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Sample records for nrc pra research

  1. Overview of NRC PRA research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, M.A.; Drouin, M.T.; Ramey-Smith, A.M.; VanderMolen, M.T.

    1997-01-01

    The NRC's research program in probabilistic risk analysis includes a set of closely-related elements, from basic research to regulatory applications. The elements of this program are as follows: (1) Development and demonstration of methods and advanced models and tools for use by the NRC staff and others performing risk assessments; (2) Support to agency staff on risk analysis and statistics issues; (3) Reviews of risk assessments submitted by licensees in support of regulatory applications, including the IPEs and IPEEEs. Each of these elements is discussed in the paper, providing highlights of work within an element, and, where appropriate, describing important support and feedback mechanisms among elements

  2. The roles of NRC research in risk-informed, performance-based regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, D.L.; Murphy, J.A.; Hodges, M.W.; Cunningham, M.A.; Drouin, M.T.; Ramey-Smith, A.M.; VanderMolen, H.

    1997-01-01

    The NRC is expanding the use of probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) throughout the spectrum of its regulatory activities. The NRC's research program in PRA supports this expansion in a number of ways, from performing basic research to developing guidance for regulatory applications. The author provides an overview of the NRC's PRA research program, then focuses on two key activities - the review of individual plant examinations, and the development of guidance for use of PRA in reactor regulation

  3. Incorporation of all hazard categories into U.S. NRC PRA models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sancaktar, Selim; Ferrante, Fernando; Siu, Nathan; Coyne, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has maintained independent probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) models to calculate nuclear power plant (NPP) core damage frequency (CDF) from internal events at power. These models are known as Standardized Plan Analysis Risk (SPAR) models. There are 79 such models representing 104 domestic nuclear plants; with some SPAR models representing more than one unit on the site. These models allow the NRC risk analysts to perform independent quantitative risk estimates of operational events and degraded plant conditions. It is well recognized that using only the internal events contribution to overall plant risk estimates provides a useful, but limited, assessment of the complete plant risk profile. Inclusion, of all hazard categories applicable to a plant in the plant PRA model would provide a more comprehensive assessment of a plant risk. However, implementation of a more comprehensive treatment of additional hazard categories (e.g., fire, flooding, high winds, seismic) presents a number of challenges, including technical considerations. The U.S. NRC has been incorporating additional hazard categories into its set of nuclear power plant PRA models since 2004. Currently, 18 SPAR models include additional hazard categories such as internal flooding, internal fire, seismic, and wind events. In most cases, these external hazard models were derived from Generic Letter 88-20 Individual Plant Examination of External Events (IPEEE) reports. Recently, NRC started incorporating detailed Fire PRA (FPRA) information based on the current licensing effort that allows licensees to transition into a risk-informed fire protection framework, as well as additional external hazards developed by some licensees into enhanced SPAR models. These updated external hazards SPAR models are referred to as SPAR All-Hazard (SPAR-AHZ) models (i.e., they incorporate additional risk contributors beyond internal events). This paper

  4. PRA research and the development of risk-informed regulation at the U.S. nuclear regulatory commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siu, Nathan; Collins, Dorothy

    2008-01-01

    Over the years, Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) research activities conducted at the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have played an essential role in support of the agency's move towards risk-informed regulation. These research activities have provided the technical basis for NRC's regulatory activities in key areas; provided PRA methods, tools, and data enabling the agency to meet future challenges; supported the implementation of NRC's 1995 PRA Policy Statement by assessing key sources of risk; and supported the development of necessary technical and human resources supporting NRC's risk-informed activities. PRA research aimed at improving the NRC's understanding of risk can positively affect the agency's regulatory activities, as evidenced by three case studies involving research on fire PRA, Human Reliability Analysis (HRA), and Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) PRA. These case studies also show that such research can take a considerable amount of time, and that the incorporation of research results into regulatory practice can take even longer. The need for sustained effort and appropriate lead time is an important consideration in the development of a PRA research program aimed at helping the agency address key sources of risk for current and potential future facilities

  5. PRA in Design: Increasing Confidence in Pre-Operational Assessments of Risks (Results of a Joint NASA/NRC Workshop)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngblood, Robert; Dezfuli, Homayoon; Siu, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    In late 2009, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) jointly organized a workshop to discuss technical issues associated with application of risk assessments to early phases of system design. The workshop, which was coordinated by the Idaho National Laboratory, involved invited presentations from a number of PRA experts in the aerospace and nuclear fields and subsequent discussion to address the following questions: (a) What technical issues limit decision-makers' confidence in PRA results, especially at a pre-operational phase of the system life cycle? (b) What is being done to address these issues'? (c) What more can be done ? The workshop resulted in participant observations and suggestions on several technical issues, including the pursuit of non-traditional approaches to risk assessment and the verification and validation of risk models. The workshop participants also identified several important non-technical issues, including risk communication with decision makers, and the integration of PRA into the overall design process.

  6. PRA In Design: Increasing Confidence in Pre-operational Assessments of Risks (Results of a Joint NASA/ NRC Workshop)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Youngblood

    2010-06-01

    In late 2009, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) jointly organized a workshop to discuss technical issues associated with application of risk assessments to early phases of system design. The workshop, which was coordinated by the Idaho National Laboratory, involved invited presentations from a number of PRA experts in the aerospace and nuclear fields and subsequent discussion to address the following questions: (a) What technical issues limit decision-makers’ confidence in PRA results, especially at a preoperational phase of the system life cycle? (b) What is being done to address these issues? (c) What more can be done? The workshop resulted in participant observations and suggestions on several technical issues, including the pursuit of non-traditional approaches to risk assessment and the verification and validation of risk models. The workshop participants also identified several important non-technical issues, including risk communication with decision makers, and the integration of PRA into the overall design process.

  7. NRC/AMRMC Resident Research Associateship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    and USMA Mentor, if applicable) Soft Tissue Regeneration Lab Christopher Rathbone 6) TITLE OF RESEARCH PROPOSAL Composite pre-vascularized scaffolds...Mende K, Beckius ML, Akers KS, Wenke JC, and Murray CK.ln Vitro Toxicity and Activity of Medical Grade Honey on Filamentous Fungi and Human Cells...PATENTOR COPYRIGHT APPLICATIONS RESULTING FROM NRC ASSOCIATESHIP RESEARCH Provide titles, inventors, and dates of applications. Composition with

  8. NRC/AMRMC Resident Research Associateship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    restored homeostasis ). Vecchi, Vittoria 11114t2011-10t22t2042 1 ; Effectö of ra¿¡áiiôn dose reduction on lung quantitative CT öcan reðults in healthy...with minimal training Ín infectious disease, tenure with NRC has encouraged me to continue in infectious disease ecology and bioinformatic analysis. It...hemodynamics and coagulation response (restored homeostasis ). (USMA Davies Fellow: please add summâry of teaching, including classes taught.) 8) RESEARCH IN

  9. NRC/AMRMC Resident Research Associateship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    ADDRESS OF POST-TENURE POSITION / JOB 0RGANIZATION University hospital Bonn, Dept. for Anesthesiology and operative Intensive Care medicine, Sigmund ... Freud -Str 25, 53127 Bonn, Germany 16) POST-TENURE POSITION STATUS / CATEGORY Please indicate only one. Permanent position at the NRC host agency

  10. Management and Organization Influences in PRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertman, D.I.; Hallbert, B. P.; Blackman, H. S.

    1998-01-01

    The authors present a research program which aimed at increasing the quality of comprehensiveness of contemporary PRA (Probability Risk Assessment) by providing a tool that allows for incorporating M and O in PRA, at improving the quality of NRC assessments, at conducting research to support the risk informed regulation process, at identifying impact of management and organization, safety culture, workplace environment, down-sizing and deregulation on human performance and reliability

  11. Coupled processes in NRC high-level waste research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costanzi, F.A.

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses NRC research effort in support of evaluating license applications for disposal of nuclear waste and for promulgating regulations and issuing guidance documents on nuclear waste management. In order to do this they fund research activities at a number of laboratories, academic institutions, and commercial organizations. One of our research efforts is the coupled processes study. This paper discusses interest in coupled processes and describes the target areas of research efforts over the next few years. The specific research activities relate to the performance objectives of NRC's high-level waste (HLW) regulation and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) HLW standard. The general objective of the research program is to ensure the NRC has a sufficient independent technical base to make sound regulatory decisions

  12. Recent NRC research activities addressing valve and pump issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, D.L.

    1996-12-01

    The mission of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is to ensure the safe design, construction, and operation of commercial nuclear power plants and other facilities in the U.S.A. One of the main roles that the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) plays in achieving the NRC mission is to plan, recommend, and implement research programs that address safety and technical issues deemed important by the NRC. The results of the research activities provide the bases for developing NRC positions or decisions on these issues. Also, RES performs confirmatory research for developing the basis to evaluate industry responses and positions on various regulatory requirements. This presentation summarizes some recent RES supported research activities that have addressed safety and technical issues related to valves and pumps. These activities include the efforts on determining valve and motor-operator responses under dynamic loads and pressure locking events, evaluation of monitoring equipment, and methods for detecting and trending aging of check valves and pumps. The role that RES is expected to play in future years to fulfill the NRC mission is also discussed.

  13. ACRS review of the 1983 NRC Safety Research Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    This article provides a review of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Safety Research Program for FY 1983. The NRC Safety Research Program support funding is $196.6 million in FY 1982, and the proposed budget for FY 1983 is $195.2 million. The requested level of funding for FY 1982, recommended by the ACRS and partially accepted by the NRC, was reduced significantly by the Congress in response to the administration's budget-reduction program. At the same time, the Congress directed a delay in the timing of the LOFT phaseout. This review of the FY 1983 program again focuses on priorities in research and recommends certain reallocations of funds. If the funding for LOFT is increased from that in the proposed budget, based on the current schedule for phaseout, many of the actions recommended in this review should be reexamined

  14. NRC safety research in support of regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This report, the ninth in a series of annual reports, was prepared in response to congressional inquiries concerning how nuclear regulatory research is used. It summarizes the accomplishments of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research during FY 1993. A special emphasis on accomplishments in nuclear power plant aging research reflects recognition that number of plants are entering the final portion of their original 40-year operating licenses and that, in addition to current aging effects, a focus on safety considerations for license renewal becomes timely. The primary purpose of performing regulatory research is to develop and provide the Commission and its staff with sound technical bases for regulatory decisions on the safe operation of licensed nuclear reactors and facilities, to find unknown or unexpected safety problems, and to develop data and related information for the purpose of revising the Commission's rules, regulatory guides, or other guidance

  15. HTGR safety research concerns at NRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minogue, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    A general discussion of HTGR technical and safety-related problems is given. The broad areas of current research programs specific to the Fort St. Vrain reactor and applicable to HTGR technology are summarized

  16. NRC safety research in support of regulation. Selected highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    The report presents selected highlights of how research has contributed to the regulatory effort. It explains the research role of the NRC and nuclear safety research contributions in the areas of: pressure vessel integrity, piping, small- and large-break loss-of-coolant accidents, hydrogen and containment, source term analysis, seismic hazards and high-level waste management. The report also provides a summary of current and future research directions in support of regulation

  17. The role of research in nuclear regulation: An NRC perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    The role of research in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission was broadly defined by the US Congress in the Energy Reorganization Act of 1975. This Act empowered the Commission to do research that it deems necessary for the performance of its licensing and regulatory functions. Congress cited a need for an independent capability that would support the licensing and regulatory process through the development and analysis of technical information related to reactor safety, safeguards and environmental protection. Motivation for establishing such a safety research function within the regulatory agency is the need to address the defects, abnormal occurrences and shutdowns involving light water reactors. Congress further stated that the NRC should limit its research to open-quotes confirmatory assessmentclose quotes and that the Agency open-quotes should never be placed in a position to generate, and then have to defend, basic design data of its own.close quotes The author reviews the activities of the research arm as related to regulatory research, performed in the past, today, and projected for the future. NRC's public health and safety mission demands that its research products be developed independently from its licensees; be credible and of the highest technical quality as established through peer review; and open to the public scrutiny through publication in technical journals as well as NRC documents. A special trust is placed on regulatory research through the products it produces as well as the three dimensions that underlie the processes through which they are produced

  18. Changing emphasis at the NRC's Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remick, F.J.

    1994-01-01

    One of the major objectives of the Office of Research is to ensure availability of sound technical information for timely decision making in support of the NRC's safety mission. The Office of Research is changing some of its emphasis to better meet the expected needs of the NRC's regulatory offices. Long-standing programs in support of operating reactors are nearing completion. These programs include plant aging and severe accident research for currently operating plants. This meeting will also address the new challenges faced by the NRC in its review of the advanced light water and non-light water reactors. As plant aging and severe accident research programs are nearing completion, the research activities are coming to focus on the emerging technologies, for example, digital instrumentation and control systems, both as replacement equipment for operating plants and as the technology of choice and necessity for the advanced reactors. Necessity, because analog equipment is becoming obsolete. Other examples include the use of new materials in operating plants, human factors considerations in the design and operation of the advanced plants, thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the advanced reactors, and new construction techniques

  19. NRC safety research in support of regulation, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    This report is the second in a series of annual reports responding to congressional inquiries as to the utilization of nuclear regulatory research. NUREG-1175, ''NRC Safety Research in Support of Regulation,'' published in May 1986, reported major research accomplishments between about FY 1980 and FY 1985. This report narrates the accomplishments of FY 1986 and does not restate earlier accomplishments. Earlier research results are mentioned in the context of current results in the interest of continuity. Both the direct contributions to scientific and technical knowledge and their regulatory applications, when there has been a definite regulatory outcome during FY 1986, have been described

  20. NRC safety research in support of regulation, FY 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    This report, the sixth in a series of annual reports, was prepared in response to congressional inquiries concerning how nuclear regulatory research is used. It summarizes the accomplishments of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research during FY 1990. The goal of this office is to ensure that safety-related research provides the technical bases for rulemaking and for related decisions in support of NRC licensing and inspection activities. This research is necessary to make certain that the regulations that are imposed on licensees provide an adequate margin of safety so as to protect the health and safety of the public. This report describes both the direct contributions to scientific and technical knowledge with regard to nuclear safety and their regulatory applications

  1. NRC safety research in support of regulation, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    This report, the fourth in a series of annual reports, was prepared in response to Congressional inquiries concerning how nuclear regulatory research is used. It summarizes the accomplishments of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research during 1988. The goal of this office is to ensure that safety-related research provides the technical bases for rulemaking and for related decisions in support of NRC licensing and inspection activities. This research is necessary to make certain that the regulations that are imposed on licensees provide an adequate margin of safety so as to protect the health and safety of the public. This report describes both the direct contributions to scientific and technical knowledge with regard to nuclear safety and their regulatory applications

  2. NRC safety research in support of regulation--FY 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    This report, the fifth in a series of annual reports, was prepared in response to congressional inquiries concerning how nuclear regulatory research is used. It summarizes the accomplishments of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research during FY 1989. The goal of this office is to ensure that safety-related research provides the technical bases for rulemaking and for related decisions in support of NRC licensing and inspection activities. This research is necessary to make certain that the regulations that are imposed on licensees provide an adequate margin of safety so as to protect the health and safety of the public. This report describes both the direct contributions to scientific and technical knowledge with regard to nuclear safety and their regulatory applications

  3. NRC safety research in support of regulation, FY 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    This report, the seventh in a series of annual reports, was prepared in response to congressional inquiries concerning how nuclear regulatory research is used. It summarizes the accomplishments of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research during FY 1991. The goal of this office is to ensure that safety-related research provides the technical bases for rulemaking and for related decisions in support of NRC licensing and inspection activities. This research is necessary to make certain that the regulations that are imposed on licensees provide an adequate margin of safety so as to protect the health and safety of the public. This report describes both the direct contributions to scientific and technical knowledge with regard to nuclear safety and their regulatory applications

  4. Measuring Research Data Uncertainty in the 2010 NRC Assessment of Geography Graduate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortridge, Ashton; Goldsberry, Kirk; Weessies, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    This article characterizes and measures errors in the 2010 National Research Council (NRC) assessment of research-doctorate programs in geography. This article provides a conceptual model for data-based sources of uncertainty and reports on a quantitative assessment of NRC research data uncertainty for a particular geography doctoral program.…

  5. Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy: Recommendations to the NRC Committee on Research Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of American Universities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    At the request of the National Research Council (NRC) Committee on Research Universities, the Council on Governmental Relations (COGR), the Association of American Universities (AAU), and the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities (APLU) have assembled a set of ten recommendations for regulatory reform that would improve research…

  6. Bibliography of reports on research sponsored by the NRC office of nuclear regulatory research, July--December 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.

    1978-04-01

    A bibliography of 198 reports published by contractors of the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research during the period July through December 1977 is presented along with abstracts from the Nuclear Safety Information Center computer file. The bibliography has been sorted into the subject categories used by NRC to organize the research program. Within the subject categories, the reports are arranged first by contractor organization and then chronologically. A brief description of the NRC research program precedes the bibliography.

  7. Bibliography of reports on research sponsored by the NRC office of nuclear regulatory research, July--December 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, J.R.

    1978-04-01

    A bibliography of 198 reports published by contractors of the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research during the period July through December 1977 is presented along with abstracts from the Nuclear Safety Information Center computer file. The bibliography has been sorted into the subject categories used by NRC to organize the research program. Within the subject categories, the reports are arranged first by contractor organization and then chronologically. A brief description of the NRC research program precedes the bibliography

  8. Bibliography of reports on research sponsored by the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, November 1975--June 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    A bibliography of 152 reports published by contractors of the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research during the period November 1975 through June 1976 is presented along with abstracts from the Nuclear Safety Information Center computer file. The bibliography has been sorted into the subject categories used by NRC to organize the research program. Within the subject categories, the reports are sorted by contractor organization and then chronologically. A brief description of the NRC research program precedes the bibliography

  9. Bibliography of reports on research sponsored by the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, July--December 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.

    1977-03-01

    A bibliography of 148 reports published by contractors of the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research during the period July through December 1976 is presented along with abstracts from the Nuclear Safety Information Center computer file. The bibliography has been sorted into the subject categories used by NRC to organize the research program. Within the subject categories, the reports are sorted by contractor organization and then chronologically. A brief description of the NRC research program precedes the bibliography.

  10. Bibliography of reports on research sponsored by the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, November 1975--June 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.

    1976-09-30

    A bibliography of 152 reports published by contractors of the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research during the period November 1975 through June 1976 is presented along with abstracts from the Nuclear Safety Information Center computer file. The bibliography has been sorted into the subject categories used by NRC to organize the research program. Within the subject categories, the reports are sorted by contractor organization and then chronologically. A brief description of the NRC research program precedes the bibliography.

  11. U.S. NRC training for research and training reactor inspectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandquist, G.M.; Kunze, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, a large number of license activities (Early Site Permits, Combined Operating License, reactor certifications, etc.), are pending for review before the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC). Much of the senior staff at the NRC is now committed to these review and licensing actions. To address this additional workload, the NRC has recruited a large number of new Regulatory Staff for dealing with these and other regulatory actions such as the US Fleet of Research and Test Reactors (RTRs). These reactors pose unusual demands on Regulatory Staff since the US Fleet of RTRs, although few (32 Licensed RTRs as of 2010), they represent a broad range of reactor types, operations, and research and training aspects that nuclear reactor power plants (such as the 104 LWRs) do not pose. The US NRC must inspect and regulate all these entities. This paper addresses selected training topics and regulatory activities provided US NRC Inspectors for US RTRs. (author)

  12. USA NRC/RSR Data Bank System and Reactor Safety Research Data Repository (RSRDR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maskewitz, B.F.; Bankert, S.F.

    1979-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), through its Division of Reactor Safety Research (RSR) of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, has established the NRC/RSR Data Bank Program to collect, process, and make available data from the many domestic and foreign water reactor safety research programs. An increasing number of requests for data and/or calculations generated by NRC Contractors led to the initiation of the program which allows timely and direct access to water reactor safety data in a manner most useful to the user. The program consists of three main elements: data sources, service organizations, and a data repository

  13. Linkage of PRA models. Phase 1, Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.L.; Knudsen, J.K.; Kelly, D.L.

    1995-12-01

    The goal of the Phase I work of the ``Linkage of PRA Models`` project was to postulate methods of providing guidance for US Nuclear Regulator Commission (NRC) personnel on the selection and usage of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) models that are best suited to the analysis they are performing. In particular, methods and associated features are provided for (a) the selection of an appropriate PRA model for a particular analysis, (b) complementary evaluation tools for the analysis, and (c) a PRA model cross-referencing method. As part of this work, three areas adjoining ``linking`` analyses to PRA models were investigated: (a) the PRA models that are currently available, (b) the various types of analyses that are performed within the NRC, and (c) the difficulty in trying to provide a ``generic`` classification scheme to groups plants based upon a particular plant attribute.

  14. The Angra 1 fire PRA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Luiz E. Massiere de C.; Kassawara, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The Angra 1 Fire PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) is under development by ELETRONUCLEAR jointly with EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute). The project was started January of 2007 and it is foreseen to be finished in the middle of the next year. The study is being conducted according to the newest methodology developed by EPRI and NRC/RES (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission - Office of Regulatory Research) published in 2005 as Fire PRA Methodology for Nuclear Power Facilities (NUREG/CR-6850 or EPRI TR-1011989) [1]. Starting from the Internal Events Angra 1 PRA model Level 1 the project aims to be a comprehensive plant-specific fire analysis to identify the possible consequences of a fire in the plant vital areas which threaten the integrity of systems relevant to the safety, challenging the safety functions and representing a risk of accident that can lead to a core damage. The main tasks include the plant boundary and partitioning, the fire PRA component selection and the identification of the possible fire scenarios (ignition, propagation, detection, extinction and hazards) considering human failure events to establish the fire-induced risk model for quantification of the risk for nuclear core damage taking into account the plant design and its fire protection resources. This work presents a general discussion on the methodology applied to the completed steps of the project. (author)

  15. NRC safety research in support of regulation - FY 1994. Volume 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This report, the tenth in a series of annual reports, was prepared in response to congressional inquiries concerning how nuclear regulatory research is used. It summarizes the accomplishments of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research during FY 1994. The goal of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) is to ensure the availability of sound technical bases for timely rulemaking and related decisions in support of NRC regulatory/licensing/inspection activities. RES also has responsibilities related to the resolution of generic safety issues and to the review of licensee submittals regarding individual plant examinations. It is the responsibility of RES to conduct the NRC's rulemaking process, including the issuance of regulatory guides and rules that govern NRC licensed activities

  16. Preparation for Scaling Studies of Ice-Crystal Icing at the NRC Research Altitude Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struk, Peter M.; Bencic, Timothy J.; Tsao, Jen-Ching; Fuleki, Dan; Knezevici, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes experiments conducted at the National Research Council (NRC) of Canadas Research Altitiude Test Facility between March 26 and April 11, 2012. The tests, conducted collaboratively between NASA and NRC, focus on three key aspects in preparation for later scaling work to be conducted with a NACA 0012 airfoil model in the NRC Cascade rig: (1) cloud characterization, (2) scaling model development, and (3) ice-shape profile measurements. Regarding cloud characterization, the experiments focus on particle spectra measurements using two shadowgraphy methods, cloud uniformity via particle scattering from a laser sheet, and characterization of the SEA Multi-Element probe. Overviews of each aspect as well as detailed information on the diagnostic method are presented. Select results from the measurements and interpretation are presented which will help guide future work.

  17. Summary of NRC LWR safety research programs on fuel behavior, metallurgy/materials and operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, G.L.

    1979-09-01

    The NRC light-water reactor safety-research program is part of the NRC regulatory program for ensuring the safety of nuclear power plants. This paper summarizes the results of NRC-sponsored research into fuel behavior, metallurgy and materials, and operational safety. The fuel behavior research program provides a detailed understanding of the response of nuclear fuel assemblies to postulated off-normal or accident conditions. Fuel behavior research includes studies of basic fuel rod properties, in-reactor tests, computer code development, fission product release and fuel meltdown. The metallurgy and materials research program provides independent confirmation of the safe design of reactor vessels and piping. This program includes studies on fracture mechanics, irradiation embrittlement, stress corrosion, crack growth, and nondestructive examination. The operational safety research provides direct assistance to NRC officials concerned with the operational and operational-safety aspects of nuclear power plants. The topics currently being addressed include qualification testing evaluation, fire protection, human factors, and noise diagnostics

  18. Giving Student Groups a Stronger Voice: Using Participatory Research and Action (PRA) to Initiate Change to a Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Geraldine; McMahon, Sinead

    2012-01-01

    Traditional student feedback mechanisms have been criticised for being teacher-centred in design and, in particular, for their absence of transparent follow-up actions. In contrast, this study describes the process and the evaluation of a participatory research and action (PRA) approach used in an undergraduate physiotherapy degree. This approach…

  19. NRC safety research in support of regulation, FY 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    This report, the eighth in a series of annual reports, was prepared in response to congressional inquiries concerning how nuclear regulatory research is used. It summarizes the accomplishments of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research during FY 1992. A special emphasis on accomplishments in nuclear power plant aging research reflects recognition that a number of plants are entering the final portion of their original 40-year operating licenses and that, in addition to current aging effects, a focus on safety considerations for license renewal becomes timely. The primary purpose of performing regulatory research is to develop and provide the Commission and its staff with the technical bases for regulatory decisions on the safe operation of licensed nuclear reactors and facilities, to find unknown or unexpected safety problems, and to develop data and related information for the purpose of revising the Commission's rules, regulatory guides, or other guidance

  20. 1994 - 1995 annual report of the NRC Biotechnology Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    One of the roles of the Biotechnology Research Institute is to promote leading edge research and development in biotechnology and molecular biology as they relate to industries in the natural resource sectors. To this end, researchers work with industry to develop less polluting, more efficient and economic processes and to solve environmental problems. Scientific studies undertaken in 1994 and 1995 included new analytical techniques and biosensors, bioprocesses for waste and ground water treatment, biopesticides, biodegradation of toxic compounds, biodesulfurization of bitumen, solvent- less sample preparation techniques to analyze environmental pollutants in soils and waste water, protocol for the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons, gene probes and their applications, biodegradation of energetic compounds, and biofiltration of air emissions. These, and other noteworthy projects undertaken by the Institute, were reviewed and presented ,combined with institutional data. 2 tabs.

  1. Review of PRA methodology for LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.E

    1999-02-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) has been widely used as a tool to evaluate the safety of NPPs (Nuclear Power Plants), which are in the design stage as well as in operation. Recently, PRA becomes one of the licensing requirements for many existing and new NPPs. KALIMER is a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) being developed by KAERI. Since the design concept of KALIMER is similar to that of the PRISM plant developed by GE, it would be appropriate to review the PRA methodology of PRISM as the first step of KALIMER PRA. Hence, in this report summarizes the PRA methodology of PRISM plant, and the required works for the PSA of KALIMER based on the reviewed results. The PRA technology of PRISM plant consists of following five major tasks: (1) development of initiating event list, (2) development of system event tree, (3) development of core response event tree, (4) development of containment response event tree, and (5) consequences and risk estimation. The estimated individual and societal risk measures show that the risk from a PRISM module is substantially less than the NRC goal. Each task is compared to the PRA methodology of Light Water Reactor (LWR)/Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR). In the report, each task of PRISM PRA methodology is reviewed and compared to the corresponding part of LWR/PHWR PSA performed in Korea. The parts that are not modeled appropriately in PRISM PRA are identified, and the recommendations for KALIMER PRA are stated. (author). 14 refs., 9 tabs., 4 figs.

  2. Interpretability in PRA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bílková, M.; de Jongh, D.; Joosten, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study IL(PRA), the interpretability logic of PRA. As PRA is neither an essentially reflexive theory nor finitely axiomatizable, the two known arithmetical completeness results do not apply to PRA: IL(PRA) is not ILM or ILP. IL(PRA) does, of course, contain all the principles known

  3. NRC [Nuclear Regulatory Commission] safety research in support of regulation, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    This report, the third in a series of annual reports, was prepared in response to congressional inquiries concerning how nuclear regulatory research is used. It summarizes the accomplishments of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research during 1987. The goal of this office is to ensure that research provides the technical bases for rulemaking and for related decisions in support of NRC licensing and inspection activities. This report describes both the direct contributions to scientific and technical knowledge with regard to nuclear safety and their regulatory applications

  4. A review of NRC staff uses of probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The NRC staff uses probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) and risk management as important elements its licensing and regulatory processes. In October 1991, the NRC's Executive Director for Operations established the PRA Working Group to address concerns identified by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards with respect to unevenness and inconsistency in the staff's current uses of PRA. After surveying current staff uses of PRA and identifying needed improvements, the Working Group defined a set of basic principles for staff PRA use and identified three areas for improvements: guidance development, training enhancements, and PRA methods development. For each area of improvement, the Working Group took certain actions and recommended additional work. The Working Group recommended integrating its work with other recent PRA-related activities the staff completed and improving staff interactions with PRA users in the nuclear industry. The Working Group took two key actions by developing general guidance for two uses of PRA within the NRC (that is, screening or prioritizing reactor safety issues and analyzing such issues in detail) and developing guidance on basic terms and methods important to the staff's uses of PRA

  5. A review of NRC staff uses of probabilistic risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    The NRC staff uses probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) and risk management as important elements its licensing and regulatory processes. In October 1991, the NRC`s Executive Director for Operations established the PRA Working Group to address concerns identified by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards with respect to unevenness and inconsistency in the staff`s current uses of PRA. After surveying current staff uses of PRA and identifying needed improvements, the Working Group defined a set of basic principles for staff PRA use and identified three areas for improvements: guidance development, training enhancements, and PRA methods development. For each area of improvement, the Working Group took certain actions and recommended additional work. The Working Group recommended integrating its work with other recent PRA-related activities the staff completed and improving staff interactions with PRA users in the nuclear industry. The Working Group took two key actions by developing general guidance for two uses of PRA within the NRC (that is, screening or prioritizing reactor safety issues and analyzing such issues in detail) and developing guidance on basic terms and methods important to the staff`s uses of PRA.

  6. Annual technical meeting of the NRC cooperative severe accident research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, E.G.

    1993-01-01

    This brief report summarizes the 1992 annual technical meeting of the NRC Cooperative Severe Accident Research Program (CSARP-92) held at the Hyatt Regency Hotel in Bethesda, Maryland, May 4-8, 1992. The report is taken mainly from coverage of the meeting published in the June 5, 1992, issue of Atomic Energy Clearinghouse. Results of this meeting are formalized at the Water Reactor Safety Information Meetings (WRSIM) that are held annually in October. Nuclear Safety summarizes the annual WRSIM meetings and provides a list of the presentations that were given. Interested readers are encouraged to review listed topics to identify specific topic areas in severe accident research. Sessions were held on in-vessel core melt progression; fuel-coolant interactions; fission-product behavior; direct containment heating; and severe accident code development, assessment, and validation. Summaries of the individual technical sessions and the current state of the art in these areas were given by the chairmen

  7. Cohort Profile : The National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council Twin Registry (NAS-NRC Twin Registry)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gatz, Margaret; Harris, Jennifer R.; Kaprio, Jaakko; McGue, Matt; Smith, Nicholas L.; Snieder, Harold; Spiro, Avron; Butler, David A.

    The National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council Twin Registry (NAS-NRC Twin Registry) is a comprehensive registry of White male twin pairs born in the USA between 1917 and 1927, both of the twins having served in the military. The purpose was medical research and ultimately improved

  8. NRC sponsored rotating equipment vibration research: a program description and progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitzel, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is currently involved in a research project sponsored by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regarding operational vibration in rotating equipment. The object of this program is to assess the nature of vibrational failures and the effect that improved qualification standards may have in reducing the incidence of failure. In order to limit the scope of the initial effort, safety injection (SI) pumps were chosen as the component group for concentrated study. The task has been oriented to addressing the issues of whether certain SI pumps experience more failures than others, examining the dynamic environments in operation, examining the adequacy of current qualification standards, and examining what performance parameters could be used more efficiently to predict degradation or failure. Results of a literature search performed to survey SI pump failures indicate that failures are due to a diversity of causes, many of which may not be influenced by qualification criteria. Cooperative efforts have been undertaken with a limited number of nuclear utilities to describe the variety of possible operating environments and to analyze available data. The results of this analysis as they apply to the research issues are presented and possibilities for the future direction of the program are discussed

  9. NRC high-level radioactive waste research at CNWRA, July--December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, B.; Ababou, R.; Ahola, M.

    1993-07-01

    Progress from July 1 to December 31, 1992 on the nine NRC-sponsored research projects conducted at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses is described. Ion-exchange experiments between clinoptilolite and aqueous solutions of Na + and Sr 2+ and three applications of reaction-path modeling are described in the Unsaturated Mass Transport (Geochemistry) project. Numerical simulation of a laboratory-scale non-isothermal two-phase flow is discussed in the Thermohydrology chapter. Methods for estimating rock joint roughness coefficient are the focus of the Seismic Rock Mechanics project for which the Tilt Test, Tse and Cruden's equations, and fractal-based equations were tested and found to be unsatisfactory. In the Integrated Waste Package Experiments chapter, investigations of pit initiation and repassivation potential for alloys 825 and C-22 and stainless steel 304L and 316L are described. Testing of the BIGFLOW computer code and visualization of fracture topology is the theme of the Stochastic Hydrology project. Preliminary analysis of field data from the Akrotiri site in Greece is developed in the Geochemical Analogs project. Mechanistic modeling of sorption using the MINTEQA2 code is investigated as part of the Sorption project. Adaptive gridding and ''modified equations'' methods for solving the flow and transport equations are described in the Performance Assessment chapter. Finally, the Volcanism chapter focuses on using nonhomogeneous Poisson processes for estimating probability of volcanic events at the potential repository site

  10. Standardized procedure for tsunami PRA by AESJ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirimoto, Yukihiro; Yamaguchi, Akira; Ebisawa, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    After Fukushima Accident (March 11, 2011), the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) started to develop the standard of Tsunami Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for nuclear power plants in May 2011. As Japan is one of the countries with frequent earthquakes, a great deal of efforts has been made in the field of seismic research since the early stage. To our regret, the PRA procedures guide for tsunami has not yet been developed although the importance is held in mind of the PRA community. Accordingly, AESJ established a standard to specify the standardized procedure for tsunami PRA considering the results of investigation into the concept, the requirements that should have and the concrete methods regarding tsunami PRA referring the opinions of experts in the associated fields in December 2011 (AESJ-SC-RK004:2011). (author)

  11. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program summary, Project No. 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 1 of a safety evaluation report (SER), ''NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Program Summary,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's ''Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER provides a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff's review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review

  12. Comparison between Radiology Science Laboratory, Brazil (LCR) and National Research Council, Canada (NRC) of the absorbed dose in water using Fricke dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salata, Camila; David, Mariano Gazineu; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de

    2014-01-01

    The absorbed dose to water standards for HDR brachytherapy dosimetry developed by the Radiology Science Laboratory, Brazil (LCR) and the National Research Council, Canada (NRC), were compared. The two institutions have developed absorbed dose standards based on the Fricke dosimetry system. There are significant differences between the two standards as far as the preparation and readout of the Fricke solution and irradiation geometry of the holder. Measurements were done at the NRC laboratory using a single Ir-192 source. The comparison of absorbed dose measurements was expressed as the ratio Dw(NRC)/Dw(LCR), which was found to be 1.026. (author)

  13. PSRP Approach to PRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Christine

    2004-01-01

    There have been two scenarios in which the Payload Safety Review Panel (PSRP) has considered a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) a viable tool. For use in considering trade-offs during the initial design. When in a waiver condition to explain rationale for acceptance. The PSRP would consider the use of PRA in other applications where credible.

  14. SSI sensitivity studies and model improvements for the US NRC Seismic Safety Margins Research Program. Rev. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.J.; Maslenikov, O.R.; Benda, B.J.

    1984-10-01

    The Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) is a US NRC-funded program conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Its goal is to develop a complete fully coupled analysis procedure for estimating the risk of an earthquake-induced radioactive release from a commercial nuclear power plant. In Phase II of the SSMRP, the methodology was applied to the Zion nuclear power plant. Three topics in the SSI analysis of Zion were investigated and reported here - flexible foundation modeling, structure-to-structure interaction, and basemat uplift. The results of these investigations were incorporated in the SSMRP seismic risk analysis. 14 references, 51 figures, 13 tables

  15. Meaningful engagement of people living with HIV who use drugs: methodology for the design of a Peer Research Associate (PRA) hiring model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closson, K; McNeil, R; McDougall, P; Fernando, S; Collins, A B; Baltzer Turje, R; Howard, T; Parashar, S

    2016-10-07

    Community-based HIV, harm reduction, and addiction research increasingly involve members of affected communities as Peer Research Associates (PRAs)-individuals with common experiences to the participant population (e.g. people who use drugs, people living with HIV [PLHIV]). However, there is a paucity of literature detailing the operationalization of PRA hiring and thus limited understanding regarding how affected communities can be meaningfully involved through low-barrier engagement in paid positions within community-based participatory research (CBPR) projects. We aim to address this gap by describing a low-threshold PRA hiring process. In 2012, the BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS and the Dr. Peter AIDS Foundation collaborated to develop a mixed-method CBPR project evaluating the effectiveness of the Dr. Peter Centre (DPC)-an integrative HIV care facility in Vancouver, Canada. A primary objective of the study was to assess the impact of DPC services among clients who have a history of illicit drug use. In keeping with CBPR principles, affected populations, community-based organizations, and key stakeholders guided the development and dissemination of a low-barrier PRA hiring process to meaningfully engage affected communities (e.g. PLHIV who have a history of illicit drug use) in all aspects of the research project. The hiring model was implemented in a number of stages, including (1) the establishment of a hiring team; (2) the development and dissemination of the job posting; (3) interviewing applicants; and (4) the selection of participants. The hiring model presented in this paper demonstrates the benefits of hiring vulnerable PLHIV who use drugs as PRAs in community-based research. The provision of low-barrier access to meaningful research employment described herein attempts to engage affected communities beyond tokenistic involvement in research. Our hiring model was successful at engaging five PRAs over a 2-year period and fostered opportunities for

  16. NRC nuclear waste geochemistry 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.H.; Birchard, G.F.

    1984-05-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to present results from NRC-sponsored research and to identify regulatory research issues which need to be addressed prior to licensing a high-level waste repository. Important summaries of technical issues and recommendations are included with each paper. The issue reflect areas of technical uncertainty addressed by the NRC Research program in geochemistry. The objectives of the NRC Research Program in geochemistry are to provide a technical basis for waste management rulemaking, to provide the NRC Waste Management Licensing Office with information that can be used to support sound licensing decisions, and to identify investigations that need to be conducted by DOE to support a license application. Individual papers were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  17. NRC research program on plant aging: Listing and summaries of reports issued through July 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondic, N.N.

    1992-09-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is conducting the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. This is a comprehensive hardware-oriented engineering research program focused on understanding the aging mechanisms of components and systems in nuclear power plants. The NPAR program also focuses on methods for simulating and monitoring the aging-related degradation of these components and systems. In addition, it provides recommendations for effective maintenance to manage aging and for implementation of the research results in the regulatory process. This document contains a listing and index of reports generated in the NPAR Program that were issued through July 1992 and summaries of those reports. Each summary describes the elements of the research covered in the report and outlines the significant results. For the convenience of the user, the reports are indexed by personal author, corporate author, and subject

  18. NRC research program on plant aging: Listing and summaries of reports issued through May 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondic, N.N.; Hill, E.L.

    1990-07-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is conducting the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. This is a comprehensive hardware-oriented engineering research program focused on understanding the aging mechanisms of components and systems in nuclear plants. The NPAR program also focuses on methods for simulating and monitoring the aging-related degradation of these components and systems. In addition, it provides recommendations for effective maintenance to manage aging and for the implementation of the research results in the regulatory process. This document contains a listing and index of reports generated in the NPAR Program that were issued through May 1990 and summaries of those reports. Each summary describes the elements of the research covered in the report and outlines the significant results. For the convenience of the user, the reports are indexed by personal author, corporate author, and subject

  19. NRC Research Program on Plant Aging: Listing and summaries of reports issued through June 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondic, N.N.; Hill, E.L.

    1991-07-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is conducting the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. This is a comprehensive hardware-oriented engineering research program focused on understanding the aging mechanisms of components and systems in nuclear power plants. The NPAR program also focuses on methods for simulating and monitoring the aging-related degradation of these components and systems. In addition, it provides recommendations for effective maintenance to manage aging and for the implementation of the research results in the regulatory process. This document contains a listing and index of reports generated in the NPAR Program that were issued through June 1991 and summaries of those reports. Each summary describes the elements of the research covered in the report and outlines the significant results. For the convenience of the user, the reports are indexed by personal author, corporate author, and subject. 102 refs

  20. NRC safety research in support of regulation. Volume 8, FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This report, the ninth in a series of annual reports, was prepared in response to congressional inquiries concerning how nuclear regulatory research is used. It summarizes the accomplishments of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research during FY 1993. A special emphasis on accomplishments in nuclear power plant aging research reflects recognition that number of plants are entering the final portion of their original 40-year operating licenses and that, in addition to current aging effects, a focus on safety considerations for license renewal becomes timely. The primary purpose of performing regulatory research is to develop and provide the Commission and its staff with sound technical bases for regulatory decisions on the safe operation of licensed nuclear reactors and facilities, to find unknown or unexpected safety problems, and to develop data and related information for the purpose of revising the Commission`s rules, regulatory guides, or other guidance.

  1. NRC research program on plant aging: Listing and abstracts of reports issued through February 1, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondic, N.N.

    1989-08-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is conducting the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. This is a comprehensive hardware-oriented program focused on understanding the aging mechanisms of components and systems in nuclear plants. The NPAR Program also focuses on methods for simulating and monitoring the aging-related degradation of these components and systems. This document contains a listing and index of reports generated in the NPAR Program that were issued through February 1, 1989, and abstracts of those reports. Each abstract describes the elements of the research covered in the report and outlines the significant results. For the convenience of the user, the reports are indexed by personal author, corporate author, and subject

  2. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Regulatory Agenda is a quarterly compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action or has proposed, or is considering action and of all petitions for rulemaking that the NRC has received that are pending disposition

  3. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    The Regulatory Agenda is a quarterly compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action or has proposed, or is considering action and of all petitions for rulemaking that the NRC has received that are pending disposition

  4. Comparison between Radiology Science Laboratory, Brazil (LCR) and National Research Council, Canada (NRC) of the absorbed dose in water using Fricke dosimetry; Comparacao entre o LCR/Brasil e o NRC/Canada da dose absorvida na agua usando a dosimetria Fricke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salata, Camila; David, Mariano Gazineu; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ/LCR), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Radiologicas; El Gamal, Islam; Cojocaru, Claudiu; Mainegra-Hing, Ernesto; McEwen, Malcom, E-mail: mila.salata@gmail.com [National Research Council, Ottawa (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The absorbed dose to water standards for HDR brachytherapy dosimetry developed by the Radiology Science Laboratory, Brazil (LCR) and the National Research Council, Canada (NRC), were compared. The two institutions have developed absorbed dose standards based on the Fricke dosimetry system. There are significant differences between the two standards as far as the preparation and readout of the Fricke solution and irradiation geometry of the holder. Measurements were done at the NRC laboratory using a single Ir-192 source. The comparison of absorbed dose measurements was expressed as the ratio Dw(NRC)/Dw(LCR), which was found to be 1.026. (author)

  5. Reports distributed under the NRC Light-Water Reactor Safety Research Foreign Technical Exchange Program. Volume III, January--June 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, D.S.; Cottrell, W.B.

    1977-01-01

    Lists of documents exchanged during the first half of 1977 under agreements between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research and the governments of France, Federal Republic of Germany, and Japan are presented. During this period, the NRC received 41 reports from France, 29 from F. R. Germany, and 24 from Japan, and in return sent 107 U.S. reports to each of these three countries

  6. PRA and Conceptual Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMott, Diana; Fuqua, Bryan; Wilson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Once a project obtains approval, decision makers have to consider a variety of alternative paths for completing the project and meeting the project objectives. How decisions are made involves a variety of elements including: cost, experience, current technology, ideologies, politics, future needs and desires, capabilities, manpower, timing, available information, and for many ventures management needs to assess the elements of risk versus reward. The use of high level Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Models during conceptual design phases provides management with additional information during the decision making process regarding the risk potential for proposed operations and design prototypes. The methodology can be used as a tool to: 1) allow trade studies to compare alternatives based on risk, 2) determine which elements (equipment, process or operational parameters) drives the risk, and 3) provide information to mitigate or eliminate risks early in the conceptual design to lower costs. Creating system models using conceptual design proposals and generic key systems based on what is known today can provide an understanding of the magnitudes of proposed systems and operational risks and facilitates trade study comparisons early in the decision making process. Identifying the "best" way to achieve the desired results is difficult, and generally occurs based on limited information. PRA provides a tool for decision makers to explore how some decisions will affect risk before the project is committed to that path, which can ultimately save time and money.

  7. NRC/UBC Node

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis-Perry, B.; Yogendran, Y.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' In the search for cleaner, more sustainable energy sources, many of the most promising breakthroughs have been in hydrogen technology. However, this promise will remain unfulfilled without public interest and enthusiasm, and without the infrastructure to support the technology. In order to get there, we have to test, perfect, and demonstrate technology that is safe and affordable, and we must do so in practical, familiar settings. Ideally, such settings should be easily accessible to the engineers, planners, and architects of tomorrow while providing a showcase for hydrogen technology that will attract the general public. This place is the NRC/UBC Hydrogen Node. The UBC campus in Point Grey is home to leading edge, internationally recognized researchers in a range of disciplines, both within the University and at the NRC Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation. On average, 40,000 students, faculty, and staff use the campus every day; UBC graduates go on to leadership positions in communities around the globe. Its spectacular setting makes UBC a popular destination for thousands of visitors from around the world. In 2006 UBC will host the World Urban Forum, and in 2010 it will be one of the sites for the Vancouver-Whistler Olympic Games. UBC and its South Campus neighbourhoods are developing as a model sustainable community, offering an excellent opportunity to develop and showcase hydrogen infrastructure and technology in a real-life, attractive setting that will be seen by thousands of people around the world. UBC's facilities, location, and Trek 2010 commitment to excellence in learning, research, and sustainability make it an ideal location for such a project. The H2 Village at UBC will be an integrated hydrogen demonstration project, linked to the hydrogen highway. This project is bringing together leading companies, researchers, and government agencies committed to making the refinement and early adoption of safe hydrogen technology a reality

  8. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  9. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Evolutionary plant designs, Chapter 1, Project No. 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of a safety evaluation report (SER), ''NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Evolutionary Plant Designs,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's ''Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER gives the results of the staff's review of Volume II of the Requirements Document for evolutionary plant designs, which consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant (approximately 1300 megawatts-electric)

  10. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Evolutionary plant designs, Chapters 2--13, Project No. 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of a safety evaluation report (SER), ''NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Evolutionary Plant Designs,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's ''Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER gives the results of the staff's review of Volume II of the Requirements Document for evolutionary plant designs, which consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant (approximately 1300 megawatts-electric)

  11. Economical and financial analysis of lamb finishing fed with diets formulated according to the NRC (1985) and the NRC (2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogério, Marcos Cláudio Pinheiro; de Castro, Eliane Minervina; Martins, Espedito Cezário; Monteiro, Jomar Patrício; Silva, Kleibe de Moraes; Cândido, Magno José Duarte; Gomes, Tereza Cristina Lacerda; Bloc, Antoine Francis Roux; de Vasconcelos, Angela Maria; Leite, Eneas Reis; Costa, Hélio Henrique Araújo

    2013-01-01

    This study compares both versions of the nutritional requirement system determined by the National Research Council (NRC) version 1985 (NRC85) and NRC version 2007 (NRC07), for finishing lambs in feedlots. Nineteen crossbred lambs were divided in four groups representing four experimental treatments: one diet according to NRC85 and three diets according to NRC07. The diets recommended by NRC07 considers crude protein intake relative to ruminal undegradable protein at 20, 40, and 60 % levels (NRC07/20, NRC07/40, and NRC07/60). Diets were composed of Brazilian semi-arid native grass silage, soybean meal, corn, annatto byproduct, and limestone. Purchases and sales of lambs were done according to average market prices in Brazil. The economic indicators considered pointed that all treatments were viable but NRC07/20 and NRC07/60 were more profitable with similar net present values (NPVs) and internal return rates (IRRs). NRC07/20 was the best option showing an IRR of 17.20 % and a payback period (PP) of 5.07 considering a fixed annual interest rate of 6 %. Sensitivity analysis considering a 10 % raise in variable costs showed negative NPVs, IRRs inferior to the opportunity cost rates adopted and PPs that exceeded the planning horizon of 7 years for both NRC85 and NRC07/40.

  12. Hiperurisemia pada Pra Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellyza Nasrul

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakAsam urat (AU merupakan produk akhir dari katabolisme adenin dan guanin yang berasal dari pemecahannukleotida purin. Urat dihasilkan oleh sel yang mengandung xanthine oxidase, terutama hepar dan usus kecil.Hiperurisemia adalah keadaan kadar asam urat dalam darah lebih dari 7,0 mg/dL.Pra diabetes adalah subjek yangmempunyai kadar glukosa plasma meningkat akan tetapi peningkatannya masih belum mencapai nilai minimaluntuk kriteria diagnosis diabetes melitus (DM. Glukosa darah puasa terganggu merupakan keadaan dimanapeningkatan kadar FPG≥100 mg/dL dan <126 mg/dL. Toleransi glukosa terganggu merupakan peningkatanglukosa plasma 2 jam setelah pembebanan 75 gram glukosa oral (≥140 mg/dL dan <200mg/dL dengan FPG<126 mg/dL.Insulin juga berperan dalam meningkatkan reabsorpsi asam urat di tubuli proksimal ginjal. Sehinggapada keadaan hiperinsulinemia pada pra diabetes terjadi peningkatan reabsorpsi yang akan menyebabkanhiperurisemia. Transporter urat yang berada di membran apikal tubuli renal dikenal sebagai URAT-1 berperandalam reabsorpsi urat.Kata kunci: Hiperurisemia, Pra DiabetesAbstractUric acid (AU is the end product of the catabolism of adenine and guanine nucleotides derived from thebreakdown of purines. Veins produced by cells containing xanthine oxidase, especially the liver and small intestine.Hyperuricemia is a state in the blood uric acid levels over 7.0 mg / dL.Pre-diabetes is a subject which has a plasmaglucose level will rise but the increase is still not reached the minimum value for the diagnostic criteria for diabetesmellitus (DM. Impaired fasting blood glucose is a condition in which increased levels of FPG ≥ 100 mg / dL and<126 mg / dL. Impaired glucose tolerance is an increase in plasma glucose 2 hours after 75 gram oral glucose load(≥ 140 mg / dL and <200mg/dl with FPG <126 mg / dL.Insulin also plays a role in increasing the reabsorption ofuric acid in renal proximal tubule. So that the hyperinsulinemia in the pre

  13. NRC Support for the Kalinin (VVER) probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bley, D.; Diamond, D.J.; Chu, T.L.; Azarm, A.; Pratt, W.T.; Johnson, D.; Szukiewicz, A.; Drouin, M.; El-Bassioni, A.; Su, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Federal Nuclear and Radiation Safety Authority of the Russian Federation have been working together since 1994 to carry out a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of a VVER-1000 in the Russian Federation. This was a recognition by both parties that this technology has had a profound effect on the discipline of nuclear reactor safety in the West and that the technology should be transferred to others so that it can be applied to Soviet-designed plants. The NRC provided funds from the Agency for International Development and technical support primarily through Brookhaven National Laboratory and its subcontractors. The latter support was carried out through workshops, by documenting the methodology to be used in a set of guides, and through periodic review of the technical activity. The result of this effort to date includes a set of procedure guides, a draft final report on the Level 1 PRA for internal events (excluding internal fires and floods), and progress reports on the fire, flood, and seismic analysis. It is the authors belief that the type of assistance provided by the NRC has been instrumental in assuring a quality product and transferring important technology for use by regulators and operators of Soviet-designed reactors. After a thorough review, the report will be finalized, lessons learned will be applied in the regulatory and operational regimes in the Russian Federation, and consideration will be given to supporting a containment analysis in order to complete a simplified Level 2 PRA

  14. NRC Regulatory Agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  15. NRC Regulatory Agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action or has proposed, or is considering action and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  16. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action or has proposed, or is considering action and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  17. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  18. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has proposed or is considering action and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  19. Utilizing the National Research Council's (NRC) Conceptual Framework for the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS): A Self-Study in My Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvo, Arthur Francis

    Given the reality that active and competitive participation in the 21 st century requires American students to deepen their scientific and mathematical knowledge base, the National Research Council (NRC) proposed a new conceptual framework for K--12 science education. The framework consists of an integration of what the NRC report refers to as the three dimensions: scientific and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and core ideas in four disciplinary areas (physical, life and earth/spaces sciences, and engineering/technology). The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS ), which are derived from this new framework, were released in April 2013 and have implications on teacher learning and development in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). Given the NGSS's recent introduction, there is little research on how teachers can prepare for its release. To meet this research need, I implemented a self-study aimed at examining my teaching practices and classroom outcomes through the lens of the NRC's conceptual framework and the NGSS. The self-study employed design-based research (DBR) methods to investigate what happened in my secondary classroom when I designed, enacted, and reflected on units of study for my science, engineering, and mathematics classes. I utilized various best practices including Learning for Use (LfU) and Understanding by Design (UbD) models for instructional design, talk moves as a tool for promoting discourse, and modeling instruction for these designed units of study. The DBR strategy was chosen to promote reflective cycles, which are consistent with and in support of the self-study framework. A multiple case, mixed-methods approach was used for data collection and analysis. The findings in the study are reported by study phase in terms of unit planning, unit enactment, and unit reflection. The findings have implications for science teaching, teacher professional development, and teacher education.

  20. NRC/RSR Data Bank Program description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bankert, S.F.

    1979-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has established the NRC/Reactor Safety Research (RSR) Data Bank Program to collect, store, and make available data from the many domestic and foreign water reactor safety research programs. Local direction of the program is provided by EG and G Idaho, Inc., at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The NRC/RSR Data Bank Program provides a central computer storage mechanism and access software for data to be used by code development and assessment groups in meeting the code and correlation needs of the nuclear industry. The administrative portion of the program provides data entry, documentation, and training and advisory services to users and the NRC. The NRC/RSR Data Bank Program and the capabilities of the data access software are described

  1. Reports distributed under the NRC Light-Water Reactor Safety Research Foreign Technical Exchange Program. Volume IV, July--December 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, D.S.; Cottrell, W.B.

    1978-01-01

    Lists of documents exchanged during the second half of 1977 under agreements between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research and the governments of France, Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, and the United Kingdom are presented. During this period, the NRC received 1 report from France, 40 from the Federal Republic of Germany, and 11 from Japan, and in return sent 112 U.S. reports to each of these three countries and 23 reports to the United Kingdom

  2. Refurbishing Voyager/PRA data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecconi, B.; Pruvot, A.; Lamy, L.; Zarka, P.; Louis, C.; Hess, S. L. G.; Evans, D. R.; Boucon, D.

    2017-09-01

    The Voyager PRA data have been reprocessed and reanalyzed. Full resolution data including polarization degree have been derived. The dataset is unique and will be made available to the scientific community.

  3. NRC operation center's function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, E.W.

    1987-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has maintained a 24-hour-a-day, 365 days-a-year, manned Operations Center since the emergency incident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant in 1979. The Center functions as the NRC's point of direct communication through dedicated telephone lines for reports of significant events at licensed nuclear power plants and certain fuel cycle facilities. The Center has become a key element in the agency's emergency preparedness. The effectiveness of the NRC Operations Center depends in large measure on complete and accurate reports from the licensees. The information provided is used to: identify generic safety issues and precursor events that may compromise plant safety; develop licensee performance trends that are used to adjust NRC regulatory emphasis; and, evaluate and provide for the appropriate NRC response to events in a real time mode

  4. NRC collection of abbreviations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff collected this list of abbreviations from NRC documents and nuclear industry documents, both foreign and domestic. Readers can use the collection, which is not all inclusive, to identify the terms from which the abbreviations are formed. The Editorial Section of the Division of Freedom of Information and Publications Services compiled this collection. In the introduction, the editorial staff offers suggestions for using abbreviations but does not recommend the use of one abbreviation over another

  5. NRC - regulator of nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) was formed in 1975 to regulate the various commercial and institutional uses of nuclear energy, including nuclear power plants. The agency succeeded the Atomic Energy Commission, which previously had responsibility for both developing and regulating nuclear activities. Federal research and development work for all energy sources, as well as nuclear weapons production, is now conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy. Under its responsibility to protect public health and safety, the NRC has three principal regulatory functions: (1) establish standards and regulations, (2) issue licenses for nuclear facilities and users of nuclear materials, and (3) inspect facilities and users of nuclear materials to ensure compliance with the requirements. These regulatory functions relate to both nuclear power plants and to other uses of nuclear materials - like nuclear medicine programs at hospitals, academic activities at educational institutions, research work, and such industrial applications as gauges and testing equipment. The NRC places a high priority on keeping the public informed of its work. The agency recognizes the interest of citizens in what it does through such activities as maintaining public document rooms across the country and holding public hearings, public meetings in local areas, and discussions with individuals and organizations

  6. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter. The rules on which final action has been taken since March 31, 1993 are: Repeal of NRC standards of conduct; Fitness-for-duty requirements for licensees who possess, use, or transport Category I material; Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel; Monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants; Licensing requirements for land disposal of radioactive wastes; and Licensees' announcements of safeguards inspections

  7. Handbook for value-impact assessments of NRC regulatory actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, M.F.; DiPalo, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    According to current Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) procedures, value-impact (cost-benefit) assessments must be prepared for all rulemaking actions and for a broad range of other regulatory requirements and guidance. Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods furnish an important part of the information base for these assessments. PRA methods are frequently the principal quantitative tool for estimating the benefits (e.g., public risk reduction) of proposed regulatory actions. In December 1983, the NRC published A Handbook for Value-Impact Assessment, NUREG/CR-3568, which provides a set of systematic procedures for performing value-impact assessments. The Handbook contains methods, data, and sources of information that can assist the regulatory analyst in conducting such assessments. The use of probabilistic risk analysis to estimate the benefits of proposed regulatory actions is described. Procedures and methods are also given for evaluating the costs and other consequences associated with regulatory actions. The Handbook has been adopted by the NRC as the recommended guideline for value impact assessments. This paper presents the background, objectives, and scope of the Handbook, describes the value-impact assessment methods (including the use of probabilistic risk assessment to estimate benefits), and discusses a selection of current and planned applications, with examples to illustrate how the methods are used

  8. NRC Regulatory Agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    This document is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has proposed or is considering action and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  9. NRC inventory of dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lear, G.E.; Thompson, O.O.

    1983-01-01

    The NRC Inventory of Dams has been prepared as required by the charter of the NRC Dam Safety Officer. The inventory lists 51 dams associated with nuclear power plant sites and 14 uranium mill tailings dams (licensed by NRC) in the US as of February 1, 1982. Of the 85 listed nuclear power plants (148 units), 26 plants obtain cooling water from impoundments formed by dams. The 51 dams associated with the plants are: located on a plant site (29 dams at 15 plant sites); located off site but provide plant cooling water (18 dams at 11 additional plant sites); and located upstream from a plant (4 dams) - they have been identified as dams whose failure, and ensuing plant flooding, could result in a radiological risk to the public health and safety. The dams that might be considered NRC's responsibility in terms of the federal dam safety program are identified. This group of dams (20 on nuclear power plant sites and 14 uranium mill tailings dams) was obtained by eliminating dams that do not pose a flooding hazard (e.g., submerged dams) and dams that are regulated by another federal agency. The report includes the principal design features of all dams and related useful information

  10. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This document is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considered action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  11. NRC Regulatory Agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    This document compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rule making which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  12. NRC overview: Repository QA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is on the threshold of an extensive program for characterizing Yucca Mountain in Nevada to determine if it is a suitable site for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. Earlier this year, the DOE published the Consultation Draft Site Characterization Plan for the Nevada site, which describes in some detail the studies that need to be performed to determine if the site is acceptable. In the near future, the final site characterization plan (SCP) is expected to be issued and large-scale site characterization activities to begin. The data and analyses that will result from the execution of that plan are expected to be the primary basis for the license application to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Because of the importance of these data and analyses in the assessment of the suitability of the site and in the demonstration of that suitability in the NRC licensing process, the NRC requires in 10CFR60 that site characterization be performed under a quality assurance (QA) program. The QA program is designed to provide confidence that data are valid, retrievable, and reproducible. The documentation produced by the program will form an important part of the record on which the suitability of the site is judged in licensing. In addition, because the NRC staff can review only a selected portion of the data collected, the staff will need to rely on the system of controls in the DOE QA program

  13. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This document provides a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  14. pra | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; pra. 404! error. The page your are looking for can not be found! Please check the link or use the navigation bar at the top. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. Theory Of Evolution. Posted on 23 January 2018. Joint Statement by the Three Science Academies of India on the teaching of the ...

  15. 1996 NRC annual report. Volume 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This 22nd annual report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) describes accomplishments, activities, and plans made during Fiscal Year 1996 (FH 1996)--October 1, 1995, through September 30, 1996. Significant activities that occurred early in FY 1997 are also described, particularly changes in the Commission and organization of the NRC. The mission of the NRC is to ensure that civilian uses of nuclear materials in the US are carried out with adequate protection of public health and safety, the environment, and national security. These uses include the operation of nuclear power plants and fuel cycle plants and medical, industrial, and research applications. Additionally, the NRC contributes to combating the proliferation of nuclear weapons material worldwide. The NRC licenses and regulates commercial nuclear reactor operations and research reactors and other activities involving the possession and use of nuclear materials and wastes. It also protects nuclear materials used in operation and facilities from theft or sabotage. To accomplish its statutorily mandated regulatory mission, the NRC issues rules and standards, inspects facilities and operations, and issues any required enforcement actions

  16. 1996 NRC annual report. Volume 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    This 22nd annual report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) describes accomplishments, activities, and plans made during Fiscal Year 1996 (FH 1996)--October 1, 1995, through September 30, 1996. Significant activities that occurred early in FY 1997 are also described, particularly changes in the Commission and organization of the NRC. The mission of the NRC is to ensure that civilian uses of nuclear materials in the US are carried out with adequate protection of public health and safety, the environment, and national security. These uses include the operation of nuclear power plants and fuel cycle plants and medical, industrial, and research applications. Additionally, the NRC contributes to combating the proliferation of nuclear weapons material worldwide. The NRC licenses and regulates commercial nuclear reactor operations and research reactors and other activities involving the possession and use of nuclear materials and wastes. It also protects nuclear materials used in operation and facilities from theft or sabotage. To accomplish its statutorily mandated regulatory mission, the NRC issues rules and standards, inspects facilities and operations, and issues any required enforcement actions.

  17. System 80+TM PRA insights on severe accident prevention and mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnicum, D.J.; Jacob, M.C.; Schneider, R.E.; Weston, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    The System 80 + design is ABB-CE's standardized evolutionary Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) design. It incorporates design enhancements based on Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) insights, guidance from the ALWR Utility Requirements Document (URD), and US NRC's Severe Accident Policy. Major severe accident prevention and mitigation design features of the System 80 + design are described. The results of the System 80 + PRA are presented and the insights gained from the PRA sensitivity analyses are discussed. ABB-CE considered defense-in-depth for accident prevention and mitigation early in the design process and used robust design features to ensure that the System 80 + design achieved a low core damage frequency, low containment conditional failure probability, and excellent deterministic containment performance under severe accident conditions and to ensure that the risk was properly allocated among design features and between prevention and mitigation. (author)

  18. Integrating software into PRA: a test-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Li, Ming; Smidts, Carol

    2005-08-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is a methodology to assess the probability of failure or success of a system's operation. PRA has been proved to be a systematic, logical, and comprehensive technique for risk assessment. Software plays an increasing role in modern safety critical systems. A significant number of failures can be attributed to software failures. Unfortunately, current probabilistic risk assessment concentrates on representing the behavior of hardware systems, humans, and their contributions (to a limited extent) to risk but neglects the contributions of software due to a lack of understanding of software failure phenomena. It is thus imperative to consider and model the impact of software to reflect the risk in current and future systems. The objective of our research is to develop a methodology to account for the impact of software on system failure that can be used in the classical PRA analysis process. A test-based approach for integrating software into PRA is discussed in this article. This approach includes identification of software functions to be modeled in the PRA, modeling of the software contributions in the ESD, and fault tree. The approach also introduces the concepts of input tree and output tree and proposes a quantification strategy that uses a software safety testing technique. The method is applied to an example system, PACS.

  19. NRC performance assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coplan, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) performance assessment program includes the development of guidance to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on preparation of a license application and on conducting the studies to support a license application. The nature of the licensing requirements of 10 CFR Part 60 create a need for performance assessments by the DOE. The NRC and DOE staffs each have specific roles in assuring the adequacy of those assessments. Performance allocation is an approach for determining what testing and analysis will be needed during site characterization to assure that an adequate data base is available to support the necessary performance assessments. From the standpoint of establishing is implementable methodology, the most challenging performance assessment needed for licensing is the one that will be used to determine compliance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) containment requirement

  20. NRC Research Program on Plant Aging: Listing and summaries of reports issued through September 1993. Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vora, J.P.

    1993-12-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is conducting the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. This is a comprehensive hardware-oriented engineering research program focused on understanding the aging mechanisms of components and systems in nuclear power plants. The NPAR program also focuses on methods for simulating and monitoring the aging-related degradation of these components and systems. In addition, it provides recommendations for effective maintenance to manage aging and for implementation of the research results in the regulatory process. This document contains a listing and index of reports generated in the NPAR Program that were issued through September 1993 and summaries of those reports. Each summary describes the elements of the research covered in the report and outlines the significant results. For the convenience of the user, the reports are indexed by personal author, corporate author, and subject.

  1. NRC/RSR Data Bank Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bankert, S.F.; Evans, C.D.; Hardy, H.A.; Litteer, G.L.; Schulz, G.L.; Smith, N.C.

    1978-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has established the NRC/Reactor Safety Research (RSR) Data Bank Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The program provides the means of collecting, storing, and making available experimental data from the many water reactor safety research programs in the United States and other countries. The program collects qualified engineering data on a prioritized basis from experimental program data bases, stores the data in a single data bank in a common format, and makes the data available to users

  2. NRC/RSR Data Bank Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bankert, S.F.; Evans, C.D.; Hardy, H.A.; Litteer, G.L.; Schulz, G.L.; Smith, N.C.

    1978-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has established the NRC/Reactor Safety Research (RSR) Data Bank Program to provide a means of collecting, processing, and making available experimental data from the many domestic and foreign water reactor safety research programs. The NRC/RSR Data Bank Program collects qualified engineering data from experimental program data bases, stores the data in a single data bank in a common format, and makes the data available to users. The program is designed to be user oriented to minimize the effort required to obtain and manipulate data of interest. The data bank concept and structure embodied in the data bank processing system are applicable to any program where large quantities of scientific (numeric) data are generated and require compiling, storage, and accessing in order to be collected and made available to multiple users. 3 figures

  3. Interpretability in PRA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bílková, Marta; De Jongh, D.; Joosten, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 161, č. 2 (2009), s. 128-138 ISSN 0168-0072 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA900090703 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA401/06/0387 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : interpretability * arithmetic * primitive recursive arithmetic * interpretability logic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.667, year: 2009

  4. 24 CFR 401.304 - PRA provisions on PAE compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false PRA provisions on PAE compensation... (PRA) § 401.304 PRA provisions on PAE compensation. (a) Base fee. (1) The PRA will provide for base... public entities. The base fee for a PAE will be adjusted, if necessary, after the first term of the PRA...

  5. NRC performance indicator program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    The performance indicator development work of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) interoffice task group involved several major activities that included selection of candidate indicators for a trial program, data collection and review, validation of the trial indicators, display method development, interactions with the industry, and selection of an optimum set of indicators for the program. After evaluating 27 potential indicators against certain ideal attributes, the task group selected 17 for the trial program. The pertinent data for these indicators were then collected from 50 plants at 30 sites. The validation of the indicators consisted of two primary processes: logical validity and statistical analysis. The six indicators currently in the program are scrams, safety system actuations, significant events, safety system failures, forced outage rate, and equipment forced outages per 100 critical hours. A report containing data on the six performance indicators and some supplemental information is issued on a quarterly basis. The NRC staff is also working on refinements of existing indicators and development of additional indicators as directed by the commission

  6. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapters 2-13, project number 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the open-quotes Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Documentclose quotes, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume I, open-quotes ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirementsclose quotes, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, open-quotes NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summaryclose quotes, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff's review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review

  7. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute`s advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapter 1, project number 669

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the {open_quotes}Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Document{close_quotes}, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume 1, {open_quotes}ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirements{close_quotes}, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, {open_quotes}NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute`s Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summary{close_quotes}, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff`s review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review.

  8. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute`s advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapters 2-13, project number 669

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the {open_quotes}Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Document{close_quotes}, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume I, {open_quotes}ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirements{close_quotes}, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, {open_quotes}NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute`s Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summary{close_quotes}, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff`s review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review.

  9. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapter 1, project number 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the open-quotes Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Documentclose quotes, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume 1, open-quotes ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirementsclose quotes, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, open-quotes NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summaryclose quotes, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff's review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review

  10. NRC's license renewal regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akstulewicz, Francis

    1991-01-01

    In order to provide for the continuity of the current generation of nuclear power plant operating licenses and at the same time ensure the health and safety of the public, and the quality of the environment, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established a goal of developing and issuing regulations and regulatory guidance for license renewal in the early 1990s. This paper will discuss some of those activities underway to achieve this goal. More specifically, this paper will discuss the Commission's regulatory philosophy for license renewal and the two major license renewal rule makings currently underway. The first is the development of a new Part 54 to address procedural and technical requirements for license renewal; the second is a revision to existing Part 51 to exclude environmental issues and impacts from consideration during the license renewal process. (author)

  11. NRC quarterly [status] report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report covers the third quarter of calendar year 1987. The NRC licensing activity during the period of this report included the issuance of a full-power license for Beaver Valley 2 on August 14, 1987, and operating license restricted to five percent power for South Texas Unit 1 on August 21, 1987. Additional licensing delay for Shoreham is projected due to complex litigation. Also, licensing delay may occur for Comanche Peak Unit 1, because the duration of the hearing is uncertain. Although a license authorizing fuel loading and precriticality testing for Seabrook Unit 1 has been issued, there is a projected delay for low-power licensing. Full-power licensing for Seabrook Unit 1 will be delayed due to offsite emergency preparedness issues. The length of the delay is not known at this time. With the exception of Seabrook and Shoreham, regulatory delays in this report are not impacted by the schedules for resolving off-site emergency preparedness issues

  12. A model for assessing human cognitive reliability in PRA studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannaman, G.W.; Spurgin, A.J.; Lukic, Y.

    1985-01-01

    This paper summarizes the status of a research project sponsored by EPRI as part of the Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) technology improvement program and conducted by NUS Corporation to develop a model of Human Cognitive Reliability (HCR). The model was synthesized from features identified in a review of existing models. The model development was based on the hypothesis that the key factors affecting crew response times are separable. The inputs to the model consist of key parameters the values of which can be determined by PRA analysts for each accident situation being assessed. The output is a set of curves which represent the probability of control room crew non-response as a function of time for different conditions affecting their performance. The non-response probability is then a contributor to the overall non-success of operating crews to achieve a functional objective identified in the PRA study. Simulator data and some small scale tests were utilized to illustrate the calibration of interim HCR model coefficients for different types of cognitive processing since the data were sparse. The model can potentially help PRA analysts make human reliability assessments more explicit. The model incorporates concepts from psychological models of human cognitive behavior, information from current collections of human reliability data sources and crew response time data from simulator training exercises

  13. NRC regulation of DOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buhl, A.R.; Edgar, G.; Silverman, D.; Murley, T.

    1997-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), its contractors, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) are in for major changes if the DOE follows through on its intentions announced December 20, 1996. The DOE is seeking legislation to establish the NRC as the regulatory agency with jurisdiction over nuclear health, safety, and security at a wide range of DOE facilities. At this stage, it appears that as many as 200 (though not all) DOE facilities would be affected. On March 28, 1997, the NRC officially endorsed taking over the responsibility for regulatory oversight of DOE nuclear facilities as the DOE had proposed, contingent upon adequate funding, staffing resources, and a clear delineation of NRC authority. This article first contrasts the ways in which the NRC and the DOE carry out their basic regulatory functions. Next, it describes the NRC's current authority over DOE facilities and the status of the DOE's initiative to expand that authority. Then, it discusses the basic changes and impacts that can be expected in the regulation of DOE facilities. The article next describes key lessons learned from the recent transition of the GDPs from DOE oversight to NRC regulation and the major regulatory issues that arose in that transition. Finally, some general strategies are suggested for resolving issues likely to arise as the NRC assumes regulatory authority over DOE facilities

  14. NRC influences on nuclear training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannon, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    NRC influences on utility training programs through prescriptive requirements and evaluation of industry self-initiatives are discussed. NRC regulation and industry initiatives are complimentary and in some instances industry initiatives are replacing NRC requirements. Controls and feedback mechanisms designed to enhance positive NRC influences and minimize or eliminate negative influences are discussed. Industry and NRC efforts to reach an acceptable mix between regulator oversight and self-initiatives by the industry are recognized. Problem areas for continued cooperation to enhance training and minimize conflicting signals to industry are discussed. These areas include: requalification examination scope and content, depth of training and examination on emergency procedures; improved learning objectives as the basis for training and examination, and severe accident training

  15. Overview of seismic margin insights gained from seismic PRA results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.; Sues, R.H.; Campbell, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study conducted under NRC and EPRI sponsorship in which published seismic PRAs were reviewed in order to gain insight to the seismic margins inherent in existing nuclear plants. The approach taken was to examine the fragilities of those components which have been found to be dominant contributors to seismic risk at plants in low-to-moderate seismic regions (SSE levels between 0.12g and 0.25g). It is concluded that there is significant margin inherent in the capacity of most critical components above the plant design basis. For ground motions less than about 0.3g, the predominant sources of seismic risk are loss of offsite power coupled with random failure of the emergency diesels, non-recoverable circuit breaker trip due to relay chatter, unanchored equipment, unreinforced non-load bearing block walls, vertical water storage tanks, systems interactions and possibly soil liquefaction. Recommendations as to which components should be reviewed in seismic margin studies for margin earthquakes less than 0.3g, between 0.3g and 0.5g, and greater than 0.5g, developed by the NRC expert panel on the quantification of seismic margins (based on the review of past PRA data, earthquake experience data, and their own personal experience) are presented

  16. NRC/RSR data bank program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bankert, S.F.; Evans, C.D.; Hardy, H.A.; Litteer, G.L.; Schulz, G.L.; Smith, N.C.

    1978-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has established at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) the NRC/Reactor Safety Research (RSR) Data Bank Program. The program is under the direction of EG and G Idaho, Inc., and is intended to provide the means of collecting, processing, and making available experimental data from the many water reactor safety research programs. The NRC/RSR Data Bank Program collects qualified engineering data on a prioritized basis from experimental program data bases, stores the data in a single data bank in a common format, and makes the data available to users. The NRC/RSR Data Bank specializes in water reactor safety experimental data, but it has a number of other scientific applications where large amounts of numeric data are or will be available. As an example of size, a single water reactor safety test may generate 10 million data words. Future examples of the use of a data bank might be in gathering data on low head hydraulics, solar projects, and liquid metal reactor safety data

  17. Practical PRA applications at Consumers Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    Consumers Power Company has completed two probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs), one each at its Big Rock Point and Midland plants and is in the process of performing a third study at its Palisades Plant. Each PRA is summarized briefly in this paper. Each PRA has been used to evaluate specific plant design features and make operating and design recommendations to plant and Company management as well as to the regulator. This paper is a sumary of those issues on which Consumers Power Company has applied PRAs to date. The technique used in applying PRA to these issues has varied as more was learned about the plants from the PRA and about PRA itself. Some issue resolutions involved deriving technical arguments from small parts of the PRA only, such as the logic models or consequence analysis. Still others required use of the entire PRA including sequence quantification, plant and containment response, consequence analysis and eventually cost-benefit evaluation of proposed resolutions. The benefits derived from these analyses have also varied and include not only a perceived reduction in the risks associated with plant operation but also economic benefit to the Company in that cost-effective alternatives to resolving safety issues have been permitted

  18. HLA mismatches and PRA in kidney retransplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Kazuo

    2007-01-01

    1. For kidney transplants, overall graft survival with 1st transplants was better than with multiple transplants. 2. One-year graft survival rates have become similar with 1st and 2nd transplants, but some differences persisted for 5-year survival. 3. HLA mismatches have decreased with both 1st and 2nd DDTs, but with 1st and 2nd LDTs HLA mismatches remained at almost the same level. 4. PRA levels increased with the number of transplants. 5. The percent of 1st transplant patients with 0% PRA has increased year by year. However, with 2nd transplants the percent with higher PRA levels also increased year by year. 6. The trend in number of HLA mismatches was similar with both 1st and 2nd DDTs and LDTs even when higher HLA mismatch levels increased over the years. 7. The graft survival of all PRA levels improved. The differences in 1-year graft survival between each PRA group became smaller, and pretransplant PRA diminished with 1-year graft survival. However, pretransplant PRA still affected 5-year graft survival.

  19. Development of the NRC's Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradies, M.; Unger, L.; Haas, P.; Terranova, M.

    1993-10-01

    The three volumes of this report detail a standard investigation process for use by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel when investigating human performance related events at nuclear power plants. The process, called the Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP), was developed to meet the special needs of NRC personnel, especially NRC resident and regional inspectors. HPIP is a systematic investigation process combining current procedures and field practices, expert experience, NRC human performance research, and applicable investigation techniques. The process is easy to learn and helps NRC personnel perform better field investigations of the root causes of human performance problems. The human performance data gathered through such investigations provides a better understanding of the human performance issues that cause events at nuclear power plants. This document, Volume I is a concise description of the need for the human performance investigation process, the process' components, the methods used to develop the process, the methods proposed to test the process, and conclusions on the process' usefulness

  20. Development of the NRC's Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradies, M.; Unger, L.; Haas, P.; Terranova, M.

    1993-10-01

    The three volumes of this report detail a standard investigation process for use by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel when investigating human performance related events at nuclear power plants. The process, called the Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP), was developed to meet the special needs of NRC personnel, especially NRC resident and regional inspectors. HPIP is a systematic investigation process combining current procedures and field practices, expert experience, NRC human performance research, and applicable investigation techniques. The process is easy to learn and helps NRC personnel perform better field investigations of the root causes of human performance problems. The human performance data gathered through such investigations provides a better understanding of the human performance issues that cause events at nuclear power plants. This document, Volume III, is a detailed documentation of the development effort and the pilot training program

  1. Development of the NRC's Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradies, M.; Unger, L.; Haas, P.; Terranova, M.

    1993-10-01

    The three volumes of this report detail a standard investigation process for use by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel when investigating human performance related events at nuclear power plants. The process, called the Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP), was developed to meet the special needs of NRC personnel, especially NRC resident and regional inspectors. HPIP is a systematic investigation process combining current procedures and field practices, expert experience, NRC human performance research, and applicable investigation techniques. The process is easy to learn and helps NRC personnel perform better field investigations of the root causes of human performance problems. The human performance data gathered through such investigations provides a better understanding of the human performance issues that cause event at nuclear power plants. This document, Volume II, is a field manual for use by investigators when performing event investigations. Volume II includes the HPIP Procedure, the HPIP Modules, and Appendices that provide extensive documentation of each investigation technique

  2. 24 CFR 401.300 - What is a PRA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a PRA? 401.300 Section 401...-MARKET) Participating Administrative Entity (PAE) and Portfolio Restructuring Agreement (PRA) § 401.300 What is a PRA? A PRA is an agreement between HUD and a PAE that delineates rights and responsibilities...

  3. 24 CFR 401.302 - PRA administrative requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false PRA administrative requirements... (PRA) § 401.302 PRA administrative requirements. (a) Inapplicability of certain requirements. Parts 84 and 85 of this title and contract procurement requirements do not apply to a PRA. (b) Recordkeeping...

  4. Observations on PRA and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Y.-C.; Shieh, S.-L.

    2004-01-01

    An overview on the experience of PRA and its prospective application in Taiwan's three nuclear power plants is presented. Through the PRA, plant design improvements are performed and several engineering findings are illuminated. The sensitivity study including the internal, seismic, and typhoon events are conducted to justify items that can significantly reduce core meltdown risk. Its resulted plant betterment plans are thus highlighted accordingly. For PRA application, a risk-based inspection program for allocating inspection human resources has been resulted following the importance ranking of each component. The developing risk-based regulation to rationalize technical specification and maintenance program will also be entailed. To enhance the accuracy of the PRA model and its reproducibility, several issues are considered to have high priority for improvement such as external event data and analyses, uncertainty, common mode failure, human reliability, and the relative component importance. Highlight of their significance along with some typical sensitivity analyses are discussed for further investigation. (author)

  5. PRA studies: results, insights and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, S.; Stetson, F.T.

    1983-01-01

    This paper deals with Probalistic Risk Assessment (PRA) studies and their results. The PRA is a combination of logic structures and analytical techniques that can be used to estimate the likelihood and consequences of events that have not been observed because of their low frequency occurrence. At first attitudes concerning PRA reports were controversial principally because of their new techniques and complex multidisciplinary nature. However these attitudes changed following the accident at Three Mile Island in 1979. Many people after this event came to appreciate the risks associated with the operation of nuclear power plants, and since the TMI accident there has been a rapid expansion, in the use of PRA in the US and other countries. (NEA) [fr

  6. Calculation of Fire Severity Factors and Fire Non-Suppression Probabilities For A DOE Facility Fire PRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elicson, Tom; Harwood, Bentley; Lucek, Heather; Bouchard, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Over a 12 month period, a fire PRA was developed for a DOE facility using the NUREG/CR-6850 EPRI/NRC fire PRA methodology. The fire PRA modeling included calculation of fire severity factors (SFs) and fire non-suppression probabilities (PNS) for each safe shutdown (SSD) component considered in the fire PRA model. The SFs were developed by performing detailed fire modeling through a combination of CFAST fire zone model calculations and Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS). Component damage times and automatic fire suppression system actuation times calculated in the CFAST LHS analyses were then input to a time-dependent model of fire non-suppression probability. The fire non-suppression probability model is based on the modeling approach outlined in NUREG/CR-6850 and is supplemented with plant specific data. This paper presents the methodology used in the DOE facility fire PRA for modeling fire-induced SSD component failures and includes discussions of modeling techniques for: Development of time-dependent fire heat release rate profiles (required as input to CFAST), Calculation of fire severity factors based on CFAST detailed fire modeling, and Calculation of fire non-suppression probabilities.

  7. U.S. NRC CONFIRMATORY LEVEL 1 PRA SUCCESS CRITERIA ACTIVITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald Helton; Hossein Esmaili; Robert Buell

    2011-03-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s standardized plant analysis risk (SPAR) models are used to support a number of risk-informed initiatives. The fidelity and realism of these models are ensured through a number of processes including cross-comparison with industry models, review and use by a wide range of technical experts, and confirmatory analysis. This paper will describe a key activity in the latter arena. Specifically, this paper will describe MELCOR analyses performed to augment the technical basis for confirming or modifying specific success criteria of interest. The analyses that will be summarized provide the basis for confirming or changing success criteria in a specific 3-loop pressurized-water reactor and a Mark-I boiling-water reactor. Initiators that have been analyzed include loss-of-coolant accidents, loss of main feedwater, spontaneous steam generator tube rupture, inadvertent opening of a relief valve at power, and station blackout. For each initiator, specific aspects of the accident evolution are investigated via a targeted set of calculations (3 to 22 distinct accident analyses per initiator). Further evaluation is ongoing to extend the analyses’ conclusions to similar plants (where appropriate), with consideration of design and modeling differences on a scenario-by-scenario basis. This paper will also describe future plans.

  8. NRC regulatory information conference: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    This volume of the report provides the proceedings from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Information Conference that was held at the Mayflower Hotel, Washington, DC, on April 18, 19, and 20, 1989. This conference was held by the NRC and chaired by Dr. Thomas E. Mosley, Director, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulations (NRR) and coordinated by S. Singh Bajwa, Chief, Technical Assistance Management Section, NRR. There were approximately 550 participants from nine countries at the conference. The countries represented were Canada, England, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Spain, Taiwan, Yugoslavia, and the United States. The NRC staff discussed with nuclear industry its regulatory philosophy and approach and the bases on which they have been established. Furthermore, the NRC staff discussed several initiatives that have been implemented recently and their bases as well as NRC's expectations for new initiatives to further improve safety. The figures contained in Appendix A to the volume correspond to the slides that were shown during the presentations. Volume 2 of this report contains the formal papers that were distributed at the beginning of the Regulatory Information Conference and other information about the conference

  9. Flow cytometry PRA using lymphocyte pools from random donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Dong Il; Jung, Hee Du; Jung, Ok-Ju; Huh, Seung; Suh, Jang Soo

    2007-07-01

    Pools of lymphocytes from carefully chosen donors have been used for flow cytometry (FC) panel reactive antibody (PRA) assays. We intended to devise an FC PRA assay using mixed lymphocyte pools from a large number of randomly selected donors (RD FC PRA) to accurately predict the likelihood of a positive HLA crossmatch. Lymphocyte pools were prepared from randomly selected donors (N = 120). %PRA was calculated based on the anti-IgG FITC histogram of the T cells. The proposed RD FC PRA assay was assessed in comparison with the bead FC PRA, antiglobulin-augmented CDC (AHG-CDC) PRA assay, and the expected %PRA calculated by summing up the antigen frequencies of the known specificities. In 29 FC crossmatch positive sera, the positivity rate for the bead FC, RD FC, and AHG-CDC PRA was 100, 100, and 79%, and the mean %PRA was 77% +/- 0.205). In 19 sensitized patients with a negative FC crossmatch, the positivity rate was 21% using the RD FC PRA and 16% using the bead FC PRA, which suggested that both assays had similar abilities to detect low levels of HLA antibodies. The RD FC PRA assay allows easy panel preparation, reduces cost, and naturally reflects the probabilities of a positive crossmatch in the population to which the cadaveric donor belongs. Therefore, this new assay is expected to be useful as another approach to determine the % PRA. Copyright 2007 Clinical Cytometry Society.

  10. Validation of seismic soil-structure interaction analysis methods: EPRI [Electric Power Research Institute]/NRC [Nuclear Regulatory Commission] cooperation in Lotung, Taiwan, experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kot, C.A.; Srinivasan, M.G.; Hsieh, B.J.; Tang, Y.K.; Kassawara, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    The cooperative program between NRC/ANL and EPRI on the validation of soil-structure interaction analysis methods with actual seismic response data is described. A large scale-model of a containment building has been built by EPRI/Taipower in a highly seismic region of Taiwan. Vibration tests were performed, first on the basemat before the superstructure was built and then on the completed structure. Since its completion, the structure has experienced many earthquakes. The site and structural response to these earthquakes have been recorded with field (surface and downhole) and structural instrumentation. The validation program involves blind predictions of site and structural response during vibration tests and a selected seismic event, and subsequent comparison between the predictions and measurements. The predictive calculations are in progress. The results of the correlation are expected to lead to the evaluation of the methods as to their conservatisms and sensitivities

  11. NRC comprehensive records disposition schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    Effective January 1, 1982, NRC will institute records retention and disposal practices in accordance with the approved Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule (CRDS). CRDS is comprised of NRC Schedules (NRCS) 1 to 4 which apply to the agency's program or substantive records and General Records Schedules (GRS) 1 to 22 which apply to housekeeping or facilitative records. The schedules are assembled functionally/organizationally to facilitate their use. Preceding the records descriptions and disposition instructions for both NRCS and GRS, there are brief statements on the organizational units which accumulate the records in each functional area, and other information regarding the schedules' applicability

  12. PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessments) Participation versus Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMott, Diana; Banke, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) are performed for projects or programs where the consequences of failure are highly undesirable. PRAs primarily address the level of risk those projects or programs posed during operations. PRAs are often developed after the design has been completed. Design and operational details used to develop models include approved and accepted design information regarding equipment, components, systems and failure data. This methodology basically validates the risk parameters of the project or system design. For high risk or high dollar projects, using PRA methodologies during the design process provides new opportunities to influence the design early in the project life cycle to identify, eliminate or mitigate potential risks. Identifying risk drivers before the design has been set allows the design engineers to understand the inherent risk of their current design and consider potential risk mitigation changes. This can become an iterative process where the PRA model can be used to determine if the mitigation technique is effective in reducing risk. This can result in more efficient and cost effective design changes. PRA methodology can be used to assess the risk of design alternatives and can demonstrate how major design changes or program modifications impact the overall program or project risk. PRA has been used for the last two decades to validate risk predictions and acceptability. Providing risk information which can positively influence final system and equipment design the PRA tool can also participate in design development, providing a safe and cost effective product.

  13. Twenty-second water reactor safety information meeting: Proceedings. Volume 1: Plenary session; Advanced instrumentation and control hardware and software; Human factors research; IPE and PRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteleone, S. [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twenty-Second Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 24--26, 1994. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from Finland, France, Italy, Japan, Russia, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  14. Twenty-second water reactor safety information meeting: Proceedings. Volume 1: Plenary session; Advanced instrumentation and control hardware and software; Human factors research; IPE and PRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteleone, S.

    1995-04-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twenty-Second Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 24--26, 1994. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from Finland, France, Italy, Japan, Russia, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  15. NRC comprehensive records disposition schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-05-01

    Effective January 1, 1982, NRC will institute records retention and disposal practives in accordance with the approved Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule (CRDS). CRDS is comprised of NRC Schedules (NRCS) 1 to 4 which apply to the agency's program or substantive records and General Records Schedules (GRS) 1 to 24 which apply to housekeeping or facilitative records. NRCS-I applies to records common to all or most NRC offices; NRCS-II applies to program records as found in the various offices of the Commission, Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel, and the Atomic Safety and Licensing Appeal Panel; NRCS-III applies to records accumulated by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; and NRCS-IV applies to records accumulated in the various NRC offices under the Executive Director for Operations. The schedules are assembled functionally/organizationally to facilitate their use. Preceding the records descriptions and disposition instructions for both NRCS and GRS, there are brief statements on the organizational units which accumulate the records in each functional area, and other information regarding the schedules' applicability

  16. Understanding on the ISG about Digital I and C PRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. M.; Jeong, C. H.; Oh, G. M.

    2008-01-01

    There has been many efforts to execute the PRA for the software based digital I and C systems. The ISG (Interim Staff Guidance) is made for providing acceptable methods for evaluating digital I and C system risk assessments of new reactor by NRC. The primary purpose of this paper is to understand the ISG and to discuss the main issue of it. The ISG is not intended to provide the information of digital I and C system risk assessments for risk-informed regulatory decision making. With considering the software, the modeling of digital I and C system is considered immature process. Till now, there is no consensus on the technology for reliability modeling of software-based digital system. The use of risk-informed decision making is beyond the scope of the ISG. This paper is organized as follows. Section 2 describes the difficulties and limitations of the risk assessment of digital I and C system and section 3 shows the important issues of it. Section 4 shows the 12 review guidelines on how to review digital I and C system risk assessments. Section 5 concludes the paper

  17. Probabilistic risk assessment course documentation. Volume 1: PRA fundamentals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breeding, R J; Leahy, T J; Young, J

    1985-08-01

    The full range of PRA topics is presented, with a special emphasis on systems analysis and PRA applications. Systems analysis topics include system modeling such as fault tree and event tree construction, failure rate data, and human Reliability. The discussion of PRA applications is centered on past and present PRA based programs, such as WASH-1400 and the Interim Reliability Evaluation Program, as well as on some of the potential future applications of PRA. The relationship of PRA to generic safety issues such as station blackout and Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS) is also discussed. In addition to system modeling, the major PRA tasks of accident process analysis, and consequence analysis are presented. An explanation of the results of these activities, and the techniques by which these results are derived, forms the basis for a discussion of these topics. An additional topic which is presented in this course is the topic of PRA management, organization, and evaluation. 84 figs., 41 tabs.

  18. Probabilistic risk assessment course documentation. Volume 1: PRA fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breeding, R.J.; Leahy, T.J.; Young, J.

    1985-08-01

    The full range of PRA topics is presented, with a special emphasis on systems analysis and PRA applications. Systems analysis topics include system modeling such as fault tree and event tree construction, failure rate data, and human Reliability. The discussion of PRA applications is centered on past and present PRA based programs, such as WASH-1400 and the Interim Reliability Evaluation Program, as well as on some of the potential future applications of PRA. The relationship of PRA to generic safety issues such as station blackout and Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS) is also discussed. In addition to system modeling, the major PRA tasks of accident process analysis, and consequence analysis are presented. An explanation of the results of these activities, and the techniques by which these results are derived, forms the basis for a discussion of these topics. An additional topic which is presented in this course is the topic of PRA management, organization, and evaluation. 84 figs., 41 tabs

  19. 76 FR 28192 - [NRC-2009-0482

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-16

    ... definition of ``site outage'' read ``up to one week prior to disconnecting the reactor unit from the grid and... are available electronically at the NRC's Electronic Reading Room at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm...

  20. Computer-based PRA at San Onofre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Personal computer software, called Safety Monitor, used to perform probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) is described. Safety Monitor assesses core damage and containment failure risks in less than 60 seconds. The software was developed by San Onofre PRA analysts and NUS Corporation. Operational use and cost savings are described

  1. PRA: a powerful engineering decision tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, H.G. de.

    1988-03-01

    The probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) is studied and its historical development is briefly presented. Human factors, sofware and guides, improvement of utility management of nuclear power operations are discussed. The development of a standardized LWR design, optimized for safety, reliability and economy is studied. The impact of risk assessments in public acceptance of nuclear power is discussed. (M.A.C.) [pt

  2. Dal Pra e lo scetticismo medievale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Fedriga

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Lo studio dello scetticismo medievale è in Dal Pra anche proposta di un pensiero critico che si pone come alternativa alla storiografia idealista e alle indagini puramente filologiche. Giovanni di Salisbury, Nicola d'Autrecourt e l'impossibilità di una fondazione teorica della filosofia.

  3. NRC comprehensive records disposition schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    Title 44 United States Code, ''Public Printing and Documents,'' regulations cited in the General Services Administration's (GSA) ''Federal Information Resources Management Regulations'' (FIRMR), Part 201-9, ''Creation, Maintenance, and Use of Records,'' and regulation issued by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) in 36 CFR Chapter XII, Subchapter B, ''Records Management,'' require each agency to prepare and issue a comprehensive records disposition schedule that contains the NARA approved records disposition schedules for records unique to the agency and contains the NARA's General Records Schedules for records common to several or all agencies. The approved records disposition schedules specify the appropriate duration of retention and the final disposition for records created or maintained by the NRC. NUREG-0910, Rev. 2, contains ''NRC's Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule,'' and the original authorized approved citation numbers issued by NARA. Rev. 2 totally reorganizes the records schedules from a functional arrangement to an arrangement by the host office. A subject index and a conversion table have also been developed for the NRC schedules to allow staff to identify the new schedule numbers easily and to improve their ability to locate applicable schedules

  4. Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) reference document. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.A.

    1984-09-01

    This document describes the current status of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) as practiced in the nuclear reactor regulatory process. The PRA studies that have been completed or are under way are reviewed. The levels of maturity of the methodologies used in a PRA are discussed. Insights derived from PRAs are listed. The potential uses of PRA results for regulatory purposes are discussed. This document was issued for comment in February 1984 entitled Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA): Status Report and Guidance for Regulatory Application. The comments received on the draft have been considered for this final version of the report

  5. Importance of peak PRA in predicting the kidney transplant survival in highly sensitized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D; Kiberd, B A; West, K A; Kamal, K; Balbontin, F; Belitsky, P; Lawen, J

    2003-11-01

    Do patients with high historic peak panel-reactive antibodies (PRA) remain high risk if their PRA levels fall before transplantation? We examined retrospectively 406 first and repeat kidney recipients with a peak PRA of >50%, who were transplanted from our center between January 1990 and December 2001. Univariate analysis by log-rank test was performed for variables that affect graft survival. The factors tested included current PRA, peak PRA, difference between peak and current PRA (DeltaPRA), HLA mismatch, gender, age, transplant number, and donor source. Receiver operator characteristic curves (ROC) were generated to obtain the best cutpoints for current PRA and DeltaPRA. Current PRA (P PRA (P = .0004), and DeltaPRA (P = .0015) were significant predictors by univariate analysis. However, in a multivariate model, peak PRA was not significant. Current PRA (P PRA of 37% were the best cutpoints for separating good and poor outcomes. This study shows that current PRA and DeltaPRA impact on graft survival in highly sensitized (>50%) patients. Sensitized patients with peak PRA >50% who subsequently have a drop in PRA to PRA. A fall in peak PRA of >37% at the time of transplant appears to be of benefit only in those patients who achieve a current PRA of <26%.

  6. Research needs for risk-informed, performance-based regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station has used PRA-derived risk insights for about 10 years now. The plant originally started applying PRA modeling to an auxiliary feedwater system during the initial licensing phases of the plant, and as a result of that, they were able to work with the NRC and apply some graded quality requirements to that particular system. There was a third redundant auxiliary feedwater pump, and they now can treat that system as partially safety related and partially non-safety related. So it was an advance for Palo Verde at that time to be able to make decisions with a PRA and they began learning how to use those techniques. After completing the IPE it became natural for the plant to make a transition into other areas at the plant to look for areas where the insights gained from PRA could be applied into their decision-making processes. Those that the plant embarked upon initially were areas where they could gain operational risk assessment insights. The author goes on to discuss experiences gained in using these techniques to better assess the safety of operations within the plant. In addition he offers comments on areas which need further development and research to make them more applicable to a plant by plant basis

  7. Applicability of PRA methods and data to the financial risk assessment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sheik, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    Financial risk assessment, where the probability and severity of financial consequences are estimated, offers a logical framework for organizing and evaluating data pertinent to nuclear power plant accidents. Under the sponsorship of the Electric Power Research Institute, General Electric investigated the feasibility of financial risk assessment of nuclear power plants and of applying PRA methods and data in such an assessment. This paper summarizes the main findings of this investigation. Specifically, the paper discussed the following topics: definition of financial consequences and financial risk; overall approach for financial risk assessment and how it compares with the approach for PRA used in the Reactor Safety Study; and specific financial risk assessment procedures for defining initiating events, plant response sequences, institutional scenarios, and financial consequences and how they compare to analogous procedures for PRA

  8. An overview of insights gained and lessons learned from U.S. plant-specific PRA studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joksimovich, V.

    1985-01-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) has been under development for over twenty years, but it has reached the level of widespread use only in the aftermath of the TMI accident. Over thirty PRAs have now been completed in the U.S. PRAs have been in the mainstream of many licensing decisions because the NRC recognizes that they provide independent and comprehensive plant safety audit. Some difficulties have been experienced leading to interpretive and intercomparison studies. Numerous global and plant-specific insights have been derived. A new application termed risk management is clearly emerging. (orig./HP)

  9. Proximate composition and functional properties of pra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... Table 2. Fatty acid composition of pra seed flour. Fatty acid. Percentage (%). Saturated fat. 6.66. Palmitic acid (C16:0). 4.85. Stearic acid (C18:0). 1.63. Arachidic acid (C20:0). 0.08. Others. 0.10. Unsaturated fat. 29.83. Monounsaturated fatty acid. 14.34. Palmitoleic acid (C16:1). 0.09. Cis-9-Oleic acid (C18:1).

  10. SHARP - a framework for incorporating human interactions into PRA studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannaman, G.W.; Joksimovich, V.; Spurgin, A.J.; Worledge, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    Recently, increased attention has been given to understanding the role of humans in the safe operation of nuclear power plants. By virtue of the ability to combine equipment reliability with human reliability probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) technology was deemed capable of providing significant insights about the contributions of human interations in accident scenarios. EPRI recognized the need to strengthen the methodology for incorporating human interactions into PRAs as one element of their broad research program to improve the credibility of PRAs. This research project lead to the development and detailed description of SHARP (Systematic Human Application Reliability Procedure) in EPRI NP-3583. The objective of this paper is to illustrate the SHARP framework. This should help PRA analysts state more clearly their assumptions and approach no matter which human reliability assessment technique is used. SHARP includes a structure of seven analysis steps which can be formally or informally performed during PRAs. The seven steps are termed definition, screening, breakdown, representation, impact assessment, quantification, and documentation

  11. ORAM and shutdown PRA comparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, W.G.; Hilsmeier, Todd; Carrier, Tom

    2000-01-01

    A comparison study between results obtained from an Outage Risk Assessment and Management (ORAM) model and a shutdown Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) model was conducted. The purpose of the study was to provide useful risk information for better outage planning by focusing resources and contingency plans on risk significant configurations. The comparison study used selected configurations from the 8th refueling outage of the Hope Creek Generation Station (HCGS), a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). A total of Eleven configurations were compared. Three configurations were selected to evaluate the impact of the Service Water System during the early stage of a refueling outage. (There are existing studies suggesting that the designed redundancy of Service Water Systems is needed during the early stage of a shutdown.) Four configurations were selected because they were deemed risk significant by the ORAM analysis. (For configurations deemed risk significant by ORAM results, compensatory actions have been taken and contingency plans have been developed to mitigate potential deviations from the configuration. The shutdown PRA was used to evaluate the necessity and effectiveness of these contingency plans and compensatory actions.) To increase the comparison population, an additional four configurations were randomly selected. Thus, a total of 15 configurations were evaluated by the shutdown PRA, and a total of 11 configurations were studied by the ORAM. (author)

  12. Comparision of anti-HLA antibodies of kidney transplant candidates with chronic renal failure by two different methods: Flow-PRA and Luminex PRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtulmuş, Y; Ayna, T K; Soyöz, M; Özyılmaz, B; Tanrısev, M; Afacan, G; Colak, H; Pirim, I

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the study was to compare anti-HLA antibodies examined as panel-reactive antibody (PRA) in kidney transplant candidates with chronic renal failure (CRF) with the use of 2 methods: Flow-PRA and Luminex-PRA. CRF patients displaying class I PRA (n = 34) and/or class II PRA (n = 41) were tested by the 2 different methods from April 2012 to September 2012, using antigen-coated beads. Eleven (32.3%) 34 patients tested for class I PRA were female and 23 (67.7%) male; 17 (41.5%) 41 patients tested for class II PRA were female and 24 (58.5%) male. Only 2 patients were preemptive, the others had been subjected to dialysis. The concordance ratio of class I PRA test results between Flow-PRA and Luminex PRA was 67.6%. Whereas 13 samples (38.2%) were positive by Flow-PRA, 22 (64.7%) were positive by Luminex-PRA. Two of the 3 patients not previously immunized were found to be positive only by Luminex PRA; 1 was noted to be positive only by Flow-PRA. Regarding class II PRA screening, the concordance between Flow-PRA and Luminex PRA was 70.7%. Whereas 14 (34.1%) samples were positive for Flow-PRA; 24 (58.5%) were positive for Luminex-PRA. The 2 patients not previously immunized were positive only in Luminex PRA. We speculated that the reason for the low concordance ratios was due to the use of sera that had been previously found to be indeterminate in PRA tests. We also speculated that the low concordance ratios were due to the coating procedure for the beads, which may cause changes in antigenic epitopes and decrease concordance between Flow-PRA and Luminex-PRA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. PRA: A Perspective on Strengths, Current Limitations, And Possible Improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosleh, Ail

    2014-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has been used in various technological fields to assist regulatory agencies, managerial decision makers, and systems designers in assessing and mitigating the risks inherent in these complex arrangements. Has PRA delivered on its promise? How do we gage PRA performance? Are our expectations about value of PRA realistic? Are there disparities between what we get and what we think we are getting form PRA and its various derivatives? Do current PRAs reflect the knowledge gained from actual events? How do we address potential gaps? These are some of the questions that have been raised over the years since the inception of the field more than forty years ago. This paper offers a brief assessment of PRA as a technical discipline in theory and practice, its key strengths and weaknesses, and suggestions on ways to address real and perceived shortcomings

  14. PRA: A PERSPECTIVE ON STRENGTHS, CURRENT LIMITATIONS, AND POSSIBLE IMPROVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALI MOSLEH

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA has been used in various technological fields to assist regulatory agencies, managerial decision makers, and systems designers in assessing and mitigating the risks inherent in these complex arrangements. Has PRA delivered on its promise? How do we gage PRA performance? Are our expectations about value of PRA realistic? Are there disparities between what we get and what we think we are getting form PRA and its various derivatives? Do current PRAs reflect the knowledge gained from actual events? How do we address potential gaps? These are some of the questions that have been raised over the years since the inception of the field more than forty years ago. This paper offers a brief assessment of PRA as a technical discipline in theory and practice, its key strengths and weaknesses, and suggestions on ways to address real and perceived shortcomings.

  15. PRISIM: a computer program that makes PRA useful

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fussell, J.B.; Campbell, D.J.; Glynn, J.C.; Burdick, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    PRISIM is an IBM personal computer program that translates probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) information and calculates additional PRA type information for use by those who are not PRA experts. Specifically, PRISIM was developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for use by their resident inspectors at nuclear power plants. Inspector activities are either scheduled or are in response to a particular status of a plant. PRISIM is useful for either activity

  16. Nuclear Security: Action May Be Needed to Reassess the Security of NRC-Licensed Research Reactors. Report to the Ranking Member, Subcommittee on National Security and Foreign Affairs, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives. GAO-08-403

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloise, Gene

    2008-01-01

    There are 37 research reactors in the United States, mostly located on college campuses. Of these, 33 reactors are licensed and regulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Four are operated by the Department of Energy (DOE) and are located at three national laboratories. Although less powerful than commercial nuclear power reactors,…

  17. NRC licensing requirements: DOD options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, W.J.; O'Reilly, P.D.

    1982-09-01

    This report describes the licensing process (both safety and environmental) that would apply if the Department of Defense (DOD) chooses to obtain licenses from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for using nuclear energy for power and luminous sources. The specific nuclear energy sources being considered include: small or medium-size nuclear power reactors; radioisotopic thermoelectric generators with 90 Sr or 238 Pu; radioisotopic dynamic electric generators with 90 Sr or 238 Pu; and applications of radioisotopes for luminous sources (lights) with 3 H, 85 Kr, or 147 Pm. The steps of the licensing process are summarized in the following sections, with particular attention given to the schedule and level of effort necessary to support the process

  18. The NRC and utility finances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byus, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    In a speech before the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners in November 1991, Nuclear Regulatory Commission Chairman Ivan Selin presented what he called an open-quotes expansion of the concept of safety beyond our previous narrow bounds.close quotes He went on to explain, open-quotes To be seen as successful and safe operators of nuclear facilities, utilities must have safe and predictable cash flows.close quotes While there is little disagreement that the concepts of successful plant operations and financial strength go hand in hand, the relationship between the two is not clear. Which came first, successful operation of generating plants or financial strength? Selin's views on NRC involvement in financial aspects of utility operation in the United States are sure to stimulate debate on the issue

  19. NRC licensing requirements: DOD options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, W.J.; O' Reilly, P.D.

    1982-09-01

    This report describes the licensing process (both safety and environmental) that would apply if the Department of Defense (DOD) chooses to obtain licenses from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for using nuclear energy for power and luminous sources. The specific nuclear energy sources being considered include: small or medium-size nuclear power reactors; radioisotopic thermoelectric generators with /sup 90/Sr or /sup 238/Pu; radioisotopic dynamic electric generators with /sup 90/Sr or /sup 238/Pu; and applications of radioisotopes for luminous sources (lights) with /sup 3/H, /sup 85/Kr, or /sup 147/Pm. The steps of the licensing process are summarized in the following sections, with particular attention given to the schedule and level of effort necessary to support the process.

  20. Perbedaan Penyesuaian Diri Pensiunan yang Mendapatkan Training PRA Pensiun dengan yang Tidak Mendapatkan Training Pra-pensiun

    OpenAIRE

    HUMAIRA, HUMAIRA; RACHMATAN, RISANA

    2017-01-01

    Masa pensiun merupakan masa dimana individu kehilangan aktivitas bekerja di kantor dan mulai mencari kegiatan baru untuk mengganti aktivitas formal tersebut. Dibutuhkan penyesuaian diri untuk melalui masa-masa tersebut, salah satunya dengan mengikuti training pra pensiun. Training pra pensiun merupakan sebuah pelatihan yang diberikan kepada karyawan yang akan memasuki masa pensiun. Melalui training pra pensiun, pensiunan dapat merubah sikap menjadi lebih positif dalam menghadapi masa pensiun....

  1. cPRA Increases With DQA, DPA, and DPB Unacceptable Antigens in the Canadian cPRA Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liwski, R.; Pochinco, D.; Mousseau, M.; Grattan, A.; Nickerson, P.; Campbell, P.

    2015-01-01

    A calculated panel reactive antibody (cPRA) estimates the percentage of donors with unacceptable antigens (UA) for a recipient. cPRA may be underestimated in transplant candidates with UA to DQA, DPA, and DPB if these are not included in the calculation program. To serve the National Canadian Transplant Programs, a cPRA calculator was developed with complete molecular typing for all donors at HLA‐A, B, C, DRB1, DRB3/4/5, DQA1, DQB1, DPA1, and DPB1, all resolved to serologic equivalents. The prevalence of UA at DQA, DPA and DPB was evaluated in a sensitized regional population. The impact of adding these additional UA to cPRA was calculated alone and in combination, and compared to the baseline cPRA for UA at A, B, C, DR, DR51/52/53, and DQ. Of 740 sensitized transplant candidates, 18% of total and 32% with cPRA≥95% had DQA UA. Twenty‐seven percent of total and 54% with cPRA≥95% had DPB UA. Of 280/740 subjects with these UA, 36/280 (13%) had cPRA increase of >20% when they were included, 7% increased cPRA to ≥80% and 6% to ≥95%. Inclusion of DQA, DPA, and DPB UA in Canadian cPRA calculations improves the accuracy of cPRA where these are relevant in allocation. PMID:26080906

  2. Report to Congress on NRC emergency communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    The accident at Three Mile Island highlighted the need for improved communications among the NRC and other organizations which respond to such emergencies. This report summarizes the communication problems identified by several major review groups after the accident, the status of corrective actions, and NRC plans to improve communications still further. (author)

  3. NRC antitrust licensing actions, 1978--1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, S.J.; Simpson, J.J.

    1997-09-01

    NUREG-0447, Antitrust Review of Nuclear Power Plants, was published in May 1978 and includes a compilation and discussion of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) proceedings and activity involving the NRC`s competitive review program through February 1978, NUREG-0447 is an update of an earlier discussion of the NRC`s antitrust review of nuclear power plants, NR-AIG-001, The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Antitrust Review of Nuclear Power Plants: The Conditioning of Licenses, which reviewed the Commission`s antitrust review function from its inception in December 1970 through April 1976. This report summarizes the support provided to NRC staff in updating the compilation of the NRC`s antitrust licensing review activities for commercial nuclear power plants that have occurred since February 1978. 4 refs., 4 tabs.

  4. NRC antitrust licensing actions, 1978--1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, S.J.; Simpson, J.J.

    1997-09-01

    NUREG-0447, Antitrust Review of Nuclear Power Plants, was published in May 1978 and includes a compilation and discussion of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) proceedings and activity involving the NRC's competitive review program through February 1978, NUREG-0447 is an update of an earlier discussion of the NRC's antitrust review of nuclear power plants, NR-AIG-001, The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Antitrust Review of Nuclear Power Plants: The Conditioning of Licenses, which reviewed the Commission's antitrust review function from its inception in December 1970 through April 1976. This report summarizes the support provided to NRC staff in updating the compilation of the NRC's antitrust licensing review activities for commercial nuclear power plants that have occurred since February 1978. 4 refs., 4 tabs

  5. When the Details Matter – Sensitivities in PRA Calculations That Could Affect Risk-Informed Decision-Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dana L. Kelly; Nathan O. Siu

    2010-06-01

    As the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) continues its efforts to increase its use of risk information in decision making, the detailed, quantitative results of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) calculations are coming under increased scrutiny. Where once analysts and users were not overly concerned with figure of merit variations that were less than an order of magnitude, now factors of two or even less can spark heated debate regarding modeling approaches and assumptions. The philosophical and policy-related aspects of this situation are well-recognized by the PRA community. On the other hand, the technical implications for PRA methods and modeling have not been as widely discussed. This paper illustrates the potential numerical effects of choices as to the details of models and methods for parameter estimation with three examples: 1) the selection of the time period data for parameter estimation, and issues related to component boundary and failure mode definitions; 2) the selection of alternative diffuse prior distributions, including the constrained noninformative prior distribution, in Bayesian parameter estimation; and 3) the impact of uncertainty in calculations for recovery of offsite power.

  6. 75 FR 6063 - Availability of NRC Open Government Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... data sets NRC should publish on the data.gov Web site and (2) the Open Government Plan that the NRC is... of high-value data sets or the NRC's Open Government Plan be submitted online at http://www.nrc.gov... ( http://www.nrc.gov/open ) will be available by February 6, 2010, and directs that, after February 10...

  7. NRC Licensing Status Summary Report for NGNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, Wayne Leland [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinsey, James Carl [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project, initiated at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) pursuant to provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, is based on research and development activities supported by the Department of Energy Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative. The principal objective of the NGNP Project is to support commercialization of high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technology. The HTGR is a helium-cooled and graphite moderated reactor that can operate at temperatures much higher than those of conventional light water reactor (LWR) technologies. The NGNP will be licensed for construction and operation by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). However, not all elements of current regulations (and their related implementation guidance) can be applied to HTGR technology at this time. Certain policies established during past LWR licensing actions must be realigned to properly accommodate advanced HTGR technology. A strategy for licensing HTGR technology was developed and executed through the cooperative effort of DOE and the NRC through the NGNP Project. The purpose of this report is to provide a snapshot of the current status of the still evolving pre-license application regulatory framework relative to commercial HTGR technology deployment in the U.S. The following discussion focuses on (1) describing what has been accomplished by the NGNP Project up to the time of this report, and (2) providing observations and recommendations concerning actions that remain to be accomplished to enable the safe and timely licensing of a commercial HTGR facility in the U.S.

  8. Certification plan for safety and PRA codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toffer, H.; Crowe, R.D.; Ades, M.J.

    1990-05-01

    A certification plan for computer codes used in Safety Analyses and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for the operation of the Savannah River Site (SRS) reactors has been prepared. An action matrix, checklists, and a time schedule have been included in the plan. These items identify what is required to achieve certification of the codes. A list of Safety Analysis and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (SA ampersand PRA) computer codes covered by the certification plan has been assembled. A description of each of the codes was provided in Reference 4. The action matrix for the configuration control plan identifies code specific requirements that need to be met to achieve the certification plan's objectives. The checklist covers the specific procedures that are required to support the configuration control effort and supplement the software life cycle procedures based on QAP 20-1 (Reference 7). A qualification checklist for users establishes the minimum prerequisites and training for achieving levels of proficiency in using configuration controlled codes for critical parameter calculations

  9. Distributed Simulation Run Automation Capability for the Navy PRA Testbed

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trbovich, Sarah; Reading, Richard; Photinos, William; Malone, Shala

    2007-01-01

    .... The PRA Testbed is a cornerstone of the U.S. Navy Ship Self Defense Test & Evaluation (T&E) Enterprise. The LPD 17 ship class is the first to implement a PRA Testbed baseline as a formal component of ship class...

  10. Assessing risk: the role of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in patient safety improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wreathall, J; Nemeth, C

    2004-06-01

    Morbidity and mortality due to "medical errors" compel better understanding of health care as a system. Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has been used to assess the designs of high hazard, low risk systems such as commercial nuclear power plants and chemical manufacturing plants and is now being studied for its potential in the improvement of patient safety. PRA examines events that contribute to adverse outcomes through the use of event tree analysis and determines the likelihood of event occurrence through fault tree analysis. It complements tools already in use in patient safety such as failure modes and effects analyses (FMEAs) and root cause analyses (RCAs). PRA improves on RCA by taking account of the more complex causal interrelationships that are typical in health care. It also enables the analyst to examine potential solution effectiveness by direct graphical representations. However, PRA simplifies real world complexity by forcing binary conditions on events, and it lacks adequate probability data (although recent developments help to overcome these limitations). Its reliance on expert assessment calls for deep domain knowledge which has to come from research performed at the "sharp end" of acute care.

  11. Development of insights from PRAs for non-PRA people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, H.J.; Meale, B.M.

    1992-01-01

    A probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of the Savannah River K-Reactor was completed in 1990. The PRA estimated the frequency of core damage accidents caused by operational occurrences during power operation of the reactor. The US Department of Energy (DOE) requested Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to prepare guidance based on the PRA for use by DOE personnel at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The document had the purpose of informing the DOE system engineers and site representatives about how the information in the PRA might be used to help guide their activities. Opportunities existed to develop a document somewhat different than those developed previously by other programs. The opportunities existed because the audience is different: the principal audience for the document consists of DOE engineers who have continuing oversight responsibility for activities performed by the operating contractor at the K-Reactor, but who may not be knowledgeable about PRA

  12. Use of PRA in Shuttle Decision Making Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Roger L.; Hamlin, Teri L.

    2010-01-01

    How do you use PRA to support an operating program? This presentation will explore how the Shuttle Program Management has used the Shuttle PRA in its decision making process. It will reveal how the PRA has evolved from a tool used to evaluate Shuttle upgrades like Electric Auxiliary Power Unit (EAPU) to a tool that supports Flight Readiness Reviews (FRR) and real-time flight decisions. Specific examples of Shuttle Program decisions that have used the Shuttle PRA as input will be provided including how it was used in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) manifest decision. It will discuss the importance of providing management with a clear presentation of the analysis, applicable assumptions and limitations, along with estimates of the uncertainty. This presentation will show how the use of PRA by the Shuttle Program has evolved overtime and how it has been used in the decision making process providing specific examples.

  13. The tsunami probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Example of accident sequence analysis of tsunami PRA according to the standard for procedure of tsunami PRA for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Norihiro; Hasegawa, Keiko; Kuroiwa, Katsuya

    2013-01-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, standard for procedure of tsunami PRA for NPP had been established by the Standardization Committee of AESJ. Industry group had been conducting analysis of Tsunami PRA for PWR based on the standard under the cooperation with electric utilities. This article introduced overview of the standard and examples of accident sequence analysis of Tsunami PRA studied by the industry group according to the standard. The standard consisted of (1) investigation of NPP's composition, characteristics and site information, (2) selection of relevant components for Tsunami PRA and initiating events and identification of accident sequence, (3) evaluation of Tsunami hazards, (4) fragility evaluation of building and components and (5) evaluation of accident sequence. Based on the evaluation, countermeasures for further improvement of safety against Tsunami could be identified by the sensitivity analysis. (T. Tanaka)

  14. REVIEW OF NRC APPROVED DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEMS ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markman, D.W.

    1999-01-01

    Preliminary design concepts for the proposed Subsurface Repository at Yucca Mountain indicate extensive reliance on modern, computer-based, digital control technologies. The purpose of this analysis is to investigate the degree to which the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has accepted and approved the use of digital control technology for safety-related applications within the nuclear power industry. This analysis reviews cases of existing digitally-based control systems that have been approved by the NRC. These cases can serve as precedence for using similar types of digitally-based control technologies within the Subsurface Repository. While it is anticipated that the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) will not contain control systems as complex as those required for a nuclear power plant, the review of these existing NRC approved applications will provide the YMP with valuable insight into the NRCs review process and design expectations for safety-related digital control systems. According to the YMP Compliance Program Guidance, portions of various NUREGS, Regulatory Guidelines, and nuclear IEEE standards the nuclear power plant safety related concept would be applied to some of the designs on a case-by-case basis. This analysis will consider key design methods, capabilities, successes, and important limitations or problems of selected control systems that have been approved for use in the Nuclear Power industry. An additional purpose of this analysis is to provide background information in support of further development of design criteria for the YMP. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Identify and research the extent and precedence of digital control and remotely operated systems approved by the NRC for the nuclear power industry. Help provide a basis for using and relying on digital technologies for nuclear related safety critical applications. (2) Identify the basic control architecture and methods of key digital control

  15. NRC/AMRMC Resident Research Associateship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Richard George 3/9/2015-2/28/2018 McDermott, Emily Gray Garver, Lindsey Susannah 1/9/2017-1/8/2018 Pollett, Simon Jarman, Richard George 6/27/2016-6/26...SJ; Ramasubramanian, AK; Parida, BK; Mora, AG; Fedyk, CG; Valdez-Delgado, KK; Montgomery, RK; Reddock, KM; Rodriguez , AC; Aden, JK; Jones, JA...Therapies for Respiratory Failure Meyer, AD; Raghunath, AD; Kamucheka, RM; Rodriguez , AC; Lafleur, CB; Parida, BK; Scherer, MR; Batchinsky, AI; Cancio

  16. NRC/AMRMC Resident Research Associateship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    identified a novel potential mechanism for the unusual pathology observed following vaccination and subsequent aerosol challenge with filoviruses. My...The trivalent replicon particle vaccine induces a polyfunctional, memory T cell response against VEEV, EEEV and WEEV in mice 2) Vaccine -induced T cell...specific epitopes within viral glycoproteins E1 and E2 were identified for VEEV, EEEV, and WEEV 3) Vaccine -induced T cell-specific epitopes occur

  17. NRC/AMRMC Resident Research Associateship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-27

    Comments No complaints. Everything was really efficient. 18) PLEASE PROVIDE ANY SUGGESTIONS FOR PROGRAM IMPROVEMENT. Please do NOT scan to PDF . Send...Matthews, M., Klimko, C.P., Hill, A., Hunter, M., Bozue, J.A., Welkos, S.L., Cote, C.K. (2014) The impact of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus ... thuringiensis spore germination state on potential secondary decontamination strategies, Journal of Applied Microbiology. 117, 1614-1633. b) Books, book

  18. Public citizen slams NRC on nuclear inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, P.

    1993-01-01

    Charging the Nuclear Regulatory Commission with open-quotes abandoning tough regulation of the nuclear power industry,close quotes Public Citizen's Critical Mass Energy Project on Wednesday released a report asserting that NRC is shielding sensitive internal nuclear industry self-evaluations from public scrutiny. Based on their review of 56 Institute of Nuclear Power Operations reports and evaluations and comparing these to the NRC's Systematic Assessment of Licensee Performance reports for the same plants, it was concluded that the NRC failed to address issues raised in all eight areas evaluated by the INPO reports

  19. Impacts of NRC programs on state and local governments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaumer, D.A.; Lubenau, J.O.

    1983-12-01

    This document reports the results of an NRC staff examination of the impacts of NRC regulatory programs on State and local governments. Twenty NRC programs are identified. For each, the source of the program (e.g., statutory requirement) and NRC funding availability are described and the impacts upon State and local governments are assessed. Recommendations for NRC monitoring and assessing impacts and for enhancing NRC staff awareness of the impacts are offered

  20. NRC Information No. 89-89: Event notification worksheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    The NRC ''Event Notification Worksheet,'' NRC Form 361, has been revised to assist the NRC Headquarters Operations Officers in obtaining adequate information for evaluation of significant events reported to the NRC Operations Center. The new forms more accurately reflect the event classifications and the 10 CFR 50.72 categories that must be reported. A copy of the new worksheet is enclosed for your reference. NRC Form 361 can be ordered from the NRC Information and Records Management Branch

  1. Development of the NRC`s Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP). Volume 3, Development documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paradies, M.; Unger, L. [System Improvements, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Haas, P.; Terranova, M. [Concord Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The three volumes of this report detail a standard investigation process for use by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel when investigating human performance related events at nuclear power plants. The process, called the Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP), was developed to meet the special needs of NRC personnel, especially NRC resident and regional inspectors. HPIP is a systematic investigation process combining current procedures and field practices, expert experience, NRC human performance research, and applicable investigation techniques. The process is easy to learn and helps NRC personnel perform better field investigations of the root causes of human performance problems. The human performance data gathered through such investigations provides a better understanding of the human performance issues that cause events at nuclear power plants. This document, Volume III, is a detailed documentation of the development effort and the pilot training program.

  2. NRC says integrated approach needed to understand, protect environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Charles E.; Loehr, Raymond C.; Gopnik, Morgan

    A recent study by the National Research Council (NRC) advocates a more comprehensive and integrated approach to our nation's environmental research and development (R&D) activities. Because we face environmental problems of unprecedented complexity, the study maintains that the traditional practice of studying isolated environmental problems and devising narrowly focused control or remediation strategies to manage them will no longer suffice.In the report, Building a Foundation for Sound Environmental Decisions [National Academy Press, 1997], an NRC committee highlighted the need for developing a deeper scientific understanding of ecosystems, as well as the sociological and economic aspects of human interactions with the environment. To achieve these goals, the committee recommended a core research agenda for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that has three components.

  3. Influence of panel reactive antibodies (PRA) on perioperative course in patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery procedures, and impact of these procedures on PRA occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakliczyński, Michał; Pyka, Lukasz; Trybunia, Dominika; Krynicka, Anna; Wilczek, Piotr; Maruszewski, Marcin; Nadziakiewicz, Paweł; Herdyńska-Was, Mirosława; Przybylski, Roman; Zembala, Marian

    2006-01-01

    Cardiac surgery is supposed to be a risk factor of PRA formation, however the role of PRA presence in non-transplant subjects is not known. Aim of the study was to assess PRA occurrence in patients undergoing elective cardiosurgery procedures and to evaluate its influence on the perioperative course. Blood samples were obtained before operation in 44 subjects (36M/8F; 55.9 +/- 8.1 y/o) undergoing primary elective cardiosurgery procedures--CABG (n = 30), CABG + valve (n = 2) or valve procedure (n = 12). PRA results were obtained after the discharge, and patients were retrospectively divided into: Group A (n = 18) with PRA > 1%, and Group B (n = 26) with PRA. PRA screening was repeated 3 months after the procedure in 41 subjects. They were divided into Group I (n = 13) with PRA > 1%, and Group II (n = 28) with PRA PRA titers was observed in 10 subjects (3 pts. /17% from Group A, and 7 pts. /27% from Group B), exceeding 10% in 2 females after valve replacement. 6 months after procedure, detectable PRA was still observed in 7 patients. Cardiac surgery is not a strong causative factor of PRA formation. The presence of perceptible PRA level may be associated with increased incidence of complications and consequently prolonged in-hospital stay. Influence of PRA on peri-operative course is not dependent on the source of its increased level.

  4. Typical NRC inspection procedures for model plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, J.

    1984-01-01

    A summary of NRC inspection procedures for a model LEU fuel fabrication plant is presented. Procedures and methods for combining inventory data, seals, measurement techniques, and statistical analysis are emphasized

  5. Presentation on NRC Regulatory Positions and guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, W.T.

    1994-01-01

    The NRC staff recognizes the potential for enhanced safety and reliability that digital systems bring to the nuclear industry. The staff also recognizes the challenges to safety that are unique to digital systems implementation

  6. NRC's object-oriented simulator instructor station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, J.I.; Griffin, J.P.

    1995-06-01

    As part of a comprehensive simulator upgrade program, the simulator computer systems associated with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) nuclear power plant simulators were replaced. Because the original instructor stations for two of the simulators were dependent on the original computer equipment, it was necessary to develop and implement new instructor stations. This report describes the Macintosh-based Instructor Stations developed by NRC engineers for the General Electric (GE) and Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) simulators

  7. Assessment of the NRC Enforcement Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieberman, J.; Coblentz, L.

    1995-04-01

    On May 12, 1994, the Executive Director for Operations (EDO) established a Review Team composed of senior NRC managers to re-examine the NRC enforcement program. A copy of the Review Team's charter is enclosed as Appendix A. This report presents the Team's assessment. The purpose of this review effort are: (1) to perform an assessment of the NRC's enforcement program to determine whether the defined purposes of the enforcement program are appropriate; (2) to determine whether the NRC's enforcement practices and procedures for issuing enforcement actions are consistent with those purposes; and (3) to provide recommendations on any changes the Review Team believes advisable. In accordance with its charter, the Review Team considered the following principal issues in conducting its assessment of the enforcement program: the balance between providing deterrence and incentives (both positive and negative) for the identification and correction of violations; the appropriateness of NRC sanctions; whether the commission should seek statutory authority to increase the amount of civil penalties; whether the NRC should use different enforcement policies and practices for different licensees (e.g., materials licensees in contrast to power reactors or large fuel facilities); and whether the commission should establish open enforcement conferences as the normal practice

  8. PRA-Code Upgrade to Handle a Generic Problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    During the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) for the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository, a problem came up that could not be handled by most PRA computer codes. This problem deals with dependencies between sequential events in time. Two similar scenarios that illustrate this problem are LOOP nonrecovery and sequential wearout failures with units of time. The purpose of this paper is twofold: To explain the problem generically, and to show how the PRA code at the INEEL, SAPHIRE, has been modified to solve this problem correctly

  9. Something important is missing from PRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides some views on priorities and directions for the future or risk management. There are some problems with the priorities and directions that now seem dominant. Norm Rasmussen of MIT and the late Saul Levine, who was then with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) (the NRC's predecessor), and their colleagues deserve much credit for the invention of the art of Probabilistic Risk Assessment. Certainly the elements of risk analysis were well known and used, at least implicitly, in much of engineering and technology. But, WASH-1400, The Reactor Safety Study issued in 1975, put these elements together in a comprehensive and courageously rational way

  10. 24 CFR 401.303 - PRA indemnity provisions for SHFAs and HAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false PRA indemnity provisions for SHFAs and HAs. 401.303 Section 401.303 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... Agreement (PRA) § 401.303 PRA indemnity provisions for SHFAs and HAs. When a PRA requires HUD to indemnify a...

  11. 24 CFR 401.309 - PRA term and termination provisions; other provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false PRA term and termination provisions... Agreement (PRA) § 401.309 PRA term and termination provisions; other provisions. (a) 1-year term with renewals. The PRA will have a term of 1 year, to be renewed for successive terms of 1 year with the mutual...

  12. Genetic screening for PRA-associated mutations in multiple dog breeds shows that PRA is heterogeneous within and between breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Louise M; Hitti, Rebekkah; Pregnolato, Silvia; Mellersh, Cathryn S

    2014-03-01

    To assess the extent of progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) genetic heterogeneity within and between domestic dog breeds. DNA from 231 dogs with PRA, representing 36 breeds, was screened for 17 mutations previously associated with PRA in at least one breed of dog. Screening methods included amplified fragment size discrimination using gel electrophoresis or detection of fluorescence, (TaqMan(®) ; Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA, USA) allelic discrimination, and Sanger sequencing. Of the 231 dogs screened, 129 were homozygous for a PRA-associated mutation, 29 dogs were carriers, and 73 were homozygous for the wild-type allele at all loci tested. In two of the 129 dogs, homozygous mutations were identified that had not previously been observed in the respective breeds: one Chinese Crested dog was homozygous for the RCD3-associated mutation usually found in the Cardigan Welsh Corgi, and one Standard Poodle was homozygous for the RCD4-associated mutation previously reported to segregate in Gordon and Irish Setters. In the majority of the breeds (15/21) in which a PRA-associated mutation is known to segregate, cases were identified that did not carry any of the known PRA-associated mutations. Progressive retinal atrophy in the dog displays significant genetic heterogeneity within as well as between breeds. There are also several instances where PRA-associated mutations segregate among breeds with no known close ancestry. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  13. Recommendations for NEAMS Engagement with the NRC: Preliminary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernholdt, David E.

    2012-01-01

    The vision of the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program is to bring a new generation of analytic tools to the nuclear engineering community in order to facilitate students, faculty, industry and laboratory researchers in investigating advanced reactor and fuel cycle designs. Although primarily targeting at advance nuclear technologies, it is anticipated that these new capabilities will also become interesting and useful to the nuclear regulator Consequently, the NEAMS program needs to engage with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission as the software is being developed to ensure that they are familiar with and ready to respond to this novel approach when the need arises. Through discussions between key NEAMS and NRC staff members, we tentatively recommend annual briefings to the Division of Systems Analysis in the NRC's Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. However the NEAC subcommittee review of the NEAMS program may yield recommendations that would need to be considered before finalizing this plan.

  14. Recommendations for NEAMS Engagement with the NRC: Preliminary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernholdt, David E [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    The vision of the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program is to bring a new generation of analytic tools to the nuclear engineering community in order to facilitate students, faculty, industry and laboratory researchers in investigating advanced reactor and fuel cycle designs. Although primarily targeting at advance nuclear technologies, it is anticipated that these new capabilities will also become interesting and useful to the nuclear regulator Consequently, the NEAMS program needs to engage with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission as the software is being developed to ensure that they are familiar with and ready to respond to this novel approach when the need arises. Through discussions between key NEAMS and NRC staff members, we tentatively recommend annual briefings to the Division of Systems Analysis in the NRC's Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. However the NEAC subcommittee review of the NEAMS program may yield recommendations that would need to be considered before finalizing this plan.

  15. NRC policy on future reactor designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    On April 13, 1983, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued for public comment a ''Proposed Commission Policy Statement on Severe Accidents and Related Views on Nuclear Reactor Regulation'' (48 FR 16014). This report presents and discusses the Commission's final version of that policy statement now entitled, ''Policy Statement on Severe Reactor Accidents Regarding Future Designs and Existing Plants.'' It provides an overview of comments received from the public and the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards and the staff response to these. In addition to the Policy Statement, the report discusses how the policies of this statement relate to other NRC programs including the Severe Accident Research Program; the implementation of safety measures resulting from lessons learned in the accident at Three Mile Island; safety goal development; the resolution of Unresolved Safety Issues and other Generic Safety Issues; and possible revisions of rules or regulatory requirements resulting from the Severe Accident Source Term Program. Also discussed are the main features of a generic decision strategy for resolving Regulatory Questions and Technical Issues relating to severe accidents; the development and regulatory use of new safety information; the treatment of uncertainty in severe accident decision making; and the development and implementation of a Systems Reliability Program for both existing and future plants to ensure that the realized level of safety is commensurate with the safety analyses used in regulatory decisions

  16. NRC policy on future reactor designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1985-07-01

    On April 13, 1983, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued for public comment a ''Proposed Commission Policy Statement on Severe Accidents and Related Views on Nuclear Reactor Regulation'' (48 FR 16014). This report presents and discusses the Commission's final version of that policy statement now entitled, ''Policy Statement on Severe Reactor Accidents Regarding Future Designs and Existing Plants.'' It provides an overview of comments received from the public and the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards and the staff response to these. In addition to the Policy Statement, the report discusses how the policies of this statement relate to other NRC programs including the Severe Accident Research Program; the implementation of safety measures resulting from lessons learned in the accident at Three Mile Island; safety goal development; the resolution of Unresolved Safety Issues and other Generic Safety Issues; and possible revisions of rules or regulatory requirements resulting from the Severe Accident Source Term Program. Also discussed are the main features of a generic decision strategy for resolving Regulatory Questions and Technical Issues relating to severe accidents; the development and regulatory use of new safety information; the treatment of uncertainty in severe accident decision making; and the development and implementation of a Systems Reliability Program for both existing and future plants to ensure that the realized level of safety is commensurate with the safety analyses used in regulatory decisions.

  17. 10 CFR 2.709 - Discovery against NRC staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery against NRC staff. 2.709 Section 2.709 Energy... Rules for Formal Adjudications § 2.709 Discovery against NRC staff. (a)(1) In a proceeding in which the NRC staff is a party, the NRC staff will make available one or more witnesses, designated by the...

  18. The radioprotective effect of a new aminothiol (20-PRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolabela, M.F.; Lopes, M.T.P.; Pereira, M.T.; Steffani, G.M.; Pilo-Veloso, D.; Salas, C.E.; Nelson, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    We examined the radioprotective effect of aminothiol 2-N-propylamine-cyclohexane thiol (20-PRA) on a human leukemic cell line (K562) following various radiation doses (5,7.5 and 20 Gy) using a source of 60 Co γ-rays. At 5 Gy and 1nM 20-PRA, a substantial protective effect (58%) was seen 24 h after irradiation, followed by a decrease at 48 h (11%). At the high radiation dose (20 Gy) a low protective effect was also seen (35%). In addition, the anti tumorigenic potential of 10 nM 20-PRA was shown by the inhibition of crown gall formation induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The radioprotective potency of 20-PRA is 10 5- 10 6 times higher than that of the aminothiol WR-1065 (N(2-mercaptoethyl)-1,3-diamino propane) whose protective effect is in the 0.1 to 1.0 nM range. (author)

  19. The radioprotective effect of a new aminothiol (20-PRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Dolabela

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available We examined the radioprotective effect of aminothiol 2-N-propylamine-cyclo-hexanethiol (20-PRA on a human leukemic cell line (K562 following various radiation doses (5, 7.5 and 20 Gy using a source of 60Co g-rays. At 5 Gy and 1 nM 20-PRA, a substantial protective effect (58% was seen 24 h after irradiation, followed by a decrease at 48 h (11%. At the high radiation dose (20 Gy a low protective effect was also seen (35%. In addition, the antitumorigenic potential of 10 nM 20-PRA was shown by the inhibition of crown gall formation induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The radioprotective potency of 20-PRA is 105-106 times higher than that of the aminothiol WR-1065 (N-(2-mercaptoethyl-1,3-diaminopropane whose protective effect is in the 0.1 to 1.0 mM range.

  20. Distributed Simulation Run Automation Capability for the Navy PRA Testbed

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trbovich, Sarah; Reading, Richard; Photinos, William; Malone, Shala

    2007-01-01

    The Navy Probability of Raid Annihilation (PRA) Testbed implements HLA federated simulations of ship combat system elements against independent, reactive threat raids in a common environment to formulate an overall combat system assessment...

  1. Chinshan living PRA model using NUPRA software package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, S.-K.; Lin, T.-J.

    2004-01-01

    A living probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) model has been established for Chinshan Nuclear Power Station (BWR-4, MARK-I) using NUPRA software package. The core damage frequency due to internal events, seismic events and typhoons are evaluated in this model. The methodology and results considering the recent implementation of the 5th emergency diesel generator and automatic boron injection function are presented. The dominant sequences of this PRA model are discussed, and some possible applications of this living model are proposed. (author)

  2. Component Fragility Research Program: Phase 1 component prioritization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, G.S.; Chou, C.K.

    1987-06-01

    Current probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods for nuclear power plants utilize seismic ''fragilities'' - probabilities of failure conditioned on the severity of seismic input motion - that are based largely on limited test data and on engineering judgment. Under the NRC Component Fragility Research Program (CFRP), the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed and demonstrated procedures for using test data to derive probabilistic fragility descriptions for mechanical and electrical components. As part of its CFRP activities, LLNL systematically identified and categorized components influencing plant safety in order to identify ''candidate'' components for future NRC testing. Plant systems relevant to safety were first identified; within each system components were then ranked according to their importance to overall system function and their anticipated seismic capacity. Highest priority for future testing was assigned to those ''very important'' components having ''low'' seismic capacity. This report describes the LLNL prioritization effort, which also included application of ''high-level'' qualification data as an alternate means of developing probabilistic fragility descriptions for PRA applications

  3. Current perspectives on performance assessment at the NRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coplan, S.M.; Eisenberg, N.A.; Federline, M.V.; Randall, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff is engaging in a number of activities involving performance assessment in order to support NRC's program in high-level waste management. Broad areas of activity include: (1) reactive work responding to products and activities of the Department of Energy (DOE), (2) proactive work, including development of an independent performance assessment capability, development of guidance for DOE, support for technical and programmatic integration, (3) a program of regulatory research, and (4) participation in a number of international activities. As the U.S. high-level waste program continues to mature, performance assessment is seen as playing a more prominent role in evaluating safety and focussing technical activities

  4. Pengaruh Variasi Bahan Pra Mordan pada Pewarnaan Batik Menggunakan Akar Mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Farida

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKPenelitian Pengaruh Variasi Bahan Pra Mordan pada Pewarnaan Batik Menggunakan Akar Mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh bahan pra mordan pada pewarnaan batik menggunakan akar mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah eksperimen dengan variasi bahan pra mordan (tawas, tawas-jambal, tawas-kemiri dan pH pencelupan (asam, basa, netral. Batik yang telah diwarnai dengan ekstrak akar mengkudu kemudian diuji arah dan ketahanan luntur warnanya. Dari pengujian didapatkan hasil arah warna batik cokelat kemerahan sampai cokelat muda, sedangkan nilai rata-rata ketahanan luntur terhadap pencucian adalah 4 (baik dan gosokan basah 4 (baik. Dari kegiatan ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa penambahan kayu jambal dan kemiri sebagai bahan pra mordan dibarengi pengaturan pH pada pewarnaan batik dengan ekstrak akar mengkudu memberikan variasi arah warna serta nilai ketahanan luntur warna terhadap pencucian dan gosokan basah dengan hasil rata-rata baik. Perlakuan dengan pra mordan tawas-kemiri dengan kondisi derajat keasaman netral memberikan hasil paling baik pada ketahanan luntur warna terhadap pencucian dan gosokan. Kata kunci: pra mordan, pH pencelupan, akar mengkudu, ketahanan luntur warna, arah warna, batik  ABSTRACTEffect of Pre Mordant Materials Variety on Batik Dyeing Using Morinda Root (Morinda citrifolia research was aimed to determine the effect of pre mordant materials in batik dyeing using the roots of morinda (Morinda citrifolia. The method used was experimental with variations including pre mordant materials (alum, alum-jambal, alum-kemiri and dyeing acidity (acid, base, neutral. Batik that had colored with morinda root extract then tested by the color shades and fastness properties. From the test results it was obtained that the color shades were reddish brown to light brown, while the average value of fastness to washing and rubbing were 4 (good. It can be concluded that the addition of

  5. Applications of PRA in nuclear criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, T.P.

    1992-01-01

    Traditionally, criticality accident prevention at Los Alamos has been based on a thorough review and understanding of proposed operations of changes to operations, involving both process supervision and criticality safety staff. The outcome of this communication was usually an agreement, based on professional judgement, that certain accident sequences were credible and had to be reduced in likelihood either by administrative controls or by equipment design and others were not credible, and thus did not warrant expenditures to further reduce their likelihood. The extent of analysis and documentation was generally in proportion to the complexity of the operation but did not include quantified risk assessments. During the last three years nuclear criticality safety related Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) have been preformed on operations in two Los Alamos facilities. Both of these were conducted in order to better understand the cost/benefit aspects of PRA's as they apply to largely ''hands-on'' operations with fissile material for which human errors or equipment failures significant to criticality safety are both rare and unique. Based on these two applications and an appreciation of the historical criticality accident record (frequency and consequences) it is apparent that quantified risk assessments should be performed very selectively

  6. Two decades of PRA: What next?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, N.C.

    1992-01-01

    Two decades ago, in the spring of 1972, the Reactor Safety Study was undertaken for the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). The goal of this study was to assess the risk to the public posed by the nuclear power plants operating in the US. Some three and one-half years later in October 1975, the study group issued its final report titled The Reactor Safety Study, also commonly known by its document number WASH 1400. Because it was issued at a time of heated public debate about nuclear safety, WASH 1400 received considerable critical review. By the late 1970s, as a result of the Lewis Report and the accident at Three Mile Island, the value of the WASH 1400 methodology was gradually recognized. A number of utilities undertook such studies of their own plants. The field of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) developed from these efforts. Challenges remain. Among these are how to effectively communicate the results of the analysis. Just what does a probability of one in a million mean? Is there a de minimis probability - one so small that it can be ignored? How should society make decisions under substantial uncertainty? A number of these questions pose real challenges for the future

  7. A PRA case study of extended long term decay heat removal for shutdown risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roglans, J.; Ragland, W.A.; Hill, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    A Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), a Department of Energy (DOE) Category A research reactor, has recently been completed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The results of this PRA have shown that the decay heat removal system for EBR-II is extremely robust and reliable. In addition, the methodology used demonstrates how the actions of other systems not normally used for actions of other systems not normally used for decay heat removal can be used to expand the mission time of the decay heat removal system and further increase its reliability. The methodology may also be extended to account for the impact of non-safety systems in enhancing the reliability of other dedicated safety systems

  8. Probability of deceased donor kidney transplantation based on % PRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock, I C; Alberú, J; Arvizu, A; Hernández-Mendez, E A; De-Santiago, A; González-Tableros, N; López, M; Castelán, N; Contreras, A G; Morales-Buenrostro, L E; Gabilondo, B; Vilatobá, M

    2013-06-01

    Sensitization to HLA antigens creates an obstacle for the accessibility and success of kidney transplantation (KT). Highly sensitized patients have longer waiting times and some may never receive a KT. To determine the probability of patients on the deceased donor (DD) waiting list to receive a KT based on the panel reactive antibody percentage (% PRA) in our center. The DD waiting list from our institution was analyzed from 01/05 to 08/12 documenting the clinical variables from donor and potential recipients (ABO blood group), lymphocyte cross-match [CxM (CDC-AHG)] results, highest % PRA determination, and time on the waiting list. The patients were classified into 4 groups based on the % PRA: 0%, 1-19%, 20-79% and 80-100%. The data was analyzed using odds ratio and logistic regression (significant pPRA for the whole group was 22 ± 32%, median [md] 0 (0-98). A total of 100 patients received KT (mean waiting time 2.2 ± 1.7 years, 12 days-7 years) and their mean % PRA was 11.6 ± 24, md 0 (0-94) vs. 31.4 ± 37 md 8.5 (0-98) in those who have not received a KT. An association between the % PRA group and KT (pPRA vs. >0% was higher (OR 2.12, 1.17-3.84). There was no difference between the 0% vs. 1-19% group (OR 1); differences were observed between 0% vs. 20-79% (OR 2.5, 1.18-5.3) and 0% vs. 80-100% (OR 5, 1.67-14.9). For every percent increase in the PRA above 20%, the risk of not receiving a KT increased by 5% (1-9, pPRA although a higher risk for not receiving a KT becomes evident with a PRA >20%. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Pretransplant virtual PRA and long-term outcomes of kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Lu; Lachmann, Nils; Niemann, Matthias; Naik, Marcel; Liefeldt, Lutz; Glander, Petra; Schmidt, Danilo; Halleck, Fabian; Waiser, Johannes; Brakemeier, Susanne; Neumayer, Hans H; Schönemann, Constanze; Budde, Klemens

    2015-06-01

    Virtual panel-reactive antibodies (vPRA) have been implemented to gauge sensitization worldwide. It is unclear how it associates with long-term outcomes, and its correlation with peak (pPRA) or actual (aPRA) has not been studied. We retrospectively reviewed data from 18- to 65-year-old kidney-only transplant patients during 1.1.1996-31.7.2011 in our center. PRAs were calculated based on solid-phase techniques. Of the 726 qualified cases, regardless of the PRA type, sensitized patients (PRA > 5%) had more females and previous transplant. Highly sensitized (HS, PRA > 50%) had longer waiting time, lower transplant rate, less living donor, more delayed graft function, and acute rejection. The conformity between vPRA and pPRA in HS was 75%, 57% between pPRA and aPRA. Forty-three percent (61/142) patients whose pPRA was >5% had no detectable aPRA and maintained similar outcomes as sensitized patients. Multivariate analysis showed consistently lower death-censored graft survival in HS defined by vPRA [HR 2.086 (95% CI 1.078-4.037), P < 0.05] and pPRA [HR 2.139 (95% CI 1.024-4.487), P < 0.05]. Both vPRA and pPRA provided reliable way estimating sensitization and predicting long-term graft survival, while aPRA might underestimate true sensitization. vPRA might be the most objective parameter to gauge sensitization. © 2015 Steunstichting ESOT.

  10. Treatment of system dependencies and human interactions in PRA studies: a review and sensitivity study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orvis, D.D.; Joksimovich, V.; Worledge, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute sponsored the review and comparison of five PRA studies: Arkansas Nuclear One - Unit 1, Big Rock Point, Grand Gulf, Limerick, and Zion - Unit 1. The review has been conducted in two phases. The Phase I review may be characterized as a qualitative look into many aspects of a PRA study. The Phase II review was performed to quantify the extent that differences in analytical techniques or key assumptions in these areas affect the differences in study results. In each of the PRA studies reviewed, the general descriptions of analytical approaches and descriptions of the analyses of event tree, fault tree and human interaction analyses that affected the dominant core damage sequences were reviewed. When these descriptions aroused interest because of seeming inconsistencies within the study or with other studies, they were pursued in some depth. The approaches or assumptions were contrasted to similar elements from other studies, and sensitivity analyses were performed in many cases to test the significance of results to the analytical models or assumptions. Inferences were drawn from the results regarding significance of the item to plant-specific results and, where possible, were generalized to other PRAs. This paper describes the results of the review of system dependencies and human interactions

  11. NRC comprehensive records disposition schedule. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    Title 44 US Code, ``Public Printing and Documents,`` regulations issued by the General Service Administration (GSA) in 41 CFR Chapter 101, Subchapter B, ``Management and Use of Information and Records,`` and regulations issued by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) in 36 CFR Chapter 12, Subchapter B, ``Records Management,`` require each agency to prepare and issue a comprehensive records disposition schedule that contains the NARA approved records disposition schedules for records unique to the agency and contains the NARA`s General Records Schedules for records common to several or all agencies. The approved records disposition schedules specify the appropriate duration of retention and the final disposition for records created or maintained by the NRC. NUREG-0910, Rev. 3, contains ``NRC`s Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule,`` and the original authorized approved citation numbers issued by NARA. Rev. 3 incorporates NARA approved changes and additions to the NRC schedules that have been implemented since the last revision dated March, 1992, reflects recent organizational changes implemented at the NRC, and includes the latest version of NARA`s General Records Schedule (dated August 1995).

  12. Abstracts: NRC Waste Management Program reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, R.A.; Minichino, C.

    1979-11-01

    This document consists of abstracts of all reports published by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Waste Management Program at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL). It will be updated at regular intervals. Reports are arranged in numerical order, within each category. Unless otherwise specified, authors are LLL scientists and engineers

  13. NRC comprehensive records disposition schedule. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    Title 44 US Code, ''Public Printing and Documents,'' regulations issued by the General Service Administration (GSA) in 41 CFR Chapter 101, Subchapter B, ''Management and Use of Information and Records,'' and regulations issued by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) in 36 CFR Chapter 12, Subchapter B, ''Records Management,'' require each agency to prepare and issue a comprehensive records disposition schedule that contains the NARA approved records disposition schedules for records unique to the agency and contains the NARA's General Records Schedules for records common to several or all agencies. The approved records disposition schedules specify the appropriate duration of retention and the final disposition for records created or maintained by the NRC. NUREG-0910, Rev. 3, contains ''NRC's Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule,'' and the original authorized approved citation numbers issued by NARA. Rev. 3 incorporates NARA approved changes and additions to the NRC schedules that have been implemented since the last revision dated March, 1992, reflects recent organizational changes implemented at the NRC, and includes the latest version of NARA's General Records Schedule (dated August 1995)

  14. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, R.; McNamara, N.

    1993-03-01

    This report present the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1992. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program

  15. 77 FR 33786 - NRC Enforcement Policy Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ..., ``Factors Affecting Assessment of Violations'' The phrase ``onsite or offsite chemical hazard exposures... construction activities, flexibility is needed to factor in the lower risk associated with certain violations... address construction-related topics, including enforcement discretion. DATES: This revision of the NRC...

  16. Role of the NRC in export licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, L.A.

    1976-01-01

    The current role of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the export licensing of nuclear materials is seen as being very uncertain. The primary purpose of nuclear licensing is seen as threefold: (1) to determine if the proposed export falls within the scope of the agreement for cooperation, (2) to review any changed circumstances since the negotiation of the agreement for cooperation, and (3) to serve as leverage for national proliferation objectives. The placing of this licensing authority in the NRC by Congress is seen as being in contradiction to the generally accepted idea that a constructive foreign policy is necesssary if the U.S. nonproliferation efforts are to succeed. The author's opinion of the proper role of the NRC as one of consultation rather than one of veto on international issues is expounded. The idea that the time now spent by the NRC on export licensing activities should be spent on domestic activities having international implications within its expertise - i.e. reprocessing and waste management - is set forth

  17. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1994-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1993. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program

  18. Analysis of AHG-PRA and ELISA-PRA in kidney transplant patients with acute rejection episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Arnauld; de Souza Pontes, Luciane Faria; Queiroz Marques, Maria Teresa; Sampaio, José Cavaliere; de Moraes Sobrino Porto, Luís Cristóvão; de Moraes Souza, Edison Régio

    2003-01-01

    Many centers determined a significant correlation between post-transplant anti-HLA antibodies production and clinical outcome. In order to confirm this correlation and ascertain the sequential appearance of anti-HLA antibodies, we compared the ELISA (ELISA-PRA) and the anti-human globulin enhanced complement-dependent lymphocytotoxicity panel-reactive antibodies test (AHG-PRA) with the occurrence of acute rejection episodes. Thirty patients who underwent kidney transplantation between December 1998 and October 1999 were assayed. One pre-transplant and 10 post-transplant serum samples were tested from each recipient except from one of them who lost his graft on the 1 week post-transplant. The diagnosis of acute rejection episode was based on classical criteria (fever, graft swelling and tenderness, oliguria, weight gain) and a rapid rise in serum creatinine levels, confirmed by an allograft biopsy graded by the Banff working classification. The 322 pre- and post-transplant serum specimens were tested by AHG-PRA methodology and 298 of them by the ELISA-PRA. The agreement coefficient (kappa) for both methodologies was 0.63. There were 27 acute rejection episodes in 19 patients. AHG-PRA results were significantly correlated (Hazard ratio=10.06; P=0.006) with this occurrence. These data were not confirmed with the ELISA-PRA procedure. Our results suggest that a routine post-transplant AHG-PRA test offers an early risk assessment of acute rejection episodes and may be a useful method for monitoring the kidney transplant evolution.

  19. Dominant accident sequences derived from review of five PRA studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joksimovich, V.; Frank, M.V.; Worledge, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter reviews and compares the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) studies conducted at the Big Rock Point, Zion, Limerick, Grand Gulf, and Arkansas Nuclear One reactors. The overall objective is to provide a summary of the studies together with an interpretation of the results that will help both technical specialists and management personnel understand the state-of-the-art in risk assessment, the validity of the methods employed, and the conclusions reached. An additional objective is to identify technical issues that are worthy of further discussion or in need of further research and development. It is determined that the long-term heat removal is the single largest functional contributor to core-melt frequency for both pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and boiling water reactors (BWRs). PWR accident sequences are dominated by small loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) and transients. For BWRs, the dominant contributors are the transient events with LOCA sequences making only a minor contribution on the order of 10%

  20. Using Safety Margins for a German Seismic PRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Obenland

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The German regulatory guide demands the performance of a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA including external events. In 2005, a new methodology guideline (Methodenband based on the current state of science and technology was released to provide the analyst with a set of suitable tools and methodologies for the analysis of all PRA events. In the case of earthquake, a multilevel verification procedure is suggested. The verification procedure which has to be used depends on the seismic risk at the site of the plant. For sites in areas with low seismic activity no analysis or only a reduced analysis is proposed. This paper describes the evaluation of safety margins of buildings, structures, components and systems for plants at sites with high seismic risk, corresponding to the German methodology guideline. The seismic PRA results in an estimation of core damage frequencies caused by earthquakes. Additionally, the described approach can also be adapted for the usage in a reduced analysis for sites with lower earthquake risks. Westinghouse has wide experience in performing seismic PRA for both BWR as well as PWR plants. Westinghouse uses the documented set of seismic design analyses dating from construction phase and from later updates, if done, as a basis for a seismic PRA, which means that usually no costly new structural mechanics calculations have to be performed.

  1. Using safety margins for a German seismic PRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obenland, R.; Bloem, T.; Tietsch, W.; Singh, J.-B.

    2007-01-01

    The German regulatory guide demands the performance of a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) including External Events. In 2005, a new Methodology Guideline (Methodenband) [1] based on the current state of science and technology was released to provide the analyst with a set of suitable tools and methodologies for the analysis of all PRA events. In the case of earthquake, a multilevel verification procedure is suggested. The verification procedure which has to be used depends on the seismic risk at the site of the plant. For sites in areas with low seismic activity no analysis or only a reduced analysis is proposed. This paper describes the evaluation of safety margins of buildings, structures, components and systems for plants at sites with high seismic risk, corresponding to the German Methodology Guideline. The seismic PRA results in an estimation of core damage frequencies caused by earthquakes. Additionally, the described approach can also be adapted for the usage in a reduced analysis for sites with lower earthquake risks. Westinghouse has wide experience in performing seismic PRA for both, BWR as well as PWR plants. Westinghouse uses the documented set of seismic design analyses dating from construction phase and from later updates, if done, as a basis for a seismic PRA, which means that usually no costly new structural mechanics calculations have to be performed. (author)

  2. NRC Regulatory Agenda: Quarterly report, October--December 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules which the NRC has proposed or is considering action on, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission

  3. Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA): A Practical and Cost Effective Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lydia L.; Ingegneri, Antonino J.; Djam, Melody

    2006-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is the first mission of the Robotic Lunar Exploration Program (RLEP), a space exploration venture to the Moon, Mars and beyond. The LRO mission includes spacecraft developed by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and seven instruments built by GSFC, Russia, and contractors across the nation. LRO is defined as a measurement mission, not a science mission. It emphasizes the overall objectives of obtaining data to facilitate returning mankind safely to the Moon in preparation for an eventual manned mission to Mars. As the first mission in response to the President's commitment of the journey of exploring the solar system and beyond: returning to the Moon in the next decade, then venturing further into the solar system, ultimately sending humans to Mars and beyond, LRO has high-visibility to the public but limited resources and a tight schedule. This paper demonstrates how NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission project office incorporated reliability analyses in assessing risks and performing design tradeoffs to ensure mission success. Risk assessment is performed using NASA Procedural Requirements (NPR) 8705.5 - Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Procedures for NASA Programs and Projects to formulate probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). As required, a limited scope PRA is being performed for the LRO project. The PRA is used to optimize the mission design within mandated budget, manpower, and schedule constraints. The technique that LRO project office uses to perform PRA relies on the application of a component failure database to quantify the potential mission success risks. To ensure mission success in an efficient manner, low cost and tight schedule, the traditional reliability analyses, such as reliability predictions, Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), and Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), are used to perform PRA for the large system of LRO with more than 14,000 piece parts and over 120 purchased or contractor

  4. Fragility and hazard aspects of the Chinshan seismic PRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, G.S.; Tong, W.H.; Griffin, M.J.; Han, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology and the results of the fragility and hazard portions of the seismic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) and the containment overpressure fragilities at the Chinshan Nuclear Power Plant in Taiwan. The Chinshan seismic PRA involves the generation and combination of the seismic hazard at the site, the fragilities of equipment and structures and the dominant accident sequences leading to core damage. The seismic fragilities and the hazard study and the containment overpressure fragilities have been completed and are presented in this paper

  5. Nove praças: um sistema de lugares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea de Almeida Rego Pedrosa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisa uma tipologia específica do sistema de espaços livres, a praça pública, através de um estudo sobre nove praças similares localizadas na periferia da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, no bairro suburbano de Campo Grande. Observamos o seu cotidiano, refletindo sobre o relacionamento dos indivíduos com o espaço e revelando a sua transformação em lugares significativos, com caráter, identidade e características distintas.

  6. 78 FR 52557 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Section 811 Project Rental Assistance (PRA) for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... Assistance (PRA) for Persons With Disabilities AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD. ACTION... Information Collection: Section 811 Project Rental Assistance (PRA) for Persons with Disabilities. OMB...

  7. 10 CFR 51.40 - Consultation with NRC staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consultation with NRC staff. 51.40 Section 51.40 Energy....40 Consultation with NRC staff. (a) A prospective applicant or petitioner for rulemaking is encouraged to confer with NRC staff as early as possible in its planning process before submitting...

  8. 10 CFR 2.1505 - Role of the NRC staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Role of the NRC staff. 2.1505 Section 2.1505 Energy... Legislative Hearings § 2.1505 Role of the NRC staff. The NRC staff shall be available to answer any Commission or presiding officer's questions on staff-prepared documents, provide additional information or...

  9. Multi-canister overpack: additional NRC requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garvin, L.J.

    1995-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established in the K Basin Spent Fuel Project, Regulatory Policy, dated August 4, 1995 (hereafter referred to as the Policy), the requirement for new Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) facilities to achieve ''nuclear safety equivalency'' to comparable U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensed facilities. For activities other than during transport, when the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) is used and resides in the Canister Storage Building (CSB), Conditioning Facility or K Basins Path Forward Projects, additional NRC requirements will also apply to the MCO based on the safety functions it performs and its interfaces with the SNFP facilities. An evaluation was performed in consideration of the MCO safety functions to identify any additional NRC requirements, to establish nuclear safety equivalency for the MCO

  10. Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA): status report and guidance for regulatory application. Draft report for comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-02-01

    This document describes the current status of the methodologies used in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) and provides guidance for the application of the results of PRAs to the nuclear reactor regulatory process. The PRA studies that have been completed or are underway are reviewed. The levels of maturity of the methodologies used in a PRA are discussed. Insights derived from PRAs are listed. The potential uses of PRA results for regulatory purposes are discussed

  11. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, R.; McNamara, N.

    1991-04-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC [Nuclear Regulatory Commission] Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1990. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program. 3 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Review of NRC Regulatory processes and functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) has spent much time over many years observing and examining the NRC licensing process. The Committee is, consequently, in a position to comment on the situation, and it believes this review will be helpful to those examining the regulatory process by discussing how it works, where it is weak, and the opportunities for improvement. The Committee's review may also help put current proposals and discussions in perspective

  13. Development of the NRC`s Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP). Volume 2, Investigators`s Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paradies, M.; Unger, L. [System Improvements, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Haas, P.; Terranova, M. [Concord Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The three volumes of this report detail a standard investigation process for use by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel when investigating human performance related events at nuclear power plants. The process, called the Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP), was developed to meet the special needs of NRC personnel, especially NRC resident and regional inspectors. HPIP is a systematic investigation process combining current procedures and field practices, expert experience, NRC human performance research, and applicable investigation techniques. The process is easy to learn and helps NRC personnel perform better field investigations of the root causes of human performance problems. The human performance data gathered through such investigations provides a better understanding of the human performance issues that cause event at nuclear power plants. This document, Volume II, is a field manual for use by investigators when performing event investigations. Volume II includes the HPIP Procedure, the HPIP Modules, and Appendices that provide extensive documentation of each investigation technique.

  14. Nuclear regulation. NRC's security clearance program can be strengthened

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fultz, Keith O.; Kruslicky, Mary Ann; Bagnulo, John E.

    1988-12-01

    Because of the national security implications of its programs, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) investigates the background of its employees and consultants as well as others to ensure that they are reliable and trustworthy. If the investigation indicates that an employee will not endanger national security, NRC grants a security clearance that allows access to classified information, material, and facilities. NRC also requires periodic checks for some clearance holders to ensure their continued clearance eligibility. The Chairman, Subcommittee on Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources, House Committee on Government Operations, asked GAO to review NRC's personnel security clearance program and assess the procedures that NRC uses to ensure that those who operate nuclear power plants do not pose a threat to the public. The Atomic Energy Act of 1954 requires NRC to conduct background investigations of its employees and consultants as well as others who have access to classified information, material, or facilities. To do this, NRC established a personnel security clearance program. Under NRC policies, a security clearance is granted after the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) or the Federal Bureau of Investigation checks the background of those applying for an NRC clearance. NRC also periodically reassesses the integrity of those holding the highest level clearance. NRC employees, consultants, contractors, and licensees as well as other federal employees hold approximately 10,600 NRC clearances. NRC does not grant clearances to commercial nuclear utility employees unless they require access to classified information or special nuclear material. However, the utilities have voluntarily established screening programs to ensure that their employees do not pose a threat to nuclear plants. NRC faces a dilemma when it hires new employees. Although its policy calls for new hires to be cleared before they start work, the security clearance process takes so long

  15. NRC study of control room habitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, J.J. Jr.; Muller, D.R.; Gammill, W.P.

    1985-01-01

    Since 1980, the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) has held several meetings with the NRC staff to discuss the subject of control room habitability. Several meetings between the ACRS and the staff have resulted in ACRS letters that express specific concerns, and the staff has provided responses in reports and meetings. In June of 1983, the NRC Executive Director for Operations directed the Offices of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and Inspection and Enforcement to develop a plan to handle the issues raised by the ACRS and to report to him specific proposed courses of action to respond to the ACRS's concerns. The NRC control room habitability working group has reviewed the subject in such areas as NRR review process, transformation of control room habitability designs to as-built systems, and determination of testing protocol. The group has determined that many of the ACRS concerns and recommendations are well founded, and has recommended actions to be taken to address these as well as other concerns which were raised independent of the ACRS. The review has revealed significant areas where the approach presently utilized in reviews should be altered

  16. Application of the SBWR PRA to respond to risk-based regulation issues for advanced reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seebregts, A.J. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands). Risk Analysis Section; Duncan, J.D. [General Electric Co., San Jose, CA (United States). Nuclear Energy Div.

    1995-10-01

    This paper discusses briefly the SBWR design, the 1993 SBWR PRA, and two specific, recent risk-based regulation issues for advanced reactors, viz. the Regulatory Treatment of Non-Safety Systems (RTNSS, including the Focused PRA), and the Phenomenological PRA. (orig.).

  17. 76 FR 81998 - Methodology for Low Power/Shutdown Fire PRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... COMMISSION Methodology for Low Power/Shutdown Fire PRA AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft... public comment a draft NUREG/CR, NUREG/CR-7114, Revision 0, ``Methodology for Low Power/Shutdown Fire PRA...-2011-0295. Discussion The draft NUREG presents a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) method for...

  18. 78 FR 77597 - Safety Zone; Allied PRA-Solid Works, San Diego Bay; San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Allied PRA-Solid Works, San Diego Bay; San... the Allied PRA--Solid Works fireworks display, which will be conducted from a barge located southwest....T11-612 Safety zone; Allied PRA-Solid Works; San Diego, CA. (a) Location. The limits of the safety...

  19. 77 FR 10576 - Methodology for Low Power/Shutdown Fire PRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... COMMISSION Methodology for Low Power/Shutdown Fire PRA AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft... Draft NUREG/CR-7114, Revision 0, ``Methodology for Low Power/Shutdown Fire PRA.'' In response to request...-2011-0295. Discussion The draft NUREG presents a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) method for...

  20. Elastin and Mechanics of Pig Pericardial Resistance Arteries (pPRA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Maria; Leurgans, Thomas; Rosenstand, Kristoffer

    Resistance arteries are remodeled in hypertension and diabetes. Elastin was reported to play a role herein. The parietal pericardium is opened during cardio-thoracic surgeries and might be a valuable biopsy for research in cardio-vascular diseases. We tested the hypothesis that resistance arteries...... fibrils between their medial smooth muscle cells and a net-stocking-like internal elastic lamina underneath the endothelium (perforated sheet with fenestrae in rMRA and rBA). Isolated pPRA lengthen ~30% when pressurized to 100mmHg, like rMRA but not rBA (

  1. Load out and offshore lifting of the PRA-1 platform modules; Embarque e icamento offshore dos modulos de PRA-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Fernando; Raigorodsky, Jacques; Mitidieri, Jorge L.U.; Ricardi, Paulo S. [Construtora Norberto Odebrecht S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The technology innovations are characteristics of offshore Engineering around the world. These technologies just make sense when they aim the productivity, security and costs gains compared to ordinary methods. It is in this context that the proposal of the Consorcio PRA-1 (Odebrecht e UTC) team makes sense, in the definition of basic methodology for the PRA-1 platform construction and installation. Through the innovative concept, It was defined (still in the proposal phase) the basic premise that the modules construction and assembly were onshore ending up that just few hours after the offshore installation the modules should be operational in minimal habitability conditions. This innovative method allowed the lack of Flotel, that is a platform which provide support to the offshore construction and assembly (Flotel represents a high costs to the project) and, as consequence, the contract signature by CONSORCIO PRA-1. This work aims to describe the method used for the LOUD-OUT of the PRA-1 modules and the installation of them on the jacket through a vessel provide with cranes the has performed the lifting. Theses operations became unique in Brazil due its challengers characteristics: Module 12 weight = 7203 tf and Module 35 = 5725 tf. For the accomplishment of the Load-out and offshore lifting, was performed a detailed planning and a high level of subcontract interface management. The operations mentioned above were filmed/photographed and published in the specialized media. (author)

  2. Impact of positive PRA on the results of ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimmura, H; Tanabe, K; Tokumoto, T; Ishida, H; Ishikawa, N; Miyamoto, N; Shimizu, T; Shirakawa, H; Setoguchi, K; Toma, H

    2004-09-01

    Due to the continuing shortage of cadaveric donors in Japan, ABO-incompatible living kidney transplantation (LKT) is being performed. It is well known that highly sensitized patients with positive panel reactive antibodies (PRA) often present with acute rejection. Therefore, we examined the impact of a positive PRA on the results of ABO-incompatible LKT. One hundred seventy-seven recipients underwent ABO-incompatible LKT between January 1989 and March 2003. Of these patients, 37 who had been examined for PRA before transplantation were included in this study. There were 25 men and 12 women of mean age 37.3 years. Plasmapheresis was performed to remove anti-ABO antibodies before transplantation. During the induction phase, methylprednisolone, azathioprine, or mycophenolate mofetil and cyclosporine or tacrolimus were used for immunosuppression. Splenectomy was performed at the time of kidney transplantation in all patients. PRA was measured using FlowPRA by flow cytometer. Eight of the 37 patients had a positive PRA before transplantation (class I, 5; class II, 1; class I and class II, 2). The incidence of acute rejection was 37.9% in the patients with a negative PRA and 37.5% in patients with a positive PRA. One patient with a negative PRA and one patient with a positive PRA lost grafts due to acute rejection. Positive PRA may not increase the incidence of acute rejection in ABO-incompatible LKT because plasmapheresis and splenectomy are performed to eliminate anti-ABO antibody.

  3. OPO Strategies to Prevent Unintended Use of Kidneys Exported for High PRA (>98% cPRA) Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramesh, A S; Neidlinger, N; Salvatore, M; Smith, A; Friedman, A; Payne, W; Taber, T; Wright, C

    2017-08-01

    Since the advent of the Kidney Allocation System (KAS), matched candidates with high (>98%) panel reactive antibody (hPRA) are given priority over local candidates with lower PRA. This often leads to exporting of kidneys. Data for these kidneys are not detailed on routine reports. Twenty-two organ procurement organizations prospectively submitted data from August 2015 to July 2016, describing allocation practices of kidneys to hPRA patients and outcomes of these kidneys. Five hundred twenty out of 6924 procured kidneys were exported for hPRA recipients. Of these, 402 (77.3%) were transplanted into the intended recipient (IR); 100 (19.2%) were transplanted into unintended recipients (UR), and 18 (3.5%) were discarded. The most common reason for use in an UR was a positive crossmatch (XM) (63%). The most common reasons for discard were donor quality (44%) and ischemic time (39%). Prior to kidney export, when tissue crossmatching was done, 96.2% of the kidneys went to the IR, versus 80.7% following virtual CM, versus 56.7% when no crossmatching was performed (p < 0.0001). A significant number of kidneys exported for hPRA patients are not being used in the IR or are being discarded. The most common reason for this is positive tissue XM. We report that unintended use of the kidney was minimized when tissue was shipped and XM results were known prior to exporting the kidney. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  4. 76 FR 40282 - Proposed Generic Communications; Draft NRC Regulatory Issue Summary 2011-XX; NRC Regulation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... Documents Access and Management System (ADAMS): Publicly available documents created or received at the NRC...., warfare, combat, battlefield missions, and training for such missions, as well as ``material still under... operations and no longer intended for future use in traditional military operations. Examples include...

  5. NRC materials licensing business process reengineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cool, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has issued 6550 active licenses that authorize possession and use of byproduct, source, and special nuclear material. In October 1994, the NRC staff began to examine the process used to issue these licenses to identify ways to improve the process. In addition to examining the current process, the staff was directed to develop a new process design that would accomplish the following goals: (1) Maintain or raise the level of public safety achieved by the current process, (2) Perform licensing reviews and associated tasks an order of magnitude faster than the current process, (3) Exploit modern information technology as a fundamental part of the new process, and (4) Reduce the resources needed to carry out the licensing program to meet the projected 1997-1999 staffing levels. The method used for this examination is called Business Process Reengineering (BPR). BPR is the process of fundamentally changing the way work is performed so as to achieve radical performance improvements in speed, cost, and quality. Features of the new licensing process, scheduled to begin in 1996, are outlined in this paper

  6. Reassessment of the NRC's program for protecting allegers against retaliation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    On July 6, 1993, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Executive Director for Operations established a review team to reassess the NRC's program for protecting allegers against retaliation. The team evaluated the current system, and solicited comments from various NRC offices, other Federal agencies, licensees, former allegers, and the public. This report is subject to agency review. The report summarizes current processes and gives an overview of current problems. It discusses: (1) ways in which licensees can promote a quality-conscious work environment, in which all employees feel free to raise concerns without fear of retaliation; (2) ways to improve the NRC's overall handling of allegations; (3) the NRC's involvement in the Department of Labor process; (4) related NRC enforcement practices; and (5) methods other than investigation and enforcement that may be useful in treating allegations of potential or actual discrimination. Recommendations are given in each area

  7. PRA: an evaluation of state-of-the-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joksimovich, V.

    1985-01-01

    Some elements of the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology can be characterized as mature and are even ready for some kind of a standardization effort. Other elements are still, however, in a rapid state of evolution. Questions are continuously being asked regarding maturity of PRA techniques vis-a-vis a regulatory decision-making process. Establishing a framework for evaluating state-of-the-art in any technological field is a challenging task. An implementation of a selected framework to a satisfactory conclusion is a monumental task. Of course, these types of issues can be discussed meaningfully only if they are tied to a particular application. The author's participation in the NSF-sponsored risk assessment project is discussed in the paper. The evaluation employed here makes use of the following five evaluation criteria: logical soundness, completeness, accuracy, acceptability, and practicality

  8. Task analysis: How far are we from usable PRA input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertman, D.I.; Blackman, H.S.; Hinton, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter reviews data collected at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for three DOE-owned reactors (the Advanced Test Reactor, the Power Burst Facility, and the Loss of Fluids Test Reactor) in order to identify usable Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) input. Task analytic procedures involve the determination of manning and skill levels as a means of determining communication requirements, in assessing job performance aids, and in assessing the accuracy and completeness of emergency and maintenance procedures. The least understood aspect in PRA and plant reliability models is the human factor. A number of examples from the data base are discussed and offered as a means of providing more meaningful data than has been available to PRA analysts in the past. It is concluded that the plant hardware-procedures-personnel interfaces are essential to safe and efficient plant operations and that task analysis is a reasonably sound way of achieving a qualitative method for identifying those tasks most strongly associated with task difficulty, severity of consequence, and error probability

  9. Research organizational factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffman, F.D. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Organizational processes at nuclear power plants should be sufficient to prevent accidents and to protect public health and safety upon the occurrence of an accident. The role of regulatory research is to confirm that agency assessments of organization processes are on a firm technical basis and provide for improvements in the NRC [Nuclear Regulatory Commission] programs. A firm technical basis is achieved by reducing uncertainties associated with methods and measures used to assess organization processes. The general objective for regulatory research is to confirm that the agency has a coherent understanding of the organizational processes that are individually necessary and are collectively sufficient for safe operations, methods are available to reliably characterize organizational processes, and measures exist to monitor changes in the key organizational processes. The first specific objective was to develop a method to translate organizational processes into PRAs. The discussion provides feedback and insights from experience with the past and the ongoing organizational factors research. That experience suggests a set of ingredients that appear proper for performing regulatory research on organizational processes. By keeping focused upon these proper ingredients, the research will contribute to the regulatory assessments of utility management through the use of improved methods and measures in investigations, inspections, diagnostics, performance indicators, and PRA insights

  10. Design basis for the NRC Operations Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindell, M.K.; Wise, J.A.; Griffin, B.N.; Desrosiers, A.E.; Meitzler, W.D.

    1983-05-01

    This report documents the development of a design for a new NRC Operations Center (NRCOC). The project was conducted in two phases: organizational analysis and facility design. In order to control the amount of traffic, congestion and noise within the facility, it is recommended that information flow in the new NRCOC be accomplished by means of an electronic Status Information Management System. Functional requirements and a conceptual design for this system are described. An idealized architectural design and a detailed design program are presented that provide the appropriate amount of space for operations, equipment and circulation within team areas. The overall layout provides controlled access to the facility and, through the use of a zoning concept, provides each team within the NRCOC the appropriate balance of ready access and privacy determined from the organizational analyses conducted during the initial phase of the project.

  11. NRC systematic evaluation program: seismic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, H.A.

    1980-01-01

    The NRC Systematic Evaluation Program is currently making an assessment of the seismic design safety of 11 older nuclear power plant facilities. The general review philosophy and review criteria relative to seismic input, structural response, and equipment functionability are presented, including the rationale for the development of these guidelines considering the significant evolution of seismic design criteria since these plants were originally licensed. Technical approaches thought more realistic in light of current knowledge are utilized. Initial findings for plants designed to early seismic design procedures suggest that with minor exceptions, these plants possess adequate seismic design margins when evaluated against the intent of current criteria. However, seismic qualification of electrical equipment has been identified as a subject which requires more in-depth evaluation

  12. Design basis for the NRC Operations Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, M.K.; Wise, J.A.; Griffin, B.N.; Desrosiers, A.E.; Meitzler, W.D.

    1983-05-01

    This report documents the development of a design for a new NRC Operations Center (NRCOC). The project was conducted in two phases: organizational analysis and facility design. In order to control the amount of traffic, congestion and noise within the facility, it is recommended that information flow in the new NRCOC be accomplished by means of an electronic Status Information Management System. Functional requirements and a conceptual design for this system are described. An idealized architectural design and a detailed design program are presented that provide the appropriate amount of space for operations, equipment and circulation within team areas. The overall layout provides controlled access to the facility and, through the use of a zoning concept, provides each team within the NRCOC the appropriate balance of ready access and privacy determined from the organizational analyses conducted during the initial phase of the project

  13. U.S. NRC's generic issues program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, J.V.; Foster, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has a Generic Issues Program (GIP) to address Generic Issues (GI). A GI is defined as 'a regulatory matter involving the design, construction, operation, or decommissioning of several, or a class of, NRC licensees or certificate holders that is not sufficiently addressed by existing rules, guidance, or programs'. This rather legalistic definition has several practical corollaries: First, a GI must involve safety. Second, the issue must involve at least two plants, or it would be a plant-specific issue rather than a GI. Third, the potential safety question must not be covered by existing regulations and guidance (compliance). Thus, the effect of a GI is to potentially change the body of regulations and associated guidance (e.g., regulatory guides). The GIP was started in 1976, thus it is a relatively mature program. Approximately 850 issues have been processed by the program to date. More importantly, even after 30 years, new GIs continue to be proposed. The entire set of Generic Issues (GIs) is updated annually in NUREG-0933, 'A Prioritization of Generic Safety Issues'. GIs normally involve complex questions of safety and regulation. Efficient and effective means of addressing these issues are very important for regulatory effectiveness. If an issue proves to pose a genuine, significant safety question, then swift, effective, enforceable, and cost-effective action needs to be taken. Conversely, if an issue is of little safety significance, the issue should be dismissed in an expeditious manner, avoiding unnecessary expenditure of resources and regulatory burden or uncertainty. This paper provides a summary of the 5-stage program, from identification through the regulatory assessment stage. The paper also includes a discussion of the program's seven criteria, sources of proposed GIs, recent improvements, publicly available information, historical performance, and status of current GIs. (authors)

  14. The development of the advanced cryogenic radiometer facility at NRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamouras, A.; Todd, A. D. W.; Côté, É.; Rowell, N. L.

    2018-02-01

    The National Research Council (NRC) of Canada has established a next generation facility for the primary realization of optical radiant power. The main feature of this facility is a new cryogenic electrical substitution radiometer with a closed-cycle helium cryocooler. A monochromator-based approach allows for detector calibrations at any desired wavelength. A custom-designed motion apparatus includes two transfer standard radiometer mounting ports which has increased our measurement capability by allowing the calibration of two photodetectors in one measurement cycle. Measurement uncertainties have been improved through several upgrades, including newly designed and constructed transimpedance amplifiers for the transfer standard radiometers, and a higher power broadband light source. The most significant improvements in uncertainty arise from the enhanced characteristics of the new cryogenic radiometer including its higher cavity absorptance and reduced non-equivalence effects.

  15. Human factors assessment in PRA using task analysis linked evaluation technique (TALENT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.E.; Banks, W.W.

    1990-01-01

    Human error is a primary contributor to risk in complex high-reliability systems. A 1985 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) study of licensee event reports (LERs) suggests that upwards of 65% of commercial nuclear system failures involve human error. Since then, the USNRC has initiated research to fully and properly integrate human errors into the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) process. The resulting implementation procedure is known as the Task Analysis Linked Evaluation Technique (TALENT). As indicated, TALENT is a broad-based method for integrating human factors expertise into the PRA process. This process achieves results which: (1) provide more realistic estimates of the impact of human performance on nuclear power safety, (2) can be fully audited, (3) provide a firm technical base for equipment-centered and personnel-centered retrofit/redesign of plants enabling them to meet internally and externally imposed safety standards, and (4) yield human and hardware data capable of supporting inquiries into human performance issues that transcend the individual plant. The TALENT procedure is being field-tested to verify its effectiveness and utility. The objectives of the field-test are to examine (1) the operability of the process, (2) its acceptability to the users, and (3) its usefulness for achieving measurable improvements in the credibility of the analysis. The field-test will provide the information needed to enhance the TALENT process

  16. Berkeley Lab Pilot on External Regulation of DOE National Laboratories by the U.S. NRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeman, Gary H.

    1999-01-01

    The US Department of Energy and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission entered into an agreement in November 1997 to pursue external regulation of radiation safety at DOE national laboratories through a Pilot Program of simulated regulation at 6-10 sites over a 2 year period. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab), the oldest of the DOE national laboratories, volunteered and was selected as the first Pilot site. Based on the similarities and linkages between Berkeley Lab and nearby university research laboratories, Berkeley Lab seemed a good candidate for external regulation and a good first step in familiarizing NRC with the technical and institutional issues involved in regulating laboratories in the DOE complex. NRC and DOE team members visited Berkeley Lab on four occasions between October 1997 and January 1998 to carry out the Pilot. The first step was to develop a detailed Work Plan, then to carry out both a technical review of the radiation safety program and an examination of policy and regulatory issues. The Pilot included a public meeting held in Oakland, CA in December 1997. The Pilot concluded with NRC's assessment that Berkeley Lab has a radiation protection program adequate to protect workers, the public and the environment, and that it is ready to be licensed by the NRC with minor programmatic exceptions. A draft final report of the Pilot was prepared and circulated for comment as a NUREG document (dated May 7, 1998). The report's recommendations include extending NRC regulatory authority to cover all ionizing radiation sources (including accelerators, x-ray units, NARM) at Berkeley Lab. Questions remaining to be resolved include: who should be the licensee (DOE, the Lab, or both)?; dealing with legacy issues and NRC D and D requirements; minimizing dual oversight; quantifying value added in terms of cost savings, enhanced safety, and improved public perception; extrapolating results to other national laboratories; and

  17. An evaluation of the reliability and usefulness of external-initiator PRA [probabilistic risk analysis] methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnitz, R.J.; Lambert, H.E.

    1990-01-01

    The discipline of probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) has become so mature in recent years that it is now being used routinely to assist decision-making throughout the nuclear industry. This includes decision-making that affects design, construction, operation, maintenance, and regulation. Unfortunately, not all sub-areas within the larger discipline of PRA are equally ''mature,'' and therefore the many different types of engineering insights from PRA are not all equally reliable. 93 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  18. Human factors assessment in PRA using Task Analysis Linked Evaluation Technique (TALENT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.E.; Banks, W.W.

    1991-01-01

    Thirty years ago the US military and US aviation industry, and more recently, in response to the US Three Mile Island and USSR Chernobyl accidents, the US commercial nuclear power industry, acknowledged that human error, as an immediate precursor, and as a latent or indirect influence in the form of training, maintainability, inservice test, and surveillance programs, is a primary contributor to unreality and risk in complex high-reliability systems. A 1985 Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) study of Licensee Event Reports (LERs) suggests that upwards of 65% of commercial nuclear system failures involve human error. Despite the magnitude and nature of human error cited in that study, there has been limited attention to personnel-centered issues, especially person-to-person issues involving group processes, management and organizational environment. The paper discusses NRC integration and applications research with respect to the Task Analysis Linked Evaluation Technique (TALENT) in risk assessment applications

  19. NRC Regulatory Agenda quarterly report, July--September 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    The NRC Regulator Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  20. NRC regulatory agenda: Quarterly report, April--June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has proposed or is considering action and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  1. NRC regulatory agenda. Seminnual progress report, January 1996--June 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rule making which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The regulatory Agenda is updated and issued semiannually

  2. NRC regualtory agenda. Semiannual report, July 1997--December 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    The Regulatory Agenda is a semiannual compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and of all petitions for rulemaking that the NRC has received that are pending disposition

  3. NRC Regulatory Agenda: Quarterly report, July-September 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    The NRC Regulatory agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has proposed or is considering action and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the commission and are pending disposition by the commission. The regulatory agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  4. 77 FR 36583 - NRC Form 5, Occupational Dose Record for a Monitoring Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... publicly-available documents online in the NRC Library at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/adams.html . To... changes to 10 CFR part 20 included a definition change to the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE... found on NRC's Public Web page, http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/forms/nrc5.pdf . III...

  5. Pemikiran Suksesi Dalam Politik Islam Masa Pra Modern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazro'atus Sa'adah

    2016-12-01

    Abstrak: Pemikiran politik Islam muncul setelah Islam melalui Nabi Muhammad SAW berhasil membentuk sebuah ummat baru, dari peralihan kekuasaan kerajaan/kesukuan kepada Nabi yang kemudian kepada umat. Nabi Muhammad dinilai berhasil dalam mengatur komunitas barunya yang dikendalikan oleh ajarannya dalam seluruh lini kehidupan. Persoalan muncul kemudian setelah beliau wafat, yang akhirnya memunculkan pemikiran tentang suksesi. Artikel ini akan membahas tentang mengapa terjadi suksesi setelah Nabi Muhammad SAW wafat, bagaimana pemikiran para tokoh politik Islam masa pra modern terkait dengan suksesi, dan apa kontribusi pemikiran suksesi ini terhadap politik Islam di Indonesia. Dengan menggunakan pendekatan sejarah, ditemukan bahwa Nabi Muhammad tidak menetapkan siapa yang akan menggantikannya, dan ketika beliau wafat (632 M, para sahabat memilih seorang pemimpin (imam/khalifah. Masa pemerintahan Abu Bakar, Umar dan Usman banyak terjadi perselisihan yang awalnya terkait kepentingan agama namun berkembang menjadi kepentingan politik. Ketika Ali bin Abi Talib diangkat sebagai khalifah, konflik politik berkepanjangan berkaitan dengan pembunuhan Usman, menjadikan timbulnya perang jamal antara Aisyah dan Ali. Pada masa ini perbedaan kepentingan aqidah dipolitisir lebih jauh menjadi sebuah kepentingan politik. Dinamika politik ini kemudian melahirkan mazhab politik Islam klasik yang terbagi dalam tiga mazhab besar yaitu Sunni, Syi'ah dan Khawarij, yang darinya muncul istilah-istilah khilafah, imamah, ahlul halli wal aqdi, bay’ah, walayah dan lain-lain. Dari ketiga mazhab politik ini, kemudian muncul ide pemikiran politik Islam yang sangat kompleks dan berkepanjangan dari para tokoh politik Islam pra modern yang banyak dipengaruhi oleh filosof Yunani. Di Indonesia, pemikiran suksesi dalam politik Islam masa pra modern ini pernah diwacanakan. Namun untuk pemilihan kepala Negara belum terealisasi mengingat Indonesia bukan Negara Islam.

  6. NRC hopes to discourage lengthy onsite storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Now it has become clear why last year's partial voiding of the Low-Level Waste Policy Amendments Act was seen as significant in some quarters. On June 19, 1992, the US Supreme Court ruled that the passage requiring states to take title to LLW produced within their borders was unconstitutional (NN, July 1992, p. 17). This did not change the facts that LLW is still being generated, and that interstate compacts with licensed disposal sites are now empowered to refuse LLW from outside the compacts. Still, state officials had a reason to be relieved-because they knew that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission was at work on a regulation that would have made them take title to LLW, at a radwaste generator's request, at any time after January 1, 1996, if the state did not have access to a licensed disposal site. The court ruling has forced the NRC to take this passage out of the proposal, but the agency has still gone ahead and published draft amendments intended to establish long-term onsite storage as the last resort option for LLW management

  7. NRC ARDC Guidance Support Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holbrook, Mark R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report provides a summary that reflects the progress and status of proposed regulatory design criteria for advanced non-light water reactor (LWR) designs in accordance with the Level 3 milestone M3AT-17IN2001013 in work package AT-17IN200101. These criteria have been designated as advanced reactor design criteria (ARDC) and they provide guidance to future applicants for addressing the general design criteria (GDC) that are currently applied specifically to LWR designs. This report provides a summary of Phase 2 activities related to the various tasks associated with ARDC development and the subsequent development of ARDC regulatory guidance for sodium fast reactor (SFR) and modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) designs. Status Report Organization: Section 2 discusses the origin of the GDC and their application to LWRs. Section 3 addresses the objective of this initiative and how it benefits the advanced non-LWR reactor vendors. Section 4 discusses the scope and structure of the initiative. Section 5 provides background on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) ARDC team’s original development of the proposed ARDC that were submitted to the NRC for consideration. Section 6 provides a summary of recent ARDC Phase 2 activities. Appendices A through E document the DOE ARDC team’s public comments on various sections of the NRC’s draft regulatory guide DG–1330, “Guidance for Developing Principal Design Criteria for Non-Light Water Reactors.”

  8. NRC Seismic Design Margins Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, G.E.; Johnson, J.J.; Budnitz, R.J.

    1985-08-01

    Recent studies estimate that seismically induced core melt comes mainly from earthquakes in the peak ground acceleration range from 2 to 4 times the safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) acceleration used in plant design. However, from the licensing perspective of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, there is a continuing need for consideration of the inherent quantitative seismic margins because of, among other things, the changing perceptions of the seismic hazard. This paper discusses a Seismic Design Margins Program Plan, developed under the auspices of the US NRC, that provides the technical basis for assessing the significance of design margins in terms of overall plant safety. The Plan will also identify potential weaknesses that might have to be addressed, and will recommend technical methods for assessing margins at existing plants. For the purposes of this program, a general definition of seismic design margin is expressed in terms of how much larger that the design basis earthquake an earthquake must be to compromise plant safety. In this context, margin needs to be determined at the plant, system/function, structure, and component levels. 14 refs., 1 fig

  9. Proposed NRC portable target case for short-range triangulation-based 3D imaging systems characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Benjamin; MacKinnon, David; Cournoyer, Luc; Beraldin, J.-Angelo

    2011-03-01

    The National Research Council of Canada (NRC) is currently evaluating and designing artifacts and methods to completely characterize 3-D imaging systems. We have gathered a set of artifacts to form a low-cost portable case and provide a clearly-defined set of procedures for generating characteristic values using these artifacts. In its current version, this case is specifically designed for the characterization of short-range (standoff distance of 1 centimeter to 3 meters) triangulation-based 3-D imaging systems. The case is known as the "NRC Portable Target Case for Short-Range Triangulation-based 3-D Imaging Systems" (NRC-PTC). The artifacts in the case have been carefully chosen for their geometric, thermal, and optical properties. A set of characterization procedures are provided with these artifacts based on procedures either already in use or are based on knowledge acquired from various tests carried out by the NRC. Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T), a well-known terminology in the industrial field, was used to define the set of tests. The following parameters of a system are characterized: dimensional properties, form properties, orientation properties, localization properties, profile properties, repeatability, intermediate precision, and reproducibility. A number of tests were performed in a special dimensional metrology laboratory to validate the capability of the NRC-PTC. The NRC-PTC will soon be subjected to reproducibility testing using an intercomparison evaluation to validate its use in different laboratories.

  10. Application of PLUTO Test Facility for U. S. NRC Licensing of a Fuel Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Dongseok; Shin, Changhwan; Lee, Kanghee; Kang, Heungseok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The fuel assembly of the PLUS-7 loaded in the APR-1400 follows the same schedule. Meanwhile, In July 1998, the U.S. NRC adopted a research plan to address the effects of high burnup from a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). From these programs, several important technical findings for rule revision were obtained. Based on the technical findings, the U. S. NRC has amended the 10 CFR 50.46 which will be proclaimed sooner or later. Through the amendment, a LOCA analysis on the fuel assembly has to show the safety at both a fresh and End of Life (EOL) state. The U. S. NRC has already required EOL effects on seismic/LOCA performance for a fuel assembly since 1998. To obtain U.S NRC licensing of a fuel assembly, based on the amendment of 10CFR50.46, a LOCA analysis of the fuel assembly has to show safety both fresh and EOL states. The proper damping factor of the fuel assembly measured at the hydraulic test loop for a dynamic model in a LOCA and a seismic analysis code are at least required. In this paper, we have examined the damping technologies and compared the test facility of PLUTO with others in terms of performance. PLUTO has a better performance on the operating conditions than any others.

  11. Evaluation of allowed outage time using PRA results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanson, G.

    1985-01-01

    In a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) different measures of risk importance can be established. These measures can be used as a basis for further evaluation and determination of allowed outage time for specific components, within safety systems of a nuclear power plant. In order to optimize the allowed outage time (AOT) stipulated in the plant's Technical Specification it is necessary to create a methodology which could incorporate existing PRA data into a quantitative extrapolation. In order to evaluate the plant risk status due to AOT in a quantitative manner, the risk achievement worth is utilized. Risk achievement worth is defined as follows: to measure the worth of a feature, in achieving the present risk, one approach is to remove the feature and then determine how much the risk has increased. Thus, the risk achievement worth is formally defined to be the increase in risk if the feature were assumed not be there or to be failed. Another parameter of interest for this analysis is the shutdown risk increase. The shutdown risk achievement worth must be incorporated into the accident sequence risk achievement worth to arrive at an optimal set of plant specific AOTs

  12. 75 FR 13611 - Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and PRA; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and PRA; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Reliability and PRA Subcommittee will hold a meeting on April 7...

  13. 40 CFR 180.1200 - Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1200 Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25; temporary... established for residues of the microbial pesticide, pseudomonas fluorescens strain PRA-25 when used on peas...

  14. 78 FR 22349 - Guidance on the Treatment of Uncertainties Associated With PRA in Risk-Informed Decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... COMMISSION Guidance on the Treatment of Uncertainties Associated With PRA in Risk-Informed Decisionmaking..., Revision 1, ``Guidance on the Treatment of Uncertainties Associated with PRA in Risk-Informed... INFORMATION: NUREG-1855, Revision 1, Guidance on the Treatment of Uncertainties Associated with PRA in Risk...

  15. Amalgamation of performance indicators to support NRC senior management reviews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wreathall, J.; Schurman, D.; Modarres, M.; Mosleh, A.; Anderson, N.; Reason, J.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop a methodology for amalgamating performance indicators to provide an overall perspective on plant safety, as one input to Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) senior management reviews of plant safety. These reviews are used to adjust the level of oversight by NRC. Work completed to date includes the development of frameworks for relating indicator measures to safety, a classification scheme for performance indicators, and a mapping process to portray indicators in the frameworks

  16. Regulatory decision with EPA/NRC/DOE/State Session (Panel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Donnell, E.

    1995-12-31

    This panel will cover the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) proposed radiation limits in the Branch Technical Position on Low-Level Radioactive Waste Performance Assessment and the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) draft regulation in Part 193. Representatives from NRC and EPA will discuss the inconsistencies in these two regulations. DOE and state representatives will discuss their perspective on how these regulations will affect low-level radioactive waste performance assessments.

  17. Staged licensing: An essential element of the NRC's revised regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echols, F.S.

    1997-01-01

    Over the past several years, Congress has directed the Department of Energy (DOE), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to abandon their efforts to assess an array of potential candidate geologic repository sites for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear reactor fuel and high level radioactive waste, to develop generally applicable requirements for licensing geologic repositories, and to develop generally applicable radiation protection standards for geologic repositories, and instead to focus their efforts to determine whether a single site located at Yucca Mountain, Nevada can be developed as a geologic repository which providing reasonable assurance that public health and safety and the environment will be adequately protected. If the Yucca Mountain site is found to be suitable for development as a geologic repository, then at each stage of development DOE will have to provide the NRC with progressively more detailed information regarding repository design and long-term performance. NRC regulations reflect the fact that it will not be until the repository has been operated for a number of years that the NRC will be able to make a final determination as to long-term repository performance. Nevertheless, the NRC will be able to allow DOE to construct and operate a repository, provided that the NRC believes that the documented results of existing studies, together with the anticipated results from continuing and future studies, will enable the NRC to make a final determination that it has reasonable assurance that the repository system's long-term performance will not cause undue risk to the public. Thus, in its efforts to revise its current regulations to assure that the technical criteria are specifically applicable to the Yucca Mountain site, the NRC should also make sure that it preserves and clarifies the concept of staged repository development

  18. Safety Second: the NRC and America's nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adato, M.; MacKenzie, J.; Pollard, R.; Weiss, E.

    1987-01-01

    In 1975, Congress created the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Its primary responsibility was to be the regulation of the nuclear power industry in order to maintain public health and safety. On March 28, 1979, in the worst commercial nuclear accident in US history, the plant at Three Mile Island began to leak radioactive material. How was Three Mile Island possible? Where was the NRC? This analysis by the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) of the NRC's first decade, points specifically to the factors that contributed to the accident at Three Mile Island. The NRC, created as a watchdog of the nuclear power industry, suffers from problems of mindset, says the UCS. The commission's problems are political, not technical; it repeatedly ranks special interests above the interest of public safety. This book critiques the NRC's performance in four specific areas. It charges that the agency has avoided tackling the most pervasive safety issues; has limited public participation in decision making and power plant licensing; has failed to enforce safety standards or conduct adequate regulation investigations; and, finally, has maintained a fraternal relationship with the industry it was created to regulate, serving as its advocate rather than it adversary. The final chapter offers recommendations for agency improvement that must be met if the NRC is to fulfill its responsibility for safety first

  19. Status report on NRC's current below regulatory concern activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragonette, K.S.

    1988-01-01

    The concept of below regulatory concern (BRC) is not new to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or its predecessor agency, the Atomic Energy Commission. The regulations and licensing decisions have involved limited and de facto decisions on BRC since the beginning. For example, consumer products containing radioactive materials have been approved for distribution to persons exempt from licensing for some time and procedures for survey and release of equipment have traditionally been a part of many licensees' radiation safety programs. However, these actions have generally been ad hoc decisions in response to specific needs and have not been necessarily consistent. The need to deal with this regulatory matter has been receiving attention from both Congress and the NRC Commissioners. NRC response has grown from addressing specific waste streams, to generic rulemaking for wastes, and finally to efforts to develop a broad generic BRC policy. Section 10 of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 addressed NRC actions on specific waste streams. In response, NRC issued guidance on rulemaking petitions for specific wastes. NRC also issued an advance notice of proposed rulemaking indicating consideration of Commission initiated regulations to address BRC wastes in a generic manner. The Commissioners have directed staff to develop an umbrella policy for all agency decisions concerning levels of risk or dose that do not require government regulation

  20. An Improved Seismic PRA Method for a Korean NPP Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Kyu; Choun, Young Sun; Choi, In Kil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ohtori, Yasuki [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Abiko (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    The safety of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) can be evaluated by the Core Damage Frequency (CDF). For the calculation of the CDF, seismic hazard evaluation results, seismic fragility analysis results and plant system information are needed. Using this information, an accident scenario through a core damage can be analyzed and finally the CDF can be determined. The well known CDF calculation program is EQESRA (1995) which was developed by EQE International INC. The EQESRA is widely used for a seismic probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) in a Korean NPP site. In this study, a new methodology for the CDF calculation was developed. For a validation about the developed method, an analysis was performed and compared to that of the previous results. Finally, the developed method was applied to the Yonggwang 5,6 unit in the case of an isolated EDG system.

  1. Pra que time ele joga?: a produção da identidade homossexual em um vídeo educativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Fernandes Dinis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to analyze the discourse about homosexuality by means of a research with undergraduate students of Physical Education. For this purpose, it made use of the film "Pra que time ele joga?" as a tool of discussing the theme with the research group, aiming to observe what kind of opinions these students have about homosexuality, as well as the discursive production of the image of homosexual subject produced by the educational videotape.

  2. Studi Awal Pra Desain Pabrik Bioetanol dari Nira Siwalan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novarian Budisetyowati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioetanol kini banyak dikembangkan sebagai bahan bakar alternatif pengganti bahan bakar fosil. Bioetanol untuk campuran bensin harus memiliki kemurnian sebesar 99,5-100%. Bioetanol dapat diperoleh dengan proses fermentasi yang melibatkan mikroorganisme. Pra desain pabrik bioetanol dari nira siwalan ini menggunakan proses fermentasi. Bahan baku berupa nira siwalan diasamkan dengan menggunakan H2SO4, kemudian disterilisasi sebelum difermentasi di fermentor selama 36 jam. Adapun mikroorganisme yang digunakan adalah Saccharomyces cereviceae. Bakteri ini mampu mengurai gula tanpa kehadiran oksigen dan menghasilkan etanol dan karbondioksida. Bioetanol dapat diperoleh dengan proses fermentasi yang melibatkan mikroorganisme. Pra desain pabrik bioetanol dari nira siwalan ini menggunakan proses fermentasi. Bahan baku berupa nira siwalan diasamkan dengan menggunakan H2SO4, kemudian disterilisasi sebelum difermentasi di fermentor selama 36 jam. Adapun mikroorganisme yang digunakan adalah Saccharomyces cereviceae. Setelah dari fermentor nira yang sudah difermentasi dinetralkan pH nya menggunakan NH4OH di tangki netralisasi. Dari tangki netralisasi nira dipompakan melewati preheater sebelum masuk ke kolom distilasi. Pemurnian dilakukan dengan menggunakan kolom distilasi sebanyak 2 buah. Pada distilasi yang pertama diperoleh kadar etanol sebesar 60% dan pada distilasi yang kedua diperoleh kadar 96%. Dari kolom distilasi 2 larutan didinginkan menggunakan cooler untuk didapatkan suhu 32oC agar sesuai dengan suhu proses dehidrasi dengan menggunakan Molecular Sieve yang diinginkan. Proses dehidrasi dilakukan untuk mendapat kadar etanol 99,5%. Etanol 99,5% yang dihasilkan kemudian disimpan dalam tangki penampung. Kebutuhan bioetanol dalam negeri pada tahun 2018 diperkirakan 3.166.015,13 kL/tahun. Berdasarkan analisa ekonomi yang dilakukan, diperoleh hasil sebagai berikut internal rate of return 26,53 % per tahun, pay out time 4,73 tahun, dan BEP 34,62 % Ditinjau

  3. Development and application of an operational Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) at Ontario Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaasalainen, S.; Mok, J.; Donnelly, K.; Dinnie, K. [Nuclear Safety Solutions Ltd., Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ganguli, S.; Moisin, M. [Ontario Power Generation, Pickering, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Ontario Power Generation Inc. has embraced the use of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) in operational decision-making. Common examples include decisions related to continued operation while in an abnormal plant configuration based on incremental risk increase, and the use of risk monitors (i.e., Equipment Out-of-Service (EOOS)) for outage planning and managing risk during on-line maintenance. Unlike the baseline PRA where average risk is calculated, these operational decisions/tools are best made using a real-time, or instantaneous analysis reflecting actual plant configuration. The process of taking the baseline, time-averaged PRA, to an instantaneous model is part of broader process of 'operationalizing' the plant PRA. Additional items in the process include activities related to the development of the risk monitors themselves, and the development and establishment of procedures and governance related to the use of the PRA and risk monitors in applications. This paper looks into the processes and factors requiring consideration when 'operationalizing' a nuclear power plant PRA. As well, the paper includes a case study describing the use of an operational PRA to support the decision-making process at Pickering NGS B. (author)

  4. NRC/UBC fuelling station with intelligent compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dada, A.; Boyd, B.; Law, L.; Semczyszyn, D.

    2004-01-01

    BOC Canada Ltd. will design, integrate and construct the second fueling station on the Hydrogen Highway. This station will be located at the National Research Council's Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation on the campus of the University of British Columbia. BOC's design will bring together an existing alkaline electrolyser, new compression, storage and dispensing. The station will be designed to serve fuel cell passenger vehicles using 350-bar storage. However, the flexible design concept will allow for many other user needs including the potential for servicing larger vehicles, as well as filling portable storage systems for use at satellite stations. The novel station design also offers the potential to fuel from multiple hydrogen sources. Together with NRC, this fueling station will be used to increase public, consumer and investor awareness of hydrogen technologies. Design and construction of this facility will assist in the development of industry codes and standards and familiarize authorities having jurisdiction with hydrogen fueling. The system concept offers the utmost attention to safety, novelty and flexibility. (author)

  5. NRC Reviewer Aid for Evaluating the Human Factors Engineering Aspects of Small Modular Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OHara, J.M.; Higgins, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) are a promising approach to meeting future energy needs. Although the electrical output of an individual SMR is relatively small compared to that of typical commercial nuclear plants, they can be grouped to produce as much energy as a utility demands. Furthermore, SMRs can be used for other purposes, such as producing hydrogen and generating process heat. The design characteristics of many SMRs differ from those of current conventional plants and may require a distinct concept of operations (ConOps). The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) conducted research to examine the human factors engineering (HFE) and the operational aspects of SMRs. The research identified thirty potential human-performance issues that should be considered in the NRC's reviews of SMR designs and in future research activities. The purpose of this report is to support NRC HFE reviewers of SMR applications by identifying some of the questions that can be asked of applicants whose designs have characteristics identified in the issues. The questions for each issue were identified and organized based on the review elements and guidance contained in Chapter 18 of the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800), and the Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (NUREG-0711).

  6. NRC Reviewer Aid for Evaluating the Human Factors Engineering Aspects of Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OHara J. M.; Higgins, J.C.

    2012-01-13

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) are a promising approach to meeting future energy needs. Although the electrical output of an individual SMR is relatively small compared to that of typical commercial nuclear plants, they can be grouped to produce as much energy as a utility demands. Furthermore, SMRs can be used for other purposes, such as producing hydrogen and generating process heat. The design characteristics of many SMRs differ from those of current conventional plants and may require a distinct concept of operations (ConOps). The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) conducted research to examine the human factors engineering (HFE) and the operational aspects of SMRs. The research identified thirty potential human-performance issues that should be considered in the NRC's reviews of SMR designs and in future research activities. The purpose of this report is to support NRC HFE reviewers of SMR applications by identifying some of the questions that can be asked of applicants whose designs have characteristics identified in the issues. The questions for each issue were identified and organized based on the review elements and guidance contained in Chapter 18 of the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800), and the Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (NUREG-0711).

  7. 10 CFR 2.1202 - Authority and role of NRC staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority and role of NRC staff. 2.1202 Section 2.1202... ORDERS Informal Hearing Procedures for NRC Adjudications § 2.1202 Authority and role of NRC staff. (a) During the pendency of any hearing under this subpart, consistent with the NRC staff's findings in its...

  8. MATILDA: A Military Laser Range Safety Tool Based on Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    AFRL-RH-FS-TR-2014-0035 MATILDA: A Military Laser Range Safety Tool Based on Probabilistic Risk Assessment ( PRA ) Techniques Paul... PRA ) Techniques 2014 KENNEDY.PAUL.K.1231446318 Digitally signed by KENNEDY.PAUL.K.1231446318 DN: c=US, o=U.S. Government, ou=DoD, ou=PKI, ou=USAF...Based on Probabilistic Risk Assessment ( PRA ) Techniques 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-14-D-6519 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  9. NRC plan for cleanup operations at Three Mile Island Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, R.; Snyder, B.J.

    1980-07-01

    The NRC plan defines the functional role of the NRC in cleanup operations at Three Mile Island Unit 2 to assure that agency regulatory responsibilities and objectives will be fulfilled. The plan outlines NRC functions in TMI-2 cleanup operations in the following areas: (1) the functional relationship of NRC to other government agencies, the public, and the licensee to coordinate activities, (2) the functional roles of these organizations in cleanup operations, (3) the NRC review and decision-making procedure for the licensee's proposed cleanup operation, (4) the NRC/licensee estimated schedule of major actions, and (5) NRC's functional role in overseeing implementation of approved licensee activities

  10. Aliskiren fails to lower blood pressure in patients who have either low PRA levels or whose PRA falls insufficiently or reactively rises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealey, Jean E; Laragh, John H

    2009-01-01

    Suppressed baseline plasma renin activity (PRA) levels or large reactive increases in renin secretion are two possible reasons for treatment failure with antirenin system drugs. To investigate their prevalence we reanalyzed data from three published clinical trials of the renin inhibitor aliskiren. Aliskiren failed to lower systolic blood pressure (SBP) by at least 10 mm Hg in half of all patients. It was very effective in two-thirds of medium- to high-renin patients (-19 mm Hg). But BP did not fall in most low-renin patients, or in 30% of medium- to high-renin patients. BP actually rose by >10 mm Hg in 5% of patients taking aliskiren and in >10% of patients when aliskiren was added to an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI). PRA changed in parallel with BP. Although PRA fell in most patients, it actually rose in 5% and in up to 30% when aliskiren was added to an ARB or ACEI. There are two reasons for treatment failure with aliskiren. Many hypertensive patients have large BP falls. But, BP does not fall in most low-renin patients or in medium- to high-renin patients whose PRA levels do not fall sufficiently. If the concept of that treatment resistance is caused by excessive reactive increases in renin secretion is confirmed, then a PRA determination during treatment could be used to guide subsequent addition or subtraction of either natriuretic or antirenin drug types, to thereby correct BP and reduce cardiovascular risk.

  11. Assessment of current NRC/IE professional training program and recommendations for improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartley, H.J.; Hagerup, J.E.; Harrison, O.J.; Heyer, F.H.K.; Kaas, I.W.; Schwartz, E.G.

    1978-05-01

    This document is the General Research Corporation (GRC) report on Task III: to assess the current NRC/IE professional training program and to provide recommendations for improvement. The major objectives of this task were to determine the overall effectiveness of the NRC/IE training program and to provide recommendations for improvements where appropriate. The research involved a review of course manuals and of student critiques, observation in the classroom and person to person interviews; it also included an evaluation of the assignment of instructors to the Career Management Branch. Findings addressed refresher training, retread training and initial training--with emphasis on the last of these. Conclusions are that: (1) The curriculum provides, in general, types and levels of training needed; (2) the mix of training methods used is correct; and (3) the training management is effective. However, the training facilities do not reflect a commitment to quality instruction nor is assignment as instructor to the Career Management Branch attractive to inspectors. Recommendations presented in the report are based upon the findings; all lie within the implementing authority of Headquarters NRC/IE

  12. Congress, NRC mull utility access to FBI criminal files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultroska, D.

    1984-01-01

    Experiences at Alabama Power Company and other nuclear utilities have promped a request for institutionalizing security checks of personnel in order to eliminated convicted criminals and drug users. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), which could provide FBI criminal history information by submitting fingerprints, does not do so, and would require new legislation to take on that duty. Believing that current malevolent employees can be managed with existing procedures, NRC allows criminal background checks only on prospective employees in order to avoid a negative social impact on personnel. Legislation to transfer criminal histories to nuclear facilities is now pending, and NRC is leaning toward a request for full disclosure, partly because of terrorist threats and partly to save manpower time and costs in reviewing case histories

  13. Initial experience with the NRC significance determination process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madison, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has revamped its inspection, assessment, and enforcement programs for commercial nuclear power plants. The new oversight process uses more objective, timely, and safety-significant criteria in assessing performance, while seeking to more effectively and efficiently regulate the industry. The NRC tested the new process at thirteen reactors at nine sites across the country on a pilot basis in 1999 to identify what things worked well and what improvements were called for before beginning Initial Implementation at all US nuclear power plants on April 2, 2000. After a year of experience has been gained with the new oversight process at all US plants, the NRC anticipates making further improvements based on this wider experience. (author)

  14. Clinical significance of PRA and ATII RIA for the typing of essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yongqing; Zhu Daocheng; Wu Baiming

    1995-01-01

    This paper presented the levels of plasma renin activity (PRA) and angiotensin II (ATII) in 70 cases of normals and 128 cases of essential hypertension (EH). The results showed that normal plasma PRA (70 cases) and ATII (40 cases) were 0.432 +- 0.236 μg/(L·h), and 31.7 +- 7.4 ng/L respectively. In 128 cases of EH plasma PRA increased, normal and decreased in 18.0%, 71.8% and 10.2 of cases; while ATII in 14%, 64.2% and 14.9% respectively. It was concluded that grouping of EH by plasma PRA and ATII level may provide a good indices for treatment

  15. How Can You Support RIDM/CRM/RM Through the Use of PRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    DoVemto. Tpmu

    2011-01-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is one of key Risk Informed Decision Making (RIDM) tools. It is a scenario-based methodology aimed at identifying and assessing Safety and Technical Performance risks in complex technological systems.

  16. VG2 NEP PRA RESAMPLED SUMMARY BROWSE 48SEC V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of edited browse data derived from an original dataset obtained from the Voyager 2 Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) instrument in the vicinity...

  17. VG2 URA PRA RESAMPLED SUMMARY BROWSE 48SEC V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of edited browse data derived from an original dataset obtained from the Voyager 2 Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) instrument in the vicinity...

  18. Respirator studies for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaggs, B.J.; Fairchild, C.I.; DeField, J.D.; Hack, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    A project of the Health, Safety and Environment Division is described. The project provides the NRC with information of respiratory protective devices and programs for their licensee personnel. The following activities were performed during FY 1983: selection of alternate test aerosols for quality assurance testing of high-efficiency particulate air respirator filters; evaluation of MAG-1 spectacles for use with positive and negative-pressure respirators; development of a Manual of Respiratory Protection in Emergencies Involving Airborne Radioactive Materials, and technical assistance to NRC licensees regarding respirator applications. 2 references, 1 figure

  19. ASSESSMENT OF DYNAMIC PRA TECHNIQUES WITH INDUSTRY AVERAGE COMPONENT PERFORMANCE DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Vaibhav; Agarwal, Vivek; Gribok, Andrei V.; Smith, Curtis L.

    2017-06-01

    In the nuclear industry, risk monitors are intended to provide a point-in-time estimate of the system risk given the current plant configuration. Current risk monitors are limited in that they do not properly take into account the deteriorating states of plant equipment, which are unit-specific. Current approaches to computing risk monitors use probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) techniques, but the assessment is typically a snapshot in time. Living PRA models attempt to address limitations of traditional PRA models in a limited sense by including temporary changes in plant and system configurations. However, information on plant component health are not considered. This often leaves risk monitors using living PRA models incapable of conducting evaluations with dynamic degradation scenarios evolving over time. There is a need to develop enabling approaches to solidify risk monitors to provide time and condition-dependent risk by integrating traditional PRA models with condition monitoring and prognostic techniques. This paper presents estimation of system risk evolution over time by integrating plant risk monitoring data with dynamic PRA methods incorporating aging and degradation. Several online, non-destructive approaches have been developed for diagnosing plant component conditions in nuclear industry, i.e., condition indication index, using vibration analysis, current signatures, and operational history [1]. In this work the component performance measures at U.S. commercial nuclear power plants (NPP) [2] are incorporated within the various dynamic PRA methodologies [3] to provide better estimates of probability of failures. Aging and degradation is modeled within the Level-1 PRA framework and is applied to several failure modes of pumps and can be extended to a range of components, viz. valves, generators, batteries, and pipes.

  20. Dynamic Positioning System (DPS) Risk Analysis Using Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thigpen, Eric B.; Boyer, Roger L.; Stewart, Michael A.; Fougere, Pete

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Safety & Mission Assurance (S&MA) directorate at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) has applied its knowledge and experience with Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to projects in industries ranging from spacecraft to nuclear power plants. PRA is a comprehensive and structured process for analyzing risk in complex engineered systems and/or processes. The PRA process enables the user to identify potential risk contributors such as, hardware and software failure, human error, and external events. Recent developments in the oil and gas industry have presented opportunities for NASA to lend their PRA expertise to both ongoing and developmental projects within the industry. This paper provides an overview of the PRA process and demonstrates how this process was applied in estimating the probability that a Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit (MODU) operating in the Gulf of Mexico and equipped with a generically configured Dynamic Positioning System (DPS) loses location and needs to initiate an emergency disconnect. The PRA described in this paper is intended to be generic such that the vessel meets the general requirements of an International Maritime Organization (IMO) Maritime Safety Committee (MSC)/Circ. 645 Class 3 dynamically positioned vessel. The results of this analysis are not intended to be applied to any specific drilling vessel, although provisions were made to allow the analysis to be configured to a specific vessel if required.

  1. [Plasma renin activity (PRA) and aldosterone (PA) during submaximal exercise. Effect of training (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib, C; Vincent, M; Annat, G; Allevard, A M; Geelen, G; Geyssant, A; Eclache, J P; Lacour, R; Bizollon, C A

    1981-03-01

    The effect of training on PRA, PA, hematocrit and weight loss was studied at rest and following an exercise performed until exhaustion. Two groups of subjects were used, the first, a group of 4 young well trained men (88.6% +/- 7.7 V02 max) and the second a group of 4 young untrained men (77.5% +/- 7 V02 max). PRA and PA displayed highly significant increases after exercise in both groups, but PRA resting values were lower in the well trained subjects (p less than 0.05). PRA values were also lower in the latter group after exercise, but the difference in this case was not significant. Further, the variation of hematocrit was less (p less than 0.05) and the weight loss greater in the well trained subjects. In an additional experiment, the same parameters were studied in four subjects submitted to a five month training programme (87% V02 max). Though resting values for PA remained unchanged after training, PRA resting values and PRA post exercise values were significantly lower. A comparison between the magnitude of weight loss and hematocrit variation showed that when untrained subjects became trained, the variation of hematocrit was smaller (p less than 0.05) while weight loss was larger (p less than 0.01). These observations could be explained in terms of the change in blood volume, and/or a decrease in sympathetic nervous activity induced by training.

  2. NRC inspections of licensee activities to improve the performance of motor-operated valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarbrough, T.G.

    1992-01-01

    The NRC regulations require that components important to the safe operation of a nuclear power plant be treated in a manner that provides assurance of their proper performance. Despite these regulatory requirements, operating experience and research programs have raised concerns regarding the performance of motor-operated valves (MOVs) in nuclear power plants. In June 1990, the staff issued NUREG-1352, Action Plans for Motor-Operated Valves and Check Valves, which contains planned actions to organize the activities aimed at resolving the concerns about MOV performance. A significant task of the MOV action plan is the staff's review of the implementation of Generic Letter (GL) 89-10 (June 28, 1989), 'Safety-Related Motor-Operated Valve Testing and Surveillance,' and its supplements, by nuclear power plant licensees. The NRC staff has issued several supplements to GL 89-10 to provide additional guidance for use by licensees in responding to the generic letter. The NRC staff has conducted initial inspections of the GL 89-10 programs at most licensee facilities. This paper outlines some of the more significant findings of those inspections. For example, licensees who have begun differential pressure and flow testing have found some MOVs to require more thrust to operate than predicted by the standard industry equation with typical valve factors assumed in the past. The NRC staff has found weaknesses in licensee procedures for conducting the differential pressure and flow tests, the acceptance criteria for the tests in evaluating the capability of the MOV to perform its safety function under design basis conditions, and feedback of the test results into the methodology used by the licensee in predicting the thrust requirements for other MOVs. Some licensees have not made adequate progress toward resolving the MOV issue for their facilities within the recommended schedule of GL 89-10

  3. Recalibration of the Viyager PRA antenna for polarization sense measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Carr, T. D.

    1994-01-01

    The Voyager Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) antenna and receiver system provides an indication of the sense of elliptical or circular polarization of radiation that is not correct for all directions of incidence. The true sense could be determined for all directions if accurate calibration data were available. It was not feasible to make the calibration before the Voyagers were launched. Lecacheux & Ortega-Molina (1987), however, were able to derive such calibration data from planetary radio observations made in flight. They expressed their results in terms of the tilt of a plane (the E-plane) that divides the incident ray directions for which the indicated polarization sense is correct from those directions for which the indicated sense is reversed. We demonstrate that there are certain directions for which this calibration is itself in error, and that the surface dividing the two sets of incident rays is more complex than a tilted plane. We are able to make a crude approximation to the true surface from the limited data available.

  4. NRC's limit on intake of uranium-ore dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, S.A.

    1983-04-01

    In 1960 the Atomic Energy Commission adopted an interim limit on the intake by inhalation of airborne uranium-ore dust. This report culminates two decades of research aimed at establishing the adequacy of that limit. The report concludes that the AEC underestimated the time that thorium-230, a constituent of uranium-ore dust, would remain in the human lung. The AEC assumed that thorium-230 in ore dust would behave like uranium with a 120-day biological half-life in the lung. This report concludes that the biological half-life is actually on the order of 1 year. Correcting the AEC's underestimate would cause a reduction in the permitted airborne concentration of uranium-ore dust. However, another factor that cancels the need for that reduction was found. The uranium ore dust in uranium mills was found to occur with very large particle sizes (10-micron activity median aerodynamic diameter). The particles are so large that relatively few of them are deposited in the pulmonary region of the lung, where they would be subject to long-term retention. Instead they are trapped in the upper regions of the respiratory tract, subsequently swallowed, and then rapidly excreted from the body through the gastrointestinal tract. The two effects are of about the same magnitude but in opposing directions. Thus the present uranium-ore dust intake limit in NRC regulations should provide a level of protection consistent with that provided for other airborne radioactive materials. The report recalculates the limit on intake of uranium-ore dust using the derived air concentrations (DAC) from the International Commission on Radiological Protection's recent Publication 30. The report concludes that the silica contained in uranium-ore dust is a greater hazard to workers than the radiological hazard

  5. Risk-informed inservice test activities at the NRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, D.; Cheok, M.; Hsia, A.

    1996-01-01

    The operational readiness of certain safety-related components is vital to the safe operation of nuclear power plants. Inservice testing (IST) is one of the mechanisms used by licensees to ensure this readiness. In the past, the type and frequency of IST have been based on the collective best judgment of the NRC and industry in an ASME Code consensus process and NRC rulemaking process. Furthermore, IST requirements have not explicitly considered unique component and system designs and contribution to overall plant risk. Because of the general nature of ASME Code test requirements and non-reliance on risk estimates, current IST requirements may not adequately emphasize testing those components that are most important to safety and may overly emphasize testing of less safety significant components. Nuclear power plant licensees are currently interested in optimizing testing by applying resources in more safety significant areas and, where appropriate, reducing measures in less safety-significant areas. They are interested in maintaining system availability and reducing overall maintenance costs in ways that do not adversely affect safety. The NRC has been interested in using probabilistic, as an adjunct to deterministic, techniques to help define the scope, type and frequency of IST. The development of risk-informed IST programs has the potential to optimize the use of NRC and industry resources without adverse affect on safety

  6. Risk-informed inservice test activities at the NRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, D.; Cheok, M.; Hsia, A.

    1996-12-01

    The operational readiness of certain safety-related components is vital to the safe operation of nuclear power plants. Inservice testing (IST) is one of the mechanisms used by licensees to ensure this readiness. In the past, the type and frequency of IST have been based on the collective best judgment of the NRC and industry in an ASME Code consensus process and NRC rulemaking process. Furthermore, IST requirements have not explicitly considered unique component and system designs and contribution to overall plant risk. Because of the general nature of ASME Code test requirements and non-reliance on risk estimates, current IST requirements may not adequately emphasize testing those components that are most important to safety and may overly emphasize testing of less safety significant components. Nuclear power plant licensees are currently interested in optimizing testing by applying resources in more safety significant areas and, where appropriate, reducing measures in less safety-significant areas. They are interested in maintaining system availability and reducing overall maintenance costs in ways that do not adversely affect safety. The NRC has been interested in using probabilistic, as an adjunct to deterministic, techniques to help define the scope, type and frequency of IST. The development of risk-informed IST programs has the potential to optimize the use of NRC and industry resources without adverse affect on safety.

  7. Management-organization effectiveness as revealed by NRC diagnostic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, D.F. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    As part of the issuance of a license to operate a nuclear power plant, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) determines that the prospective licensee is qualified to engage in the activities authorized by the operating license. The NRC now places greater importance on the effect of management and organizational effectiveness on operating plant performance and has developed new tools for evaluation of plant performance and the effectiveness of license management in ensuring high levels of safety. The diagnostic evaluation (DE) program was developed by the NRC to assess management and organizational effectiveness at operating plants. A DE is a broad-based evaluation of licensee and plant safety performance. A major objective of a DE is the assessment of license management and organizational effectiveness. Plants are chosen based on a perceived need for NRC's senior management to better understand that plant's performance. A DE seeks to determine area(s) of strengths and weaknesses in a licensee's management and organization. In the case of performance weaknesses, a DE seeks to determine the root causes of these weaknesses as well as the adequacy and effectiveness of licensee improvement initiatives to address the significant performance weaknesses and their root causes

  8. NRC Regulatory Agenda. Quarterly report, July-September 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    The Regulatory Agenda is a quarterly compilation of all rules on which the NRC has proposed, or is considering action as well as those on which it has recently completed action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received and are pending disposition by the Commission

  9. NRC Regulatory Agenda: Quarterly report, January--March 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    The Regulatory Agenda is a quarterly compilation of all rules on which the NRC has proposed, or is considering action as well as those on which it has recently completed action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received and are pending disposition by the Commission

  10. Agency procedures for the NRC incident response plan. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-02-01

    The NRC Incident Response Plan, NUREG-0728/MC 0502 describes the functions of the NRC during an incident and the kinds of actions that comprise an NRC response. The NRC response plan will be activated in accordance with threshold criteria described in the plan for incidents occurring at nuclear reactors and fuel facilities involving materials licensees; during transportation of licensed material, and for threats against facilities or licensed material. In contrast to the general overview provided by the Plan, the purpose of these agency procedures is to delineate the manner in which each planned response function is performed; the criteria for making those response decisions which can be preplanned; and the information and other resources needed during a response. An inexperienced but qualified person should be able to perform functions assigned by the Plan and make necessary decisions, given the specified information, by becoming familiar with these procedures. This rule of thumb has been used to determine the amount of detail in which the agency procedures are described. These procedures form a foundation for the training of response personnel both in their normal working environment and during planned emergency exercises. These procedures also form a ready reference or reminder checklist for technical team members and managers during a response

  11. PRA-1 offshore platform start-up within seven days; Operacionalizacao da plataforma offshore PRA-1 em sete dias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Fernando; Mitidieri, Jorge; Faria, Jose Luis Coutinho de; Ribeiro, Juan Carlos; Moura, Mario Arthur [Construtora Norberto Oderbrecht S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The technologic innovations are very hard features with regards to Offshore Engineering and Construction over the worldwide. The innovations only make sense since they are focus on the high productivity, safe job and cost reduction compared with the current technologies. Inside the scenario mentioned above is Construtora Norberto Odebrecht S.A. concept for the PRA-1 platform Engineering and Construction. Through a very advanced and innovation concept, it was defined as the Main Strategic Planning of the undertaking not use a temporary platform support (named in Brazil as 'Flotel') during the 'Hook-up', commissioning and star-up offshore phase. The success of the strategic made possible through the implementation of new engineering tools, and, besides this, through a very careful offshore planning focused on minimizing and make easier as much as possible the offshore activities. The planning can be basically spitted on the following parts: A- Onshore preparations (Assembly, Integration and Commissioning of the Utilities and Accommodation Modules) B- Offshore detailed planning of the critical activities concerning the start-up of the systems responsible for leaving the platform ready for 'live'. This operation was defined as 'seven days of platform live support' (main target of this paper). (author)

  12. Use of PRA in the nuclear regulatory field in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, T.F.

    1994-01-01

    The nuclear regulatory authority in South Africa (since 1988 the Council for Nuclear Safety (CNS)), established in 1973 nuclear safety criteria against which to assess the level of safety of any facility using radioactive material. It is a regulatory requirement in South Africa to develop and maintain a living PRA for each facility and thereby to provide the necessary information to demonstrate compliance against these criteria. All safety submissions to the CNS must include at least a risk statement based on an accepted PRA study. The function of the CNS is to regulate all activities in South Africa involving the use of radioactive material and posing a significant risk to the public or plant personnel. This includes most aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle and the Koeberg NPS (two 2775 MW(th) PWRs). A PRA study including source terms for the two Koeberg units was presented by the contractor in 1979. This included the risk due to power and shutdown states and non reactor related accidents involving spent fuel storage, fuel handling and waste treatment related activities. At least 20 PRA studies have been performed for other nuclear facilities in the country. The CNS maintains an in-house PRA capability to perform independent assessments of licensee submission, to participate in developments of PRA methodology in the regulatory field, to perform pro-active safety work and to assist in regulatory decision making. Present ongoing work includes the development of a risk monitor, a risk management system, improvement in PRA codes, models, data collection and analysis, off-site risk assessment methodology and associated regulatory policy. (author). 1 fig

  13. Candida albicans scavenges host zinc via Pra1 during endothelial invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Citiulo

    Full Text Available The ability of pathogenic microorganisms to assimilate essential nutrients from their hosts is critical for pathogenesis. Here we report endothelial zinc sequestration by the major human fungal pathogen, Candida albicans. We hypothesised that, analogous to siderophore-mediated iron acquisition, C. albicans utilises an extracellular zinc scavenger for acquiring this essential metal. We postulated that such a "zincophore" system would consist of a secreted factor with zinc-binding properties, which can specifically reassociate with the fungal cell surface. In silico analysis of the C. albicans secretome for proteins with zinc binding motifs identified the pH-regulated antigen 1 (Pra1. Three-dimensional modelling of Pra1 indicated the presence of at least two zinc coordination sites. Indeed, recombinantly expressed Pra1 exhibited zinc binding properties in vitro. Deletion of PRA1 in C. albicans prevented fungal sequestration and utilisation of host zinc, and specifically blocked host cell damage in the absence of exogenous zinc. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that PRA1 arose in an ancient fungal lineage and developed synteny with ZRT1 (encoding a zinc transporter before divergence of the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. Structural modelling indicated physical interaction between Pra1 and Zrt1 and we confirmed this experimentally by demonstrating that Zrt1 was essential for binding of soluble Pra1 to the cell surface of C. albicans. Therefore, we have identified a novel metal acquisition system consisting of a secreted zinc scavenger ("zincophore", which reassociates with the fungal cell. Furthermore, functional similarities with phylogenetically unrelated prokaryotic systems indicate that syntenic zinc acquisition loci have been independently selected during evolution.

  14. A Cabonaceous Chondrite Dominated Lithology from the HED Parent; PRA 04401

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrin, Jason S.; Zolensky, M. E.; Mittlefehldt, David W.

    2010-01-01

    The paired howardite breccias Mt. Pratt (PRA) 04401 and PRA 04402 are notable for their high proportion of carbonaceous chondrite clasts [1]. They consist predominantly of coarse (0.1-7 mm) diogenite (orthopyroxene), eucrite (plagioclase + pyroxene), and carbonaceous chondrite clasts set in a finer grained matrix of these same materials. Coarse C-chondrite clasts up to 7 mm are composed mainly of fine-grained phyllosilicates with lesser sulfides and high-mg# anhydrous magnesian silicates. Most of these clasts appear to be texturally consistent with CM2 classification [1] and some contain relict chondrules. The clasts are angular and reaction or alteration textures are not apparent in the surrounding matrix. PRA 04401 contains about 70 modal% C-chondrite clasts while PRA 04402 contains about 7%. Although many howardites are known to contain abundant C-chondrite clasts [2,3,4], PRA 04401 is, to our knowledge, the most chondrite-rich howardite lithology identified to date. Low EPMA totals from CM2-type clasts in other howardites suggest that they frequently contain 10 wt% or more water [2], a figure consistent with their mineralogy. PRA 04401, therefore, demonstrates the potential for hydrous lithologies with greater than 5 wt% water to occur locally within the nominally anhydrous HED parent body. Since the origin of this water is xenogenic, it might therefore be concentrated in portions of the asteroid surface where it would be more readily observable by remote sensing techniques. We plan to further examine C-chondrite clasts in PRA 04401/2 with the intent of establishing firm chemical classification, estimating water content, and evaluating their relationship with the host breccia. To help place them in context of the HED parent, we will also compare these breccias with other howardites to evaluate which lithologies are likely to be more prevalent on the asteroid surface.

  15. Significance of HLA Antibody Detected by PRA-Bead Method in Kidney Transplant Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwattanathum, P; Ingsathit, A; Thammanichanond, D; Mongkolsuk, T; Sumethkul, V

    2016-04-01

    The impact of specific HLA antibodies on the allograft function in the Luminex era is not clearly known. This study aimed to investigate kidney transplantation outcomes in patients with different anti-HLA antibody status as detected by Luminex PRA. This retrospective study included 106 deceased-donor kidney transplantation (DDKT) patients divided into 3 groups by PRA status as detected by PRA-bead: (1) PRA = 0; (2) positive PRA but with negative antibody against donor's HLA antigens; and (3) positive PRA with positive anti-HLA antibody specificity against donor's HLA antigens. There were 65, 23, and 18 patients in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Early allograft rejections were highest in group 3 (22.2%) (P = .02). In multivariate analysis, delayed graft function was the only factor that was associated with allograft rejection (hazard ratio, 8.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-39.8; P = .004). Estimated glomerular filtration rates at 1 year of the 3 groups were 54.6, 55.8, and 60.0 mL/min (P = .71). One-year allograft failure and death were not different among the 3 groups. Expanded-criteria deceased donors were associated with both allograft failure (P = .003) and patient death (P = .02). Anti-HLA antibody as detected by Luminex PRA was associated with early allograft rejection but not graft or patient survival. The effect of newer treatment modalities can improve the outcomes of PRA-positive patients to be similar to nonsensitized patients at 1 year. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Plasma renin activity (PRA) levels and antihypertensive drug use in a large healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, John J; Bhandari, Simran K; Shi, Jiaxiao; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Rasgon, Scott A; Sealey, Jean E; Laragh, John H

    2012-03-01

    Although hypertension guidelines have utility in treating uncomplicated hypertension, they often overlook the pathophysiologic basis and heterogeneity of hypertension. This may explain the relatively poor hypertension control rates. A proposed approach is to guide addition and subtraction of medications using ambulatory plasma renin activity (PRA) values. To evaluate the heterogeneity of hypertension and the medication burden associated with it, we investigated medication usage in relation to PRA among hypertensive patients within a large ethnically diverse organization. A cross sectional data analysis was performed of hypertensive subjects with PRA measurements in the Kaiser Permanente Southern California database between 1 January 1998 and 31 October 2009. Among 7,887 such patients 0, 1, 2, ≥3 medication usage was 16%, 20%, 24%, 40% respectively. PRA levels ranged 1000-fold. Across PRA quartiles (Q1 to Q4) ≥3 meds were prescribed to 50%, 40%, 34%, 37%. From low to high PRA quartiles there was no usage trend for angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs)/ angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) (71%), but diuretics increased (52%, 53%, 57%, 68%), calcium channel blocker's (CCB) fell (56%, 53%, 51%, 42%), and β-blockers fell (77%, 61%, 49%, 41%). Moreover, systolic BP fell (146, 142, 140, 135 mm Hg), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) rose (16, 17, 18, 20 mg/dl), serum uric acid rose (6.1, 6.3, 6.5, 6.9 mg/dl), and chronic kidney disease rose (22%, 22%, 23%, 27%). Polytherapy was the norm for treating hypertension. Lower PRAs were associated with higher blood pressures and more medications. Higher PRAs were associated with lower pressures and fewer medications. The results indicate that opportunities exist to simplify antihypertensive therapy by using current ambulatory PRA levels to guide drug selections and subtractions. © 2012 American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd.

  17. PANDANGAN TOKOH AGAMA TERHADAP PERNIKAHAN DINI AKIBAT HAMIL PRA NIKAH DI KOTA KENDARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartini Kartini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study examines the views of religious leaders against early marriage due to pregnancy before marriage. The primary data is theory of early marriage, interviews to Muslim religious leaders and people who practice early marriages, while secondary data is books and other documentation materials that are associated with research studies. The result is include three parts, namely, the phenomenon of early marrige in Kendari city, that base on surveys and interviews is aquite alarming and needs serious treatment and also need the cooperation of all parties. While the views of religious leaders that that early marriages are permitted in case on didn’t cause the big unadvantage, but if unadvantge is more, it is forbidden. According to religious leaders in the city of Kendari, early mrriage is forbidden, because it got more unadvantage rather that advantage. As for the issue of pregnant before marriage, the religious leaders agreed to sy that it is forbidden and on the question of the legitimacy of their marriage, there is a difference opinion, some argue should be married because of various considerations. Key Words: religious leaders, early marriage, pragnance before marriage Abstrak Penelitian ini mengkaji tentang pandangan tokoh agama terhadap pernikahan dini akibat hamil pra nikah. Data primer dari penelitian ini adalah teori tentang pernikahan dini dan hasil wawancara dari para tokoh agama Islam serta pihak pihak yang melakukan pernikahan dini, sedangkan data sekunder adalah buku buku dan bahan dokumentasi lain yang ada hubunganya dengan kajian penelitian. Hasilnya adalah meliputi tiga bagian yaitu, fenomena pernikahann dini dikota kendari berdasarkan hasil survey, dan wawancara fenomena pernikahn dini di kota kendari cukup memprihatinkan, dan perlu penanganan yang serius dan kerja sama dari semua pihak. Sementara   pandangan para tokoh agama bahwa bahwa pernikahan dini dibolehkan sepanjang tidak menimbulkan kemudaratan, tapi jika

  18. ANALISIS INFLASI PRA DAN PASCA KRISIS MONETER DALAM PEREKONOMIAN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deni Sri Haryati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak ___________________________________________________________________ Penelitian ini menganalisis fluktuasi inflasi yang terjadi pada masa pra, saat, dan pasca krisis moneter. Terdapat 5 variabel yang berkorelasi dengan inflasi di Indonesia. Variabel-variabel tersebut adalah jumlah uang beredar (JUB, nilai tukar nominal (NTN, pertumbuhan ekonomi, pengeluaran pemerintah (PeP,dan  bahan bakar minyak (BBM. Sebenarnya variabel tersebut memiliki hubungan dengan inflasi pada seluruh era. Namun, variabel tesebut memiliki dominasi yang berbeda pada masing-masing eranya. Era prakrisis didominasi oleh 3 variabel, yakni; pertumbuhan ekonomi, NTN, dan JUB, era krisis didominasi oleh seluruh variabel yang ada, dan era pasca krisis didominasi oleh 3 variabel, yakni; PeP, NTN, dan JUB. Variabel-variabel ini akan dijelaskan pengaruhnya terhadap inflasi pada era yang didominasi dimana apakah memiliki hubungan sebanding atau berbanding terbalik. Abstract ___________________________________________________________________ This study analyzes the fluctuations in inflation that occurred in the pre, during and post the financial crisis. There are 5 variables that correlated with inflation in Indonesia. These variables are the money supply (MS, the nominal exchange rate (NER, economic growth, government expenditure (GE, and fuel oil (BBM. Actually, these variables have a relationship with inflation on the whole era. However, the variable has a predominance of different proficiency level in each era. Pre-crisis era dominated by three variables, namely; economic growth, NER, and MS, crisis era dominated by all the variables that exist, and the post-crisis era dominated by three variables, namely; GE, NER, and MS. These variables will be explained influence on inflation in an era dominated where or whether proportional or inversely proportional relationship. © 2014 Universitas Negeri Semarang

  19. Production of docosahexaenoic acid by Aurantiochytrium sp. ATCC PRA-276.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Valcenir Júnior Mendes; Maus, Victor; Batista, Irineu; Bandarra, Narcisa Maria

    The high costs and environmental concerns associated with using marine resources as sources of oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids have prompted searches for alternative sources of such oils. Some microorganisms, among them members of the genus Aurantiochytrium, can synthesize large amounts of these biocompounds. However, various parameters that affect the polyunsaturated fatty acids production of these organisms, such as the carbon and nitrogen sources supplied during their cultivation, require further elucidation. The objective of this investigation was to study the effect of different concentrations of carbon and total nitrogen on the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid, by Aurantiochytrium sp. ATCC PRA-276. We performed batch system experiments using an initial glucose concentration of 30g/L and three different concentrations of total nitrogen, including 3.0, 0.44, and 0.22g/L, and fed-batch system experiments in which 0.14g/L of glucose and 0.0014g/L of total nitrogen were supplied hourly. To assess the effects of these different treatments, we determined the biomass, glucose, total nitrogen and polyunsaturated fatty acids concentration. The maximum cell concentration (23.9g/L) was obtained after 96h of cultivation in the batch system using initial concentrations of 0.22g/L total nitrogen and 30g/L glucose. Under these conditions, we observed the highest level of polyunsaturated fatty acids production (3.6g/L), with docosahexaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid ω6 concentrations reaching 2.54 and 0.80g/L, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. NRC [Nuclear Regulatory Commission] TLD [thermoluminescent dosimeter] direct radiation monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, R.; McNamara, N.

    1989-09-01

    This report provides the status and results of the NRC Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. It presents the radiation levels measured in the vicinity of NRC licensed facility sites throughout the country for the second quarter of 1989

  1. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Progress report, July--September 1993: Volume 13, No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1993-11-01

    This report provides the status and results of the NRC Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. It presents the radiation levels measured in the vicinity of NRC licensed facilities throughout the country for the third quarter of 1993.

  2. Practical Application of PRA as an Integrated Design Tool for Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalia, Prince; Shi, Ying; Pair, Robin; Quaney, Virginia; Uhlenbrock, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the application of the first comprehensive Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) during the design phase of a joint NASA/NOAA weather satellite program, Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite Series R (GOES-R). GOES-R is the next generation weather satellite primarily to help understand the weather and help save human lives. PRA has been used at NASA for Human Space Flight for many years. PRA was initially adopted and implemented in the operational phase of manned space flight programs and more recently for the next generation human space systems. Since its first use at NASA, PRA has become recognized throughout the Agency as a method of assessing complex mission risks as part of an overall approach to assuring safety and mission success throughout project lifecycles. PRA is now included as a requirement during the design phase of both NASA next generation manned space vehicles as well as for high priority robotic missions. The influence of PRA on GOES-R design and operation concepts are discussed in detail. The GOES-R PRA is unique at NASA for its early implementation. It also represents a pioneering effort to integrate risks from both Spacecraft (SC) and Ground Segment (GS) to fully assess the probability of achieving mission objectives. PRA analysts were actively involved in system engineering and design engineering to ensure that a comprehensive set of technical risks were correctly identified and properly understood from a design and operations perspective. The analysis included an assessment of SC hardware and software, SC fault management system, GS hardware and software, common cause failures, human error, natural hazards, solar weather and infrastructure (such as network and telecommunications failures, fire). PRA findings directly resulted in design changes to reduce SC risk from micro-meteoroids. PRA results also led to design changes in several SC subsystems, e.g. propulsion, guidance, navigation and control (GNC

  3. MAAP4.0.7 analysis and justification for PRA level 1 mission success criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, J.S.; Kapitz, D.; Martin, R.P.; Seifaee, F.; Sundaram, R.K.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. EPR is a 4590 MWth evolutionary pressurized water reactor that incorporates proven technology with innovative system architecture to provide an unprecedented level of safety. One of the measures of safety is provided by Probability Risk Assessment (PRA). PRA Level 1 concerns the evaluation of core damage frequency based on various initiating events and the success or failure of various plant event mitigation features. Determination of this measure requires mission success criteria, which are used to build the logic that makes up the fault trees and event trees of the Level 1 PRA. Developing mission success criteria for the wide variety of accident sequences modeled in the PRA Level 1 model requires a large number of thermal hydraulic calculations. The MAAP4 code, developed by Fauske and Associates, Inc. and distributed by EPRI, was chosen to perform these calculations because of its fast computation times relative to more sophisticated thermal-hydraulics codes This is a unique application of MAAP4, which was developed specifically for severe accident and PRA Level 2 analysis. As such, a study was performed to assess MAAP4 's thermal-hydraulic response capabilities against AREVA 's S-RELAP5 best-estimate integral systems thermal-hydraulic analysis code. (authors)

  4. Realistic operator response measurements: Inputs to the LaSalle PRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, G.R.; Hannaman, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    The LaSalle comprehensive probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) includes external events and internal events with explicit treatment of human actions during operations, maintenance, and surveillance. It includes common-cause considerations and dependencies covering all support functions. These human sections are included in the same fault trees applicable to both external and internal events. Realism is incorporated into the PRA via measurable values of plant parameters in contrast to license-base values, via real-time behavior of primary containment which provides more realistic operator response intervals, and via actual measurements of operator responses during engineering simulator exercise of plant-specific transient and accident events. Preliminary correlations of operator responses via the HCR measurements method indicate that measured operator unreliabilities are consistently ten to one hundred times lower than best-estimate values used in earlier PRA's. Some operator responses may indicate an unreliability measure of one thousand less than reported estimates of non-performance (omission failures). Measurements of operator response during plant recovery scenarios are currently being correlated for subsequent inclusion via SHARP methods into the LaSalle PRA. These degraded core event scenarios were defined from the PRA dominant transient and accident cut-sets leading to degraded cores with potential fission product release

  5. 10 CFR 2.1403 - Authority and role of the NRC staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority and role of the NRC staff. 2.1403 Section 2.1403... ORDERS Expedited Proceedings with Oral Hearings § 2.1403 Authority and role of the NRC staff. (a) During the pendency of any hearing under this subpart, consistent with the NRC staff's findings in its own...

  6. 10 CFR 2.1316 - Authority and role of NRC staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority and role of NRC staff. 2.1316 Section 2.1316... ORDERS Procedures for Hearings on License Transfer Applications § 2.1316 Authority and role of NRC staff. (a) During the pendency of any hearing under this subpart, consistent with the NRC staff's findings...

  7. NRC drug-free workplace plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    On September 15, 1986, President Reagan signed Executive Order 12564, establishing the goal of a Drug-Free Federal Workplace. The Order made it a condition of employment that all Federal employees refrain from using illegal drugs on or off duty. On July 11, 1987, Congress passed legislation affecting implementation of the Executive Order under Section 503 of the Supplemental Appropriations Act of 1987, Public Law 100-71 (the Act). The Nuclear Regulatory Commission first issued the NRC Drug Testing Plan to set forth objectives, policies, procedures, and implementation guidelines to achieve a drug-free Federal workplace, consistent with the Executive Order and Section 503 of the Act. Revision 1, titled, ``NRC Drug-Free Workplace Plan,`` supersedes the previous version and its supplements and incorporates changes to reflect current guidance from the Department of Justice, the Department of Health and Human Services, as well as other guidance.

  8. NRC wants plant-specific responses on Thermo-Lag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Dissatisfied with recent industry-backed efforts to assure fire safety at nuclear power plants, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission announced on November 24 that it would direct all nuclear plant owners to specify the actions they would take to assure that the use of the Thermo-Lag 330 fire barrier material would not lead to insufficient protection of electrical cables connected to safe-shutdown systems. Previously, the NRC had been content to let the matter wait until tests sponsored by the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (Numarc) could show whether Thermo-Lag, used and installed in certain ways, would provide sufficient protection, but the NRC and Numarc have disagreed over the test methodology, and the Numarc tests are now considered to be several months behind schedule

  9. Implementation study for the NRC Application and Development Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, R.J.; Ross, D.J.; Sasser, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has expressed the desire to establish an Application and Development Facility (ADF) for NRC Headquarters. The ADF is a computer system which will provide safeguards analysts access to safeguards analysis computer software. This report analyzes the issues, requirements and options available in the establishment of an ADF. The purpose and goals of the ADF are presented, along with some general issues to be considered in the implementation of such a system. A phased approach for ADF implementation, which will allow for the earliest possible access to existing codes and also allow for future expansion, is outlined. Several options for central computers are discussed, along with the characteristics and approximate costs for each. The report concludes with recommended actions proposed to start the development of the ADF

  10. NRC drug-free workplace plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    On September 15, 1986, President Reagan signed Executive Order 12564, establishing the goal of a Drug-Free Federal Workplace. The Order made it a condition of employment that all Federal employees refrain from using illegal drugs on or off duty. On July 11, 1987, Congress passed legislation affecting implementation of the Executive Order under Section 503 of the Supplemental Appropriations Act of 1987, Public Law 100-71 (the Act). The Nuclear Regulatory Commission first issued the NRC Drug Testing Plan to set forth objectives, policies, procedures, and implementation guidelines to achieve a drug-free Federal workplace, consistent with the Executive Order and Section 503 of the Act. Revision 1, titled, ''NRC Drug-Free Workplace Plan,'' supersedes the previous version and its supplements and incorporates changes to reflect current guidance from the Department of Justice, the Department of Health and Human Services, as well as other guidance

  11. NRC Regulatory Agenda. Quarterly report, July-September 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The Regulatory Agenda is a quarterly compilation of all rules on which the NRC has proposed or is considering action and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received and are pending disposition by the Commission. The agenda consists of two sections. Section I, Rules, includes: (1) rules on which final action has been taken since June 30, the cutoff date of the last Regulatory Agenda; (2) rules published previously as proposed rules and on which the Commission has not taken final action; (3) rules published as advance notices of proposed rulemaking and for which neither a proposed nor final rule has been issued; and (4) unpublished rules on which the NRC expects to take action. Section II, Petitions for Rulemaking, includes: (1) Petitions incorporated into final rules or petitions denied since the cutoff date of the last Regulatory Agenda; (2) Petitions incorporated into proposed rules, (3) Petitions pending staff review; and (4) Petitions with deferred action

  12. NRC Enforcement Policy Review, July 1995-July 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieberman, J.; Pedersen, R.M.

    1998-04-01

    On June 30, 1995, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued a complete revision of its General Statement of Policy and Procedure for Enforcement Action (Enforcement Policy) (60 FR 34381). In approving the 1995 revision to the Enforcement Policy, the Commission directed the staff to perform a review of its implementation of the Policy after approximately 2 years of experience and to consider public comments. This report represents the results of that review

  13. NRC regulatory agenda: Quarterly report, April-June 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  14. NRC regulatory actions and U.S. nonproliferation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shea, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    Since the foundation for a comprehensive nuclear regulatory program was established by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, the nuclear regulatory function has been broadened from its early emphasis on the health and safety of the public to include environmental concerns and nonproliferation aspects. There is a close relationship between NRC's regulatory activities and US nonproliferation objectives and policies in support of these objectives. The two should be as consistent and mutually supportive as possible. Several examples of the interaction between nuclear regulation and nonproliferation policy are cited: US Government nuclear export responsibilities; international safeguards and physical security considerations, including the US voluntary safeguards offer; spent fuel storage, including possible foreign fuel imports; Generic Environmental Statement on Mixed Oxide Fuel; and International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation and Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. The recently enacted Nuclear Nonproliferation Act of 1978, which seeks to balance proliferation concerns with peaceful uses of nuclear power and to provide a more predictable, stable and effective export licensing system, has numerous provisions affecting NRC. These include establishment of specific export licensing criteria and an expanded role for NRC in the licensing of nuclear exports

  15. Urgensi Pemeriksaan Psikis Pra-Nikah (Studi Pandangan Kepala KUA dan Psikolog Kota Malang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Kurnia Fitriani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Beberapa negara muslim memberikan perhatian terhadap pemeriksaan psikis pra-nikah bagi calon mempelai, sebagai upaya menanggulangi masalah rumah tangga akibat gangguan kejiwaan di masa yang akan datang. Penelitian ini bertujuan menggali informasi dari Kepala KUA dan Psikolog di Kota Malang tentang pemeriksaan psikis pra-nikah dan urgensinya bagi calon mempelai. Penelitian ini termasuk dalam penelitian lapangan (field reasearch, dengan menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif.  Alanisis data dilakukan melalui tiga tahapan yaitu reduksi data, penyajian data, dan menarik kesimpulan. Pengecekan keabsahan data menggunakan triangulasi sumber yang membandingkan hasil wawancara dengan data sekunder, dan triangulasi teori. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa Kepala KUA dan Psikolog di kota Malang menyetujui diadakan pemeriksaan psikis pranikah akan tetapi harus ada aturan hukumnya dan dilakukan sosialisasi agar program menjadi efektif. Selain itu, pemeriksaan psikis pra-nikah tidak bertentangan dengan konsep maqashid al-syari’ah dan konsep sadz al-dzari’ah dalam hukum Islam.

  16. Total mercury in fish, sediments and soil from the River Pra Basin, southwestern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppong, S O B; Voegborlo, R B; Agorku, S E; Adimado, A A

    2010-09-01

    Total Mercury (Hg) concentrations were determined in soil, river sediments and six (6) species of fish from the River Pra Basin in southwestern Ghana by Cold Vapour Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Mercury concentration (microg g(-1)) ranged from 0.042 to 0.145 for soil: from 0.390 to 0.707 for sediments and from Pra Basin are unlikely to constitute any significant mercury exposure to the public through consumption. No apparent trend of increasing mercury concentration along the main river as it flows downward toward the sea was observed.

  17. Application of the hsp65 PRA method for the rapid identification of mycobacteria isolated from clinical samples in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anandi; Uwizeye, Cécile; Fissette, Krista; De Rijk, Pim; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Leao, Sylvia; Portaels, Françoise

    2007-10-01

    Biochemical identification of mycobacteria is slow and many times fail to produce correct results. We compared PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PRA) of hsp65 and biochemical methods for the identification of mycobacteria from human samples in Belgium. PRA was found useful in the identification of mycobacteria and simple to implement as a quick method in the laboratory.

  18. 77 FR 7618 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and PRA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and PRA; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and PRA will hold a meeting on March 7, 2012, Room...

  19. Beef Species Symposium: an assessment of the 1996 Beef NRC: metabolizable protein supply and demand and effectiveness of model performance prediction of beef females within extensive grazing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, R C; Caton, J S; Löest, C A; Petersen, M K; Roberts, A J

    2014-07-01

    Interannual variation of forage quantity and quality driven by precipitation events influence beef livestock production systems within the Southern and Northern Plains and Pacific West, which combined represent 60% (approximately 17.5 million) of the total beef cows in the United States. The beef cattle requirements published by the NRC are an important tool and excellent resource for both professionals and producers to use when implementing feeding practices and nutritional programs within the various production systems. The objectives of this paper include evaluation of the 1996 Beef NRC model in terms of effectiveness in predicting extensive range beef cow performance within arid and semiarid environments using available data sets, identifying model inefficiencies that could be refined to improve the precision of predicting protein supply and demand for range beef cows, and last, providing recommendations for future areas of research. An important addition to the current Beef NRC model would be to allow users to provide region-specific forage characteristics and the ability to describe supplement composition, amount, and delivery frequency. Beef NRC models would then need to be modified to account for the N recycling that occurs throughout a supplementation interval and the impact that this would have on microbial efficiency and microbial protein supply. The Beef NRC should also consider the role of ruminal and postruminal supply and demand of specific limiting AA. Additional considerations should include the partitioning effects of nitrogenous compounds under different physiological production stages (e.g., lactation, pregnancy, and periods of BW loss). The intent of information provided is to aid revision of the Beef NRC by providing supporting material for changes and identifying gaps in existing scientific literature where future research is needed to enhance the predictive precision and application of the Beef NRC models.

  20. Mutation of praR in Rhizobium leguminosarum enhances root biofilms, improving nodulation competitiveness by increased expression of attachment proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederix, Marijke; Edwards, Anne; Swiderska, Anna; Stanger, Andrew; Karunakaran, Ramakrishnan; Williams, Alan; Abbruscato, Pamela; Sanchez-Contreras, Maria; Poole, Philip S; Downie, J Allan

    2014-08-01

    In Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae, quorum-sensing is regulated by CinR, which induces the cinIS operon. CinI synthesizes an AHL, whereas CinS inactivates PraR, a repressor. Mutation of praR enhanced biofilms in vitro. We developed a light (lux)-dependent assay of rhizobial attachment to roots and demonstrated that mutation of praR increased biofilms on pea roots. The praR mutant out-competed wild-type for infection of pea nodules in mixed inoculations. Analysis of gene expression by microarrays and promoter fusions revealed that PraR represses its own transcription and mutation of praR increased expression of several genes including those encoding secreted proteins (the adhesins RapA2, RapB and RapC, two cadherins and the glycanase PlyB), the polysaccharide regulator RosR, and another protein similar to PraR. PraR bound to the promoters of several of these genes indicating direct repression. Mutations in rapA2, rapB, rapC, plyB, the cadherins or rosR did not affect the enhanced root attachment or nodule competitiveness of the praR mutant. However combinations of mutations in rapA, rapB and rapC abolished the enhanced attachment and nodule competitiveness. We conclude that relief of PraR-mediated repression determines a lifestyle switch allowing the expression of genes that are important for biofilm formation on roots and the subsequent initiation of infection of legume roots. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Mutation of praR in Rhizobium leguminosarum enhances root biofilms, improving nodulation competitiveness by increased expression of attachment proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederix, Marijke; Edwards, Anne; Swiderska, Anna; Stanger, Andrew; Karunakaran, Ramakrishnan; Williams, Alan; Abbruscato, Pamela; Sanchez-Contreras, Maria; Poole, Philip S; Downie, J Allan

    2014-01-01

    In Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae, quorum-sensing is regulated by CinR, which induces the cinIS operon. CinI synthesizes an AHL, whereas CinS inactivates PraR, a repressor. Mutation of praR enhanced biofilms in vitro. We developed a light (lux)-dependent assay of rhizobial attachment to roots and demonstrated that mutation of praR increased biofilms on pea roots. The praR mutant out-competed wild-type for infection of pea nodules in mixed inoculations. Analysis of gene expression by microarrays and promoter fusions revealed that PraR represses its own transcription and mutation of praR increased expression of several genes including those encoding secreted proteins (the adhesins RapA2, RapB and RapC, two cadherins and the glycanase PlyB), the polysaccharide regulator RosR, and another protein similar to PraR. PraR bound to the promoters of several of these genes indicating direct repression. Mutations in rapA2, rapB, rapC, plyB, the cadherins or rosR did not affect the enhanced root attachment or nodule competitiveness of the praR mutant. However combinations of mutations in rapA, rapB and rapC abolished the enhanced attachment and nodule competitiveness. We conclude that relief of PraR-mediated repression determines a lifestyle switch allowing the expression of genes that are important for biofilm formation on roots and the subsequent initiation of infection of legume roots. PMID:24942546

  2. NRC confirmatory safety system testing in support of AP600 design review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, G.S.; Bessette, D.E.; Shotkin, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation has submitted the Advanced Passive 600 MWe (AP600) nuclear power plant design to the NRC for design certification. The Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research is proceeding to conduct confirmatory testing to help the NRC staff evaluate the AP600 safety system design. For confirmatory testing, it was determined that the cost-effective route was to modify an existing full-height, full-pressure test facility rather than build a new one. Thus, all the existing integral effects test facilities, both in the US and abroad, were screened to select the best candidate. As a result, the ROSA-V (Rig of Safety Assessment-V) test facility located in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) was chosen. However, because of some differences in design between the existing ROSA-V facility and the AP600, the ROSA-V is being modified to conform to the AP600 safety system design. The modification work will be completed by the end of this year. A series of facility characterization tests will then be performed in January 1994 for the modified part of the facility before the main test series is initiated in February 1994. A total of 12 tests will be performed in 1994 under Phase I of this cooperative program with JAERI. Phase II testing is being considered to be conducted in 1995 mainly for beyond-design-basis accident evaluation

  3. Flow cytometry beads rather than the antihuman globulin method should be used to detect HLA Class I IgG antibody (PRA) in cadaveric renal regraft candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Christopher F; McDonald, Scott B; Baier, Karen A; Luger, Alan M; Aeder, Mark I; Murillo, Daniel; Muruve, Nicolas A; Nelson, Paul W; Shield, Charles F; Warady, Bradley A

    2002-01-01

    HLA Class I antibody screening can be performed by flow cytometry using a mixture of 30 distinct bead populations each coated with the Class I antigen phenotype derived from different cell lines. In this study we compared the efficacy of Class I antibody screens done by flow cytometry beads with the antihuman globulin (AHG) method for patients awaiting cadaveric renal retransplantation. Class I panel reactive antibody (PRA) screening by flow cytometric beads of 21 regraft serum samples that had all been found to be negative by AHG DTT Class I PRA, revealed that 57.1% (12 of 21) had a flow Class I PRA of > or = 10%. Furthermore, when five regraft sera with an intermediate PRA were screened (mean AHG DTT PRA = 33.2 +/- 13%) the mean flow Class I PRA almost doubled (mean flow PRA = 72.4 +/- 10.2%) (p PRA by flow beads, were divided into the three PRA categories based on their peak flow Class I PRA value (0-20%, 21-79% and > or = 80%), the incidence of a positive flow cross-match was 0%, 72% and 85% and the incidence of retransplantation was 60%, 22% and 10%, in each of these groups, respectively. These data provided our histocompatibility laboratory with the rationale to stop performing the AHG PRA and perform only the flow Class I PRA method for regraft candidates.

  4. Introduction of accidental procedures in the event trees of the 900MW PWR PRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bars, G.; Champ, M.; Lanore, J.M.; Pochard, R.

    1985-02-01

    This paper presents the example of the small LOCA Event Trees and the studies related to the introduction of procedure actions is case of HPSI failure. The results illustrate the interest of the approach and its significant impact on the PRA. The present studies are related to the Y actions in case of small LOCAs without HPIS

  5. Selecting the seismic HRA approach for Savannah River Plant PRA revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papouchado, K.; Salaymeh, J. [eds.] [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Wingo, H.E.; Benhardt, H.C.; van Buijtenen, C.M.; Mitts, T.M. [Battelle Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has prepared a level I probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), Rev. 0 of reactor operations for externally-initiated events including seismic events. The SRS PRA, Rev. 0 Seismic HRA received a critical review that expressed skepticism with the approach used for human reliability analysis because it had not been previously used and accepted in other published PRAs. This report provides a review of published probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs), the associated methodology guidance documents, and the psychological literature to identify parameters important to seismic human reliability analysis (HRA). It also describes a recommended approach for use in the Savannah River Site (SRS) PRA. The SRS seismic event PRA performs HRA to account for the contribution of human errors in the accident sequences. The HRA of human actions during and after a seismic event is an area subject to many uncertainties and involves significant analyst judgment. The approach recommended by this report is based on seismic HRA methods and associated issues and concerns identified from the review of these referenced documents that represent the current state-of-the- art knowledge and acceptance in the seismic HRA field.

  6. Probabilistic risk assessment course documentation. Volume 2. Probability and statistics for PRA applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iman, R.L.; Prairie, R.R.; Cramond, W.R.

    1985-08-01

    This course is intended to provide the necessary probabilistic and statistical skills to perform a PRA. Fundamental background information is reviewed, but the principal purpose is to address specific techniques used in PRAs and to illustrate them with applications. Specific examples and problems are presented for most of the topics

  7. Constellation Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA): Design Consideration for the Crew Exploration Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prassinos, Peter G.; Stamatelatos, Michael G.; Young, Jonathan; Smith, Curtis

    2010-01-01

    Managed by NASA's Office of Safety and Mission Assurance, a pilot probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) of the NASA Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) was performed in early 2006. The PRA methods used follow the general guidance provided in the NASA PRA Procedures Guide for NASA Managers and Practitioners'. Phased-mission based event trees and fault trees are used to model a lunar sortie mission of the CEV - involving the following phases: launch of a cargo vessel and a crew vessel; rendezvous of these two vessels in low Earth orbit; transit to th$: moon; lunar surface activities; ascension &om the lunar surface; and return to Earth. The analysis is based upon assumptions, preliminary system diagrams, and failure data that may involve large uncertainties or may lack formal validation. Furthermore, some of the data used were based upon expert judgment or extrapolated from similar componentssystemsT. his paper includes a discussion of the system-level models and provides an overview of the analysis results used to identify insights into CEV risk drivers, and trade and sensitivity studies. Lastly, the PRA model was used to determine changes in risk as the system configurations or key parameters are modified.

  8. Soil Erosion and Sediment Yield Modelling in the Pra River Basin of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kusimi

    are applicable at catchment scale; event based; and continuous models of spatially and temporally distribution (i.e., 2D) (e.g., Amore et al., 2004; Fistikoglu ..... the integration of RUSLE into GIS give a vivid spatial dimension in soil erosion and sediment yield in the Pra Basin. Given the elements and processes prevailing in ...

  9. The closed fragment of the interpretability logic of PRA with a constant for IΣ1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, J.J.

    In this paper we characterize the closed fragment of the enriched probability logic of PRA and call the logic characterizing it PGL. These logics are enriched in the sense that they contain a constant symbol S which denotes the arithmetical sentence axiomatizing IΣ1. We also determine the closed

  10. Towards more accurate life cycle risk management through integration of DDP and PRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornford, Steven L.; Paulos, Todd; Meshkat, Leila; Feather, Martin

    2003-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the integration of PRA and DDP. The intent is twofold: to extend risk-based decision though more of the lifecycle, and to lead to improved risk modeling (hence better informed decision making) wherever it is applied, most especially in the early phases as designs begin to mature.

  11. Selecting the seismic HRA approach for Savannah River Plant PRA revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papouchado, K.; Salaymeh, J.

    1993-10-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has prepared a level I probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), Rev. 0 of reactor operations for externally-initiated events including seismic events. The SRS PRA, Rev. 0 Seismic HRA received a critical review that expressed skepticism with the approach used for human reliability analysis because it had not been previously used and accepted in other published PRAs. This report provides a review of published probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs), the associated methodology guidance documents, and the psychological literature to identify parameters important to seismic human reliability analysis (HRA). It also describes a recommended approach for use in the Savannah River Site (SRS) PRA. The SRS seismic event PRA performs HRA to account for the contribution of human errors in the accident sequences. The HRA of human actions during and after a seismic event is an area subject to many uncertainties and involves significant analyst judgment. The approach recommended by this report is based on seismic HRA methods and associated issues and concerns identified from the review of these referenced documents that represent the current state-of-the- art knowledge and acceptance in the seismic HRA field

  12. Risk-based regulation - an NRC perspective and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, T.L.; Murphy, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The consideration of risk in regulatory decision making has traditionally been part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) policy and practice. In the early days of regulation, this consideration was more qualitative in nature and was reflected in prescriptive/deterministic regulatory requirements. However, with the development of quantitative risk assessment methods, more detailed and comprehensive (although not complete) risk information on nuclear power plants is available to the designer, operator, and regulator. The availability of such information provides an opportunity to assess the need for change in the current regulatory structure and to develop future regulatory requirements in a less prescriptive, more performance-oriented fashion

  13. Neutron spectral characterization of the NRC-HSST experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stallmann, F.W.; Kam, F.B.K.

    1979-01-01

    Irradiation experiments are being performed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Heavy Section Steel Technology (HSST) program. Results of dosimetry performed in the second experiment have been previously reported. Similar procedures were followed in the third experiment. The experiences gained in these two experiments have led to modifications in the composition and distribution of foil dosimeters which monitor the neutron flux-spectra in the irradiated steel specimens. It is expected that in the new experiments much higher accuracies than previously possible can be achieved in the determination of irradiation damage parameters

  14. 77 FR 39270 - In the Matter of Mr. Timothy Goold; Order Prohibiting Involvement in NRC-Licensed Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... required to install a web browser plug-in from the NRC's Web site. Further information on the web-based submission form, including the installation of the Web browser plug-in, is available on the NRC's public Web... about applying for a digital ID certificate is available on the NRC's public Web site at http://www.nrc...

  15. Reliable identification of mycobacterial species by PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PRA)-hsp65 in a reference laboratory and elaboration of a sequence-based extended algorithm of PRA-hsp65 patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimara, Erica; Ferrazoli, Lucilaine; Ueky, Suely Yoko Misuka; Martins, Maria Conceição; Durham, Alan Mitchel; Arbeit, Robert D; Leão, Sylvia Cardoso

    2008-03-20

    Identification of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) based on phenotypic tests is time-consuming, labor-intensive, expensive and often provides erroneous or inconclusive results. In the molecular method referred to as PRA-hsp65, a fragment of the hsp65 gene is amplified by PCR and then analyzed by restriction digest; this rapid approach offers the promise of accurate, cost-effective species identification. The aim of this study was to determine whether species identification of NTM using PRA-hsp65 is sufficiently reliable to serve as the routine methodology in a reference laboratory. A total of 434 NTM isolates were obtained from 5019 cultures submitted to the Institute Adolpho Lutz, Sao Paulo Brazil, between January 2000 and January 2001. Species identification was performed for all isolates using conventional phenotypic methods and PRA-hsp65. For isolates for which these methods gave discordant results, definitive species identification was obtained by sequencing a 441 bp fragment of hsp65. Phenotypic evaluation and PRA-hsp65 were concordant for 321 (74%) isolates. These assignments were presumed to be correct. For the remaining 113 discordant isolates, definitive identification was based on sequencing a 441 bp fragment of hsp65. PRA-hsp65 identified 30 isolates with hsp65 alleles representing 13 previously unreported PRA-hsp65 patterns. Overall, species identification by PRA-hsp65 was significantly more accurate than by phenotype methods (392 (90.3%) vs. 338 (77.9%), respectively; p PRA-hsp65 provided an incorrect result for only 1.2%. PRA-hsp65 is a rapid and highly reliable method and deserves consideration by any clinical microbiology laboratory charged with performing species identification of NTM.

  16. HSP65-PRA identification of non-tuberculosis mycobacteria from 4892 samples suspicious for mycobacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifi, M; Jabbarzadeh, E; Bahrmand, A R; Karimi, A; Pourazar, S; Fateh, A; Masoumi, M; Vahidi, E

    2013-08-01

    Various molecular methods have been used for the rapid identification of mycobacterial species. In this survey, evaluation of antibiotic resistance and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PRA) of the hsp65 gene was carried out for identification of non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM) isolates from different clinical specimens. Forty-eight different mycobacterial isolates were selected and followed by the conventional and PRA of hsp65 for species identification. The antibiotic susceptibility test was carried out according to standard methods. A 439 bp PCR product of hsp65 in all selected isolates was amplified and digested with the BstEII and HaeIII restriction enzymes. The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns were analyzed for species identification. Using PRA for 48 mycobacterial selected isolates, including 15 M. tuberculosis, one M. bovis and all 32 isolates of NTM, revealed 11 different species among the NTM isolates. The most frequent NTM isolates were M. kansasii, M. gordonae III, M. marinum, M. chelonae, M. scrofluaceum and M. gastri. In most cases, the PRA results were perfectly in accordance with the classical biochemical method. Combination of resistance to rifampin and isoniazid was present among M. kansasi, M. gordoniae III, M. scrofluaceum, M. chelonae, M. marinum, M. gastri, M. gordoniae II and M. trivale isolates. A high incidence of co-resistance to six, five, four and three anti-TB drugs was observed in 18.5%, 9.1%, 6.6% and 11.7% of all NTM isolates, respectively. Our results showed that PRA, in comparison with classical methods, is rapid and accurate enough for the identification of mycobacterial species from LJ medium. Additionally, we found that in Iran we have a highly diverse population of NTM isolates among patients suspected of having TB. © 2012 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  17. Using participatory rural appraisal (PRA) in the identification of children with disabilities in rural Kilifi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gona, Joseph K; Hartley, Sally; Newton, Charles R J

    2006-01-01

    Cross-sectional surveys have been used widely for identifying children with disabilities, but they have several disadvantages. The surveys concentrate on identifying impairments and do not encourage the participation and ownership of the community. Participatory rural appraisal (PRA) provides a cost-effective and efficient method that reflects the local perceptions of disability and involves local people. These factors are important for sustainability in resource-poor countries. To evaluate the application of PRA to identifying children with disabilities in a rural setting. PRA was used to identify children with disabilities in two rural sub-locations in Kilifi, Kenya. Data were collected through 12 focus group discussions and 12 social mapping activities. A purposive convenience sample of teachers, village leaders and women groups participated in the PRA. The perceptions of disability were established before identification of the children. The categories of identification were based on these local perceptions. The qualitative data were analyzed thematically and validation was performed through triangulation. Disability was perceived locally as the existence of impairments, activity limitations and participation restrictions. Disabilities were associated with traditional beliefs including witchcraft, evil spirits and punishments from God. In some cases these categories were mutually exclusive and in others they were concurrent. Children who had lost their parents and were not being cared for by relatives (disadvantaged orphans) were also perceived as disabled children by teachers and local women, but not by community leaders. The results suggest that PRA is an efficient and cost-effective method of identifying children with disabilities according to local perceptions, and it may be useful in community-based rehabilitation as an alternative to surveys.

  18. Impact of transplant nephrectomy on peak PRA levels and outcome after kidney re-transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittelbach-Helmrich, Dietlind; Pisarski, Przemyslaw; Offermann, Gerd; Geyer, Marcel; Thomusch, Oliver; Hopt, Ulrich Theodor; Drognitz, Oliver

    2014-06-24

    To determine the impact of transplant nephrectomy on peak panel reactive antibody (PRA) levels, patient and graft survival in kidney re-transplants. From 1969 to 2006, a total of 609 kidney re-transplantations were performed at the University of Freiburg and the Campus Benjamin Franklin of the University of Berlin. Patients with PRA levels above (5%) before first kidney transplantation were excluded from further analysis (n = 304). Patients with graft nephrectomy (n = 245, NE+) were retrospectively compared to 60 kidney re-transplants without prior graft nephrectomy (NE-). Peak PRA levels between the first and the second transplantation were higher in patients undergoing graft nephrectomy (P = 0.098), whereas the last PRA levels before the second kidney transplantation did not differ between the groups. Age adjusted survival for the second kidney graft, censored for death with functioning graft, were comparable in both groups. Waiting time between first and second transplantation did not influence the graft survival significantly in the group that underwent nephrectomy. In contrast, patients without nephrectomy experienced better graft survival rates when re-transplantation was performed within one year after graft loss (P = 0.033). Age adjusted patient survival rates at 1 and 5 years were 94.1% and 86.3% vs 83.1% and 75.4% group NE+ and NE-, respectively (P PRA levels that normalize before kidney re-transplantation. In patients without nephrectomy of a non-viable kidney graft timing of re-transplantation significantly influences graft survival after a second transplantation. Most importantly, transplant nephrectomy is associated with a significantly longer patient survival.

  19. Managing aging in nuclear power plants: Insights from NRC maintenance team inspection reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fresco, A.; Subudhi, M.; Gunther, W.; Grove, E.; Taylor, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    A plant`s maintenance program is the principal vehicle through which age-related degradation is managed. From 1988 to 1991, the NRC evaluated the maintenance program of every nuclear power plant in the United States. Forty-four out of a total of 67 of the reports issued on these in-depth team inspections were reviewed for insights into the strengths and weaknesses of the programs as related to the need to understand and manage the effects of aging on nuclear plant systems, structures, and components. Relevant information was extracted from these inspection reports and sorted into several categories, including Specific Aging Insights, Preventive Maintenance, Predictive Maintenance and Condition Monitoring, Post Maintenance Testing, Failure Trending, Root Cause Analysis and Usage of Probabilistic Risk Assessment in the Maintenance Process. Specific examples of inspection and monitoring techniques successfully used by utilities to detect degradation due to aging have been identified. The information also was sorted according to systems and components, including: Auxiliary Feedwater, Main Feedwater, High Pressure Injection for both BWRs and PWRs, Service Water, Instrument Air, and Emergency Diesel Generator Air Start Systems, and Emergency Diesel Generators Air Start Systems, emergency diesel generators, electrical components such as switchgear, breakers, relays, and motor control centers, motor operated valves and check valves. This information was compared to insights gained from the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. Attributes of plant maintenance programs where the NRC inspectors felt that improvement was needed to properly address the aging issue also are discussed.

  20. NRC Information No. 89-03: Potential electrical equipment problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    Concerns regarding electrical equipment problems with materials licensees were prompted by recent inspection findings that counterfeit, substandard, or questionable electrical equipment or components had been used in nuclear power reactors. The inspection findings indicated that the electrical equipment problems appeared to be significant and pervasive. As a result, several NRC information notices were issued which reflected such equipment problems involving nuclear utilities, equipment manufacturers, and vendors. Furthermore, several electrical suppliers were identified as those associated in refurbishing and sale of defective equipment components to nuclear and non-nuclear industries. Therefore, the electrical equipment problem does not appear to be confined to nuclear power reactors or the nuclear industry. Similar problems may also exist in non-nuclear medical and industrial operations as well. A review of previously published NRC information notices and bulletins addressed to materials licensees revealed that there had been incidents which involved failure of electrical equipment and components such as pressure regulator switches, teletherapy times, solid-state relays, and solenoid valves, which could have resulted in radiation overexposures. A brief description of the incidents is provided below

  1. MHTGR demonstration role in the NRC design certification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, A.P. Jr.; Jones, G.

    1986-01-01

    A modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) design is being developed by the US HTGR Program. Because of the small size of the individual modules that would make up a commercial facility, it appears feasible to design and construct a single-module demonstration plant within the funding constraints on the public and private-sector program participants. Furthermore, the safety margins that can be made inherent to the design permit full-scale testing that could supply a new basis for demonstrating investment protection and safety adequacy to the public, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and potential users. With this in mind, a Project Definition Study was sponsored by Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates and the Tennessee Valley Authority to study the potential benefits of undertaking such a demonstration project. One of the areas investigated was the potential benefits of such a facility in supporting the NRC design certification process, which is envisioned as a necessary commercialization step for the MHTGR

  2. NRC proposes changes to nuke decommissioning funding rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has proposed to amend its regulations to allow self-guarantee as a means of assuring adequate funding for nuclear plant decommissioning. It acted in response to a rulemaking petition filed by General Electric Co. and Westinghouse Electric Corp. The proposal would allow self-guarantees if certain conditions are met: Tangible net worth of at least $1 billion; Tangible net worth at least 10 times the present decommissioning cost estimate for all activities the utility is responsible for as a self-guaranteeing licensee and as parent guarantor; Domestic assets amounting to at least 90 percent of total assets or at least 10 times the present decommissioning cost estimate; A credit rating for the utility's most recent bond issuance of AAA, AA, or A (Standard ampersand Poor's), or Aaa, Aa, or A (Moody's). Additional requirements include that the utility licensee must have at least one class of equity securities registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, and that an independent auditor must verify that the utility met the financial test. A utility also would be responsible for reporting any change in circumstances affecting the criteria used to meet the financial test, and would be responsible for meeting that test within 90 days of each financial year. The NRC will accept written comments until March 29, 1993

  3. NRC Task Force report on review of the federal/state program for regulation of commercial low-level radioactive waste burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The underlying issue explored in this report is that of Federal vs State regulation of commercial radioactive waste burial grounds. The need for research and development, a comprehensive set of standards and criteria, a national plan for low-level waste management, and perpetual care funding are closely related to the central issue and are also discussed. Five of the six commercial burial grounds are regulated by Agreement States; the sixth is regulated solely by the NRC (NRC also regulates Special Nuclear Material at the sites). The sites are operated commercially. The operators contribute to the perpetual care funds for the sites at varying rates. The States have commitments for the perpetual care of the decommissioned sites except for one site, located on Federally owned land. Three conclusions are reached. Federal control over the disposal of low-level waste should be increased by requiring joint Federal/State site approval, NRC licensing, Federal ownership of the land, and a Federally administered perpetual care program. The NRC should accelerate the development of its regulatory program for the disposal of low-level waste. The undisciplined proliferation of low-level burial sites must be avoided. NRC should evaluate alternative disposal methods, conduct necessary studies, and develop a comprehensive low-level waste regulatory program (i.e., accomplish the above recommendations) prior to the licensing of new disposal sites

  4. Progesterone receptor isoforms PRA and PRB differentially contribute to breast cancer cell migration through interaction with focal adhesion kinase complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellance, Catherine; Khan, Junaid A; Meduri, Geri; Guiochon-Mantel, Anne; Lombès, Marc; Loosfelt, Hugues

    2013-05-01

    Progesterone receptor (PR) and progestins affect mammary tumorigenesis; however, the relative contributions of PR isoforms A and B (PRA and PRB, respectively) in cancer cell migration remains elusive. By using a bi-inducible MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line expressing PRA and/or PRB, we analyzed the effect of conditional PR isoform expression. Surprisingly, unliganded PRB but not PRA strongly enhanced cell migration as compared with PR(-) cells. 17,21-Dimethyl-19-norpregna-4,9-dien-3,20-dione (R5020) progestin limited this effect and was counteracted by the antagonist 11β-(4-dimethyl-amino)-phenyl-17β-hydroxy-17-(1-propynyl)-estra-4,9-dien-3-one (RU486). Of importance, PRA coexpression potentiated PRB-mediated migration, whereas PRA alone was ineffective. PR isoforms differentially regulated expressions of major players of cell migration, such as urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), its inhibitor plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, uPA receptor (uPAR), and β1-integrin, which affect focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling. Moreover, unliganded PRB but not PRA enhanced FAK Tyr397 phosphorylation and colocalized with activated FAK in cell protrusions. Because PRB, as well as PRA, coimmunoprecipitated with FAK, both isoforms can interact with FAK complexes, depending on their respective nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. In addition, FAK degradation was coupled to R5020-dependent turnovers of PRA and PRB. Such an effect of PRB/PRA expression on FAK signaling might thus affect adhesion/motility, underscoring the implication of PR isoforms in breast cancer invasiveness and metastatic evolution with underlying therapeutic outcomes.

  5. Reassessment of the NRC`s program for protecting allegers against retaliation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    On July 6, 1993, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) Executive Director for Operations established a review team to reassess the NRC`s program for protecting allegers against retaliation. The team evaluated the current system, and solicited comments from various NRC offices, other Federal agencies, licensees, former allegers, and the public. This report is subject to agency review. The report summarizes current processes and gives an overview of current problems. It discusses: (1) ways in which licensees can promote a quality-conscious work environment, in which all employees feel free to raise concerns without fear of retaliation; (2) ways to improve the NRC`s overall handling of allegations; (3) the NRC`s involvement in the Department of Labor process; (4) related NRC enforcement practices; and (5) methods other than investigation and enforcement that may be useful in treating allegations of potential or actual discrimination. Recommendations are given in each area.

  6. Pilot program: NRC severe reactor accident incident response training manual: US Nuclear Regulatory Commission response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakenas, C.A.; McKenna, T.J.; Perkins, K.; Miller, C.W.; Hively, L.M.; Sharpe, R.W.; Giitter, J.G.; Watkins, R.M.

    1987-02-01

    This pilot training manual has been written to fill the need for a general text on NRC response to reactor accidents. The manual is intended to be the foundation for a course for all NRC response personnel. US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Response is the fifth in a series of volumes that collectively summarize the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) emergency response during severe power reactor accidents and provide necessary background information. This volume describes NRC response modes, organizations, and official positions; roles of other federal agencies are also described briefly. Each volume serves, respectively, as the text for a course of instruction in a series of courses for NRC response personnel. These materials do not provide guidance or license requirements for NRC licensees. Each volume is accompanied by an appendix of slides that can be used to present this material. The slides are called out in the text

  7. Review of August 1978 changes to the NRC's program for standardization of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, W.F.

    1979-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) standardization program for the licensing of nuclear power plants was initiated in April 1972 and has been used extensively by industry since that time. In June 1977 the NRC directed the staff to undertake a detailed study of the program. As part of that study, the staff was to determine steps that the NRC might take to further encourage standardization. The article discusses the changes made to the standardization program that resulted from that study

  8. Perbandingan Tinggi Tulang Maksila dan Mandibula di Regio Interisisivi Sentral antara Pra dan Pasca Perawatan Ortodontik dengan Pencabutan ke Empat Gigi Premolar Pertama (Kajian pada Foto Panoramik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayan Ardhana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang. Perawatan ortodontik pada kasus-kasus gigi berjejal dan protusif sering membutuhkan pencabutan gigi premolar untuk penyediaan ruang agar gigi berjejal dapat dirapikan dan gigi depan yang protusif dapat diundurkan. Gigi insisivus sentral merupakan salah satu gigi yang paling banyak mengalami pergerakan selama proses retrusi. Pergerakan gigi insisivus mengakibatkan terjadinya perubahan pada puncak tulang alveolar selama perawatan yang mungkin akan mempengaruhi tinggi tulang maksila dan mandibula pasca perawatan. Tujuan penelitian. Membandingkan tinggi tulang maksila dan mandibula di daerah interdental gigi insisivi sentral pada foto panoramic antara pra dan pasca perawatan maloklusi dengan pencabutan ke empat gigi premolar pertama. Metode penelitian. Digunakan 30 pasang foto panoramic pra dan pasca perawatan yang dipilih sesuai dengan kriteria penelitian dari pasien-pasien peneliti yang telah selesai mendapat perawatan aktif dengan teknik edgewise. Analisis Kolmogorov-Smirnov dan Shaviro-Wilk digunakan untuk uji normalitas dan Student t-test data berpasangan digunakan untuk menguji perbedaan tinggi tulang maksila dan mandibula antara pra dan pasca perawatan. Hasil Penelitian. Tidak didapatkan perbedaan (p>0,05 tinggi tulang maksila dan amndibula antara pra dan pasca perawatan ortodontik dengan pencabutan keempat gigi premolar pertama.   Background. In orthodontic treatment, premolar extractions are often needed in crowding and prostrusive cases to provide space for the teeth can be aligned and retracted to their desire position. Central incisor teeth are the teeth that mostly undergone more movement during retrusion. The change of the alveolar bone crest in this incisors might affect the maxillary and mandibular bone height post-treatment. Research objectives. The present study aimed to compare the bone height in the interdental maxillary and mandibular central incisors regions before and after orthodontic treatment with four

  9. [Distribution of PRA patterns of clinical isolates of the Mycobacterium avium complex from Spain and South America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcia, Martha Isabel; Leao, Sylvia Cardoso; Ritacco, Viviana; Palenque, Elia; de Oliveira, Rosangela Siqueira; Reniero, Ana; Menendez, Maria Carmen; Telles, María Alice da Silva; Hadad, David Jamil; Barrera, Lucía; García, María Jesús

    2004-06-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infections are the most frequent systemic infections associated with advanced AIDS. DNA probes for accurate identification of mycobacteria are available but are very expensive in many Latin American settings. Consequently, most Latin American diagnostic laboratories employ inaccurate and outdated tests for mycobacteria identification. Therefore, PCR restriction analysis (PRA) of the hsp65 gene was evaluated for the identification of 163 MAC human isolates originated from Spain and South America. The predominant PRA type in each country was: M. avium type I in Argentina (23/42, 55%) and Brazil (48/72, 67%), M. avium type II in Spain (18/26, 69%) and M. avium type III in Colombia (10/23, 43%). The Colombia frequency is noteworthy, since the PRA type III was quite infrequent in the other three countries. Furthermore, its presence has not been reported outside the Americas. The advantages and disadvantages of PRA in diagnostic mycobacteriology are discussed.

  10. Evaluation of hsp65 nested PCR-restriction analysis (PRA) for diagnosing tuberculosis in a high burden country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macente, Sara; Fujimura Leite, Clarice Queico; Santos, Adolfo Carlos Barreto; Siqueira, Vera Lúcia Dias; Machado, Luzia Neri Cosmo; Marcondes, Nadir Rodrigues; Hirata, Mario Hiroyuki; Hirata, Rosário Dominguez Crespo; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti

    2013-01-01

    Current study evaluated the hsp65 Nested PCR Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis (hsp65 Nested PCR-PRA) to detect and identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex directly in clinical samples for a rapid and specific diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). hsp65 Nested PCR-PRA was applied directly to 218 clinical samples obtained from 127 patients suspected of TB or another mycobacterial infection from July 2009 to July 2010. The hsp65 Nested PCR-PRA showed 100% sensitivity and 95.0 and 93.1% specificity in comparison with culture and microscopy (acid fast bacillus smear), respectively. hsp65 Nested PCR-PRA was shown to be a fast and reliable assay for diagnosing TB, which may contribute towards a fast diagnosis that could help the selection of appropriate chemotherapeutic and early epidemiological management of the cases which are of paramount importance in a high TB burden country.

  11. Estrogen and progesterone receptors have distinct roles in the establishment of the hyperplastic phenotype in PR-A transgenic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simian, Marina; Bissell, Mina J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Shyamala, Gopalan

    2009-05-11

    Expression of the A and B forms of progesterone receptor (PR) in an appropriate ratio is critical for mammary development. Mammary glands of PR-A transgenic mice, carrying an additional A form of PR as a transgene, exhibit morphological features associated with the development of mammary tumors. Our objective was to determine the roles of estrogen (E) and progesterone (P) in the genesis of mammary hyperplasias/preneoplasias in PR-A transgenics. We subjected PR-A mice to hormonal treatments and analyzed mammary glands for the presence of hyperplasias and used BrdU incorporation to measure proliferation. Quantitative image analysis was carried out to compare levels of latency-associated peptide and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF{beta}1) between PR-A and PR-B transgenics. Basement membrane disruption was examined by immunofluorescence and proteolytic activity by zymography. The hyperplastic phenotype of PR-A transgenics is inhibited by ovariectomy, and is reversed by treatment with E + P. Studies using the antiestrogen ICI 182,780 or antiprogestins RU486 or ZK 98,299 show that the increase in proliferation requires signaling through E/estrogen receptor alpha but is not sufficient to give rise to hyperplasias, whereas signaling through P/PR has little impact on proliferation but is essential for the manifestation of hyperplasias. Increased proliferation is correlated with decreased TGF{beta}1 activation in the PR-A transgenics. Analysis of basement membrane integrity showed loss of laminin-5, collagen III and collagen IV in mammary glands of PR-A mice, which is restored by ovariectomy. Examination of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) showed that total levels of MMP-2 correlate with the steady-state levels of PR, and that areas of laminin-5 loss coincide with those of activation of MMP-2 in PR-A transgenics. Activation of MMP-2 is dependent on treatment with E and P in ovariectomized wild-type mice, but is achieved only by treatment with P in PR-A mice. These data

  12. Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Technical Exchange Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-09-01

    During FY13, the INL developed an advanced SMR PRA framework which has been described in the report Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Detailed Technical Framework Specification, INL/EXT-13-28974 (April 2013). In this framework, the various areas are considered: Probabilistic models to provide information specific to advanced SMRs Representation of specific SMR design issues such as having co-located modules and passive safety features Use of modern open-source and readily available analysis methods Internal and external events resulting in impacts to safety All-hazards considerations Methods to support the identification of design vulnerabilities Mechanistic and probabilistic data needs to support modeling and tools In order to describe this framework more fully and obtain feedback on the proposed approaches, the INL hosted a technical exchange meeting during August 2013. This report describes the outcomes of that meeting.

  13. Comments of the PRA Senior Review Panel on the meeting held December 1--3, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    This memorandum records the minutes of the PRA Senior Review Panel meeting held at Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) on December 1--3, 1987, and the report on that meeting written subsequently by the panel members. The minutes are contained as Attachment 2 of this memorandum, and the report as Attachment 1. The Panel indicated two principal concerns in their report: (1) that insufficient emphasis is being placed on the reliability data development program, and (2) that excessive detail is being built into the fault trees. These concerns have been addressed in a subsequent meeting with the Panel, held March 2--4, 1988. In addition, the members have been provided with a program document (Reference 1) indicating the extent, the timing, and the limitations of the data analysis effort for the PRA

  14. Expected proton signal sizes in the PRaVDA Range Telescope for proton Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, T.; Parker, D.J.; Green, S.; Esposito, M.; Waltham, C.; Allinson, N.M.; Poludniowski, G.; Evans, P.; Taylor, J.; Manolopoulos, S.; Anaxagoras, T.; Nieto-Camero, J.

    2015-01-01

    Proton radiotherapy has demonstrated benefits in the treatment of certain cancers. Accurate measurements of the proton stopping powers in body tissues are required in order to fully optimise the delivery of such treaments. The PRaVDA Consortium is developing a novel, fully solid state device to measure these stopping powers. The PRaVDA Range Telescope (RT), uses a stack of 24 CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APS) to measure the residual proton energy after the patient. We present here the ability of the CMOS sensors to detect changes in the signal sizes as the proton traverses the RT, compare the results with theory, and discuss the implications of these results on the reconstruction of proton tracks

  15. Progesterone receptor isoform-specific promoter methylation: association of PRA promoter methylation with worse outcome in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathiraja, Thushangi N; Shetty, Priya B; Jelinek, Jaroslav; He, Rong; Hartmaier, Ryan; Margossian, Astrid L; Hilsenbeck, Susan G; Issa, Jean-Pierre J; Oesterreich, Steffi

    2011-06-15

    ERα and PR levels are critical determinants for breast cancer prognosis and response to endocrine therapy. Although PR is known to be silenced by methylation of its promoter, few studies have correlated methylation with PR levels and outcome in breast cancer. There is only one previous small study comparing methylation of the two PR isoforms, PRA and PRB, which are expressed from different promoters, and finally, there is no prior knowledge of associations between isoform-specific methylation and outcome. We conducted a cohort-based study to test for associations between PRA and PRB methylation, expression, and clinical outcome in tamoxifen-treated patients (n = 500), and in patients who underwent surgery only (n = 500). Methylation and PR levels were measured by bisulfite pyrosequencing and ligand-binding assay, respectively. Low PR levels were significantly associated with worse outcome in all patients. PRA and PRB promoters were methylated in 9.6% and 14.1% of the breast tumors, respectively. The majority (74%) of PR-negative tumors were not methylated despite the significant inverse correlation of methylation and PR levels. PRA methylation was significantly associated with PRB methylation, although a subset of tumors had PRA only (3.9%) or PRB only (8.3%) methylated. Methylation of PRA, but not PRB was significantly associated with worse outcome in the tamoxifen-treated group. Mechanisms other than promoter methylation may be more dominant for loss of PR. Isoform-specific methylation events suggest independent regulation of PRA and PRB. Finally, this article shows for the first time that PRA methylation plays a unique role in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer. ©2011 AACR.

  16. Progesterone receptor isoform-specific promoter methylation — Association of PRA promoter methylation with worse outcome in breast cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathiraja, Thushangi N; Shetty, Priya B; Jelinek, Jaroslav; He, Rong; Hartmaier, Ryan; Margossian, Astrid L; Hilsenbeck, Susan G; Issa, Jean-Pierre J; Oesterreich, Steffi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose ERα and PR levels are critical determinants for breast cancer prognosis and response to endocrine therapy. Although PR is known to be silenced by methylation of its promoter, few studies have correlated methylation with PR levels and outcome in breast cancer. There is only one previous small study comparing methylation of the two PR isoforms, PRA and PRB, which are expressed from different promoters, and finally, there is no prior knowledge of associations between isoform-specific methylation and outcome. Experimental Design We conducted a cohort-based study to test for associations between PRA and PRB methylation, expression, and clinical outcome in tamoxifen-treated patients (n=500), and in patients who underwent surgery only (n=500). Methylation and PR levels were measured by bisulfite pyrosequencing and ligand binding assay, respectively. Results Low PR levels were significantly associated with worse outcome in all patients. PRA and PRB promoters were methylated in 9.6% and 14.1% of the breast tumors, respectively. The majority (74%) of PR-negative tumors were not methylated despite the significant inverse correlation of methylation and PR levels. PRA methylation was significantly associated with PRB methylation, although a subset of tumors had PRA only (3.9%) or PRB only (8.3%) methylated. Methylation of PRA, but not PRB was significantly associated with worse outcome in the tamoxifen treated group. Conclusions Mechanisms other than promoter methylation may be more dominant for loss of PR. Isoform-specific methylation events suggest independent regulation of PRA and PRB. Finally, this study shows for the first time that PRA methylation plays a unique role in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer. PMID:21459801

  17. A Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) of Human Space Missions for the Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Dillon-Merrill, Robin L.; Thomas, Gretchen A.

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) Project u7ill study and solve systems-level integration issues for exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO), through the design and development of a ground-based facility for developing revolutionary integrated systems for joint human-robotic missions. This paper describes a Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) of human space missions that was developed to help define the direction and priorities for AIM. Risk analysis is required for all major NASA programs and has been used for shuttle, station, and Mars lander programs. It is a prescribed part of early planning and is necessary during concept definition, even before mission scenarios and system designs exist. PRA cm begin when little failure data are available, and be continually updated and refined as detail becomes available. PRA provides a basis for examining tradeoffs among safety, reliability, performance, and cost. The objective of AIM's PRA is to indicate how risk can be managed and future human space missions enabled by the AIM Project. Many critical events can cause injuries and fatalities to the crew without causing loss of vehicle or mission. Some critical systems are beyond AIM's scope, such as propulsion and guidance. Many failure-causing events can be mitigated by conducting operational tests in AIM, such as testing equipment and evaluating operational procedures, especially in the areas of communications and computers, autonomous operations, life support, thermal design, EVA and rover activities, physiological factors including habitation, medical equipment, and food, and multifunctional tools and repairable systems. AIM is well suited to test and demonstrate the habitat, life support, crew operations, and human interface. Because these account for significant crew, systems performance, and science risks, AIM will help reduce mission risk, and missions beyond LEO are far enough in the future that AIM can have significant impact.

  18. Development of a methodology for conducting an integrated HRA/PRA --

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckas, W.J.; Barriere, M.T.; Brown, W.S.; Wreathall, J.; Cooper, S.E.

    1993-01-01

    During Low Power and Shutdown (LP ampersand S) conditions in a nuclear power plant (i.e., when the reactor is subcritical or at less than 10--15% power), human interactions with the plant's systems will be more frequent and more direct. Control is typically not mediated by automation, and there are fewer protective systems available. Therefore, an assessment of LP ampersand S related risk should include a greater emphasis on human reliability than such an assessment made for power operation conditions. In order to properly account for the increase in human interaction and thus be able to perform a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) applicable to operations during LP ampersand S, it is important that a comprehensive human reliability assessment (HRA) methodology be developed and integrated into the LP ampersand S PRA. The tasks comprising the comprehensive HRA methodology development are as follows: (1) identification of the human reliability related influences and associated human actions during LP ampersand S, (2) identification of potentially important LP ampersand S related human actions and appropriate HRA framework and quantification methods, and (3) incorporation and coordination of methodology development with other integrated PRA/HRA efforts. This paper describes the first task, i.e., the assessment of human reliability influences and any associated human actions during LP ampersand S conditions for a pressurized water reactor (PWR)

  19. Development of a methodology for conducting an integrated HRA/PRA --

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luckas, W.J.; Barriere, M.T.; Brown, W.S. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Wreathall, J. (Wreathall (John) and Co., Dublin, OH (United States)); Cooper, S.E. (Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    During Low Power and Shutdown (LP S) conditions in a nuclear power plant (i.e., when the reactor is subcritical or at less than 10--15% power), human interactions with the plant's systems will be more frequent and more direct. Control is typically not mediated by automation, and there are fewer protective systems available. Therefore, an assessment of LP S related risk should include a greater emphasis on human reliability than such an assessment made for power operation conditions. In order to properly account for the increase in human interaction and thus be able to perform a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) applicable to operations during LP S, it is important that a comprehensive human reliability assessment (HRA) methodology be developed and integrated into the LP S PRA. The tasks comprising the comprehensive HRA methodology development are as follows: (1) identification of the human reliability related influences and associated human actions during LP S, (2) identification of potentially important LP S related human actions and appropriate HRA framework and quantification methods, and (3) incorporation and coordination of methodology development with other integrated PRA/HRA efforts. This paper describes the first task, i.e., the assessment of human reliability influences and any associated human actions during LP S conditions for a pressurized water reactor (PWR).

  20. The role of PRA in the safety assessment of VVER Nuclear Power Plants in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kot, C.

    1999-01-01

    Ukraine operates thirteen (13) Soviet-designed pressurized water reactors, VVERS. All Ukrainian plants are currently operating with annually renewable permits until they update their safety analysis reports (SARs), in accordance with new SAR content requirements issued in September 1995, by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and the Government Nuclear Power Coordinating Committee of Ukraine. The requirements are in three major areas: design basis accident (DBA) analysis, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), and beyond design-basis accident (BDBA) analysis. The last two requirements, on PRA and BDBA, are new, and the DBA requirements are an expanded version of the older SAR requirements. The US Department of Energy (USDOE), as part of its Soviet-Designed Reactor Safety activities, is providing assistance and technology transfer to Ukraine to support their nuclear power plants (NPPs) in developing a Western-type technical basis for the new SARs. USDOE sponsored In-Depth Safety Assessments (ISAs) are in progress at three pilot nuclear reactor units in Ukraine, South Ukraine Unit 1, Zaporizhzhya Unit 5, and Rivne Unit 1, and a follow-on study has been initiated at Khmenytskyy Unit 1. The ISA projects encompass most areas of plant safety evaluation, but the initial emphasis is on performing a detailed, plant-specific Level 1 Internal Events PRA. This allows the early definition of the plant risk profile, the identification of risk significant accident sequences and plant vulnerabilities and provides guidance for the remainder of the safety assessments

  1. The role of PRA in the safety assessment of VVER Nuclear Power Plants in Ukraine.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kot, C.

    1999-05-10

    Ukraine operates thirteen (13) Soviet-designed pressurized water reactors, VVERS. All Ukrainian plants are currently operating with annually renewable permits until they update their safety analysis reports (SARs), in accordance with new SAR content requirements issued in September 1995, by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and the Government Nuclear Power Coordinating Committee of Ukraine. The requirements are in three major areas: design basis accident (DBA) analysis, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), and beyond design-basis accident (BDBA) analysis. The last two requirements, on PRA and BDBA, are new, and the DBA requirements are an expanded version of the older SAR requirements. The US Department of Energy (USDOE), as part of its Soviet-Designed Reactor Safety activities, is providing assistance and technology transfer to Ukraine to support their nuclear power plants (NPPs) in developing a Western-type technical basis for the new SARs. USDOE sponsored In-Depth Safety Assessments (ISAs) are in progress at three pilot nuclear reactor units in Ukraine, South Ukraine Unit 1, Zaporizhzhya Unit 5, and Rivne Unit 1, and a follow-on study has been initiated at Khmenytskyy Unit 1. The ISA projects encompass most areas of plant safety evaluation, but the initial emphasis is on performing a detailed, plant-specific Level 1 Internal Events PRA. This allows the early definition of the plant risk profile, the identification of risk significant accident sequences and plant vulnerabilities and provides guidance for the remainder of the safety assessments.

  2. Use of plant-specific PRA in an EOP scope audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, decisions on which accident scenarios to proceduralize as emergency operating procedures (EOPs) have been based on existing design basis analyses, engineering judgment, and probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) on generic plants. This approach has important strengths and limits. The major limitation of generic PRAs is their inability to account for plant-specific features. Use of plant-specific PRA to determine the impact of proceduralizing, or not proceduralizing, responses to scenarios considers plant-specific features. This helps to eliminate unnecessary EOPs, thus allowing resources to be concentrated on scenarios that are more important for a particular plant. In preparation for a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission audit, a plant-specific PRA was used to assess and quantify the plant's previous decision not to implement six reference emergency response guidelines (ERGs) as procedures. The original justification for nonimplementation of the ERGs was based on engineering judgment. The PRA provided a quantitative justification for implementation/nonimplementation of each guidelines. This analysis accounted for plant-specific design features not common to all reference plants

  3. Use of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in expert systems to advise nuclear plant operators and managers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhrig, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    The use of expert systems in nuclear power plants to provide advice to managers, supervisors and/or operators is a concept that is rapidly gaining acceptance. Generally, expert systems rely on the expertise of human experts or knowledge that has been codified in publications, books, or regulations to provide advice under a wide variety of conditions. In this work, a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of a nuclear power plant performed previously is used to assess the safety status of nuclear power plants and to make recommendations to the plant personnel. Nuclear power plants have many redundant systems and can continue to operate when one or more of these systems is disabled or removed from service for maintenance or testing. PRAs provide a means of evaluating the risk to the public associated with the operation of nuclear power plants with components or systems out of service. While the choice of the source term and methodology in a PRA may influence the absolute probability and consequences of a core melt, the ratio of the PRA calculations for two configurations of the same plant, carried out on a consistent basis, can readily identify the increase in risk associated with going from one configuration to the other

  4. 76 FR 57767 - Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Proposed Generic Communication; Draft NRC Generic Letter 2011-XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for... NRC Generic Letter 2011- XX: Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors. This action is necessary...

  5. 10 CFR 1.51 - Description and custody of NRC seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Description and custody of NRC seal. 1.51 Section 1.51... § 1.51 Description and custody of NRC seal. (a) Pursuant to section 201(a) of the Energy... is responsible for custody of the impression seals and of replica (plaque) seals. ...

  6. 77 FR 30332 - Mr. James Chaisson; Order Prohibiting Involvement in NRC-Licensed Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... COMMISSION Mr. James Chaisson; Order Prohibiting Involvement in NRC-Licensed Activities I Mr. James Chaisson... required TGR to limit the storage of radioactive material approved on the license to temporary job sites in... any involvement in NRC-licensed activities for a period of 3 years from the effective date of this...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 960 - NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository... SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Pt. 960, App. II Appendix II to Part 960—NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance Under proposed 40 CFR part 191, subpart A...

  8. 10 CFR 81.13 - Publication of NRC inventions available for licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Publication of NRC inventions available for licensing. 81... inventions available for licensing. (a) The Commission will have published periodically a list of the NRC inventions available for licensing under this subpart in the Federal Register, the U.S. Patent Office...

  9. House, Senate bills introduced to repeal NRC's BRC policy. [Below Regulatory Concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yates, M.

    1990-09-13

    This article reports on House and Senate response to the NRC's policy statement that would permit the deregulation of radioactive waste deemed below regulatory concern (BRC). Legislation has been introduced that would prevent the NRC from implementing the policy. The Environmental Protection Agency, and environmental and antinuclear activists support the legislation.

  10. NRC regulatory agenda: Semiannual report, July--December 1996. Volume 15, Number 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued semiannually

  11. NRC Regulatory Agenda semiannual report, July--December 1995. Volume 14, No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued semianually

  12. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Progress report, January-June 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    This report provides the status and results of the NRC Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. It presents the radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 55 NRC-licensed facility sites throughout the country for the first half of 1981. The program objectives, scope, and methodology are given. The TLD system, dosimeter location, data processing scheme, and quality assurance program are outlined

  13. Building confidence in nuclear waste regulation: how NRC is adapting in response to stakeholder concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotra, Janet P.

    2004-01-01

    Increasing public confidence in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as an effective and independent regulator is an explicit goal of the Agency. When developing new, site-specific regulations for the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, NRC sought to improve its efforts to inform and involve the public in NRC's decision-making process. To this end, NRC has made, and continues to make significant organizational, process and policy changes. NRC successfully applied these changes as it completed final regulations for Yucca Mountain, when introducing a draft license review plan for public comment, and when responding to public requests for information on NRC's licensing and hearing process. It should be understood, however, that these changes emerged, and continue to be applied, in the context of evolving agency concern for increasing stakeholder confidence reflected in institutional changes within the agency as a whole. (author)

  14. Causative mutations for progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) in the dog

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostál, Jaromír; Horák, Pavel; Bechyňová, Renata; Přibáňová, M.; Stratil, Antonín; Schröffelová, D.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2008), s. 55-58 ISSN 1803-4403. [Genetické dny /23./. České Budějovice, 10.09.2008-12.09.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : progressive retinal atrophy * dog Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  15. As praças dr. Augusto Silva e Leonardo Venerando Pereira, 1701 Lavras - MG, segundo a visão dos seus freqüentadores The park dr. Augusto Silva, Lavras - MG, according to viewpoint of its users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Teixeira da Silva

    2008-12-01

    ância na vida diária da população, melhorando principalmente sua qualidade de vida ambiental.Public squares besides collaborating the beauty of cities, also exert important function in the environmental and urbanistic context. Dr. Augusto Silva square, situated in the city of Lavras - MG, has been already called Largo da Matriz, Praça Central and Jardim Municipal. It was officially inaugurated on November 29, 1908, when it started having the name of an illustrious doctor from Lavras. The square Dr. Augusto Silva, has a current area of 7.552,65 m² and presents, as its extension, Leonardo Venerando Pereira square, with current area of 2.041,72 m². Until 1940, this extension had been called Praça da Bandeira. Since then it was evidenced than since early the 1910s, this place has been the stage of great celebrations and political meetings. It has also been a well frequented place by the population. It has rich vegetation, where a centennial tipuana (Tipuana tipu and imperial palms (Roystonea oleracea are distinguished. With the objective evaluating its current situation and uses, an evaluation was accomplished, by means of quantitative analysis and research together with population. A series of evaluations was made, referring to the following itens: urbanistic and physical aspects, and the vegetation. The survey was applied to approximately 600 users, in the park in different days of the week and schedules, using a questionnaire with direct questions to the interviewed ones. The collected data had been statistically analyzed using the software SPSS, where the percentage frequencies were been obtained. Most of the interviewed ones judges the park as a meeting place among friends, where they contemplate its beauty and rest. By means of researches of opinion made with the users of the square, one could identify that the park is a place well frequented by several age groups, at different periods of the day. Dr. Augusto Silva square has been of great importance to the daily

  16. Faktor Risiko Perilaku Pra-Diabetes di Kota Padang Panjang

    OpenAIRE

    Fajrinayanti, Fajrinayanti

    2008-01-01

    Pre-diabetes is a condition leading to the risk of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) type 2, that can be caused by genetic factor and behavior risk factors, such as fat consumption, insufficient fiber consumption, low carbohydrate consumption, sedentary life, and smoking. Prevalence of pre-diabetic has been estimated as higher than prevalence of DM. This research purposed to assess association of behavior risk factors with pre-diabetes incident among population of 40-59 years old in Padang Panjang City ...

  17. Model Penilaian untuk Kematangan Perencanaan Keselamatan dalam Tahap Pra Konstruksi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Endroyo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The construction sector still has a low achievement in safety issues. Fatal accident rate in construction is higher than average rate in other industries. Because of it, need some attention to minimize the rate of accident in construction. This research examined the key factors of safety planning in the pre-construction stage, and it was based on the theories of accidents causation having the upstream approach. Some theories were: Constraint-Response Theory (CR; Construction Design Management (CDM, and the Process Protocol (Pp. This research broke down the three theories above (CR; CDM; Pp into the concept of the key factors of safety planning in pre-construction. Then, the concept was verified by construction practitioners and academician, using Delphi method three rotations. During the verification, from the first to the third round, there were reduction and the addition concept and language appropriateness. The findings of this research were assessment models of maturity safety planning in the pre construction stages. There were two models, the model of "radar chart" or MISAP 1 and the model of "worksheet" or MISAP 2.

  18. NRC source term assessment for incident response dose projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easley, P.; Pasedag, W.

    1984-01-01

    The NRC provides advice and assistance to licensees and State and local authorities in responding to accidents. The TACT code supports this function by providing source term projections for two situations during early (15 to 60 minutes) accident response: (1) Core/containment damage is indicated, but there are no measured releases. Quantification of a predicted release permits emergency response before people are exposed. With TACT, response personnel can estimate releases based on fuel and cladding conditions, coolant boundary and containment integrity, and mitigative systems operability. For this type of estimate, TACT is intermediate between default assumptions and time-consuming mechanistic codes. (2) A combination of plant status and limited release data are available. For this situation, iterations between predictions based on known conditions which are compared to measured releases gives reasonable confidence in supplemental source term information otherwise unavailable: nuclide mix, releases not monitored, and trending or abrupt changes. The assumptions and models used in TACT, and examples of its use, are given in this paper

  19. Status of VICTORIA: NRC peer review and recent code applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bixler, N.E.; Schaperow, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    VICTORIA is a mechanistic computer code designed to analyze fission product behavior within a nuclear reactor coolant system (RCS) during a severe accident. It provides detailed predictions of the release of radioactive and nonradioactive materials from the reactor core and transport and deposition of these materials within the RCS. A summary of the results and recommendations of an independent peer review of VICTORIA by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is presented, along with recent applications of the code. The latter include analyses of a temperature-induced steam generator tube rupture sequence and post-test analyses of the Phebus FPT-1 test. The next planned Phebus test, FTP-4, will focus on fission product releases from a rubble bed, especially those of the less-volatile elements, and on the speciation of the released elements. Pretest analyses using VICTORIA to estimate the magnitude and timing of releases are presented. The predicted release of uranium is a matter of particular importance because of concern about filter plugging during the test

  20. Aliskiren monotherapy results in the greatest and the least blood pressure lowering in patients with high- and low-baseline PRA levels, respectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Alice V; Dicker, Patrick; O'Brien, Eoin T

    2009-09-01

    Hypertensive patients with low-baseline plasma renin activity (PRA) are known to respond best to natriuretic drugs, and those with high PRA respond best to renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade. However, there has been recent speculation that blood pressure (BP)-lowering responses to the renin inhibitor, aliskiren, might also be blunted in some patients with medium-to-high baseline PRA. It has been suggested that treatment resistance in these patients may result from excessive reactive increases in renin secretion, such that aliskiren's blockade of PRA is overwhelmed. In order to test for evidence in support of this hypothesis, we conducted a reanalysis of original data from three published clinical trials of aliskiren. When aliskiren was administered as a monotherapy, or in combination with other blockers of the RAS, changes in PRA were closely correlated with baseline PRA. Patients with low-baseline PRA demonstrated small reductions or rises in PRA, rather than patients with medium-to-high baseline PRA. We confirmed that ambulatory BP-lowering responses to full dose aliskiren monotherapy were greatest and least among patients with high- and low-baseline PRA, respectively. However no such association was demonstrated during aliskiren combination therapy. With either monotherapy or combination therapy, no patient with a baseline PRA >0.65 ng/ml/h was observed to have a rise in both PRA and BP. We conclude, therefore, that there is only evidence for one type of resistance to aliskiren--as with all blockers of the RAS, lesser BP-lowering responses to aliskiren occur in those with the least renin to block.

  1. In vitro and in vivo characterization of a novel nonsteroidal, species-specific progesterone receptor modulator, PRA-910.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Lundeen, S G; Slayden, O; Zhu, Y; Cohen, J; Berrodin, T J; Bretz, J; Chippari, S; Wrobel, J; Zhang, P; Fensome, A; Winneker, R C; Yudt, M R

    2007-01-01

    The progesterone receptor (PR) is an important regulator of female reproduction. Consequently, PR modulators have found numerous pharmaceutical utilities in women's reproductive health. In the process of identifying more receptor-specific and tissue-selective PR modulators, we discovered a novel nonsteroidal, 6-aryl benzoxazinone compound, PRA-910, that displays unique in vitro and in vivo activities. In a PR/PRE reporter assay in COS-7 cells, PRA-910 shows potent PR antagonist activity with an IC50 value of approximately 20 nM. In the alkaline phosphatase assay in the human breast cancer cell line T47D, PRA-910 is a partial progesterone antagonist at low concentrations and is also an effective PR agonist at higher concentrations (EC50 value of approximately 700 nM). PRA-910 binds to the human PR with high affinity (Kd = 4 nM) and was previously shown to exhibit greater than 100-fold selectivity for the PR versus other steroid receptors. In the adult ovariectomized rat, PRA-910 is a potent PR antagonist. It inhibits progesterone-induced uterine decidual response with an ED50 value of 0.4 mg/kg, p.o., and reverses progesterone suppression of estradiol-induced complement C3 expression with potency similar to RU-486. In the nonhuman primate, however, PRA-910 is a PR agonist. The effect on endometrial histology strongly resembles that of progesterone. This unique compound also suppresses estradiol-induced epithelial cell proliferation and both estrogen and progesterone receptor expression in the uterine endometrium as a PR agonist would. In summary, PRA-910 is a structurally and biologically novel selective PR modulator with either PR agonist or antagonist activity, depending on context, concentration, and species.

  2. Performance testing of dosimetry processors, status of NRC rulemaking for improved personnel dosimetry processing, and some beta dosimetry and instrumentation problems observed by NRC regional inspectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, N.A.; Kinneman, J.D.; Costello, F.M.; White, J.R.; Nimitz, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Early dosimetry processor performance studies conducted between 1967 and 1979 by several different investigators indicated that a significant percentage of personnel dosimetry processors may not be performing with a reasonable degree of accuracy. Results of voluntary performance testing of US personnel dosimetry processors against the final Health Physics Society Standard, Criteria for Testing Personnel Dosimetry Performance by the University of Michigan for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) will be summarized with emphasis on processor performance in radiation categories involving beta particles and beta particles and photon mixtures. The current status of the NRC's regulatory program for improved personnel dosimetry processing will be reviewed. The NRC is proposing amendments to its regulations, 10 CFR Part 20, that would require its licensees to utilize specified personnel dosimetry services from processors accredited by the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program of the National Bureau of Standards. Details of the development and schedule for implementation of the program will be highlighted. Finally, selected beta dosimetry and beta instrumentation problems observed by NRC Regional Staff during inspections of NRC licensed facilities will be discussed

  3. Recommendations for NRC policy on shift scheduling and overtime at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, P.M.

    1985-07-01

    This report contains the Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL's) recommendations to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for an NRC policy on shift scheduling and hours of work (including overtime) for control room operators and other safety-related personnel in nuclear power plants. First, it is recommended that NRC make three additions to its present policy on overtime: (1) limit personnel to 112 hours of work in a 14-day period, 192 hours in 28 days, and 2260 hours in one year; exceeding these limits would require plant manager approval; (2) add a requirement that licensees obtain approval from NRC if plant personnel are expected to exceed 72 hours of work in a 7-day period, 132 hours in 14 days, 228 hours in 28 days, and 2300 hours in one year; and (3) make the policy a requirement, rather than a nonbinding recommendation. Second, it is recommended that licensees be required to obtain NRC approval to adopt a routine 12-hour/day shift schedule. Third, it is recommended that NRC add several nonbinding recommendations concerning routine 8-hour/day schedules. Finally, because additional data can strengthen the basis for future NRC policy on overtime, five methods are suggested for collecting data on overtime and its effects. 44 refs., 10 tabs

  4. Recommendations for NRC policy on shift scheduling and overtime at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, P.M.

    1985-07-01

    This report contains the Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL's) recommendations to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for an NRC policy on shift scheduling and hours of work (including overtime) for control room operators and other safety-related personnel in nuclear power plants. First, it is recommended that NRC make three additions to its present policy on overtime: (1) limit personnel to 112 hours of work in a 14-day period, 192 hours in 28 days, and 2260 hours in one year; exceeding these limits would require plant manager approval; (2) add a requirement that licensees obtain approval from NRC if plant personnel are expected to exceed 72 hours of work in a 7-day period, 132 hours in 14 days, 228 hours in 28 days, and 2300 hours in one year; and (3) make the policy a requirement, rather than a nonbinding recommendation. Second, it is recommended that licensees be required to obtain NRC approval to adopt a routine 12-hour/day shift schedule. Third, it is recommended that NRC add several nonbinding recommendations concerning routine 8-hour/day schedules. Finally, because additional data can strengthen the basis for future NRC policy on overtime, five methods are suggested for collecting data on overtime and its effects. 44 refs., 10 tabs.

  5. International cooperation during radiological emergencies. NRC program guidance for the provision of technical advice to foreign counterpart organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senseney, R.

    1986-04-01

    This report defines the scope, application, and limits of the technical cooperation the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) would provide, upon request, to a foreign regulatory agency in a nuclear emergency. It outlines the basis for such cooperation, offers a model written agreement, and describes recent cases of NRC assistance. It also identifies non-NRC sources of emergency advisory assistance available to foreign organizations

  6. Use of PRA methodology for enhancing operational safety and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, B.; Rumble, E.; Najafi, B.; Putney, B.; Young, J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a broad scope, on-going R and D study, sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to utilize key features of the state-of-the-art plant information management and system analysis techniques to develop and demonstrate a practical engineering tool for assisting plant engineering and operational staff to perform their activities more effectively. The study is foreseen to consist of two major activities: to develop a user-friendly, integrated software system; and to demonstrate the applications of this software on-site. This integrated software, Reliability Analysis Program with In-Plant Data (RAPID), will consist of three types of interrelated elements: an Executive Controller which will provide engineering and operations staff users with interface and control of the other two software elements, a Data Base Manager which can acquire, store, select, and transfer data, and Applications Modules which will perform the specific reliability-oriented functions. A broad range of these functions has been envisaged. The immediate emphasis will be focused on four application modules: a Plant Status Module, a Technical Specification Optimization Module, a Reliability Assessment Module, and a Utility Module for acquiring plant data

  7. NRC approach to evaluating training effectiveness in accordance with the policy statement on training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persensky, J.J.; Blumer, A.H.

    1985-01-01

    The activity of the past two years has provided an opportunity for the NRC to examine and realign the way in which it views the training process. In the process, it has provided the industry with an incentive to emphasize training as an opportunity for enlightened self-regulation. As a result, the NRC and industry perspectives on training have, for all intents and purposes, merged into a single performance orientation. This cooperation should provide the needed momentum towards improvements in training effectiveness. It is the NRC's goal to monitor this momentum and to encourage progress toward the ideal of systematic, performance-based training for all essential personnel in the nuclear industry

  8. Incorporating organizational factors into Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of complex socio-technical systems: A hybrid technique formalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohaghegh, Zahra; Kazemi, Reza; Mosleh, Ali

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a result of a research with the primary purpose of extending Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) modeling frameworks to include the effects of organizational factors as the deeper, more fundamental causes of accidents and incidents. There have been significant improvements in the sophistication of quantitative methods of safety and risk assessment, but the progress on techniques most suitable for organizational safety risk frameworks has been limited. The focus of this paper is on the choice of 'representational schemes' and 'techniques.' A methodology for selecting appropriate candidate techniques and their integration in the form of a 'hybrid' approach is proposed. Then an example is given through an integration of System Dynamics (SD), Bayesian Belief Network (BBN), Event Sequence Diagram (ESD), and Fault Tree (FT) in order to demonstrate the feasibility and value of hybrid techniques. The proposed hybrid approach integrates deterministic and probabilistic modeling perspectives, and provides a flexible risk management tool for complex socio-technical systems. An application of the hybrid technique is provided in the aviation safety domain, focusing on airline maintenance systems. The example demonstrates how the hybrid method can be used to analyze the dynamic effects of organizational factors on system risk

  9. Comparison of intraocular pressure measurements with the digital tonometer TGDc-01 'PRA' and the Goldmann applanation tonometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael W; Gockeln, Roland; Hoy, Ludwig; Meyer, Andrea; Erb, Carl

    2004-01-01

    To compare intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements obtained with the digital tonometer TGDc-01 'PRA' with those from a Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT). The IOP in 176 eyes of 88 healthy volunteers was measured prospectively in a sitting position. One single measurement, generated by the TGDc-01 PRA, was compared with a single reading from the GAT. Mean IOP values were 13.0 +/- 3.7 mm Hg for the TGDc-01 PRA (range, 4-22 mm Hg) and 14.9 +/- 3.2 mm Hg for the GAT (range, 8-27 mm Hg). The mean difference was 1.9 mm Hg with a standard deviation of 2.77 mm Hg, and this was statistically significant (p PRA underestimated IOP on an average of 1.9 mm Hg. Only 50.6% of all measurements were within the +/-2 mm Hg difference range. Thus, the TGDc-01 PRA has no high coincidence degree with the GAT. Both methods were not equivalent. Copyright (c) 2004 S Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Regulation of gene expression by PRA-910, a novel progesterone receptor modulator, in T47D cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Jeffrey D; Zhang, Zhiming; Winneker, Richard C; Lyttle, C Richard

    2003-11-01

    Progestins play an important role in women's health and are used in oral contraception, hormone therapy, and treatment of reproductive disorders. The effects of progestins upon gene expression in breast epithelium are poorly understood. In an attempt to characterize the molecular mechanism of progestin action, we used a gene expression profiling approach to examine the action of a novel progestin in the T47D cell model, a human breast cancer cell line. PRA-910 is a novel, nonsteroidal progesterone receptor modulator (PRM) with species-specific activities identified in a screen for selective PRMs. To understand the mechanism of action for PRA-910 in T47D cells, we compared its gene regulation to progesterone (P4) and RU486 through Affymetrix U95A GeneChip analysis and TaqMan RT-PCR. PRA-910, P4, and RU486 regulated 50, 108, and 16 genes by threefold or greater versus vehicle, respectively, with 18 genes having similar regulation for P4 and PRA-910. These data confirm and extend previous findings for T47D cells. We also obtained time course, concentration-response, cyclohexamide sensitivity, and PR-specificity data for two progestin-regulated genes, ATP1A1 and CLDN8. Our data demonstrate that PRA-910 has a unique gene regulation profile distinct from both P4 and RU486. Further investigation of the underlying mechanism for these differences is ongoing.

  11. The effect of blood collection procedure on plasma renin activity (PRA) and concentrations of direct renin (DRC) and aldosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinicki, Piotr; Jeske, Wojciech; Gietka-Czernel, Małgorzata; Bednarek-Papierska, Lucyna; Kruszyńska, Aleksandra; Słowińska-Srzednicka, Jadwiga; Zgliczyński, Wojciech

    2015-06-01

    Performing measurements of plasma renin activity (PRA) or direct renin concentration (DRC) and aldosterone concentration, we should be well informed about requirements concerning blood sample processing. Forty-seven patients had blood collected in the supine and upright positions. Blood was withdrawn into two EDTA2K tubes and one with clot activator. One EDTA2K tube was cooled at +4 °C and centrifuged at +4 °C whereas the other was prepared at room temperature. PRA and DRC were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and radioimmunometry (IRMA), respectively, in both cooled and not cooled plasma samples, and aldosterone was measured by RIA in not cooled plasma and in serum. In all the groups, with low, medium, and high values of PRA and direct renin, the temperature of sample processing within 30 minutes had no marked influence on the final result (correlation coefficient for renin was 0.9994, and for PRA, 0.8297). The measured concentrations of aldosterone also showed high correlation (r = 0.9790) but were markedly higher in plasma. The measurements of DRC, and to a lesser extent PRA, were similar regardless of temperature condition during the 20-30 minutes necessary for blood sample processing. Aldosterone concentrations in plasma vs serum samples appeared to be markedly higher. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. RAVEN: a GUI and an Artificial Intelligence Engine in a Dynamic PRA Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Rabiti; D. Mandelli; A. Alfonsi; J. Cogliati; R. Kinoshita; D. Gaston; R. Martineau; C. Curtis

    2013-06-01

    Increases in computational power and pressure for more accurate simulations and estimations of accident scenario consequences are driving the need for Dynamic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) [1] of very complex models. While more sophisticated algorithms and computational power address the back end of this challenge, the front end is still handled by engineers that need to extract meaningful information from the large amount of data and build these complex models. Compounding this problem is the difficulty in knowledge transfer and retention, and the increasing speed of software development. The above-described issues would have negatively impacted deployment of the new high fidelity plant simulator RELAP-7 (Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program) at Idaho National Laboratory. Therefore, RAVEN that was initially focused to be the plant controller for RELAP-7 will help mitigate future RELAP-7 software engineering risks. In order to accomplish this task, Reactor Analysis and Virtual Control Environment (RAVEN) has been designed to provide an easy to use Graphical User Interface (GUI) for building plant models and to leverage artificial intelligence algorithms in order to reduce computational time, improve results, and help the user to identify the behavioral pattern of the Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). In this paper we will present the GUI implementation and its current capability status. We will also introduce the support vector machine algorithms and show our evaluation of their potentiality in increasing the accuracy and reducing the computational costs of PRA analysis. In this evaluation we will refer to preliminary studies performed under the Risk Informed Safety Margins Characterization (RISMC) project of the Light Water Reactors Sustainability (LWRS) campaign [3]. RISMC simulation needs and algorithm testing are currently used as a guidance to prioritize RAVEN developments relevant to PRA.

  13. Shuttle Risk Progression: Use of the Shuttle Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to Show Reliability Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Teri L.

    2011-01-01

    It is important to the Space Shuttle Program (SSP), as well as future manned spaceflight programs, to understand the early mission risk and progression of risk as the program gains insights into the integrated vehicle through flight. The risk progression is important to the SSP as part of the documentation of lessons learned. The risk progression is important to future programs to understand reliability growth and the first flight risk. This analysis uses the knowledge gained from 30 years of operational flights and the current Shuttle PRA to calculate the risk of Loss of Crew and Vehicle (LOCV) at significant milestones beginning with the first flight. Key flights were evaluated based upon historical events and significant re-designs. The results indicated that the Shuttle risk tends to follow a step function as opposed to following a traditional reliability growth pattern where risk exponentially improves with each flight. In addition, it shows that risk can increase due to trading safety margin for increased performance or due to external events. Due to the risk drivers not being addressed, the risk did not improve appreciably during the first 25 flights. It was only after significant events occurred such as Challenger and Columbia, where the risk drivers were apparent, that risk was significantly improved. In addition, this paper will show that the SSP has reduced the risk of LOCV by almost an order of magnitude. It is easy to look back afte r 30 years and point to risks that are now obvious, however; the key is to use this knowledge to benefit other programs which are in their infancy stages. One lesson learned from the SSP is understanding risk drivers are essential in order to considerably reduce risk. This will enable the new program to focus time and resources on identifying and reducing the significant risks. A comprehensive PRA, similar to that of the Shuttle PRA, is an effective tool quantifying risk drivers if support from all of the stakeholders is

  14. Proceedings of the twenty-fourth water reactor safety information meeting. Volume 3: PRA and HRA; Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment and seismic siting criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteleone, S.

    1997-02-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twenty-Fourth Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, October 21--23, 1996. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from Czech Republic, Finland, France, Japan, Norway, Russia and United Kingdom. This volume is divided into the following sections: PRA and HRA and probabilistic seismic hazard assessment and seismic siting criteria. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  15. Proceedings of the twenty-fourth water reactor safety information meeting. Volume 3: PRA and HRA; Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment and seismic siting criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteleone, S. [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twenty-Fourth Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, October 21--23, 1996. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from Czech Republic, Finland, France, Japan, Norway, Russia and United Kingdom. This volume is divided into the following sections: PRA and HRA and probabilistic seismic hazard assessment and seismic siting criteria. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  16. An overview of the EBR-II PRA [Probabilistic Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.J.; Chang, Y.W.; Deitrich, L.W.; Ragland, W.A.; Lehto, W.K.; Schaeffer, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental Breeder Reactor-II, EBR-II, is a 60 MW(t) liquid sodium cooled, pool type fast reactor which has operated successfully as a power reactor and irradiation facility for over 25 years. Argonne National Laboratory is currently performing a Probabilistic Risk Assessment of EBR-II. An overview of the PRA is presented with special attention to those issues which are important to EBR-II such as the passive decay heat removal capabilities and the passive shut down capability provided by the reactivity feedbacks. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  17. NRC regulatory agenda: Semiannual report, January--June 1997. Volume 16, Number 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    The Regulatory Agenda is a semiannual compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and of all petitions for rulemaking that the NRC has received that are pending disposition. The agenda consists of two sections that have been updated through June 30, 1997. Section 1, ''Rules,'' includes (A) rules on which final action has been taken since December 31, 1996, the closing date of the last NRC Regulatory Agenda; (B) rules published previously as proposed rules on which the Commission has not taken final action; (C) rules published as advance notices of proposed rulemaking for which neither a proposed nor final rule has been issued; and (D) unpublished rules on which the NRC expects to take action. Section 2, ''Petitions for Rulemaking,'' includes (A) petitions denied or incorporated into final rules since December 31, 1996; (B) petitions incorporated into proposed rules; and (C) petitions pending staff review

  18. Status of NRC approval of EPRI electromagnetic interference susceptibility testing guidelines for digital equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.W.; Shank, J.W.; Yoder, C.

    1996-01-01

    Historically, nuclear power plants installing digital equipment have been required to conduct expensive, site-specific electromagnetic interference (EMI) surveys to demonstrate that EMI will not affect the operation of sensitive electronic equipment. Consequently, EPRI formed a Utility Working Group which developed a set of generic EMI susceptibility testing guidelines, which were published as an EPRI report in September 1994. These guidelines are based upon EMI survey data obtained from several different plants and include criteria for determining their applicability. The Working Group interacted with NRC staff to obtain NRC approval. In April 1996, the NRC issued a Safety Evaluation Report (SER) endorsing the guidelines as a valid means of demonstrating EMI compatibility. The issuance of this SER was conditional on issuing a revision to the EPRI EMI Guidelines. This paper summarizes the guidelines, the NRC SER, and the current status of Revision 1 to the report

  19. Plan for reevaluation of NRC policy on decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-03-01

    Recognizing that the current generation of large commercial reactors and supporting nuclear facilities would substantially increase future decommissioning needs, the NRC staff began an in-depth review and re-evaluation of NRC's regulatory approach to decommissioning in 1975. Major technical studies on decommissioning have been initiated at Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory in order to provide a firm information base on the engineering methodology, radiation risks, and estimated costs of decommissioning light water reactors and associated fuel cycle facilities. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission is now considering development of a more explicit overall policy for nuclear facility decommissioning and amending its regulations in 10 CFR Parts 30, 40, 50, and 70 to include more specific guidance on decommissioning criteria for production and utilization facility licensees and byproduct, source, and special nuclear material licensees. The report sets forth in detail the NRC staff plan for the development of an overall NRC policy on decommissioning of nuclear facilities

  20. Low-level mixed waste: An RCRA perspective for NRC licensees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-08-01

    The publication presents an overview of RCRA requirements for commercially-generated low-level mixed waste. It is designed for Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees who may not be familiar with EPA regulations that apply to their waste products

  1. Safeguards summary event list (SSEL): Pre-NRC through December 31, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, nonradiological sabotage, alcohol and drugs, and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  2. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project path forward: nuclear safety equivalency to comparable NRC-licensed facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garvin, L.J.

    1995-11-01

    This document includes the Technical requirements which meet the nuclear safety objectives of the NRC regulations for fuel treatment and storage facilities. These include requirements regarding radiation exposure limits, safety analysis, design and construction. This document also includes administrative requirements which meet the objectives of the major elements of the NRC licensing process. These include formally documented design and safety analysis, independent technical review, and oppportunity for public involvement.

  3. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), Pre-NRC through December 31, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, non-radiological sabotage, and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  4. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), Pre-NRC through December 31, 1983. Rev. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing/allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms-related, radiological sabotage and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  5. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL). Pre-NRC through June 30, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacMurdy, P.; Davidson, J.; Lin, H.

    1981-09-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, vandalism, arson, firearms, sabotage and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  6. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL): Pre-NRC through December 31, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, nonradiological sabotage and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  7. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL). Pre-NRC-June 30, 1985. Revision 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSRL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, non-radiological sabotage and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels. 12 figs

  8. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL). Pre-NRC through December 31, 1984. Revision 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, non-radiological sabotage and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions in derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  9. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project path forward: nuclear safety equivalency to comparable NRC-licensed facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garvin, L.J.

    1995-11-01

    This document includes the Technical requirements which meet the nuclear safety objectives of the NRC regulations for fuel treatment and storage facilities. These include requirements regarding radiation exposure limits, safety analysis, design and construction. This document also includes administrative requirements which meet the objectives of the major elements of the NRC licensing process. These include formally documented design and safety analysis, independent technical review, and oppportunity for public involvement

  10. Medical Updates Number 5 to the International Space Station Probability Risk Assessment (PRA) Model Using the Integrated Medical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Doug; Bauman, David; Johnson-Throop, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) Project has been developing a probabilistic risk assessment tool, the IMM, to help evaluate in-flight crew health needs and impacts to the mission due to medical events. This package is a follow-up to a data package provided in June 2009. The IMM currently represents 83 medical conditions and associated ISS resources required to mitigate medical events. IMM end state forecasts relevant to the ISS PRA model include evacuation (EVAC) and loss of crew life (LOCL). The current version of the IMM provides the basis for the operational version of IMM expected in the January 2011 timeframe. The objectives of this data package are: 1. To provide a preliminary understanding of medical risk data used to update the ISS PRA Model. The IMM has had limited validation and an initial characterization of maturity has been completed using NASA STD 7009 Standard for Models and Simulation. The IMM has been internally validated by IMM personnel but has not been validated by an independent body external to the IMM Project. 2. To support a continued dialogue between the ISS PRA and IMM teams. To ensure accurate data interpretation, and that IMM output format and content meets the needs of the ISS Risk Management Office and ISS PRA Model, periodic discussions are anticipated between the risk teams. 3. To help assess the differences between the current ISS PRA and IMM medical risk forecasts of EVAC and LOCL. Follow-on activities are anticipated based on the differences between the current ISS PRA medical risk data and the latest medical risk data produced by IMM.

  11. Saber científico e etnoconhecimento: é bom pra quê?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauberto da Silva Quirino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Análise reflexiva e interpretativa do quadro É bom pra quê? do programa de televisão Fantástico, apresentado pelo médico Drauzio Varella, que foi veiculado em rede nacional entre os meses de agosto e setembro de 2010 em cinco episódios, com duração média de 10 minutos. O objetivo da série era discutir os usos e abusos dos tratamentos médicos feitos com produtos derivados de plantas que não passaram pelo crivo científico dos estudos clínicos, e analisar as perspectivas da fitoterapia medicinal. Na culpabilização pessoal, valorização do medo, desqualificação dos saberes paramédicos e centralidade na figura do médico, ele fundamenta suas bases discursivas, para impor legitimidade aos seus argumentos. Nessa perspectiva, as estratégias discursivas veiculadas na mídia por meio da televisão, e no caso particular do quadro do Fantástico, É bom pra quê?, visam a manutenção de uma ordem médica hegemônica, distante da preconizada neutralidade científica e da ausência de interesses econômicos.

  12. A comparative analysis of PRA and intelligent adversary methods for counterterrorism risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Jason; Parnell, Gregory S

    2011-09-01

    In counterterrorism risk management decisions, the analyst can choose to represent terrorist decisions as defender uncertainties or as attacker decisions. We perform a comparative analysis of probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) methods including event trees, influence diagrams, Bayesian networks, decision trees, game theory, and combined methods on the same illustrative examples (container screening for radiological materials) to get insights into the significant differences in assumptions and results. A key tenent of PRA and decision analysis is the use of subjective probability to assess the likelihood of possible outcomes. For each technique, we compare the assumptions, probability assessment requirements, risk levels, and potential insights for risk managers. We find that assessing the distribution of potential attacker decisions is a complex judgment task, particularly considering the adaptation of the attacker to defender decisions. Intelligent adversary risk analysis and adversarial risk analysis are extensions of decision analysis and sequential game theory that help to decompose such judgments. These techniques explicitly show the adaptation of the attacker and the resulting shift in risk based on defender decisions. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Calculated PRA: initial results show benefits for sensitized patients and a reduction in positive crossmatches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecka, J M; Kucheryavaya, A Y; Reinsmoen, N L; Leffell, M S

    2011-04-01

    The calculated panel reactive antibody (CPRA), which is based upon unacceptable HLA antigens listed on the waitlist form for renal transplant candidates, replaced PRA as the measure of sensitization among US renal transplant candidates on October 1, 2009. An analysis of the impact of this change 6 months after its implementation shows an 83% reduction in the number of kidney offers declined nationwide because of a positive crossmatch. The increasing acceptance and utilization of unacceptable HLA antigens to avoid offers of predictably crossmatch-positive donor kidneys has increased the efficiency of kidney allocation, resulting in a significant increase in the percentage of transplants to broadly sensitized (80+% PRA/CPRA) patients from 7.3% during the period 07/01/2001-6/30/2002 to 15.8% of transplants between 10/1/09-3/31/10. The transplant rates per 1000 active patient-years on the waitlist also increased significantly for broadly sensitized patients after October 1, 2009. These preliminary results suggest that 'virtual' positive crossmatch prediction based on contemporary tools for identifying antibodies directed against HLA antigens is effective, increases allocation efficiency and improves access to transplants for sensitized patients awaiting kidney transplantation. ©2010 The Authors Journal compilation©2010 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  14. Uses of human reliability analysis probabilistic risk assessment results to resolve personnel performance issues that could affect safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.N.; Spettell, C.M.

    1985-10-01

    This report is the first in a series which documents research aimed at improving the usefulness of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) results in addressing human risk issues. This first report describes the results of an assessment of how well currently available PRA data addresses human risk issues of current concern to NRC. Findings indicate that PRA data could be far more useful in addressing human risk issues with modification of the development process and documentation structure of PRAs. In addition, information from non-PRA sources could be integrated with PRA data to address many other issues. 12 tabs

  15. Differential regulation of breast cancer-associated genes by progesterone receptor isoforms PRA and PRB in a new bi-inducible breast cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Junaid A; Bellance, Catherine; Guiochon-Mantel, Anne; Lombès, Marc; Loosfelt, Hugues

    2012-01-01

    Progesterone receptor isoforms (PRA and PRB) are expressed at equal levels in normal mammary cells. However, alteration in PRA/PRB expression is often observed in aggressive breast cancer suggesting differential contribution of PR isoforms in carcinogenesis. The mechanisms underlying such processes remain to be established mainly due to paucity of appropriate cellular models. To investigate the role of PR isoforms and the impact of imbalanced PRA/PRB ratio in transcriptional regulation, we have generated an original human breast cancer cell line conditionally expressing PRA and/or PRB in dose-dependence of non-steroid inducers. We first focused on PR-dependent transcriptional regulation of the paracrine growth factor gene amphiregulin (AREG) playing important role in cancer. Interestingly, unliganded PRA increases AREG expression, independently of estrogen receptor, yet inhibitable by antiprogestins. We show that functional outcome of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on such regulation is highly dependent on PRA/PRB ratio. Using this valuable model, genome-wide transcriptomic studies allowed us to determine the differential effects of PRA and PRB as a function of hormonal status. We identified a large number of novel PR-regulated genes notably implicated in breast cancer and metastasis and demonstrated that imbalanced PRA/PRB ratio strongly impact their expression predicting poor outcome in breast cancer. In sum, our unique cell-based system strongly suggests that PRA/PRB ratio is a critical determinant of PR target gene selectivity and responses to hormonal/growth factor stimuli. These findings provide molecular support for the aggressive phenotype of breast cancers with impaired expression of PRA or PRB.

  16. 76 FR 13437 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and PRA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and PRA; Revision to March 24, 2010, ACRS Meeting Federal Register Notice The Federal Register Notice for the ACRS...

  17. "My patients are sicker:" using the Pra risk survey for case finding and examining primary care site utilization patterns in a medicare-risk MCO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorov, Jaan; Shull, Robert

    2002-06-01

    The probability of repeat admissions (Pra) survey is a case-finding tool designed to identify elderly persons at risk for hospitalization. Little is known about the ability of the Pra to assess utilization patterns in a managed care setting. To assess the ability of the Pra survey to identify elders at risk for increased healthcare costs and to determine the utility of this tool in predicting mean per member per year (PMPY) claims among primary care sites in a managed care setting. Mean PMPY paid claims, inpatient admissions, and inpatient days were compared for survey respondents with high, medium, and low Pra scores. Linear regression was used to examine the correlation (R2) between the mean Pra score for respondents and the percentage of high Pra score respondents at each primary care site in the HMO and the sites' mean PMPY paid claims. From a single Medicare-risk health maintenance organization (HMO) with approximately 25,000 members and 234 primary care sites in northeastern and central Pennsylvania, we contacted 24,947 enrollees about the Pra survey. A total of 17,484 (70.1%) patients in 159 of 234 (67.9%) primary care sites responded to the survey. Of these, 17,469 (99%) surveys could be scored. The mean Pra score in this population was 0.27 (standard deviation = 0.108). Pra scores were stratified as follows: 4.5%, 24.1%, and 71.4% of respondents scored high (20.5), moderate (> or = 0.3 and Pra scores had a mean of $12,611 in PMPY claims, versus $6944 and $3038 for moderate and low scores respectively (P Pra score for respondents at each primary care site and the sites' mean PMPY Medicare-risk claims was 0.042. If survey respondents assigned to 6 specialty care sites (hematology, oncology, rheumatology, endocrinology, nephrology, and pulmonary medicine) are included, the R2 increased to 0.176. The R2 between the percentage of high-risk individuals with a Pra score of 0.5 or higher at each primary care site and the sites' mean PMPY Medicare-risk claims was 0

  18. NRC Monitoring of Salt Waste Disposal at the Savannah River Site - 13147

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkston, Karen E.; Ridge, A. Christianne; Alexander, George W.; Barr, Cynthia S.; Devaser, Nishka J.; Felsher, Harry D.

    2013-01-01

    As part of monitoring required under Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 (NDAA), the NRC staff reviewed an updated DOE performance assessment (PA) for salt waste disposal at the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The NRC staff concluded that it has reasonable assurance that waste disposal at the SDF meets the 10 CFR 61 performance objectives for protection of individuals against intrusion (chap.61.42), protection of individuals during operations (chap.61.43), and site stability (chap.61.44). However, based on its evaluation of DOE's results and independent sensitivity analyses conducted with DOE's models, the NRC staff concluded that it did not have reasonable assurance that DOE's disposal activities at the SDF meet the performance objective for protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity (chap.61.41) evaluated at a dose limit of 0.25 mSv/yr (25 mrem/yr) total effective dose equivalent (TEDE). NRC staff also concluded that the potential dose to a member of the public is expected to be limited (i.e., is expected to be similar to or less than the public dose limit in chap.20.1301 of 1 mSv/yr [100 mrem/yr] TEDE) and is expected to occur many years after site closure. The NRC staff used risk insights gained from review of the SDF PA, its experience monitoring DOE disposal actions at the SDF over the last 5 years, as well as independent analysis and modeling to identify factors that are important to assessing whether DOE's disposal actions meet the performance objectives. Many of these factors are similar to factors identified in the NRC staff's 2005 review of salt waste disposal at the SDF. Key areas of interest continue to be waste form and disposal unit degradation, the effectiveness of infiltration and erosion controls, and estimation of the radiological inventory. Based on these factors, NRC is revising its plan for monitoring salt waste disposal at the SDF in coordination with South

  19. NRC as referee (reactor licensing following the Three Mile Island accident)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhut, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    In this article, the NRC's licensing director reports on the progress made by US utilities in complying with the key regulations stemming from the Three Mile Island accident. Over 130 items must be improved at more than 65 reactors. The actions taken by France in response to its own analysis of the accident are discussed. New NRC requirements with regard to operational safety, design, and emergency-response capability are outlined. Nearly all the training, or software, items in Nureg-0737 (''Clarification of TMI Action Plan Requirements'') and more than half of the mechanical, or hardware, items have been completed at plants with operating reactors. The Committee to Review Generic Requirements was created to develop means for controlling the number and nature of NRC requirements placed on licensees. Probabilistic risk-assessment techniques were not widely used by the NRC until after the Three Mile Island accident. The NRC has directed licensees and applicants for operating licenses to conduct control-room design reviews to identify and correct human-engineering discrepancies. Includes 2 tables

  20. Role of seismic PRA in seismic safety decisions of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindra, M.K.; Kennedy, R.P.; Sues, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper highlights the important roles that seismic probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) can play in the seismic safety decisions of nuclear power plants. If a seismic PRA has been performed for a plant, its results can be utilized to evaluate the seismic capability beyond the safe shutdown event (SSE). Seismic fragilities of key structures and equipment, fragilities of dominant plant damage states and the frequencies of occurrence of these plant damage states are reviewed to establish the seismic safety of the plant beyond the SSE level. Guidelines for seismic margin reviews and upgrading may be developed by first identifying the generic classes of structures and equipment that have been shown to be dominant risk contributors in the completed seismic PRAs, studying the underlying causes for their contribution and examining why certain other items (e.g., piping) have not proved to be high-risk-contributors

  1. APPLICATION OF UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS TO MAAP4 ANALYSES FOR LEVEL 2 PRA PARAMETER IMPORTANCE DETERMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KEVIN ROBERTS

    2013-11-01

    A key element tied to using a code like MAAP4 is an uncertainty analysis. The purpose of this paper is to present a MAAP4 based analysis to examine the sensitivity of a key parameter, in this case hydrogen production, to a set of model parameters that are related to a Level 2 PRA analysis. The Level 2 analysis examines those sequences that result in core melting and subsequent reactor pressure vessel failure and its impact on the containment. This paper identifies individual contributors and MAAP4 model parameters that statistically influence hydrogen production. Hydrogen generation was chosen because of its direct relationship to oxidation. With greater oxidation, more heat is added to the core region and relocation (core slump should occur faster. This, in theory, would lead to shorter failure times and subsequent “hotter” debris pool on the containment floor.

  2. "VEM PRA RUA": THE POLITICAL AND THE POLITICS ON THE WEB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Fernando Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the political and the social division of senses, this paper seeks to check how is the process of signification in a society increasingly challenged by electronic discourse and the ways in which political and policy find themselves affected by it. In order do that, we make the analysis of discursive statements “vem pra rua” and “somos a rede social” that were present in banners and posters in street protests in Brazil in 2013, which were organized and delivered, in large part, by virtual means. We observed that such utterances go through a process of appropriation and re-signification, with shifting meanings that run of market logic, go to the social politics and go back to the market logic. We had also observed how the urban environment is affected by the electronic discourse that now constitutes the ways it makes sense.

  3. Memória (imaterial da Praça do Infante, Porto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Barreira Abranches

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to present the historical and archaeological background of the Praça do Infante,located in the parish of S. Nicolau, Porto, based on elements provided by the construction of an undergroundcar park.This square is part of the urban area of Porto’s historical zone, in which the coordination of the works ofgeophysical prospecting with archaeological ones was considered relevant. Thus, the former determined thelocation of the archaeological surveys, which, once completed, revealed a settlement sequence going fromthe 17th century to the 20th century, despite material remains dating back to Roman times.Today, this square is a mere flicker of the commercial and human bustle which the material memories cannotglorify.

  4. Plant PRA plays an important role in intracellular vesicular trafficking between compartments as GDF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahk, Jeong Dong; Bang, Woo Young; Heo, Jae Bok

    2009-11-01

    Rab GTPases like Ras-related monomeric GTPases are well known to regulate intracellular vesicle trafficking by cycling between membrane-bound and cytosolic states. The functions of these proteins are controlled by upstream regulators and downstream effectors. Ypt/Rabs transmit signals to downstream effectors in a GTP-dependent manner. GDP-bound Rab proteins are extracted from their target membrane by cytosolic proteins known as GDP dissociation inhibitors (GDIs), and the Rab GTPase is recruited to the membrane compartment following dissociation from the GDI by GDI displacement factor (GDF). Now, we're going to discuss the role of plant PRA concerted with Rab and GDI proteins by recycling Rab between membrane and cytosol for intracellular trafficking of cargo proteins.

  5. SU-F-19A-02: Comparison of Absorbed Dose to Water Standards for HDR Ir-192 Brachytherapy Between the LCR, Brazil and NRC, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salata, C; David, M; Almeida, C de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio De Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); El Gamal, I; Cojocaru, C; Mainegra-Hing, E; McEwen, M [National Research Council, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To compare absorbed dose to water standards for HDR brachytherapy dosimetry developed by the Radiological Science Laboratory of Rio de Janeiro State University (LCR) and the National Research Council, Canada (NRC). Methods: The two institutions have separately developed absorbed dose standards based on the Fricke dosimetry system. There are important differences between the two standards, including: preparation and read-out of the Fricke solution, irradiation geometry of the Fricke holder in relation to the Ir-192 source, and determination of the G-value to be used at Ir-192 energies. All measurements for both standards were made directly at the NRC laboratory (i.e., no transfer instrument was used) using a single Ir-192 source (microSelectron v2). In addition, the NRC group has established a self-consistent method to determine the G-value for Ir-192, based on an interpolation between G-values obtained at Co-60 and 250kVp X-rays, and this measurement was repeated using the LCR Fricke solution to investigate possible systematic uncertainties. Results: G-values for Co-60 and 250 kVp x-rays, obtained using the LCR Fricke system, agreed with the NRC values within 0.5 % and 1 % respectively, indicating that the general assumption of universal G-values is appropriate in this case. The standard uncertainty in the determination of G for Ir-192 is estimated to be 0.6 %. For the comparison of absorbed dose measurements at the reference point for Ir-192 (1 cm depth in water, perpendicular to the seed long-axis), the ratio Dw(NRC)/Dw(LCR) was found to be 1.011 with a combined standard uncertainty of 1.7 %, k=1. Conclusion: The agreement in the absorbed dose to water values for the LCR and NRC systems is very encouraging. Combined with the lower uncertainty in this approach compared to the present air-kerma approach, these results reaffirm the use of Fricke solution as a potential primary standard for HDR Ir-192 brachytherapy.

  6. Use of PRA techniques to optimize the design of the IRIS nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhlheim, M.D.; Cletcher, J.W. II

    2003-01-01

    True design optimization of a plants inherent safety and performance characteristics results when a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is integrated with the plant-level design process. This is the approach being used throughout the design of the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) nuclear power plant to maximize safety. A risk-based design optimization tool employing a 'one-button' architecture is being developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to evaluate design changes; new modeling approaches, methods, or theories modeling uncertainties and completeness; physical assumptions; and data changes on component, cabinet, train, and system bases. Unlike current PRAs, the one-button architecture allows components, modules, and data to be interchanged at will with the probabilistic effect immediately apparent. Because all of the current and previous design, and data sets are available via the one-button architecture, the safety ramifications of design options are evaluated, feedback on design alternatives is immediate, and true optimization and understanding can be achieved. Thus, for the first time, PRA analysts and designers can easily determine the probabilistic implications of different design configurations and operating conditions in various combinations for the entire range of initiating events. The power of the one-button architecture becomes evident by the number of design alternatives that can be evaluated C11 component choices yielded 160 design alternatives. Surprisingly, the lessons learned can be counter-intuitive and significant. For example, one of the alternative designs for IRIS evaluated via this architecture revealed that because of common-cause failure probabilities, using the most reliable components actually decreased systems' reliability. (author)

  7. Comparisons of ASTM standards cited in the NRC standard review plan, NUREG-0800 and related documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ankrum, A.R.; Bohlander, K.L.; Gilbert, E.R.; Pawlowski, R.A.; Spiesman, J.B.

    1995-10-01

    This report provides the results of comparisons of the cited and latest versions of ASTM standards cited in the NRC Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants (NUREG 0800) and related documents. The comparisons were performed by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories in support of the NRC`s Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program. Significant changes to the standards, from the cited version to the latest version, are described and discussed in a tabular format for each standard. Recommendations for updating each citation in the Standard Review Plan are presented. Technical considerations and suggested changes are included for related regulatory documents (i.e., Regulatory Guides and the Code of Federal Regulations) citing the standard. The results and recommendations presented in this document have not been subjected to NRC staff review.

  8. Comparisons of ANSI standards cited in the NRC standard review plan, NUREG-0800 and related documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankrum, A.R.; Bohlander, K.L.; Gilbert, E.R.; Pawlowski, R.A.; Spiesman, J.B.

    1995-11-01

    This report provides the results of comparisons of the cited and latest versions of ANSI standards cited in the NRC Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants (NUREG 0800) and related documents. The comparisons were performed by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories in support of the NRC's Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program. Significant changes to the standards, from the cited version to the latest version, are described and discussed in a tabular format for each standard. Recommendations for updating each citation in the Standard Review Plan are presented. Technical considerations and suggested changes are included for related regulatory documents (i.e., Regulatory Guides and the Code of Federal Regulations) citing the standard. The results and recommendations presented in this document have not been subjected to NRC staff review

  9. Regulatory Multidimensionality of Gas Vesicle Biogenesis in Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew I. Yao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming clear that the regulation of gas vesicle biogenesis in Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1 is multifaceted and appears to integrate environmental and metabolic cues at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. The mechanistic details underlying this process, however, remain unclear. In this manuscript, we quantify the contribution of light scattering made by both intracellular and released gas vesicles isolated from Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1, demonstrating that each form can lead to distinct features in growth curves determined by optical density measured at 600 nm (OD600. In the course of the study, we also demonstrate the sensitivity of gas vesicle accumulation in Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1 on small differences in growth conditions and reevaluate published works in the context of our results to present a hypothesis regarding the roles of the general transcription factor tbpD and the TCA cycle enzyme aconitase on the regulation of gas vesicle biogenesis.

  10. The use of U.S. NRC licensing practices for VVERs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    The licensing process for the upgraded Temelin I and C and Fuel designs were enhanced with the introduction of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, NRC practices. Specifically, the use of the NRC Regulatory Guide 1.70, 'Standard Format and Content Guide for Safety Analyses Reports' and NRC NUREG 0800, 'Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants', were beneficial in the development and review of Temelin licensing documentation. These standards have been used for the preparation and review of Safety Analysis Reports in the United States and also in a large number of licensing applications around the world. Both Regulatory Guide 1.70 and NUREG 0800 were developed to provide a predictable and structured approach to licensing. This paper discusses this approach and identifies the benefits to designers, writers of licensing documentation and reviewers of licensing documents. (author)

  11. NRC Information No. 88-12: Overgreasing of electric motor bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    NRC personnel observed accumulations of grease on the air vent screens of electric motors used for driving such rotating equipment as fans and pumps at the Millstone and Calvert Cliffs nuclear power plants. The grease appeared to have come from overgreasing of the electric motor bearings. Grease was forced out of the bearing seals, onto the stator windings and rotor, from where it either fell or was thrown onto the inside of the motor housing. Because of these observations, the NRC began an investigation into problems that have been caused in the past, or could be caused in the future, by the overgreasing of electric motor bearings. The NRC staff has solicited technical information and operating experience on the problems caused by the overgreasing of electric motor bearings from motor and bearing manufacturers, as well as from other licensees. Their responses are summarized in this discussion

  12. A simple program to reduce the stress associated with NRC nuclear operator examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajwau, T.; Chardos, S.

    1988-01-01

    The NRC license for nuclear reactor operators requires periodic written examinations to demonstrate ongoing technical competency. Poor performance raises a competency question and can affect the individuals' careers. Accordingly, the exams can be highly stressful events. Stress has been demonstrated to affect memory, perception, other cognitive attitudes, and test performance. The phenomenon of test anxiety is well known. Instead of a generic, broadly focused stress management approach, a sharply focused, two-part program was developed for TVA operators scheduled to take the NRC examination. The first part was presented early in preparatory training, and the second part was given just prior to the examination. The first part consisted of a simple model of stress found in exams, early warning signs of test stress, and tactics of stress management that were practical to use during the NRC exam itself

  13. Comparisons of ANSI standards cited in the NRC standard review plan, NUREG-0800 and related documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ankrum, A.R.; Bohlander, K.L.; Gilbert, E.R.; Pawlowski, R.A.; Spiesman, J.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This report provides the results of comparisons of the cited and latest versions of ANSI standards cited in the NRC Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants (NUREG 0800) and related documents. The comparisons were performed by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories in support of the NRC`s Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program. Significant changes to the standards, from the cited version to the latest version, are described and discussed in a tabular format for each standard. Recommendations for updating each citation in the Standard Review Plan are presented. Technical considerations and suggested changes are included for related regulatory documents (i.e., Regulatory Guides and the Code of Federal Regulations) citing the standard. The results and recommendations presented in this document have not been subjected to NRC staff review.

  14. Comparisons of ASTM standards cited in the NRC standard review plan, NUREG-0800 and related documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankrum, A.R.; Bohlander, K.L.; Gilbert, E.R.; Pawlowski, R.A.; Spiesman, J.B.

    1995-10-01

    This report provides the results of comparisons of the cited and latest versions of ASTM standards cited in the NRC Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants (NUREG 0800) and related documents. The comparisons were performed by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories in support of the NRC's Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program. Significant changes to the standards, from the cited version to the latest version, are described and discussed in a tabular format for each standard. Recommendations for updating each citation in the Standard Review Plan are presented. Technical considerations and suggested changes are included for related regulatory documents (i.e., Regulatory Guides and the Code of Federal Regulations) citing the standard. The results and recommendations presented in this document have not been subjected to NRC staff review

  15. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), pre-NRC through December 31, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), Vol. 1, provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) which occurred and were reported from pre-NRC through December 31, 1989. Because of public interest, the Miscellaneous category includes a few events which involve either source material, byproduct material, or natural uranium which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, nonradiological sabotage, and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  16. Progesterone-induced inhibition of growth and differential regulation of gene expression in PRA- and/or PRB-expressing endometrial cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid-Koopman, Ellen; Kuhne, Liesbeth C M; Hanekamp, Eline E; Gielen, Susanne C J P; De Ruiter, Petra E; Grootegoed, J Anton; Helmerhorst, Theo J M; Burger, Curt W; Brinkmann, Albert O; Huikeshoven, Frans J; Blok, Leen J

    2005-05-01

    Progesterone plays an important role in controlling proliferation and differentiation of the human endometrium. Because there are two progesterone receptor isoforms (PRA and PRB), it was important to generate tools to be able to study the role of these two progesterone receptors separately. Using stable transfection techniques, both human progesterone receptor isoforms (hPRA and hPRB) were reintroduced into a hPR-negative subclone of the well-differentiated endometrial cancer cell line Ishikawa. Several Ishikawa subcell lines were constructed, each expressing different levels of hPRA, hPRB, or hPRA and hPRB, respectively. These Ishikawa subcell lines showed a marked progesterone-induced growth inhibition with induction of apoptosis after long-term culture in the presence of hormone. Upon measuring gene regulation, a clear difference in regulation of expression of the selected genes by progesterone treatment was observed between the PRA-, PRB-, or PRA/B-expressing cell lines. Integrin beta4 (ITGB4) was only regulated in PRA-expressing cells; amphiregulin was highly regulated in PRB-expressing cells; insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) was only regulated in PRB- and PRA/B-expressing cells; and metallothionein 1L (MT1L) was highly regulated in PRA/B-expressing cells. Interestingly, based on literature data, these genes can be implicated in induction of apoptosis, but are modulated here in such a way that suggests induction of resistance against apoptosis. Reintroduction of PRs into Ishikawa cells rescued progesterone responsiveness in these cells. Furthermore, using these human endometrial cancer subcell lines, clear and distinct functional differences between the PR isoforms were observed.

  17. The current trend of induction and maintenance treatment in patient of different PRA levels: a report on OPTN/UNOS Kidney Transplant Registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Junchao; Terasaki, Paul I

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the status of sensitization in kidney transplant recipients and analyze the trend of induction and maintenance therapy in patients of different PRA levels. Despite the fact of the decreased percentages of kidney transplant recipients with presensitization history, the mean PRA levels of all kidney recipients has been increasing in the last 7 years, which is possibly due to the introduction of more sensitive antibody testing techniques or the tendency for kidney allocation organization and clinicians to give priority to patients with elevated PRA once a compatible donor kidney becomes available. The percentage of patients with treated rejection episodes within one year post-transplant were significantly higher in sensitized patients (PRA = 50-100:14.3%, and PRA = 1-49%: 13.9%) than in non-sensitized patients (12.4%). Both 1- and 5-yr graft survival rates have improved in the last 10 years; this was more significant in high PRA patients. Thymoglobulin was the most commonly used induction agent in last 10 years. Its users increased from 10% to 46% in non-sensitized patients, from 12% to 57% in PRA = 1-49% patients, and from 19% to 63% in PRA = 50-100% patients. The users of Campath, IVIg, and Rituximab have been increasing and reached 16%, 20%, and 11% in highly sensitized patients. In the last 5 years, steroid-free patients were 33-36%, 30-37%, and 10-25% for patients with PRA levels of 0, 1-49, and 50-100 respectively. Almost 90% of patients were on Prograf at discharge. Myfortic users have been increasing since 2005 and it may soon replace MMF if long-term follow-up study confirms its safety and efficacy.

  18. Evaluation of the effects of simvastatin in reduction of panel-reactive antibody (PRA) levels in patients with end-stage renal disease awaiting renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahed, Nargesosadat; Nazemian, Fatemeh; Naghibi, Massih

    2012-03-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the effect of simvastatin in the reduction of panel-reactive antibody (PRA) levels in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) awaiting renal transplantation. During the 1-year period from September 2007 to August 2008, 60 ESRD patients with PRA levels more than 30% were enrolled into the study. Each patient was given oral simvastatin 10 mg/day as the initial dose. After one month, in those patients who did not respond, the dose was increased to 20 mg/day. Again, at the end of two months, if there was no response, the dose was further raised to 40 mg/day of simvastatin. The appropriate response to the treatment was defined as serum PRA levels getting reduced to less than 30%. Among the 60 patients who were enrolled in the study, three cases were excluded due to side-effects of the drug and 57 patients remained in our study. The mean age was 42.8 ± 28.2 years (range 18-75). Among these, 34 (59.6%) were females. Before the study, the PRA levels were between 30 and 100 (mean ± SD: 60.4% ± 20%). After the administration of simvastatin, a significant decrease in PRA levels was seen in our patients (P PRA less than 40%, the PRA dropped to below 30% in 69.2% of the cases with 10 mg simvastatin. In those who had baseline PRA more than 40%, a similar reduction was seen only in 15.9% of the cases. However, in those who did not respond initially to 10 mg of simvastatin, statistically significant reductions were seen after the administration of 20 mg and, if needed, 40 mg of simvastatin (P = 0.001). In conclusion, simvastatin can be a useful drug in ESRD patients to lower the PRA levels.

  19. The 1995 NRC Ratings of Doctoral Programs: A Hedonic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Hurst, Peter J.

    1996-01-01

    Using the 1995 National Research Council ratings of doctoral programs in 41 fields, a statistical methodology is offered for assessing how measures of program size, faculty seniority, faculty research productivity, and faculty productivity in producing doctoral degrees influenced raters' decisions. Then using data for one field, economics,…

  20. ManifestaÃÃes HomofÃbicas em EspaÃos PÃblicos: PraÃas da GentilÃndia em Fortaleza

    OpenAIRE

    Waldiane Sampaio Viana

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo principal deste trabalho à compreender como foi vivenciada a homossexualidade pelas pessoas que frequentavam e moravam prÃximo Ãs PraÃas da GentilÃndia e entender as prÃticas conflituosas que ocorreram nessas PraÃas. Descrever como se deram as manifestaÃÃes homofÃbicas nesses espaÃos e como os jovens lutaram para resistir à homofobia e para se manter nas PraÃas, que jà foram consideradas principais pontos de encontro de jovens homossexuais em Fortaleza. Para isso, relatarei e anali...

  1. NRC review of passive reactor design certification testing programs: Overview, progress, and regulatory perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, A.E.

    1995-09-01

    New reactor designs, employing passive safety systems, are currently under development by reactor vendors for certification under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) design certification rule. The vendors have established testing programs to support the certification of the passive designs, to meet regulatory requirements for demonstration of passive safety system performance. The NRC has, therefore, developed a process for the review of the vendors` testing programs and for incorporation of the results of those reviews into the safety evaluations for the passive plants. This paper discusses progress in the test program reviews, and also addresses unique regulatory aspects of those reviews.

  2. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), pre-NRC through December 31, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Because of public interest, the Miscellaneous category includes a few events which involve either source material, byproduct material, or natural uranium which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, nonradiological sabotage, alcohol and drugs (involving reactor operators, security force members, or management persons), and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels

  3. NRC staff preliminary analysis of public comments on advance notice of proposed rulemaking on emergency planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peabody, C.A.; Hickey, J.W.N.

    1980-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published an advance notice of proposed rulemaking on emergency planning on July 17, 1979 (44 FR 41483). In October and November 1979, the NRC staff submitted several papers to the Commission related to the emergency planning rulemaking. One of these papers was a preliminary analysis of public comments received on the advance notice (SECY-79-591B, November 13, 1979). This document consists of the preliminary analysis as it was submitted to the Commission, with minor editorial changes

  4. General statement of policy and procedures for NRC enforcement actions: Enforcement policy. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    This document includes the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's or Commission's) revised General Statement of Policy and Procedure for Enforcement Actions (Enforcement Policy) as it was published in the Federal Register on May 13, 1998 (63 ER 26630). The Enforcement Policy is a general statement of policy explaining the NRC's policies and procedures in initiating enforcement actions, and of the presiding officers and the Commission in reviewing these actions. This policy statement is applicable to enforcement matters involving the radiological health and safety of the public, including employees' health and safety, the common defense and security, and the environment

  5. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for Radioactive Materials Packages: Report of NRC Approved Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This directory contains a Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1). The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on Quality Assurance Programs and Packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program

  6. New security measures are proposed for N-plants: Insider Rule package is issued by NRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    New rules proposed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) will require background investigations and psychological assessments of new job candidates and continual monitoring of the behavior of all power plant workers with access to sensitive areas. Licensees will have to submit an ''access authorization'' program for approval describing how they will conduct these security activities. The employee checks will go back five years to examine credit, educational, and criminal histories. Implementation of the rules could involve the Edison Electric Institute as an intermediary to funnel criminal checks from the Justice Department and FBI. The NRC is also considering a clarification of areas designated as ''vital'' because current designations may be too strict

  7. General statement of policy and procedures for NRC enforcement actions: Enforcement policy. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This document includes the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s or Commission`s) revised General Statement of Policy and Procedure for Enforcement Actions (Enforcement Policy) as it was published in the Federal Register on May 13, 1998 (63 ER 26630). The Enforcement Policy is a general statement of policy explaining the NRC`s policies and procedures in initiating enforcement actions, and of the presiding officers and the Commission in reviewing these actions. This policy statement is applicable to enforcement matters involving the radiological health and safety of the public, including employees` health and safety, the common defense and security, and the environment.

  8. Comparison of SKIFS 2004:1 and Tillsynshandbok PSA against the ASME PRA Standard and European requirements on PSA; Jaemfoerelse av SKIFS 2004:1 och Tillsynshandbok PSA mot ASME PRA Standard och Europeiska krav paa PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellstroem, Per

    2005-04-15

    Requirements on PSA for risk informed applications are expressed in different international documents. The ASME PRA standard published in spring 2002 is one such document, PSA requirements are also expressed in the European Utility Requirements (EUR) for new reactors. The Swedish PSA requirements are provided in the Swedish regulators (SKI) statutes SKIFS 2004:1. SKI also has a review handbook for PSA activities (SKI report 2003:48). The review handbook is a support during review of the utilities PSA activities and the PSAs themselves. The review handbook expresses SKIs expectations by providing so called important aspects for both the PSA work and the PSAs, A comparison of SKIFS requirements and the important aspects in the Review handbook, on one side, and the requirements on PSA in EUR and ASME on the other side, is presented. The comparison shows a large difference in the level of detail in the different documents, where ASME is most detailed and specific. This is expected since the SKI review handbook not is a 'PSA guide' in the same way as the ASME PRA standard. A direct comparison of the ASME PRA standard requirements with the important aspects in the review handbook cannot answer the question which ASME capacity level that is achieved by a PSA meeting all important aspects. The conclusion is that it is not likely to achieve capacity level 2 and 3, since very few ASME level 3 attributes are explicitly expressed as important aspects, though many are expressed in general terms. The review handbook important aspects that are most similar to the ASME capacity level 1 attributes are initiating events, sequence analysis, and system analysis while less similarity is found for analysis of operator actions data analysis, quantification and containment analysis (level 2). Less similarity is found for capacity level 2 and 3. However, the number of additional ASME attributes on capacity level 2 and 3 are few. There are also important aspects in the review

  9. 75 FR 20009 - Development of NRC's Safety Culture Policy Statement: Cancellation of Public Workshops Scheduled...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... COMMISSION Development of NRC's Safety Culture Policy Statement: Cancellation of Public Workshops Scheduled... apply to all licensees/certificate holders; and (3) receive comments on the draft safety culture policy... forging a consensus around the objectives, strategies, activities and measures that enhance safety culture...

  10. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Progress report, October--December 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1996. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 74 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program. 3 figs., 4 tabs

  11. 10 CFR Appendix I to Part 960 - NRC and EPA Requirements for Postclosure Repository Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Pt. 960, App. I Appendix I to Part 960—NRC and... after disposal (a) releases of radioactive materials to the accessible environment that are estimated to...,000 years for a repository containing wastes generated from 100,000 metric tons of heavy metal of...

  12. NRC TLD [Nuclear Regulatory Commission thermoluminescent dosimeter] direct radiation monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, R.; McNamara, N.

    1990-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1989. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program

  13. NRC [Nuclear Regulatory Commission] perspective of software QA [quality assurance] in the nuclear history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, S.H.

    1988-01-01

    Computer technology has been a part of the nuclear industry since its inception. However, it is only recently that computers have been integrated into reactor operations. During the early history of commercial nuclear power in the United States, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) discouraged the use of digital computers for real-time control and monitoring of nuclear power plant operation. At the time, this position was justified since software engineering was in its infancy, and horror stories on computer crashes were plentiful. Since the advent of microprocessors and inexpensive computer memories, significant advances have been made in fault-tolerant computer architecture that have resulted in highly reliable, durable computer systems. The NRC's requirement for safety parameter display system (SPDS) stemmed form the results of studies and investigations conducted on the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident. An NRC contractor has prepared a handbook of software QA techniques applicable to the nuclear industry, published as NUREG/CR-4640 in August 1987. Currently, the NRC is considering development of an inspection program covering software QA. Future efforts may address verification and validation as applied to expert systems and artificial intelligence programs

  14. 76 FR 2924 - Proposed Generic Communications; Draft NRC Regulatory Issue Summary 2011-XX; Adequacy of Station...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    .... Comments submitted in writing or in electronic form will be posted on the NRC Web site and on the Federal.... ML052350520), and in the current BTP 8-6 of the SRP, Revision 3, ``Adequacy of Station Electric Distribution... whenever the 4160V buses were not being supplied through the reserve auxiliary transformers (RATs). This...

  15. Spent nuclear fuel project multi-canister overpack, additional NRC requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garvin, L.J.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), established in the K Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Regulatory Policy, dated August 4, 1995 (hereafter referred to as the Policy), the requirement for new Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project facilities to achieve nuclear safety equivalency to comparable US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-licensed facilities. For activities other than during transport, when the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) is used and resides in the Canister Storage Building (CSB), Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) facility or Hot Conditioning System, additional NRC requirements will also apply to the MCO based on the safety functions it performs and its interfaces with the SNF Project facilities. An evaluation was performed in consideration of the MCO safety functions to identify any additional NRC requirements needed, in combination with the existing and applicable DOE requirements, to establish nuclear safety equivalency for the MCO. The background, basic safety issues and general comparison of NRC and DOE requirements for the SNF Project are presented in WHC-SD-SNF-DB-002

  16. Compilation of fastener testing data received in response to NRC Compliance Bulletin 87-02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cwalina, G.C.; Conway, J.T.; Parker, L.B.

    1989-06-01

    On November 6, 1987, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued Bulletin 87-02, ''Fastener Testing to Determine Conformance With Applicable Material Specifications,'' to all holders of operating licenses or construction permits for nuclear power reactors (licensees). The bulletin was issued so that the NRC staff could gather data to determine whether counterfeit fasteners are a problem in the nuclear power industry. The bulletin requested nuclear power plant owners to determine whether fasteners obtained from suppliers and/or manufacturers for use in their facilities meet the mechanical and chemical specifications stipulated in the procurement documents. The licensees were requested to sample a minimum of 10 safety-related and 10 non-safety-related fasteners (studs, bolts, and/or cap screws) and a sample of typical nuts that would be used with each fastener and to report the testing results to the NRC. The results of this study did not indicate a safety concern relating to the use of mismarked or counterfeit fasteners in the nuclear industry, but they did indicate a nonconformance rate of 8 to 12 percent for fasteners. The NRC staff is considering taking action to improve the effectiveness of receipt inspection and testing programs for all materials at nuclear power plants

  17. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL), pre-NRC through December 31, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-08-01

    This document represents a revision of the list published December 1980 of safeguards-related events involving NRC licensees and licensed material. It summarizes events occurring between June 30, 1982 and December 31, 1982. Editorial changes to earlier pages are also included

  18. NRC Regulatory Agenda. Quarterly report, October-December 1985. Volume 4, No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    The Regulatory Agenda is a quarterly compilation of all rules on which the NRC has proposed, or is considering action as well as those on which it has recently completed action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received and are pending disposition by the Commission

  19. Optimization Conditions of Extracellular Proteases Production from a Newly Isolated Streptomyces Pseudogrisiolus NRC-15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed E. Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial protease represents the most important industrial enzymes, which have an active role in biotechnological processes. The objective of this study was to isolate new strain of Streptomyces that produce proteolytic enzymes with novel properties and the development of the low-cost medium. An alkaline protease producer strain NRC-15 was isolated from Egyptian soil sample. The cultural, morphological, physiological characters and chemotaxonomic evidence strongly indicated that the NRC-15 strain represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, hence the name Strptomyces pseudogrisiolus NRC-15. The culture conditions for higher protease production by NRC-15 were optimized with respect to carbon and nitrogen sources, metal ions, pH and temperature. Maximum protease production was obtained in the medium supplemented with 1% glucose, 1% yeast extract, 6% NaCl and 100 μmol/L of Tween 20, initial pH 9.0 at 50 °C for 96 h. The current results confirm that for this strain, a great ability to produce alkaline proteases, which supports the use of applications in industry.

  20. Estimated Incremental Costs for NRC Licensees to Implement the US/IAEA Safeguards Agreement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, R. G.; Brouns, R. J.; Chockie, A. D.; Davenport, L. C.

    1979-07-19

    At the request of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), operated by Battelle Memorial Institute for the Department of Energy, conducted a brief study to identify the incremental cost for implementing the US/IAEA safeguards treaty agreement. The purpose of the study was to develop an estimate of the cost impact to eligible NRC licensees for complying with the proposed Part 75 of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 75), the rule which will implement the treaty. The study was conducted using cost estimates from several eligible licensees who will be affected by the agreement and from cost analyses by PNL staff. A survey instrument was developed and sent to 25 NRC licensees, some of whom had more than one licensed facility. Their responses were obtained primarily by telephone after they had reviewed the survey insttument and a list of assumptions. The primary information received from the licensees was the incremental cost to their particular facility in the form of manpower, dollars or both. In summary, the one-time cost to all eligible NRC licensees to implement 10 CFR 75 is estimated by PNL to range from $1.9 to $7.2 millions. The annual cost to the industry for the required accounting and reporting activities is estimated by PNL at $0.5 to $1.4 millions. Annual inspection costs to the industry for the limited IAEA inspection being assumed is $80,000 to $160,000.

  1. 75 FR 21979 - NRC Region II Address and Main Telephone Number Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... Region II Address and Main Telephone Number Changes AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final... address for its Region II office and to update the main telephone number. The Region II office move and... update the NRC Region II office street address and office main telephone number. The physical location of...

  2. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Progress report, October-December 1985. Volume 5, No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, J.; Rabatin, K.; Cohen, L.

    1986-05-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1985. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 74 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program

  3. NRC regulatory agenda: Semiannual report, January--June 1995. Volume 14, Number 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Regulatory Agenda is a semiannual compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and of all petitions for rulemaking that the NRC has received that are pending disposition. The agenda consists of two sections that have been updated through June 30, 1995. Section 1, ''Rules,'' includes (A) rules on which final action has been taken since December 30, 1994, the closing date of the last NRC Regulatory Agenda; (B) rules published previously as proposed rules on which the Commission has not taken final action; (C) rules published as advance notices of proposed rulemaking for which neither a proposed nor final rule has been issued; and (D) unpublished rules on which the NRC expects to take action. Section 2, ''Petitions for Rulemaking,'' includes (A) petitions denied or incorporated into final rules since December 30, 1994; (B) petitions incorporated into proposed rules; (C) petitions pending staff review, and (D) petitions with deferred action

  4. NRC TLD [thermoluminescent dosimeter] Direct Radiation Monitoring Network: Progress report, October--December 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, R.; NcNamara, N.

    1989-04-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1988. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program. 4 tabs

  5. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network progress report, October--December 1994. Volume 14, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1994. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program.

  6. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Progress report, October--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1996. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 74 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network progress report, October--December 1994. Volume 14, No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1994. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program

  8. External validation of the Probability of repeated admission (Pra) risk prediction tool in older community-dwelling people attending general practice: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Emma; McDowell, Ronald; Bennett, Kathleen; Fahey, Tom; Smith, Susan M

    2016-11-14

    Emergency admission is associated with the potential for adverse events in older people and risk prediction models are available to identify those at highest risk of admission. The aim of this study was to externally validate and compare the performance of the Probability of repeated admission (Pra) risk model and a modified version (incorporating a multimorbidity measure) in predicting emergency admission in older community-dwelling people. 15 general practices (GPs) in the Republic of Ireland. n=862, ≥70 years, community-dwelling people prospectively followed up for 2 years (2010-2012). Pra risk model (original and modified) calculated for baseline year where ≥0.5 denoted high risk (patient questionnaire, GP medical record review) of future emergency admission. Emergency admission over 1 year (GP medical record review). descriptive statistics, model discrimination (c-statistic) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic). Of 862 patients, a total of 154 (18%) had ≥1 emergency admission(s) in the follow-up year. 63 patients (7%) were classified as high risk by the original Pra and of these 26 (41%) were admitted. The modified Pra classified 391 (45%) patients as high risk and 103 (26%) were subsequently admitted. Both models demonstrated only poor discrimination (original Pra: c-statistic 0.65 (95% CI 0.61 to 0.70); modified Pra: c-statistic 0.67 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.72)). When categorised according to risk-category model, specificity was highest for the original Pra at cut-point of ≥0.5 denoting high risk (95%), and for the modified Pra at cut-point of ≥0.7 (95%). Both models overestimated the number of admissions across all risk strata. While the original Pra model demonstrated poor discrimination, model specificity was high and a small number of patients identified as high risk. Future validation studies should examine higher cut-points denoting high risk for the modified Pra, which has practical advantages in terms of application in GP. The

  9. NRC staff site characterization analysis of the Department of Energy's Site Characterization Plan, Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    This Site Characterization Analysis (SCA) documents the NRC staff's concerns resulting from its review of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Site Characterization Plan (SCP) for the Yucca Mountain site in southern Nevada, which is the candidate site selected for characterization as the nation's first geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. DOE's SCP explains how DOE plans to obtain the information necessary to determine the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site for a repository. NRC's specific objections related to the SCP, and major comments and recommendations on the various parts of DOE's program, are presented in SCA Section 2, Director's Comments and Recommendations. Section 3 contains summaries of the NRC staff's concerns for each specific program, and Section 4 contains NRC staff point papers which set forth in greater detail particular staff concerns regarding DOE's program. Appendix A presents NRC staff evaluations of those NRC staff Consultation Draft SCP concerns that NRC considers resolved on the basis of the SCP. This SCA fulfills NRC's responsibilities with respect to DOE's SCP as specified by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) and 10 CFR 60.18. 192 refs., 2 tabs

  10. Final report of the NRC-Agreement State Working Group to evaluate control and accountability of licensed devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    US NRC staff acknowledged that licensees were having problems maintaining control over and accountability for devices containing radioactive material. In June 1995, NRC approved the staff's suggestion to form a joint NRC-Agreement State Working Group to evaluate the problem and propose solutions. The staff indicated that the Working Group was necessary to address the concerns from a national perspective, allow for a broad level of Agreement State input, and to reflect their experience. Agreement State participation in the process was essential since some Agreement States have implemented effective programs for oversight of device users. This report includes the 5 recommendations proposed by the Working Group to increase regulatory oversight, increase control and accountability of devices, ensure proper disposal, and ensure disposal of orphaned devices. Specifically, the Working Group recommends that: (1) NRC and Agreement States increase regulatory oversight for users of certain devices; (2) NRC and Agreement State impose penalties on persons losing devices; (3) NRC and Agreement States ensure proper disposal of orphaned devices; (4) NRC encourage States to implement similar oversight programs for users of Naturally-Occurring or Accelerator- Produced Material; and (5) NRC encourage non-licensed stakeholders to take appropriate actions, such as instituting programs for material identification

  11. Final report of the NRC-Agreement State Working Group to evaluate control and accountability of licensed devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    US NRC staff acknowledged that licensees were having problems maintaining control over and accountability for devices containing radioactive material. In June 1995, NRC approved the staff`s suggestion to form a joint NRC-Agreement State Working Group to evaluate the problem and propose solutions. The staff indicated that the Working Group was necessary to address the concerns from a national perspective, allow for a broad level of Agreement State input, and to reflect their experience. Agreement State participation in the process was essential since some Agreement States have implemented effective programs for oversight of device users. This report includes the 5 recommendations proposed by the Working Group to increase regulatory oversight, increase control and accountability of devices, ensure proper disposal, and ensure disposal of orphaned devices. Specifically, the Working Group recommends that: (1) NRC and Agreement States increase regulatory oversight for users of certain devices; (2) NRC and Agreement State impose penalties on persons losing devices; (3) NRC and Agreement States ensure proper disposal of orphaned devices; (4) NRC encourage States to implement similar oversight programs for users of Naturally-Occurring or Accelerator- Produced Material; and (5) NRC encourage non-licensed stakeholders to take appropriate actions, such as instituting programs for material identification.

  12. NRC staff site characterization analysis of the Department of Energy`s Site Characterization Plan, Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-08-01

    This Site Characterization Analysis (SCA) documents the NRC staff`s concerns resulting from its review of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Site Characterization Plan (SCP) for the Yucca Mountain site in southern Nevada, which is the candidate site selected for characterization as the nation`s first geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. DOE`s SCP explains how DOE plans to obtain the information necessary to determine the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site for a repository. NRC`s specific objections related to the SCP, and major comments and recommendations on the various parts of DOE`s program, are presented in SCA Section 2, Director`s Comments and Recommendations. Section 3 contains summaries of the NRC staff`s concerns for each specific program, and Section 4 contains NRC staff point papers which set forth in greater detail particular staff concerns regarding DOE`s program. Appendix A presents NRC staff evaluations of those NRC staff Consultation Draft SCP concerns that NRC considers resolved on the basis of the SCP. This SCA fulfills NRC`s responsibilities with respect to DOE`s SCP as specified by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) and 10 CFR 60.18. 192 refs., 2 tabs.

  13. 78 FR 66968 - In the Matter of Landon E. Brittain; Order Prohibiting Involvement In NRC-Licensed Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... justice. Section 73.56(f)(3) of 10 CFR requires, in part, that individuals who are subject to an access... rule, the participant must file the document using the NRC's online, Web-based submission form. In..., such as social security numbers, home addresses, or home phone numbers in their filings, unless an NRC...

  14. Evaluation of safety issues on newly regulated nuclear power plant by tsunami-level 1 PRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Yutaro; Miwa, Shuichiro; Mori, Michitsugu

    2014-01-01

    The tsunami caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake triggered severe accidents involving the units 1 to 4 at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station (NPS). In order to re-operate existing nuclear power plants it should be necessary to reduce the core damage frequency on risk by tsunami. In this work, effects of the off-site power supply installation on resuming operation of nuclear power plants were investigated by utilizing the Tsunami-Level 1 Probability Risk Assessment (PRA). Unit 2 of the Onagawa nuclear power station, which resembled units 2 and 3 of Fukushima Dai-ichi, was selected for PRA. First, event-tree was created for the units of the Onagawa nuclear power station with the safety systems such as Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS), investigating the plant situation at the time of the earthquake and tsunami occurrences. It was assumed that the magnitude of the tsunami was equivalent to the Great East Japan Earthquake. The accident-analytical progression-time was 36 hours, determined from the core-damage occurrence of the unit 3 of Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station. Failure probabilities were calculated by the fault tree, which was created from the elements listed in the event tree. For the calculation, failure rates reported by the NUCIA (NUClear Information Archives) were primarily utilized. Then, obtained failure probabilities were embedded to the event tree. Core damage probabilities were evaluated by calculating success and failure rates for each accidental progression and scenarios. Restoration of the failed equipment and machineries was not considered in the analysis. Installation of the power supply vehicles at the nuclear power plant site reduced the core damage probability from 2.58×10 -6 to 8.56×10 -7 . However, continued addition of the power supply vehicles could not lower the core damage probability further more. In the case of Unit 2 of Onagawa nuclear power station, there could be a limit to lower the core damage

  15. Web-Based Training on Reviewing Dose Modeling Aspects of NRC Decommissioning and License Termination Plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LePoire, D.; Cheng, J.J.; Kamboj, S.; Arnish, J.; Richmond, P.; Chen, S.Y.; Barr, C.; McKenney, C.

    2008-01-01

    NRC licensees at decommissioning nuclear facilities submit License Termination Plans (LTP) or Decommissioning Plans (DP) to NRC for review and approval. To facilitate a uniform and consistent review of these plans, the NRC developed training for its staff. A live classroom course was first developed in 2005, which targeted specific aspects of the LTP and DP review process related to dose-based compliance demonstrations or modeling. A web-based training (WBT) course was developed in 2006 and 2007 to replace the classroom-based course. The advantage of the WBT is that it will allow for staff training or refreshers at any time, while the advantage of a classroom-based course is that it provides a forum for lively discussion and the sharing of experience of classroom participants. The objective of this course is to train NRC headquarters and regional office staff on how to review sections of a licensee's DP or LTP that pertain to dose modeling. The DP generally refers to the decommissioning of non-reactor facilities, while the LTP refers specifically to the decommissioning of reactors. This review is part of the NRC's licensing process, in which the NRC determines if a licensee has provided a suitable technical basis to support derived concentration guideline levels (DCGLs)1 or dose modeling analyses performed to demonstrate compliance with dose-based license termination rule criteria. This type of training is one component of an organizational management system. These systems 'use a range of practices to identify, create, represent, and distribute knowledge for reuse, awareness and learning'. This is especially important in an organization undergoing rapid change or staff turnover to retain organizational information and processes. NRC is committed to maintaining a dynamic program of training, development, and knowledge transfer to ensure that the NRC acquires and maintains the competencies needed to accomplish its mission. This paper discusses one specific project

  16. Results and insights of a level-1 internal event PRA of a PWR during mid-loop operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.

    1993-01-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Some previous screening analysis that were performed for other modes of operation suggested that risks during those modes were small relative to full power operation. However, more recent studies and operational experience have implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. The objective of this paper is to present the approach utilized in the level-1 PRA for the Surry plant, and discuss the results obtained. A comparison of the results with those of other shutdown studies is provided. Relevant safety issues such as plant and hardware configurations, operator training, and instrumentation and control is discussed

  17. PRA Procedures Guide: a guide to the performance of probabilistic risk assessments for nuclear power plants. Final report, Volume 1 - Chapters 1-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This document, the Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Procedures Guide, is intended to provide an overview of the risk-assessment field as it exists today and to identify acceptable techniques for the systematic assessment of the risk from nuclear power plants. Topics discussed include: organization of PRA; accident-sequence definition and system modeling; human-reliability analysis; data-base development; accident-sequence quantification; physical processes of core-melt accidents; and radionuclide release and transport

  18. Progesterone receptor (PR) isoforms PRA and PRB differentially regulate expression of the breast cancer resistance protein in human placental choriocarcinoma BeWo cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honggang; Lee, Eun-Woo; Zhou, Lin; Leung, Peter C K; Ross, Douglas D; Unadkat, Jashvant D; Mao, Qingcheng

    2008-03-01

    Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) plays a significant role in drug disposition and in conferring multidrug resistance in cancer cells. Previous studies have shown that steroid hormones such as 17beta-estradiol and progesterone can affect BCRP expression in cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which BCRP expression in human placental choriocarcinoma BeWo cells is regulated by progesterone. Transfection of the progesterone receptor (PR) isoforms PRA and PRB resulted in a similarly increased expression of PRA and PRB, respectively. However, progesterone significantly increased BCRP expression and activity only in PRB-transfected cells. This stimulatory effect of progesterone was abrogated by the PR antagonist mifepristone (RU-486). Consistently, transcriptional activity of the BCRP promoter was induced 2- to 6-fold by 10(-8) to 10(-5) M progesterone in PRB-transfected cells. Progesterone had little effect on BCRP expression and activity and transcriptional activity of the BCRP promoter in PRA-transfected cells; however, cotransfection of PRA and PRB significantly decreased the progesterone-response compared with that in cells transfected with only PRB. Mutations in a novel progesterone response element (PRE) identified between -243 to -115 bp of the BCRP promoter region significantly attenuated the progesterone-response in PRB-transfected cells, and deletion of the PRE nearly completely abrogated the progesterone effect. Specific binding of both PRA and PRB to the BCRP promoter through the identified PRE was confirmed using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Collectively, progesterone induces BCRP expression in BeWo cells via PRB but not PRA. PRA represses the PRB activity. Thus, PRA and PRB differentially regulate BCRP expression in BeWo cells.

  19. NRC assessment of the Department of Energy annealing demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.A.; Malik, S.N.

    1997-01-01

    Thermal annealing is the only known method for mitigating the effects of neutron irradiation embrittlement in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. In May 1996, the US Department of Energy (DOE) in conjunction with the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Westinghouse, Cooperheat, Electric Power Research Institute (with participating utilities), Westinghouse Owner's Group, Consumers Power, Electricite' de France, Duquesne Light and the Central Research Institute of the Electric Power Industry (Japan) sponsored an annealing demonstration project (ADP) at Marble Hill. The Marble Hill Plant, located in Madison, Indiana, is a Westinghouse 4 loop design. The plant was nearly 70% completed when the project was canceled. Hence, the RPV was never irradiated. The paper will present highlights from the NRCs independent evaluation of the Marble Hill Annealing Demonstration Project

  20. Pilot program: NRC severe reactor accident incident response training manual: Public protective actions: Predetermined criteria and initial actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.A. Jr.; McKenna, T.J.; Miller, C.W.; Hively, L.M.; Sharpe, R.W.; Giitter, J.G.; Watkins, R.M.

    1987-02-01

    This pilot training manual has been written to fill the need for a general text on NRC response to reactor accidents. The manual is intended to be the foundation for a course for all NRC response personnel. Public Protective Actions - Predetermined Criteria and Initial Actions is the fourth in a series of volumes that collectively summarize the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) emergency response during severe power reactor accidents and provide necessary background information. This volume reviews public protective action criteria and objectives, their bases and implementation, and the expected public response. Each volume serves, respectively, as the text for a course of instruction in a series of courses for NRC response personnel. These materials do not provide guidance or license requirements for NRC licensees. Each volume is accompanied by an appendix of slides that can be used to present this material. The slides are called out in the text