center; the International Remote Monitoring Project; international US and IAEA remote monitoring field trials; Project Dustcloud: monitoring the test stands in Iraq; bilateral remote monitoring: Kurchatov-Argonne-West Demonstration; INSENS Sensor System Project.

  5. Nuclear arms control in the post-Cold War era. New conditions, new requirements, and nonproliferation (with special emphasis on Japan and East Asia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Ryukichi

    1994-01-01

    The paper starts with a general survey of post-Cold War nuclear disarmament, pointing out Japan's positions, policies, and problems in the process. The discussion is not Japan-centered, nor is it an explanation of the Japanese view. It is useful, in this context, to recall that during the Cold War period, Japan was firmly in the ''Western Camp'', relying on the protection of the extended nuclear deterrence provided by the United States. This article is written with that history very much in mind, and by an author who for some years was in a position to represent Japan in such a context. (orig./DG)

  6. Nuclear safeguards and export controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.

    1994-01-01

    Precisely from the perspective of the two most important nonnuclear weapons states, Japan and Germany, the safeguards and arms control agendas have not been finally dealt with. Because of their central position in the nonproliferation regime as nuclear suppliers and states with large nuclear energy industries, both countries are compelled to take a leading role in pursuing future reforms. In the dialogue with the nonaligned, this leadership position is helped by their nonnuclear status. In fact, Japan and Germany have some interests in common with the nonaligned states, such as the expansion of safeguards in the nuclear weapons states. To be sure, both Japan and Germany will pursue such interests with due regard to the interests of their friends and allies. For Japan, maintaining a close relationship with the United States is as important as shaping viable relations with China. Initiatives and controversies on nuclear policy must be weighed against this interest. By the same token, Germany must take into account the dense network of relations with its allies and with Russia, in addition to the German-French friendship. This will always set limits to Germany's readiness to confront the nuclear weapons states on nuclear issues. This, however, does not mean that both countries must shut up when the P 5 speak. The nuclear weapons register and the extension of the ''erga omnes'' rule in export controls, for example, should not be relegated to the dustbin of history, just because some friendly nuclear powers don't like these ideas. (orig.)

  7. Arms control and disarmament: A new conceptual approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In the frame of the Millennium Assembly of the UN, the Secretary-General urged the global community to seize a sense of the occasion that comes from the turning of the century, to step back from today's headlines and take a broader, longer-term view of the state of the world and the challenges it poses. In partnership with the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), the Department for Disarmament Affairs (DDA) is taking up precisely that challenge. This panel discussion is part of a series of events sponsored by the Department to deepen the discussion on topical disarmament and security related issues. It is also part of the constant search for a new approach, a new concept, a new paradigm or vision for disarmament and arms control since the end of the cold war, the end of the post-cold war period and the beginning of the new century. It is axiomatic that progress in disarmament is closely linked to the evolution of the security environment. Disarmament cannot be separated from the new geo-political and security configurations in Europe, new demonstrations of nuclear capability in Asia, the emergence of new conflicts that are being driven mainly by internal and ethnic strife and that are outrageous in their brutality in Europe, Asia and Africa. Today's agenda is still full and diverse in the traditional areas of disarmament, nuclear, chemical and biological disarmament as well as ballistic missile defense and proliferation and conventional disarmament including landmines. Like many organizations, research institutes, researchers and individuals in the field of security, DDA has set store on the reliability and credibility of the research and publications produced by SIPRI. As an independent international institute for research on problems for peace and conflict, disarmament and arms control founded in 1966, SIPRI's primary research has been consistently objective, timely, comprehensive and clearly presented. SIPRI's Yearbook has been a reference

  8. Kinematic feedback control laws for generating natural arm movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Donghyun; Jang, Cheongjae; Park, Frank C

    2014-01-01

    We propose a stochastic optimal feedback control law for generating natural robot arm motions. Our approach, inspired by the minimum variance principle of Harris and Wolpert (1998 Nature 394 780–4) and the optimal feedback control principles put forth by Todorov and Jordan (2002 Nature Neurosci. 5 1226–35) for explaining human movements, differs in two crucial respects: (i) the endpoint variance is minimized in joint space rather than Cartesian hand space, and (ii) we ignore the dynamics and instead consider only the second-order differential kinematics. The feedback control law generating the motions can be straightforwardly obtained by backward integration of a set of ordinary differential equations; these equations are obtained exactly, without any linear–quadratic approximations. The only parameters to be determined a priori are the variance scale factors, and for both the two-DOF planar arm and the seven-DOF spatial arm, a table of values is constructed based on the given initial and final arm configurations; these values are determined via an optimal fitting procedure, and consistent with existing findings about neuromuscular motor noise levels of human arm muscles. Experiments conducted with a two-link planar arm and a seven-DOF spatial arm verify that the trajectories generated by our feedback control law closely resemble human arm motions, in the sense of producing nearly straight-line hand trajectories, having bell-shaped velocity profiles, and satisfying Fitts Law. (paper)

  9. Design of a multi-arm randomized clinical trial with no control arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaret, Amalia; Angus, Derek C; Adhikari, Neill K J; Banura, Patrick; Kissoon, Niranjan; Lawler, James V; Jacob, Shevin T

    2016-01-01

    Clinical trial designs that include multiple treatments are currently limited to those that perform pairwise comparisons of each investigational treatment to a single control. However, there are settings, such as the recent Ebola outbreak, in which no treatment has been demonstrated to be effective; and therefore, no standard of care exists which would serve as an appropriate control. For illustrative purposes, we focused on the care of patients presenting in austere settings with critically ill 'sepsis-like' syndromes. Our approach involves a novel algorithm for comparing mortality among arms without requiring a single fixed control. The algorithm allows poorly-performing arms to be dropped during interim analyses. Consequently, the study may be completed earlier than planned. We used simulation to determine operating characteristics for the trial and to estimate the required sample size. We present a potential study design targeting a minimal effect size of a 23% relative reduction in mortality between any pair of arms. Using estimated power and spurious significance rates from the simulated scenarios, we show that such a trial would require 2550 participants. Over a range of scenarios, our study has 80 to 99% power to select the optimal treatment. Using a fixed control design, if the control arm is least efficacious, 640 subjects would be enrolled into the least efficacious arm, while our algorithm would enroll between 170 and 430. This simulation method can be easily extended to other settings or other binary outcomes. Early dropping of arms is efficient and ethical when conducting clinical trials with multiple arms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. U.S. – Russia Relations And Arms Control: Breating The Clinch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Bubnova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the new U.S. administration’s outlook on arms control, analyses the existing problems in this field and possible ways for their resolution, compares Donald Trump’s statements on military and political issues with the president’s first steps in this area, and offers forecasts and recommendations on the prospects for U.S.-Russia cooperation in arms limitations and reductions. The author proceeds from the assumption that arms control is a key component in measures to ensure international security. Even if the current tense U.S.- Russian relations provide little room for maneuver and the internal political struggle in DC sets limits on the possible bilateral measures, Moscow should nevertheless take initiative in putting forward a set of proposals to reduce weapons, especially in the very sensitive and risk-prone nuclear field. This will allow in future negotiations to proceed from options that will take into account Russian interests and the specifics of Russia’s weapons systems, while at the same time showing the resolve of the nuclear superpowers to reduce existing threats through negotiations and leading the way for other countries to join. Taking into account the importance of arms control, all efforts should be made to enforce the existing treaties, consolidate the current international treaty-based legal system, and work further on new arms control and arms reduction agreements.

  11. The nuclear data collecting system designed with ARM and μC/OS-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chunsheng; Ma Yingjie; Han Feng

    2008-01-01

    Introduce a kind of nuclear data collecting system regarding ARM-μC/OS-II as the platform, gathering the GPS receiver in it. It was detailed to expatiated the key techniques of the multi-channel pulse amplitude analyzer, the interface design of LPC2148, a controller in ARM, and how to expand the RTOS and design applications on μC/OS-II. This system can communicate with the GPS-OEM module by the UART interface, collecting the GPS information synchronously as well as nuclear data. And then save and display them or pass them to the host computer by the USB interface. The embedded and Real-Time system, μC/OS-II build up the real-time and stability of the system and advance the integration. (authors)

  12. Arm coordination in octopus crawling involves unique motor control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Guy; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2015-05-04

    To cope with the exceptional computational complexity that is involved in the control of its hyper-redundant arms [1], the octopus has adopted unique motor control strategies in which the central brain activates rather autonomous motor programs in the elaborated peripheral nervous system of the arms [2, 3]. How octopuses coordinate their eight long and flexible arms in locomotion is still unknown. Here, we present the first detailed kinematic analysis of octopus arm coordination in crawling. The results are surprising in several respects: (1) despite its bilaterally symmetrical body, the octopus can crawl in any direction relative to its body orientation; (2) body and crawling orientation are monotonically and independently controlled; and (3) contrasting known animal locomotion, octopus crawling lacks any apparent rhythmical patterns in limb coordination, suggesting a unique non-rhythmical output of the octopus central controller. We show that this uncommon maneuverability is derived from the radial symmetry of the arms around the body and the simple pushing-by-elongation mechanism by which the arms create the crawling thrust. These two together enable a mechanism whereby the central controller chooses in a moment-to-moment fashion which arms to recruit for pushing the body in an instantaneous direction. Our findings suggest that the soft molluscan body has affected in an embodied way [4, 5] the emergence of the adaptive motor behavior of the octopus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. From proliferation to arms race. Nuclear challenges in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghen, Morgane

    2015-01-01

    If there is a region in the world where the 21. Century will be defined, it is Asia. When the rise of powers meets with old rivalries, competition for regional leadership and pending territorial disputes, the risk of conflict resurfaces and the balance of powers shifts. With changes come new trends, and with new trends come new dynamics. The nuclear realm is one of those where the changes are the most significant, the future the most uncertain, and where ongoing evolutions warrant the most scrutiny. What are these evolutions' main characteristics and what are their consequences for security, deterrence, non-proliferation and disarmament? Five major trends are currently shaping the strategic landscape and one of them has the potential for global ramifications: the advent of a regional arms race. (author)

  14. Beyond arms control? Looking for the lost paradigm.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahan, P.

    2002-01-01

    Since the tragic events of September 11, 2001, the international relations have become more complex and the arms control concept, born during the cold war and implemented during the 3 last decades is today marking time. Disarmament and non-proliferation, which were the keystones of arms control and international negotiations, are today undergoing erosion. This article analyzes the change of situation between the end of the 20. century and the beginning of the 21. century. Three steps are defined by the author: a 'flux' step with the signature of a huge number of international agreements about non-proliferation and arms control, a stagnation step marked by the difficulties of implementing some of the existing treaties and by the violation by some states of some of them, and a 'reflux' step marked by a freezing up of the bilateral US-Russian disarmament process and a general renouncement of the multilateral arms control concept. (J.S.)

  15. 27 CFR 479.193 - Arms Export Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Other Laws Applicable § 479.193 Arms Export Control Act. For provisions relating to...

  16. Measurement approaches to support future warhead arms control transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olinger, C.T.; Frankle, C.M.; Johnson, M.W.; Poths, J.

    1998-01-01

    Transparency on warhead stockpiles, warhead dismantlement, and fissile material stockpiles in nuclear weapons states will become increasingly important in the move beyond START II toward lower quantities of warheads. Congressional support for further warhead reductions will likely depend on the degree of irreversibility, or in other words, the rapidity with which warhead inventories could be reconstituted. Whether irreversibility considerations can be satisfied will depend on monitoring dismantlement as well as constraining the available stockpile of fissile materials for possible refabrication into warheads. Measurement techniques designed to address the above problems will need to consider NPT Article 1 obligations as well as Russian and US classification regulations, which prohibit or restrict the transfer of nuclear warhead design information to other states. Classification considerations currently limit the potential completeness of future inspections of weapons materials. Many conventional international safeguards approaches are not currently viable for arms control applications because they would reveal weapons design information. The authors discuss a variety of technical measures that may help to improve transparence of warhead and fissile material stockpiles and may enable limited warhead dismantlement transparency

  17. Preventive arms control. Case study: plutonium disposition. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebert, W.

    2001-01-01

    Plutonium stored in separated form poses a severe threat of nuclear weapons proliferation. While options for the disposition of military plutonium stockpiles have been studied for several years, similar work has hardly been undertaken for plutonium stockpiles in the civilian sector. In the framework of this project, the various options to dispose of stockpiles of separated plutonium in the civilian sector were to be investigated. The project was embedded in the FONAS-project network on Preventive Arms Control, and the findings of this study were to be considered for the development of a concept of Preventive Arms Control. As a first step, the internationally available information on different options for plutonium disposition (MOX-use, immobilization together with radioactive wastes, elimination) were collected and compiled to allow further assessment of the different options. For some of the options, technical questions were examined in more detail. For this purpose, neutron transport and fuel burnup calculations were performed. In particular, the analysis focused on concepts for the elimination of plutonium by the use of uranium-free fuel in existing light-water reactors, since they are particularly attractive from the point of view of non-proliferation. The calculations were performed for a reference fuel based on yttrium-stabilized zirconia, with parameters like the initial plutonium content or the use of burnable neutron poisons varying. A systematic and complete analysis of the performed calculations, however, could not be undertaken due to project time restrictions. On the basis of assessment criteria for Preventive Arms Control developed by the project network, a specific set of criteria for the assessment of the pros and cons of different plutonium disposition methods has been defined. These criteria may then be used as part of a concept of prospective technology assessment. The project findings present a starting base for a comprehensive assessment of the

  18. Four Degree Freedom Robot Arm with Fuzzy Neural Network Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şinasi Arslan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the control of four degree freedom robot arm has been realized with the computed torque control method.. It is usually required that the four jointed robot arm has high precision capability and good maneuverability for using in industrial applications. Besides, high speed working and external applied loads have been acting as important roles. For those purposes, the computed torque control method has been developed in a good manner that the robot arm can track the given trajectory, which has been able to enhance the feedback control together with fuzzy neural network control. The simulation results have proved that the computed torque control with the neural network has been so successful in robot control.

  19. EEG Mind Controlled Smart Prosthetic Arm – A Comprehensive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Beyrouthy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the field of prosthetics has seen many accomplishments especially with the integration of technological advancements. In this paper, different arm types (robotic, surgical, bionic, prosthetic and static are analyzed in terms of resistance, usage, flexibility, cost and potential. Most of these techniques have some problems; they are extremely expensive, hard to install and maintain and may require surgery. Therefore, our work introduces the initial design of an EEG mind controlled smart prosthetic arm. The arm is controlled by the brain commands, obtained from an electroencephalography (EEG headset, and equipped with a network of smart sensors and actuators that give the patient intelligent feedback about the surrounding environment and the object in contact. This network provides the arm with normal hand functionality, smart reflexes and smooth movements. Various types of sensors are used including temperature, pressure, ultrasonic proximity sensors, accelerometers, potentiometers, strain gauges and gyroscopes. The arm is completely 3D printed built from various lightweight and high strength materials that can handle high impacts and fragile elements as well. Our project requires the use of nine servomotors installed at different places in the arm. Therefore, the static and dynamic modes of servomotors are analyzed. The total cost of the project is estimated to be relatively cheap compared to other previously built arms. Many scenarios are analyzed corresponding to the actions that the prosthetic arm can perform, and an algorithm is created to match these scenarios. Experimental results show that the proposed EEG Mind-controlled Arm is a promising alternative for current solutions that require invasive and expensive surgical procedures.

  20. The nuclear weapon; L'arme nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tertrais, Bruno

    2008-07-01

    The author presents the technology, the concept of deterrence, the today means and the international control, concerning the nuclear weapon. The conclusion is pessimistic. The author sees only two issues: the substitution of a new weapon more powerful, or its use. (A.L.B.)

  1. Sandia technology. Volume 13, number 2 Special issue: verification of arms control treaties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear deterrence, a cornerstone of US national security policy, has helped prevent global conflict for over 40 years. The DOE and DoD share responsibility for this vital part of national security. The US will continue to rely on nuclear deterrence for the foreseeable future. In the late 1950s, Sandia developed satellite-borne nuclear burst detection systems to support the treaty banning atmospheric nuclear tests. This activity has continued to expand and diversify. When the Non-Proliferation Treaty was ratified in 1970, we began to develop technologies to protect nuclear materials from falling into unauthorized hands. This program grew and now includes systems for monitoring the movement and storage of nuclear materials, detecting tampering, and transmiting sensitive data securely. In the late 1970s, negotiations to further limit underground nuclear testing were being actively pursued. In less than 18 months, we fielded the National Seismic Station, an unattended observatory for in-country monitoring of nuclear tests. In the mid-l980s, arms-control interest shifted to facility monitoring and on-site inspection. Our Technical On-site Inspection Facility is the national test bed for perimeter and portal monitoring technology and the prototype for the inspection portal that was recently installed in the USSR under the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces accord. The articles in the special issue of Sundiu Technology describe some of our current contributions to verification technology. This work supports the US policy to seek realistic arms control agreements while maintaining our national security.

  2. The importance of domestic law to international arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehman, R.F. II.

    1993-11-01

    Studies of arms control and disarmament tend to focus on political, military, and diplomatic processes. Recently, in the context of the conversion of defense activities to civilian use, the economic aspects of arms control have also received renewed interest. The legal dimension, however, is in need of fresh examination. Both international and domestic law are sailing increasingly in uncharted waters. Recent arms control agreements and related developments in international peacekeeping have expanded the scope of international law and altered how one perceives certain fundamentals, including the principle of national sovereignty. Still, the nation state is largely unchallenged as the primary actor in international affairs. National governments retain near absolute sovereign rights and responsibilities even in an age of trans-national economic integration and codified international norms for human rights, freedom of the press, and the peaceful resolution of disputes. Indeed, the role of domestic law in arms control and disarmament may be more significant now than ever before. A brief review of relationships between arms control and domestic law should illustrate ways in which ones thinking has been underestimating the importance of domestic law. Hopefully, this survey will set the stage properly for the excellent, more detailed case studies by Elinor Hammarskjold and Alan Crawford. Toward that end, this paper will highlight a number of more general, and sometimes provocative, themes. These themes should be kept in mind when those two complementary presentations are considered

  3. The importance of domestic law to international arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1993-11-01

    Studies of arms control and disarmament tend to focus on political, military, and diplomatic processes. Recently, in the context of the conversion of defense activities to civilian use, the economic aspects of arms control have also received renewed interest. The legal dimension, however, is in need of fresh examination. Both international and domestic law are sailing increasingly in uncharted waters. Recent arms control agreements and related developments in international peacekeeping have expanded the scope of international law and altered how one perceives certain fundamentals, including the principle of national sovereignty. Still, the nation state is largely unchallenged as the primary actor in international affairs. National governments retain near absolute sovereign rights and responsibilities even in an age of trans-national economic integration and codified international norms for human rights, freedom of the press, and the peaceful resolution of disputes. Indeed, the role of domestic law in arms control and disarmament may be more significant now than ever before. A brief review of relationships between arms control and domestic law should illustrate ways in which ones thinking has been underestimating the importance of domestic law. Hopefully, this survey will set the stage properly for the excellent, more detailed case studies by Elinor Hammarskjold and Alan Crawford. Toward that end, this paper will highlight a number of more general, and sometimes provocative, themes. These themes should be kept in mind when those two complementary presentations are considered.

  4. Manipulator arm for a nuclear reactor vessel inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A manipulator arm for a reactor vessel in-service inspection apparatus is adapted to transport a transducer array for ultrasonic examination of welds at any point in the vessel. The removal of the inspection device from the reactor vessel in an emergency presents a problem where a relatively long manipulator arm is used. This invention provides an improved arm with means for changing the normal orientation of the arm to a shorter one to permit safe removal of the inspection device from the reactor vessel. (author)

  5. Control System Design for a Flexible Arm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Li-Sheng

    1987-01-01

    .... He has investigated techniques for compensating the effects of friction and ripple torque. New software was written to use a Metrabyte Data Acquisition and Control board for the real-time implementation...

  6. Emergency retraction mechanism for the manipulator arm of a nuclear reactor vessel inspection apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear reactor vessels are made using numerous welds. These have to be inspected, often using ultrasonic transducers mounted on a manipulator arm. This invention seeks to solve the problem of retracting the manipulator arm should an emergency occur while it is fully extended, particularly within one of the reactor vessel nozzles. Of specific concern is the situation where power fails with the manipulator arm so extended. Details are given of an emergency retraction mechanism for use in reactor vessel inspection apparatus. A manual retraction means is used; the manipulator arm is slidably mounted within a frame. This comprises a member mounted on the arm for looping engagement by a cable, the cable being fixed at one end of the arm frame and engaging the member, and a clamp for detachably securing the cable at its other end to the arm frame at a point which is accessible from above the vessel. (U.K.)

  7. Visual Recognition and Its Application to Robot Arm Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Gau Juang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of optical word recognition and fuzzy control to a smartphone automatic test system. The system consists of a robot arm and two webcams. After the words from the control panel that represent commands are recognized by the robot system, the robot arm performs the corresponding actions to test the smartphone. One of the webcams is utilized to capture commands on the screen of the control panel, the other to recognize the words on the screen of the tested smartphone. The method of image processing is based on the Red-Green-Blue (RGB and Hue-Saturation-Luminance (HSL color spaces to reduce the influence of light. Fuzzy theory is used in the robot arm’s position control. The Optical Character Recognition (OCR technique is applied to the word recognition, and the recognition results are then checked by a dictionary process to increase the recognition accuracy. The camera which is used to recognize the tested smartphone also provides object coordinates to the fuzzy controller, then the robot arm moves to the desired positions and presses the desired buttons. The proposed control scheme allows the robot arm to perform different assigned test functions successfully.

  8. Hand Gesture Based Wireless Robotic Arm Control for Agricultural Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan Megalingam, Rajesh; Bandhyopadhyay, Shiva; Vamsy Vivek, Gedela; Juned Rahi, Muhammad

    2017-08-01

    One of the major challenges in agriculture is harvesting. It is very hard and sometimes even unsafe for workers to go to each plant and pluck fruits. Robotic systems are increasingly combined with new technologies to automate or semi automate labour intensive work, such as e.g. grape harvesting. In this work we propose a semi-automatic method for aid in harvesting fruits and hence increase productivity per man hour. A robotic arm fixed to a rover roams in the in orchard and the user can control it remotely using the hand glove fixed with various sensors. These sensors can position the robotic arm remotely to harvest the fruits. In this paper we discuss the design of hand glove fixed with various sensors, design of 4 DoF robotic arm and the wireless control interface. In addition the setup of the system and the testing and evaluation under lab conditions are also presented in this paper.

  9. Photoelectric radar servo control system based on ARM+FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kaixuan; Zhang, Yue; Li, Yeqiu; Dai, Qin; Yao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    In order to get smaller, faster, and more responsive requirements of the photoelectric radar servo control system. We propose a set of core ARM + FPGA architecture servo controller. Parallel processing capability of FPGA to be used for the encoder feedback data, PWM carrier modulation, A, B code decoding processing and so on; Utilizing the advantage of imaging design in ARM Embedded systems achieves high-speed implementation of the PID algorithm. After the actual experiment, the closed-loop speed of response of the system cycles up to 2000 times/s, in the case of excellent precision turntable shaft, using a PID algorithm to achieve the servo position control with the accuracy of + -1 encoder input code. Firstly, This article carry on in-depth study of the embedded servo control system hardware to determine the ARM and FPGA chip as the main chip with systems based on a pre-measured target required to achieve performance requirements, this article based on ARM chip used Samsung S3C2440 chip of ARM7 architecture , the FPGA chip is chosen xilinx's XC3S400 . ARM and FPGA communicate by using SPI bus, the advantage of using SPI bus is saving a lot of pins for easy system upgrades required thereafter. The system gets the speed datas through the photoelectric-encoder that transports the datas to the FPGA, Then the system transmits the datas through the FPGA to ARM, transforms speed datas into the corresponding position and velocity data in a timely manner, prepares the corresponding PWM wave to control motor rotation by making comparison between the position data and the velocity data setted in advance . According to the system requirements to draw the schematics of the photoelectric radar servo control system and PCB board to produce specially. Secondly, using PID algorithm to control the servo system, the datas of speed obtained from photoelectric-encoder is calculated position data and speed data via high-speed digital PID algorithm and coordinate models. Finally, a

  10. Trends in International Persuasion: Persuasion in the Arms Control Negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopmann, P. Terrence; Walcott, Charles

    An analysis of the bargaining process in international arms control negotiations is possible by developing a framework of interrelated hypotheses, by delineating and practicing interactions study called "Bargaining Process Analysis," and by formulating procedural steps that bridge the gap between laboratory studies and "real world" situations. In…

  11. State Control over Private Military and Security Companies in Armed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NWUuser

    State Control over Private Military and Security Companies in Armed Conflict by H Tonkin ... (US) in the Iraqi theatre by 2007 exceeded the number of US troops, and in 2010 .... due diligence to promote PMSC compliance therewith. ... relying on existing accountability frameworks of international law, new domestic and.

  12. Language and the nuclear arms debate: Nukespeak today

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on the political, cultural and ethical aspects of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include language and ideology, the pragmatics of speeches against the peace movement in Britain, the rhetoric of national defense in the US, pro-nuclear arguments, nuclear deterrence, the media's coverage of anti-nuclear demonstrations, news reports, an analysis of the television film The Day After, nuclear disarmament, an analysis of anti-nuclear humor, psychological models, and sociological models.

  13. Emergency disconnect means for the manipulator arm of a nuclear reactor vessel inspection apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, F.; Morris, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    An emergency disconnect means is disclosed for uncoupling a portion of the linkage means which connects the several segments of an articulating manipulator arm employed in a nuclear reactor vessel inspection device. One of the motor housings included in the manipulator arm's segmented drive train is pivotably coupled between two segments thereof. In the event of power failure or the necessity of manual retraction of the manipulator arm from within the vessel, a lever is manually operated and moved from its normally locked position wherein the motor housing is positionally fixed to a release position wherein the motor housing and the remainder of the manipulator arm segments connected forwardly thereof are pivotally released to shorten the normal arm reach and alter the normal orientation of the manipulator arm to expedite removal without danger of collision. (auth)

  14. High-Resolution Fast-Neutron Spectrometry for Arms Control and Treaty Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David L. Chichester; James T. Johnson; Edward H. Seabury

    2012-07-01

    Many nondestructive nuclear analysis techniques have been developed to support the measurement needs of arms control and treaty verification, including gross photon and neutron counting, low- and high-resolution gamma spectrometry, time-correlated neutron measurements, and photon and neutron imaging. One notable measurement technique that has not been extensively studied to date for these applications is high-resolution fast-neutron spectrometry (HRFNS). Applied for arms control and treaty verification, HRFNS has the potential to serve as a complimentary measurement approach to these other techniques by providing a means to either qualitatively or quantitatively determine the composition and thickness of non-nuclear materials surrounding neutron-emitting materials. The technique uses the normally-occurring neutrons present in arms control and treaty verification objects of interest as an internal source of neutrons for performing active-interrogation transmission measurements. Most low-Z nuclei of interest for arms control and treaty verification, including 9Be, 12C, 14N, and 16O, possess fast-neutron resonance features in their absorption cross sections in the 0.5- to 5-MeV energy range. Measuring the selective removal of source neutrons over this energy range, assuming for example a fission-spectrum starting distribution, may be used to estimate the stoichiometric composition of intervening materials between the neutron source and detector. At a simpler level, determination of the emitted fast-neutron spectrum may be used for fingerprinting 'known' assemblies for later use in template-matching tests. As with photon spectrometry, automated analysis of fast-neutron spectra may be performed to support decision making and reporting systems protected behind information barriers. This paper will report recent work at Idaho National Laboratory to explore the feasibility of using HRFNS for arms control and treaty verification applications, including simulations

  15. Simultaneous Authentication and Certification of Arms-Control Measurement Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Hauck, Danielle K.; Thron, Jonathan L.

    2012-01-01

    Most arms-control-treaty-monitoring scenarios involve a host party that makes a declaration regarding its nuclear material or items and a monitoring party that verifies that declaration. A verification system developed for such a use needs to be trusted by both parties. The first concern, primarily from the host party's point of view, is that any sensitive information that is collected must be protected without interfering in the efficient operation of the facility being monitored. This concern is addressed in what can be termed a 'certification' process. The second concern, of particular interest to the monitoring party, is that it must be possible to confirm the veracity of both the measurement system and the data produced by this measurement system. The monitoring party addresses these issues during an 'authentication' process. Addressing either one of these concerns independently is relatively straightforward. However, it is more difficult to simultaneously satisfy host party certification concerns and monitoring party authentication concerns. Typically, both parties will want the final access to the measurement system. We will describe an alternative approach that allows both parties to gain confidence simultaneously. This approach starts with (1) joint development of the measurement system followed by (2) host certification of several copies of the system and (3) random selection by the inspecting party of one copy to be use during the monitoring visit and one (or more) copy(s) to be returned to the inspecting party's facilities for (4) further hardware authentication; any remaining copies are stored under joint seal for use as spares. Following this process, the parties will jointly (5) perform functional testing on the selected measurement system and then (6) use this system during the monitoring visit. Steps (1) and (2) assure the host party as to the certification of whichever system is eventually used in the monitoring visit. Steps (1), (3), (4), and (5

  16. Dual arm master controller concept: consolidated fuel reprocessing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.

    1984-04-01

    The Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features result in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented. 6 references, 3 figures

  17. Controlling nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, W.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear non-proliferation policy depends on the 1968 Non-Proliferation Treaty, in which countries promise not to acquire nuclear weapons in exchange for open access to peaceful nuclear technology, and a system of international safeguards that are imposed on exported nuclear equipment and facilities operated by parties to the treaty. Critics have feared all along that non-nuclear countries might circumvent or exploit the system to obtain nuclear weapons and that the Atoms for Peace plan would spread the very technology it sought to control. The nuclear weapons states would like everyone else to believe that atomic bombs are undesirable, but they continue to rely on the bombs for their own defense. Israel's raid on Iraq's nuclear reactor focused world attention on the proliferation problem and helped to broaden and sterengthen its prospects. It also highlighted the weakness that there are no effective sanctions against violators. Until the international community can ageee on enforcement measures powerful enough to prevent nuclear proliferation, individual countries may be tempted to follow Israel's example, 19 references

  18. A biologically inspired neural network controller for ballistic arm movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Maurizio

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In humans, the implementation of multijoint tasks of the arm implies a highly complex integration of sensory information, sensorimotor transformations and motor planning. Computational models can be profitably used to better understand the mechanisms sub-serving motor control, thus providing useful perspectives and investigating different control hypotheses. To this purpose, the use of Artificial Neural Networks has been proposed to represent and interpret the movement of upper limb. In this paper, a neural network approach to the modelling of the motor control of a human arm during planar ballistic movements is presented. Methods The developed system is composed of three main computational blocks: 1 a parallel distributed learning scheme that aims at simulating the internal inverse model in the trajectory formation process; 2 a pulse generator, which is responsible for the creation of muscular synergies; and 3 a limb model based on two joints (two degrees of freedom and six muscle-like actuators, that can accommodate for the biomechanical parameters of the arm. The learning paradigm of the neural controller is based on a pure exploration of the working space with no feedback signal. Kinematics provided by the system have been compared with those obtained in literature from experimental data of humans. Results The model reproduces kinematics of arm movements, with bell-shaped wrist velocity profiles and approximately straight trajectories, and gives rise to the generation of synergies for the execution of movements. The model allows achieving amplitude and direction errors of respectively 0.52 cm and 0.2 radians. Curvature values are similar to those encountered in experimental measures with humans. The neural controller also manages environmental modifications such as the insertion of different force fields acting on the end-effector. Conclusion The proposed system has been shown to properly simulate the development of

  19. Learning and Control Model of the Arm for Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoungsik; Kambara, Hiroyuki; Shin, Duk; Koike, Yasuharu

    We propose a learning and control model of the arm for a loading task in which an object is loaded onto one hand with the other hand, in the sagittal plane. Postural control during object interactions provides important points to motor control theories in terms of how humans handle dynamics changes and use the information of prediction and sensory feedback. For the learning and control model, we coupled a feedback-error-learning scheme with an Actor-Critic method used as a feedback controller. To overcome sensory delays, a feedforward dynamics model (FDM) was used in the sensory feedback path. We tested the proposed model in simulation using a two-joint arm with six muscles, each with time delays in muscle force generation. By applying the proposed model to the loading task, we showed that motor commands started increasing, before an object was loaded on, to stabilize arm posture. We also found that the FDM contributes to the stabilization by predicting how the hand changes based on contexts of the object and efferent signals. For comparison with other computational models, we present the simulation results of a minimum-variance model.

  20. Nuclear export controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    One approach to describing the multilateral nuclear export controls is to do it according to time. This led to an interesting discovery, i.e. multilateral export controls have been defined by four distinct periods, the forst two of abut five years each, the second two about twice as long. These time periods have another interesting property. The two suppliers groups, which we will discuss in detail, have alternated in dominance over nearly thirty years. After describing the historical developments, the status of the present situation in multilateral nuclear export controls is examined, with the strengths and weaknesses. The future of multilateral nuclear export controls and possible ways that might be taken are considered

  1. Multiple nuclear ADC controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovett, A; Rapaport, M S [Center for Nuclear Research, Soreq (Israel)

    1980-12-01

    A controller for an on-line three parameter coincidence and multispectra scaling system has been developed. It has been designed to control, event-by-event, the outputs of three nuclear analog-to-digital converters used at the SOLIS facility. The system utilizes an HP minicomputer with a 32k-word core memory, a disc drive and magnetic tape units.

  2. Passivity-Based Control of Rotational and Translational Timoshenko Arms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Sasaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the alternate passivity-based control schemes can be designed which explicitly exploit the passivity properties of the Timoshenko model. This approach has the advantage over the conventional methods in the respect that it allows one to deal directly with the system's partial differential equations without resorting to approximations. Numerical results for the tracking control of a translational and rotational flexible Timoshenko arm are presented and compared. They verify that the proposed control schemes are effective at controlling flexible dynamical systems.

  3. Nuclear Arms and National Security. 1983 National Issues Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Keith, Ed.

    Appropriate for secondary school social studies, this booklet outlines approaches for dealing with the threat of nuclear warfare in six sections. The first section, "Learning to Live with Nuclear Weapons," introduces the topic and considers what can be done to decrease the risk of nuclear warfare without jeopardizing the nation's security. "Arms…

  4. CONTROL SYSTEM FOR UNMANNED AIRCRAFT EQUIPPED WITH ROBOTICS ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei A. Margun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of control system synthesis for multi rotational UAV equipped with robotics arm. Control algorithm is proposed based on the method of feedback linearization and synthesis of proportional-differential controller with the real time computation of the inertia tensor and center of mass changes and compensation of the reactive torque generated by the dynamics of the manipulator. Quadrocopter with attached articulated manipulator is selected as a model of the control object. Systems of equations describing the behavior of considered dynamical system are obtained according to the Newton and Euler-Lagrange laws. Expressions are offered, defining the inertia tensor and the position of the system center of mass depending on the current position of the manipulator, and the torque acting on the quadrocopter from the manipulator. Feedback linearization with arm influence compensation on quadrocopter is applied for the resulting nonlinear coupled system. As a result, robot dynamics equations have been converted to a linear stationary system. Converted system control is achieved by a proportional-differential controller. Examined system simulation is done with control method described in the paper and the classical method based on a proportional-differential controller. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach and demonstrate that the proposed approach provides higher accuracy of the tracking error, than control method by means of proportional-differential regulator.

  5. The effect of the development of theatre missile defences on the arms control structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Min

    1998-01-01

    Th arms control structure usually refers to current and past results of the efforts by the USA and former Soviet Union to negotiate strategic arms control agreements. The structure is to be represented by the various arms control agreements, such as the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) and the strategic Reduction Talks (START). Whatever the motives of the parties to these agreements, today people commonly regard the structure as the best way to achieve strategic stability. The profile od arms control and the impact of the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty, to understand how the Theatre Missile Defence (TMD) program affects the arms control structure

  6. An Electromechanical Pendulum Robot Arm in Action: Dynamics and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Notué Kadjie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors numerically investigate the dynamics and control of an electromechanical robot arm consisting of a pendulum coupled to an electrical circuit via an electromagnetic mechanism. The analysis of the dynamical behavior of the electromechanical device powered by a sinusoidal power source is carried out when the effects of the loads on the arm are neglected. It is found that the device exhibits period-n T oscillations and high amplitude oscillations when the electric current is at its smallest value. The specific case which considers the effects of the impulsive contact force caused by an external load mass pushed by the arm is also studied. It is found that the amplitude of the impulse force generates several behaviors such as jump of amplitude and distortions of the mechanical vibration and electrical signal. For more efficient functioning of the device, both piezoelectric and adaptive backstepping controls are applied on the system. It is found that the control strategies are able to mitigate the signal distortion and restore the dynamical behavior to its normal state or reduce the effects of perturbations such as a short time variation of one component or when the robot system is subject to noises.

  7. Regional dialogue and multilateral arms control efforts today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, T. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The significance of arms control and non-proliferation tasks is stressed emphasising what has been done, and-more important-what must still be done. Although tangible developments at the regional level may seem at times to be slow in coming, it is important to remember that the United States-Soviet transition from voluntary declarations to detailed arms control agreements with intrusive verification regimes spanned the entire length of cold war. Given the instabilities afflicting these regions, establishing a regional dialogue is itself a confidence-building measure. The experience of the United States and the former Soviet Union amply demonstrates that mere existence of regular dialogue can reduce tension by providing a platform for communication among military and Government participants even when political crisis prevents diplomatic contacts at senior levels. The international community should be encouraged by the progress that has been made to date to address regional instabilities. Such steps are an integral part of the international effort, carried out both at the United Nations and elsewhere, to adopt acceptable levels of conventional military forces and to eliminate weapons of mass destruction. Given the instabilities afflicting these regions, establishing a regional dialogue is itself a confidence-building measure. World changes, while potentially dangerous and certainly challenging, offer the hope of replacing antagonism with cooperation, creating a progressively more democratic global environment, preventing proliferation, and dampening regional conflicts. Continuing to make effective use of the entire mix of arms control and confidence-building tools will help to realize these hopes

  8. Overview: Mechanism and Control of a Prosthetic Arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Tushar; Uddanwadiker, Rashmi

    2015-09-01

    Continuous growth in industrialization and lack of awareness in safety parameters the cases of amputations are growing. The search of safer, simpler and automated prosthetic arms for managing upper limbs is expected. Continuous efforts have been made to design and develop prosthetic arms ranging from simple harness actuated to automated mechanisms with various control options. However due the cost constraints, the automated prosthetic arms are still out of the reach of needy people. Recent data have shown that there is a wide scope to develop a low cost and light weight upper limb prosthesis. This review summarizes the various designs methodologies, mechanisms and control system developed by the researchers and the advances therein. Educating the patient to develop acceptability to prosthesis and using the same for the most basic desired functions of human hand, post amputation care and to improve patient's independent life is equally important. In conclusion it can be interpreted that there is a wide scope in design in an adaptive mechanism for opening and closing of the fingers using other methods of path and position synthesis. Simple mechanisms and less parts may optimize the cost factor. Reduction in the weight of the prosthesis may be achieved using polymers used for engineering applications. Control system will remain never ending challenge for the researchers, but it is essential to maintain the simplicity from the patients perspective.

  9. Managing new arms races

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, G.

    1992-01-01

    The management of new arms races in the region of Asia-Pacific includes considerations of weapons trade and transfer in the region, with an emphasis on nuclear weapons proliferation. It deals with the problem of controlling the arms trade and the efforts to control conventional weapons and underlines the possible role and influence of Conference on Cooperation and Security in Europe (CSCE)

  10. Designing, Fabrication and Controlling Of Multipurpose3-DOF Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeel, Hafiz Muhammad; Azher, Anum; Usman Ali, Syed M.; Wahab Mughal, Abdul

    2013-12-01

    In the present work, we have successfully designed and developed a 3-DOF articulated Robotic Arm capable of performing typical industrial tasks such as painting or spraying, assembling and handling automobiles parts and etc., in resemblance to a human arm. The mechanical assembly is designed on SOLIDWORKS and aluminum grade 6061 -T6 is used for its fabrication in order to reduce the structure weight. We have applied inverse kinematics to determine the joint angles, equations are fed into an efficient microcontroller ATMEGA16 which performs all the calculations to determine the joint angles on the basis of given coordinates to actuate the joints through motorized control. Good accuracy was obtained with quadrature optical encoders installed in each joint to achieve the desired position and a LabVIEW based GUI is designed to provide human machine interface.

  11. Designing, Fabrication and Controlling Of Multipurpose3-DOF Robotic Arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabeel, Hafiz Muhammad; Azher, Anum; Ali, Syed M Usman; Mughal, Abdul Wahab

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, we have successfully designed and developed a 3-DOF articulated Robotic Arm capable of performing typical industrial tasks such as painting or spraying, assembling and handling automobiles parts and etc., in resemblance to a human arm. The mechanical assembly is designed on SOLIDWORKS and aluminum grade 6061 -T6 is used for its fabrication in order to reduce the structure weight. We have applied inverse kinematics to determine the joint angles, equations are fed into an efficient microcontroller ATMEGA16 which performs all the calculations to determine the joint angles on the basis of given coordinates to actuate the joints through motorized control. Good accuracy was obtained with quadrature optical encoders installed in each joint to achieve the desired position and a LabVIEW based GUI is designed to provide human machine interface

  12. Ethics and Nuclear Arms: European and American Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Raymond, Ed.

    In these 10 essays, 5 European and 5 American political and religious leaders examine the ethics of possessing and using nuclear weapons. They appraise the policy of nuclear deterrence. Protestant and Catholic viewpoints are represented. There are disagreements on details and differences in emphasis on positions and policies. There is general…

  13. Simultaneous Authentication and Certification of Arms-Control Measurement Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacArthur, Duncan W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hauck, Danielle K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thron, Jonathan L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-09

    Most arms-control-treaty-monitoring scenarios involve a host party that makes a declaration regarding its nuclear material or items and a monitoring party that verifies that declaration. A verification system developed for such a use needs to be trusted by both parties. The first concern, primarily from the host party's point of view, is that any sensitive information that is collected must be protected without interfering in the efficient operation of the facility being monitored. This concern is addressed in what can be termed a 'certification' process. The second concern, of particular interest to the monitoring party, is that it must be possible to confirm the veracity of both the measurement system and the data produced by this measurement system. The monitoring party addresses these issues during an 'authentication' process. Addressing either one of these concerns independently is relatively straightforward. However, it is more difficult to simultaneously satisfy host party certification concerns and monitoring party authentication concerns. Typically, both parties will want the final access to the measurement system. We will describe an alternative approach that allows both parties to gain confidence simultaneously. This approach starts with (1) joint development of the measurement system followed by (2) host certification of several copies of the system and (3) random selection by the inspecting party of one copy to be use during the monitoring visit and one (or more) copy(s) to be returned to the inspecting party's facilities for (4) further hardware authentication; any remaining copies are stored under joint seal for use as spares. Following this process, the parties will jointly (5) perform functional testing on the selected measurement system and then (6) use this system during the monitoring visit. Steps (1) and (2) assure the host party as to the certification of whichever system is eventually used in the monitoring visit

  14. Cold War Arms Control Motivations and Techniques - A Guide for the Future?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, Elmer

    1996-01-01

    .... This paper provides a brief historical account of some of the arms control agreements between the U.S. and the Soviet Union, examines their major motivations to enter into negotiations, and illustrates some successful negotiation techniques. The author hypothesizes on the utility of this Cold War arms control experience as a useful guide for arms control in a single superpower world.

  15. ARM-based control system for terry rapier loom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weimin; Gu, Yeqing; Wu, Zhenyu; Wang, Fan

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, a novel ARM-based mechatronics control technique applied in terry rapier loom was presented. Electronic weft selection, electronic fluff, electronic let-off and take-up motions system, which consists of position and speedcontrolled servomechanisms, were studied. The control system configuration, operation principle, and mathematical models of electronic drives system were analyzed. The synchronism among all mechanical motions and an improved intelligent control algorithm for the warp let-off tension control was discussed. The result indict that, by applying electronic and embedded control techniques and the individual servomechanisms, the electronic weft selection, electronic let-off device and electronic take-up device in HGA732T terry rapier loom have greatly simplified the initial complicated mechanism, kept the warp tension constant from full to empty beam, set the variable weft density, eliminated the start mark effectively, promoted its flexibility, reliability and properties, and improved the fabric quality.

  16. Light Duty Utility Arm interface control document plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstrom, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    This document describes the interface control documents that will be used to identify and control interface features throughout all phases of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) development and design. After the system is built, delivered and installed in the Cold Test Facility and later at the tank farm, the Interface Control Documents can be used in maintaining the configuration control process. The Interface Control Document will consist of Interface Control Drawings and a data base directly tied to the Interface Control Drawings. The data base can be used as an index to conveniently find interface information. Design drawings and other text documents that contain interface information will appear in the database. The Interface Control Drawings will be used to document and control the data and information that define the interface boundaries between systems, subsystems and equipment. Also, the interface boundaries will define the areas of responsibility for systems and subsystems. The drawing will delineate and identify all the physical and functional interfaces that required coordination to establish and maintain compatibility between the co-functioning equipment, computer software, and the tank farm facilities. An appendix contains the Engineering interface control database system riser manual

  17. Light Duty Utility Arm interface control document plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstrom, J.W.

    1994-12-27

    This document describes the interface control documents that will be used to identify and control interface features throughout all phases of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) development and design. After the system is built, delivered and installed in the Cold Test Facility and later at the tank farm, the Interface Control Documents can be used in maintaining the configuration control process. The Interface Control Document will consist of Interface Control Drawings and a data base directly tied to the Interface Control Drawings. The data base can be used as an index to conveniently find interface information. Design drawings and other text documents that contain interface information will appear in the database. The Interface Control Drawings will be used to document and control the data and information that define the interface boundaries between systems, subsystems and equipment. Also, the interface boundaries will define the areas of responsibility for systems and subsystems. The drawing will delineate and identify all the physical and functional interfaces that required coordination to establish and maintain compatibility between the co-functioning equipment, computer software, and the tank farm facilities. An appendix contains the Engineering interface control database system riser manual.

  18. Nuclear reactor control column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachovchin, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    The nuclear reactor control column comprises a column disposed within the nuclear reactor core having a variable cross-section hollow channel and containing balls whose vertical location is determined by the flow of the reactor coolant through the column. The control column is divided into three basic sections wherein each of the sections has a different cross-sectional area. The uppermost section of the control column has the greatest crosssectional area, the intermediate section of the control column has the smallest cross-sectional area, and the lowermost section of the control column has the intermediate cross-sectional area. In this manner, the area of the uppermost section can be established such that when the reactor coolant is flowing under normal conditions therethrough, the absorber balls will be lifted and suspended in a fluidized bed manner in the upper section. However, when the reactor coolant flow falls below a predetermined value, the absorber balls will fall through the intermediate section and into the lowermost section, thereby reducing the reactivity of the reactor core and shutting down the reactor

  19. Acceptance criteria for determining armed response force size at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-02-01

    This guidance document contains acceptance criteria to be used in the NRC license review process. It consists of a scored worksheet and guidelines for interpreting the worksheet score that can be used in determining the adequacy of the armed response force size at a nuclear power reactor facility

  20. Uranium-233 waste definition: Disposal options, safeguards, criticality control, and arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Storch, S.N.; Lewis, L.C.

    1998-01-01

    The US investigated the use of 233 U for weapons, reactors, and other purposes from the 1950s into the 1970s. Based on the results of these investigations, it was decided not to use 233 U on a large scale. Most of the 233 U-containing materials were placed in long-term storage. At the end of the cold war, the US initiated, as part of its arms control policies, a disposition program for excess fissile materials. Other programs were accelerated for disposal of radioactive wastes placed in storage during the cold war. Last, potential safety issues were identified related to the storage of some 233 U-containing materials. Because of these changes, significant activities associated with 233 U-containing materials are expected. This report is one of a series of reports to provide the technical bases for future decisions on how to manage this material. A basis for defining when 233 U-containing materials can be managed as waste and when they must be managed as concentrated fissile materials has been developed. The requirements for storage, transport, and disposal of radioactive wastes are significantly different than those for fissile materials. Because of these differences, it is important to classify material in its appropriate category. The establishment of a definition of what is waste and what is fissile material will provide the guidance for appropriate management of these materials. Wastes are defined in this report as materials containing sufficiently small masses or low concentrations of fissile materials such that they can be managed as typical radioactive waste. Concentrated fissile materials are defined herein as materials containing sufficient fissile content such as to warrant special handling to address nuclear criticality, safeguards, and arms control concerns

  1. Quality control in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leme, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: objectives of the quality control in nuclear medicine; the necessity of the quality control in nuclear medicine; guidelines and recommendations. An appendix is given concerning the guidelines for the quality control and instrumentation in nuclear medicine. (M.A.) [pt

  2. Fissile materials from nuclear arms reductions: A question of disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutcliffe, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    This Session, 35T-2, of the Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) was held on February 18, 1991. The papers presented during this session covered a variety of issues and technologies concerning the disposition of the highly enriched uranium and plutonium salvaged from retired nuclear warheads. However, circumstances, including the amount of time available for the session, imposed limitations on the number and breadth of these papers. A comprehensive study of this topic should include a broader range of papers. This session included a paper on molten salt reactors designed to use highly enriched uranium or plutonium as fuel. Other options for the disposal of plutonium, such as transmutation using accelerators and underground vitrification using nuclear explosions, were not discussed during this session, but need to be considered. Individual papers are indexed separately

  3. European Union's Arms Control Regime and Arms Exports to China: Background and Legal Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grimmett, Richard F; Papademetriou, Theresa

    2005-01-01

    In recent months, discussions have been held within the European Union (EU) on the question of lifting the embargo on arms exports to the People's Republic of China that was imposed on China on June 27, 1989...

  4. Kinect-Based Sliding Mode Control for Lynxmotion Robotic Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ben Abdallah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the technological development of manipulator robot increases very quickly and provides a positive impact to human life. The implementation of the manipulator robot technology offers more efficiency and high performance for several human’s tasks. In reality, efforts published in this context are focused on implementing control algorithms with already preprogrammed desired trajectories (passive robots case or trajectory generation based on feedback sensors (active robots case. However, gesture based control robot can be considered as another channel of system control which is not widely discussed. This paper focuses on a Kinect-based real-time interactive control system implementation. Based on LabVIEW integrated development environment (IDE, a developed human-machine-interface (HMI allows user to control in real time a Lynxmotion robotic arm. The Kinect software development kit (SDK provides a tool to keep track of human body skeleton and abstract it into 3-dimensional coordinates. Therefore, the Kinect sensor is integrated into our control system to detect the different user joints coordinates. The Lynxmotion dynamic has been implemented in a real-time sliding mode control algorithm. The experimental results are carried out to test the effectiveness of the system, and the results verify the tracking ability, stability, and robustness.

  5. Perception of gain in U.S.-Soviet arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Anieri, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    Most current work in the field of international cooperation focuses on the resolution of the 'prisoners dilemma.' Such work begins by assuming that the issues under consideration are defined by absolute gains, where both sides can gain simultaneously. But the realist strand of international relations literature holds that this assumption is suspect - that international relations are usually characterized by relative gains, where gain for one side comes only at the others expense. The model developed here uses the question of absolute versus relative gains not as a theoretical assumption, but as a variable to be measured empirically. The hypothesis is that whether or not the US and the Soviet Union cooperate to limit arms competition is largely determined by whether the two sides define the issue in question as one of absolute or relative gains. The 'perception of gain' hypothesis is compared to explanations at the levels of the international system (rational choice), domestic politics, and individual belief systems. Three case studies are used to compare the strengths and weaknesses of each hypothesis. The findings confirmed that perception of gain is an important independent variable affecting arms control outcomes, but none of the theories were completely supported or rejected

  6. Real-time statistical quality control and ARM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blough, D.K.

    1992-05-01

    An important component of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is real-time quality control of data obtained from meteorological instruments. It is the goal of the ARM program to enhance the predictive capabilities of global circulation models by incorporating in them more detailed information on the radiative characteristics of the earth's atmosphere. To this end, a number of Cloud and Radiation Testbeds (CART's) will be built at various locations worldwide. Each CART will consist of an array of instruments designed to collect radiative data. The large amount of data obtained from these instruments necessitates real-time processing in order to flag outliers and possible instrument malfunction. The Bayesian dynamic linear model (DLM) proves to be an effective way of monitoring the time series data which each instrument generates. It provides a flexible yet powerful approach to detecting in real-time sudden shifts in a non-stationary multivariate time series. An application of these techniques to data arising from a remote sensing instrument to be used in the CART is provided. Using real data from a wind profiler, the ability of the DLM to detect outliers is studied. 5 refs

  7. Nuclear reactor control assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negron, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an assembly for providing global power control in a nuclear reactor having the core split into two halves. It comprises a disk assembly formed from at least two disks each machined with an identical surface hole pattern such that rotation of one disk relative to the other causes the hole pattern to open or close, the disk assembly being positioned substantially at the longitudinal center of and coaxial with the core halves; and means for rotating at least one of the disks relative to the other

  8. Controlling nuclear retrofit costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, C.O.

    1985-01-01

    Increased safety regulations that required modifications to nuclear power plants have had an impact on the capital and expense budgets of utilities. The author addresses the budgeting and control of project-related expenditures, and notes the importance of total cost management throughout the project's life cycle. That total includes the systems, procedures, personnel, expertise, and organization involved in the process. A rational and structured evaluation process at the beginning, realistic targets, and an organizational framework are key components. 2 references, 3 figures, 1 table

  9. Nuclear exports. Parliamentary control and confidentiality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    With its decision taken on 21. October 2014 (Az.: 2 BvE 5/11) the Federal Constitutional Court (BVerfG) decided during court proceedings between administrative bodies on the scope and limits of the parliamentary right of information. Even though the proceeding did not deal with nuclear exports but arm exports, foreign trade law, however, does not only designate an export licence obligation for military weapons but also for so called dual-use goods meaning goods, which can be used both for friendly as well as for military purposes. The export of these goods requires according to the so-called Dual-Use Regulation (EG) 428/2009 a licence. Annex I category 0 of the regulation (EG) 428/2009 lists a variety of nuclear materials, plants and equipment items for which this licence applies. In the same manner as arm exports, also exports of nuclear dual-use goods are being discussed in a special cabinet committee, the Federal Security Council (BSR), which shall coordinate cross-departmentally the German security and defence policy under consideration of economic interests and which categorises its results, according to the rules of procedure, as confidential. Also legally not regulated but common ''preliminary enquiries'' at the responsible Federal Ministry or rather Federal Office of Economics and Export Control by companies which plan an export and want to affirm the general approval for their export business prior to conclusion of contract take not only place for arm exports but also for nuclear dual-use goods. The decision by the Federal Constitutional Court can be applied to consultations about the authorisation of nuclear dual-use goods.

  10. Proposal for broader United States-Russian transparency of nuclear arms reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percival, C.M.; Ingle, T.H.; Bieniawski, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    During the January 1994 Summit Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin agreed on the goal of ensuring the ''transparency and irreversibility'' of the nuclear arms reduction process. As a result, negotiations are presently underway between the United States Government and the Russian Federation to confirm the stockpiles of plutonium and highly enriched uranium removed from nuclear weapons. In December 1994 the United States presented a paper to the Russian Federation proposing additional measures to provide broader transparency of nuclear arms reduction. The US Department of Energy is studying the implementation of these broader transparency measures at appropriate DOE facilities. The results of the studies include draft protocols for implementation, assessments of the implementation procedures and the impacts on the facilities and estimates of the cost to implement these measures at various facilities

  11. Computer Language Choices in Arms Control and Nonproliferation Regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, G K

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. and Russian Federation continue to make substantive progress in the arms control and nonproliferation transparency regimes. We are moving toward an implementation choice for creating radiation measurement systems that are transparent in both their design and in their implementation. In particular, the choice of a programming language to write software for such regimes can decrease or significantly increase the costs of authentication. In this paper, we compare procedural languages with object-oriented languages. In particular, we examine the C and C++ languages; we compare language features, code generation, implementation details, and executable size and demonstrate how these attributes aid or hinder authentication and backdoor threats. We show that programs in lower level, procedural languages are more easily authenticated than are object-oriented ones. Potential tools and methods for authentication are covered. Possible mitigations are suggested for using object-oriented programming languages

  12. Renovating U.S. Strategic Arms Control Policy. Strategic Forum, Number 178, February 2001

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sokolsky, Richard

    2001-01-01

    ...) negotiations concluded in the early 1990s. The Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact are defunct. America and Russia are no longer enemies and the nuclear arms race between the two countries, for all intents and purposes...

  13. Research on applications of ARM-LINUX embedded systems in manufacturing the nuclear equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Van Sy; Phan Luong Tuan; Nguyen Xuan Vinh; Dang Quang Bao

    2016-01-01

    A new microprocessor system that is ARM processor with open source Linux operating system is studied with the objective to apply ARM-Linux embedded systems in manufacturing the nuclear equipment. We use the development board of the company to learn and to build the workflow for an embedded system, then basing on the knowledge we design a motherboard embedded systems interface with the peripherals is buttons, LEDs through GPIO interface and connected with GM counting system via RS232 interface. The results of this study are: i) The procedures for working with embedded systems: process customization, installation embedded operating system and installation process, configure the development tools on the host computer; ii) ARM-Linux motherboard embedded systems interface with the peripherals and GM counting system, indicating the counts from GM counting system on the touch screen. (author)

  14. Intelligent Home Control System Based on ARM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G. X.; Jiang, J.; Zhong, L. H.

    2017-10-01

    Intelligent home is becoming the hot spot of social attention in the 21st century. When it is in China, it is a really new industry. However, there is no doubt that Intelligent home will become a new economic growth point of social development; it will change the life-style of human being. To develop the intelligent home, we should keep up with the development trend of technology. This is the reason why I talk about the intelligent home control system here. In this paper, intelligent home control system is designed for alarm and remote control on gas- leaking, fire disaster, earthquake prediction, etc., by examining environmental changes around house. When the Intelligent home control system has detected an accident occurs, the processor will communicate with the GSM module, informing the house keeper the occurrence of accident. User can receive and send the message to the system to cut the power by mobile phone. The system can get access to DCCthrough ARM10 JTAG interface, using DCC to send and receive messages. At the same time, the debugger on the host is mainly used to receive the user’s command and send it to the debug component in the target system. The data that returned from the target system is received and displayed to the user in a certain format.

  15. Compactable control element assembly for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupen, C.F.G.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of a compactable control element assembly for a nuclear reactor in which the absorber pins of the assembly are compacted during downward movement of the pin and are returned to their uncompacted state when downward movement is stopped. The control element assembly comprises a support member longitudinally movable within a control assembly duct and a plurality of absorber pins supported laterally outward of the support member and within the duct by pairs of support arms. The absorber pins are pivotably mounted to the support arms and the support arms in turn are supported from the support member for upward pivotable movement in a longitudinal plane. As the support member is moved downward, the support arms pivot upwardly and the absorber pins move upwardly and inwardly towards the support member. When the support member is stopped the absorber pins return to their uncompacted position

  16. Nuclear image display controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    In a nuclear imaging system the digitized x and y coordinates of gamma ray photon emission events address memory locations corresponding to the coordinates. The respective locations are incremented each time they are addressed so at the end of a selected time or event count period the locations contain digital values or raw data corresponding to the intensity of pixels comprising an image frame. The raw data for a frame is coupled to one input of an arithmetic logic unit (ALU) whose output is coupled to a display controller memory. The output of the controller memory is coupled to another ALU input with a feedback bus and is also coupled to a further signal processing circuit which includes means for converting processed data to analog video signals for television display. The ALU is selectively controlled to let raw image data pass through to the display controllor memory or alternately to add (or subtract) raw data for the last image frame developed to the raw data for preceding frames held in the display controller to thereby produce the visual effect on the television screen of an isotope flowing through anatomy

  17. Protection of civilian nuclear installations in time of armed conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamm, V.

    2003-01-01

    The inclusion of article 56 in Protocol 1 of the Geneva convention of 12 August 1949 represents a significant achievement in the development of international humanitarian law. Article 56 of protocol 1 reads as follow: firstly, works or installations containing dangerous forces, namely dams, dykes and nuclear electrical generating stations, shall not not be made the object of attack, even where these objects are military objectives, if such attack may cause the release of dangerous forces and consequent severe losses among the civilian population. Other military objectives located at or in the vicinity of these works or installations shall not be made the object of attack if such attack may cause the release of dangerous forces from the works or installations and consequent severe losses among the civilian population. Secondly, the special protection against attack provided by paragraph 1 shall cease: for a dam or a dyke only if it is used for other than its normal function and in regular, significant and direct support of military operations and if such attack is the only feasible way to terminate such support; for a nuclear electrical generating station only if it provides electric power in regular, significant and direct support of military operations and if such attack is the only feasible way to terminate such support;for other military objectives located at or in the vicinity of these works or installations only if they are used in regular, significant and direct support of military operations and if such attack is the only feasible way to terminate such support. Thirdly, in all cases, the civilian population and individual civilians shall remain entitled to all the protection accorded them by international law, including the protection of the precautionary measures provided for in article 57. If the protection ceases and any of the works, installations or military objectives mentioned in paragraph 1 is attacked, all practical precautions shall be taken to

  18. Kinematic equations for resolved-rate control of an industrial robot arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, L. K.

    1983-01-01

    An operator can use kinematic, resolved-rate equations to dynamically control a robot arm by watching its response to commanded inputs. Known resolved-rate equations for the control of a particular six-degree-of-freedom industrial robot arm and proceeds to simplify the equations for faster computations are derived. Methods for controlling the robot arm in regions which normally cause mathematical singularities in the resolved-rate equations are discussed.

  19. Measures for regional security and arms control in the South-East Asian area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uren, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of regional security and arms control in the South-East Asia raises some new and difficult issues. No approach to ensuring regional security could be complete without military dimension including the following categories: regional arms control; global arms control measure; confidence building measures that are designed to enhance the transparency of defense policies; confidence building measures that encourage cooperation among the military forces in the region

  20. Nuclear reactivity control configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, B.E.; DeMars, R.V.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a neutron flux control component assembly for use in a nuclear reactor. It comprises: at least three V-shaped close fitting carrier sheets nested together to provide a Y-shaped cross section and which are movable relative to each other along their longitudinal axis; at least three substantially identical neutron poison segments, one of each of the carrier sheets, movable between overlapped and exposed positions in response to movement of the carrier sheets; and each of the poison segments having a width grater than three times the effective thickness of the assembly of overlapping poison segments and capable of absorbing at least eighty percent of the neutrons that strike its surface

  1. Nuclear controls are stringent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnekus, D.

    1983-01-01

    The peace-time application of nuclear power in South Africa, the organisations concerned and certain provisions laid down by the Act on Nuclear Energy, aimed at safeguarding the general public, are discussed

  2. Analyst Tools and Quality Control Software for the ARM Data System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, S.T.

    2004-12-14

    ATK Mission Research develops analyst tools and automated quality control software in order to assist the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Quality Office with their data inspection tasks. We have developed a web-based data analysis and visualization tool, called NCVweb, that allows for easy viewing of ARM NetCDF files. NCVweb, along with our library of sharable Interactive Data Language procedures and functions, allows even novice ARM researchers to be productive with ARM data with only minimal effort. We also contribute to the ARM Data Quality Office by analyzing ARM data streams, developing new quality control metrics, new diagnostic plots, and integrating this information into DQ HandS - the Data Quality Health and Status web-based explorer. We have developed several ways to detect outliers in ARM data streams and have written software to run in an automated fashion to flag these outliers.

  3. Report on the INMM Workshop on preparing for nuclear arms reductions to address technical transparency and verification challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, M.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Lewis, P.

    2013-01-01

    In May 2011, a workshop was held to develop broader awareness of the technical and operational challenges that could be used to enhance effective transparency and/or verification in the medium to long-term. Building confidence in a broader multi-lateral engagement scenario adds even greater challenges than the traditional bi-lateral approaches. The multi-disciplinary group that attended included decision-makers needing to understand present and possible future technical capabilities, and the technical community needing clearer definition of possible requirements and operational constraints. In additional to traditional presentations, the group conducted an exercise to stimulate new perspectives on verification requirements for a scenario based on nuclear arms reductions at very low numbers of nuclear weapons. The workshop participants were divided into two groups and asked to explore the political and technical requirements needed for States to move towards significant arms reductions. Using a technique called 'back-casting' participants were asked to imagine a world without nuclear weapons and describe what would be needed to achieve levels of one thousand, one hundred, ten, and ultimately zero weapons in the world. Most participants agreed that a strong political commitment will be necessary and that complete disarmament will only be possible if states are convinced that nuclear weapons serve no purpose. Both groups believed that a time period of greater instability would be encountered when moving from 1000 to 100 nuclear weapons and that it would be imperative to accelerate quickly through this period. The group discussed the need to have an international body monitor the disarmament process to maintain legitimacy for the international community. One possibility could be the development of an intergovernmental panel on verification and disarmament to monitor and facilitate disarmament. The groups recognized the problem of fissile material disposition after

  4. Controlling Flexible Robot Arms Using High Speed Dynamics Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Abhinandan (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A robot manipulator controller for a flexible manipulator arm having plural bodies connected at respective movable hinges and flexible in plural deformation modes corresponding to respective modal spatial influence vectors relating deformations of plural spaced nodes of respective bodies to the plural deformation modes, operates by computing articulated body quantities for each of the bodies from respective modal spatial influence vectors, obtaining specified body forces for each of the bodies, and computing modal deformation accelerations of the nodes and hinge accelerations of the hinges from the specified body forces, from the articulated body quantities and from the modal spatial influence vectors. In one embodiment of the invention, the controller further operates by comparing the accelerations thus computed to desired manipulator motion to determine a motion discrepancy, and correcting the specified body forces so as to reduce the motion discrepancy. The manipulator bodies and hinges are characterized by respective vectors of deformation and hinge configuration variables, and computing modal deformation accelerations and hinge accelerations is carried out for each one of the bodies beginning with the outermost body by computing a residual body force from a residual body force of a previous body and from the vector of deformation and hinge configuration variables, computing a resultant hinge acceleration from the body force, the residual body force and the articulated hinge inertia, and revising the residual body force modal body acceleration.

  5. Controlling flexible robot arms using a high speed dynamics process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Abhinandan (Inventor); Rodriguez, Guillermo (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Described here is a robot controller for a flexible manipulator arm having plural bodies connected at respective movable hinges, and flexible in plural deformation modes. It is operated by computing articulated body qualities for each of the bodies from the respective modal spatial influence vectors, obtaining specified body forces for each of the bodies, and computing modal deformation accelerations of the nodes and hinge accelerations of the hinges from the specified body forces, from the articulated body quantities and from the modal spatial influence vectors. In one embodiment of the invention, the controller further operates by comparing the accelerations thus computed to desired manipulator motion to determine a motion discrepancy, and correcting the specified body forces so as to reduce the motion discrepancy. The manipulator bodies and hinges are characterized by respective vectors of deformation and hinge configuration variables. Computing modal deformation accelerations and hinge accelerations is carried out for each of the bodies, beginning with the outermost body by computing a residual body force from a residual body force of a previous body, computing a resultant hinge acceleration from the body force, and then, for each one of the bodies beginning with the innermost body, computing a modal body acceleration from a modal body acceleration of a previous body, computing a modal deformation acceleration and hinge acceleration from the resulting hinge acceleration and from the modal body acceleration.

  6. Nuclear safeguards control in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boedege, R.; Braatz, U.; Heger, H.

    1976-01-01

    The execution of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) has initiated a third phase in the efforts taken to ensure peace by limiting the number of atomic powers. In this phase it is important, above all, to turn into workable systems the conditions imposed upon technology by the different provisions of the Verification Agreement of the NPT. This is achieved mainly by elaborating annexes to the Agreement specifically geared to certain model plants, typical representatives selected for LWR power stations being the plants at Garigliano, Italy (BWR), and Stade, Federal Republic of Germany (PWR). The surveillance measures taken to prevent any diversion of special nuclear material for purposes of nuclear weapons manufacture must be effective in achieving their specific objective and must not impede the circumspect management of operations of the plants concerned. A VDEW working party has studied the technical details of the planned surveillance measures in nuclear power stations in the Federal Republic of Germany and now presents a concept of material balancing by units which meets the conditions imposed by the inspection authority and could also be accepted by the operators of nuclear power stations. The concept provides for uninterrupted control of the material balance areas of the nuclear power stations concerned, allows continuous control of the whole nuclear fuel cycle, is based exclusively on existing methods and facilities, and can be implemented at low cost. (orig.) [de

  7. The Challenge for Arms Control Verification in the Post-New START World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuest, C R

    2012-05-24

    Nuclear weapon arms control treaty verification is a key aspect of any agreement between signatories to establish that the terms and conditions spelled out in the treaty are being met. Historically, arms control negotiations have focused more on the rules and protocols for reducing the numbers of warheads and delivery systems - sometimes resorting to complex and arcane procedures for counting forces - in an attempt to address perceived or real imbalances in a nation's strategic posture that could lead to instability. Verification procedures are generally defined in arms control treaties and supporting documents and tend to focus on technical means and measures designed to ensure that a country is following the terms of the treaty and that it is not liable to engage in deception or outright cheating in an attempt to circumvent the spirit and the letter of the agreement. As the Obama Administration implements the articles, terms, and conditions of the recently ratified and entered-into-force New START treaty, there are already efforts within and outside of government to move well below the specified New START levels of 1550 warheads, 700 deployed strategic delivery vehicles, and 800 deployed and nondeployed strategic launchers (Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) silos, Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missile (SLBM) tubes on submarines, and bombers). A number of articles and opinion pieces have appeared that advocate for significantly deeper cuts in the U.S. nuclear stockpile, with some suggesting that unilateral reductions on the part of the U.S. would help coax Russia and others to follow our lead. Papers and studies prepared for the U.S. Department of Defense and at the U.S. Air War College have also been published, suggesting that nuclear forces totaling no more than about 300 warheads would be sufficient to meet U.S. national security and deterrence needs. (Davis 2011, Schaub and Forsyth 2010) Recent articles by James M. Acton and others suggest that

  8. Global nuclear material control model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, J.S.; Rutherford, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    The nuclear danger can be reduced by a system for global management, protection, control, and accounting as part of a disposition program for special nuclear materials. The development of an international fissile material management and control regime requires conceptual research supported by an analytical and modeling tool that treats the nuclear fuel cycle as a complete system. Such a tool must represent the fundamental data, information, and capabilities of the fuel cycle including an assessment of the global distribution of military and civilian fissile material inventories, a representation of the proliferation pertinent physical processes, and a framework supportive of national or international perspective. They have developed a prototype global nuclear material management and control systems analysis capability, the Global Nuclear Material Control (GNMC) model. The GNMC model establishes the framework for evaluating the global production, disposition, and safeguards and security requirements for fissile nuclear material

  9. A nuclear-armed Iran: a difficult but not impossible policy problem - Lecture note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitt, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    This lecture note makes an analysis of a report by Barry R. Posen from The Century Foundation (TCF) and entitled: 'A nuclear-armed Iran: a difficult but not impossible policy problem' (28 Dec 2006). In this report, the author believes that diplomacy would be the ideal outcome in handling the nuclear bomb situation in Iran, but containment and deterrence will be effective if diplomacy fails. He challenges the common fears that arise from Iran's potential possession of a bomb: The fear that Iran would use nuclear threats against nonnuclear neighbors; The fear that Iran would use nuclear weapons to annihilate the state of Israel. To ensure effective deterrence, the United States would need to pursue a strategy of coexistence with a nuclear Iran. In order to do so, the US would have to renew its commitment to the security of the Middle East; US involvement would be required to prevent regional proliferation and to ensure the protection of Iran's neighbors. The present Lecture note analyzes and discusses the 4 threats of a nuclear Iran that need to be dissuaded: a risky and more violent foreign policy; the blackmailing of some neighbor countries; the supply of nuclear weapons to non-state actors; and nuclear strikes against Israel despite inevitable retaliatory measures

  10. Entering the New Millennium: Dilemmas in Arms Control; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BROWN, JAMES

    1999-01-01

    The end of the Cold War finds the international community no longer divided into two opposing blocks. The concerns that the community now faces are becoming more fluid, less focused, and, in many ways, much less predictable. Issues of religion, ethnicity, and nationalism; the possible proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction; and the diffusion of technology and information processing throughout the world community have greatly changed the international security landscape in the last decade. Although our challenges appear formidable, the United Nations, State Parties, nongovernmental organizations, and the arms control community are moving to address and lessen these concerns through both formal and informal efforts. Many of the multilateral agreements (e.g., NPT, BWC, CWC, CTBT, MTCR), as well as the bilateral efforts that are taking place between Washington and Moscow employ confidence-building and transparency measures. These measures along with on-site inspection and other verification procedures lessen suspicion and distrust and reduce uncertainty, thus enhancing stability, confidence, and cooperation

  11. Entering the New Millennium: Dilemmas in Arms Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROWN,JAMES

    1999-11-01

    The end of the Cold War finds the international community no longer divided into two opposing blocks. The concerns that the community now faces are becoming more fluid, less focused, and, in many ways, much less predictable. Issues of religion, ethnicity, and nationalism; the possible proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction; and the diffusion of technology and information processing throughout the world community have greatly changed the international security landscape in the last decade. Although our challenges appear formidable, the United Nations, State Parties, nongovernmental organizations, and the arms control community are moving to address and lessen these concerns through both formal and informal efforts. Many of the multilateral agreements (e.g., NPT, BWC, CWC, CTBT, MTCR), as well as the bilateral efforts that are taking place between Washington and Moscow employ confidence-building and transparency measures. These measures along with on-site inspection and other verification procedures lessen suspicion and distrust and reduce uncertainty, thus enhancing stability, confidence, and cooperation.

  12. Technical supports for nuclear control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Jong Sung; Kwak, Eun Hoh; Noh, Sung Kee; Soh, Dong Sub; Yoon, Wan Kee; Shin, Jang Soo; Paek, Dae Hyun; Park, Wan Soo; Kim, Hyun Tae; Park, Chan Sik; Cha, Hong Yul; Choi, Yoon Dong; Park, Jin Hoh; Lee, Eui Jin; An, Jin Soo; Kim, Jong Heui [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    The project was carried out to support the establishment of the system of accountancy and control of nuclear materials in Korea. The training of inspectors and seminar were held to improve inspection capability of the nuclear inspectors. The information about the north Korean nuclear activities were successfully analyzed. In the drafts of nuclear energy law the national inspection and the regulation of physical protection were newly introduced for the purpose to clarify the openness of nuclear activities in Korea. 1 fig, 20 tabs, 19 refs. (Author).

  13. Analysis of hypothetical loss-of-control-arm accidents in HIFAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, J.W.; Clark, N.

    1986-11-01

    The reactor power transient produced in the HIFAR materials testing reactor upon severance of a central coarse control arm connecting rod and the subsequent pivoting of the arm out of the core has been calculated for a range of reactor conditions likely to be encountered in normal operation. It is concluded that as long as the remaining arms of the control arm bank can be relied on to suppress the post power peak oscillations in power, the reactor will withstand the consequences of such an accident

  14. Co-Simulation Control of Robot Arm Dynamics in ADAMS and MATLAB

    OpenAIRE

    Luo Haitao; Liu Yuwang; Chen Zhengcang; Leng Yuquan

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study is how to quickly establish the virtual prototyping model of robot arm system and effectively solve trajectory tracking control for a given signal. Taking the 2-DOF robot arm as an example, a co-simulation control method is introduced to research multi-body dynamics. Using Newton-Euler and Lagrange method, respectively establish the dynamics model of robot arm and verify the correctness of equations. Firstly, the physical model of robot arm was built by PROE a...

  15. Symbolic representations of weapons and preparations for conflict: The nuclear arms race

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassin, E.L.

    1991-01-01

    This study investigates the process through which actors acquire weapons in preparation for a confrontation with some rival. A theory is developed to account for those preparations rooted in two social psychological perspectives; social exchange theory and symbolic interactionism. The empirical aspect of the study deals with the nuclear arms race between the US and Soviet Union. The first portion involves a qualitative analysis to uncover the meaning system. The second portion involves a quantitative test of the theory. Data cover all 53 long range strategic missile systems ever deployed by the US or USSR. Results lend support for the idea of a meaning-based theory of preparation for conflict. By operationalizing weapons as actors perceive the objects in their environment, the results of this study provide a higher level of fit than found in earlier arms race research.

  16. Symbolic representations of weapons and preparations for conflict: The nuclear arms race

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassin, E.L.

    1991-01-01

    This study investigates the process through which actors acquire weapons in preparation for a confrontation with some rival. A theory is developed to account for those preparations rooted in two social psychological perspectives; social exchange theory and symbolic interactionism. The empirical aspect of the study deals with the nuclear arms race between the US and Soviet Union. The first portion involves a qualitative analysis to uncover the meaning system. The second portion involves a quantitative test of the theory. Data cover all 53 long range strategic missile systems ever deployed by the US or USSR. Results lend support for the idea of a meaning-based theory of preparation for conflict. By operationalizing weapons as actors perceive the objects in their environment, the results of this study provide a higher level of fit than found in earlier arms race research

  17. Control for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ash, E.B.; Bernath, L.; Facha, J.V.

    1980-01-01

    A nuclear reactor is provided with several hydraulically-supported spherical bodies having a high neutron absorption cross section, which fall by gravity into the core region of the reactor when the flow of supporting fluid is shut off. (auth)

  18. Developing and modeling of voice control system for prosthetic robot arm in medical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koksal Gundogdu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In parallel with the development of technology, various control methods are also developed. Voice control system is one of these control methods. In this study, an effective modelling upon mathematical models used in the literature is performed, and a voice control system is developed in order to control prosthetic robot arms. The developed control system has been applied on four-jointed RRRR robot arm. Implementation tests were performed on the designed system. As a result of the tests; it has been observed that the technique utilized in our system achieves about 11% more efficient voice recognition than currently used techniques in the literature. With the improved mathematical modelling, it has been shown that voice commands could be effectively used for controlling the prosthetic robot arm. Keywords: Voice recognition model, Voice control, Prosthetic robot arm, Robotic control, Forward kinematic

  19. Nuclear export controls and nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevini, F.

    2013-01-01

    The export control of dual use goods has developed since the early seventies to counter nuclear proliferation. The paper provides an overview of dual-use export control issues also in relation with the Additional Protocol to the Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement, which requires States to provide declarations of the export of the controlled items listed in its Annex II, derived from the Nuclear Suppliers Group Trigger list. Recommendations for improvement are proposed. On the EU level, the paper summarises the framework set by the European Council Regulation 428/2009, requiring Member States to impose control on exports, brokering and transit of dual use goods. The Regulation includes the so-called 'EU dual-use control list' integrating the lists of dual-use items defined by the international regimes and requires also the control on intangible technology transfers as foreseen by U.N. Security Council Resolution 1540. ESARDA has recently launched a new sub-Working Group on export control, which raised large interest and may evolve to a full-fledged working group. Export control may provide an opportunity of technical collaboration between ESARDA and INMM. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (author)

  20. JPRS Report, Arms Control, Protocol to the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Limitation of Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1990-01-01

    ... and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Limitation of Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests of July 3, 1974, hereinafter referred to as the Treaty, convinced of the necessity to ensure effective...

  1. Dynamic model of the octopus arm. II. Control of reaching movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yekutieli, Yoram; Sagiv-Zohar, Roni; Hochner, Binyamin; Flash, Tamar

    2005-08-01

    The dynamic model of the octopus arm described in the first paper of this 2-part series was used here to investigate the neural strategies used for controlling the reaching movements of the octopus arm. These are stereotypical extension movements used to reach toward an object. In the dynamic model, sending a simple propagating neural activation signal to contract all muscles along the arm produced an arm extension with kinematic properties similar to those of natural movements. Control of only 2 parameters fully specified the extension movement: the amplitude of the activation signal (leading to the generation of muscle force) and the activation traveling time (the time the activation wave takes to travel along the arm). We found that the same kinematics could be achieved by applying activation signals with different activation amplitudes all exceeding some minimal level. This suggests that the octopus arm could use minimal amplitudes of activation to generate the minimal muscle forces required for the production of the desired kinematics. Larger-amplitude signals would generate larger forces that increase the arm's stability against perturbations without changing the kinematic characteristics. The robustness of this phenomenon was demonstrated by examining activation signals with either a constant or a bell-shaped velocity profile. Our modeling suggests that the octopus arm biomechanics may allow independent control of kinematics and resistance to perturbation during arm extension movements.

  2. Applying Space Technology to Enhance Control of an Artificial Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Diane; Donovan, William H.; Novy, Mara; Abramczyk, Robert

    1997-01-01

    numerical coefficients or weights. Although the function development may require much computational time and many training cases, the resulting discrimination functions can run in realtime on modest computers. These results suggest that myoelectric signals might be a feasible teleoperation medium, allowing an operator to use his or her own hand and arm as a master to intuitively control an anthropomorphic robot in a remote location such as outer space.

  3. Trends and challenges in global arms control regimes: Implications for the Mediterranean, North Africa, and the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1994-06-01

    In another sense, however, the nuclear age and ballistic missiles long ago created a much smaller world in which the distinctions between global and regional security have been lessened. In an age of weapons of mass destruction, any point on the earth can find itself suddenly at the center of world attention. This makes it all the more important that we understand all of the arms control tools available, including global approaches. In discussing global arms control regimes, I will focus primarily on those that are open to universal membership such as the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) or which have global reach, such as certain export control and supplier regimes. It is important to remember, however, that certain regional, bilateral, and even unilateral arms control measures can have a global impact as well. One need only witness the impact of the Treaty on Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE). Despite its mere {open_quotes}Atlantic to the Urals{close_quotes} focus, the CFE treaty helped change the political and strategic calculations of the entire world. Likewise, the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), with its headquarters in Vienna, is centered on Europe but spreads from Vancouver to Vladivostok (or perhaps we should say from Amchitka to Kamchatka), circumnavigating much of the northern hemisphere when measured the long way around via North America. The political significance of its successes and failures outdistance CSCE`s geographical spread.

  4. Manual input device for controlling a robot arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, P.J.; Siva, K.V.

    1990-01-01

    A six-axis input device, eg joystick, is supported by a mechanism which enables the joystick to be aligned with any desired orientation, eg parallel to the tool. The mechanism can then be locked to provide a rigid support of the joystick. The mechanism may include three pivotal joints whose axes are perpendicular, each incorporating a clutch. The clutches may be electromagnetic or mechanical and may be operable jointly or independently. The robot arm comprises a base rotatable about a vertical axis, an upper arm, a forearm and a tool or grip rotatable about three perpendicular axes relative to the forearm. (author)

  5. Waging modern war: An analysis of the moral literature on the nuclear arms debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer-Fernandez, G.F.

    1992-01-01

    The primary aim was to examine the dominant views on the subject of deterrence and the use of nuclear weapons, to compare them with each other, and to consider objections that have or might be made against them. A second, more controversial and substantive, aim was to show that nuclear weapons and war-fighting plans engender some disturbing moral dilemmas that call into question fundamental ways of thinking about morality and some of the common intuitions on the relation of intentions and actions. The author examines the moral literature, both religious and secular, on nuclear arms policy written between the early 1960s and the late 1980s. Three different schools of thought, or 'parties,' are identified. To establish the differences among these parties, the author shows the various ways in which judgments on the use of nuclear weapons and on deterrence are linked either by a prohibitive moral principle which draws a moral equivalence going from action to intention or by a factual assumption about the nature of nuclear weapons. He concludes with the suggestion that the dilemmas that arise in the moral evaluation of nuclear deterrence represent a profound and much wider problem in moral theory between the ideals of character and the moral claims of politics

  6. Nuclear material control in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velilla, A.

    1988-01-01

    A general view about the safeguards activities in Spain is presented. The national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials is described. The safeguards agreements signed by Spain are presented and the facilities and nuclear materials under these agreements are listed. (E.G.) [pt

  7. Nuclear material control in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzo, M.A.S.; Iskin, M.C.L.; Palhares, L.C.; Almeida, S.G. de.

    1988-01-01

    A general view about the safeguards activities in Brazil is presented. The national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials is described. The safeguards agreements signed by Brazil are presented, the facilities and nuclear material under these agreements are listed, and the dificulties on the pratical implementation are discussed. (E.G.) [pt

  8. Disarmament through regional dialogue: United States arms control and disarmament policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holum, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Less than fifty years ago, Japan and the United States faced one another in history's deadliest conflict. Since that world war, the competition has been limited to a mature-if spirited-contest for customers. The two countries have become firm friends for peace-and leaders in the international community's campaign against weapons of mass destruction. This friendship is too important to be shaken by momentary upsets. The countries that learned the most from the last great war are today among the most resolutely peaceful in the world. To my mind, it is no coincidence that Japan and Germany, two nations which transformed defeat in that war into remarkable economic success following it-which have sought prosperity and harmony with their neighbours instead of dominion over them-are the two nations the United States would like to see added as permanent members to the United Nations Security Council. There is hope that, some day, countries may be judged not by the arms but the commitments they keep-and the values they uphold. All responsible nations must affirm that nuclear non-proliferation is an enduring value, not a passing policy. United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency underlines that its highest priority in the coming year is indefinite and unconditional extension of the Non-proliferation Treaty

  9. Double-arm time-of-flight mass-spectrometer of nuclear fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajvazian, G.M.; Astabatyan, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    A double-arm time-of-flight spectrometer of nuclear fragments for the investigation of heavy nuclei photofission in the intermediate energy range is described. The calibration results and working characteristics of the spectrometer, obtained using 252 Cf as a source of spontaneous fission, are presented. A mass resolution of σ m ∼2-3 a.m.u. was obtained within the registered fragments mass range of 80-160 a.m.u. The spectrometer was tested in the experiment on the investigation of 238 U nuclei fission by Bremsstahlung photons with Eγ max=1.75 GeV

  10. Controlled Nuclear Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasstone, Samuel

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by The United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Importance of Fusion Energy; Conditions for Nuclear Fusion; Thermonuclear Reactions in Plasmas; Plasma Confinement by Magnetic Fields; Experiments With Plasmas; High-Temperature…

  11. Cooperative Mmonitoring Center Occasional Paper/5: Propspects of Conventional Arms Control in South Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Amit; Kamal, Nazir

    1998-11-01

    The intensely adversarial relationship between India and Pakistan is marked by military rivalry, mutual distrust, and suspicion. The most dividing disagreement has been over the Kashmir region. An inability to discuss the Kashmir issue has prevented discussion on other important issues. Since there is little prospect of detente, at least in the near-term, the question is whether this rivalry can be contained by other means, such as arms control approaches. Conventional arms control has been applied flexibly and successfully in some regions to reduce threat-perceptions and achieve reassuring military stability. Some lessons from other international models might be applied to the India/Pakistan context. This paper discusses the status of conventional arms control in South Asia, the dominant Indian and Pakistani perceptions about arms control, the benefits that could be derived from arms control, as well as the problems and prospects of arms control. It also discusses existing conventional arms control agreements at the regional and global levels as well as the potential role of cooperative monitoring technology.

  12. Department of Defense Authorization for appropriations for fiscal years 1988 and 1989. Hearings before the Committee on Armed Services, United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session on S. 1174, Part 4, Strategic Forces and Nuclear Deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Government, academic and military officials provided statements and documents in regard to S. 1174 authorizing appropriations for military activities of the Department of Defense and Department of Energy for defense activities. Strategic Forces and Nuclear deterrence categories include the following major topics: (1) Nuclear Testing Limitations, (2) Strategic Warning Capabilities and ICMB modernization, (3) Strategic Policy and Arms Control, and (4) Strategic Defense Initiatives

  13. International control of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koponen, Hannu

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear materials are subject to both national and international safeguards control. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) takes care of the international safeguards control. The control activities, which are discussed in this article, are carried out according to the agreements between various countries and the IAEA

  14. Approaches to regional security and arms control in North-East Asia: Tasks ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Seo-Hang

    1992-01-01

    In order to pave the way towards regional security and arms control in North-East Asia, one of the outstanding issues left over from the cold war, that is, the question of a divided Korea-must be solved first. In settling the Korean problem, the importance of the bilateral negotiation between the parties in direct conflict can never be overemphasized. Over the past few years, fortunately, there has been an accumulation of developments that would have a positive effect on the improvement of inter-Korean relations and peaceful unification of the peninsula. In this sense, the first challenge for the two Koreas is to fulfil the pledges that they committed in the agreements. Concluding agreements is only a first step. They must be implemented fully both in letter and in spirit. Only upon the sincere and complete translation of the agreements into action can the two Koreas establish a solid peace system and move towards unification. This fulfilment will eventually contribute to security and stability in North-East Asia. To emphasize the importance of bilateral negotiation between the two Koreas is not necessarily to exclude the role of external Powers. The four major Powers in North-East Asia-China, Japan, Russia and the United States - could support the South-North dialogue, help ease tensions, facilitate discussion of common security concerns and possibly guarantee the outcomes negotiated between the two Koreas. By fostering bilateral negotiation between the parties to the conflict, they could contribute to enhancing security, confidence and disarmament in the region. At this moment, the most urgent task in the Korean peninsula relates to the problem of Pyongyang's nuclear weapons programme. To solve the nuclear problem, a significant progress on mutual reciprocal inspections must be made immediately in accordance with the wordings of the Declaration. Mutual inspection will test whether Pyongyang intends to go towards nuclear weapons, or away from them and towards

  15. Arms Control and Disarmament, Volume 8, Number 2, Spring 1972. A Quarterly Bibliography with Abstracts and Annotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contents: Preface; The international political environment; The strategic environment; Institutions and means for the maintenance of peace; Arms control--general discussion; Arms control--specific problems and measures; Author index ; Subject index.

  16. Optimal arm posture control and tendon traction forces of a coupled tendon-driven manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Shugen

    1997-01-01

    In this study, the optimum arm posture of a coupled tendon-driven multijoint manipulator arm (or CT Arm) at maximum payload output was derived and the corresponding tendon traction forces were also analyzed, during management of a heavy payload by the manipulator in a gravity environment. The CT Arm is special tendon traction transmission mechanism in which a pair of tendons used to drive a joint is pulled from base actuators via pulleys mounted on the base-side joints. This mechanism enables optimal utilization of the coupled drive function of tendon traction forces and thus enables the lightweight manipulator to exhibit large payload capability. The properties of the CT Arm mechanism are elucidated by the proposed optimal posture control scheme. Computer simulation was also executed to verify the validity of the proposed control scheme. (author)

  17. Star laws: legal controls on armed conflict in outer space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Dale

    2016-01-01

    An undeclared military space race is unfolding yet there is no clear understanding of how international las operates in the field of armed conflict in outer space. In conjunction with McGill University Law School, Montreal, Canada, a 'Manual on international law applicable to military uses of outer space' has been drafted. This article looks at types of space weapons, previous space treaties and discusses humanitarian law.

  18. Admittance Control of a Multi-Finger Arm Based on Manipulability of Fingers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Hori

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the previous studies, admittance control and impedance control for a finger‐arm robot using the manipulability of the finger were studied and methods of realizing the controls have been proposed. In this study, two 3‐DOF fingers are attached to the end‐effector of a 6‐DOF arm to configure a multi‐finger arm robot. Based on the previous methods, the authors have proposed an admittance control for a multi‐finger arm robot using the manipulability of the fingers in this study. Algorithms of the averaging method and the mini‐max method were introduced to establish a manipulability criterion of the two fingers in order to generate a cooperative movement of the arm. Comparison of the admittance controls combined with the top search method and local optimization method for the multi‐finger arm robot was made and features of the control methods were also discussed. The stiffness control and damping control were experimentally evaluated to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  19. Admittance Control of a Multi-Finger Arm Based on Manipulability of Fingers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Huang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the previous studies, admittance control and impedance control for a finger-arm robot using the manipulability of the finger were studied and methods of realizing the controls have been proposed. In this study, two 3-DOF fingers are attached to the end-effector of a 6-DOF arm to configure a multi-finger arm robot. Based on the previous methods, the authors have proposed an admittance control for a multi-finger arm robot using the manipulability of the fingers in this study. Algorithms of the averaging method and the mini-max method were introduced to establish a manipulability criterion of the two fingers in order to generate a cooperative movement of the arm. Comparison of the admittance controls combined with the top search method and local optimization method for the multi-finger arm robot was made and features of the control methods were also discussed. The stiffness control and damping control were experimentally evaluated to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  20. Depressed trajectory SLBMs: A technical evaluation and arms control possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronlund, L.; Wright, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    SLBMs (sea-launched ballistic missiles) flown on depressed trajectories would have short flight times, comparable to escape times of bombers and launch times of ICBMs, thus raising the possibility of short time-of-flight (STOF) nuclear attacks. We assess the depressed trajectory (DT) capability of existing SLBMs by calculating the flight times, atmospheric loading on the booster, reentry heating on the reentry vehicle (RV), and degradation of accuracy for a DT SLBM. We find that current US and CIS SLBMs flown on depressed trajectories would have the capability to attack bomber bases at ranges of up to about 2,000 kilometers, and possibly at ranges up to 3,000 kilometers. To target bombers based furthest inland, a new high-velocity booster might be required, and attacking hardened targets would require a maneuvering RV (MaRV). We conclude that DT capabilities could be effectively controlled by the combination of an apogee restriction on the flight testing of existing SLBMs and bans on the development of high-velocity boosters and MaRVs, and that, in view of their inherent STOF capabilities, deep cuts in the number of SLBMs or their elimination might be desirable for an optimal minimum-deterrent force structure

  1. Conventional arms control negotiations in Europe (CFE, March 1989-April 1990)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerstedde, L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that for those of us who labored in the salt mines of arms control talks on Mutual and Balanced Force Reductions (MBFR), it is truly an invigorating experience to have been reincarnated as conventional arms controllers at the Negotiations on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE), in session in Vienna since March 1989, against the background of the breathtaking and unprecedented changes sweeping across Eastern Europe. The negotiations have made remarkable progress, proceeding to a point where a treaty drastically cutting the level of conventional armaments in Europe is not just a possibility but actually in prospect

  2. Nuclear reactor control apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sridhar, B.N.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear reactor safety rod release apparatus comprises a ring which carries detents normally positioned in an annular recess in outer side of the rod, the ring being held against the lower end of a drive shaft by magnetic force exerted by a solenoid carried by the drive shaft. When the solenoid is de-energized, the detent-carrying ring drops until the detents contact a cam surface associated with the lower end of the drive shaft, at which point the detents are cammed out of the recess in the safety rod to release the rod from the drive shaft. In preferred embodiments of the invention, an additional latch is provided to release a lower portion of a safety rod under conditions that may interfere with movement of the entire rod

  3. Controller design for flexible, distributed parameter mechanical arms via combined state space and frequency domain techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book, W. J.; Majett, M.

    1982-01-01

    The potential benefits of the ability to control more flexible mechanical arms are discussed. A justification is made in terms of speed of movement. A new controller design procedure is then developed to provide this capability. It uses both a frequency domain representation and a state variable representation of the arm model. The frequency domain model is used to update the modal state variable model to insure decoupled states. The technique is applied to a simple example with encouraging results.

  4. The potential of laser cutting and snake arm robots in aspects of nuclear decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, Paul; Khan, Ali

    2013-01-01

    This paper will describe recent work conducted in the UK to highlight the potential of applying high power laser cutting to aspects of decommissioning and dismantling in the nuclear sector. A major driver for this activity is size reduction of metallic structures, vessels and tubing, with the objective of efficient stacking of the cut parts for future long term storage. TWI have used a standard 5 kW multi-mode laser with fibre optic delivery of the beam, to demonstrate techniques for cutting stainless steel tubing, at diameters up to 150 mm and wall thicknesses up to 7 mm, and various thicknesses of plate materials. Using specially developed cutting heads, employing long focal length lenses to form the beam, techniques were developed to allow the cutting of tubes from one side only and without changing the focal position of the laser beam with respect to the diameter of the tube perpendicular to the incident beam. The latter means that remote programming of the cutting path becomes much simpler. For cutting plate materials, special gas nozzle dynamics have produced great tolerance of the cutting process to stand-off distance (the distance between the surface of the material being cut and the exit of the cutting nozzle). One particularly interesting method of remote deployment of these cutting techniques is to use 'snake arm' robots. These robots, by nature of their construction, can access areas un-accessible using other techniques. This of course makes them particularly suited to aspects of nuclear decommissioning, particularly in what are termed 'un-structured environments', where the exact disposition of items encountered is not known. The paper will also describe the first time a laser cutting head has been installed on the end of a snake arm robot and the combination used in a simulated nuclear cutting application. (author)

  5. Beyond arms control? Looking for the lost paradigm..; Au-dela de l'arms control? A la recherche du paradigme perdu..

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahan, P

    2002-07-01

    Since the tragic events of September 11, 2001, the international relations have become more complex and the arms control concept, born during the cold war and implemented during the 3 last decades is today marking time. Disarmament and non-proliferation, which were the keystones of arms control and international negotiations, are today undergoing erosion. This article analyzes the change of situation between the end of the 20. century and the beginning of the 21. century. Three steps are defined by the author: a 'flux' step with the signature of a huge number of international agreements about non-proliferation and arms control, a stagnation step marked by the difficulties of implementing some of the existing treaties and by the violation by some states of some of them, and a 'reflux' step marked by a freezing up of the bilateral US-Russian disarmament process and a general renouncement of the multilateral arms control concept. (J.S.)

  6. Fuzzy Logic and PID control of a 3 DOF Robotic Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korhan Kayışlı

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The robotic arms are used in many industrial applications at the present time. At this point, high precision control is required for robotics used in fields such as healthcare area. Therefore, the control method applied to robots is also important. In this study, a force was applied to the end function of a three degree-of-freedom robot and the robustness of the controllers are tested. PID and Fuzzy Logic control method are used for this process. The control process of robotic arm which is designed and simulated is obtained by using Fuzzy Logic and classical PID controllers and the results are presented comparatively

  7. The nuclear industry: a new weapon for the Kremlin?; L'industrie nucleaire: nouvelle arme du Kremlin?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Castel, V.

    2010-07-01

    After having noticed the recent evolution of the Russian policy which tends to concentrate the economical and political power with a limited democratic pluralism, the author describes the re-structuring policy adopted for the energy sector, and notably the nuclear sector, in order to become a major international actor. First, she analyses the evolution of the hydrocarbon sector with a better management of tax incomes, and a stronger control of the industries of this sector based on a State capitalism development. She outlines that Russia now uses energy as a diplomatic arm, particularly in its relationship with the European Union. She states that Russia may want to follow the same kind of policy for nuclear energy as for the hydrocarbon sector by developing partnership with other countries, by regrouping the concerned activities within a single holding company (Atomenergoprom) and a federal agency (Rosatom). Russia increased its uranium production and became a powerful actor who challenges other international companies (Areva, Westinghouse, Toshiba). The author discusses the strategy defined by the Kremlin to reach supremacy in the nuclear sector

  8. Interface Based on Electrooculography for Velocity Control of a Robot Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Iáñez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a technique based on electrooculography to control a robot arm. This technique detects the movement of the eyes, measuring the difference of potential between the cornea and the retina by placing electrodes around the ocular area. The processing algorithm developed to obtain the position of the eye at the blink of the user is explained. The output of the processing algorithm offers, apart from the direction, four different values (zero to three to control the velocity of the robot arm according to how much the user is looking in one direction. This allows controlling two degrees of freedom of a robot arm with the eyes movement. The blink has been used to mark some targets in tests. In this paper, the experimental results obtained with a real robot arm are shown.

  9. New Soviet concepts in military doctrine, strategy, and arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, D.

    1989-01-01

    Gorbachev offered a new Soviet view of nuclear war, and national security. The core of the new thinking is as follows: human interests take precedence over the interests of any particular class; the world is becoming increasingly interdependent; there can be no victors in a nuclear war; security has to be based increasingly on political, rather than military, instruments; and security has to be mutual. This paper discusses what brought this new thinking about and how this thinking might impact policy decisions

  10. The control of nuclear sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Asn is loaded with the control of the nuclear safety and the radiation protection in France: it provides this control, in the name of the state, to protect the workers, the patients, the public and the environment of the risks in relation with nuclear activities. The control is the core business of Asn. Asn so checks the nuclear basic installations (I.N.B.), since their conception until their dismantling, the pressure equipment specially conceived for these installations, the management of the radioactive waste as well as the transport of radioactive substances. Asn also checks all the industrial and research installations as well as the hospitals where are used ionizing radiations. It is a more recent profession there, because dating the reform of the control of the nuclear power of 2002, which constitutes that of the radiation protection. The first responsibility of the activities at risks falls to the one who begins them. This principle applies to all the sectors checked by Asn: an industrialist is responsible for the safety of the nuclear installations which he exploits, a doctor is responsible for the use of the ionizing radiations which he uses. (N.C.)

  11. Association of hand and arm disinfection with asthma control in US nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Orianne; Varraso, Raphäelle; Boggs, Krislyn M; Descatha, Alexis; Henneberger, Paul K; Quinot, Catherine; Speizer, Frank E; Zock, Jan-Paul; Le Moual, Nicole; Camargo, Carlos A

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the association between occupational exposure to disinfectants/antiseptics used for hand hygiene and asthma control in nurses. In 2014, we invited female nurses with asthma drawn from the Nurses' Health Study II to complete two supplemental questionnaires on their occupation and asthma (cross-sectional study, response rate: 80%). Among 4055 nurses (mean age: 59 years) with physician-diagnosed asthma and asthma medication use in the past year, we examined asthma control, as defined by the Asthma Control Test (ACT). Nurses were asked about the daily frequency of hand hygiene tasks: 'wash/scrub hands with disinfectants/hand sanitizers' (hand hygiene) and 'wash/scrub arms with disinfecting products' (surrogate of surgical hand/arm antisepsis). Analyses were adjusted for age, race, ethnicity, smoking status and body mass index. Nurses with partly controlled asthma (ACT: 20-24, 50%) and poorly controlled asthma (ACT ≤19, 18%) were compared with nurses with controlled asthma (ACT=25, 32%). In separate models, both hand and arm hygiene were associated with poorly controlled asthma. After mutual adjustment, only arm hygiene was associated with poorly controlled asthma: OR (95% CI) for arm hygiene tasks (never to >10 times/day) and poor asthma control. Associations persisted after further adjustment for surfaces/instruments disinfection tasks. Frequency of hand/arm hygiene tasks in nurses was associated with poor asthma control. The results suggest an adverse effect of products used for surgical hand/arm antisepsis. This potential new occupational risk factor for asthma warrants further study. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Position Control Method For Pick And Place Robot Arm For Object Sorting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khin Moe Myint

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The more increase the number of industries in developing countries the more require labourers or workers in that. To reduce the cost of labour force and to increase the manufacturing capacity of industries the advanced robot arms are more needed. The aim of this journal is to eliminate the manual control for object sorting system.Robot arm design in this research uses two joints three links and servo motors to drive. Microcontroller is used to generate required PWM signal for servo motors. In this research the position control of robot arm was designed by using kinematic control methods. There are two types of kinematic control methods which are forward and reverse kinematic methods. In forward kinematic method the input parameters are the joint angles and link length of robot arm and then the output is the position at XYZ coordinate of tool or gripper. In inverse kinematic the input parameters are position at XYZ coordinate of gripper and the link length of robot arm and then the output parameters are the joint angles. So kinematic methods can explain the analytical description of the geometry motion of the manipulator with reference to a robot coordinate system fixed to a frame without consideration of the forces or the moments causing the movements. For sorting system Metal detector is used to detect the metal or non-metal. This position control of pick and place robot arm is fully tested and the result is obtained more precisely.

  13. Costs of disarmament - Rethinking the price tag: A methodological inquiry into the costs and benefits of arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willett, S.

    2002-06-01

    The growing number of arms control and disarmament treaties agreed on over the past decades as well as rising concerns about harmful environmental and public health effects of weapons disposal, have understandably led to an increase in the cost of implementing arms control agreements. As a result, the expenses associated with treaty compliance have emerged as a contentious issue within the realm of arms control and disarmament discussions. In particular, opponents of arms control and disarmament point to perceived rising costs of meeting current and proposed treaty obligations in an attempt to limit and undermine such activities. Yet determining just how much arms control and disarmament cost remains very much an ambiguous task. In Costs of Disarmament - Rethinking the Price Tag: A Methodological Inquiry into the Costs and Benefits of Arms Control, Susan Willett addresses the question of how the cost of arms control ought to be measured. Emphasizing the proper allocation of costs associated with arms control treaty implementation to the life cycle costs of weapon systems and their correct weighing against the benefits they procure in terms of averted arms races and increased international security, Willett argues for a revised methodology of costing arms control and disarmament that gives a more accurate - and significantly lower - estimate of the latter. Adopting such a revised methodology concludes the author, might dispel considerable misunderstanding and help point decisions over arms control and disarmament in the right direction

  14. A Vibration Control Method for the Flexible Arm Based on Energy Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushu Bian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A vibration control method based on energy migration is proposed to decrease vibration response of the flexible arm undergoing rigid motion. A type of vibration absorber is suggested and gives rise to the inertial coupling between the modes of the flexible arm and the absorber. By analyzing 1 : 2 internal resonance, it is proved that the internal resonance can be successfully created and the exchange of vibration energy is existent. Due to the inertial coupling, the damping enhancement effect is revealed. Via the inertial coupling, vibration energy of the flexible arm can be dissipated by not only the damping of the vibration absorber but also its own enhanced damping, thereby effectively decreasing vibration. Through numerical simulations and analyses, it is proven that this method is feasible in controlling nonlinear vibration of the flexible arm undergoing rigid motion.

  15. Nonproliferation, arms control and disarmament and extended deterrence in the new security environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, Joseph F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    With the end of the Cold War, in a dramatically changed security environment, the advances in nonnuclear strategic capabilities along with reduced numbers and roles for nuclear forces has altered the calculus of deterrence and defense, at least for the United States. For many, this opened up a realistic possibility of a nuclear-free world. It soon became clear that the initial post-Cold War hopes were exaggerated. The world did change fundamentally, but it did not become more secure and stable. In place of the old Soviet threat, there has been growing concern about proliferation and terrorism involving nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction (WMD), regional conflicts, global instability and increasingly serious new and emerging threats, including cyber attacks and attacks on satellites. For the United States at least, in this emerging environment, the political rationales for nuclear weapons, from deterrence to reassurance to alliance management, are changing and less central than during the Cold War to the security of the United States, its friends and allies. Nuclear weapons remain important for the US, but for a far more limited set of roles and missions. As the Perry-Schlesinger Commission report reveals, there is a domestic US consensus on nuclear policy and posture at the highest level and for the near term, including the continued role of nuclear arms in deterring WMD use and in reassuring allies. Although the value of nuclear weapons has declined for the United States, the value of these weapons for Russia, China and so-called 'rogue' states is seen to be rising. The nuclear logic of NATO during Cold War - the need for nuclear weapons to counter vastly superior conventional capabilities of the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact - is today heard from Russians and even some proliferants. Moreover, these weapons present a way for rogues to achieve regional hegemony and possibly to deter interventions by the United States or others. While the

  16. Nonproliferation, arms control and disarmament and extended deterrence in the new security environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilat, Joseph F.

    2009-01-01

    With the end of the Cold War, in a dramatically changed security environment, the advances in nonnuclear strategic capabilities along with reduced numbers and roles for nuclear forces has altered the calculus of deterrence and defense, at least for the United States. For many, this opened up a realistic possibility of a nuclear-free world. It soon became clear that the initial post-Cold War hopes were exaggerated. The world did change fundamentally, but it did not become more secure and stable. In place of the old Soviet threat, there has been growing concern about proliferation and terrorism involving nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction (WMD), regional conflicts, global instability and increasingly serious new and emerging threats, including cyber attacks and attacks on satellites. For the United States at least, in this emerging environment, the political rationales for nuclear weapons, from deterrence to reassurance to alliance management, are changing and less central than during the Cold War to the security of the United States, its friends and allies. Nuclear weapons remain important for the US, but for a far more limited set of roles and missions. As the Perry-Schlesinger Commission report reveals, there is a domestic US consensus on nuclear policy and posture at the highest level and for the near term, including the continued role of nuclear arms in deterring WMD use and in reassuring allies. Although the value of nuclear weapons has declined for the United States, the value of these weapons for Russia, China and so-called 'rogue' states is seen to be rising. The nuclear logic of NATO during Cold War - the need for nuclear weapons to counter vastly superior conventional capabilities of the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact - is today heard from Russians and even some proliferants. Moreover, these weapons present a way for rogues to achieve regional hegemony and possibly to deter interventions by the United States or others. While the vision of a

  17. Technique of nuclear reactors controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weill, J.

    1953-12-01

    This report deal about 'Techniques of control of the nuclear reactors' in the goal to achieve the control of natural uranium reactors and especially the one of Saclay. This work is mainly about the measurement into nuclear parameters and go further in the measurement of thermodynamic variables,etc... putting in relief the new features required on behalf of the detectors because of their use in the thermal neutrons flux. In the domain of nuclear measurement, we indicate the realizations and the results obtained with thermal neutron detectors and for the measurement of ionizations currents. We also treat the technical problem of the start-up of a reactor and of the reactivity measurement. We give the necessary details for the comprehension of all essential diagrams and plans put on, in particular, for the reactor of Saclay. (author) [fr

  18. Fuzzy-Genetic Optimal Control for Four Degreeof Freedom Robotic Arm Movement

    OpenAIRE

    V. K. Banga; R. Kumar; Y. Singh

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present optimal control for movement and trajectory planning for four degrees-of-freedom robot using Fuzzy Logic (FL) and Genetic Algorithms (GAs). We have evaluated using Fuzzy Logic (FL) and Genetic Algorithms (GAs) for four degree-of-freedom (4 DOF) robotics arm, Uncertainties like; Movement, Friction and Settling Time in robotic arm movement have been compensated using Fuzzy logic and Genetic Algorithms. The development of a fuzzy genetic optimizatio...

  19. Nuclear reactor kinetics and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewins, J.

    1978-01-01

    A consistent, integrated account of modern developments in the study of nuclear reactor kinetics and the problem of their efficient and safe control. It aims to prepare the student for advanced study and research or practical work in the field. Special features include treatments of noise theory, reliability theory and safety related studies. It covers all aspects of the operation and control of nuclear reactors, power and research and is complete in providing physical data methods of calculation and solution including questions of equipment reliability. The work uses illustrations of the main types of reactors in use in the UK, USA and Europe. Each chapter contains problems and worked examples suitable for course work and study. The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introductory review; neutron and precursor equations; elementary solutions at low power; linear reactor process dynamics with feedback; power reactor control systems; fluctuations and reactor noise; safety and reliability; nonlinear systems (safety and control); analogue computing. (author)

  20. Design a Fuzzy Logic Controller for a Rotary Flexible Joint Robotic Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalani Jamaludin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to design a fuzzy logic feedback controller (FLC in order to control a desired tip angle position a rotary flexible joint robotic arm. The FLC is also employed to dampen the vibration emanated from a rotary flexible joint robotic arm when reaching a desired tip angle position. The performance of FLC is tested in simulation and experiment. It is found that the FLC is successfully designed, applied and tested. The results show that fuzzy logic controller performed satisfactorily control a desired tip angle position and reduce the oscillations.

  1. Controlled nuclear fusion apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussard, R.W.; Coppi, B.

    1982-01-01

    A fusion power generating device is disclosed having a relatively small and inexpensive core region which may be contained within an energy absorbing blanket region. The fusion power core region contains apparatus of the toroidal type for confining a high density plasma. The fusion power core is removable from the blanket region and may be disposed and/or recycled for subsequent use within the same blanket region. Thermonuclear ignition of the plasma is obtained by feeding neutral fusible gas into the plasma in a controlled manner such that charged particle heating produced by the fusion reaction is utilized to bootstrap the device to a region of high temperatures and high densities wherein charged particle heating is sufficient to overcome radiation and thermal conductivity losses. The high density plasma produces a large radiation and particle flux on the first wall of the plasma core region thereby necessitating replacement of the core from the blanket region from time to time. A series of potentially disposable and replaceable central core regions are disclosed for a large-scale economical electrical power generating plant

  2. Formalization of the Access Control on ARM-Android Platform with the B Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lu; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Xiaodong; Man, Yujia; Yin, Qing

    2018-01-01

    ARM-Android is a widespread mobile platform with multi-layer access control mechanisms, security-critical in the system. Many access control vulnerabilities still exist due to the course-grained policy and numerous engineering defects, which have been widely studied. However, few researches focus on the mechanism formalization, including the Android permission framework, kernel process management and hardware isolation. This paper first develops a comprehensive formal access control model on the ARM-Android platform using the B method, from the Android middleware to hardware layer. All the model specifications are type checked and proved to be well-defined, with 75%of proof obligations demonstrated automatically. The results show that the proposed B model is feasible to specify and verify access control schemes in the ARM-Android system, and capable of implementing a practical control module.

  3. Nuclear reactor control room construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamuro, R.C.; Orr, R.

    1993-01-01

    A control room for a nuclear plant is disclosed. In the control room, objects labelled 12, 20, 22, 26, 30 in the drawing are no less than four inches from walls labelled 10.2. A ceiling contains cooling fins that extend downwards toward the floor from metal plates. A concrete slab is poured over the plates. Studs are welded to the plates and are encased in the concrete. 6 figures

  4. Relaxation near Supermassive Black Holes Driven by Nuclear Spiral Arms: Anisotropic Hypervelocity Stars, S-stars, and Tidal Disruption Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamers, Adrian S. [Institute for Advanced Study, School of Natural Sciences, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Perets, Hagai B., E-mail: hamers@ias.edu [Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2017-09-10

    Nuclear spiral arms are small-scale transient spiral structures found in the centers of galaxies. Similarly to their galactic-scale counterparts, nuclear spiral arms can perturb the orbits of stars. In the case of the Galactic center (GC), these perturbations can affect the orbits of stars and binaries in a region extending to several hundred parsecs around the supermassive black hole (SMBH), causing diffusion in orbital energy and angular momentum. This diffusion process can drive stars and binaries to close approaches with the SMBH, disrupting single stars in tidal disruption events (TDEs), or disrupting binaries, leaving a star tightly bound to the SMBH and an unbound star escaping the galaxy, i.e., a hypervelocity star (HVS). Here, we consider diffusion by nuclear spiral arms in galactic nuclei, specifically the Milky Way GC. We determine nuclear-spiral-arm-driven diffusion rates using test-particle integrations and compute disruption rates. Our TDE rates are up to 20% higher compared to relaxation by single stars. For binaries, the enhancement is up to a factor of ∼100, and our rates are comparable to the observed numbers of HVSs and S-stars. Our scenario is complementary to relaxation driven by massive perturbers. In addition, our rates depend on the inclination of the binary with respect to the Galactic plane. Therefore, our scenario provides a novel potential source for the observed anisotropic distribution of HVSs. Nuclear spiral arms may also be important for accelerating the coalescence of binary SMBHs and for supplying nuclear star clusters with stars and gas.

  5. Advanced nuclear plant control complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarola, K.; Jamison, S.; Manazir, R.M.; Rescorl, R.L.; Harmon, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel in the control room. A separate data processing system, which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board. The discrete indicator and alarm system and the data processing system receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accidental conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof. (author)

  6. Dual arm master controller for a bilateral servo-manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuban, Daniel P.; Perkins, Gerald S.

    1989-01-01

    A master controller for a mechanically dissimilar bilateral slave servo-manipulator is disclosed. The master controller includes a plurality of drive trains comprising a plurality of sheave arrangements and cables for controlling upper and lower degrees of master movement. The cables and sheaves of the master controller are arranged to effect kinematic duplication of the slave servo-manipulator, despite mechanical differences therebetween. A method for kinematically matching a master controller to a slave servo-manipulator is also disclosed.

  7. Russian-American relations and the future of arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trenin, D.

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the progressive drift of the US-Russia nuclear military policies, the implications for Russia of the US missile defense program (MDP) and its progress in the framework of President Bush administration, Russia's strategy and tactics to incite the US to continue strategic weapons reduction, the Russian theater missile defense (TMD) proposal and its philosophy, and the future necessary collaboration between the US, the EU and Russia to deal with the challenge of proliferation. (J.S.)

  8. Russian-American relations and the future of arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trenin, D

    2001-07-01

    This article describes the progressive drift of the US-Russia nuclear military policies, the implications for Russia of the US missile defense program (MDP) and its progress in the framework of President Bush administration, Russia's strategy and tactics to incite the US to continue strategic weapons reduction, the Russian theater missile defense (TMD) proposal and its philosophy, and the future necessary collaboration between the US, the EU and Russia to deal with the challenge of proliferation. (J.S.)

  9. Russian-American relations and the future of arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trenin, D

    2001-07-01

    This article describes the progressive drift of the US-Russia nuclear military policies, the implications for Russia of the US missile defense program (MDP) and its progress in the framework of President Bush administration, Russia's strategy and tactics to incite the US to continue strategic weapons reduction, the Russian theater missile defense (TMD) proposal and its philosophy, and the future necessary collaboration between the US, the EU and Russia to deal with the challenge of proliferation. (J.S.)

  10. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Defense & Arms Control Studies Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    security of the nation. The unicorn is the obvious symbol for this box. Even with a two percent of GDP or less defense budget, we will maintain our nuclear...systems is not going away. There are some unicorns in the defense herd and this would be a time to claim to be one. ACTIVITIES AND PERSONNEL Looking...macroeconomics and public finance is advisable. The subjects in the Forces and Force Analysis section will provide sufficient review of the technical

  11. Control of Nuclear Materials and Special Equipment (Nuclear Safety Regulations)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizmek, A.; Prah, M.; Medakovic, S.; Ilijas, B.

    2008-01-01

    Based on Nuclear Safety Act (OG 173/03) the State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) in 2008 adopted beside Ordinance on performing nuclear activities (OG 74/06) and Ordinance on special conditions for individual activities to be performed by expert organizations which perform activities in the area of nuclear safety (OG 74/06) the new Ordinance on the control of nuclear material and special equipment (OG 15/08). Ordinance on the control of nuclear material and special equipment lays down the list of nuclear materials and special equipment as well as of nuclear activities covered by the system of control of production of special equipment and non-nuclear material, the procedure for notifying the intention to and filing the application for a license to carry out nuclear activities, and the format and contents of the forms for doing so. This Ordinance also lays down the manner in which nuclear material records have to be kept, the procedure for notifying the State administration organization (regulatory body) responsible for nuclear safety by the nuclear material user, and the keeping of registers of nuclear activities, nuclear material and special equipment by the State administration organization (regulatory body) responsible for nuclear safety, as well as the form and content of official nuclear safety inspector identification card and badge.(author)

  12. Public Interests in the International Court of Justice—A Comparison Between Nuclear Arms Race and South West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venzke, I.

    2017-01-01

    In the present essay I compare the 2016 judgment of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in Nuclear Arms Race (Marshall Islands v. United Kingdom) with the Court's 1966 judgment in South West Africa (Ethiopia v. South Africa; Liberia v. South Africa). A series of similarities between the two

  13. Control and applications of cooperating disparate robotic manipulators relevant to nuclear waste management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Jae Young; Book, Wayne J.

    1991-01-01

    Remote handling in nuclear waste management requires a robotic system with precise motion as well as a large workspace. The concept of a small arm mounted on the end of a large arm may satisfy such needs. However, the performance of such a serial configuration lacks payload capacity which is a crucial factor for handling a massive object. Also, this configuration induces more flexibility on the structure. To overcome these problems, the topology of bracing the tip of the small arm (not the large arm) and having an end effector in the middle of the chain is proposed in this paper. Also, control of these cooperating disparate manipulators is accomplished in computer simulations. Thus, this robotic system can have the accuracy of the small arm, and at the same time, it can have the payload capacity and large workspace of the large arm.

  14. Failure of Arm Movement Control in Stroke Patients, Characterized by Loss of Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Segun; Han, Kyungreem; Ryu, Jehkwang; Kim, Seonjin; Choi, MooYoung

    2015-01-01

    We study the mechanism of human arm-posture control by means of nonlinear dynamics and quantitative time series analysis methods. Utilizing linear and nonlinear measures in combination, we find that pathological tremors emerge in patient dynamics and serve as a main feature discriminating between normal and patient groups. The deterministic structure accompanied with loss of complexity inherent in the tremor dynamics is also revealed. To probe the underlying mechanism of the arm-posture dynamics, we further analyze the coupling patterns between joints and components, and discuss their roles in breaking of the organization structure. As a result, we elucidate the mechanisms in the arm-posture dynamics of normal subjects responding to the gravitational force and for the reduction of the dynamic degrees of freedom in the patient dynamics. This study provides an integrated framework for the origin of the loss of complexity in the dynamics of patients as well as the coupling structure in the arm-posture dynamics.

  15. Integrated control system for nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragsdale, William F [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    The Integrated Control System (ICS) has been developed to facilitate Plowshare nuclear detonations by following a unified system approach. This system consolidates the techniques for firing, safety program, scientific program, and communications. Maximum emphasis is placed upon control and data transmission by radio rather than hardwire or coaxial cable. The ICS consists of a Command Point (CP) Trailer, a radio repeater station, a field station (the ICE Box), and several chassis located in the explosive canister. Commands originate in the CP and are transmitted via microwave radio to the ICE Box; monitors are returned to the CP from the canister, the ICE Box, and sensors near ground zero. The system allows complete checkout and operation before shipment to the field. The explosive canister may be dry-run at the assembly area (at NTS) before shipment to the field. The basic detonation functions for every event are: 1. Arming and firing commands in the explosive canister and at surface ground zero. 2. Environmental monitors and suitable arming monitors in the explosive canister. 3. Safety monitors at the zero site for weather, RAMS (Remote Area Monitoring System), and cavity collapse. Secondary functions that may be required for a specific project are: 4. Scientific program of phenomenology measurements. 5. Explosive performance measurements. 6. Ground zero television. 7. Auxiliary communications such as local telephones, VHF radio. By combining functions that have previously been performed by separate organizations and systems, the ICS attempts a minimum cost detonation service. Economy of operation results because: 1. Operating personnel work on more than one sub-system. 2. Interfaces and interface complexity are minimized. 3. A reduced dependence upon signal cables results from a microwave-based system. 4. Pre-fabrication allows test operation before shipment to the field and minimizes setup time in the field. The ICS is in use on the Sturtevant event and is

  16. Self-Tuning Vibration Control of a Rotational Flexible Timoshenko Arm Using Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Sasaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A self-tuning vibration control of a rotational flexible arm using neural networks is presented. To the self-tuning control system, the control scheme consists of gain tuning neural networks and a variable-gain feedback controller. The neural networks are trained so as to make the root moment zero. In the process, the neural networks learn the optimal gain of the feedback controller. The feedback controller is designed based on Lyapunov's direct method. The feedback control of the vibration of the flexible system is derived by considering the time rate of change of the total energy of the system. This approach has the advantage over the conventional methods in the respect that it allows one to deal directly with the system's partial differential equations without resorting to approximations. Numerical and experimental results for the vibration control of a rotational flexible arm are discussed. It verifies that the proposed control system is effective at controlling flexible dynamical systems.

  17. An Inverse Optimal Control Approach to Explain Human Arm Reaching Control Based on Multiple Internal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Ozgur S; Zhou, Zhehua; Glasauer, Stefan; Wollherr, Dirk

    2018-04-03

    Human motor control is highly efficient in generating accurate and appropriate motor behavior for a multitude of tasks. This paper examines how kinematic and dynamic properties of the musculoskeletal system are controlled to achieve such efficiency. Even though recent studies have shown that the human motor control relies on multiple models, how the central nervous system (CNS) controls this combination is not fully addressed. In this study, we utilize an Inverse Optimal Control (IOC) framework in order to find the combination of those internal models and how this combination changes for different reaching tasks. We conducted an experiment where participants executed a comprehensive set of free-space reaching motions. The results show that there is a trade-off between kinematics and dynamics based controllers depending on the reaching task. In addition, this trade-off depends on the initial and final arm configurations, which in turn affect the musculoskeletal load to be controlled. Given this insight, we further provide a discomfort metric to demonstrate its influence on the contribution of different inverse internal models. This formulation together with our analysis not only support the multiple internal models (MIMs) hypothesis but also suggest a hierarchical framework for the control of human reaching motions by the CNS.

  18. Dual arm master controller for a bilateral servo-manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.

    1989-01-01

    A master controller for a mechanically dissimilar bilateral slave servo-manipulator is disclosed. The master controller includes a plurality of drive trains comprising a plurality of sheave arrangements and cables for controlling upper and lower degrees of master movement. The cables and sheaves of the master controller are arranged to effect kinematic duplication of the slave servo-manipulator, despite mechanical differences there between. A method for kinematically matching a master controller to a slave servo-manipulator is also disclosed. 13 figs

  19. Nuclear deterrence and disarmament after the Cold War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1995-03-01

    During the Cold War, nuclear arms control measures were shaped significantly by nuclear doctrine. Consequently, the negotiation of arms control agreements often became a battleground for different nuclear strategies. The Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union has been declared over. Today, both nuclear weapons policies and arms control objectives are again being reviewed. This document discusses points of this review.

  20. Nuclear power hazard control policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chicken, J C

    1982-01-01

    This study presents an analysis of the factors that appear to have influenced the formation and form of nuclear power hazard control policy in Britain. A simple account is given of the technical nature of nuclear hazards and of the legal and administrative framework that has been constructed to control them. The subsequent analysis concentrates primarily on the influence exerted by social and political factors. Particular attention is directed to those political groups which have developed a special interest in the problems of nuclear power, and to the interplay between organised groupings and public opinion generally. The metamorphosis of these groupings is traced from the origins of the nuclear industry in the Second World War to their prominent role during the Windscale Inquiry. Attention is given to the policy constraint imposed by increased expectations in the form of demands for higher standards of living, and improvements in the quality of the environment. The study is concerned with both policy-making and with policy implementation; with interest articulation as well as with the functioning of formal institutions. The evolution of policy takes place in an atmosphere of keen economic debate and conflicting moral perceptions. A model of the policy-making system is postulated.

  1. Nuclear power hazard control policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicken, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    This study presents an analysis of the factors that appear to have influenced the formation and form of nuclear power hazard control policy in Britain. A simple account is given of the technical nature of nuclear hazards and of the legal and administrative framework that has been constructed to control them. The subsequent analysis concentrates primarily on the influence exerted by social and political factors. Particular attention is directed to those political groups which have developed a special interest in the problems of nuclear power, and to the interplay between organised groupings and public opinion generally. The metamorphosis of these groupings is traced from the origins of the nuclear industry in the Second World War to their prominent role during the Windscale Inquiry. Attention is given to the policy constraint imposed by increased expectations in the form of demands for higher standards of living, and improvements in the quality of the environment. The study is concerned with both policy-making and with policy implementation; with interest articulation as well as with the functioning of formal institutions. The evolution of policy takes place in an atmosphere of keen economic debate and conflicting moral perceptions. A model of the policy-making system is postulated. (author)

  2. Radiosanitary control in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrossi, O.J.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine has recently modified radiosanitary control standards for the three sectors involved: patients, personnel and general population. Nuclear Medicine does not constitute an important source of radiation, including patients and population, compared with radiology. The basic problems of radiosanitary controls are: the absorbed dose and the patient. Low risk deferred stochastic effects may appear with correct use of these controls. On the other hand, risk of stochastic consequences and non stochastic complications appear with incorrect applications. The following aspects should be considered for correct uses: A-1- The critical organ, which is not always the one under study. 2-The rest of the organism, specially the more sensitive organs. B- The radiopharmaceutical used, considering the following periods: physical, biological and effective. C-Technical and human resources that include quality control for the equipment. Radiosanitary control aims at a common objetive: dose limitation to the patient, personnel and general population. For this, it is necessary to accomplish the training programme for proffesional and technical personnel about quality control and to stablish basic standards for the equipment. Current law and regulations assign to the National Atomic Energy Comission the responsibility for controlling the use of radioisotopes and radiations in order to safeguard the health and life of the population. (M.E.L.) [es

  3. To Keep and Bear Arms: Gun Control and the Second Amendment. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Amy N.; Walker, Tim

    This teacher's guide is designed to accompany the two-part videotape "To Keep and Bear Arms: Gun Control and the Second Amendment." The videotape and teacher's guide should help students to: (1) understand the history of the Second Amendment; (2) examine how guns and gun control laws affect people's lives; (3) compare and contrast the…

  4. Disarmament and arms control in the policy of the two great powers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.

    2010-01-01

    This text was published in 1992. The author comments the results of the START agreement which specified a 30 per cent objective for strategic weapon reduction. He also comments the consequences and implication of the USSR splitting where some states possess nuclear arms and warheads, the cooperation for transportation, storage, security and destruction of chemical and nuclear weapons in USSR, and the perspectives of more ambitious disarmament propositions because of the USSR collapse and of the disappearance of its military threat on the USA

  5. A Comparison between Two Force-Position Controllers with Gravity Compensation Simulated on a Humanoid Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Gerardo Muscolo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose a comparison between two force-position controllers with gravity compensation simulated on the DEXTER bioinspired robotic arm. The two controllers are both constituted by an internal proportional-derivative (PD closed-loop for the position control. The force control of the two systems is composed of an external proportional (P closed-loop for one system (P system and an external proportional-integrative (PI closed-loop for the other system (PI system. The simulation tests performed with the two systems on a planar representation of the DEXTER, an eight-DOF bioinspired arm, showed that by varying the stiffness of the environment, with a correct setting of parameters, both systems ensure the achievement of the desired force regime and with great precision the desired position. The two controllers do not have large differences in performance when interacting with a lower stiffness environment. In case of an environment with greater rigidity, the PI system is more stable. The subsequent implementation of these control systems on the DEXTER robotic bioinspired arm gives guidance on the design and control optimisation of the arms of the humanoid robot named SABIAN.

  6. Model-based sensorimotor integration for multi-joint control: development of a virtual arm model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, D; Lan, N; Loeb, G E; Gordon, J

    2008-06-01

    An integrated, sensorimotor virtual arm (VA) model has been developed and validated for simulation studies of control of human arm movements. Realistic anatomical features of shoulder, elbow and forearm joints were captured with a graphic modeling environment, SIMM. The model included 15 musculotendon elements acting at the shoulder, elbow and forearm. Muscle actions on joints were evaluated by SIMM generated moment arms that were matched to experimentally measured profiles. The Virtual Muscle (VM) model contained appropriate admixture of slow and fast twitch fibers with realistic physiological properties for force production. A realistic spindle model was embedded in each VM with inputs of fascicle length, gamma static (gamma(stat)) and dynamic (gamma(dyn)) controls and outputs of primary (I(a)) and secondary (II) afferents. A piecewise linear model of Golgi Tendon Organ (GTO) represented the ensemble sampling (I(b)) of the total muscle force at the tendon. All model components were integrated into a Simulink block using a special software tool. The complete VA model was validated with open-loop simulation at discrete hand positions within the full range of alpha and gamma drives to extrafusal and intrafusal muscle fibers. The model behaviors were consistent with a wide variety of physiological phenomena. Spindle afferents were effectively modulated by fusimotor drives and hand positions of the arm. These simulations validated the VA model as a computational tool for studying arm movement control. The VA model is available to researchers at website http://pt.usc.edu/cel .

  7. Filtering sensory information with XCSF: improving learning robustness and robot arm control performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneissler, Jan; Stalph, Patrick O; Drugowitsch, Jan; Butz, Martin V

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown previously that the control of a robot arm can be efficiently learned using the XCSF learning classifier system, which is a nonlinear regression system based on evolutionary computation. So far, however, the predictive knowledge about how actual motor activity changes the state of the arm system has not been exploited. In this paper, we utilize the forward velocity kinematics knowledge of XCSF to alleviate the negative effect of noisy sensors for successful learning and control. We incorporate Kalman filtering for estimating successive arm positions, iteratively combining sensory readings with XCSF-based predictions of hand position changes over time. The filtered arm position is used to improve both trajectory planning and further learning of the forward velocity kinematics. We test the approach on a simulated kinematic robot arm model. The results show that the combination can improve learning and control performance significantly. However, it also shows that variance estimates of XCSF prediction may be underestimated, in which case self-delusional spiraling effects can hinder effective learning. Thus, we introduce a heuristic parameter, which can be motivated by theory, and which limits the influence of XCSF's predictions on its own further learning input. As a result, we obtain drastic improvements in noise tolerance, allowing the system to cope with more than 10 times higher noise levels.

  8. Arms Control: US and International efforts to ban biological weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons Convention, the treaty that bans the development, production, and stockpiling and acquisition of biological weapons was opened for signature in 1972 and came into force in 1975 after being ratified by 22 governments, including the depository nations of the USA, the United Kingdom, and the former Soviet Union. In support of the Convention, the USA later established export controls on items used to make biological weapons. Further, in accordance with the 1990 President`s Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative, actions were taken to redefine and expand US export controls, as well as to encourage multilateral controls through the Australia Group. Thus far, the Convention has not been effective in stopping the development of biological weapons. The principal findings as to the reasons of the failures of the Convention are found to be: the Convention lacks universality, compliance measures are effective, advantage of verification may outweigh disadvantages. Recommendations for mitigating these failures are outlined in this report.

  9. Internet remote control interface for a multipurpose robotic arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W. Dunnigan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an Internet remote control interface for a MITSUBISHI PA10-6CE manipulator established for the purpose of the ROBOT museum exhibition during spring and summer 2004. The robotic manipulator is a part of the Intelligent Robotic Systems Laboratory at Heriot ? Watt University, which has been established to work on dynamic and kinematic aspects of manipulator control in the presence of environmental disturbances. The laboratory has been enriched by a simple vision system consisting of three web-cameras to broadcast the live images of the robots over the Internet. The Interface comprises of the TCP/IP server providing command parsing and execution using the open controller architecture of the manipulator and a client Java applet web-site providing a simple robot control interface.

  10. Walking Pattern Generation of Dual-Arm Mobile Robot Using Preview Controller

    OpenAIRE

    P. Wu; W. Wu

    2012-01-01

    Based on the stability request of robot’s moving on the ground, the motion planning of dual-arm mobile robot when moving on the ground is studied and the preview control system is applied in the robot walking pattern generation. Direct question of robot kinematics in the extended task space is analyzed according to Degrees of Freedom configuration of the dual-arm mobile robot. It is proved that the preview control system could be used in the generation of robot Center of Mass forward trajecto...

  11. Control rod drive of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuchkov, I.I.; Gorjunov, V.S.; Zaitsev, B.I.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to nuclear reactors and, more particularly, to a drive of a control rod of a nuclear reactor and allows power control, excess reactivity compensation, and emergency shut-down of a reactor. (author)

  12. Quality control in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinova, I.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear medicine comprises diagnosis and therapy of the diseases with radiopharmaceuticals. The ambition of all specialists in our country is their activity to reach European standards. In this connection, a Commission for external audit was formed to evaluate the quality of work in the centers of nuclear medicine. This Commission create a long-lasting programme based on the objective European criteria and the national standard of nuclear medicine, having in mind to increase quality of the work and the expert evaluation of activity in every center. The program comprises measures for quality control of instrumentation, radiopharmaceuticals, performed investigations, obtained results and the whole organization from the receiving of the isotopes to the results of the patients. The ambition is most of the centers to fulfill the requirements. As a conclusion it could be said that not only the quality of everyday nuclear medicine work is enough to increase the prestige of the specialty. It is also necessary we to have understanding expert and financial support from corresponding institutions, incl. Ministry of health for a delivery of a new, contemporary instrumentation with new possibilities. Thus it would be possible Bulgarian patients to reach the high technology apparatuses for an early functional diagnosis of the diseases and optimal treatment, which possibility have the patients from the developed countries. (author)

  13. Research on the man in the loop control system of the robot arm based on gesture control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lifeng; Peng, Jinbao

    2017-03-01

    The Man in the loop control system of the robot arm based on gesture control research complex real-world environment, which requires the operator to continuously control and adjust the remote manipulator, as the background, completes the specific mission human in the loop entire system as the research object. This paper puts forward a kind of robot arm control system of Man in the loop based on gesture control, by robot arm control system based on gesture control and Virtual reality scene feedback to enhance immersion and integration of operator, to make operator really become a part of the whole control loop. This paper expounds how to construct a man in the loop control system of the robot arm based on gesture control. The system is a complex system of human computer cooperative control, but also people in the loop control problem areas. The new system solves the problems that the traditional method has no immersion feeling and the operation lever is unnatural, the adjustment time is long, and the data glove mode wears uncomfortable and the price is expensive.

  14. Noninvasive Electroencephalogram Based Control of a Robotic Arm for Reach and Grasp Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jianjun; Zhang, Shuying; Bekyo, Angeliki; Olsoe, Jaron; Baxter, Bryan; He, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies aim to provide a bridge between the human brain and external devices. Prior research using non-invasive BCI to control virtual objects, such as computer cursors and virtual helicopters, and real-world objects, such as wheelchairs and quadcopters, has demonstrated the promise of BCI technologies. However, controlling a robotic arm to complete reach-and-grasp tasks efficiently using non-invasive BCI has yet to be shown. In this study, we found that a group of 13 human subjects could willingly modulate brain activity to control a robotic arm with high accuracy for performing tasks requiring multiple degrees of freedom by combination of two sequential low dimensional controls. Subjects were able to effectively control reaching of the robotic arm through modulation of their brain rhythms within the span of only a few training sessions and maintained the ability to control the robotic arm over multiple months. Our results demonstrate the viability of human operation of prosthetic limbs using non-invasive BCI technology. PMID:27966546

  15. Whither the legal control of nuclear energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, Peter

    1995-01-01

    International nuclear trade is governed by the regime of legal control of nuclear energy, nuclear materials, knowledge of nuclear processes and weapons. Nuclear trade is under pinned by international agreements concerning physical protection and safeguards, the control of nuclear weapons, the protection of nuclear materials from terrorist action and third part liability. The political and geographical boundary changes of the past two years have significantly altered the background against which this regime has developed. Such changes have affected nuclear trade. The paper summarised the legal control of nuclear energy between States, identifies the areas of change which may affect this regime and the consequences for international trade. Conclusions are drawn as to the development of the international legal control of nuclear energy. (author). 21 refs

  16. Computer systems for nuclear installation data control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    The computer programs developed by Divisao de Instalacoes Nucleares (DIN) from Brazilian CNEN for data control on nuclear installations in Brazil are presented. The following computer programs are described: control of registered companies, control of industrial sources, irradiators and monitors; control of liable person; control of industry irregularities; for elaborating credence tests; for shielding analysis; control of waste refuge [pt

  17. Nuclear reactor power control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshi, Yuji; Sakata, Akira; Karatsu, Hiroyuki.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To control abrupt changes in neutron fluxes by feeding back a correction signal obtained from a deviation between neutron fluxes and heat fluxes for changing the reactor core flow rate to a recycling flow rate control system upon abrupt power change of a nuclear reactor. Constitution: In addition to important systems, that is, a reactor pressure control system and a recycling control system in the power control device of a BWR type power plant, a control circuit for feeding back a deviation between neutron fluxes and heat fluxes to a recycling flow rate control system is disposed. In the suppression circuit, a deviation signal is prepared in an adder from neutron flux and heat flux signals obtained through a primary delay filter. The deviation signal is passed through a dead band and an advance/delay filter into a correction signal, which is adapted to be fed back to the recycling flow rate control system. As a result, the reactor power control can be conducted smoothly and it is possible to effectively suppress the abrupt change or over shoot of the neutron fluxes and abrupt power change. (Kamimura, M.)

  18. Gaming and Conventional Exercises for Improvement of Arm Function After Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottink, Anke I R; Prange, Gerdienke B; Krabben, Thijs; Rietman, Johan S; Buurke, Jaap H

    2014-06-01

    The use of new technologies in rehabilitation, such as virtual reality and/or computerized gaming exercises, may be useful to enable patients to practice intensively in a motivating way. The objective of the present randomized controlled pilot study was to compare the effect of reach training using a target group specific-designed rehabilitation game to time-matched standardized conventional reach training on arm function after stroke. Twenty chronic stroke patients were randomized to either the rehabilitation game group or the conventional training group. Both groups received three arm training sessions of 30 minutes each week, during a period of 6 weeks. Arm (the upper extremity part of Fugl-Meyer [FM] assessment) and hand (the Action Research Arm [ARA] test) functions were tested 1 week before (T0) and 1 week after (T1) training. A follow-up measurement was performed at 1 month after T1 (T2). ARA and FM scores improved significantly within both groups. Post hoc comparisons revealed significant increases in test scores between T0 and T1 and between T0 and T2 for both ARA and FM, but not for changes from T1 to T2. There were no significant differences between both groups for either clinical test. The present randomized controlled pilot study showed that both arm and hand function improved as much after training with a rehabilitation game as after time-matched conventional training.

  19. Coordinated Resolved Motion Control of Dual-Arm Manipulators with Closed Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianliang Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available When applied to some tasks, such as payload handling, assembling, repairing and so on, the two arms of a humanoid robot will form a closed kinematic chain. It makes the motion planning and control for dual-arm coordination very complex and difficult. In this paper, we present three types of resolved motion control methods for a humanoid robot during coordinated manipulation. They are, respectively, position-level, velocity-level and acceleration-level resolved motion control methods. The desired pose, velocity and acceleration of each end-effector are then resolved according to the desired motion of the payload and the constraints on the closed-chain system without consideration of the internal force. Corresponding to the three cases above, the joint variables of each arm are then calculated using the inverse kinematic equations, at position-level, velocity-level or acceleration-level. Finally, a dynamic modelling and simulation platform is established based on ADAMS and Matlab software. The proposed methods are verified by typical cases. The simulation results show that the proposed control strategy can realize the dual-arm coordinated operation and the internal force of the closed chain during the operation is controlled in a reasonable range at the same time.

  20. A Biomechanical Model of Single-joint Arm Movement Control Based on the Equilibrium Point Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Masataka, SUZUKI; Yoshihiko, YAMAZAKI; Yumiko, TANIGUCHI; Department of Psychology, Kinjo Gakuin University; Department of Health and Physical Education, Nagoya Institute of Technology; College of Human Life and Environment, Kinjo Gakuin University

    2003-01-01

    SUZUKI,M., YAMAZAKI,Y. and TANIGUCHI,Y., A Biomechanical Model of Single-joint Arm Movement Control Based on the Equilibrium Point Hypothesis. Adv. Exerc. Sports Physiol., Vol.9, No.1 pp.7-25, 2003. According to the equilibrium point hypothesis of motor control, control action of muscles is not explicitly computed, but rather arises as a consequence of interaction among moving equilibrium point, reflex feedback and muscle mechanical properties. This approach is attractive as it obviates the n...

  1. Controlled, Rapid Uprighting of Molars: A surprisingly Simple Solution The Pivot Arm Appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warise, Timothy R; Galella, Steve A

    2015-01-01

    In orthodontic cases where the regional anatomy provides limited room for eruption, there is etiologically a higher occurrence of tipped/impacted second molars. Although second molar extraction with third molar replacement is a useful option, the "Pivot Arm Appliance" encourages the uprighting of the second molar as a preferred treatment. The most unique and important attribute of the "Pivot Arm Appliance" is the rotating tube. In cases of access limitation, the disto-occlusal surface of the molar presents as one area that is accessible. Other features of the "Pivot Arm Appliance" include: The position of the rotator tube delivers optimal rotational force through the pivoting action of the tube/arm complex. The "Pivot Arm Appliance" takes advantage of the efficiency and simplicity of a Class I lever system. The anatomical fulcrum being the dense cortical bone located anterior to the ascending ramus. The vertical spring system is compact, reliable and delivers gentle controlled force in rotational direction. The lingual location of the "Pivot Arm Appliance" does not hinder the function of the tongue, impinge on the soft tissue or interfere with normal masticatory function. The ease of placement of the rotator tube and subsequent insertion of the spring. It is well to note the uprighting appliance provides a very useful and practical approach to the unique problem of severely tipped second molars with limited buccal access. The "Pivot Arm Appliance" does not function only in these situations but can be used in all cases of second molar uprighting of a moderate to severe nature.

  2. Optimization of Casting Design Parameters on Fabrication of Reliable Semi-Solid Aluminum Suspension Control Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragab, Kh. A.; Bouaicha, A.; Bouazara, M.

    2017-09-01

    The semi-solid casting process has the advantage of providing reliable mechanical aluminum parts that work continuously in dynamic as control arm of the suspension system in automotive vehicles. The quality performance of dynamic control arm is related to casting mold and gating system designs that affect the fluidity of semi-solid metal during filling the mold. Therefore, this study focuses on improvement in mechanical performance, depending on material characterization, and casting design optimization, of suspension control arms made of A357 aluminum semi-solid alloys. Mechanical and design analyses, applied on the suspension arm, showed the occurrence of mechanical failures at unexpected weak points. Metallurgical analysis showed that the main reason lies in the difficult flow of semi-solid paste through the thin thicknesses of a complex geometry. A design modification procedure is applied to the geometry of the suspension arm to avoid this problem and to improve its quality performance. The design modification of parts was carried out by using SolidWorks design software, evaluation of constraints with ABAQUS, and simulation of flow with ProCast software. The proposed designs showed that the modified suspension arm, without ribs and with a central canvas designed as Z, is considered as a perfect casting design showing an increase in the structural strength of the component. In this case, maximum von Mises stress is 199 MPa that is below the yield strength of the material. The modified casting mold design shows a high uniformity and minim turbulence of molten metal flow during semi-solid casting process.

  3. Robotic Arm Control Algorithm Based on Stereo Vision Using RoboRealm Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SZABO, R.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to present a stereo computer vision algorithm intended to control a robotic arm. Specific points on the robot joints are marked and recognized in the software. Using a dedicated set of mathematic equations, the movement of the robot is continuously computed and monitored with webcams. Positioning error is finally analyzed.

  4. United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency. Ninth Annual Report to Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, Washington, DC.

    This annual report surveys activities of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA) and summarizes disarmament developments for the calendar year 1968. An act of Congress states that ACDA must have such a position within the Government that it can provide the President, the Secretary of State, other officials of the executive branch, and the…

  5. Designing and evaluating conventional arms control measures: The case of the Korean peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yongsup.

    1991-01-01

    As a method of designing and evaluating arms control measures, this study takes a combined approach of qualitative analysis and military simulation. Three qualitative criteria derived from the case studies on the Korean and European arms control are used to examine whether these measures are legally binding, verifiable, and negotiable. One quantifiable criterion is used to test against the base case scenario (a one-day surprise attach by North Korea) whether arms control measures will stabilize or destabilize the military status quo on the Peninsula in terms of North Korea's extent of penetration in the actual war situations. Four alternative measures are derived from the analysis: (1) Confidence and Security Building Measures (CSBMs); (2) Establishment of Asymmetric Non-Deployment Zone (NDZ); (3) Reduction of the joint US-South Korean 'Team Spirit' exercises and North Korea's Forward Deployed Forces; and, (4) Reduction of South Korean and US forces and North Korean Forces. Findings indicate that establishment of the NDZ and a North Korean unilateral reduction are estimated to best achieve the goal of South Korean arms control

  6. 77 FR 52105 - Announcement of the Innovation in Arms Control Challenge Under the America Competes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... Challenge: This Challenge seeks creative ideas from the general public to use the tools and devices commonly..., shall be incorporated in and maintaining a primary place of business in the United States, and in the... provision of the following: 1. A description of the proposed mechanism or idea to support arms control...

  7. 78 FR 43959 - Announcement of the 2013 Innovation in Arms Control Challenge Under the America Competes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    .... Description of the hardware and/or software requirements for execution of the tool or concept, including... Information Technology Tools and Concepts Can Support Future Arms Control Inspections? The 2013 Innovation in... the following: 1. Description of the problem the tool/concept will address. 2. Description of proposed...

  8. Octopuses use a human-like strategy to control precise point-to-point arm movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumbre, Germán; Fiorito, Graziano; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2006-04-18

    One of the key problems in motor control is mastering or reducing the number of degrees of freedom (DOFs) through coordination. This problem is especially prominent with hyper-redundant limbs such as the extremely flexible arm of the octopus. Several strategies for simplifying these control problems have been suggested for human point-to-point arm movements. Despite the evolutionary gap and morphological differences, humans and octopuses evolved similar strategies when fetching food to the mouth. To achieve this precise point-to-point-task, octopus arms generate a quasi-articulated structure based on three dynamic joints. A rotational movement around these joints brings the object to the mouth . Here, we describe a peripheral neural mechanism-two waves of muscle activation propagate toward each other, and their collision point sets the medial-joint location. This is a remarkably simple mechanism for adjusting the length of the segments according to where the object is grasped. Furthermore, similar to certain human arm movements, kinematic invariants were observed at the joint level rather than at the end-effector level, suggesting intrinsic control coordination. The evolutionary convergence to similar geometrical and kinematic features suggests that a kinematically constrained articulated limb controlled at the level of joint space is the optimal solution for precise point-to-point movements.

  9. Arms control in space: workshop proceedings, Washington, DC, January 30-31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    In late 1982 and early 1983, the Subcommittee on Arms Control, Oceans, International Operations, and Environment of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations held hearings on space weapons and arms control. To explore these issues further in a discussion format not easily achieved in hearings, Sen. Larry Pressler, Chairman of the Subcommittee, asked OTA to conduct a workshop focusing on antisatellite (ASAT) weapons as one aspect of space arms control. The workshop held in Washington, DC on January 30 and 31, 1984, provided an opportunity for technical, diplomatic, military, and policy-analysis experts to interact, think out loud, and build each other's ideas. The workshop was organized into six sessions, although issues involving anti-satellite weapons and arms control are not easily compartmentalized into distinct subject areas. Each session was introduced by a 10- or 15-minute informal oral presentation which set the stage for further discussion. This workshop proceedings volume is organized along the same divisions as the sessions, with some rearrangement

  10. The design of multi-channel pulse amplitude analyzer based on ARM micro controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hai; Li Xiang; Liu Caixue

    2010-01-01

    It introduces the design of multi-channel pulse amplitude analyzer based on embedded ARM micro-controller. The embedded and real-time system μC/OS-II builds up the real-time and stability of the system and advances the integration. (authors)

  11. SpaceWire- Based Control System Architecture for the Lightweight Advanced Robotic Arm Demonstrator [LARAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucinski, Marek; Coates, Adam; Montano, Giuseppe; Allouis, Elie; Jameux, David

    2015-09-01

    The Lightweight Advanced Robotic Arm Demonstrator (LARAD) is a state-of-the-art, two-meter long robotic arm for planetary surface exploration currently being developed by a UK consortium led by Airbus Defence and Space Ltd under contract to the UK Space Agency (CREST-2 programme). LARAD has a modular design, which allows for experimentation with different electronics and control software. The control system architecture includes the on-board computer, control software and firmware, and the communication infrastructure (e.g. data links, switches) connecting on-board computer(s), sensors, actuators and the end-effector. The purpose of the control system is to operate the arm according to pre-defined performance requirements, monitoring its behaviour in real-time and performing safing/recovery actions in case of faults. This paper reports on the results of a recent study about the feasibility of the development and integration of a novel control system architecture for LARAD fully based on the SpaceWire protocol. The current control system architecture is based on the combination of two communication protocols, Ethernet and CAN. The new SpaceWire-based control system will allow for improved monitoring and telecommanding performance thanks to higher communication data rate, allowing for the adoption of advanced control schemes, potentially based on multiple vision sensors, and for the handling of sophisticated end-effectors that require fine control, such as science payloads or robotic hands.

  12. Reach and grasp by people with tetraplegia using a neurally controlled robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Leigh R.; Bacher, Daniel; Jarosiewicz, Beata; Masse, Nicolas Y.; Simeral, John D.; Vogel, Joern; Haddadin, Sami; Liu, Jie; Cash, Sydney S.; van der Smagt, Patrick; Donoghue, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Paralysis following spinal cord injury (SCI), brainstem stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and other disorders can disconnect the brain from the body, eliminating the ability to carry out volitional movements. A neural interface system (NIS)1–5 could restore mobility and independence for people with paralysis by translating neuronal activity directly into control signals for assistive devices. We have previously shown that people with longstanding tetraplegia can use an NIS to move and click a computer cursor and to control physical devices6–8. Able-bodied monkeys have used an NIS to control a robotic arm9, but it is unknown whether people with profound upper extremity paralysis or limb loss could use cortical neuronal ensemble signals to direct useful arm actions. Here, we demonstrate the ability of two people with long-standing tetraplegia to use NIS-based control of a robotic arm to perform three-dimensional reach and grasp movements. Participants controlled the arm over a broad space without explicit training, using signals decoded from a small, local population of motor cortex (MI) neurons recorded from a 96-channel microelectrode array. One of the study participants, implanted with the sensor five years earlier, also used a robotic arm to drink coffee from a bottle. While robotic reach and grasp actions were not as fast or accurate as those of an able-bodied person, our results demonstrate the feasibility for people with tetraplegia, years after CNS injury, to recreate useful multidimensional control of complex devices directly from a small sample of neural signals. PMID:22596161

  13. Optimal Control of Holding Motion by Nonprehensile Two-Cooperative-Arm Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changan Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, more researchers have focused on nursing-care assistant robot and placed their hope on it to solve the shortage problem of the caregivers in hospital or nursing home. In this paper, a nonprehensile two-cooperative-arm robot is considered to realize holding motion to keep a two-rigid-link object (regarded as a care-receiver stable on the robot arms. By applying Newton-Euler equations of motion, dynamic model of the object is obtained. In this model, for describing interaction behavior between object and robot arms in the normal direction, a viscoelastic model is employed to represent the normal forces. Considering existence of friction between object and robot arms, LuGre dynamic model is applied to describe the friction. Based on the obtained model, an optimal regulator is designed to control the holding motion of two-cooperative-arm robot. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, simulation results are shown.

  14. Emergency control centers for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Guidance is provided for the development and implementation of emergency control centers for nuclear power plants, including nuclear plant control room, nuclear plant company headquarters, emergency control center, and nuclear plant alternate emergency control center. Requirements and recommendations are presented for the mission, communications, instrumentation and equipment associated with each type of control center. Decisional aids, manning requirements and resources are also given; the decision aids cover both the accident assessment and protective action areas. Both normal and alternate means of communications are considered. Off-site emergency control centers, although not covered in the strict sense by this standard, are considered in an appendix

  15. Nuclear material control systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    Paragraph 70.51(c) of 10 CFR Part 70 requires each licensee who is authorized to possess at any one time special nuclear material in a quantity exceeding one effective kilogram to establish, maintain, and follow written material control and accounting procedures that are sufficient to enable the licensee to account for the special nuclear material in his possession under license. While other paragraphs and sections of Part 70 provide specific requirements for nuclear material control systems for fuel cycle plants, such detailed requirements are not included for nuclear power reactors. This guide identifies elements acceptable to the NRC staff for a nuclear material control system for nuclear power reactors. (U.S.)

  16. On nonlinear dynamics and control of a robotic arm with chaos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix J. L. P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a robotic arm is modelled by a double pendulum excited in its base by a DC motor of limited power via crank mechanism and elastic connector. In the mathematical model, a chaotic motion was identified, for a wide range of parameters. Controlling of the chaotic behaviour of the system, were implemented using, two control techniques, the nonlinear saturation control (NSC and the optimal linear feedback control (OLFC. The actuator and sensor of the device are allowed in the pivot and joints of the double pendulum. The nonlinear saturation control (NSC is based in the order second differential equations and its action in the pivot/joint of the robotic arm is through of quadratic nonlinearities feedback signals. The optimal linear feedback control (OLFC involves the application of two control signals, a nonlinear feedforward control to maintain the controlled system to a desired periodic orbit, and control a feedback control to bring the trajectory of the system to the desired orbit. Simulation results, including of uncertainties show the feasibility of the both methods, for chaos control of the considered system.

  17. Protection and control of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalouneix, J.; Winter, D.

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of the French regulation on nuclear materials possession, the first liability is the one of operators who have to know at any time the quantity, quality and localization of any nuclear material in their possession. This requires an organization of the follow up and of the inventory of these materials together with an efficient protection against theft or sabotage. The French organization foresees a control of the implementation of this regulation at nuclear facilities and during the transport of nuclear materials by the minister of industry with the sustain of the institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (IRSN). This article presents this organization: 1 - protection against malevolence; 2 - national protection and control of nuclear materials: goals, administrative organization, legal and regulatory content (authorization, control, sanctions), nuclear materials protection inside facilities (physical protection, follow up and inventory, security studies), protection of nuclear material transports (physical protection, follow up), control of nuclear materials (inspection at facilities, control of nuclear material measurements, inspection of nuclear materials during transport); 3 - international commitments of France: non-proliferation treaty, EURATOM regulation, international convention on the physical protection of nuclear materials, enforcement in France. (J.S.)

  18. Regulations on nuclear materials control of the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The present 'Regulations on Nuclear Materials Control of the People's Republic of China' were promulgated by the State Council on June 15, 1987, which are enacted to ensure safe and lawful use of nuclear materials, to prevent theft, sabotage, lose, unlawful diversion and unlawful use, to protect the security of the State and the Public and to facilitate the development of nuclear undertakings. The nuclear materials controlled are: 1. Uranium-235 (materials and products); 2. Uranium-233 (material and products); 3. Plutonium-239 (materials and products); 4. tritium (materials and products); 5. lithium-6 (materials and products); 6. Other nuclear materials requiring control. The present regulations are not applicable to the control of uranium ore and its primary products. The control measures for nuclear products transferred to the armed forces shall be laid down by the national defence department

  19. Content and structure of knowledge base used for virtual control of android arm motion in specified environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritykin, F. N.; Nebritov, V. I.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents the configuration of knowledge base necessary for intelligent control of android arm mechanism motion with different positions of certain forbidden regions taken into account. The present structure of the knowledge base characterizes the past experience of arm motion synthesis in the vector of velocities with due regard for the known obstacles. This structure also specifies its intrinsic properties. Knowledge base generation is based on the study of the arm mechanism instantaneous states implementations. Computational experiments connected with the virtual control of android arm motion with known forbidden regions using the developed knowledge base are introduced. Using the developed knowledge base to control virtually the arm motion reduces the time of test assignments calculation. The results of the research can be used in developing control systems of autonomous android robots in the known in advance environment.

  20. Environmental control for nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, A W; Wells, W H [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    Peaceful applications introduce some new environmental considerations into the design of nuclear explosives. Much of the experience gained in weapon work can be applied, but the requirement of survival in a very deep hole is not found in any military system. We will briefly mention the overall environment and make a few comparisons with some general characteristics of the weapon environment. The major portion of this paper is devoted to the special problems of pressure and temperature found in the emplacement environment. Potential users should know where we stand with regard to survival in hostile environments in terms of feasibility and possible effects on field operations. In all applications there are several things competing for the available diameter. Given that explosives can be made to work over a range of diameters and that necessary environmental control is feasible, all further discussions can be related to the cost of providing a hole big enough to accomplish the task. The items competing for diameter are: 1) bare nuclear assembly 2) insulation and cooling system if needed 3) pressure canister 4) shielding material 5) emplacement clearance All of these must be considered with the cost of the hole in optimizing an overall design. Conditions in a particular location will affect the shielding requirements and the emplacement clearance. The nuclear assembly can vary in size, but the long development time requires that decisions be made quite early, perhaps in ignorance of the economic details of a particular application. The pressure canister is a relatively straightforward design problem that can be resolved by giving appropriate consideration to all of the design requirements. In particular for 20,000 psi pressure in the emplacement hole, a canister of heat-treated alloy steel having a yield strength of 200,000 psi and a wall thickness which is about .07 times the outside diameter is adequate and straight- forward to fabricate. The insulation and cooling

  1. JACoW A dual arms robotic platform control for navigation, inspection and telemanipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Di Castro, Mario; Ferre, Manuel; Gilardoni, Simone; Losito, Roberto; Lunghi, Giacomo; Masi, Alessandro

    2018-01-01

    High intensity hadron colliders and fixed target experiments require an increasing amount of robotic tele-manipulation to prevent excessive exposure of maintenance personnel to the radioactive environment. Telemanipulation tasks are often required on old radioactive devices not conceived to be maintained and handled using standard industrial robotic solutions. Robotic platforms with a level of dexterity that often require the use of two robotic arms with a minimum of six degrees of freedom are instead needed for these purposes. In this paper, the control of a novel robust robotic platform able to host and to carry safely a dual robotic arm system is presented. The control of the arms is fully integrated with the vehicle control in order to guarantee simplicity to the operators during the realization of the robotic tasks. A novel high-level control architecture for the new robot is shown, as well as a novel low level safety layer for anti-collision and recovery scenarios. Preliminary results of the system comm...

  2. Fuzzy logic control of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Liangzhong; Guo Renjun; Ma Changwen

    1996-01-01

    The main advantage of the fuzzy logic control is that the method does not require a detailed mathematical model of the object to be controlled. In this paper, the shortcomings and limitations of the model-based method in nuclear power plant control were presented, the theory of the fuzzy logic control was briefly introduced, and the applications of the fuzzy logic control technology in nuclear power plant controls were surveyed. Finally, the problems to be solved by using the fuzzy logic control in nuclear power plants were discussed

  3. Development program of two-arm bilateral servomanipulator system for nuclear fuel cycle facilities in PNC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashihara, H.; Igarashi, M.; Maeda, M.; Nomizu, T.; Uematsu, K.

    1984-01-01

    PNC started the development program of a two-arm bilateral servomanipulator to improve remote maintenance in the planning of pilot plants for HLLW vitrification and FBR fuel reprocessing. In this paper, the development program of two-arm bilateral servomanipulators, signal and power transmissions, high performance viewing system, man-machine interface, and transporter system for manipulators will be presented. Also radiation tests for all components used in a hot cell are being performed to aid remote system design

  4. Bombs and Umbrellas: Defending US Middle East Allies from a Nuclear-Armed Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    States Reconsider Their Nuclear Choices ed. Kurt Cambell , Robert Einhorn, and Mitchell Reiss. (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2004...Lippman, “Saudi Arabia: The Calculations of Uncertainty,” The Nuclear Tipping Point: Why States Reconsider Their Nuclear Choices ed. Kurt Cambell , Robert...a Non-Nuclear Course.” In The Nuclear Tipping Point: Why States Reconsider Their Nuclear Choices ed. Kurt Cambell , Robert Einhorn, and Mitchell

  5. Visual Attention Allocation Between Robotic Arm and Environmental Process Control: Validating the STOM Task Switching Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, Christopher; Vieanne, Alex; Clegg, Benjamin; Sebok, Angelia; Janes, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Fifty six participants time shared a spacecraft environmental control system task with a realistic space robotic arm control task in either a manual or highly automated version. The former could suffer minor failures, whose diagnosis and repair were supported by a decision aid. At the end of the experiment this decision aid unexpectedly failed. We measured visual attention allocation and switching between the two tasks, in each of the eight conditions formed by manual-automated arm X expected-unexpected failure X monitoring- failure management. We also used our multi-attribute task switching model, based on task attributes of priority interest, difficulty and salience that were self-rated by participants, to predict allocation. An un-weighted model based on attributes of difficulty, interest and salience accounted for 96 percent of the task allocation variance across the 8 different conditions. Task difficulty served as an attractor, with more difficult tasks increasing the tendency to stay on task.

  6. Nuclear Proliferation Factbook. Prepared for the Subcommittees on Arms Control, International Security and Science and on International Economic Policy and Trade of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, U.S. House of Representatives and the Subcommittee on Energy, Nuclear Proliferation, and Federal Processes of the Committee on Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate, 99th Congress, 1st session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Congressional Research Service.

    To provide a handy reference for those concerned with ways to avoid the further spread, or proliferation, of nuclear weapons, the House Committee on Foreign Affairs and the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs have since 1977 sponsored periodic publication of the Nuclear Proliferation Factbook. This fourth edition of the factbook includes a…

  7. Unilateral versus bilateral robot-assisted rehabilitation on arm-trunk control and functions post stroke: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Yi; Yang, Chieh-Ling; Chen, Ming-de; Lin, Keh-Chung; Wu, Li-Ling

    2013-04-12

    Although the effects of robot-assisted arm training after stroke are promising, the relative effects of unilateral (URT) vs. bilateral (BRT) robot-assisted arm training remain uncertain. This study compared the effects of URT vs. BRT on upper extremity (UE) control, trunk compensation, and function in patients with chronic stroke. This was a single-blinded, randomized controlled trial. The intervention was implemented at 4 hospitals. Fifty-three patients with stroke were randomly assigned to URT, BRT, or control treatment (CT). Each group received UE training for 90 to 105 min/day, 5 days/week, for 4 weeks. The kinematic variables for arm motor control and trunk compensation included normalized movement time, normalized movement units, and the arm-trunk contribution slope in unilateral and bilateral tasks. Motor function and daily function were measured by the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), Motor Activity Log (MAL), and ABILHAND Questionnaire. The BRT and CT groups elicited significantly larger slope values (i.e., less trunk compensation) at the start of bilateral reaching than the URT group. URT led to significantly better effects on WMFT-Time than BRT. Differences in arm control kinematics and performance on the MAL and ABILHAND among the 3 groups were not significant. BRT and URT resulted in differential improvements in specific UE/trunk performance in patients with stroke. BRT elicited larger benefits than URT on reducing compensatory trunk movements at the beginning of reaching. In contrast, URT produced better improvements in UE temporal efficiency. These relative effects on movement kinematics, however, did not translate into differential benefits in daily functions. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00917605.

  8. Translational control of a graphically simulated robot arm by kinematic rate equations that overcome elbow joint singularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, L. K.; Houck, J. A.; Carzoo, S. W.

    1984-01-01

    An operator commands a robot hand to move in a certain direction relative to its own axis system by specifying a velocity in that direction. This velocity command is then resolved into individual joint rotational velocities in the robot arm to effect the motion. However, the usual resolved-rate equations become singular when the robot arm is straightened. To overcome this elbow joint singularity, equations were developed which allow continued translational control of the robot hand even though the robot arm is (or is nearly) fully extended. A feature of the equations near full arm extension is that an operator simply extends and retracts the robot arm to reverse the direction of the elbow bend (difficult maneuver for the usual resolved-rate equations). Results show successful movement of a graphically simulated robot arm.

  9. Primary reaction control system/remote manipulator system interaction with loaded arm. Space shuttle engineering and operations support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, E. C.; Davis, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    A study of the interaction between the orbiter primary reaction control system (PRCS) and the remote manipulator system (RMS) with a loaded arm is documented. This analysis was performed with the Payload Deployment and Retrieval Systems Simulation (PDRSS) program with the passive arm bending option. The passive-arm model simulates the arm as massless elastic links with locked joints. The study was divided into two parts. The first part was the evaluation of the response of the arm to step inputs (i.e. constant jet torques) about each of the orbiter body axes. The second part of the study was the evaluation of the response of the arm to minimum impulse primary RCS jet firings with both single pulse and pulse train inputs.

  10. The Arms Control and Crisis Management Potential of the Proposed International Satellite Monitoring Agency (ISMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    unbiased scientific method , is widespread in the West. This is particularly true of the two arms control functions to which an ISMA would contribute...Elizabeth Young (Lord and Lady Kennett), Neitber Red Nor Dead:_ The Case for Dis• aumAmjeif, Social Democratic Party (SDP), Open Forum Paper No. 2...in the national interest. The Soviet Union is not the first, and is unlikely to be the last, country to adopt a . narrow, constructionist approach to

  11. A hybrid BMI-based exoskeleton for paresis: EMG control for assisting arm movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Toshihiro; Sakurada, Takeshi; Koike, Yasuharu; Kansaku, Kenji

    2017-02-01

    Brain-machine interface (BMI) technologies have succeeded in controlling robotic exoskeletons, enabling some paralyzed people to control their own arms and hands. We have developed an exoskeleton asynchronously controlled by EEG signals. In this study, to enable real-time control of the exoskeleton for paresis, we developed a hybrid system with EEG and EMG signals, and the EMG signals were used to estimate its joint angles. Eleven able-bodied subjects and two patients with upper cervical spinal cord injuries (SCIs) performed hand and arm movements, and the angles of the metacarpophalangeal (MP) joint of the index finger, wrist, and elbow were estimated from EMG signals using a formula that we derived to calculate joint angles from EMG signals, based on a musculoskeletal model. The formula was exploited to control the elbow of the exoskeleton after automatic adjustments. Four able-bodied subjects and a patient with upper cervical SCI wore an exoskeleton controlled using EMG signals and were required to perform hand and arm movements to carry and release a ball. Estimated angles of the MP joints of index fingers, wrists, and elbows were correlated well with the measured angles in 11 able-bodied subjects (correlation coefficients were 0.81  ±  0.09, 0.85  ±  0.09, and 0.76  ±  0.13, respectively) and the patients (e.g. 0.91  ±  0.01 in the elbow of a patient). Four able-bodied subjects successfully positioned their arms to adequate angles by extending their elbows and a joint of the exoskeleton, with root-mean-square errors  exoskeleton, successfully carried a ball to a goal in all 10 trials. A BMI-based exoskeleton for paralyzed arms and hands using real-time control was realized by designing a new method to estimate joint angles based on EMG signals, and these may be useful for practical rehabilitation and the support of daily actions.

  12. A hybrid BMI-based exoskeleton for paresis: EMG control for assisting arm movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Toshihiro; Sakurada, Takeshi; Koike, Yasuharu; Kansaku, Kenji

    2017-02-01

    Objective. Brain-machine interface (BMI) technologies have succeeded in controlling robotic exoskeletons, enabling some paralyzed people to control their own arms and hands. We have developed an exoskeleton asynchronously controlled by EEG signals. In this study, to enable real-time control of the exoskeleton for paresis, we developed a hybrid system with EEG and EMG signals, and the EMG signals were used to estimate its joint angles. Approach. Eleven able-bodied subjects and two patients with upper cervical spinal cord injuries (SCIs) performed hand and arm movements, and the angles of the metacarpophalangeal (MP) joint of the index finger, wrist, and elbow were estimated from EMG signals using a formula that we derived to calculate joint angles from EMG signals, based on a musculoskeletal model. The formula was exploited to control the elbow of the exoskeleton after automatic adjustments. Four able-bodied subjects and a patient with upper cervical SCI wore an exoskeleton controlled using EMG signals and were required to perform hand and arm movements to carry and release a ball. Main results. Estimated angles of the MP joints of index fingers, wrists, and elbows were correlated well with the measured angles in 11 able-bodied subjects (correlation coefficients were 0.81  ±  0.09, 0.85  ±  0.09, and 0.76  ±  0.13, respectively) and the patients (e.g. 0.91  ±  0.01 in the elbow of a patient). Four able-bodied subjects successfully positioned their arms to adequate angles by extending their elbows and a joint of the exoskeleton, with root-mean-square errors  exoskeleton, successfully carried a ball to a goal in all 10 trials. Significance. A BMI-based exoskeleton for paralyzed arms and hands using real-time control was realized by designing a new method to estimate joint angles based on EMG signals, and these may be useful for practical rehabilitation and the support of daily actions.

  13. Nuclear reactor kinetics and plant control

    CERN Document Server

    Oka, Yoshiaki

    2013-01-01

    Understanding time-dependent behaviors of nuclear reactors and the methods of their control is essential to the operation and safety of nuclear power plants. This book provides graduate students, researchers, and engineers in nuclear engineering comprehensive information on both the fundamental theory of nuclear reactor kinetics and control and the state-of-the-art practice in actual plants, as well as the idea of how to bridge the two. The first part focuses on understanding fundamental nuclear kinetics. It introduces delayed neutrons, fission chain reactions, point kinetics theory, reactivit

  14. Visits to Australia by nuclear powered or armed vessels: contingency planning for the accidental release of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The report refers to the adequacy of current contingency planning by the Australian Federal and Senate authorities to deal with the accidental release of ionizating radiation from visiting nuclear powered or armed vessels in Australian waters and ports. Much of the material was obtained in response to questions put in writing by the Senate Standing Committee to the Department of Defence, ANSTO and others. In addition, the report contains relevant information from Commonwealth documents as well as the Committee findings and recommendations. Issues considered include: types of visiting nuclear powered vessels, accident likelihood and consequences, differences between naval and land-based reactors, safety records. The persons or organizations who made submissions or appeared in all public hearings are listed in the appendixes, along with all visits to Australian ports by nuclear powered warships from 1976 to 1988

  15. A Remote Controlled Robotic Arm That Reads Barcodes and Handles Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Ying Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a 6-axis robotic arm, which was controlled by an embedded Raspberry Pi with onboard WiFi, was developed and fabricated. A mobile application (APP, designed for the purpose, was used to operate and monitor a robotic arm by means of a WiFi connection. A computer vision was used to read common one-dimensional barcode (EAN code for the handling and identification of products such as milk tea drinks, sodas and biscuits. The gripper on the end of the arm could sense the clamping force and allowed real-time control of the amount of force used to hold and handle the products. The packages were all made of different material and this control allowed them to be handled without danger of damage or deformation. The maximum handling torque used was ~1.08 Nm and the mechanical design allowed the force of the gripper to be uniformly applied to the sensor to ensure accurate measurement of the force.

  16. A MYOELECTRIC PROSTHETIC ARM CONTROLLED BY A SENSOR-ACTUATOR LOOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Kutílek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes new methods and systems designed for application in upper extremity prostheses. An artificial upper limb with this system is a robot arm controlled by EMG signals and a set of sensors. The new multi-sensor system is based on ultrasonic sensors, infrared sensors, Hall-effect sensors, a CO2 sensor and a relative humidity sensor. The multi-sensor system is used to update a 3D map of objects in the robot’s environment, or it directly sends information about the environment to the control system of the myoelectric arm. Occupancy grid mapping is used to build a 3D map of the robot’s environment. The multi-sensor system can identify the distance of objects in 3D space, and the information from the system is used in a 3D map to identify potential collisions or a potentially dangerous environment, which could damage the prosthesis or the user. Information from the sensors and from the 3D map is evaluated using a fuzzy expert system. The control system of the myoelectric prosthetic arm can choose an adequate reaction on the basis of information from the fuzzy expert system. The systems and methods were designed and verified using MatLab/Simulink. They are aimed for use as assistive technology for disabled people.

  17. Intelligent control of robotic arm/hand systems for the NASA EVA retriever using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclauchlan, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    Adaptive/general learning algorithms using varying neural network models are considered for the intelligent control of robotic arm plus dextrous hand/manipulator systems. Results are summarized and discussed for the use of the Barto/Sutton/Anderson neuronlike, unsupervised learning controller as applied to the stabilization of an inverted pendulum on a cart system. Recommendations are made for the application of the controller and a kinematic analysis for trajectory planning to simple object retrieval (chase/approach and capture/grasp) scenarios in two dimensions.

  18. Croatian National System of Nuclear Materials Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscan, R.

    1998-01-01

    In the process of economic and technological development of Croatia by using or introducing nuclear power or in the case of international co-operation in the field of peaceful nuclear activities, including international exchange of nuclear material, Croatia should establish and implement National System of Nuclear Materials Control. Croatian National System of accounting for and control of all nuclear material will be subjected to safeguards under requirements of Agreement and Additional Protocol between the Republic of Croatia and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The decision by NPT parties at the 1995 NPT Review and Extension Conference to endorse the Fullscope IAEA Safeguards Standard (FSS) as a necessary precondition of nuclear supply means that states are obliged to ensure that the recipient country has a FSS agreement in place before any nuclear transfer can take place (Ref. 1). The FSS standard of nuclear supply is a central element of the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) Guidelines which the NSG adopted in 1992 and should be applied to members and non-members of the NSG. The FSS standard of nuclear supply in general allows for NPT parties or countries which have undertaken the same obligations through other treaty arrangements, to receive favourable treatment in nuclear supply arrangements. However, the Iraqi experience demonstrate that trade in nuclear and dual-use items, if not properly monitored, can contribute to a nuclear weapons program in countries acting contrary to their non-proliferation obligation. Multilateral nuclear export control mechanisms, including the FSS supply standard, provide the basis for co-ordination and standardisation of export control measures. (author)

  19. Biologically inspired control of humanoid robot arms robust and adaptive approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Spiers, Adam; Herrmann, Guido

    2016-01-01

    This book investigates a biologically inspired method of robot arm control, developed with the objective of synthesising human-like motion dynamically, using nonlinear, robust and adaptive control techniques in practical robot systems. The control method caters to a rising interest in humanoid robots and the need for appropriate control schemes to match these systems. Unlike the classic kinematic schemes used in industrial manipulators, the dynamic approaches proposed here promote human-like motion with better exploitation of the robot’s physical structure. This also benefits human-robot interaction. The control schemes proposed in this book are inspired by a wealth of human-motion literature that indicates the drivers of motion to be dynamic, model-based and optimal. Such considerations lend themselves nicely to achievement via nonlinear control techniques without the necessity for extensive and complex biological models. The operational-space method of robot control forms the basis of many of the techniqu...

  20. Hardware design of HIRFL-CSR EVMEbus controller based on ARM920T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Lan; Qian Weimin; Xu Yang; Ji Peng; Liu Caihong; Ma Yunhai

    2006-01-01

    The HIRFL-CSR EVMEbus controller is developed in IMP. The controller is based on AT91RM9200 (ARM9) microprocessor, which is in 0.8 mm BGA package. The controller runs LINUX OS, and can connect with standard VGA display, keyboard, and mouse. There are 10 M/100 M Ethernet, USB, RS-232, RS-485 and CANBUS interfaces on the board. Itr supports storage devices SD Card and CF Card. The backboard interface logic is programmed in VHDL and is programmed into an in-system configurable FPGA device. The bus can drive high current up to 64 mA. It is not only compliant to VME specification, but also has flexibility of the programmable signal definition. Being a key module in HIRFL-CSR control system, the controller can be used as a local controller and also a remote gateway controller. (authors)

  1. Performance and Usability of Various Robotic Arm Control Modes from Human Force Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Mick

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Elaborating an efficient and usable mapping between input commands and output movements is still a key challenge for the design of robotic arm prostheses. In order to address this issue, we present and compare three different control modes, by assessing them in terms of performance as well as general usability. Using an isometric force transducer as the command device, these modes convert the force input signal into either a position or a velocity vector, whose magnitude is linearly or quadratically related to force input magnitude. With the robotic arm from the open source 3D-printed Poppy Humanoid platform simulating a mobile prosthesis, an experiment was carried out with eighteen able-bodied subjects performing a 3-D target-reaching task using each of the three modes. The subjects were given questionnaires to evaluate the quality of their experience with each mode, providing an assessment of their global usability in the context of the task. According to performance metrics and questionnaire results, velocity control modes were found to perform better than position control mode in terms of accuracy and quality of control as well as user satisfaction and comfort. Subjects also seemed to favor quadratic velocity control over linear (proportional velocity control, even if these two modes did not clearly distinguish from one another when it comes to performance and usability assessment. These results highlight the need to take into account user experience as one of the key criteria for the design of control modes intended to operate limb prostheses.

  2. The implementation of common object request broker architecture (CORBA) for controlling robot arm via web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Mahamad Zuhdi Amin; Mohd Yazid Idris; Wan Mohd Nasir Wan Kadir

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the employment of the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) technology in the implementation of our distributed Arm Robot Controller (ARC). CORBA is an industrial standard architecture based on distributed abstract object model, which is developed by Object Management Group (OMG). The architecture consists of five components i.e. Object Request Broker (ORB), Interface Definition Language (IDL), Dynamic Invocation Interface (DII), Interface Repositories (IR) and Object adapter (OA). CORBA objects are different from typical programming objects in three ways i.e. they can be executed on any platform, located anywhere on the network and written in any language that supports IDL mapping. In the implementation of the system, 5 degree of freedom (DOF) arm robot RCS 6.0 and Java as a programming mapping to the CORBA IDL. By implementing this architecture, the objects in the server machine can be distributed over the network in order to run the controller. the ultimate goal for our ARC system is to demonstrate concurrent execution of multiple arm robots through multiple instantiations of distributed object components. (Author)

  3. Trajectory control of an articulated robot with a parallel drive arm based on splines under tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Seung-Jong

    Today's industrial robots controlled by mini/micro computers are basically simple positioning devices. The positioning accuracy depends on the mathematical description of the robot configuration to place the end-effector at the desired position and orientation within the workspace and on following the specified path which requires the trajectory planner. In addition, the consideration of joint velocity, acceleration, and jerk trajectories are essential for trajectory planning of industrial robots to obtain smooth operation. The newly designed 6 DOF articulated robot with a parallel drive arm mechanism which permits the joint actuators to be placed in the same horizontal line to reduce the arm inertia and to increase load capacity and stiffness is selected. First, the forward kinematic and inverse kinematic problems are examined. The forward kinematic equations are successfully derived based on Denavit-Hartenberg notation with independent joint angle constraints. The inverse kinematic problems are solved using the arm-wrist partitioned approach with independent joint angle constraints. Three types of curve fitting methods used in trajectory planning, i.e., certain degree polynomial functions, cubic spline functions, and cubic spline functions under tension, are compared to select the best possible method to satisfy both smooth joint trajectories and positioning accuracy for a robot trajectory planner. Cubic spline functions under tension is the method selected for the new trajectory planner. This method is implemented for a 6 DOF articulated robot with a parallel drive arm mechanism to improve the smoothness of the joint trajectories and the positioning accuracy of the manipulator. Also, this approach is compared with existing trajectory planners, 4-3-4 polynomials and cubic spline functions, via circular arc motion simulations. The new trajectory planner using cubic spline functions under tension is implemented into the microprocessor based robot controller and

  4. A Study on Control System Design Based on ARM Sea Target Search System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Xinwei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The infrared detector is used for sea target search, which can assist humans in searching suspicious objects at night and under poor visibility conditions, and improving search efficiency. This paper applies for interrupt and stack technology to solve problems of data losses that may be caused by one-to-many multi-byte protocol communication. Meanwhile, this paper implements hardware and software design of the system based on industrial-grade ARM control chip and uC / OS-II embedded operating system. The control system in the sea target search system is an information exchange and control center of the whole system, which solves the problem of controlling over the shooting angle of the infrared detector in the process of target search. After testing, the control system operates stably and reliably, and realizes rotation and control functions of the pan/tilt platform during automatic search, manual search and track.

  5. Development of Ethernet Based Remote Monitoring and Controlling of MST Radar Transmitters using ARM Cortex Microcontroller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Narayana ROSHANNA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The recently emerging Web Services technology has provided a new and excellent solution to Industrial Automation in online control and remote monitoring. In this paper, a Web Service Based Remote Monitoring & Controlling of Radar Transmitters for safety management (WMCT developed for MST Radar is described. It achieved the MST radar transmitters’ remote supervisory, data logging and controlling activities. The system is developed using an ARM Cortex M3 processor to monitor and control the 32 triode-based transmitters of the 53-MHz Radar. The system controls transmitters via the internet using an Ethernet client server and store health status in the Database for radar performance analysis. The system enables scientists to operate and control the radar transmitters from a remote client machine Webpage.

  6. Multi-muscle FES force control of the human arm for arbitrary goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schearer, Eric M; Liao, Yu-Wei; Perreault, Eric J; Tresch, Matthew C; Memberg, William D; Kirsch, Robert F; Lynch, Kevin M

    2014-05-01

    We present a method for controlling a neuroprosthesis for a paralyzed human arm using functional electrical stimulation (FES) and characterize the errors of the controller. The subject has surgically implanted electrodes for stimulating muscles in her shoulder and arm. Using input/output data, a model mapping muscle stimulations to isometric endpoint forces measured at the subject's hand was identified. We inverted the model of this redundant and coupled multiple-input multiple-output system by minimizing muscle activations and used this inverse for feedforward control. The magnitude of the total root mean square error over a grid in the volume of achievable isometric endpoint force targets was 11% of the total range of achievable forces. Major sources of error were random error due to trial-to-trial variability and model bias due to nonstationary system properties. Because the muscles working collectively are the actuators of the skeletal system, the quantification of errors in force control guides designs of motion controllers for multi-joint, multi-muscle FES systems that can achieve arbitrary goals.

  7. Brain-Machine Interface control of a robot arm using actor-critic rainforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmeyer, Eric A; Mahmoudi, Babak; Geng, Shijia; Prins, Noeline; Sanchez, Justin C

    2012-01-01

    Here we demonstrate how a marmoset monkey can use a reinforcement learning (RL) Brain-Machine Interface (BMI) to effectively control the movements of a robot arm for a reaching task. In this work, an actor-critic RL algorithm used neural ensemble activity in the monkey's motor cortext to control the robot movements during a two-target decision task. This novel approach to decoding offers unique advantages for BMI control applications. Compared to supervised learning decoding methods, the actor-critic RL algorithm does not require an explicit set of training data to create a static control model, but rather it incrementally adapts the model parameters according to its current performance, in this case requiring only a very basic feedback signal. We show how this algorithm achieved high performance when mapping the monkey's neural states (94%) to robot actions, and only needed to experience a few trials before obtaining accurate real-time control of the robot arm. Since RL methods responsively adapt and adjust their parameters, they can provide a method to create BMIs that are robust against perturbations caused by changes in either the neural input space or the output actions they generate under different task requirements or goals.

  8. Complete automation of nuclear reactors control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weill, J.

    1955-01-01

    The use of nuclear reactor for energy production induces the installation of automatic control systems which need to be safe enough and can adapt to the industrial scale of energy production. These automatic control systems have to insure the constancy of power level and adjust the power produced to the energy demand. Two functioning modes are considered: nuclear plant connected up to other electric production systems as hydraulic or thermic plants or nuclear plants functioning on an independent network. For nuclear plants connected up with other production plants, xenon poisoning and operating cost lead to keep working at maximum power the nuclear reactors. Thus, the power modulation control system will not be considered and only start-up control, safety control, and control systems will be automated. For nuclear power plants working on an independent network, the power modulation control system is needed to economize fuel. It described the automated control system for reactors functioning with constant power: a power measurement system constituted of an ionization chamber and a direct-current amplifier will control the steadfastness of the power produced. For reactors functioning with variable power, the automated power control system will allow to change the power and maintain it steady with all the necessary safety and will control that working conditions under P max and R max (maximum power and maximum reactivity). The effects of temperature and xenon poisoning will also be discussed. Safety systems will be added to stop completely the functioning of the reactor if P max is reached. (M.P.)

  9. Design of a telescope control system using an ARM microcontroller with embedded RTOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñuela Pico, Cristian R.; Atara Montañez, Fabian A.; Cuervo, Juan C.; Gonzalez-Llorente, Jesus

    2014-08-01

    This work presents the design of a wireless control system that allows driving all the necessary instruments to control the orientation of an equatorial mounting telescope through a real time operative system (RTOS) that runs over ARM microcontroller. The control system is commanded through a user-interface which works under Android platform giving the user the option to control the tracking mode, right ascension, and declination. The system was successfully deployed and tested during a one-hour observation of the Moon. The frequency measured by the oscilloscope is 66.67 Hz which equals the sidereal speed. The telescope control systems allows the user to have a better precision when locating a star but also to cover long-duration tracking processes

  10. The NPT and nuclear export controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkhout, F.

    1992-01-01

    Controls on the export of nuclear materials and technology were originally imposed in wartime and under the United States Atomic Energy Act of 1946 to restrict the supply of uranium. But there was no international agreement until the mid 1960s; before that the United States, Canada, France and the Soviet Union imposed export controls on a national basis. The Non-Proliferation Treaty, especially Articles I-IV, set out the first world wide controls on the nuclear trade. These articles are explained in the context of the relevant Committees (the Zangger Committee, the Committee on the Assurance of Supply, the National Export Committee and the Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Control) and Guidelines (the Nuclear Suppliers Guidelines and the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation). Recent developments which have a bearing on nuclear trade, such as the single European market, the emergence of new supplies and the break-up of the Soviet Union, are considered. (UK)

  11. Major upgrade of the articulated inspection arm control system to fulfill daily operation requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastor, P., E-mail: patrick.pastor@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, Institut de Recherche sur la Fusion par confinement Magnétique (France); Villedieu, E.; Allegretti, L.; Vincent, B.; Barbuti, A.; Bruno, V.; Coquillat, P.; Dechelle, C.; Gargiulo, L.; Le, R.; Malard, P.; Martinez, A.; Nouailletas, R. [CEA, IRFM, Institut de Recherche sur la Fusion par confinement Magnétique (France); Yuntao, Song; Yong, Cheng; Chen, Liu; Hansheng, Feng; Shanshuang, Shi [ASIPP, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We propose an overview of the work which has been done to upgrade the control system of the AIA robot (articulated inspection arm) to fulfill daily operation requirements for tokamak inspection. • The control system is based on the use of new position sensors, new electronics design and new supervisor software. • Final tests are ongoing in the EAST scale 1 tokamak mock-up. Routine operation of the robot at EAST will start in the beginning of 2015. - Abstract: An articulated inspection arm (AIA) has been developed by CEA for visual inspection between pulses inside the Tore Supra tokamak vacuum vessel without breaking temperature and vacuum conditions. The eight meters length robot is composed of a shuttle and six articulated segments with a video camera at its end. A demonstration prototype has been achieved in 2008 at Tore Supra (Gargiulo, 2007; Houry, 2008; Perrot, 2003). A project to upgrade the AIA into a fully operational robot has been undertaken by IRFM and ASIPP in an Associated Laboratory. It will be in operation first in the EAST machine and afterwards in Tore Supra in its WEST (W/Tungsten Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) configuration where it is of paramount importance to survey possible degradation of W component surface. The control system of the robot has been extensively upgraded. The effort has been focused on three areas: (1) improvement of the arm position accuracy, (2) increase of the operational robustness, (3) use of a powerful graphical user interface including simulation of trajectories and robot deployment capabilities in a 3D viewer environment. The aim of this paper is to detail the architecture of the AIA control system.

  12. Position Based Visual Servoing control of a Wheelchair Mounter Robotic Arm using Parallel Tracking and Mapping of task objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Palla

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years power wheelchairs have been becoming the only device able to provide autonomy and independence to people with motor skill impairments. In particular, many power wheelchairs feature robotic arms for gesture emulation, like the interaction with objects. However, complex robotic arms often require a joystic to be controlled; this feature make the arm hard to be controlled by impaired users. Paradoxically, if the user were able to proficiently control such devices, he would not need them. For that reason, this paper presents a highly autonomous robotic arm, designed in order to minimize the effort necessary for the control of the arm. In order to do that, the arm feature an easy to use human - machine interface and is controlled by Computer Vison algorithm, implementing a Position Based Visual Servoing (PBVS control. It was realized by extracting features by the camera and fusing them with the distance from the target, obtained by a proximity sensor. The Parallel Tracking and Mapping (PTAM algorithm was used to find the 3D position of the task object in the camera reference system. The visual servoing algorithm was implemented in an embedded platform, in real time. Each part of the control loop was developed in Robotic Operative System (ROS Environment, which allows to implement the previous algorithms as different nodes. Theoretical analysis, simulations and in system measurements proved the effectiveness of the proposed solution.

  13. Nuclear proliferation and terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This section of the book, Part III, has two chapters (9 and 10). Chapter 9, Nuclear Power and Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is disucssed under these subjects: nuclear nonproliferation: origins and status; requirements for nuclear weapons manufacture; current nuclear programs and proliferation capabilities; encouraging decisions to forego weapons; arms control; safeguards; attitudes and expectations. Chapter 10, Nuclear Terrorism, discusses these areas: theft of nuclear materials; attacks on nuclear reactors; responding to nuclear terrorism; security and civil liberties

  14. Strategy of arm movement control is determined by minimization of neural effort for joint coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dounskaia, Natalia; Shimansky, Yury

    2016-06-01

    Optimality criteria underlying organization of arm movements are often validated by testing their ability to adequately predict hand trajectories. However, kinematic redundancy of the arm allows production of the same hand trajectory through different joint coordination patterns. We therefore consider movement optimality at the level of joint coordination patterns. A review of studies of multi-joint movement control suggests that a 'trailing' pattern of joint control is consistently observed during which a single ('leading') joint is rotated actively and interaction torque produced by this joint is the primary contributor to the motion of the other ('trailing') joints. A tendency to use the trailing pattern whenever the kinematic redundancy is sufficient and increased utilization of this pattern during skillful movements suggests optimality of the trailing pattern. The goal of this study is to determine the cost function minimization of which predicts the trailing pattern. We show that extensive experimental testing of many known cost functions cannot successfully explain optimality of the trailing pattern. We therefore propose a novel cost function that represents neural effort for joint coordination. That effort is quantified as the cost of neural information processing required for joint coordination. We show that a tendency to reduce this 'neurocomputational' cost predicts the trailing pattern and that the theoretically developed predictions fully agree with the experimental findings on control of multi-joint movements. Implications for future research of the suggested interpretation of the trailing joint control pattern and the theory of joint coordination underlying it are discussed.

  15. Nonproliferation issues. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Arms Control, International Organizations and Security Agreements of the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, Ninety-Fourth Congress, First and Second Sessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Twelve days of hearings were held over an 18-month period to discuss issues relating to the Nonproliferation Treaty and its effectiveness. Nuclear weapons are no longer confined to those nations with economic and technical capability, a fact which jeopardizes the security of all nations. Critics of the treaty felt that it was more the result of maneuvering than negotiation. The committee examined issues raised by the Vladivostok Accords, which limits the nuclear arms race, promotes detente, and allows progress in arms control. Witnesses responded to criticism that the Accords (1) did not limit a qualitative arms race, (2) allowed both sides to modernize all 2,400 permitted delivery vehicles, (3) did not equalize throw weight, and (4) allow extensive new deployment of MIRV's, especially in the Soviet Union. Witnesses representing government, universities, industry, and foreign countries considered the range of weapons, safeguards and control agreements, estimates of war damage, and the Treaty's intended benefits of security assurance and information exchange

  16. Control panel handling of a nuclear simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Polo, F.; Jimenez Fraustro, L.A.; Banuelos Galindo, A.; Diamant Rubinstein, A.

    1985-01-01

    The handling of the control panels for a Nuclear Simulator for operating training is described. The control panels are handled by a set of intelligent controllers, each with at least two processors (8035 - Communications Controller and a 8085 - Master processor). The Controllers are connected to the main computers (Two dual processor Gould concept 32/6780 and a single processor Gould concept 32/6705) via serial asynchronous channels in a multidrop, star-like architecture. The controllers transmit to the main computers only the changes detected and receive the whole set of output variables as computed by the mathematical models of the Nuclear Plant

  17. Procesamiento de ondas cerebrales con microprocesador ARM para control de coche teledirigido

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón Martínez, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Este trabajo fin de grado trata sobre el procesamiento de las señales que produce el cerebro humano para utilizarlas y destinarlas a algún propósito. En este caso, dicho propósito es el control de un coche teledirigido de juguete. Mediante un dispositivo electrónico comercial, que realiza la función de BCI (Brain Computer Interface), se captan las ondas cerebrales haciendo uso de una electroencefalografía (EEG) y son enviadas a un microprocesador ARM vía bluetooth. El casco o sensor de ondas,...

  18. Design of a VME bus controller based on ARM7 with embedded system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yanyu; Qiao Weimin; Guo Yuhui; Li Xiaoqiang; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the solution of a VME-like bus Controller briefly. Samsung's S3C4510B 16/32-bit RISC microcontroller with ARM7 core is a high-performance microcontroller support Ethernet-based systems. The authors use S3C4510B, VIC-068A and CPLD devices built a high speed data route from VME-like Bus to network, the fast link between background computer data-base and front-end target module is achieved over network. (authors)

  19. “Many Countries Will Have the Bomb: There Will Be Hell”: Edoardo Amaldi and the Italian Physicists Committed to Disarmament, Arms Control and Détente

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavarino, Lodovica

    2017-01-01

    The chapter analyzes Edoardo Amaldi’s commitment to disarmament and détente in Italy during the Cold War and in particular during the debate about the signing of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Amaldi (1908-1989) can be considered one of the leading Italian scientists involved in the national and international campaign against nuclear proliferation. In the mid-1960s, a strong civil commitment began to emerge among physicists, as they claimed a voice in Italian security policy, in order to increase public opinion’s awareness about the dangers of the nuclear age and to promote Italian accession to the NPT. While it is difficult to assess to what extent Italian scientists’ efforts in favor of arms control succeeded in influencing Italian politics during the Cold War, their strong involvement in their country’s security policy is in itself a relevant issue for the history of the Italian nuclear experience.

  20. Feedback attitude sliding mode regulation control of spacecraft using arm motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ye; Liang, Bin; Xu, Dong; Wang, Xueqian; Xu, Wenfu

    2013-09-01

    The problem of spacecraft attitude regulation based on the reaction of arm motion has attracted extensive attentions from both engineering and academic fields. Most of the solutions of the manipulator’s motion tracking problem just achieve asymptotical stabilization performance, so that these controllers cannot realize precise attitude regulation because of the existence of non-holonomic constraints. Thus, sliding mode control algorithms are adopted to stabilize the tracking error with zero transient process. Due to the switching effects of the variable structure controller, once the tracking error reaches the designed hyper-plane, it will be restricted to this plane permanently even with the existence of external disturbances. Thus, precise attitude regulation can be achieved. Furthermore, taking the non-zero initial tracking errors and chattering phenomenon into consideration, saturation functions are used to replace sign functions to smooth the control torques. The relations between the upper bounds of tracking errors and the controller parameters are derived to reveal physical characteristic of the controller. Mathematical models of free-floating space manipulator are established and simulations are conducted in the end. The results show that the spacecraft’s attitude can be regulated to the position as desired by using the proposed algorithm, the steady state error is 0.000 2 rad. In addition, the joint tracking trajectory is smooth, the joint tracking errors converges to zero quickly with a satisfactory continuous joint control input. The proposed research provides a feasible solution for spacecraft attitude regulation by using arm motion, and improves the precision of the spacecraft attitude regulation.

  1. Challenges to nuclear export controls today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelus, R.; Sevini, F.; Janssens, W.; Michel, Q.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear energy and nuclear proliferation programs are potentially inter-twinned, which is a point to be taken into account when analysing the development of civil nuclear energy, both domestically and as foreign investment. International agreements ensure that the adhering countries fulfil their obligations and do not abuse civil nuclear programs for the production of nuclear weapons. Uranium enrichment is the process currently most focused on in this respect by recent news and recent technological and commercial developments. But also the so-called reactor-based pathway, with extraction of plutonium from spent nuclear fuel by reprocessing remains in the spotlight of inspectors. Two of the main and complementary pillars on which the prevention of such diversion relies, are Strategic Export Control and International Safeguards. Strategic export control is a key barrier against nuclear proliferation. In many countries including the EU, it is set by a legal framework, envisaging implementation, enforcement and prosecution. The goods that can exported only with authorisations are those identified by the international export control regimes; primarily the Nuclear Suppliers Group in the case of nuclear items. It is complemented by nuclear safeguards measures, and especially in the past few years, by the IAEA State Level concept, which looks at the overall country's potential, including its industrial structure to derive conclusions on the absence of undeclared activities. However, the strict control of goods and knowledge is a moving target, since technological developments, globalisation and the intensifying exchange of information via the worldwide web offer increasing opportunities to proliferators to acquire sensitive items and competencies, and create bigger challenges to enforcement, calling for new responses. Research and development programmes must be directed towards supporting the adaptation of current proliferation containment systems to these new

  2. Introduction to This Special Issue of Georgia Social Science Journal on the Nuclear Arms Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, Sam

    1985-01-01

    Of the many serious problems now facing the world, the most important is threat of nuclear destruction. Social studies educators should provide ample classroom time for discussing and examining the facts concerning nuclear warfare, and they must make sure that various points of view are presented. (RM)

  3. Measurement control program for nuclear material accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouns, R.J.; Roberts, F.P.; Merrill, J.A.; Brown, W.B.

    1980-06-01

    A measurement control program for nuclear material accounting monitors and controls the quality of the measurments of special nuclear material that are involved in material balances. The quality is monitored by collecting data from which the current precision and accuracy of measurements can be evaluated. The quality is controlled by evaluations, reviews, and other administrative measures for control of selection or design of facilities, equipment and measurement methods and the training and qualification of personnel who perform SNM measurements. This report describes the most important elements of a program by which management can monitor and control measurement quality

  4. National Nuclear Management and Control Agency (NNCA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Wan Ki

    2006-01-01

    The National Nuclear Management and Control Agency (NNCA) is an independent agency for safeguards and material control for nuclear activities in the Republic of Korea. Formerly subordinate to the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), it is temporarily associated with the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS). In mid-2006 it will become fully independent. The NNCA is responsible for safeguards within the ROK, cooperates with the IAEA, and supports technical needs of the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST). In addition, it has responsibilities in export controls and physical protection. In the future the NNCA expects to become a national 'think tank' for nuclear control and nonproliferation issues. This presentation enumerated the many responsibilities of the NNCA and explained the structure and staffing of the organization. (author)

  5. A two-input sliding-mode controller for a planar arm actuated by four pneumatic muscle groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, John H; Quesada, Peter M

    2004-09-01

    Multiple-input sliding-mode techniques are applied to a planar arm actuated by four groups of pneumatic muscle (PM) actuators in opposing pair configuration. The control objective is end-effector tracking of a desired path in Cartesian space. The inputs to the system are commanded input pressure differentials for the two opposing PM groups. An existing model for the muscle is incorporated into the arm equations of motion to arrive at a two-input, two-output nonlinear model of the planar arm that is affine in the input and, therefore, suitable for sliding-mode techniques. Relationships between static input pressures are derived for suitable arm behavior in the absence of a control signal. Simulation studies are reported.

  6. Dynamic parameter identification of robot arms with servo-controlled electrical motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhao-Hui; Senda, Hiroshi

    2005-12-01

    This paper addresses the issue of dynamic parameter identification of the robot manipulator with servo-controlled electrical motors. An assumption is made that all kinematical parameters, such as link lengths, are known, and only dynamic parameters containing mass, moment of inertia, and their functions need to be identified. First, we derive dynamics of the robot arm with a linear form of the unknown dynamic parameters by taking dynamic characteristics of the motor and servo unit into consideration. Then, we implement the parameter identification approach to identify the unknown parameters with respect to individual link separately. A pseudo-inverse matrix is used for formulation of the parameter identification. The optimal solution is guaranteed in a sense of least-squares of the mean errors. A Direct Drive (DD) SCARA type industrial robot arm AdeptOne is used as an application example of the parameter identification. Simulations and experiments for both open loop and close loop controls are carried out. Comparison of the results confirms the correctness and usefulness of the parameter identification and the derived dynamic model.

  7. Two-dimensional myoelectric control of a robotic arm for upper limb amputees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Celani, Natalia M; Soria, Carlos M; Orosco, Eugenio C; Di Sciascio, Fernando A; Valentinuzzi, Max E

    2007-01-01

    Rehabilitation engineering and medicine have become integral and significant parts of health care services, particularly and unfortunately in the last three or four decades, because of wars, terrorism and large number of car accidents. Amputees show a high rate of rejection to wear prosthetic devices, often because of lack of an adequate period of adaptation. A robotic arm may appear as a good preliminary stage. To test the hypothesis, myoelectric signals from two upper limb amputees and from four normal volunteers were fed, via adequate electronic conditioning and using MATLAB, to an industrial robotic arm. Proportional strength control was used for two degrees of freedom (x-y plane) by means of eight signal features of control (four traditional statistics plus energy, integral of the absolute value, Willison's amplitude, waveform length and envelope) for comparison purposes, and selecting the best of them as final reference. Patients easily accepted the system and learned in short time how to operate it. Results were encouraging so that valuable training, before prosthesis is implanted, appears as good feedback; besides, these patients can be hired as specialized operators in semi-automatized industry

  8. Two-dimensional myoelectric control of a robotic arm for upper limb amputees

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Celani, Natalia M.; Soria, Carlos M.; Orosco, Eugenio C.; di Sciascio, Fernando A.; Valentinuzzi, Max E.

    2007-11-01

    Rehabilitation engineering and medicine have become integral and significant parts of health care services, particularly and unfortunately in the last three or four decades, because of wars, terrorism and large number of car accidents. Amputees show a high rate of rejection to wear prosthetic devices, often because of lack of an adequate period of adaptation. A robotic arm may appear as a good preliminary stage. To test the hypothesis, myoelectric signals from two upper limb amputees and from four normal volunteers were fed, via adequate electronic conditioning and using MATLAB, to an industrial robotic arm. Proportional strength control was used for two degrees of freedom (x-y plane) by means of eight signal features of control (four traditional statistics plus energy, integral of the absolute value, Willison's amplitude, waveform length and envelope) for comparison purposes, and selecting the best of them as final reference. Patients easily accepted the system and learned in short time how to operate it. Results were encouraging so that valuable training, before prosthesis is implanted, appears as good feedback; besides, these patients can be hired as specialized operators in semi-automatized industry.

  9. Development of nuclear material accountancy control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirosawa, Naonori; Kashima, Sadamitsu; Akiba, Mitsunori

    1992-01-01

    PNC is developing a wide area of nuclear fuel cycle. Therefore, much nuclear material with a various form exists at each facility in the Works, and the controls of the inventory changes and the physical inventories of nuclear material are important. Nuclear material accountancy is a basic measure in safeguards system based on Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). In the light of such importance of material accountancy, the data base of nuclear material control and the material accountancy report system for all facilities has been developed by using the computer. By this system, accountancy report to STA is being presented certainly and timely. Property management and rapid corresponding to various inquiries can be carried out by the data base system which has free item searching procedure. (author)

  10. Automatic control of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jover, P.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental concepts in automatic control are surveyed, and the purpose of the automatic control of pressurized water reactors is given. The response characteristics for the main components are then studied and block diagrams are given for the main control loops (turbine, steam generator, and nuclear reactors) [fr

  11. Technical Cybersecurity Controls for Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jinseok; Ryou, Jaecheol; Kim, Youngmi; Jeong, Choonghei

    2014-01-01

    To strengthen cybersecurity for nuclear facilities, many countries take a regulatory approach. For example, US Government issued several regulations . Title 10, of the Code of Federal Regulations, Section 73.54, 'Protection of Digital Computer and Communication Systems and Networks (10 CFR 73.54) for cybersecurity requirements and Regulatory Guide 5.71 (RG. 5.71) for cybersecurity guidance and so on. In the case of Korea, Korean Government issued '8.22 Cybersecurity of I and C systems (KINS/RG-NO8.22). In particular, Reg. 5.71 provides a list of security controls to address the potential cyber risks to a nuclear facilities. Implementing and adopting security controls, we can improve the level of cybersecurity for nuclear facilities. RG 5.71 follows the recommendation of NIST SP 800-53. NIST standard provides security controls for IT systems. And NRC staff tailored the controls in NIST standards to unique environments of nuclear facilities. In this paper, we are going to analysis and compare NRC RG 5.71 and NIST SP800-53, in particular, for technical security controls. If RG 5.71 omits the specific security control that is included in SP800-53, we would review that omitting is adequate or not. If RG 5.71 includes the specific security control that is not included in SP800-53, we would also review the rationale. And we are going to some security controls to strengthen cybersecurity of nuclear facilities. In this paper, we compared and analyzed of two regulation in technical security controls. RG 5.71 that is based on NIST standard provides well-understood security controls for nuclear facility. But some omitting from NIST standard can threaten security state of nuclear facility

  12. Technical Cybersecurity Controls for Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jinseok; Ryou, Jaecheol [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youngmi; Jeong, Choonghei [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    To strengthen cybersecurity for nuclear facilities, many countries take a regulatory approach. For example, US Government issued several regulations . Title 10, of the Code of Federal Regulations, Section 73.54, 'Protection of Digital Computer and Communication Systems and Networks (10 CFR 73.54) for cybersecurity requirements and Regulatory Guide 5.71 (RG. 5.71) for cybersecurity guidance and so on. In the case of Korea, Korean Government issued '8.22 Cybersecurity of I and C systems (KINS/RG-NO8.22). In particular, Reg. 5.71 provides a list of security controls to address the potential cyber risks to a nuclear facilities. Implementing and adopting security controls, we can improve the level of cybersecurity for nuclear facilities. RG 5.71 follows the recommendation of NIST SP 800-53. NIST standard provides security controls for IT systems. And NRC staff tailored the controls in NIST standards to unique environments of nuclear facilities. In this paper, we are going to analysis and compare NRC RG 5.71 and NIST SP800-53, in particular, for technical security controls. If RG 5.71 omits the specific security control that is included in SP800-53, we would review that omitting is adequate or not. If RG 5.71 includes the specific security control that is not included in SP800-53, we would also review the rationale. And we are going to some security controls to strengthen cybersecurity of nuclear facilities. In this paper, we compared and analyzed of two regulation in technical security controls. RG 5.71 that is based on NIST standard provides well-understood security controls for nuclear facility. But some omitting from NIST standard can threaten security state of nuclear facility.

  13. Operation control device for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suto, Osamu.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To render the controlling functions of a central control console more centralized by constituting the operation controls for a nuclear power plant with computer systems having substantially independent functions such as those of plant monitor controls, reactor monitor management and CRT display and decreasing interactions between each of the systems. Constitution: An input/output device for the input of process data for a nuclear power plant and indication data for a plant control console is connected to a plant supervisory and control computer system and a display computer system, the plant supervisory control computer system and a reactor and management computer system are connected with a CRT display control device, a printer and a CRT display input/output device, and the display computer system is connected with the CRT display control device and the CRT display unit on the central control console, whereby process input can be processed and displayed at high speed. (Yoshino, Y.)

  14. Design of a nuclear reactor cooperative controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alang-Rashid, N.K.; Heger, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a fuzzy logic controller software package and explores the feasibility of its use in nuclear reactor operation. The controller complements reactor operator actions, and the operators can override the controller decisions. Techniques of providing learning capability to the controller are also being investigated to improve the reasoning and control skill of the controller. The fuzzy logic controller is implemented in C language and its overall structure is shown. The heart of the systems consists of a fuzzifier, a rule interpreter, and a defuzzifier. The controller is designed as a stand-alone package that can be interfaced to a simulated model of a nuclear reactor. Since no model is an accurate representation of the actual process being modeled, some tuning must be performed to use the controller in an actual reactor. This is accomplished using the learning feature of the controller

  15. Quality control of nuclear medicine instruments 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This document gives detailed guidance on the quality control of various instruments used in nuclear medicine. A first preliminary document was drawn up in 1979. A revised and extended version, incorporating recommended procedures, test schedules and protocols was prepared in 1982. The first edition of ''Quality Control of Nuclear Medicine Instruments'', IAEA-TECDOC-317, was printed in late 1984. Recent advances in the field of nuclear medicine imaging made it necessary to add a chapter on Camera-Computer Systems and another on SPECT Systems. Figs and tabs

  16. Quality control of nuclear medicine instruments, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    This document gives detailed guidance on the quality control of various instruments used in nuclear medicine. A first preliminary document was drawn up in 1979. A revised and extended version, incorporating recommended procedures, test schedules and protocols was prepared in 1982. The first edition of 'Quality Control of Nuclear Medicine Instruments', IAEA-TECDOC-317, was printed in late 1984. Recent advances in the field of nuclear medicine imaging made it necessary to add a chapter on Camera-Computer Systems and another on SPECT Systems

  17. Linguistic control of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeley, J.J.; Johnson, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    A multivariable linguistic controller based on fuzzy set theory is discussed and its application to a pressurized water nuclear power plant control is illustrated by computer simulation. The nonlinear power plant simulation model has nine states, two control inputs, one disturbance input, and two outputs. Although relatively simple, the model captures the essential coupled nonlinear plant dynamics and is convenient to use for control system studies. The use of an adaptive version of the controller is also demonstrated by computer simulation

  18. Multivariable Feedback Control of Nuclear Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Moen

    1982-07-01

    Full Text Available Multivariable feedback control has been adapted for optimal control of the spatial power distribution in nuclear reactor cores. Two design techniques, based on the theory of automatic control, were developed: the State Variable Feedback (SVF is an application of the linear optimal control theory, and the Multivariable Frequency Response (MFR is based on a generalization of the traditional frequency response approach to control system design.

  19. Load control on nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Takuya; Tsukuda, Yoshiaki.

    1988-01-01

    Power generation control is required for the nuclear power plants to meet electric power demand. In BWRs, power generation control can be achieved by arranging the coolant flow rate and control rod operation. In PWRs, power generation can be regulated by the control rods automatically controled with the steam valves. As a result of the experiments, it is confirmed that the operational function is normal, and safety of reactor components, pressure vessel and fuel elments are assured. (Katagiri, S)

  20. Multivariable control in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parent, M.; McMorran, P.D.

    1982-11-01

    Multivariable methods have the potential to improve the control of large systems such as nuclear power stations. Linear-quadratic optimal control is a multivariable method based on the minimization of a cost function. A related technique leads to the Kalman filter for estimation of plant state from noisy measurements. A design program for optimal control and Kalman filtering has been developed as part of a computer-aided design package for multivariable control systems. The method is demonstrated on a model of a nuclear steam generator, and simulated results are presented

  1. Strategic arms limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen Greb, G.; Johnson, Gerald W.

    1983-10-01

    Following World War II, American scientists and politicians proposed in the Baruch plan a radical solution to the problem of nuclear weapons: to eliminate them forever under the auspices of an international nuclear development authority. The Soviets, who as yet did not possess the bomb, rejected this plan. Another approach suggested by Secretary of War Henry Stimson to negotiate directly with the Soviet Union was not accepted by the American leadership. These initial arms limitation failures both reflected and exacerbated the hostile political relationship of the superpowers in the 1950s and 1960s. Since 1969, the more modest focus of the Soviet-American arms control process has been on limiting the numbers and sizes of both defensive and offensive strategic systems. The format for this effort has been the Strategic Arms Limitatins Talks (Salt) and more recently the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START). Both sides came to these negotiations convinced that nuclear arsenals had grown so large that some for of mutual restraint was needed. Although the SALT/START process has been slow and ponderous, it has produced several concrete the agreements and collateral benefits. The 1972 ABM Treaty restricts the deployment of ballistic missile defense systems, the 1972 Interim Agreement places a quantitative freeze on each side's land based and sea based strategic launchers, and the as yet unratified 1979 SALT II Treaty sets numerical limits on all offensive strategic systems and sublimits on MIRVed systems. Collateral benefits include improved verification procedures, working definitions and counting rules, and permanent bureaucratic apparatus which enhance stability and increase the chances for achieving additional agreements.

  2. Using Oral Histories and Interviews To Address the Nuclear Arms Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, Sam

    1985-01-01

    Oral histories and interviews provide an objective and bias-free method for teaching about nuclear warfare. An annotated listing of oral histories and interviews that can be used with secondary and colleges level students is provided. (RM)

  3. Keeping Your Friends Close and Your Enemies Closer: Operational Design for a Nuclear-Armed Iran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Umstead, Robert K

    2006-01-01

    The Islamic Republic of Iran (IRI) has pursued a nuclear program since 1985. By February 2006, with the last round of international negotiations having failed, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA...

  4. Electromotor control rod drive for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.M.

    1975-01-01

    The positioning of a control rod arranged in a pressure vessel takes place with a drive. This protrudes out of the pressure vessel through a support and is formed from a rotating field motor with energy source, e.g. alternating current connection. Its stator surrounds a section of a pressure casing which covers the length of the drive. The rotor is arranged in the pressure casing and interacts with a shaft lying in the rotation axis. Furthermore, segments are hinged on it, each of which forms two arms of a rocker. Each segment can be revolved against a storing force in a plane containing the rotation axis, through the stator field acting on one of the rocker arms. In order that the drive motor is automatically blocked should the electricity supply fail, the other rocker arm can be connected with a fixed cased component of the drive having the effect of a friction break or a form-locking mechanical catch. (DG/LH) [de

  5. United Campuses to Prevent Nuclear War: Nuclear War Course Summaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Briefly describes 46 courses on nuclear war available from United Campuses to Prevent Nuclear War (UCAM). These courses are currently being or have been taught at colleges/universities, addressing effects of nuclear war, arms race history, new weapons, and past arms control efforts. Syllabi (with assignments/reading lists) are available from UCAM.…

  6. Deterring nuclear-armed Third World dictators: a targeting strategy for the emerging threat.

    OpenAIRE

    Gellene, David J.

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. The continuing efforts of several developing nations to acquire nuclear weapons indicates that the United States may be required to implement a deterrence policy aimed at authoritarian regimes in the Third World. Therefore. U. S. decision-makers must re-evaluate the conceptual foundations of American deterrence policy. This research suggests a solution to the problem of deterring nuclear-capable Third World nations from using...

  7. The timing of control signals underlying fast point-to-point arm movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafouri, M; Feldman, A G

    2001-04-01

    It is known that proprioceptive feedback induces muscle activation when the facilitation of appropriate motoneurons exceeds their threshold. In the suprathreshold range, the muscle-reflex system produces torques depending on the position and velocity of the joint segment(s) that the muscle spans. The static component of the torque-position relationship is referred to as the invariant characteristic (IC). According to the equilibrium-point (EP) hypothesis, control systems produce movements by changing the activation thresholds and thus shifting the IC of the appropriate muscles in joint space. This control process upsets the balance between muscle and external torques at the initial limb configuration and, to regain the balance, the limb is forced to establish a new configuration or, if the movement is prevented, a new level of static torques. Taken together, the joint angles and the muscle torques generated at an equilibrium configuration define a single variable called the EP. Thus by shifting the IC, control systems reset the EP. Muscle activation and movement emerge following the EP resetting because of the natural physical tendency of the system to reach equilibrium. Empirical and simulation studies support the notion that the control IC shifts and the resulting EP shifts underlying fast point-to-point arm movements are gradual rather than step-like. However, controversies exist about the duration of these shifts. Some studies suggest that the IC shifts cease with the movement offset. Other studies propose that the IC shifts end early in comparison to the movement duration (approximately, at peak velocity). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the duration of the IC shifts underlying fast point-to-point arm movements. Subjects made fast (hand peak velocity about 1.3 m/s) planar arm movements toward different targets while grasping a handle. Hand forces applied to the handle and shoulder/elbow torques were, respectively, measured from a force sensor placed

  8. Autonomous Control of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basher, H.

    2003-01-01

    A nuclear reactor is a complex system that requires highly sophisticated controllers to ensure that desired performance and safety can be achieved and maintained during its operations. Higher-demanding operational requirements such as reliability, lower environmental impacts, and improved performance under adverse conditions in nuclear power plants, coupled with the complexity and uncertainty of the models, necessitate the use of an increased level of autonomy in the control methods. In the opinion of many researchers, the tasks involved during nuclear reactor design and operation (e.g., design optimization, transient diagnosis, and core reload optimization) involve important human cognition and decisions that may be more easily achieved with intelligent methods such as expert systems, fuzzy logic, neural networks, and genetic algorithms. Many experts in the field of control systems share the idea that a higher degree of autonomy in control of complex systems such as nuclear plants is more easily achievable through the integration of conventional control systems and the intelligent components. Researchers have investigated the feasibility of the integration of fuzzy logic, neural networks, genetic algorithms, and expert systems with the conventional control methods to achieve higher degrees of autonomy in different aspects of reactor operations such as reactor startup, shutdown in emergency situations, fault detection and diagnosis, nuclear reactor alarm processing and diagnosis, and reactor load-following operations, to name a few. With the advancement of new technologies and computing power, it is feasible to automate most of the nuclear reactor control and operation, which will result in increased safety and economical benefits. This study surveys current status, practices, and recent advances made towards developing autonomous control systems for nuclear reactors

  9. Autonomous Control of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basher, H.

    2003-10-20

    A nuclear reactor is a complex system that requires highly sophisticated controllers to ensure that desired performance and safety can be achieved and maintained during its operations. Higher-demanding operational requirements such as reliability, lower environmental impacts, and improved performance under adverse conditions in nuclear power plants, coupled with the complexity and uncertainty of the models, necessitate the use of an increased level of autonomy in the control methods. In the opinion of many researchers, the tasks involved during nuclear reactor design and operation (e.g., design optimization, transient diagnosis, and core reload optimization) involve important human cognition and decisions that may be more easily achieved with intelligent methods such as expert systems, fuzzy logic, neural networks, and genetic algorithms. Many experts in the field of control systems share the idea that a higher degree of autonomy in control of complex systems such as nuclear plants is more easily achievable through the integration of conventional control systems and the intelligent components. Researchers have investigated the feasibility of the integration of fuzzy logic, neural networks, genetic algorithms, and expert systems with the conventional control methods to achieve higher degrees of autonomy in different aspects of reactor operations such as reactor startup, shutdown in emergency situations, fault detection and diagnosis, nuclear reactor alarm processing and diagnosis, and reactor load-following operations, to name a few. With the advancement of new technologies and computing power, it is feasible to automate most of the nuclear reactor control and operation, which will result in increased safety and economical benefits. This study surveys current status, practices, and recent advances made towards developing autonomous control systems for nuclear reactors.

  10. Advanced display concepts in nuclear control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, M.T.; Banks, W.W.; Blackman, H.S.; Gertman, D.I.

    1982-01-01

    Precursors necessary for the development of a full-scale predictor display/control system have been under development since the mid 1940's. The predictor display itself has been available for use in manual control systems since 1958. However, the nuclear industry has not yet explored the uses and benefits of predictor systems. The purpose of this paper is to provide information on the application of this technology to the nuclear industry. The possibility of employing a simulation-based control system for nuclear plant systems that currently use conventional auto/manual schemes is discussed. By employing simulation-based systems, a predictor display could be made available to the operator during manual operations, thus facilitating control without outwardly affecting the overall control scheme

  11. Global nuclear material flow/control model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, J.S.; Rutherford, D.S.; Fasel, P.K.; Riese, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The nuclear danger can be reduced by a system for global management, protection, control, and accounting as part of an international regime for nuclear materials. The development of an international fissile material management and control regime requires conceptual research supported by an analytical and modeling tool which treats the nuclear fuel cycle as a complete system. The prototype model developed visually represents the fundamental data, information, and capabilities related to the nuclear fuel cycle in a framework supportive of national or an international perspective. This includes an assessment of the global distribution of military and civilian fissile material inventories, a representation of the proliferation pertinent physical processes, facility specific geographic identification, and the capability to estimate resource requirements for the management and control of nuclear material. The model establishes the foundation for evaluating the global production, disposition, and safeguards and security requirements for fissile nuclear material and supports the development of other pertinent algorithmic capabilities necessary to undertake further global nuclear material related studies

  12. Nuclear power station main control room habitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschal, W.B.; Knous, W.S.

    1989-01-01

    The main control room at a nuclear power station must remain habitable during a variety of plant conditions and postulated events. The control room habitability requirement and the function of the heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and air treatment system are to control environmental factors, such as temperature, pressure, humidity, radiation, and toxic gas. Habitability requirements provide for the safety of personnel and enable operation of equipment required to function in the main control room. Habitability as an issue has been gaining prominence with the Advisor Committee of Reactor Safeguards and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission since the incident at Three Mile Island. Their concern is the ability of the presently installed habitability systems to control the main control room environment after an accident. This paper discusses main control room HVAC systems; the concern, requirements, and results of NRC surveys and notices; and an approach to control room habitability reviews

  13. Control system security in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianghai; Huang Xiaojin

    2012-01-01

    The digitalization and networking of control systems in nuclear power plants has brought significant improvements in system control, operation and maintenance. However, the highly digitalized control system also introduces additional security vulnerabilities. Moreover, the replacement of conventional proprietary systems with common protocols, software and devices makes these vulnerabilities easy to be exploited. Through the interaction between control systems and the physical world, security issues in control systems impose high risks on health, safety and environment. These security issues may even cause damages of critical infrastructures and threaten national security. The importance of control system security by reviewing several control system security incidents that happened in nuclear power plants was showed in recent years. Several key difficulties in addressing these security issues were described. Finally, existing researches on control system security and propose several promising research directions were reviewed. (authors)

  14. Nuclear issues on the agenda of the conference on disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernauer, T.

    1991-01-01

    This research report examines three nuclear arms control and disarmament issues which figure on the agenda of the Conference on Disarmament - security assurance to non-nuclear-weapon States, the prevention of nuclear war, and the cessation of the nuclear arms race and nuclear disarmament

  15. Nuclear propulsion control and health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, P. B.; Edwards, R. M.

    1993-11-01

    An integrated control and health monitoring architecture is being developed for the Pratt & Whitney XNR2000 nuclear rocket. Current work includes further development of the dynamic simulation modeling and the identification and configuration of low level controllers to give desirable performance for the various operating modes and faulted conditions. Artificial intelligence and knowledge processing technologies need to be investigated and applied in the development of an intelligent supervisory controller module for this control architecture.

  16. PLCs for nuclear fire control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McArthur, Neil

    1990-01-01

    The new Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) at British Nuclear Fuel's Sellafield site is a very large and complex system. This article describes the computerized control system used for fire damage control in the two main production areas, the head end and the chemical separation segments. Over one thousand fire dampers are controlled by an interlinking system of small computers linked to a main system in the central control room. The choice of hardware and software is also described. (UK)

  17. Intuitive wireless control of a robotic arm for people living with an upper body disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, C L; Turgeon, P; Campeau-Lecours, A; Maheu, V; Boukadoum, M; Roy, S; Massicotte, D; Gosselin, C; Gosselin, B

    2015-08-01

    Assistive Technologies (ATs) also called extrinsic enablers are useful tools for people living with various disabilities. The key points when designing such useful devices not only concern their intended goal, but also the most suitable human-machine interface (HMI) that should be provided to users. This paper describes the design of a highly intuitive wireless controller for people living with upper body disabilities with a residual or complete control of their neck and their shoulders. Tested with JACO, a six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) assistive robotic arm with 3 flexible fingers on its end-effector, the system described in this article is made of low-cost commercial off-the-shelf components and allows a full emulation of JACO's standard controller, a 3 axis joystick with 7 user buttons. To do so, three nine-degree-of-freedom (9-DOF) inertial measurement units (IMUs) are connected to a microcontroller and help measuring the user's head and shoulders position, using a complementary filter approach. The results are then transmitted to a base-station via a 2.4-GHz low-power wireless transceiver and interpreted by the control algorithm running on a PC host. A dedicated software interface allows the user to quickly calibrate the controller, and translates the information into suitable commands for JACO. The proposed controller is thoroughly described, from the electronic design to implemented algorithms and user interfaces. Its performance and future improvements are discussed as well.

  18. Critical element study on autonomous position control of articulated-arm type manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Kiyoshi; Kakudate, Satoshi; Nakahira, Masataka

    1994-10-01

    An articulated-arm type manipulator can be operated effectively in a restricted space due to its flexibility and it can be attractive for a wide range of in-vessel maintenance such as viewing, inspection and limiter handling in fusion experimental reactors. In case of the in-vessel maintenance using a flexible manipulator, it is quite essential to develop an autonomous control method for compensating a deflection of manipulator so as to minimize the maintenance time with high precision. For this purpose, a new position control method using a combination of neural network predictor with a rigid inverse kinematics is being developed. The key features of this method are to simplify a kinematics modeling of flexible manipulator, to enable quick position compensation in stead of ordinary large matrix compensation, and to be applicable to a wide variety of manipulator characteristics. A sub-scaled model of flexible manipulator with 4 joints has been fabricated for a benchmark experiments of the autonomous position control. Comparing analytical simulation with experiments using the flexible manipulator, it has been demonstrated that the new position control method gives significant improvement in control performance with high precision in order of a figure. In addition, further optimization can be possible by adding other non-linear predictors such as radial basis function and fuzzy modeling. This paper describes the details of a sub-scaled flexible manipulator and a neural network position control system as well as results of analytical simulation and benchmark experiments. (author)

  19. Emulating a robotic manipulator arm with an hybrid motion-control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragón-González, G; León-Galicia, A; Noriega-Hernández, M; Salazar-Hueta, A

    2015-01-01

    A motion control system with four and 1/2 degrees of freedom, designed to move small objects within a 0.25 m3 space, parallel to a horizontal table, with high speed and performance similar to a robotic manipulator arm was built. The machine employs several actuators and control devices. Its main characteristic is to incorporate a servomotor, steeper motors, electromechanical and fluid power actuators and diverse control resources. A group of actuators arranged on a spherical coordinates system is attached to the servomotor platform. A linear pneumatic actuator with an angular grip provides the radial extension and load clamping capacity. Seven inductive proximity sensors and one encoder provide feedback, for operating the actuators under closed loop conditions. Communication between the sensors and control devices is organized by a PLC. A touch screen allows governing the system remotely, easily and interactively, without knowing the specific programming language of each control component. The graphic environment on the touch screen guides the user to design and store control programs, establishing coordinated automatic routines for moving objects in space, simulation and implementation of industrial positioning or machining processes

  20. Muscle Synergies Heavily Influence the Neural Control of Arm Endpoint Stiffness and Energy Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inouye, Joshua M; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J

    2016-02-01

    Much debate has arisen from research on muscle synergies with respect to both limb impedance control and energy consumption. Studies of limb impedance control in the context of reaching movements and postural tasks have produced divergent findings, and this study explores whether the use of synergies by the central nervous system (CNS) can resolve these findings and also provide insights on mechanisms of energy consumption. In this study, we phrase these debates at the conceptual level of interactions between neural degrees of freedom and tasks constraints. This allows us to examine the ability of experimentally-observed synergies--correlated muscle activations--to control both energy consumption and the stiffness component of limb endpoint impedance. In our nominal 6-muscle planar arm model, muscle synergies and the desired size, shape, and orientation of endpoint stiffness ellipses, are expressed as linear constraints that define the set of feasible muscle activation patterns. Quadratic programming allows us to predict whether and how energy consumption can be minimized throughout the workspace of the limb given those linear constraints. We show that the presence of synergies drastically decreases the ability of the CNS to vary the properties of the endpoint stiffness and can even preclude the ability to minimize energy. Furthermore, the capacity to minimize energy consumption--when available--can be greatly affected by arm posture. Our computational approach helps reconcile divergent findings and conclusions about task-specific regulation of endpoint stiffness and energy consumption in the context of synergies. But more generally, these results provide further evidence that the benefits and disadvantages of muscle synergies go hand-in-hand with the structure of feasible muscle activation patterns afforded by the mechanics of the limb and task constraints. These insights will help design experiments to elucidate the interplay between synergies and the mechanisms

  1. Authentication of monitoring systems for non-proliferation and arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, J.L.; Kouzes, R.T.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Radiation measurement and systems are central to the affirmation of compliance with nuclear material control agreements associated with a variety of arms control and non-proliferation regimes. A number of radiation measurement systems are under development for this purpose, and the correct functioning of these systems will be authenticated. Authentication is the process by which a monitoring party to an agreement is assured that measurement systems are assembled as designed, function as designed, and do not contain hidden features that allow the passing of material inconsistent with an accepted declaration. Attribute measurement systems are specific examples of radiation measurement systems that are being developed in the United States and the Russian Federation. Under one bilateral agreement, the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Cooperative Threat Reduction (DoD DTRA/CTR) Program is constructing a Fissile Material Storage Facility (FMSF) at Mayak to hold up to 50 tons of plutonium from the disassembly of Russian Federation nuclear weapons. Negotiations are being held between the U.S. and the Russian Federation for cooperative development of attribute measurement systems to provide confidence that the material is of weapons origin and other purposes. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is leading the authentication effort for U.S. interests at FMSF. There are two basic requirements for an attribute measurement system: protection of classified information, and assurance of credible performance of the system for the measurement. The technology used to protect classified information is referred to as an information barrier. An information barrier consists of technology and procedures that prevent the release of host-country classified information to a monitoring party during a joint inspection of a sensitive item. Information barriers are used on monitoring systems that are exposed to host-party classified materials

  2. Nuclear technology and the export control laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munroe, J.L.; Pankratz, M.C.; Hogsett, V.H.; Lundy, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    Three basic US laws regulate the export of commodities, services, and technical data. People working in nuclear fields need to know of these laws and their impact on professional endeavors. Export of technical data means the communication of any information by oral, written, or any other means to foreign nationals within or outside the US. The medium for the communication may be a model, blueprint, sketch, or any other device that can convey information. If the data relates to items on one of the control lists, a license must be sought from the appropriated federal agency. The Militarily Critical Technologies List (MCTL), though not itself a control list, plays a major role in determining what technical data will require a validated license. The US Department of Energy (DOE), through Technical Working Gorup (TWG) 11, is responsible for the Nuclear Technology chapter of the MCTL. TWG 11 also prepares the Nuclear Technology Reference Book (NTRB), a classified guide to sensitive nuclear technology

  3. 60 years controlled nuclear fission: CP-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    On December 2, 1942, the Chicago Pile 1 (CP-1) went critical for the first time. In this way, the scientists and engineers involved in the project under the leadership of Enrico Fermi succeeded in demonstrating that a self-sustaining nuclear reaction with nuclear fission processes was technically feasible. Only four years after the discovery and proof of nuclear fission by Otto Hahn, Fritz Strassmann, and Lise Meitner, the experiment consisting of graphite blocks as the moderator and uranium dioxide pellets as the fuel, as well as instrumentation and control devices, had been set up in the former squash court of the field and track stadium of the University of Chicago. Precisely at 3.36 a.m. Chicago time, after control rods had been withdrawn, the instruments showed the chain reaction by the neutron flux they indicated. An important cornerstone in the use of nuclear power had thus been laid. (orig.)

  4. The Atomic Papers: A citizen's guide to selected books and articles on the bomb, the arms race, nuclear power, the peace movement, and related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, G.

    1984-01-01

    The Atomic Papers annotates over 800 books published since 1945 and approximately 300 periodical articles since 1980 on every facet of the nuclear dilemma: the development and effects of the bomb, the arms race, nuclear proliferation, and the peace movement. Work on both sides of the nuclear power controversy also receives substantial attention. All references are to English-language material, and nearly half are to work published since 1980. The concluding chapter, ''The Art of Fission,'' describes over one hundred novels and stories with nuclear themes published since 1945--and, in a few cases, before that date

  5. Shock buffer for nuclear control assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.

    1977-01-01

    A shock buffer is provided for the gradual deceleration of a rapidly descending control element assembly in a nuclear reactor. The interactive buffer components are associated respectively with the movable control element assembly and part of the upper guide structure independent of and spaced from the fuel assemblies of the reactor

  6. Compensation for loads during arm movements using equilibrium-point control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, P L; Ostry, D J

    2000-12-01

    A significant problem in motor control is how information about movement error is used to modify control signals to achieve desired performance. A potential source of movement error and one that is readily controllable experimentally relates to limb dynamics and associated movement-dependent loads. In this paper, we have used a position control model to examine changes to control signals for arm movements in the context of movement-dependent loads. In the model, based on the equilibrium-point hypothesis, equilibrium shifts are adjusted directly in proportion to the positional error between desired and actual movements. The model is used to simulate multi-joint movements in the presence of both "internal" loads due to joint interaction torques, and externally applied loads resulting from velocity-dependent force fields. In both cases it is shown that the model can achieve close correspondence to empirical data using a simple linear adaptation procedure. An important feature of the model is that it achieves compensation for loads during movement without the need for either coordinate transformations between positional error and associated corrective forces, or inverse dynamics calculations.

  7. Terror weapons. Ridding the world of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons - Commission on mass destruction weapons; Armes de terreur. Debarrasser le monde des armes nucleaires, biologiques et chimiques - Commission sur les armes de destruction massive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blix, H.; Journe, V.

    2010-07-01

    This book approaches in 8 chapters the ambitious challenge of ridding the world of all mass destruction weapons: 1 - re-launching disarmament; 2 - terror weapons: nature of threats and answers (weakness of traditional answers, counter-proliferation); 3 - nuclear weapons: preventing proliferation and terrorism, reducing threat and nuclear weapons number, from regulation to banning); 4 - biological or toxin weapons; 5 - chemical weapons; 6 - vectors, anti-missile defenses and space weapons; 7 - exports control, international assistance and non-governmental actors; 8 - respect, verification, enforcement and role of the United Nations. The recommendations and works of the Commission are presented in appendix together with the declaration adopted on April 30, 2009. (J.S.)

  8. Regulation on control of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kaname

    1976-01-01

    Some comment is made on the present laws and the future course of consolidating the regulation of nuclear fuel materials. The first part gives the definitions of the nuclear fuel materials in the laws. The second part deals with the classification and regulation in material handling. Refinement undertaking, fabrication undertaking, reprocessing undertaking, the permission of the government to use the materials, the permission of the government to use the materials under international control, the restriction of transfer and receipt, the reporting, and the safeguard measures are commented. The third part deals with the strengthening of regulation. The nuclear fuel safety deliberation special committee will be established at some opportunity of revising the ordinance. The nuclear material safeguard special committee has been established in the Atomic Energy Commission. The last part deals with the future course of legal consolidation. The safety control will be strengthened. The early investigation of waste handling is necessary, because low level solid wastes are accumulating at each establishment. The law for transporting nuclear materials must be consolidated as early as possible to correspond to foreign transportation laws. Physical protection is awaiting the conclusions of the nuclear fuel safeguard special committee. The control and information systems for the safeguard measures must be consolidated in the laws. (Iwakiri, K.)

  9. Equilibrium-point control hypothesis examined by measured arm stiffness during multijoint movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomi, H; Kawato

    1996-04-05

    For the last 20 years, it has been hypothesized that well-coordinated, multijoint movements are executed without complex computation by the brain, with the use of springlike muscle properties and peripheral neural feedback loops. However, it has been technically and conceptually difficult to examine this "equilibrium-point control" hypothesis directly in physiological or behavioral experiments. A high-performance manipulandum was developed and used here to measure human arm stiffness, the magnitude of which during multijoint movement is important for this hypothesis. Here, the equilibrium-point trajectory was estimated from the measured stiffness, the actual trajectory, and the generated torque. Its velocity profile differed from that of the actual trajectory. These results argue against the hypothesis that the brain sends as a motor command only an equilibrium-point trajectory similar to the actual trajectory.

  10. United States interests and Western Europe: Arms control, energy, and trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czempiel, E.O.; Krell, G.; Mueller, H.

    1981-01-01

    The 'Research Group USA' within the Hessische Stiftung Friedens- und Konfliktforschung, Frankfurt, has analysed extensively the US policy towards Western Europe. In December 1980 the research group arranged an international Conference at Bad Homburg. Topics were American European policies in the field of arms control, trade and energy. The main findings of the research group were presented to the conference. This volume contains six papers presented to the conference: The Salt II-Debate in the US Senate; Issues in West German Security Policy: An American Perspective; US Energy Policy Foreign Policy Goals Versus Domestic Interests; Economic and Political Consequences of US Energy Policy on Europe; Foreign Trade Policy Interests and Decisions in the US; Multinational Corporations in Euro-American Trade. It contains also an introductory analysis of the somewhat larger US-European-Soviet Union context within which the American policy towards Western Europe has to be seen. (HSCH) [de

  11. Torsional Arming of Thiomannosyl Donors & Conformational Control of Hexahydropyridazines via pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jacob Ingemar

    The overall objective of the research presented in this PhD thesis was to investigate torsional arming of thiogalacto- and thiomannosyl donors (part 1) and to investigate the possible synthesis and attachment of a pH regulated conformational switch to an α-cyclodextrin (part 2). Part 1: It is well...... demonstrated their ability to change conformation under different conditions. These conformational changes are connected to various intramolecular interactions and can to some extent, be controlled by pH (Chapter 3). Fusing these conformationally labile compounds to the rim of a cyclodextrin would create...... compounds that could release molecules at a specified change in pH conditions. To investigate this, four hexahydropyridazines were synthesized and investigated for their pH induced conformational change (Chapter 4). Out of the four compounds, one revealed to flip between two conformations depending on pH...

  12. Interdisciplinary Comprehensive Arm Rehabilitation Evaluation (ICARE: a randomized controlled trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winstein Carolee J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Residual disability after stroke is substantial; 65% of patients at 6 months are unable to incorporate the impaired upper extremity into daily activities. Task-oriented training programs are rapidly being adopted into clinical practice. In the absence of any consensus on the essential elements or dose of task-specific training, an urgent need exists for a well-designed trial to determine the effectiveness of a specific multidimensional task-based program governed by a comprehensive set of evidence-based principles. The Interdisciplinary Comprehensive Arm Rehabilitation Evaluation (ICARE Stroke Initiative is a parallel group, three-arm, single blind, superiority randomized controlled trial of a theoretically-defensible, upper extremity rehabilitation program provided in the outpatient setting. The primary objective of ICARE is to determine if there is a greater improvement in arm and hand recovery one year after randomization in participants receiving a structured training program termed Accelerated Skill Acquisition Program (ASAP, compared to participants receiving usual and customary therapy of an equivalent dose (DEUCC. Two secondary objectives are to compare ASAP to a true (active monitoring only usual and customary (UCC therapy group and to compare DEUCC and UCC. Methods/design Following baseline assessment, participants are randomized by site, stratified for stroke duration and motor severity. 360 adults will be randomized, 14 to 106 days following ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke onset, with mild to moderate upper extremity impairment, recruited at sites in Atlanta, Los Angeles and Washington, D.C. The Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT time score is the primary outcome at 1 year post-randomization. The Stroke Impact Scale (SIS hand domain is a secondary outcome measure. The design includes concealed allocation during recruitment, screening and baseline, blinded outcome assessment and intention to treat analyses. Our primary

  13. Applying Space Technology to Enhance Control of an Artificial Arm for Children and Adults With Amputations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Diane J.

    1998-01-01

    The first single function myoelectric prosthetic hand was introduced in the 1960's. This hand was controlled by the electric fields generated by muscle contractions in the residual limb of the amputee user. Electrodes and amplifiers, embedded in the prosthetic socket, measured these electric fields across the skin, which increase in amplitude as the individual contracts their muscle. When the myoelectric signal reached a certain threshold amplitude, the control unit activated a motor which opened or closed a hand-like prosthetic terminal device with a pincher grip. Late in the 1990's, little has changed. Most current myoelectric prostheses still operate in this same, single-function way. To better understand the limitations of the current single-function myoelectric hand and the needs of those who use them, The Institute for Rehabilitation and Research (TIRR), sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NUH), surveyed approximately 2,500 individuals with upper limb loss [1]. When asked to identify specific features of their current myoelectric prostheses that needed improvement, the survey respondents overwhelmingly identified the lack of wrist and finger movement, as well as poor control capability. However, simply building a mechanism with individual finger and wrist motion is not enough. In the 1960's and 1970's, engineers built a number of more dexterous prosthetic hands. Unfortunately, these were rejected during clinical trials due to a difficult and distracting control interface. The goal of this project, "Applying Space Technology to Enhance Control of an Artificial Arm for Children and Adults with Amputations," was to lay the foundation for a multi-function, intuitive myoelectric control system which requires no conscious thought to move the hand. We built an extensive myoelectric signal database for six motions from ten amputee volunteers, We also tested a control system based on new artificial intelligence techniques on the data from two of these

  14. Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Export Control in the Republic of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcic, I.; Prah, M.; Mikec, N.

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with its internationally accepted obligations, the Republic of Croatia is actively implementing principles of non-proliferation and export control of nuclear materials and/or equipment. The article deals with treaties, conventions, agreements and other international arrangements that are creating certain obligation for Republic of Croatia related to nuclear non-proliferation. The most important are the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, the Agreement between the Republic of Croatia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards with Protocol, the Protocol Additional to the Agreement Between the Republic of Croatia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards, the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty, the NSG Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology and NSG Guidelines for Transfers of Nuclear-Related Dual-Use Equipment, Materials, Software and Related Technology. In addition the article describes a national regulative framework, the basis for conducting activities in nuclear material control, export control of dual-use items as well as non-proliferation of the weapons of mass destruction. Details are given about the Nuclear Safety Act, the Act on Liability for Nuclear Damage, the Act on Export of Dual-Use Items, the Decree on the List of Dual-Use Items, the Law on Production, Repair and Trade in Arms and Military Equipment and the Decree specifying goods subject to export and import licenses. (author)

  15. A Developmental Study of Static Postural Control and Superimposed Arm Movements in Normal and Slowly Developing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Janet M.

    Selected electromyographic parameters underlying static postural control in 4, 6, and 8 year old normally and slowly developing children during performance of selected arm movements were studied. Developmental delays in balance control were assessed by the Cashin Test of Motor Development (1974) and/or the Williams Gross Motor Coordination Test…

  16. Kinematics and control of redundant robotic arm based on dielectric elastomer actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branz, Francesco; Antonello, Andrea; Carron, Andrea; Carli, Ruggero; Francesconi, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Soft robotics is a promising field and its application to space mechanisms could represent a breakthrough in space technologies by enabling new operative scenarios (e.g. soft manipulators, capture systems). Dielectric Elastomers Actuators have been under deep study for a number of years and have shown several advantages that could be of key importance for space applications. Among such advantages the most notable are high conversion efficiency, distributed actuation, self-sensing capability, multi-degree-of-freedom design, light weight and low cost. The big potentialities of double cone actuators have been proven in terms of good performances (i.e. stroke and force/torque), ease of manufacturing and durability. In this work the kinematic, dynamic and control design of a two-joint redundant robotic arm is presented. Two double cone actuators are assembled in series to form a two-link design. Each joint has two degrees of freedom (one rotational and one translational) for a total of four. The arm is designed to move in a 2-D environment (i.e. the horizontal plane) with 4 DoF, consequently having two degrees of redundancy. The redundancy is exploited in order to minimize the joint loads. The kinematic design with redundant Jacobian inversion is presented. The selected control algorithm is described along with the results of a number of dynamic simulations that have been executed for performance verification. Finally, an experimental setup is presented based on a flexible structure that counteracts gravity during testing in order to better emulate future zero-gravity applications.

  17. Report on the Second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) Stabilization Platform: Control Strategy and Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulter, Richard J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Martin, Timothy J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-03-01

    One of the primary objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s second Mobile Facility (AMF2) is to obtain reliable measurements from ocean-going vessels. A pillar of the AMF2 strategy in this effort is the use of a stable platform for those instruments that 1) need to look directly at, or be shaded from, direct sunlight or 2) require a truly vertical orientation. Some ARM instruments that fall into these categories include the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadow Band Radiometer (MFRSR) and the Total Sky Imager (TSI), both of which have a shadow band mechanism, upward-looking radiometry that should be exposed only to the sky, a Microwave Radiometer (MWR) that looks vertically and at specified tilt angles, and vertically pointing radars, for which the vertical component of motion is critically important. During the design and construction phase of AMF2, an inexpensive stable platform was purchased to perform the stabilization tasks for some of these instruments. Computer programs were developed to communicate with the platform controller and with an inertial measurements platform that measures true ship motion components (roll, pitch, yaw, surge, sway, and heave). The platform was then tested on a 3-day cruise aboard the RV Connecticut during June 16-18, 2010, off the east coast of the United States. This initial test period was followed by continued development of the platform control strategy and implementation as time permitted. This is a report of the results of these efforts and the critical points in moving forward.

  18. Nuclear material control in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, C.; Waddoups, I.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy has defined a safeguards system to be an integrated system of physical protection, material accounting and material control subsystems designed to deter, prevent, detect, and respond to unauthorized possession, use, or sabotage of SNM. In practice, safeguards involve the development and application of techniques and procedures dealing with the establishment and continued maintenance of a system of activities. The system must also include administrative controls and surveillance to assure that the procedures and techniques of the system are effective and are being carried out. The control of nuclear material is critical to the safeguarding of nuclear materials within the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy includes as part of material control four functional performance areas. They include access controls, material surveillance, material containment and detection/assessment. This paper will address not only these areas but also the relationship between material control and other safeguards and security functions

  19. Non-destructive control in nuclear construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banus; Barbier; Launay

    1978-01-01

    Having recalled the characteristics of the fundamental components of the main primary circuit of nuclear boilers (900 MW) and the means appropriated for their control, it is recalled that the 'French Electricity Board's specifications and control rules' often prescribe more severe criteria than those existing in the U.S.A. Then practical examples of non-destructive controls concerning the steam generator end plates, vessel stainless steel linings, pump attachements, steam generator pipes are given [fr

  20. Weld controller for automated nuclear service welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barfield, K.L.; Strubhar, P.M.; Green, D.I.

    1995-01-01

    B and W Nuclear Technologies (BWNT) uses many different types of weld heads for automated welding in the commercial nuclear service industry. Some weld heads are purchased as standard items, while others are custom designed and fabricated by BWNT requiring synchronized multiaxis motion control. BWNT recently completed a development program to build a common weld controller that interfaces to all types of weld heads used by BWNT. Their goal was to construct a system that had the flexibility to add different modules to increase the capability of the controller as different application needs become necessary. The benefits from having a common controller are listed. This presentation explains the weld controller system and the types of applications to which it has been applied

  1. Control for nuclear thermionic power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.C.; Sawyer, C.D.

    1978-01-01

    A control for a power source is described which includes nuclear fuel interspersed with thermionic converters, including a power regulator that maintains a substantially constant output voltage to a variable load, and a control circuit that drives a neutron flux regulator in accordance with the current supplied to the power regulator and the neutron flux density in the region of the converters. The control circuit generates a control signal which is the difference between the neutron flux density and a linear fucntion of the current, and which drives the neutron regulator in a direction to decrease or increase the neutron flux according to the polarity of the control signal

  2. 78 FR 38739 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... Systems for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Regulatory guide; issuance... Guide (RG) 5.29, ``Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants... material control and accounting. This guide applies to all nuclear power plants. ADDRESSES: Please refer to...

  3. 10 CFR 74.51 - Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material. 74.51 Section 74.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special Nuclear...

  4. Intergenomic arms races: detection of a nuclear rescue gene of male-killing in a ladybird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamsin M O Majerus

    Full Text Available Many species of arthropod are infected by deleterious inherited micro-organisms. Typically these micro-organisms are inherited maternally. Consequently, some, particularly bacteria of the genus Wolbachia, employ a variety of strategies that favour female over male hosts. These strategies include feminisation, induction of parthenogenesis and male-killing. These strategies result in female biased sex ratios in host populations, which lead to selection for host factors that promote male production. In addition, the intra-genomic conflict produced by the difference in transmission of these cytoplasmic endosymbionts and nuclear factors will impose a pressure favouring nuclear factors that suppress the effects of the symbiont. During investigations of the diversity of male-killing bacteria in ladybirds (Coccinellidae, unexpected patterns of vertical transmission of a newly discovered male-killing taxon were observed in the ladybird Cheilomenes sexmaculata. Initial analysis suggested that the expression of the bacterial male-killing trait varies according to the male(s a female has mated with. By swapping males between females, a male influence on the expression of the male-killing trait was confirmed. Experiments were then performed to determine the nature of the interaction. These studies showed that a single dominant allele, which rescues male progeny of infected females from the pathological effect of the male-killer, exists in this species. The gene shows typical Mendelian autosomal inheritance and is expressed irrespective of the parent from which it is inherited. Presence of the rescue gene in either parent does not significantly affect the inheritance of the symbiont. We conclude that C. sexmaculata is host to a male-killing gamma-proteobacterium. Further, this beetle is polymorphic for a nuclear gene, the dominant allele of which rescues infected males from the pathogenic effects of the male-killing agent. These findings represent the first

  5. Shaping of arm configuration space by prescription of non-Euclidean metrics with applications to human motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biess, Armin

    2013-01-01

    The study of the kinematic and dynamic features of human arm movements provides insights into the computational strategies underlying human motor control. In this paper a differential geometric approach to movement control is taken by endowing arm configuration space with different non-Euclidean metric structures to study the predictions of the generalized minimum-jerk (MJ) model in the resulting Riemannian manifold for different types of human arm movements. For each metric space the solution of the generalized MJ model is given by reparametrized geodesic paths. This geodesic model is applied to a variety of motor tasks ranging from three-dimensional unconstrained movements of a four degree of freedom arm between pointlike targets to constrained movements where the hand location is confined to a surface (e.g., a sphere) or a curve (e.g., an ellipse). For the latter speed-curvature relations are derived depending on the boundary conditions imposed (periodic or nonperiodic) and the compatibility with the empirical one-third power law is shown. Based on these theoretical studies and recent experimental findings, I argue that geodesics may be an emergent property of the motor system and that the sensorimotor system may shape arm configuration space by learning metric structures through sensorimotor feedback.

  6. NPT, export controls and nuclear trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, Savita

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear trade has by and large remained unhampered vis-a-vis both the NPT as well as export control regulations. The NPT rules are regarded as insufficient, the guidelines appear to contravene the spirit of cooperation in trade and development between suppliers and recipients and there is no agreement among leading suppliers themselves on what constitutes the proper conduct of trade. Export control regimes are more or less too informal to be able to be implemented. The supplier states have to invariably depend on national legislations which again vary from country to country. The only common formal basis on which action can be taken is, therefore, the NPT, its loopholes notwithstanding. The idea of transparency, and supplier-recipient dialogue continues to be a myth and will continue to be so long as these regimes remain discriminatory, so long as some nations are more powerful than others by virtue of retaining nuclear weapons and superiority in nuclear technology and trade

  7. Control rod for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, Kaoru; Kawano, Shohei

    1998-01-01

    A guide roller is prepared by forming an oxide membrane on the surface of a molded roller product comprising, as a material, a deposition-reinforced type nickel-based alloy reinforced by deposition of fine particles by applying a heat treatment to a nickel-based alloy. When the guide roller is used in reactor water, since the roller has an oxide membrane on the surface, leaching of nickel to reactor water is reduced, and radioactive corrosive products including cobalt 58 are reduced to decrease an operator's exposure dose upon periodical inspections of a plant. The oxide membrane is formed by applying heat treatment under an oxidative atmosphere. Then, the amount of abrasion of pins and rollers in association with start-up or shut down of a reactor and control of the power can be reduced thereby enabling to suppress increase of radiation dose due to cobalt 60 and cobalt 58. (N.H.)

  8. Principles of nuclear power station control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, J.B.

    1975-12-01

    This memorandum represents lecture notes first distributed as part of a UKAEA introductory course on Reactor Technology held during November 1975. A nuclear power station is only one element of a dispersed interconnected arrangement of other nuclear and fossil-fired units which together constitute the national 'grid'. Thus the control of any one station must relate to the objectives of the grid network as a whole. A precise control of the supply frequency of the grid is achieved by regulating the output power of individual stations, and it is necessary for each station to be stable when operating in isolation with a variable load. As regards individual stations, several special control problems concerned with individual plant items are discussed, such as: controlled reactivity insertions, temperature reactivity time constants and flow instability. A simplified analysis establishes a fundamental relationship between the stored thermal energy of a boiler unit (a function of mechanical construction) and the flexibility of the heat source (nuclear or fossil-fired) if the station is to cope satisfactorily with demands arising from unscheduled losses of other generating sets or transmission capacity. Two basic control schemes for power station operation are described known as 'coupled' and 'decoupled control'. Each of the control modes has its own merits, which depend on the proposed station operating strategy (base load or load following) and the nature of the heat source. (U.K.)

  9. Controlled Nuclear Fusion: Status and Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, David J.

    1971-01-01

    Presents the history, current concerns and potential developments of nuclear fusion as a major energy source. Controlled fusion research is summarized, technological feasibility is discussed and environmental factors are examined. Relationships of alternative energy sources as well as energy utilization are considered. (JM)

  10. Closed-Loop Hybrid Gaze Brain-Machine Interface Based Robotic Arm Control with Augmented Reality Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zeng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Brain-machine interface (BMI can be used to control the robotic arm to assist paralysis people for performing activities of daily living. However, it is still a complex task for the BMI users to control the process of objects grasping and lifting with the robotic arm. It is hard to achieve high efficiency and accuracy even after extensive trainings. One important reason is lacking of sufficient feedback information for the user to perform the closed-loop control. In this study, we proposed a method of augmented reality (AR guiding assistance to provide the enhanced visual feedback to the user for a closed-loop control with a hybrid Gaze-BMI, which combines the electroencephalography (EEG signals based BMI and the eye tracking for an intuitive and effective control of the robotic arm. Experiments for the objects manipulation tasks while avoiding the obstacle in the workspace are designed to evaluate the performance of our method for controlling the robotic arm. According to the experimental results obtained from eight subjects, the advantages of the proposed closed-loop system (with AR feedback over the open-loop system (with visual inspection only have been verified. The number of trigger commands used for controlling the robotic arm to grasp and lift the objects with AR feedback has reduced significantly and the height gaps of the gripper in the lifting process have decreased more than 50% compared to those trials with normal visual inspection only. The results reveal that the hybrid Gaze-BMI user can benefit from the information provided by the AR interface, improving the efficiency and reducing the cognitive load during the grasping and lifting processes.

  11. Closed-Loop Hybrid Gaze Brain-Machine Interface Based Robotic Arm Control with Augmented Reality Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hong; Wang, Yanxin; Wu, Changcheng; Song, Aiguo; Liu, Jia; Ji, Peng; Xu, Baoguo; Zhu, Lifeng; Li, Huijun; Wen, Pengcheng

    2017-01-01

    Brain-machine interface (BMI) can be used to control the robotic arm to assist paralysis people for performing activities of daily living. However, it is still a complex task for the BMI users to control the process of objects grasping and lifting with the robotic arm. It is hard to achieve high efficiency and accuracy even after extensive trainings. One important reason is lacking of sufficient feedback information for the user to perform the closed-loop control. In this study, we proposed a method of augmented reality (AR) guiding assistance to provide the enhanced visual feedback to the user for a closed-loop control with a hybrid Gaze-BMI, which combines the electroencephalography (EEG) signals based BMI and the eye tracking for an intuitive and effective control of the robotic arm. Experiments for the objects manipulation tasks while avoiding the obstacle in the workspace are designed to evaluate the performance of our method for controlling the robotic arm. According to the experimental results obtained from eight subjects, the advantages of the proposed closed-loop system (with AR feedback) over the open-loop system (with visual inspection only) have been verified. The number of trigger commands used for controlling the robotic arm to grasp and lift the objects with AR feedback has reduced significantly and the height gaps of the gripper in the lifting process have decreased more than 50% compared to those trials with normal visual inspection only. The results reveal that the hybrid Gaze-BMI user can benefit from the information provided by the AR interface, improving the efficiency and reducing the cognitive load during the grasping and lifting processes. PMID:29163123

  12. Damage Control Automation for Reduced Manning (DC-ARM) Supervisory Control System Software Summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Downs, Ryan

    2002-01-01

    .... The SCS currently interfaces and controls the ship's automated fire main, outfitted with smart valves, a high-pressure water mist system, a video over IP system, a door position indication system...

  13. Digital control in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzon, B.

    1984-01-01

    This document presents the latest automatic control structures used in the programmable control systems of 13.00 MW nuclear power plants constructed by Electricite de France. The impact of this technological innovation goes beyond a straightforward design modification; in addition to the new range of processes made possible, it permits far-reaching changes in the working method employed at the design office and in the field. (author)

  14. Damper mechanism for nuclear reactor control elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taft, W.E.

    1976-01-01

    A damper mechanism which provides a nuclear reactor control element decelerating function at the end of the scram stroke is described. The total damping function is produced by the combination of two assemblies, which operate in sequence. First, a tapered dashram assembly decelerates the control element to a lower velocity, after which a spring hydraulic damper assembly takes over to complete the final damping. 3 claims, 2 figures

  15. Robust trajectory tracking control of a dual-arm space robot actuated by control moment gyroscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yinghong; Misra, Arun K.

    2017-08-01

    It is a new design concept to employ control moment gyroscopes (CMGs) as reactionless actuators for space robots. Such actuation has several noticeable advantages such as weak dynamical coupling and low power consumption over traditional joint motor actuation. This paper presents a robust control law for a CMG-actuated space robot in presence of system uncertainties and closed-chain constraints. The control objective is to make the manipulation variables to track the desired trajectories, and reduce the possibility of CMG saturation simultaneously. A reduced-order dynamical equation in terms of independent motion variables is derived using Kane's equations. Desired trajectories of the independent motion variables are derived by minimum-norm trajectory planning algorithm, and an adaptive sliding mode controller with improved adaptation laws is proposed to drive the independent motion variables tracking the desired trajectories. Uniformly ultimate boundedness of the closed loop system is proven using Lyapunov method. The redundancy of the full-order actual control torques is utilized to generate a null torque vector which reduces the possibility of CMG angular momentum saturation while producing no effect on the reduced-order control input. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms and the advantage of weak dynamical coupling of the CMG-actuated system.

  16. A 3-armed randomized controlled trial of nurses' continuing education meetings on adverse drug reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarayani, Amir; Naderi-Behdani, Fahimeh; Hadavand, Naser; Javadi, Mohammadreza; Farsad, Fariborz; Hadjibabaie, Molouk; Gholami, Kheirollah

    2015-01-01

    Nurses' insufficient knowledge of adverse drug reactions is reported as a barrier to spontaneous reporting. Therefore, CE meetings could be utilized to enhance nurses' competencies. In a 3-armed randomized controlled trial, 496 nurses, working in a tertiary medical center, were randomly allocated to a didactic lecture, brainstorming workshop, or the control group (delayed education). Similar instructors (2 clinical pharmacists) prepared and delivered the educational content to all 3 groups. Outcomes were declarative/procedural knowledge (primary outcome), participation rate, and satisfaction. Knowledge was evaluated using a validated researcher-made questionnaire in 3 time points: immediately before, immediately after, and 3 months after each session. Participants' satisfaction was assessed immediately after each meeting via a standard tool. Data were analyzed using appropriate parametric and nonparametric tests. Rate of participation was 37.7% for the lecture group and 47.5% for the workshop group. The workshop participants were significantly more satisfied in comparison with the lecture group (p techniques. © 2015 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on Continuing Medical Education, Association for Hospital Medical Education.

  17. Shock buffer for nuclear control element assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.

    1977-01-01

    A shock buffer for a control element assembly in a nuclear reactor is described, comprising a piston and a cylinder. The piston is affixed to and extends upward from the control rod guide structure; the cylinder is supported by the upper portion of the control element assembly and is vertically oriented with open end downward for receiving the piston. Coolant liquid normally has free access to the cylinder. The piston displaces liquid from the cylinder when inserted, thereby decelerating the control element assembly near its lower extent of travel. (LL)

  18. Fast-acting nuclear reactor control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotlyar, O.M.; West, P.B.

    1993-01-01

    A fast-acting nuclear reactor control device is described for controlling a safety control rod within the core of a nuclear reactor, the reactor controlled by a reactor control system, the device comprising: a safety control rod drive shaft and an electromagnetic clutch co-axial with the drive shaft operatively connected to the safety control rod for driving and positioning the safety control rod within or without the reactor core during reactor operation, the safety rod being oriented in a substantially vertical position to allow the rod to fall into the reactor core under the influence of gravity during shutdown of the reactor; the safety control rod drive shaft further operatively connected to a hydraulic pump such that operation of the drive shaft simultaneously drives and positions the safety control rod and operates the hydraulic pump such that a hydraulic fluid is forced into an accumulator, filling the accumulator with oil for the storage and supply of primary potential energy for safety control rod insertion such that the release of potential energy in the accumulator causes hydraulic fluid to flow through the hydraulic pump, converting the hydraulic pump to a hydraulic motor having speed and power capable of full length insertion and high speed driving of the safety control rod into the reactor core; a solenoid valve interposed between the hydraulic pump and the accumulator, said solenoid valve being a normally open valve, actuated to close when the safety control rod is out of the reactor during reactor operation; and further wherein said solenoid opens in response to a signal from the reactor control system calling for shutdown of the reactor and rapid insertion of the safety control rod into the reactor core, such that the opening of the solenoid releases the potential energy in the accumulator to place the safety control rod in a safe shutdown position

  19. Laparoscopic Surgical Treatment of Severe Obesity Combined with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: A Pilot Randomized Two-Arm Controlled Clinical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospanov, Oral B.; Orekeshova, Akzhunis M.; Fursov, Roman A.; Yelemesov, Aset A.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are serious medical, social, and economic problems of modern society. A pilot randomized two-arm controlled clinical study was conducted to compare laparoscopic plication of the greater gastric curvature combined with Nissen fundoplication (LFN+LGP) versus only Nissen fundoplication (LFN). The…

  20. 76 FR 70209 - Delegation by the Secretary of State to the Under Secretary of State for Arms Control and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Congress pursuant to: (1) Section 1344 of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 2003, Public... (incorporated in the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 2003), Public Law 107-228; (4) Section 204... Under Secretary of State for Arms Control and International Security of Authority To Submit Certain Non...

  1. Reactor control device for controlling load of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Tadakuni; Yokoyama, Terukuni; Masuda, Jiro.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the load follow-up capacity of a nuclear reactor by automatically controlling the width of the not-sensing band of a control rod inserting and removing discriminator circuit. Constitution: When load control operations such as automatic load control, automatic frequency control, governor free operation and so forth are conducted, the width of a not sensing band of a control rod inserting and removing discriminator circuit is ao automatically controlled that the not sensing band width may return to ordinary value in a normal operation by avoiding the fast repetition of inserting and removing control rods by increasing the width of the insensing band if the period of a control deviation signal produced due to the variation in the load is quickly repeated and varied in correspondence to the control deviation signal. That is, a circuit for varying the insensing band of the control circuit for driving a control mechanism is provided to reduce the amount of driving the control rods in a load control operation and to reduce the strain of the power distribution of the nuclear reactor, thereby improving the load control capacity. (Yoshihara, H.)

  2. Nonproliferation and arms control assessment of weapons-usable fissile material storage and excess plutonium disposition alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report has been prepared by the Department of Energy's Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation (DOE-NN) with support from the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE-MD). Its purpose is to analyze the nonproliferation and arms reduction implications of the alternatives for storage of plutonium and HEU, and disposition of excess plutonium, to aid policymakers and the public in making final decisions. While this assessment describes the benefits and risks associated with each option, it does not attempt to rank order the options or choose which ones are best. It does, however, identify steps which could maximize the benefits and mitigate any vulnerabilities of the various alternatives under consideration

  3. Quality control in paediatric nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, S.; Hahn, K.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear medicine examinations in children require a maximum in quality. This is true for the preparation of the child and parents, the imaging procedure, processing and documentation. It is necessary that quality control through all steps is performed regularly. The aim must be that the children receive a minimum radiation dose, while there needs to be a high quality in imaging and clinical information from the study. Furthermore the child should not be too much psychologically affected by the nuclear medicine examination. (orig.) [de

  4. The control of nuclear sector; Le controle du nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The Asn is loaded with the control of the nuclear safety and the radiation protection in France: it provides this control, in the name of the state, to protect the workers, the patients, the public and the environment of the risks in relation with nuclear activities. The control is the core business of Asn. Asn so checks the nuclear basic installations (I.N.B.), since their conception until their dismantling, the pressure equipment specially conceived for these installations, the management of the radioactive waste as well as the transport of radioactive substances. Asn also checks all the industrial and research installations as well as the hospitals where are used ionizing radiations. It is a more recent profession there, because dating the reform of the control of the nuclear power of 2002, which constitutes that of the radiation protection. The first responsibility of the activities at risks falls to the one who begins them. This principle applies to all the sectors checked by Asn: an industrialist is responsible for the safety of the nuclear installations which he exploits, a doctor is responsible for the use of the ionizing radiations which he uses. (N.C.)

  5. Pulsatile dry cupping in chronic low back pain - a randomized three-armed controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teut, M; Ullmann, A; Ortiz, M; Rotter, G; Binting, S; Cree, M; Lotz, F; Roll, S; Brinkhaus, B

    2018-04-02

    We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of two different forms of dry pulsatile cupping in patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP) compared to medication on demand only in a three-armed randomized trial. 110 cLBP patients were randomized to regular pulsatile cupping with 8 treatments plus paracetamol on demand (n = 37), minimal cupping with 8 treatments plus paracetamol on demand (n = 36) or the control group with paracetamol on demand only (n = 37). Primary outcome was the pain intensity on a visual analogue scale (VAS, 0-100 mm) after 4 weeks, secondary outcome parameter included VAS pain intensity after 12 weeks, back function as measured with the 'Funktionsfragebogen Hannover Rücken' (FFbH-R) and health related quality of life questionnaire Short form 36 (SF-36) after 4 and 12 weeks. The mean baseline-adjusted VAS after 4 weeks was 34.9 mm (95% CI: 28.7; 41.2) for pulsatile cupping, 40.4 (34.2; 46.7) for minimal cupping and 56.1 (49.8; 62.4) for control group, resulting in statistically significant differences between pulsatile cupping vs. control (21.2 (12.2; 30.1); p back function after 4 weeks, but not after 12 weeks (- 5.4 (- 11.7;0.8); p = 0.088), pulsatile cupping also showed better improvements on SF-36 physical component scale compared to control at 4 and 12 weeks (- 5.6 (- 9.3;-2.0); p = 0.003; - 6.1 (- 9.9;-2.4); p = 0.002). For back function and quality of life minimal cupping group was not statistically different to control after 4 and 12 weeks. Paracetamol intake did not differ between the groups (cupping vs. control (7.3 (- 0.4;15.0); p = 0.063); minimal cupping vs. control (6.3 (- 2.0;14.5); p = 0.133). Both forms of cupping were effective in cLBP without showing significant differences in direct comparison after four weeks, only pulsatile cupping showed effects compared to control after 12 weeks. The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT02090686 ).

  6. Use of nuclear techniques in biological control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greany, Patrick D.; Carpenter, James E.

    2000-01-01

    As pointed out by Benbrook (1996), pest management is at a crossroads, and there is a great need for new, biointensive pest management strategies. Among these approaches, biological control is a keystone. However, because of increasing concerns about the introduction of exotic natural enemies of insect pests and weeds (Howarth 1991, Delfosse 1997), the overall thrust of biological control has moved toward augmentative biological control, involving releases of established natural enemy species (Knipling 1992). This in turn has created a need to develop more cost-effective mass rearing technologies for beneficial insects. Nuclear techniques could play an especially important role in augmentative biological control, not only in facilitating mass rearing, but in several other ways, as indicated below. Recognising the potential value for use of nuclear techniques in biological control, the Insect and Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, sponsored a Consultants' Group Meeting on this subject in April 1997. The Group produced a document entitled Use of Nuclear Techniques in Biological Control: Managing Pests, Facilitating Trade and Protecting the Environment. The consultants included the authors of this paper as well as Ernest Delfosse (at that time, with the USDA-APHIS National Biological Control Institute), Garry Hill (Intl. Institute for Biological Control), Sinthya Penn (Beneficial Insectary), and Felipe Jeronimo (USDA-APHIS PPQ, Guatemala). The remarks presented in this paper reflect the thoughts presented by these consultants and other participants at the IAEA-sponsored meeting. Several potential uses for nuclear techniques were identified by the Consultants' Group, including: 1) improvements in rearing media (either artificial diets or natural hosts/prey), 2) provision of sterilised natural prey to be used as food during shipment, to ameliorate concerns relating to the

  7. Reliable control system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Tetsuo; Miyazaki, Shiro

    1980-01-01

    The System 1100 for nuclear power plants is the measuring and control system which utilizes the features of the System 1100 for electric power market in addition to the results of nuclear instrumentation with EBS-ZN series, and it has the following features. The maintenance and inspection in operation are easy. The construction of control loops is made flexibly by the combination of modules. The construction of multi-variable control system using mainly feed forward control is easy. Such functions as the automatic switching of control modes can be included. The switching of manual and automatic operations is easy, and if some trouble occurred in a module, the manual operation can be made. The aseismatic ability is improved by rigid structure cubicles. Nonflammable materials are used for wires, multi-core cables, paints and printed boards. The anti-noise characteristics are improved, and the reliability is high. The policy of developing the System 1100 for nuclear power plants, the type approval tests on modules and units and the type approval test on the system are described. The items of the system type approval test were standard performance test, earthquake test, noise isolation test, temperature and humidity test, and drift test. The aseismatic cubicle showed good endurance in its vibration test. (Kako, I.)

  8. Controlling a nuclear spin in a nanodiamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Helena S.; Kara, Dhiren M.; Atatüre, Mete

    2017-09-01

    The sensing capability of a single optically bright electronic spin in diamond can be enhanced by making use of proximal dark nuclei as ancillary spins. Such systems, so far realized only in bulk diamond, can provide orders of magnitude higher sensitivity and spectral resolution in the case of magnetic sensing, as well as improved readout fidelity and state storage time in quantum information schemes. Nanodiamonds offer opportunities for scanning and embedded nanoscale probes, yet electronic-nuclear spin complexes have so far remained inaccessible. Here, we demonstrate coherent control of a 13C nuclear spin located 4 Å from a nitrogen-vacancy center in a nanodiamond and show coherent exchange between the two components of this hybrid spin system. We extract a free precession time T2* of 26 μ s for the nuclear spin, which exceeds the bare-electron free-precession time in nanodiamond by two orders of magnitude.

  9. Evolution of robotic arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    The foundation of surgical robotics is in the development of the robotic arm. This is a thorough review of the literature on the nature and development of this device with emphasis on surgical applications. We have reviewed the published literature and classified robotic arms by their application: show, industrial application, medical application, etc. There is a definite trend in the manufacture of robotic arms toward more dextrous devices, more degrees-of-freedom, and capabilities beyond the human arm. da Vinci designed the first sophisticated robotic arm in 1495 with four degrees-of-freedom and an analog on-board controller supplying power and programmability. von Kemplen's chess-playing automaton left arm was quite sophisticated. Unimate introduced the first industrial robotic arm in 1961, it has subsequently evolved into the PUMA arm. In 1963 the Rancho arm was designed; Minsky's Tentacle arm appeared in 1968, Scheinman's Stanford arm in 1969, and MIT's Silver arm in 1974. Aird became the first cyborg human with a robotic arm in 1993. In 2000 Miguel Nicolalis redefined possible man-machine capacity in his work on cerebral implantation in owl-monkeys directly interfacing with robotic arms both locally and at a distance. The robotic arm is the end-effector of robotic systems and currently is the hallmark feature of the da Vinci Surgical System making its entrance into surgical application. But, despite the potential advantages of this computer-controlled master-slave system, robotic arms have definite limitations. Ongoing work in robotics has many potential solutions to the drawbacks of current robotic surgical systems.

  10. Information report on the behalf of the Commission for Foreign Affairs, Defence and Armed Forces on nuclear proliferation - Nr 338

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villepin, Xavier de

    2004-01-01

    Based on hearings of experts (notably MR El Baradei, IAEA general manager), and written at the time North Korea admitted the existence of a military nuclear programme and decided to expel IAEA inspectors, and Libya and Iran revealed nuclear activities which had been until then unsuspected, this report aims at discussing events which occurred during the two previous years in relationship with nuclear proliferation. The author first tries to draw some lessons from these recent proliferation crises. In this respect, he outlines that they reveal weaknesses of the international regime of nuclear non proliferation: lack of control means for the NPT, lack of control of the access to fuel cycle technologies, gaps in export controls exacerbated by the emergence of private actors. The author then highlights some dangerous features which threaten international safety: loss of credibility of the NPT as shown by North Korea withdrawing from the NPT without unbearable political cost, current crises with Iran and North Korea having a very strong destabilisation potential, and, with the threat of use of dirty bombs, emergence of relationships between proliferation and terrorism. In the next part, the author discusses how to make the struggle against nuclear proliferation more efficient: need of stronger mobilisation and unity within the international community, solution of the Iranian problem as a priority and a test for the international community, and ways to strengthen this struggle (implementation of additional protocols, necessity of an international framework for the control of activities related to the fuel cycle, and necessity of more visible sanctions for the sake and respect of treaties). Hearings and commission discussions are transcribed and proposed after this report

  11. Using Functional Electrical Stimulation Mediated by Iterative Learning Control and Robotics to Improve Arm Movement for People With Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Patrica; Freeman, Chris; Coote, Susan; Demain, Sara; Feys, Peter; Meadmore, Katie; Hughes, Ann-Marie

    2016-02-01

    Few interventions address multiple sclerosis (MS) arm dysfunction but robotics and functional electrical stimulation (FES) appear promising. This paper investigates the feasibility of combining FES with passive robotic support during virtual reality (VR) training tasks to improve upper limb function in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS). The system assists patients in following a specified trajectory path, employing an advanced model-based paradigm termed iterative learning control (ILC) to adjust the FES to improve accuracy and maximise voluntary effort. Reaching tasks were repeated six times with ILC learning the optimum control action from previous attempts. A convenience sample of five pwMS was recruited from local MS societies, and the intervention comprised 18 one-hour training sessions over 10 weeks. The accuracy of tracking performance without FES and the amount of FES delivered during training were analyzed using regression analysis. Clinical functioning of the arm was documented before and after treatment with standard tests. Statistically significant results following training included: improved accuracy of tracking performance both when assisted and unassisted by FES; reduction in maximum amount of FES needed to assist tracking; and less impairment in the proximal arm that was trained. The system was well tolerated by all participants with no increase in muscle fatigue reported. This study confirms the feasibility of FES combined with passive robot assistance as a potentially effective intervention to improve arm movement and control in pwMS and provides the basis for a follow-up study.

  12. Nuclear war nuclear proliferation and their consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aga Khan, Sadruddin

    1986-01-01

    The paper concerns the proceedings of a conference hosted by the Groupe de Bellerive to explore and discuss the implications for humanity of nuclear war, nuclear proliferation and their consequences, Geneva 1985. The conference was divided into five sessions, headed by the subject titles: the nuclear non-proliferation treaty (NPT) and its future, the spread of nuclear weapons among nations, global effects of a nuclear war, the nuclear arms race and arms control, the NPT and its future. Twenty eight papers were presented in the five sessions. (UK)

  13. Nuclear power proliferation. Problems of international control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, B [International Inst. for Environment and Development, London (UK)

    1977-09-01

    The nuclear industry is experiencing a multiple crisis in which economic, technical and ethical aspects are blended inextricably. Nuclear hardware costs have everywhere soared far beyond inflation in the last five years, largely as a result of delays in programme completion arising from problems of reactor and fuel cycle. Meanwhile, partly as a result of this cost escalation, there is widespread and growing doubt as to whether capital will be available to finance the electricity generating levels projected by the industry and by governments for the 1990s. The nuclear industry is now in trouble at every stage of the fuel cycle. The industry's difficulties have also revealed a lack of overall - but particularly nuclear - energy strategy at either national or international levels, and a lack of will to create regulations and institutional machinery at either of these levels which might reassure both concerned publics and the energy industries themselves. This paper appraises some of the present limitations of international institutions in achieving control and management of nuclear power.

  14. Nuclear power proliferation: problems of international control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, B

    1977-09-01

    Some of the present limitations of international institutions in achieving control and management of nuclear power are reviewed and appraised. The nuclear industry is experiencing a multiple crisis in which economic, technical, and ethical aspects are blended. Nuclear hardware costs have increased faster than inflation in the last five years, largely as a result of delays in program completion arising from reactor and fuel-cycle safety problems. Meanwhile, there is a widespread and growing doubt, partly as a result of this cost escalation, as to whether capital will be available to finance the electricity-generating levels projected by the industry and by governments for the 1990s. The nuclear industry is now in trouble at every stage of the fuel cycle. The industry's difficulties have also revealed a lack of overall--but particularly nuclear--energy strategy at either national or international levels, and a lack of will to create regulations and institutional machinery at either of these levels that could reassure the concerned public and the energy industries.

  15. Nuclear reactor plants and control systems therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Boer, G.A.; de Hex, M.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear reactor plant is described comprising at least two hydraulically separated but thermally interconnected heat conveying circuits, of which one is the reactor circuit filled with a non-water medium and the other one is the water-steam-circuit equipped with a steam generator, a feed water conduit controlled by a valve and a steam turbine, and a control system mainly influenced by the pressure drop caused in said feed water conduit and its control valve and having a value of at least 10 bars at full load

  16. Quality control of nuclear medicine instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mould, R.F.

    1983-09-01

    The proceedings of a conference held by the Hospital Physicists' Association in London 1983 on the quality control of nuclear medicine instrumentation are presented. Section I deals with the performance of the Anger gamma camera including assessment during manufacture, acceptance testing, routine testing and long-term assessment of results. Section II covers interfaces, computers, the quality control problems of emission tomography and the quality of software. Section III deals with radionuclide measurement and impurity assessment and Section IV the presentation of images and the control of image quality. (U.K.)

  17. Intelligent distributed control for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevans, E.H.

    1991-01-01

    In September of 1989 work began on the DOE University Program grant DE-FG07-89ER12889. The grant provides support for a three year project to develop and demonstrate Intelligent Distributed Control (IDC) for Nuclear Power Plants. The body of this First Annual Technical Progress report summarizes the first year tasks while the appendices provide detailed information presented at conference meetings. One major addendum report, authored by M.A. Schultz, describes the ultimate goals and projected structure of an automatic distributed control system for EBR-2. The remaining tasks of the project develop specific implementations of various components required to demonstrate the intelligent distributed control concept

  18. Evaluation of feedforward and feedback contributions to hand stiffness and variability in multijoint arm control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin; Du, Yu-Fan; Lan, Ning

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to validate a neuromechanical model of the virtual arm (VA) by comparing emerging behaviors of the model to those of experimental observations. Hand stiffness of the VA model was obtained by either theoretical computation or simulated perturbations. Variability in hand position of the VA was generated by adding signal dependent noise (SDN) to the motoneuron pools of muscles. Reflex circuits of Ia, Ib and Renshaw cells were included to regulate the motoneuron pool outputs. Evaluation of hand stiffness and variability was conducted in simulations with and without afferent feedback under different patterns of muscle activations during postural maintenance. The simulated hand stiffness and variability ellipses captured the experimentally observed features in shape, magnitude and orientation. Steady state afferent feedback contributed significantly to the increase in hand stiffness by 35.75±16.99% in area, 18.37±7.80% and 16.15±7.15% in major and minor axes; and to the reduction of hand variability by 49.41±21.19% in area, 36.89±12.78% and 18.87±23.32% in major and minor axes. The VA model reproduced the neuromechanical behaviors that were consistent with experimental data, and it could be a useful tool for study of neural control of posture and movement, as well as for application to rehabilitation.

  19. Defining the questions: a research agenda for nontraditional authentication in arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauck, Danielle K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mac Arthur, Duncan W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Morag K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thron, Jonathan L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Budlong - Sylvester, Kory [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Many traditional authentication techniques have been based on hardware solutions. Thus authentication of measurement system hardware has been considered in terms of physical inspection and destructive analysis. Software authentication has implied hash function analysis or authentication tools such as Rose. Continuity of knowledge is maintained through TIDs and cameras. Although there is ongoing progress improving all of these authentication methods, there has been little discussion of the human factors involved in authentication. Issues of non-traditional authentication include sleight-of-hand substitutions, monitor perception vs. reality, and visual diversions. Since monitor confidence in a measurement system depends on the product of their confidences in each authentication element, it is important to investigate all authentication techniques, including the human factors. This paper will present an initial effort to identify the most important problems that traditional authentication approaches in safeguards have not addressed and are especially relevant to arms control verification. This will include a survey of the literature and direct engagement with nontraditional experts in areas like psychology and human factors. Based on the identification of problem areas, potential research areas will be identified and a possible research agenda will be developed.

  20. Nuclear export controls - Closing the gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Fritz W.

    2005-01-01

    Concerns over a nuclear 'black market' have focused international attention on the effectiveness of nuclear export controls. IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei has stated that the emergence of a multinational illicit network demonstrated the inadequacy of the present export control system, that international cooperation on export controls lay on informal arrangements that were not only not binding but also limited in membership, and that export control information was not systematically shared with the IAEA. This criticism, often heard on the political level, does not really do justice to the work of export control groups. The emergence of a multinational illicit network does not necessarily prove failures in export control systems. Criminal activities, by definition, try to circumvent existing rules and regulations, or they exploit the absence of such rules on State level. To fight such individual cases is not so much a task of regular export control systems, whose function lies primarily in establishing standards and procedures for export controls on State level, but rather the task for intelligence services and their international cooperation. The basis of the export control regime is the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Export controls can - and do - play an important role in fostering this universality goal by demanding the implementation of internationally agreed security standards in recipient countries before export licenses are granted. Drawn from the deliberations in the NPT conferences, the current standards to be demanded as conditions of supply are the following: Safeguards, Physical Protection, National export control provisions. According to the NPT system, export controls require IAEA verification in the recipient country. In addition, export controls enable States to provide information to the IAEA on exports and imports as required by the Additional Protocol. The 2005 NPT Review Conference will be an opportunity to review developments

  1. Digital control for nuclear reactors - lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.A.; Aviles, B.N.; Lanning, D.D.

    1992-01-01

    Lessons learned during the course of the now decade-old MIT program on the digital control of nuclear reactors are enumerated. Relative to controller structure, these include the importance of a separate safety system, the need for signal validation, the role of supervisory algorithms, the significance of command validation, and the relevance of automated reasoning. Relative to controller implementation, these include the value of nodal methods to the creation of real-time reactor physics and thermal hydraulic models, the advantages to be gained from the use of real-time system models, and the importance of a multi-tiered structure to the simultaneous achievement of supervisory, global, and local control. Block diagrams are presented of proposed controllers and selected experimental and simulation-study results are shown. In addition, a history is given of the MIT program on reactor digital control

  2. Power supply trip control for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hager, R.E.; Gutman, Jerzy.

    1987-01-01

    A control system for a trip coil in a switchgear mechanism controls the supply of electrical power to a process control device and ensures de-energization of the trip coil shortly after the trip coil is energized. The trip coil is energized not by an independent dc source as in prior art, but from rectified power from a step down transformer supplied from the switchgear output side. The transformer feeds a rectifier which is connected to the trip coil via a trip activation device. The output of the rectifier can be monitored using an optical converter to determine the ability of the control system to activate the trip coil and the condition of the power supplied to the process control device. The control device may be a rod positioner in a pressurised water nuclear reactor. (author)

  3. Automated entry control system for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ream, W.K.; Espinoza, J.

    1985-01-01

    An entry control system to automatically control access to nuclear facilities is described. The design uses a centrally located console, integrated into the regular security system, to monitor the computer-controlled passage into and out of sensitive areas. Four types of entry control points are used: an unmanned enclosed portal with metal and SNM detectors for contraband detection with positive personnel identification, a bypass portal for contraband search after a contraband alarm in a regular portal also with positive personnel identification, a single door entry point with positive personnel identification, and a single door entry point with only a magnetic card-type identification. Security force action is required only as a response to an alarm. The integration of the entry control function into the security system computer is also described. The interface between the entry control system and the monitoring security personnel utilizing a color graphics display with touch screen input is emphasized. 2 refs., 7 figs

  4. Experimental Test Rig for Optimal Control of Flexible Space Robotic Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    the test bed design. A single link arm with a torsional, helical spring at the base was finalized to investigate the effects of coupling due to...test bed design. A single link arm with a torsional, helical spring at the base was finalized to investigate the effects of coupling due to movement...Source: [4]. A challenge with space systems is that it costs a lot of money to put a satellite or spacecraft into space. Estimates to send one kilogram

  5. Desain Proportional Integral Derrivative (Pid) Controller Pada Model Arm Robot Manipulator

    OpenAIRE

    Pratama, Adhityanendra Pandu; Munadi, Munadi

    2014-01-01

    Dalam rangka menuju proses industrialisasi modern di negara Indonesia, harus didukung dengan teknologi yang canggih, contoh nya adalah arm robot manipulator. sebagai pelaku proses produksi sehingga dihasilkan ketepatan,kepresisian, dan kefektifan pada proses produksi. Dengan hal tersebut dibuat sebuah desain kontrol PID pada arm robot manipulator dengan tujuan menghasilkan tingkat presisi dan kestabilan yang lebih baik. Kontroler tersebut didesain, disimulasikan, dan diaplikasikan pada ha...

  6. Robust adaptive control modeling of human arm movements subject to altered gravity and mechanical loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryfonidis, Michail

    It has been observed that during orbital spaceflight the absence of gravitation related sensory inputs causes incongruence between the expected and the actual sensory feedback resulting from voluntary movements. This incongruence results in a reinterpretation or neglect of gravity-induced sensory input signals. Over time, new internal models develop, gradually compensating for the loss of spatial reference. The study of adaptation of goal-directed movements is the main focus of this thesis. The hypothesis is that during the adaptive learning process the neural connections behave in ways that can be described by an adaptive control method. The investigation presented in this thesis includes two different sets of experiments. A series of dart throwing experiments took place onboard the space station Mir. Experiments also took place at the Biomechanics lab at MIT, where the subjects performed a series of continuous trajectory tracking movements while a planar robotic manipulandum exerted external torques on the subjects' moving arms. The experimental hypothesis for both experiments is that during the first few trials the subjects will perform poorly trying to follow a prescribed trajectory, or trying to hit a target. A theoretical framework is developed that is a modification of the sliding control method used in robotics. The new control framework is an attempt to explain the adaptive behavior of the subjects. Numerical simulations of the proposed framework are compared with experimental results and predictions from competitive models. The proposed control methodology extends the results of the sliding mode theory to human motor control. The resulting adaptive control model of the motor system is robust to external dynamics, even those of negative gain, uses only position and velocity feedback, and achieves bounded steady-state error without explicit knowledge of the system's nonlinearities. In addition, the experimental and modeling results demonstrate that

  7. Radiation control system of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapisovsky, V.; Kosa, M.; Melichar, Z.; Moravek, J.; Jancik, O.

    1977-01-01

    The SYRAK system is being developed for in-service radiation control of the V-1 nuclear power plant. Its basic components are an EC 1010 computer, a CAMAC system and communication means. The in-service release of radionuclides is measured by fuel can failure detection, by monitoring rare gases in the coolant, by gamma spectrometric coolant monitoring and by iodine isotopes monitoring in stack disposal. (O.K.)

  8. Wavelet network controller for nuclear steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibiyan, H; Sayadian, A; Ghafoori-Fard, H

    2005-01-01

    Poor control of steam generator water level is the main cause of unexpected shutdowns in nuclear power plants. Particularly at low powers, it is a difficult task due to shrink and swell phenomena and flow measurement errors. In addition, the steam generator is a highly complex, nonlinear and time-varying system and its parameters vary with operating conditions. Therefore, it seems that design of a suitable controller is a necessary step to enhance plant availability factor. The purpose of this paper is to design, analyze and evaluate a water level controller for U-tube steam generators using wavelet neural networks. Computer simulations show that the proposed controller improves transient response of steam generator water level and demonstrate its superiority to existing controllers

  9. USAEC Controls for Nuclear Criticality Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCluggage, W. C. [Division of Operational Safety, United States Atomic Energy Commission Washington, DC (United States)

    1966-05-15

    This is a paper written to provide a broad general view of the United States Atomic Energy Commission's controls for nuclear criticality safety within its own facilities. Included also is a brief' discussion of the USAEC's methods of obtaining assurance that the controls are being applied. The body of the document contains three sections. The first two describe the functions of the USAEC; the third deals with the contractors. The provisions of the Atomic Energy Act applicable to health and safety are discussed in relation to nuclear criticality safety. The use of United States Atomic Energy Commission manual chapters and Federal regulations is described. The functions of the USAEC Headquarters' offices and the operations offices are briefly outlined. Comments regarding the USAEC's inspection, auditing and appraisal programmes are included. Also briefly mentioned are the basic qualifications which must be met to become a contractor to possess and process or use fissionable materials. On the plant, factory or facility level the duties and responsibilities of industrial management are briefly outlined. The fundamental standards and their origin, together with the principal documents and guides are mentioned. The chief methods of control used by contractors operating large USAEC facilities and plants are described and compared. These include diagrams of how a typical nuclear criticality safety problem is handled from inception, design, construction and finally plant operation. Also included is a brief discussion of the contractors' methods of assuring strict employee compliance with the operating rules and limits. (author)

  10. Nuclear fuel control in fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Yoshitatsu

    1976-01-01

    The basic control problems of measuring uranium and of the environment inside and outside nuclear fuel fabrication plants are reviewed, excluding criticality prevention in case of submergence. The occurrence of loss scraps in fabrication and scrap-recycling, the measuring error, the uranium going cut of the system, the confirmation of the presence of lost uranium and the requirement of the measurement control for safeguard make the measurement control very complicated. The establishment of MBA (material balance area) and ICA (item control area) can make clearer the control of inventories, the control of loss scraps and the control of measuring points. Besides the above basic points, the following points are to be taken into account: 1) the method of confirmation of inventories, 2) the introduction of reliable NDT instruments for the rapid check system for enrichment and amount of uranium, 3) the introduction of real time system, and 4) the clarification of MUF analysis and its application to the reliability check of measurement control system. The environment control includes the controls of the uranium concentration in factory atmosphere, the surface contamination, the space dose rate, the uranium concentration in air and water discharged from factories, and the uranium in liquid wastes. The future problems are the practical restudy of measurement control under NPT, the definite plan of burglary protection and the realization of the disposal of solid wastes. (Iwakiri, K.)

  11. History of controlled nuclear fusion in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uematsu, Eisui; Nishio, Shigeko; Takeda, Tatsuoki

    2001-01-01

    A research development of nuclear fusion was divided four periods: the first period as prehistory (until about 1955), the second period as begin of research (1955 to 1969), the third as the growth period (1970 to 1985) and the forth as the large tokamak age. In this paper I explained the second period, because general physicists and young plasma and controlled nuclear fusion researcher did not know about this period. The controlled nuclear fusion research was begun by the experiment of hydrogen bomb by USA and USSR in 1952 and 1953. In Japan, on the basis of many societies, 'The Controlled Nuclear Fusion Meeting' was established as an independent system and KAKEA (Journal of Fusion Research) was published in 1958. Japan government began to make the system by the Nuclear Commission in 1957. The main research devices in 1962 were linear pinch, mirror device, toroidal pinch, helical system, plasma gun and plasma measurement. USSR showed the excellent results of tokamak device in 1968. Ookawa spoke the effect of the average minimum-B, the best report in this period, at the second IAEA meeting, 1965. JAERI constructed JFT-1 and JFT-2, the latter was the first class device in the world and made the first step of Japanese research into the world, for examples, to attain the equilibrium of divertor plasma and to control impurity. Many research centers of controlled fusion were established in many universities in Japan from 1966 to 1980. Cooperation researchs between Japan and USA, USSR and many countries has been carried out after 1978: JIFT (Joint Institute for Fusion Theory) and FPPC (Fusion Power Coordinating Committee). The important results increased in this period. After 1985, the research activities are processing and data increased very fast depend on the larger devices and system, good measurement system and development of information system. JT-60 in JAERI opened to the large tokamak period. It led controlled fusion researchs in the world the same as TFTR (US

  12. Controlled procurement for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, I.S.

    1985-01-01

    A method is presented for establishing a controlled materials management system that facilitates materials procurement at nuclear power plants. This method is based on the determination of informational data requirements, appropriate input and approvals, and extent of administrative controls. Implementation of the techniques described herein will ensure that the accuracy of important procurement information is not compromised by unauthorized initial input or changes and/or failure to maintain the information. Needed material can thus be ordered through the materials management system with a high degree of confidence that the correct items are ordered, with minimal internal lead time and minimum delays during the receiving process

  13. Multivariable control in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parent, M.; McMorran, P.D.

    1982-12-01

    Linear, state-space models of power plant systems tend to be of high order, leading to difficulties in the design of control systems by state-space methods. However, the control system has access only to the plant inputs and outputs, and the fast-responding internal variables may be masked by slower, dominant variables. Model order reduction applies modal analysis to eliminate the fast modes while retaining the character of the input-output response. Two alternative techniques are presented and demonstrated on a model of a nuclear steam generator. The preferred method is implemented in MVPACK, the computer-aided design package

  14. Nuclear thermal rocket engine operation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, S.V.; Savoie, M.T.; Hundal, R.

    1993-06-01

    The operation of a typical Rover/Nerva-derived nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engine is characterized and the control requirements of the NTR are defined. A rationale for the selection of a candidate diverse redundant NTR engine control system is presented and the projected component operating requirements are related to the state of the art of candidate components and subsystems. The projected operational capabilities of the candidate system are delineated for the startup, full-thrust, shutdown, and decay heat removal phases of the engine operation. 9 refs

  15. China and Japan’s Strategic Nuclear Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Nuclear Numerology Chinese Style,” Arms Control Today (March, 2005); Robert S. Norris, “Chinese Nuclear Forces 2008,” Bulletin of the Atomic...Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, May/June. ———. 2005. “Letters to the Editor: Nuclear Numerology Chinese Style,” Arms Control Today, March

  16. Regulatory control of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to support IAEA training courses and workshops in the field of regulatory control of nuclear power plants as well as to support the regulatory bodies of Member States in their own training activities. The target group is the professional staff members of nuclear safety regulatory bodies supervising nuclear power plants and having duties and responsibilities in the following regulatory fields: regulatory framework; regulatory organization; regulatory guidance; licensing and licensing documents; assessment of safety; and regulatory inspection and enforcement. Important topics such as regulatory competence and quality of regulatory work as well as emergency preparedness and public communication are also covered. The book also presents the key issues of nuclear safety such as 'defence-in-depth' and safety culture and explains how these should be taken into account in regulatory work, e.g. during safety assessment and regulatory inspection. The book also reflects how nuclear safety has been developed during the years on the basis of operating experience feedback and results of safety research by giving topical examples. The examples cover development of operating procedures and accident management to cope with complicated incidents and severe accidents to stress the importance of regulatory role in nuclear safety research. The main target group is new staff members of regulatory bodies, but the book also offers good examples for more experienced inspectors to be used as comparison and discussion basis in internal workshops organized by the regulatory bodies for refreshing and continuing training. The book was originally compiled on the basis of presentations provided during the two regulatory control training courses in 1997 and 1998. The textbook was reviewed at the beginning of the years 2000 and 2002 by IAEA staff members and consistency with the latest revisions of safety standards have been ensured. The textbook was completed in the

  17. Intelligent distributed control for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevans, E.H.

    1992-01-01

    This project was initiated in September 1989 as a three year project to develop and demonstrate Intelligent Distributed Control (IDC) for Nuclear Power Plants. The body of this Third Annual Technical Progress report summarizes the period from September 1991 to October 1992. There were two primary goals of this research project. The first goal was to combine diagnostics and control to achieve a highly automated power plant as described by M.A. Schultz. His philosophy, is to improve public perception of the safety of nuclear power plants by incorporating a high degree of automation where a greatly simplified operator control console minimizes the possibility of human error in power plant operations. To achieve this goal, a hierarchically distributed control system with automated responses to plant upset conditions was pursued in this research. The second goal was to apply this research to develop a prototype demonstration on an actual power plant system, the EBR-2 stem plant. Emphasized in this Third Annual Technical Progress Report is the continuing development of the in-plant intelligent control demonstration for the final project milestone and includes: simulation validation and the initial approach to experiment formulation

  18. Nuclear power plant control room operator control and monitoring tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovell, C.R.; Beck, M.G.; Carter, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory is conducting a research project the purpose of which is to develop the technical bases for regulatory review criteria for use in evaluating the safety implications of human factors associated with the use of artificial intelligence and expert systems, and with advanced instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in nuclear power plants (NPP). This report documents the results from Task 8 of that project. The primary objectives of the task was to identify the scope and type of control and monitoring tasks now performed by control-room operators. Another purpose was to address the types of controls and safety systems needed to operate the nuclear plant. The final objective of Task 8 was to identify and categorize the type of information and displays/indicators required to monitor the performance of the control and safety systems. This report also discusses state-of-the-art controls and advanced display devices which will be available for use in control-room retrofits and in control room of future plants. The fundamental types of control and monitoring tasks currently conducted by operators can be divided into four classifications: function monitoring tasks, control manipulation tasks, fault diagnostic tasks, and administrative tasks. There are three general types of controls used in today's NPPs, switches, pushbuttons, and analog controllers. Plant I and C systems include components to achieve a number of safety-related functions: measuring critical plant parameters, controlling critical plant parameters within safety limits, and automatically actuating protective devices if safe limits are exceeded. The types of information monitored by the control-room operators consist of the following parameters: pressure, fluid flow and level, neutron flux, temperature, component status, water chemistry, electrical, and process and area radiation. The basic types of monitoring devices common to nearly all NPP control rooms include: analog meters

  19. Nuclear disarmament verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVolpi, A.

    1993-01-01

    Arms control treaties, unilateral actions, and cooperative activities -- reflecting the defusing of East-West tensions -- are causing nuclear weapons to be disarmed and dismantled worldwide. In order to provide for future reductions and to build confidence in the permanency of this disarmament, verification procedures and technologies would play an important role. This paper outlines arms-control objectives, treaty organization, and actions that could be undertaken. For the purposes of this Workshop on Verification, nuclear disarmament has been divided into five topical subareas: Converting nuclear-weapons production complexes, Eliminating and monitoring nuclear-weapons delivery systems, Disabling and destroying nuclear warheads, Demilitarizing or non-military utilization of special nuclear materials, and Inhibiting nuclear arms in non-nuclear-weapons states. This paper concludes with an overview of potential methods for verification

  20. An evaluation of Kazakhstan nuclear export control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeligbayeva, G.; Masenov, Ch.

    2002-01-01

    A system to control the export nuclear materials and technologies is a natural part of creating a self-sustaining government. The government of Kazakhstan has made a great deal of progress in building such a system. Control of export and import of nuclear materials and technologies and dual-use materials, related to nuclear activity, became one of the important part of mechanism of Non-Proliferation conditions realization in Kazakhstan. The system of export control has developed well over the 10 years. Kazakhstan is in the midst of a long process of building a functional export control system consistent with World standards. The state system of export control currently exists in Kazakhstan on the legislative base, and is based on efficient cooperation of the KAEC with a number of competent state bodies (Ministry of Economy, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, State Customs Committee) each of them has its own specific functions, duties and rights. The export is carried out using licenses, issued by the Ministry of Economy of the RK, according to applications of certain standard which are previously agreed with the KAEC under decision of the RK Government. The KAEC, acting on the base of export control principles and observance of international obligations on non-proliferation matter, makes decisions, only after thorough evaluation of ways of export and reliability of an end-user of the commodity, to agree the application for a license. The most fully developed aspect is the licensing process. General politics of export regulation in Kazakhstan are based on normative acts and rules, which are wholly appropriate (complementary) to the managing principles of nuclear export. There exists a full legal basis for the licensing system. But the process is going, some provisions is changing: in 2000 Kazakhstan corrected the export control law and approved the national control list very similar with EU control list, in 2002 the rules of the process of licensing the export and import

  1. Control rod for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, W.G.; Sutton, H.G. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A control rod assembly for a nuclear reactor is disclosed having a remotely disengageable coupling between the control rod and the control rod drive shaft. The coupling is actuated by first lowering then raising the drive shaft. The described motion causes axial repositioning of a pin in a grooved rotatable cylinder, each being attached to different parts of the drive shaft which are axially movable relative to each other. In one embodiment, the relative axial motion of the parts of the drive shaft is used either to couple or to uncouple the connection by forcing resilent members attached to the drive shaft into or out of shouldered engagement, respectively, with an indentation formed in the control rod

  2. Control rod for a nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Walter G.; Sutton, Jr., Harry G.

    1979-01-01

    A control rod assembly for a nuclear reactor is disclosed having a remotely disengageable coupling between the control rod and the control rod drive shaft. The coupling is actuated by first lowering then raising the drive shaft. The described motion causes axial repositioning of a pin in a grooved rotatable cylinder, each being attached to different parts of the drive shaft which are axially movable relative to each other. In one embodiment, the relative axial motion of the parts of the drive shaft is used either to couple or to uncouple the connection by forcing resilient members attached to the drive shaft into or out of shouldered engagement, respectively, with an indentation formed in the control rod.

  3. Fuzzy controllers in nuclear material accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zardecki, A.

    1994-01-01

    Fuzzy controllers are applied to predicting and modeling a time series, with particular emphasis on anomaly detection in nuclear material inventory differences. As compared to neural networks, the fuzzy controllers can operate in real time; their learning process does not require many iterations to converge. For this reason fuzzy controllers are potentially useful in time series forecasting, where the authors want to detect and identify trends in real time. They describe an object-oriented implementation of the algorithm advanced by Wang and Mendel. Numerical results are presented both for inventory data and time series corresponding to chaotic situations, such as encountered in the context of strange attractors. In the latter case, the effects of noise on the predictive power of the fuzzy controller are explored

  4. Control rod for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, W.G.; Sutton, H.G. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A control rod assembly for a nuclear reactor is disclosed having a remotely disengageable coupling between the control rod and the control rod drive shaft. The coupling is actuated by first lowering then raising the drive shaft. The described motion causes axial repositioning of a pin in a grooved rotatable cylinder, each being attached to different parts of the drive shaft which are axially movable relative to each other. In one embodiment, the relative axial motion of the parts of the drive shaft is used either to couple or to uncouple the connection by forcing resilient members attached to the drive shaft into or out of shouldered engagement, respectively, with an indentation formed in the control rod

  5. Dynamics and control in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterfield, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    This volume presents a wide view of aspects of control of nuclear power stations by taking into consideration the plant as a whole and the protection systems employed therein. Authors with worldwide experience consider all aspects of dynamics and control in the context of both fast and thermal power stations. The topics discussed include the methods of development and applications within the analysis of plant behaviour, the validation of mathematical models, plant testing, and the design and implementation of controls. There are 27 papers all of which are indexed separately; steady states and model evolution (5 papers), control and protection systems (5 papers), transients (7 papers), testing and data (3 papers), model validation (6 papers) and commissioning and operation (1 paper). (author)

  6. Controlled synthesis of multi-arm star polyether-polycarbonate polyols based on propylene oxide and CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilf, Jeannette; Schulze, Patricia; Seiwert, Jan; Frey, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Multi-arm star copolymers based on a hyperbranched poly(propylene oxide) polyether-polyol (hbPPO) as a core and poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC) arms are synthesized in two steps from propylene oxide (PO), a small amount of glycidol and CO2 . The PPC arms are prepared via carbon dioxide (CO2 )/PO copolymerization, using hbPPO as a multifunctional macroinitiator and the (R,R)-(salcy)CoOBzF5 catalyst. Star copolymers with 14 and 28 PPC arms, respectively, and controlled molecular weights in the range of 2700-8800 g mol(-1) are prepared (Mw /Mn = 1.23-1.61). Thermal analysis reveals lowered glass transition temperatures in the range of -8 to 10 °C for the PPC star polymers compared with linear PPC, which is due to the influence of the flexible polyether core. Successful conversion of the terminal hydroxyl groups with phenylisocyanate demonstrates the potential of the polycarbonate polyols for polyurethane synthesis. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. The development of controlled nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pease, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    The high temperature conditions needed in a controlled nuclear fusion reactor are now being approached in experiments using magnetic fields to confine and isolate the plasma, especially in systems of the tokamak type. The underlying reasons for the successes are discussed and it is concluded that the remaining advances needed in temperature and thermal insulation may well be achieved in new large tokamak experiments now under construction. Comparable progress is being made also in inertial confinement systems; key experiments on achieving the required super-high densities with high-powered pulsed laser systems are about to commence. To achieve fusion reactors will require the combination of three major disciplines: plasma physics, electromechanical engineering and nuclear engineering. Proposals have been made for an international study group to be set up under the IAEA auspices to consider technical objectives and the nature of the next large fusion device which could be constructed internationally, and in which this synthesis could be attempted. (author)

  8. Magnetic nuclear core restraint and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.H.

    1979-01-01

    A lateral restraint and control system for a nuclear reactor core adaptable to provide an inherent decrease of core reactivity in response to abnormally high reactor coolant fluid temperatures. An electromagnet is associated with structure for radially compressing the core during normal reactor conditions. A portion of the structures forming a magnetic circuit are composed of ferromagnetic material having a curie temperature corresponding to a selected coolant fluid temperature. Upon a selected signal, or inherently upon a preselected rise in coolant temperature, the magnetic force is decreased a given amount sufficient to relieve the compression force so as to allow core radial expansion. The expanded core configuration provides a decreased reactivity, tending to shut down the nuclear reaction

  9. Magnetic nuclear core restraint and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.H.

    1979-01-01

    A lateral restraint and control systemm for a nuclear reactor core provides an inherent decrease of core reactivity in response to abnormally high reactor coolant fluid temperatures. An electromagnet is associated with structure for radially compressing the core during normal reactor conditions. A portion of the structures forming a magnetic circuit is composed of ferromagnetic material having a curie temperature corresponding to a selected coolant fluid temperature. Upon a selected signal, or inherently upon a preselected rise in coolant temperature, the magnetic force is decreased by an amount sufficient to relieve the compression force so as to allow core radial expansion. The expanded core configuration provides a decreased reactivity, tending to shut down the nuclear reaction

  10. Magnetic nuclear core restraint and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.H.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a lateral restraint and control system for a nuclear reactor core adaptable to provide an inherent decrease of core reactivity in response to abnormally high reactor coolant fluid temperatures. An electromagnet is associated with structure for radially compressing the core during normal reactor conditions. A portion of the structures forming a magnetic circuit are composed of ferromagnetic material having a curie temperature corresponding to a selected coolant fluid temperature. Upon a selected signal, or inherently upon a preselected rise in coolant temperature, the magnetic force is decreased a given amount sufficient to relieve the compression force so as to allow core radial expansion. The expanded core configuration provides a decreased reactivity, tending to shut down the nuclear reaction

  11. Areas control of a nuclear medicine service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Islane C.S.; Silva, Iasmim M.S.; Júnior, Cláudio L.R.; Silva, Isvânia S.; Gonzalez, Kethyllém M.; Melo, Francisca A.; Lima, Fernando R.A.

    2017-01-01

    The measurement of the exposure rate of the sectors of a nuclear medicine service (NMS), with the purpose of establishing safety to the service workers and the public, classifying the areas according to the monitoring is presented. Following the studies on the classifications of the areas of a Nuclear Medicine service provided by the category regulatory standard, 3.05 CNEN-NN, measures were taken in all sectors of the NMS in order to classify the areas in: Free, controlled and supervised according to with the exposure level. As a measurement instrument, a Geiger-Muller counter of the digital type was used. The results obtained show a correlation with the Brazilian norm satisfactorily, referring to the exposure rate of the studied SMN sectors

  12. Beyond integrated safeguards: Performance-based assessments for future nuclear controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilat, Joseph F.; Budlong Sylvester, Kory W.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In the future, if the nuclear nonproliferation and arms control agendas are to advance, they will likely become increasingly seen as parallel undertakings with the objective of comprehensive cradle-to-grave controls over nuclear materials and possibly even warheads removed from defense programs along with materials in civilian use. This 'back to the future' prospect was envisioned in the Acheson-Lillienthal Report and the Baruch Plan, and more modestly in the Atoms-for-Peace Proposal. Unlike the grand plans of the early nuclear years, today's and tomorrow's undertakings will more likely consist of a series of incremental steps with the goal of expanding nuclear controls. These steps will be undertaken at a time of fundamental change in the IAEA safeguards system, and they will be influenced by those changes in profound ways. This prospective influence needs to be taken into account as the IAEA develops and implements integrated safeguards, including its efforts to establish new safeguards criteria, undertake technological and administrative improvements in safeguards, implement credible capabilities for the detection of undeclared nuclear facilities and activities and, perhaps, provide for a more intensive involvement in applying safeguards in new roles such as the verification of a Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty. Performance-based criteria offer one promising way to address the effectiveness of integrated safeguards and to provide a common means of assessing the other key areas of a comprehensive approach to nuclear controls as these develop independently and to the extent that they are coordinated in the future. (author)

  13. Nuclear outages: an approach to project controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryson, R.

    1985-01-01

    The annual budget for maintaining and operating a nuclear power plant has risen dramatically over the past 5 years. NRC-mandated plant improvements and outage related expenses are often cited to be the main contributors to these escalating budgets. Nuclear utilities have responded by developing programs to improve plant availability and outage costs through improved outage performance. Utilities recognize that for capital improvements the program to control costs does no begin with outage planning, but rather more appropriately up front during the engineering phase. To support their management objectives, utilities have been developing comprehensive project control systems for concurrently reducing capital expenditures, outage-related costs, and time. This paper provides an approach to project controls that, rather than using one all inclusive comprehensive system, requires five separate monitoring systems - one for each phase of an activity's life cycle. Through the integration of these discrete but interrelated systems, utility management acquires the necessary tools for comprehensive planning and control of their modification program and effective detailed monitoring for all outage-related activities

  14. Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    The meeting of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (IWG-NPPCI) was organized in order to summarize operating experience of nuclear power plant control systems, gain a general overview of activities in development of modern control systems and receive recommendations on the further directions and particular measures within the Agency's programme. The meeting was held at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna and was attended by 21 national delegates and observers from 18 countries. The present volume contains: (1) report on the meeting of the IWG-NPPCI, Vienna, 8-10 May 1989, (2) report of the scientific secretary on the major activities of IAEA during 1987-89 in the NPPCI area, (3) terms of reference International Working Group on NPPCI and (4) reports of the national representatives to the International Working Group on NPPCI. The paper and discussions with practical experience and described actual problems encountered. Emphasis was placed on the technical, industrial and economical aspects of the introduction of modern control systems and on the improvement of plant availability and safety. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 19 papers presented by members of the International Working Group. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Intelligent distributed control for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevans, E.H.; Edwards, R.M.; Ray, A.; Lee, K.Y.; Garcia, H.E.: Chavez, C.M.; Turso, J.A.; BenAbdennour, A.

    1991-01-01

    In September of 1989 work began on the DOE University Program grant DE-FG07-89ER12889. The grant provides support for a three year project to develop and demonstrate Intelligent Distributed Control (IDC) for Nuclear Power Plants. The body of this Second Annual Technical Progress report covers the period from September 1990 to September 1991. It summarizes the second year accomplishments while the appendices provide detailed information presented at conference meetings. These are two primary goals of this research. The first is to combine diagnostics and control to achieve a highly automated power plant as described by M.A. Schultz, a project consultant during the first year of the project. This philosophy, as presented in the first annual technical progress report, is to improve public perception of the safety of nuclear power plants by incorporating a high degree automation where greatly simplified operator control console minimizes the possibility of human error in power plant operations. A hierarchically distributed control system with automated responses to plant upset conditions is the focus of our research to achieve this goal. The second goal is to apply this research to develop a prototype demonstration on an actual power plant system, the EBR-II steam plant

  16. The development of fabrication techniques for europia/iron cermet tips for coarse-control arms in DIDO and PLUTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, D.A.; Tarrant, E.A.

    1980-11-01

    The applicability of cermet-fabrication techniques to the production of europia/iron cermets for use as coarse-control arm tips in the materials test reactors DIDO and PLUTO has been investigated. Spheroids of europia were prepared by a dry agglomeration process. These were sintered, dispersed in iron powder and pressed into plates; the plates were then sintered to densify the iron matrix. These stages were optimised to produce a strong cermet with a europia density of >= 2.75 g/cm 3 . The uniformity of distribution of the absorber particles was confirmed by radiography, and adequate neutron-absorption worth by measurements carried out in the GLEEP reactor. An outline flow sheet has been prepared for the manufacture of europia/iron cermet plates suitable for use in the tips of DIDO and PLUTO coarse-control arms. (author)

  17. Use of the Modified Light Duty Utility Arm to Perform Nuclear Waste Cleanup of Underground Waste Storage Tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blank, J.A.; Burks, B.L.; DePew, R.E.; Falter, D.D.; Glassell, R.L.; Glover, W.H.; Killough, S.M.; Lloyd, P.D.; Love, L.J.; Randolph, J.D.; Van Hoesen, S.D.; Vesco, D.P.

    1999-01-01

    The Modified Light Duty Utility Arm (MLDUA) is a selectable seven or eight degree-of-freedom robot arm with a 16.5 ft (5.03 m) reach and a payload capacity of 200 lb. (90.72 kg). The utility arm is controlled in either joystick-based telerobotic mode or auto sequence robotics mode. The MLDUA deployment system deploys the utility arm vertically into underground radioactive waste storage tanks located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These tanks are constructed of gunite material and consist of two 25 ft (7.62 m) diameter tanks in the North Tank Farm and six 50 ft (15.24 m) diameter tanks in the South Tank Farm. After deployment inside a tank, the utility arm reaches and grasps the confined sluicing end effecter (CSEE) which is attached to the hose management arm (HMA). The utility arm positions the CSEE within the tank to allow the HMA to sluice the tank's liquid and solid waste from the tank. The MLDUA is used to deploy the characterization end effecter (CEE) and gunite scarifying end effecter (GSEE) into the tank. The CEE is used to survey the tank wall's radiation levels and the physical condition of the walls. The GSEE is used to scarify the tank walls with high-pressure water to remove the wall scale buildup and a thin layer of gunite which reduces the radioactive contamination that is embedded into the gunite walls. The MLDUA is also used to support waste sampling and wall core-sampling operations. Other tools that have been developed for use by the MLDUA include a pipe-plugging end effecter, pipe-cutting end effecter, and pipe-cleaning end effecter. Washington University developed advance robotics path control algorithms for use in the tanks. The MLDUA was first deployed in June 1997 and has operated continuously since then. Operational experience in the first four tanks remediated is presented in this paper

  18. Locus of Control and Likelihood of Nuclear War: Two Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdahl, Paul; Rounds, James B.

    The Nuclear Locus of Control (NLOC) scales were constructed to assess beliefs as to whether nuclear war and nuclear policy decisions are, or can be, influenced by oneself, powerful others, or chance. Three scales measuring internal, powerful others, and chance nuclear LOC show internal consistency estimates (Cronbach's Alpha) of .87, .76, and .85,…

  19. Bobath Concept versus constraint-induced movement therapy to improve arm functional recovery in stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huseyinsinoglu, Burcu Ersoz; Ozdincler, Arzu Razak; Krespi, Yakup

    2012-08-01

    To compare the effects of the Bobath Concept and constraint-induced movement therapy on arm functional recovery among stroke patients with a high level of function on the affected side. A single-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Outpatient physiotherapy department of a stroke unit. A total of 24 patients were randomized to constraint-induced movement therapy or Bobath Concept group. The Bobath Concept group was treated for 1 hour whereas the constraint-induced movement therapy group received training for 3 hours per day during 10 consecutive weekdays. Main measures were the Motor Activity Log-28, the Wolf Motor Function Test, the Motor Evaluation Scale for Arm in Stroke Patients and the Functional Independence Measure. The two groups were found to be homogeneous based on demographic variables and baseline measurements. Significant improvements were seen after treatment only in the 'Amount of use' and 'Quality of movement' subscales of the Motor Activity Log-28 in the constraint-induced movement therapy group over the the Bobath Concept group (P = 0.003; P = 0.01 respectively). There were no significant differences in Wolf Motor Function Test 'Functional ability' (P = 0.137) and 'Performance time' (P = 0.922), Motor Evaluation Scale for Arm in Stroke Patients (P = 0.947) and Functional Independence Measure scores (P = 0.259) between the two intervention groups. Constraint-induced movement therapy and the Bobath Concept have similar efficiencies in improving functional ability, speed and quality of movement in the paretic arm among stroke patients with a high level of function. Constraint-induced movement therapy seems to be slightly more efficient than the Bobath Concept in improving the amount and quality of affected arm use.

  20. Control rod guide tube of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, Yoshitaka; Ito, Kenji; Matsumoto, Kunio.

    1994-01-01

    Zr having a residual tensile stress of 3 to 10kg/mm 2 in a circumferential direction is used for the main ingredient of a control guide tube of a nuclear reactor. For this purpose, an appropriate correction method such as a roll-correction, tension-correction and press-correction method is applied to an existent Zr-base alloy tube with no substantial residual stress. If the residual tensile stress in the circumferential direction is smaller than 3kg/mm 2 , an effect sufficient to suppress irradiation growth is not obtainable, if it exceeds 10kg/mm 2 , dimensional changes, cracks or the like occurs locally since the wall thickness of the control rod guide tube is small and, accordingly, this often results in failed products as the control guide tube. (N.H.)

  1. Defense and Arms Control Studies Program, Annual Report, 1988-1989

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1989-01-01

    .... The other was on the proliferation of nuclear powered submarines. As the Test Ban Conference recounted there is reassurance that tensions between nuclear weapon states can be bounded and reduced...

  2. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 631 - Armed Forces Disciplinary Control Board Procedures Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... members present, final action will be taken only on the business for which the meeting was called. c. A... addressing installation or command concerns or issues. (1) Federal, State, and local judicial, legislative... detrimental to the good order and discipline, health, morale, welfare, safety, and morals of Armed Forces...

  3. 49 CFR 1544.221 - Carriage of prisoners under the control of armed law enforcement officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.221 Carriage... custody of an armed law enforcement officer aboard an aircraft for which screening is required unless, in...

  4. Feedwater control system in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuyama, Hideo.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enable switching operation for feedwater systems in a short time and with no fluctuations in the reactor water level by increasing or decreasing the flow rate in the feedwater systems during automatic operation by the amount of the fluctuations in the flow rate in the feedwater system during manual operation. Constitution: In a BWR type nuclear power plant having a plurality of feedwater systems to a nuclear reactor, a feedwater control system is constituted with a reactor water level controller, a M/A switcher for switching either of automatic flow rate demand signals or manual flow rate set signals from the reactor level controller to apply flow rate demand signals for each of the feedwater systems, a calculation device for calculating the flow rate set signals in the feedwater systems during manual operation and an adder for subtracting the flow rate set signals in the manual feedwater system calculated in the calculating device from the automatic flow rate demand signals for the feedwater systems during automatic operation. This enables rapid switching for the feedwater systems with no fluctuations in the reactor water level by increasing or decreasing the flow rate in the feedwater systems during automatic operation by the amount of fluctuations in the flow rate in the feedwater systems during manual operation and compensating the effects in upon manual and automatic switching by the M/A switcher. (Seki, T.)

  5. Instrumentation control system in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanai, Koi; Tai, Ichiro.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the reliability of instrumentation control system in a nuclear power plant by using an optical fiber cable as a transmission path between a multiplexer and a central control room to thereby eliminate noises resulted from electromagnetic inductions or the likes. Constitution: Signals from neutron detectors are sent by way of ceramic-insulated cables to pre-amplifiers disposed outside of the pressure vessel of a nuclear reactor, converted into voltage pulse signals and then sent by way of coaxial cables to a multiplexer. The multiplexer receives a plurality of voltage pulse signals corresponding to the neutron detectors respectively, converts them into a time-shared electric signal train and sends it to an optical pulse transmitter. The transmitter converts the supplied signals into an optical pulse signal train corresponding to the electric signal train from the multiplexer and sends it by way of an optical fiber cable to an optical pulse receiver disposed in a central control room. (Kawakami, Y.)

  6. Corrosion control in CANDU nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesurf, J.E.

    1974-01-01

    Corrosion control in CANDU reactors which use pressurized heavy water (PHW) and boiling light water (BLW) coolants is discussed. Discussions are included on pressure tubes, primary water chemistry, fuel sheath oxidation and hydriding, and crud transport. It is noted that corrosion has not been a significant problem in CANDU nuclear power reactors which is a tribute to design, material selection, and chemistry control. This is particularly notable at the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station which will have four CANDU-PHW reactors of 540 MWe each. The net capacity factor for Pickering-I from first full power (May 1971) to March 1972 was 79.5 percent, and for Pickering II (first full power November 1971) to March 1972 was 83.5 percent. Pickering III has just reached full power operation (May 1972) and Pickering IV is still under construction. Gentilly CANDU-BLW reached full power operation in May 1972 after extensive commissioning tests at lower power levels with no major corrosion or chemistry problems appearing. Experience and operating data confirm that the value of careful attention to all aspects of corrosion control and augur well for future CANDU reactors. (U.S.)

  7. Apparatus for controlling nuclear core debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert D.

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear reactor apparatus for containing, cooling, and dispersing reactor debris assumed to flow from the core area in the unlikely event of an accident causing core meltdown. The apparatus includes a plurality of horizontally disposed vertically spaced plates, having depressions to contain debris in controlled amounts, and a plurality of holes therein which provide natural circulation cooling and a path for debris to continue flowing downward to the plate beneath. The uppermost plates may also include generally vertical sections which form annular-like flow areas which assist the natural circulation cooling.

  8. Collective control of a nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rognin, L

    1995-06-01

    Nowadays, mainly related to the increasing complexity of working environments, working activities become more and collective. The present research on the paradoxical nature of working teams, considered from a reliability point of view. This document is composed of four Sections. The first Section introduces the context of the research, its objectives and the underlying assumptions. In the second Section, we describe a working situation, which is the control of a nuclear reactor. Relations between cooperative work and reliability are discussed in the third Section. Finally, in the fourth Section, a synthesis of the research and some perspectives are proposed. (authors). 7 refs.

  9. Collective control of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rognin, L.

    1995-06-01

    Nowadays, mainly related to the increasing complexity of working environments, working activities become more and collective. The present research on the paradoxical nature of working teams, considered from a reliability point of view. This document is composed of four Sections. The first Section introduces the context of the research, its objectives and the underlying assumptions. In the second Section, we describe a working situation, which is the control of a nuclear reactor. Relations between cooperative work and reliability are discussed in the third Section. Finally, in the fourth Section, a synthesis of the research and some perspectives are proposed. (authors). 7 refs

  10. Arm Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be a sign of a heart attack. Seek emergency treatment if you have: Arm, shoulder or back ... http://www.mayoclinic.org/symptoms/arm-pain/basics/definition/SYM-20050870 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  11. Intelligent distributed control for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevans, E.H.

    1993-01-01

    This project was initiated in September 1989 as a three year project to develop and demonstrate Intelligent Distributed Control (IDC) for Nuclear Power Plants. There were two primary goals of this research project. The first goal was to combine diagnostics and control to achieve a highly automated power plant as described by M.A. Schultz. The second goal was to apply this research to develop a prototype demonstration on an actual power plant system, the EBR-2 steam plant. Described in this Final (Third Annual) Technical Progress Report is the accomplishment of the project's final milestone, an in-plant intelligent control experiment conducted on April 1, 1993. The development of the experiment included: simulation validation, experiment formulation and final programming, procedure development and approval, and experimental results. Other third year developments summarized in this report are: (1) a theoretical foundation for Reconfigurable Hybrid Supervisory Control, (2) a steam plant diagnostic system, (3) control console design tools and (4) other advanced and intelligent control

  12. Home-based neurologic music therapy for arm hemiparesis following stroke: results from a pilot, feasibility randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Alexander J; Magee, Wendy L; Bateman, Andrew; Parker, Michael; Odell-Miller, Helen; Fachner, Jorg

    2018-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of a randomized controlled trial to evaluate music therapy as a home-based intervention for arm hemiparesis in stroke. A pilot feasibility randomized controlled trial, with cross-over design. Randomization by statistician using computer-generated, random numbers concealed in opaque envelopes. Participants' homes across Cambridgeshire, UK. Eleven people with stroke and arm hemiparesis, 3-60 months post stroke, following discharge from community rehabilitation. Each participant engaged in therapeutic instrumental music performance in 12 individual clinical contacts, twice weekly for six weeks. Feasibility was estimated by recruitment from three community stroke teams over a 12-month period, attrition rates, completion of treatment and successful data collection. Structured interviews were conducted pre and post intervention to establish participant tolerance and preference. Action Research Arm Test and Nine-hole Peg Test data were collected at weeks 1, 6, 9, 15 and 18, pre and post intervention by a blinded assessor. A total of 11 of 14 invited participants were recruited (intervention n = 6, waitlist n = 5). In total, 10 completed treatment and data collection. It cannot be concluded whether a larger trial would be feasible due to unavailable data regarding a number of eligible patients screened. Adherence to treatment, retention and interview responses might suggest that the intervention was motivating for participants. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT 02310438.

  13. Nonproliferation and arms control assessment of weapons-usable fissile material storage and excess plutonium disposition alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This report has been prepared by the Department of Energy`s Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation (DOE-NN) with support from the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE-MD). Its purpose is to analyze the nonproliferation and arms reduction implications of the alternatives for storage of plutonium and HEU, and disposition of excess plutonium, to aid policymakers and the public in making final decisions. While this assessment describes the benefits and risks associated with each option, it does not attempt to rank order the options or choose which ones are best. It does, however, identify steps which could maximize the benefits and mitigate any vulnerabilities of the various alternatives under consideration.

  14. Does the use of Nintendo Wii SportsTM improve arm function? Trial of WiiTM in Stroke: a randomized controlled trial and economics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adie, Katja; Schofield, Christine; Berrow, Margie; Wingham, Jennifer; Humfryes, John; Pritchard, Colin; James, Martin; Allison, Rhoda

    2017-02-01

    The Trial of Wii™ in Stroke investigated the efficacy of using the Nintendo Wii Sports™ (Wii TM ) to improve affected arm function after stroke. Multicentre, pragmatic, parallel group, randomized controlled trial. Home-based rehabilitation. A total of 240 participants aged 24-90 years with arm weakness following a stroke within the previous six months. Participants were randomly assigned to exercise daily for six weeks using the Wii TM or arm exercises at home. Primary outcome was change in the affected arm function at six weeks follow-up using the Action Research Arm Test. Secondary outcomes included occupational performance, quality of life, arm function at six months and a cost effectiveness analysis. The study was completed by 209 participants (87.1%). There was no significant difference in the primary outcome of affected arm function at six weeks follow-up (mean difference -1.7, 95% CI -3.9 to 0.5, p = 0.12) and no significant difference in secondary outcomes, including occupational performance, quality of life or arm function at six months, between the two groups. No serious adverse events related to the study treatment were reported. The cost effectiveness analysis showed that the Wii TM was more expensive than arm exercises £1106 (SD 1656) vs. £730 (SD 829) (probability 0.866). The trial showed that the Wii TM was not superior to arm exercises in home-based rehabilitation for stroke survivors with arm weakness. The Wii TM was well tolerated but more expensive than arm exercises.

  15. Quality control of nuclear medicine instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This document, which gives detailed guidance on the quality control of the various electronic instruments used for radiation detection and measurement in nuclear medicine, stems from the work of two Advisory Groups convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). A preliminary document, including recommended test schedules but lacking actual protocols for the tests, was drawn up by the first of these groups, meeting at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna in 1979. A revised and extended version, incorporating recommended test protocols, was prepared by the second Group, meeting likewise in Vienna in 1982. This version is the model for the present text. The document should be of value to all nuclear medicine units, and especially to those in developing countries, in the initiation or revision of schemes for the quality control of their instruments. Its recommendations have provided the basis for instruction in two IAEA regional technical co-operation projects in the subject field, one initiated in 1981 for countries of Latin America and one initiated in 1982 for countries of Asia and the Pacific

  16. Light Duty Utility Arm computer software configuration management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philipp, B.L.

    1998-01-01

    This plan describes the configuration management for the Light Duty Utility Arm robotic manipulation arm control software. It identifies the requirement, associated documents, and the software control methodology. The Light Duty Utility Ann (LDUA) System is a multi-axis robotic manipulator arm and deployment vehicle, used to perform surveillance and characterization operations in support of remediation of defense nuclear wastes currently stored in the Hanford Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) through the available 30.5 cm (12 in.) risers. This plan describes the configuration management of the LDUA software

  17. Dynamic Modeling and Fuzzy Self-Tuning Disturbance Decoupling Control for a 3-DOF Serial-Parallel Hybrid Humanoid Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueling Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A unique fuzzy self-tuning disturbance decoupling controller (FSDDC is designed for a serial-parallel hybrid humanoid arm (HHA to implement the throwing trajectory-tracking mission. Firstly, the dynamic model of the HHA is established and the input signal of the throwing process is obtained by studying the throwing process of human's arm. Secondly, the FSDDC, incorporating the disturbance decoupling controller (DDC and the fuzzy logic controller (FLC, is designed to ensure trajectory tracking of the HHA in the presence of uncertainties and disturbances. With the FSDDC method, the HHA system can be decoupled by actively estimating and rejecting the effects of both the internal plant dynamics and external disturbances. The self-tuning parameters are adapted online to improve the performance of the FSDDC; thus, it does not require detailed system parameters of the presented FSDDC. Finally, the controller introduced is compared with a PD controller which is commonly used for the robot manipulators control in industry. The effectiveness of the designed FSDDC is illustrated by simulations.

  18. dSPACE real time implementation of fuzzy PID position controller for vertical rotating single link arm robot using four-quadrant BLDC drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manikandan Ramasamy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Automation has been growing in recent years for the manufacturing industries to increase productivity. Multiple robotic arms are used to handle materials for lifting in flexible directions. The vertical rotation of a 360 degree single arm is considered in this research on a position servo drive with brushless DC motor. The load torque of an arm varies depending upon the angular displacement due to gravity, so it requires four-quadrant operation of the drive with a robust feedback controller. This paper deals with the design and performance comparison of a conventional PID feedback controller with a fuzzy-based PID controller and suggests the most suitable controller. The design was implemented in real time through the dSPACE DS1104 controller environment to verify the dynamic behaviors of the arm.

  19. Nuclear law. January 2011 - July 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringuier, Pierre; Di Costanzo, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives a synthesis of legal aspects concerning nuclear power in France. The following main points are reviewed: institutional aspects (notably the independence of the Nuclear Safety Authority - ASN); transparency and public information; nuclear safety and radiation protection; nuclear materials, their control and security aspects; transports; trade and non-proliferation agreements; radioactive wastes; radiation accidents; liabilities and insurance; nuclear arms

  20. Impairment-oriented training or Bobath therapy for severe arm paresis after stroke: a single-blind, multicentre randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platz, T; Eickhof, C; van Kaick, S; Engel, U; Pinkowski, C; Kalok, S; Pause, M

    2005-10-01

    To study the effects of augmented exercise therapy time for arm rehabilitation as either Bobath therapy or the impairment-oriented training (Arm BASIS training) in stroke patients with arm severe paresis. Single blind, multicentre randomized control trial. Three inpatient neurorehabilitation centres. Sixty-two anterior circulation ischaemic stroke patients. Random assignment to three group: (A) no augmented exercise therapy time, (B) augmented exercise therapy time as Bobath therapy and (C) augmented exercise therapy time as Arm BASIS training. Fugl-Meyer arm motor score. Secondary measure: Action Research Arm Test (ARA). Ancillary measures: Fugl-Meyer arm sensation and joint motion/pain scores and the Ashworth Scale (elbow flexors). An overall effect of augmented exercise therapy time on Fugl-Meyer scores after four weeks was not corroborated (mean and 95% confidence interval (CI) of change scores: no augmented exercise therapy time (n=20) 8.8, 5.2-12.3; augmented exercise therapy time (n=40) 9.9, 6.8-13.9; p = 0.2657). The group who received the augmented exercise therapy time as Arm BASIS training (n=20) had, however, higher gains than the group receiving the augmented exercise therapy time as Bobath therapy (n=20) (mean and 95% CI of change scores: Bobath 7.2, 2.6-11.8; BASIS 12.6, 8.4-16.8; p = 0.0432). Passive joint motion/pain deteriorated less in the group who received BASIS training (mean and 95% CI of change scores: Bobath -3.2, -5.2 to -1.1; BASIS 0.1, -1.8-2.0; p = 0.0090). ARA, Fugl-Meyer arm sensation, and Ashworth Scale scores were not differentially affected. The augmented exercise therapy time as Arm BASIS training enhanced selective motor control. Type of training was more relevant for recovery of motor control than therapeutic time spent.