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Sample records for noyaux impaires superdeformes

  1. Superdeformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, F.S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This talk consists of three parts: an introduction to the current situation regarding superdeformed bands; some recent highlights; and a quick look at the future. Due mainly to the large gamma-ray detectors coming into use, there is a lot going on in this area and the author does not try to include it all here. Rather, after a few general observations the author selects several highlights and tries to discuss those in some depth. Finally the author gives his thoughts as to the future of studying superdeformed nuclei. His definition of superdeformation is rather broad and generally includes nuclei where the long axis is 1.5-2 times longer than the short axis. Typically this is a second minimum in the potential energy surface; the first having smaller (perhaps {open_quotes}normal{close_quotes}) deformation. With this definition there are now five regions of superdeformation known in the heavier elements, having masses centered around 80, 130, 150, 190 and 240, the last of these being the fission isomers discovered more than 30 years ago. Altogether there are around 200 bands presently known in these five regions. The newest region is that around mass 80, where already some 20 bands are known in 10 nuclei. These bands show all the familiar properties seen in the heavier regions: assigned configurations, band crossings, identical bands, etc.

  2. Individual and collective excitations in the superdeformed nuclei of the 190 mass region; Excitations individuelles et collectives dans les noyaux superdeformes de la region de masse 190

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    Bouneau, Sandra [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1997-04-11

    This work aims at the study of different excitation modes, individual and collective, in superdeformed (SD) nuclei in the mass 190 region. The study of {sup 193}Tl and {sup 195,196,197}Bi SD nuclei brought information concerning individual excitation around the proton and neutron SD gaps Z = 80 - 82 and N = 112. Also, the study of the nucleus {sup 196}Pb revealed excited SD states built on collective vibrations. Concerning the isotope {sup 193}Tl, magnetic property analysis has been performed and allowed us to identify the proton intruder orbital {pi}i{sub 13/2} on which the two known SD the bands of the nucleus are build. It was possible to separate experimentally the relative contribution of proton and neutron pairing to the dynamic moment of inertia. Several {gamma} transition of high energy (about 3 MeV) linking SD states to normal deformed states (ND) and three new SD bands have been found in this nucleus. These SD bands have been interpreted in terms of individual excitations of the single proton on different orbitals identified above the proton SD gap Z = 80. An interaction between the states of two excited SD band have been observed and its strength measured. All these results (gyromagnetic factor, the role of nuclear pairing, excitation energy of the SD well, the interaction between two orbitals) represent information of theoretical interest. In each isotope {sup 195-197}Bi, one SD band has been discovered. They have been also interpreted in terms of individual excitation implying the same proton state. The study of this nuclei brought the first experimental proof that the superdeformation phenomenon persists above the shell closure Z = 82. In {sup 196}Pb nucleus a new excited SD band has been discovered. Observations are mentioned suggesting that we have to consider excitations different from those based on individual ones. An interpretation based on vibrational modes can explain both the low energy measured of the excited states in respect with the SD

  3. New quantum mechanisms exhibited by superdeformed nuclei and their interpretations in terms of mean field and further; Nouveaux mecanismes quantiques manifestes par les noyaux superdeformes et leurs interpretations en terme de champ moyen et au-dela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Aouad, N

    1994-06-01

    Identical superdeformed bands and quantized alignments have been investigated using the deformed Woods-Saxon mean field and a method of solving `exactly` the nuclear many-body problem with rotation. With the first formalism, an analysis method have been developed to find nucleonic configurations for bands in nuclei {sup 151}Tb, for the first three bands in nuclei {sup 149}Gd and for the bands in {sup 132}Ce. This method includes the calculation of incremental alignment which was performed for the first time. Such an approach allows to reproduce the experimental results and give an argument that the nuclear structure employed is correct. With the second formalism, it is shown that the deformed standard average-field plus pairing Hamiltonian with an induced rotation term employed for long time in literature, generates numerous twinned bands. The appearance of the twinned bands is shown to be often accompanied by the quantized incremental alignment. (author) 57 figs., 20 tabs., 66 refs.

  4. Study of the superdeformed states of the gadolinium nuclei: neutron excitations in {sup 147}Gd nucleus; Etude des etats superdeformes de noyaux de Gadolinium: Excitations neutron dans le noyau {sup 147}Gd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khadiri, Najia [Institut de Recherche Subatomique, CNRS-IN2P3 - Universite Louis Pasteur, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    1997-10-17

    This work is devoted to nuclear structure studies of superdeformed states in the second potential well. Under focus are the gadolinium isotopes and in particular the {sup 147}Gd nucleus. High spin states in {sup 147}Gd have been populating by {sup 122}Sn ({sup 30}Si,5n){sup 147}Gd fusion-evaporation reaction with a silicon beam of 158 MeV delivered by the VIVITRON accelerator of the Institut de Recherches Subatomiques. The nucleus {gamma} de-excitations have been measured using the EUROGAM II {gamma}-ray multidetector. On the basis of multiple coincidences, four new superdeformed (SD) rotational bands have been assigned to {sup 147}Gd nucleus. Nuclear structures corresponding to these bands have been investigated by shell model calculations using a harmonic oscillator potential with cranking, in the Nilsson Strutinsky formalism. Comparison of dynamical moments of inertia of band (1) and (5) in {sup 147}Gd with {sup 148}Gd(2) and {sup 146}Gd(1) SD bands has fixed the role of the [651 1/2]{alpha} = -1/2 orbital crossing frequency. Theoretical calculations reproduce quite well the {sup 148}Gd(2), {sup 127}Gd(1,5) and G{sup 146}Gd(1) dynamical moments of inertia. Using the particle hole excitation nature of {sup 149,148,147,146}Gd bands, effective spin alignment of [651 1/2]{alpha}= {+-}1/2, [770 1/2]{alpha} = -1/2 and [441 1/2]{alpha} = +1/2 orbitals have been deduced from the experiment in agreement with the theoretical values. Of particular interest, the spin alignment measured for the [441 1/2]{alpha} +1/2 orbital, with a value close to zero, is in contradiction with the value predicted by the Pseudo SU(3) model, formalism often used to explain the identical band phenomenon. (author) 68 refs., 41 figs., 17 tabs.

  5. Some considerations of the energy spectrum of odd-odd deformed nuclei; Quelqes considerations sur le spectre d'energie des noyaux impair-impair deformes

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    Alceanu-G, Pinho de; Picard, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The odd-odd deformed nuclei are described as a rotator plus two odd nucleons moving in orbitals {omega}{sub p} and {omega}{sub n} of the deformed potential. We investigate the energies and wave functions of the various states of the ({omega}{sub p}, {omega}{sub n}) configurations by calculating and numerically diagonalizing the Hamiltonian matrix (with R.P.C. and residual interactions). The Gallagher-Mosskowski coupling rules ana the abnormal K equals 0 rotational bands are discussed. (authors) [French] Les noyaux impair-impairs deformes sont decrits comme un rotateur plus deux nucleons non apparies dans les orbites {omega}{sub p} et {omega}{sub n} du potentiel deforme. Nous etudions le spectre d'energie et les fonctions d'onde des configurations ({omega}{sub p}, {omega}{sub n}) en tenant compte de l'interaction particule-rotation et de la force residuelle entre les deux nucleons celibataires.

  6. Superdeformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, R.V.F.; Khoo, T.L.

    1991-01-01

    Superdeformation was first proposed some twenty years ago to explain the fission isomers observed in some actinide nuclei. It was later realized that superdeformed shapes can occur at high angular momentum in lighter nuclei. The interest in the mechanisms responsible for these exotic shapes has increased enormously with the discovery of a superdeformed band of nineteen discrete lines in 152 Dy (8). At about the same time, evidence for highly deformed nuclei (axis ratio 3:2) was also reported near 132 Ce(9). Striking properties emerged from the first experiments, such as the essentially constant energy spacing between transitions (picket-fence spectra), the unexpectedly strong population of superdeformed bands at high spins, and the apparent lack of a link between the superdeformed states and the yrast levels. These findings were reviewed by Nolan and Twin. The present article follows upon their work and discusses the wealth of information that has since become available. This includes the discovery of a new island of superdeformation near A = 190, the detailed spectroscopy of ground and excited bands in the superdeformed well near A = 150 and A = 190, the surprising occurrence of superdeformed bands with identical transition energies in nuclei differing by one or two mass units, and the improved understanding of mechanisms responsible for the feeding into and the decay out of the superdeformed states

  7. Some considerations of the energy spectrum of odd-odd deformed nuclei; Quelqes considerations sur le spectre d'energie des noyaux impair-impair deformes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alceanu-G, Pinho de; Picard, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The odd-odd deformed nuclei are described as a rotator plus two odd nucleons moving in orbitals {omega}{sub p} and {omega}{sub n} of the deformed potential. We investigate the energies and wave functions of the various states of the ({omega}{sub p}, {omega}{sub n}) configurations by calculating and numerically diagonalizing the Hamiltonian matrix (with R.P.C. and residual interactions). The Gallagher-Mosskowski coupling rules ana the abnormal K equals 0 rotational bands are discussed. (authors) [French] Les noyaux impair-impairs deformes sont decrits comme un rotateur plus deux nucleons non apparies dans les orbites {omega}{sub p} et {omega}{sub n} du potentiel deforme. Nous etudions le spectre d'energie et les fonctions d'onde des configurations ({omega}{sub p}, {omega}{sub n}) en tenant compte de l'interaction particule-rotation et de la force residuelle entre les deux nucleons celibataires.

  8. Nuclear superdeformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarewicz, W.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN

    1992-01-01

    In the year 1986 new types of exotic states, the so-called superdeformed states, were discovered in fast rotating heavy atomic nuclei. They are characterized by an unusually large distortion (comparable to that appearing in fissioning isomers) and occur at high angular momenta. A sizeable amount of high-spin data on superdeformed states makes it possible, for the first time, to test many fine details of the shell structure at very large elongations and very high angular momentum

  9. Influence of i{sub 13/2} proton and j{sub 15/2} neutron intruding orbitals on the behaviour of 190 mass region superdeformed nuclei; Influence des orbitales intruses proton i{sub 13/2} et neutron j{sub 15/2} sur le comportement des noyaux superdeformes de la region de masse 190

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duprat, J

    1995-01-01

    This work concerns the study of the nuclear superdeformation phenomenon in the A = 190 mass region. The superdeformed (SD) states in {sup 193}Tl, {sup 194}Tl {sup 195}Tl were produced via heavy-ion induced reactions and studied with the EUROGAM gamma multidetector array. The analysis of high-multiplicity events allowed the study of the magnetic properties of the SD states in these nuclei. For the first time, the g-factor of a proton orbital in a SD nucleus in the A = 190 mass region has been extracted. This measurement indicates that the two known bands in {sup 195}Tl-SD are built on the i{sub 13/2} proton intruder orbital. A new SD band has been found in this isotope: it is the first SD band built on an excited proton state found in the A = 190 region. Finally an interaction between two pairs of bands has been established in {sup 194}Tl; this interaction indicate the crossing of two neutron orbitals above the N = 112 gap. The magnetic properties of the states of the SD bands in {sup 194}Tl reveals that these bands are built on configurations in which the single proton and neutron intrinsic spins are aligned. Comparison between different SD bands in the Thallium isotopes shows the prominent role of the i{sub 13/2} proton and the j{sub 15/2} neutron intruder orbitals in the smooth increase of the dynamical moment of inertia as a function of the rotational frequency. In addition, this work reports on the first observation of a SD rotational band produced in a (HI, {alpha}xn) reaction channel. The study of the maximum spin reached by the SD bands indicates both a competition between alpha emission and fission of the compound nucleus, and the limitation due to the fission process in the population of the SD nuclei in the A = 190 region. (author). 120 refs., 112 figs., 22 tabs., 2 ann.

  10. Comparative study of {beta} decays and of the model of the layers for the nucleus with odd a; Etude comparee des desintegrations {beta} et du modele des couches pour les noyaux de a impair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trocheris, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1953-07-01

    The systematic comparison of {beta} decays of the cores of number of odd mass with the predictions of the modal of Mrs. Mayer on spins and parities, has already been made by several authors. It is taken in the present work with more recent experimental data and with a method of classification of the {beta} transitions. A simultaneous comparison to the experience of the model of the layers and the theory of the {beta} transitions can serve to verify one and the other too. In the present work, it appeared more fruitful to try to verify the model of the layers with the help of the very established theory of the {beta} transitions. One will look to verify and perfect the models of the layers for transitions between fundamental states or isomers of the cores. (M.B.) [French] La comparaison systematique des desintegrations {beta} des noyaux de nombre de masse impair avec les predictions du modale de Mme MAYER sur les spins et les parites, a deja ete faite par plusieurs auteurs. Elle est reprise dans le present travail avec des donnees experimentales plus recentes et avec une methode de classification des transitions {beta}. Une comparaison simultanee a l'experience du modele des couches et de la theorie des transitions {beta} peut, a priori, servir a verifier egalement l'un et l'autre. Dans le present travail, il a paru plus fructueux de chercher a verifier le modele des couches a l'aide de la theorie bien etablie des transitions {beta}. On cherchera de verifier et de perfectionner le modele des couches pour les transitions entre etats fondamentaux ou isomeres des noyaux. (M.B.)

  11. Decay of superdeformed bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, M.P.; Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T.

    1995-01-01

    One of the major challenges in the study of superdeformation is to directly connect the large number of superdeformed bands now known to the yrast states. In this way, excitation energies, spins and parities can be assigned to the levels in the second well which is essential to establish the collective and single-particle components of these bands. This paper will review some of the progress which has been made to understand the decay of superdeformed bands using the new arrays including the measurement of the total decay spectrum and the establishment of direct one-step decays from the superdeformed band to the yrast line in 194 Hg. 42 refs., 5 figs

  12. New vistas in superdeformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazarawicz, W [Joint Inst. for Heavy Ion Research, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1992-08-01

    Nuclear shape coexistence, or superdeformation, is not a new topic; it dates back to the mid-fifties. In this review, the author concentrates on the following aspects: hyperdeformations, with the Woods-Saxon-Strutinsky total potential energy for thorium-232 as an example; superdeformations far from stability, particularly in mercury isotopes; effective calculation of interactions and effective operators; spin assignments and identical bands. 65 refs., 3 figs.

  13. From superdeformation to clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betts, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    Much of the discussion at this conference has centered on the topic of superdeformed states in nuclei, and their study with the exquisitely precise tool of gamma ray spectroscopy, carried out with state-of-the-art detector arrays. In the usual way in which superdeformed states are populated, via compound nucleus formation and evaporation, gamma decay is the last process to occur in the decay chain. In some other sense, it is also the last to occur in the meaning of least likely

  14. Superdeformation in Pb isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naz, Tabassum; Ahmad, Shakeb

    2017-01-01

    The Relatvistic Hartree-Bogoliubov (RHB) theory is used to explore the structure of superdeformed (SD) 190,212 Pb isotopes using the non-linear NL3* and density dependent (DD-ME2, DD-PC1) interactions. We have studied the the excitation energy, the potential depth and the deformation of these Pb isotopes

  15. Octupole correlations in superdeformed states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatsukasa, T; Arita, K; Matsuyanagi, K [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Mizutori, S [Tokyo Univ., Tanashi (Japan). Inst. for Nuclear Study; Shimizu, Y R [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    1992-08-01

    We suggest that properties of single-particle motions in superdeformed nuclei may be significantly affected by coupling effects with low-frequency octupole vibrational modes with K = 0, 1, 2 and 3. We also indicate a possible relationship between octupole instability of superdeformed shape and supershell effects. In this connection, stability of classical periodic orbits and of KAM tori for single-particle motions in a reflection-asymmetric superdeformed potential are investigated. (author). 12 refs., 9 figs.

  16. From superdeformation to clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betts, R R [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Physics Div.

    1992-08-01

    Much of the discussion at the conference centred on superdeformed states and their study by precise gamma spectrometry. The author suggests that the study of superdeformation by fission fragments and by auto-scattering is of importance, and may become more important. He concludes that there exists clear evidence of shell effects at extreme deformation in light nuclei studied by fission or cluster decay. The connection between the deformed shell model and the multi-center shell model can be exploited to give give insight into the cluster structure of these extremely deformed states, and also gives hope of a spectroscopy based on selection rules for cluster decay. A clear disadvantage at this stage is inability to make this spectroscopy more quantitative through calculation of the decay widths. The introduction of a new generation of high segmentation, high resolution, particle arrays has and will have a major impact on this aspect of the study of highly deformed nuclei. 20 refs., 16 figs.

  17. Superdeformation in the mercury region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chasman, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    A brief history of superdeformation is presented. Calculations of superdeformed well depths, single particle energy level diagrams at I = 0, orbital alignments as a function of rotational frequency and dynamical moments of inertia are presented. The sensitivity of calculations to the details of the spin-orbit interaction are examined. Comparisons with experimental results are made. 37 refs., 9 figs

  18. Microscopic properties of superdeformed nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Lennart B

    1999-04-01

    Many high spin rotational bands in superdeformed nuclei have been found in the A 140 - 150 region, but so far no linking transitions to known normal-deformed states have been found in these nuclei. Therefore, configuration and spin assignments have to be based on indirect spectroscopic information. Identical bands were first discovered in this region of superdeformed states. At present, some identical bands have also been found at normal deformation, but such bands are more common at superdeformation. Recently lifetime measurements have given relative quadrupole moments with high accuracy. Spectroscopic quantities are calculated using the configuration constrained cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky model with the modified oscillator potential. In a statistical study the occurrence of identical bands is tested. Comparing superdeformed and normal deformed nuclei, the higher possibility for identical bands at superdeformation is understood from calculated reduced widths of the E{sub {gamma}} and J{sup (2)} distributions. The importance of high-N orbitals for identical bands is also discussed. Additivity of electric quadrupole moment contributions in the superdeformed A - 150 region is discussed with the nucleus {sup 152}Dy as a `core`. In analytic harmonic oscillator calculations, the effective electric quadrupole moment q{sub eff}, i.e. the change in the total quadrupole moment caused by the added particle, is expressed as a simple function of the single-particle mass, quadrupole moment q{sub {nu}}. Also in realistic calculations, simple relations between q{sub eff} and q{sub {nu}} can be used to estimate the total electric quadrupole moment, e.g. for the nucleus {sup 142}Sm, by adding the effect of 10 holes, to the total electric quadrupole moment of {sup 152}Dy. Furthermore, tools are given for estimating the quadrupole moment for possible configurations in the superdeformed A - 150 region. For the superdeformed region around {sup 143}Eu, configuration and spin assignments

  19. Superdeformations and fermion dynamical symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Cheng-Li

    1990-01-01

    In this talk, I will present a link between nuclear collective motions and their underlying fermion dynamical symmetries. In particular, I will focus on the microscopic understanding of deformations. It is shown that the SU 3 of the one major shell fermion dynamical symmetry model (FDSM) is responsible for the physics of low and high spins in normal deformation. For the recently observed phenomena of superdeformation, the physics of the problem dictates a generalization to a supershell structure (SFDSM), which also has an SU 3 fermion dynamical symmetry. Many recently discovered feature of superdeformation are found to be inherent in such an SU 3 symmetry. In both cases the dynamical Pauli effect plays a vital role. A particularly noteworthy discovery from this model is that the superdeformed ground band is not the usual unaligned band but the D-pair aligned (DPA) band, which sharply crosses the excited bands. The existence of such DPA band is a key point to understand many properties of superdeformation. Our studies also poses new experimental challenge. This is particularly interesting since there are now plans to build new and exciting γ-ray detecting systems, like the GAMMASPHERE, which could provide answers to some of these challenges. 34 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs

  20. Nuclear superdeformation at high spins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudek, J.

    1991-01-01

    The newly discovered forms of nuclear behavior at exotic shape configurations are discussed from the theoretical point of view. The main emphasis is set on superdeformed nuclei and the strange mechanisms influencing their properties. In particular the feeding properties, alignment, pairing properties and the problem of anomalous degeneracies are discussed

  1. Superdeformation in {sup 191}Tl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilotte, S; Lewis, J M; Riedinger, L L; Yu, C H [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics; Capenter, M P; Janssens, R V.F.; Khoo, T L; Lauritsen, T; Liang, Y; Soramel, F [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Physics Div.; Bearden, I G [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States)

    1992-08-01

    High spin states in {sup 191}T1 have been populated via the {sup 159}Tb({sup 36}S,4n) reaction at 165 MeV. Two weak sequences of regularly spaced transitions have been identified. These bands exhibit many of the properties observed in many other superdeformed nuclei in the Hg region. (author). 23 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Observation of superdeformation in 191Hg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, E.F.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Chasman, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    The first observation of superdeformation in the A ≅ 190 mass region is reported. A rotational band of 12 transitions with an average energy spacing of 37 keV, an average moment of inertia of 110 ℎ 2 MeV -1 , and an average quadrupole moment of 18 ± 3 eb has been observed in 191 Hg. These results are in excellent agreement with a calculation that predicts an ellipsoidal axis ratio of 1.65:1 for the superdeformed shape in this nucleus. Evidence for another discrete superdeformed band and superdeformed structures in the quasi-continuum was also found in the data. 19 refs., 6 figs

  3. Superdeformed bands in 130Ce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, E.S.; Semple, A.T.; Boston, A.J.; Joss, D.T.; Nolan, P.J.; Shepherd, S.L.

    1997-01-01

    Four superdeformed bands have been assigned to 130 Ce following a high-statistics γ-ray study using the EUROGAM II spectrometer. The strongest band exhibits two distinct backbends which, in one scenario, may be interpreted as crossings between high-j N = 6 neutron orbitals (νi 13/2 ) and low-j N = 4 orbitals (νd 3/2 ) in an unpaired system. (author)

  4. Necked-in superdeformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensson, L.O.

    1997-03-01

    In this dissertation the possibility of forming superdeformed states related to two connected spheres, having a more or less pronounced neck, is investigated. Detailed Nilsson-Strutinsky calculations with the cranked Woods-Saxon potential and a finite-range liquid drop model are carried out in the 180 Hg region, where superdeformed states related to two overlapping 90 Zr are predicted. Detailed spectroscopic properties are calculated. The effect of the necking degree of freedom on the giant dipole resonance, GDR, is investigated. The calculations are carried out with the Woods-saxon potential for the single-particle states, and the random phase approximation formalism for the phonon states. The residual interaction and coupling constants are determined by requirements of transitional invariance. The lower energy component of the GDR spectrum for superdeformed shapes, corresponding to vibrations along the symmetry axis, is diminished with increasing necking, and the mean energy of the GDR is increased. The folded Yukawa-plus-exponential liquid drop models take into account the finite range of the nuclear force, which is important when elongated and necked-in nuclear shapes are considered. However, it is shown that they are unstable towards higher multipole deformations, and that unphysical shapes are obtained in free minimizations when too high multipole deformations are included. Limits on multipolarity are given as functions of mass number. 9 refs., 4 figs

  5. Dynamical moments of inertia for superdeformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obikhod, T.V.

    1995-01-01

    The method of quantum groups has been applied for calculation the dynamical moments of inertia for the yrast superdeformed bands in 194 Hg and 192 Hg as well as to calculation of the dynamical moments of inertia of superdeformed bands in 150 Gd and 148 Gd

  6. Superdeformation in the mass 190 region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T.; Liang, Y.

    1992-01-01

    The steps in the formation of superdeformed bands are described. The hot compound nucleus cools and is trapped within the superdeformed secondary minimum becoming a cold system executing periodic motion (rotation), before suddenly heating up in the process of decaying to the normal yrast states

  7. Shell model calculations at superdeformed shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarewicz, W.; Dobaczewski, J.; Van Isacker, P.

    1991-01-01

    Spectroscopy of superdeformed nuclear states opens up an exciting possibility to probe new properties of the nuclear mean field. In particular, the unusually deformed atomic nucleus can serve as a microscopic laboratory of quantum-mechanical symmetries of a three dimensional harmonic oscillator. The classifications and coupling schemes characteristic of weakly deformed systems are expected to be modified in the superdeformed world. The ''superdeformed'' symmetries lead to new quantum numbers and new effective interactions that can be employed in microscopic calculations. New classification schemes can be directly related to certain geometrical properties of the nuclear shape. 63 refs., 7 figs

  8. Quasiparticle excitations in superdeformed {sup 192}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritsen, T.; Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The nucleus {sup 192}Hg plays a pivotal role for superdeformation in the mass 190 region, since calculations of single-particle levels show large shell-gaps for the superdeformed (SD) shape at N = 112 and Z = 80. As a result, {sup 192}Hg is referred to as the doubly magic SD nucleus for the A = 190 region. In previous studies, only one superdeformed band was observed in this nucleus, and this fact was cited as indirect evidence that large shell gaps do indeed exist at the proposed particle numbers.

  9. A superdeformed band in {sup 142}Sm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackman, G; Mullins, J M; Kuehner, J A; Prevost, D; Waddington, J C [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Janzen, V P; Radford, D C; Schmeing, N; Ward, D [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.

    1992-08-01

    Observation of {gamma}-{gamma} coincidences from the reaction {sup 124}Sn({sup 24}Mg,6n){sup 142}Sm at 145 MeV indicates the existence of a rotational band with dynamic moment of inertia J{sup (2)} similar to that of the superdeformed band in the isotone {sup 143}Eu. This result is consistent with calculations predicting superdeformed structures in N = 80, Z {approx} 64 nuclei. (author). 8 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Superdeformation in the Hg-Tl-Pb region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, E.A.; Becker, J.A.; Yates, S.W.; Wang, T.F.; Kuhnert, A.; Brinkman, M.J.; Cizewski, J.A.; Deleplanque, M.A.; Diamond, R.M.; Stephens, F.S.; Azaiez, F.; Korten, W.; Draper, J.E.

    1990-10-01

    Superdeformation in the Hg-Tl-Pb region is discussed, with concentration on the experimental results. At least twenty-five superdeformed bands are known in this region, providing much new data to test theoretical calculations. 22 refs., 5 figs

  11. Two-particle separation energy trends in the superdeformed well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A N; Korichi, A; Siem, S; Astier, A; Bazzacco, D; Bednarczyk, P; Bergström, M H; Chmel, S; Cullen, D M; Davidson, P M; Görgen, A; Hannachi, F; Hübel, H; Kintz, N; Lauritsen, T; Lopez-Martens, A; Lunardi, S; Naguleswaran, S; Nyakó, B M; Rejmund, M; Schönwasser, G; Schück, C; Sharpey-Schafer, J F; Timar, J; Wadsworth, R; Libert, J

    2010-04-23

    A measurement of the energy and spin of superdeformed states in 190Hg, obtained through the observation of transitions directly linking superdeformed and normal states, expands the number of isotopes in which binding energies at superdeformation are known. Comparison with neighboring nuclei shows that two-proton separation energies are higher in the superdeformed state than in the normal state, despite the lower Coulomb barrier and lower total binding energy. This unexpected result provides a critical test for nuclear models.

  12. Two-particle separation energy trends in the superdeformed well.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, A. N.; Korichi, A.; Siem, S.; Astier, A.; Bazzacco, D.; Lauristen, T.; Physics; Australian National Univ.; CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS; Univ. of Oslo; IPN Lyon; INFN

    2010-04-23

    A measurement of the energy and spin of superdeformed states in {sup 190}Hg, obtained through the observation of transitions directly linking superdeformed and normal states, expands the number of isotopes in which binding energies at superdeformation are known. Comparison with neighboring nuclei shows that two-proton separation energies are higher in the superdeformed state than in the normal state, despite the lower Coulomb barrier and lower total binding energy. This unexpected result provides a critical test for nuclear models.

  13. Triaxial superdeformation in 40Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Yasutaka; Ikeda, Kiyomi; Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko; Kimura, Masaaki; Horiuchi, Hisashi; Ideguchi, Eiji

    2010-01-01

    Superdeformed (SD) states in 40 Ar have been studied using the deformed-basis antisymmetrized molecular dynamics. Low-energy states were calculated by the parity and angular momentum projection and the generator coordinate method (GCM). Basis wave functions were obtained by the energy variation with a constraint on the quadrupole deformation parameter β, while other quantities such as triaxiality γ were optimized by the energy variation. By the GCM calculation, an SD band was obtained just above the ground-state band. The SD band involves a K π =2 + side band due to the triaxiality. The calculated electric quadrupole transition strengths of the SD band reproduce the experimental values appropriately. Triaxiality is significant for understanding low-lying states.

  14. Decay out of the yrast superdeformed band in 191Hg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sien, S.; Reiter, P.; Khoo, T.; Lauritsen, T.; Carpenter, M. P.; Ahmad, I.; Amro, H.; Calderin, I.; Dossing, T.; Fischer, S. M.; Garg, U.; Gassmann, D.; Hackman, G.; Hannachi, F.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Kharraja, B.; Korichi, A.; Lopez-Martens, A.; Moore, E. F.; Nisius, D.; Schuck, C.

    1999-01-01

    The excitation energies and spins of the yrast superdeformed band in 191 Hg have been determined by analyzing the quasicontinuum spectrum connecting the superdeformed and normal-deformed states. The results from this analysis, combined with that given by one-step decay lines, give confident assignments of the spins and energies of the yrast superdeformed band in 191 Hg

  15. Contribution to the study of deformed heavy nuclei by means of nuclear reactions; Contribution a l'etude des noyaux lourds deformes au moyen de reactions nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastebois, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    The experimental results obtained in the study of the (d,p) reactions, at E{sub d} = 12 MeV, on the three even-even deformed nuclei {sup 170}Yb, {sup 172}Yb and {sup 174}Yb have been analysed in terms of DWBA calculations. The spectroscopic information relative to the odd final nuclei have been compared with the predictions of the collective model and of the Nilsson's model. The effect of various parameters used in the DWBA analysis (form factors, optical wave functions) has been carefully studied. The observed differences between the three final nuclei are qualitatively reproduced in the experimental study of resonances, seen in excitation functions of elastically and inelastically scattered protons on the same target nuclei, and corresponding to analogue states in the three nuclei {sup 171}Lu, {sup 173}Lu and {sup 175}Lu. (author) [French] Les resultats experimentaux de l'etude des reactions (d.p) a E{sub d} = 12 MeV, sur les noyaux deformes pairs-pairs {sup 170}Yb, {sup 172}Yb et {sup 174}Yb ont ete interpretes dans le cadre de l'approximation de Born des ondes deformees. Les informations spectroscopiques relatives aux noyaux impairs finals ont ete comparees aux predictions du modele collectif et du modele de Nilsson, apres avoir examine avec soin l'influence des differents parametres (facteurs de forme, fonctions d'onde 'optiques') utilises lors de l'analyse. Les differences observees entre les trois noyaux finals sont qualitativement reproduites par les resultats experimentaux de l'etude de resonances dans les fonctions d'excitation de diffusion elastique et inelastique de protons sur les memes noyaux-cibles, lors de la recherche d'etats analogues dans les noyaux {sup 171}Lu, {sup 173}Lu et {sup 175}Lu. (auteur)

  16. Search for superdeformation in 144Gd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivien, J.P.; Nourreddine, A.; Beck, F.A.; Byrski, T.; Gehringer, C.; Haas, B.; Merdinger, J.C.; Dudek, J.; Nazarewicz, W.

    1986-01-01

    Quasi-continuum γ-decay studies of 144 Gd have been performed using the 120 Sn( 28 Si,4n)reaction at 125, 135, 145 and 155 MeV bombarding energies. Angular distribution and multiplicity measurements have been done at the above energies. At 145 MeV bombarding energy a lifetime measurement has also been performed. Although a collective behaviour has been observed, the present data do not give evidence for population of superdeformed rotational bands. Theoretical interpretation using the cranking model with the Woods-Saxon field is given. The effects of temperature and pairing on the superdeformed configuration are discussed; superdeformation effects are predicted to disappear below I ∼ 60-70 ℎ when temperature exceeds ∼ 500 KeV

  17. Superdeformation in /sup 104,105/Pd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macchiavelli, A.O.; Burde, J.; Diamond, R.M.; Beausang, C.W.; Deleplanque, M.A.; McDonald, R.J.; Stephens, F.S.; Draper, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    In the present Rapid Communication, we report the discovery of a rotational band in /sup 105/Pd and possibly one in /sup 104/Pd that can be interpreted as arising from superdeformed shapes. The moments of inertia, J/sup (1)/ and J/sup (2)/, of these bands are similar to those measured in the Ce--Nd region, once the A/sup 5/3/ mass dependence is removed. This implies a deformation ε∼0.35--0.4. If so, this is the third mass region where superdeformed bands have been found at high spins

  18. Favored neutron excitations in superdeformed Gd-147

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theisen, C; Khadiri, N; Vivien, JP; Ragnarsson, J; Beausang, CW; Beck, FA; Belier, G; Byrski, T; Curien, D; deFrance, G; Disdier, D; Duchene, G; Finck, C; Flibotte, S; Gall, B; Haas, B; Hanine, H; Herskind, B; Kharraja, B; Merdinger, JC; Nourreddine, A; Nyako, BM; Perez, GE; Prevost, D; Stezowski, O; Rauch, I; Rigollet, C; Savajols, H; SharpeySchafer, J; Twin, PJ; Wei, L; Zuber, K

    1996-01-01

    Four new superdeformed (SD) bands have been observed in Gd-147 using the EUROGAM II spectrometer. By comparison with (146,148,149),Gd SD bands, we use the effective alignment to assign excited band configurations, with the support of the Nilsson-Strutinsky cranking formalism. The effect of the

  19. Searching triaxial superdeformation in 175Hf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaowei; Zhejiang Normal Univ., Jinhua; Yu Shaoying; Zhejiang Normal Univ., Jinhua; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Shen Caiwan; National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Accelerator of Lanzhou, Lanzhou; Chen Yongshou; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Accelerator of Lanzhou

    2006-01-01

    A two-dimensional Total Routhian Surface (TRS) calculation is carried out in order to ascertain if there is triaxial superdeformation in 175 Hf. A five quasi-particle configuration is chosen in the calculation. Unfortunately, the TRS minimum does not show up in the total potential energy surface. (authors)

  20. Hartree-Fock description of superdeformed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobaczewski, J.; Meyer, J.

    1991-10-01

    The discovery of superdeformation has been preceded by theoretical predictions made in Nilsson-Strutinsky calculations and a description of the phenomenon still constitutes an exciting challenge to the theory of nuclear collective motion. In particular, a determination of electromagnetic transition rates requires a knowledge of microscopic collective wave functions, which can be achieved by using the Hartree-Fock (HF) theory and the generator coordinate method (GCM). In this study we present results of our calculations concerning the properties and superdeformed states in the mercury region. Using the GCM, we diagonalize the microscopic two-body hamiltonian within the basis set of constrained HF+BCS wave functions. The GCM provides values for the energy of the ground and excited states including the shape isomer which take into account the effect of correlations in the collective degree of freedom. The GCM will also allow us to discuss the qualitative modifications of the shape isomeric stability as induced by changes in pairing correlations

  1. Superdeformation studies in {sup 191}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Crowell, B. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Superdeformation in the A {approximately} 190 region was first observed in {sup 191}Hg from an experiment performed at ATLAS using the Argonne Notre Dame {gamma}-ray facility. We recently revisited the study of superdeformation in this nucleus using Gammasphere and the {sup 160}Gd({sup 36}S,5n) and {sup 174}Yb({sup 22}Ne,5n) reactions at 172 and 120 MeV in order to populate and measure states in the second well. The goal of the experiment was to identify new bands in the data, and thus allow us to gain understanding on the relative placement of single particle orbitals near the N = 112 SD shell gap. From an analysis of the data, the three previously identified SD bands were extended, and their feeding into the yrast states delineated. Two new SD bands were observed and preliminary evidence for a third new band was obtained as well.

  2. On the feeding and spectroscopy of superdeformed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aberg, S.

    1987-03-01

    Based on a cranked Nilsson calculation we discuss some spectroscopic properties of superdeformed nuclei, like quadrupole moments, g-factors, energies and moments of inertia. In light of recent experimental information about superdeformations in 152 Dy, possible feeding mechanisms of these states are discussed. The high-spin level density is calculated in a microscopic model, and the number of superdeformed states, compared to normal-deformed states, is found to be high for high spins and for low excitation energies. This suggests favoured regions in the (E exc ,I)-plane for the feeding of superdeformed states. A microscopic model for rotational damping is presented, and the E2-strength function up to about 4 MeV excitation energy is studied. The rotatinal cooling at 1 ≅ 50 in the superdeformed HD Dy is found to be much smaller than in the normal-deformed 168 Yb. (orig.)

  3. Favored neutron excitations in superdeformed 147Gd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theisen, C.; Khadiri, N.; Vivien, J.P.; Ragnarsson, I.; Beausang, C.W.; Beck, F.A.; Belier, G.; Byrski, T.; Curien, D.; de France, G.; Disdier, D.; Duchene, G.; Finck, C.; Flibotte, S.; Gall, B.; Haas, B.; Hanine, H.; Herskind, B.; Kharraja, B.; Merdinger, J.C.; Nourreddine, A.; Nyako, B.M.; Perez, G.E.; Prevost, D.; Stezowski, O.; Rauch, V.; Rigollet, C.; Savajols, H.; Sharpey-Schafer, J.; Twin, P.J.; Wei, L.; Zuber, K.

    1996-01-01

    Four new superdeformed (SD) bands have been observed in 147 Gd using the EUROGAM II spectrometer. By comparison with 146,148,149 Gd SD bands, we use the effective alignment to assign excited band configurations, with the support of the Nilsson-Strutinsky cranking formalism. The effect of the crossing of the [642]5/2 and [651]1/2 neutron orbitals lying just below the magic N=86 SD shell gap has been investigated for the 146,147,148 Gd bands. Evidence for the [411]1/2 orbital is also given. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  4. M1 transitions between superdeformed states in 195Tl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Xing; Xingqu Chen; Xiaochun Wang

    1996-01-01

    Using a triaxial-particle-rotor model, the quadrupole and dipole transition energies, kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia, electromagnetic transition probabilities and the relative intensity of the E2 γ-transitions are calculated for superdeformed bands in 195 Tl. A strong perturbation effect of rotation on transition energies and M1 and E2 transitions of superdeformed states is investigated. The total M1 transitions, enhanced by internal conversion, are expected to compete strongly with the E2 γ-ray at low spins in the superdeformed 195 Tl nucleus. (author)

  5. The superdeformed isotope chains in the rare-earth region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Baoguo; Chen Yongshou; Jin Xingnan

    1990-01-01

    Self-consistent calculations with respect to ε 2 and γ based on the cranked Nilsson model were done systematically for the superdeformed rotational states of nuclei in the rare-earth region. The results indicate that there exist a number of super-deformed isotope chains with neutron number N = 80-86 and quadrupole deformation ε 2 0.5-0.6. The calculated minimum angular momentum at which the superdeformed state becomes yrast has an average value of 60 ℎ and increases as the number of neutron increases within the chain. The calculation of shell correction energy surface indicates that the contribution of the neutron system is mostly responsible for the super-deformation

  6. Search for low spin superdeformed states by transfer reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blons, J; Goutte, D; Lepretre, A; Lucas, R; Meot, V; Paya, D; Phan, X H [DAPNIA SPhN CE Saclay 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barreau, G; Doan, T P; Pedemay, G [CENBG, 33175 Gradignan (France); Becker, J A; Stoyer, M A [LLNL, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1992-08-01

    We present a specific experimental technique aiming to observe superdeformed isomeric states. Preliminary results on two proton transfer reaction on platinum targets leading to {sup 194}Hg are shown. (author). 6 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Shell structure in superdeformed nuclei at high rotational frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploszajczak, M.

    1980-01-01

    Properties of the shell structure in superdeformed nuclei at high rotational frequencies are discussed. Moreover, stability of the high spin compound nucleus with respect to the fission and the emission of light particles is investigated. (author)

  8. Superdeformation in the mass A ∼ 80 region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baktash, C.

    1996-01-01

    A new island of superdeformed nuclei with major-to-minor axis ratio of 2:1 has recently been discovered in the A ∼ 80 medium-mass region, confirming the predictions for the existence of a large SD gap at particle number N,Z ∼ 44. The general properties of more than 20 bands observed so far will be reviewed here, and compared with those of the superdeformed bands in the heavier nuclei

  9. Projected shell model description of N = 114 superdeformed isotone nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, R S; Chen, L M; Chou, C H

    2006-01-01

    A systematic description of the yrast superdeformed (SD) bands in N 114, Z = 80-84 isotone nuclei using the projected shell model is presented. The calculated γ-ray energies, moment of inertia and M1 transitions are compared with the data for which spin is assigned. Excellent agreement with the available data for all isotones is obtained. The calculated electromagnetic properties provide a microscopic understanding of those measured nuclei. Some predictions in superdeformed nuclei are also discussed

  10. Feeding and decay of superdeformed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T.; Ahmad, I.; Carpenter, M.P.; Fernandez, P.B.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Moore, E.F.; Wolfs, F.L.H.; Benet, Ph.; Daly, P.J.; Beard, K.B.; Garg, U.; Ye, D.; Drigert, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    The mechanisms for feeding and decay of superdeformed (SD) bands are examined. Data connected with both processes in 192 Hg are compared with model calculations. The calculations successfully reproduce the data, suggesting that the mechanisms for both processes are understood. Constraints on the energy of the SD band energies and on the well-depths at low and high spins have been obtained. At the point of decay around spin 10, we suggest that the SD band is 3.3--4.3 MeV above the normal yrast line and that the well depths at spin 10 and 40 are 0.5--1.3 and 3.5--4.5 MeV, respectively

  11. X-ray yields of superdeformed states in 193Hg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, D.M.; Lee, I.Y.; Baktash, C.

    1993-01-01

    The K α =x-ray yields associated with the superdeformed and normal-deformed bands in 193 Hg have been measured. The results indicate an excess yield of K α -x rays in coincidence with the superdeformed cascade relative to that in coincidence with the normal-deformed cascade. The internal conversion of known transitions along the superdeformed cascade cannot account for the observed K α -x ray yield. It is likely that this excess x-ray yield is associated with low energy M1 transitions competing with the low-spin superdeformed E2 transitions. These M1 γ rays are expected to connect the two superdeformed bands which are observed in coincidence with each other. Calculations based on the measured γ-ray intensities indicate that within the experimental uncertainties the excess K α yield can be entirely accounted for by interband-M1 transitions. X-ray yields from the recent 193 Hg EUROGAM experiment will also be discussed

  12. Superdeformation in the A=150 and A=190 regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, M. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.

    1999-01-01

    Superdeformation has been established for over a decade in the mass 150 region and nearly as long in the A=190 region. The first measurements directed at nuclei in these regions concentrated on mapping out the superdeformed (SD) islands by identifying SD rotational bands in γ-ray coincidence data. These early studies provided new insights into the physics of superdeformation, but also raised unexpected issues. The new gamma-ray arrays (Gammasphere, Eurogam/Euroball and Gasp) have provided a wealth of new data on properties of SD states in these two mass regions. This paper highlights some of the more recent results from the large arrays which have addressed the outstanding issues in the field, namely, ΔI=4 staggering, identical bands, SD vibrational bands, and questions about the feeding into and the decay out of the SD well. (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics

  13. Feeding of the superdeformed yrast band in sup 149 Gd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, B.; Vivien, J.P.; Beck, F.A.; Benet, P.; Byrski, T.; Curien, D.; Duchene, G.; Gehringer, C.; Merdinger, J.C.; Romain, P. (Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires); Basu, S.K. (Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Calcutta (India). Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre); Kluge, H. (Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany, F.R.)); Santos, D. (Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina)); Flibotte, S. (Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany, F.R.)); Gascon, J.; Taras, P. (Montreal Univ., Quebec (Canada). Lab. de Physique Nucleaire); Bozek, E.; Zuber, K. (Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland))

    1990-08-02

    The feeding pattern of the superdeformed yrast band in {sup 149}Gd has been found to remain essentially the same, using the {sup 124}Sn+{sup 30}Si reaction at beam energies of 150, 155 and 160 MeV leading to different input angular momenta and excitation energies in the compound nuclear system. This similarity as well as the relative yields of the superdeformed states as a function of beam energy may be understood in terms of the nuclear level density dependence on deformation and the onset of fission. In addition, it has been shown that, at all three beam energies, the selection of high-energy gamma rays does not enhance the yield of the superdeformed yrast states. (orig.).

  14. Superdeformation in the A=150 and A=190 regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, M. P.

    1998-01-01

    Superdeformation has been established for over a decade in the mass 150 region and nearly as long in the A=190 region. The first measurements directed at nuclei in these regions concentrated on mapping out the superdeformed (SD) islands by identifying SD rotational bands in γ-ray coincidence data. These early studies provided new insights into the physics of superdeformation, but also raised unexpected issues. The new gamma-ray arrays (Gammasphere, Eurogam/Euroball and Gasp) have provided a wealth of new data on properties of SD states in these two mass regions. This paper highlights some of the more recent results from the large arrays which have addressed the outstanding issues in the field, namely, ΔI = 4 staggering, identical bands, SD vibrational bands, and questions about the feeding into and the decay out of the SD well

  15. Description of superdeformed nuclear states in the interacting boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Zhao, E.; Liu, Y.; Song, J.; Liu, Y.; Sun, H.; Zhao, E.; Liu, Y.; Sun, H.

    1997-01-01

    We show in this paper that the superdeformed nuclear states can be described with a four parameter formula in the spirit of the perturbated SU(3) limit of the sdg IBM. The E2 transition γ-ray energies, the dynamical moments of inertia of the lowest superdeformed (SD) bands in even-even Hg, Pb, Gd, and Dy isotopes, and the energy differences ΔE γ -ΔE γ ref of the SD band 1 of 194 Hg are calculated. The calculated results agree with experimental data well. This indicates that the SD states are governed by a rotational interaction plus a perturbation with SO sdg (5) symmetry. The perturbation causing the ΔI=4 bifurcation to emerge in the ΔI=2 superdeformed rotational band may then possess SO sdg (5) symmetry. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  16. Superdeformation in the A=150 and A=190 regions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, M. P.

    1998-12-01

    Superdeformation has been established for over a decade in the mass 150 region and nearly as long in the A=190 region. The first measurements directed at nuclei in these regions concentrated on mapping out the superdeformed (SD) islands by identifying SD rotational bands in {gamma}-ray coincidence data. These early studies provided new insights into the physics of superdeformation, but also raised unexpected issues. The new gamma-ray arrays (Gammasphere, Eurogam/Euroball and Gasp) have provided a wealth of new data on properties of SD states in these two mass regions. This paper highlights some of the more recent results from the large arrays which have addressed the outstanding issues in the field, namely, {Delta}I = 4 staggering, identical bands, SD vibrational bands, and questions about the feeding into and the decay out of the SD well.

  17. Table of superdeformed nuclear bands and fission isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firestone, R.B.; Singh, B.

    1994-06-01

    A minimum in the second potential well of deformed nuclei was predicted and the associated shell gaps are illustrated in the harmonic oscillator potential shell energy surface calculations shown in this report. A strong superdeformed minimum in 152 Dy was predicted for β 2 -0.65. Subsequently, a discrete set of γ-ray transitions in 152 DY was observed and, assigned to the predicted superdeformed band. Extensive research at several laboratories has since focused on searching for other mass regions of large deformation. A new generation of γ-ray detector arrays is already producing a wealth of information about the mechanisms for feeding and deexciting superdeformed bands. These bands have been found in three distinct regions near A=l30, 150, and 190. This research extends upon previous work in the actinide region near A=240 where fission isomers were identified and also associated with the second potential well. Quadrupole moment measurements for selected cases in each mass region are consistent with assigning the bands to excitations in the second local minimum. As part of our committment to maintain nuclear structure data as current as possible in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Reference File (ENSDF) and the Table of Isotopes, we have updated the information on superdeformed nuclear bands. As of April 1994, we have complied data from 86 superdeformed bands and 46 fission isomers identified in 73 nuclides for this report. For each nuclide there is a complete level table listing both normal and superdeformed band assignments; level energy, spin, parity, half-life, magneto moments, decay branchings; and the energies, final levels, relative intensities, multipolarities, and mixing ratios for transitions deexciting each level. Mass excess, decay energies, and proton and neutron separation energies are also provided from the evaluation of Audi and Wapstra

  18. Table of superdeformed nuclear bands and fission isomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firestone, R.B. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Singh, B. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    1994-06-01

    A minimum in the second potential well of deformed nuclei was predicted and the associated shell gaps are illustrated in the harmonic oscillator potential shell energy surface calculations shown in this report. A strong superdeformed minimum in {sup 152}Dy was predicted for {beta}{sub 2}-0.65. Subsequently, a discrete set of {gamma}-ray transitions in {sup 152}DY was observed and, assigned to the predicted superdeformed band. Extensive research at several laboratories has since focused on searching for other mass regions of large deformation. A new generation of {gamma}-ray detector arrays is already producing a wealth of information about the mechanisms for feeding and deexciting superdeformed bands. These bands have been found in three distinct regions near A=l30, 150, and 190. This research extends upon previous work in the actinide region near A=240 where fission isomers were identified and also associated with the second potential well. Quadrupole moment measurements for selected cases in each mass region are consistent with assigning the bands to excitations in the second local minimum. As part of our committment to maintain nuclear structure data as current as possible in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Reference File (ENSDF) and the Table of Isotopes, we have updated the information on superdeformed nuclear bands. As of April 1994, we have complied data from 86 superdeformed bands and 46 fission isomers identified in 73 nuclides for this report. For each nuclide there is a complete level table listing both normal and superdeformed band assignments; level energy, spin, parity, half-life, magneto moments, decay branchings; and the energies, final levels, relative intensities, multipolarities, and mixing ratios for transitions deexciting each level. Mass excess, decay energies, and proton and neutron separation energies are also provided from the evaluation of Audi and Wapstra.

  19. Decay out of superdeformed bands in Tb isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrache, C.M.; Beck, F.A.; Flibotte, S.; France, G. de; Theisen, C.; Vivien, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Excited states in the 150,151,152 Tb isotopes have been investigated using the 130 Te( 27 Al, xn) reaction and the EUROGAM array. The theoretical interpretation of the level schemes has been performed in the framework of the deformed independent particle model. The feeding patterns of the normal-deformed states by the superdeformed bands in 150,151 Tb istopes have also been established. The results indicate that the decay-out mechanism of the bands is not of purely statistical nature, but depends on the configurations of both normal- and superdeformed states. (orig.)

  20. Double blocking in the superdeformed {sup 192}Tl nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Y; Carpenter, M P; Janssens, R V.F.; Ahmad, I; Henry, R; Khoo, T L; Lauritsen, T [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Soramel, F [Padova University, Padova (Italy); Pilotte, S [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada); Lewis, J M; Riedinger, L L; Yu, C H [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States); Garg, U; Reviol, W [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States); Bearden, I G [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States)

    1992-08-01

    Six superdeformed bands have been found in the nucleus {sup 192}Tl. For two of the bands, the dynamic moment of inertia J{sup (2)} is found to be constant with the rotational frequency {Dirac_h}{omega}. This result can be understood in terms of Pauli blocking of quasiparticle alignments in intruder orbitals, and represents the first experimental evidence that the alignment of these intruders is responsible for the smooth rise in J{sup (2)} seen in other superdeformed nuclei of this mass region. (author). 18 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Lifetimes of superdeformed states in {sup 194}Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willsau, P; Hubel, H [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik; Azaiez, F; Deleplanque, M A; Diamond, R M; Korten, W; Macchiavelli, A O; Stephens, F S [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Kluge, H [Hahn-Meitner-Institut fuer Kernforschung Berlin G.m.b.H. (Germany); Hannachi, F [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse; Bacelar, J C [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, Zernikelaan 25 (Netherlands); Becker, J A; Brinkman, M J; Henry, E A; Kuhnert, A; Wang, T F [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Draper, J A; Rubel, E [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States)

    1992-08-01

    Lifetimes of superdeformed states in {sup 194}Pb were measured by the Doppler-shift attenuation method. Quadrupole moments around 20 eb, that are constant over the observed frequency range, are derived. The results rule out large centrifugal stretching effects. 7 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  2. Deexcitation of superdeformed bands in the nucleus Tb-151

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finck, C; Appelbe, D; Beck, FA; Byrski, T; Cullen, D; Curien, D; deFrance, G; Duchene, G; Erturk, S; Haas, B; Khadiri, N; Kharraja, B; Prevost, D; Rigollet, C; Stezowski, O; Twin, P; Vivien, JP; Zuber, K

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this work is to get more informations about the decay-out of superdeformed bands. One of the best candidates in the mass A similar or equal to 150 region for that kind of research is the nucleus Tb-151. From previous works, it has been established that the first excited band goes lower in

  3. Vortex excitations and identical superdeformed bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddington, J C; Bhaduri, R K [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics

    1992-08-01

    Striking relationships exist amongst the transition energies of the identical superdeformed bands (SDB). In this paper, the authors suggest that all of these bands in both the mass 150 and mass 190 regions can be explained as excitations of the specially stable doubly closed shell {sup 152}Dy. Typical of these bands is the case of {sup 153}Dy. Two excited SDB`s were observe which not only have a moment of inertia identical to that of {sup 152}Dy, but the transition energies are shifted by exactly {+-}1/4 of a rotational spacing. It is as though the spin 1/2 of the last neutron had been added directly to the angular momentum of the core, but the mass of this last particle had not contributed to the moment of inertia. The possibility is being investigated that the identical SDBs arise from an equivalent picture under the strong rotation of the specially stable {sup 152}Dy. The rotation renders the 3-dimensional space topologically nontrivial. The moment of inertia of {sup 192}Hg extrapolated to zero spin is identical to that of {sup 152}Dy at high spin. This suggests that a superfluid is formed as particles are added to {sup 152}Dy to make {sup 192}Hg. It is proposed that as the rotational frequency of {sup 192}Hg is increased, quantized vortices are formed, like vortices in superfluid {sup 4}He. These vortices lead to an additional alignment in{sup 192}Hg relative to the {sup 152} core, increasing as I{sup 2}, reaching a value of 4{Dirac_h} at I = 48. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Entrance-channel effects in the population of superdeformed bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G.; Haas, B.; Alderson, A.; Ali, I.; Beausang, C.W.; Bentley, M.A.; Dagnall, P.; Fallon, P.; de France, G.; Forsyth, P.D.; Huttmeier, U.; Romain, P.; Santos, D.; Twin, P.J.; Vivien, J.P. (Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom) Centre de Recherches Nucleaires, F-67037 Strasbourg CEDEX (France) Sciences and Engineering Research Council, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA44AD (United Kingdom))

    1992-01-13

    In order to investigate whether entrance-channel effects influence the production of superdeformed nuclei, we have measured the yield of the yrast superdeformed band in {sup 152}Dy populated via nearly mass-symmetric ({sup 82}Se+{sup 74}Ge) and mass-asymmetric ({sup 48}Ca+{sup 108}Pd, {sup 36}S+{sup 120}Sn) fusion reactions leading to the same compound nucleus at similar excitation energies and angular momenta. Large differences in the relative intensity of the band compared with the total yield of the nucleus are observed in the various reactions. This effect indicates that the competition between fission and neutron evaporation is affected by the mode of formation of the fusing system.

  5. Microscopic study of superdeformed rotational bands in {sup 151} Tb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Aouad, N.; Dudek, J.; Li, X.; Luo, W.D.; Molique, H.; Bouguettoucha, A.; Byrski, TH.; Beck, F.; Finck, C.; Kharraja, B. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Dobaczewski, J. [Warsaw Univ. (Poland); Kharraja, B. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Structure of eight superdeformed bands in the nucleus {sup 151}Tb is analyzed using the results of the Hartree-Fock and Woods-Saxon cranking approaches. It is demonstrated that far going similarities between the two approaches exit and predictions related to the structure of rotational bands calculated within the two models are nearly parallel. An interpretation scenario for the structure of the superdeformed bands is presented and predictions related to the exit spins are made. Small but systematic discrepancies between experiment and theory, analyzed in terms of the dynamical moments, J{sup (2)}, are shown to exist. The pairing correlations taken into account by using the particle-number-projection technique are shown to increase the disagreement. Sources of these systematic discrepancies are discussed - they are most likely related to the yet not optimal parametrization of the nuclear interactions used. (authors). 60 refs.

  6. Systematic description of superdeformed bands in the mass-190 region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yang; Guidry, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Zhang, Jing-ye [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Superdeformed bands for the mass-190 region are described by the Projected Shell Model. Even-even, odd mass and odd-odd nuclei are equally well described. Good agreement with available data for all isotopes studied is obtained. The authors calculation of electromagnetic properties and pairing correlations provides an understanding of the observed gradual increase of dynamical moments of inertia with angular momentum observed in many bands in this mass region.

  7. Quadrupole moment of the superdeformed band in 131Ce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Y.; Godfrey, M.J.; Jenkins, I.; Kirwan, A.J.; Nolan, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    A mean lifetime measurement has been carried out on the states in the superdeformed band found in 131 Ce using the Doppler shift attenuation method (DSAM). The measured intrinsic nuclear quadrupole moment is Q o approx= 6 eb, assuming constant deformation, which corresponds to a quadrupole deformation β 2 approx= 0.35. This is considerably smaller than the value deduced for 132 Ce. (author)

  8. Search for superdeformation in {sup 144,145}Gd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rzaca-Urban, T [Warsaw Univ. (Poland); Lieder, R M; Strahle, K; Utzelmann, S; Gast, W; Kutchin, D; Schnare, H [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Georgiev, A [Sofia Univ. (Bulgaria); Marti, G [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Dept. de Fisica; Spohr, K [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany); Brentano, P; Eberth, J; Eschenauer, M; Freund, S; Ott, E; Theuerkauf, J; Wolters, H; Zell, K O [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Maier, K H; Grave, H; Bach, C; Heese, J; Kluge, H; Schramm, M; Schubarth, R [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany)

    1992-08-01

    Two experiments were performed and analyzed to search for superdeformation band in {sup 144,145}Gd by bombarding {sup 108,110}Pd targets with {sup 40A}r ions with energies of 182 and 189 MeV respectively, at the VICKSI accelerator of the Hahn-Meitner Institut, Berlin. The gamma radiation was measured with the OSIRIS spectrometer. An extended level system was proposed. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Pairing field and moments of inertia of superdeformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yongjing; Chen Yongshou; Xu Fuxin

    2002-01-01

    The authors have systematically analysed the dynamic moments of inertia of the experimental superdeformed (SD) bands observed in the A = 190, 150 and 60-80 mass regions as functions of rotational frequency. By combining the different mass regions, the dramatic features of the dynamic moments of inertia were found and explained based on the calculations of the pairing fields of SD nuclei with the anisotropic harmonic oscillator quadrupole pairing Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov model

  10. Coexistence of cluster structure and superdeformation in 44Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Masaaki; Horiuchi, Hisashi

    2006-01-01

    The nucleus 44 Ti has low-lying levels of various kinds of mutually very different nuclear structure displaying the richness of the nuclear many-body dynamics. It is shown that the deformed-basis antisymmetrized molecular dynamics by the use of the Gogny D1S force reproduces successfully and unifiedly two types of coexistence phenomena in 44 Ti. Namely, on one hand, the coexistence of the mean-field structure and the cluster structure is confirmed by verifying the normally deformed structure of the K π =3 1 - band with a 1-particle-1-hole intrinsic configuration and the α+Ca40 cluster structure of the K π =0 2 - band. The mixed character of the mean-field-like structure and the α+Ca40 cluster structure of the ground band is also shown. On the other hand, the coexistence of the normal deformed mean-field and the superdeformed mean-field is confirmed by verifying the triaxial superdeformation of the K π =0 2 + band and the K π =2 1 + band which has a 4-particle-4-hole intrinsic configuration. Good reproduction of the experimental data is shown for many kinds of quantities including the energy spectra, electric transition rates, alpha spectroscopic factors. Preliminary discussions are given on the existence of hyperdeformed excited states, the relation between superdeformation and clustering and so on

  11. Coexistence of cluster structure and superdeformation in {sup 44}Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Masaaki [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)]. E-mail: masaaki@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Horiuchi, Hisashi [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2006-03-06

    The nucleus {sup 44}Ti has low-lying levels of various kinds of mutually very different nuclear structure displaying the richness of the nuclear many-body dynamics. It is shown that the deformed-basis antisymmetrized molecular dynamics by the use of the Gogny D1S force reproduces successfully and unifiedly two types of coexistence phenomena in {sup 44}Ti. Namely, on one hand, the coexistence of the mean-field structure and the cluster structure is confirmed by verifying the normally deformed structure of the K{sup {pi}}=3{sub 1}{sup -} band with a 1-particle-1-hole intrinsic configuration and the {alpha}+Ca40 cluster structure of the K{sup {pi}}=0{sub 2}{sup -} band. The mixed character of the mean-field-like structure and the {alpha}+Ca40 cluster structure of the ground band is also shown. On the other hand, the coexistence of the normal deformed mean-field and the superdeformed mean-field is confirmed by verifying the triaxial superdeformation of the K{sup {pi}}=0{sub 2}{sup +} band and the K{sup {pi}}=2{sub 1}{sup +} band which has a 4-particle-4-hole intrinsic configuration. Good reproduction of the experimental data is shown for many kinds of quantities including the energy spectra, electric transition rates, alpha spectroscopic factors. Preliminary discussions are given on the existence of hyperdeformed excited states, the relation between superdeformation and clustering and so on.

  12. Towards superdeformation in the quasicontinuum: microscopic view of the excited superdeformed bands and the corresponding level densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, T.R.; Dudek, J.

    1991-01-01

    Microscopic calculations of both the normal and the superdeformed rotational bands have been performed for a number of Rare Earth nuclei. The 'universal' Woods-Saxon potential and the extended Strutinsky method have been used. Excited bands up to a prescribed energy limit E * (usually 2.5 to 3.5 MeV) have been calculated individually by minimizing the corresponding nuclear energies over the quadrupole and hexadecapole deformations. This turns out to be essential, when comparing with experimental results for the known discrete bands. An important influence of the superdeformed neutron (N = 86) shell closure on the microscopically calculated rotational-level densities is illustrated and discussed. (author) 11 refs., 4 figs

  13. Exotic superdeformed structure in A∼190 nuclei observed using Eurogam2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, A.N.; Timar, J.; Bergstroem, M.; Paul, E.S.; Bouneau, S.; Azaiez, F.; Korichi, A.; Nakatsukasa, T.

    1995-01-01

    Dipole transitions between superdeformed rotational bands are only very rarely observed due to the competition from the very strong in-band E2 decays. We have carried out two experiments with the EUROGAM2 γ-ray spectrometer, situated at the Vivitron tandem accelerator at CRN Strasbourg, in September and October 1994. In the first experiment we observe M1 dipole transitions between the signature partner yrast superdeformed bands in 193 Tl. This measurement gives a mean value of (g K -g R ) K/Q o = 0.135 ± 0.010 μ N /eb identifying the bands as belonging to the (642)5/2 single particle orbital. We also observe 5 additional new superdeformed bands in 193 Tl, whose structures are discussed. In the second experiment we observe three transitions, at 911, 865 and 831 keV, which link an excited superdeformed band in 190 Hg to the yrast superdeformed band. The data suggest that these are stretched dipole transitions with E1 multipolarity and strengths of about 10 -3 Wu. This is the first observation of a collective vibration of the superdeformed mean field. We also observe two new superdeformed bands in 190 Hg. (authors). 39 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Search for superdeformed bands in {sup 154}Dy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisius, D.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Khoo, T.L. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The island of superdeformation in the vicinity of the doubly magic {sup 152}Dy yrast superdeformed (SD) band is thought to be well understood in the framework of cranked mean field calculations. In particular, the calculations suggested that in {sup 154}Dy there should be no yrast or near yrast SD minimum in the 40-60 h spin range, where SD bands in this mass region are thought to be {sup 153}Dy nucleus, it is populated. However, with the presence of five SD bands in the neighboring necessary to ascertain if the addition of one single neutron diminishes the importance of shell effects to the extent that superdeformation can no longer be sustained. In an experiment utilizing the increased resolving power of the early implementation phase of Gammasphere, the reaction {sup 122}Sn({sup 36}S,4n) at 165 MeV was employed to populate high spin states in {sup 154}Dy. In a four-day run with 36 detectors, over one billion triple and higher fold coincidence events were recorded. One new SD band was identified and was assigned to {sup 154}Dy. From comparisons with the Im{sup (2)} moments of inertia of the SD bands in {sup 152}Dy and {sup 153}Dy, a configuration based on (514)9/2{sup 2} neutrons coupled to the {sup 152}Dy SD core was proposed. One unexpected and as yet unexplained feature of this new SD band is that the transition energies are almost identical to those of an excited SD band in {sup 153}Dy. It is also worth noting that the feeding of the yrast states is similar to that achieved by the deexcitation from the ensemble of all entry states in the reaction. This observation emphasizes the statistical nature of the decay-out process. A paper reporting these results was accepted for publication.

  15. Accurate calculation of superdeformed bands in Hg and Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Yian; Zeng Jinyan

    1993-01-01

    The superdeformed (SD) rotational bands in Hg and Pb are analyzed by means of the abc expression for rotational bands, which was derived from the Bohr Hamiltonian. The agreement between calculated and observed transition energies is incredibly well. The deviation of the calculated E' γ s from the observed results turns out to be absolute value δ ≤0.5 keV (except for a few cases, 0.5 kev ≤ absolute value δ ≤ 0.7 keV). Some transitions which have not been observed yet in these SD bands are also predicted, which may be useful for experimental investigation

  16. Superdeformation- present status and some new universal features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, A.K.; Jain, S.R.

    1995-01-01

    The present status of understanding of superdeformed (SD) bands has been presented. The puzzles raised by the experimental data have been highlighted. Besides the well known problems related to feeding and depopulation, moment of inertia and identical bands, we have also pointed out the existence of a weak oscillation in the I vs. E γ plots, the negative value for the net alignment in many SD bands and the general identical band pattern found in each mass region. Theoretical explanation for many of these features have been suggested individually but there is no single theoretical framework which would be able to explain all the features together. (author). 32 refs

  17. Multiple superdeformed bands in Sr, Y, and Zr nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reviol, W.; Sarantites, D.G.; Lerma, F.; Devlin, M.; LaFosse, D.R.; Chiara, C.J.; Wyss, R.; Baktash, C.; Jin, H.-Q.; Tabor, S.L.; Soltysik, D.; Clark, R.M.; Lee, I.Y.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; MacLeod, R.W.

    2003-01-01

    Multiple superdeformed bands in the nuclei 80-83Sr, 82-84Y, and 83,84Zr have been studied in a backed-target experiment using the Gammasphere and Microball detector arrays. For 15 bands in these nuclei, average transition quadrupole moments (Qt) have been measured accurately. Among those are two pairs of 'isospectral' bands and the Qt values obtained in each case are nearly identical. The measured Qt values and dynamical moments of inertia place stringent conditions on configuration assignments for the bands obtained from mean field calculations

  18. Superdeformation in the A = 190 region. The lead nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, E A; Becker, J A; Brinkman, M J; Kuhnert, A; Stoyer, M A; Wang, T F; Yates, S W [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Azaiez, F A; Beausang, C W; Burde, J; Deleplanque, M A; Diamond, R M; Draper, J E; Kelly, W H; Korton, W; Macchiavelli, A O; Oliveira, J; Rubel, E; Stephens, F S [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Cizewski, J A [Rutgers--the State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    1992-08-01

    Superdeformed (SD) bands have been identified in the four even-even lead nuclei {sup 192}Pb, {sup 194}Pb, {sup 196}Pb, and {sup 198}Pb. The discovery of SD bands in these nuclei extended the region of superdeformation in the A = 190 region to Z = 82, and to neutron numbers up to N = 116. All of the SD bands in these nuclei are observed with transition energies ranging from about 250 keV to about 600 keV, with the lowest energy SD band transition for the entire region of 169 keV in {sup 194}Pb. The spins deduced for the lowest levels in the SD bands are 6, 8, and 12 for {sup 192,194,196,198}Pb, respectively. The dynamic moments of inertia of {sup 192}Pb and {sup 194}Pb are similar to each other, and to those of many other SD bands in this mass region. The dynamic moments of inertia of {sup 1}`9{sup 6}Pb and {sup 198}Pb are somewhat lower than those of {sup 192,194}Pb at a given frequency. The experimental lifetimes in {sup 194}Pb and the deduced transition quadrupole moments (Qt {approx} 20 eb) are equal to those of other nuclei in the region within errors. While SD bands have been observed in the odd-neutron Hg and Tl nuclei, SD bands have not been reported for the odd-neutron Pb nuclei. In this contribution we discuss briefly three topics on superdeformation in the lead nuclei. First, we have recent experimental data on {sup 196}Pb that extends our knowledge of the SD band in that nucleus. Next we review briefly the population of low-lying yrast levels from the decay of the SD bands in {sup 192,194,196}Pb. Finally, we summarize our efforts to identify superdeformation in the odd-A Pb nuclei. All of the experiments described here were performed using the HERA spectrometer at the 88-Inch Cyclotron facility located at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. (author) 9 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Multi-particle excitations in the superdeformed {sup 149}Gd nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flibotte, S. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires]|[Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster, University, Hamilton ON L8S 4M1 (Canada)]|[AECL Research, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River ON K0J 1J0 (Canada); Hackman, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster, University, Hamilton ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Ragnarsson, I. [Department of Mathematical Physics, Lund institute of Technology, Box 118 S-221, Lund (Sweden); Theisen, C. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Andrews, H.R. [AECL Research, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River ON K0J 1J0 (Canada); Ball, G.C. [AECL Research, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River ON K0J 1J0 (Canada); Beausang, C.W. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom); Beck, F.A. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Belier, G. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Bentley, M.A. [Staffordshire University, Stoke on Trent (United Kingdom); Byrski, T. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Curien, D. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; France, G. de [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Disdier, D. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Duchene, G. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Haas, B. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Haslip, D.S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster, University, Hamilton ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Janzen, V.P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster, University, Hamilton ON L8S 4M1 (Canada)]|[AECL Research, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River ON K0J 1J0 (Canada); Jones, P.M. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom); Kharraja, B.

    1995-02-20

    Six rotational bands built on superdeformed intrinsic configurations have been observed in the {sup 149}Gd nucleus with the Eurogam spectrometer. Orbital configuration assignments have been suggested on the basis of their effective alignments calculated with the Nilsson-Strutinsky cranking model. Most of the excited bands have identical partners in neighboring nuclei including one case differing by four mass units. Measurements of feeding patterns indicate that the {sup 149}Gd yrast superdeformed band is fed over a wider range of angular momentum than other yrast superdeformed bands in this mass region whereas weaker excited bands in the same nucleus are populated in narrower spin windows. ((orig.))

  20. Superdeformed bands in 64147Gd83, a possible test of the existence of octupole correlations in superdeformed bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuber, K.; Balouka, D.; Beck, F.A.; Byrski, T.; Curien, D.; Duchene, G.; Gehringer, C.; Haas, B.; Merdinger, J.C.; Romain, P.; Santos, D.; Styczen, J.; Vivien, J.P.; Dudek, J.; Szymanski, Z.; Werner, T.

    1990-01-01

    Two discrete superdeformed bands (SD) have been identified in the nucleus 147 Gd. The transitions energies of the SD yrast band lie halfway between the γ-ray energies of the yrast SD band in 146 Gd while the transition energies of the excited band lie half way between the transition energies of the yrast SD band in 148 Gd. These two bands are shown to exhibit the presence of the pseudo SU(3) symmetry and also indicate the possible existence of octupole correlations at large elongations and high spins. (orig.)

  1. Decay from the superdeformed bands in 194Hg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, R.G.; Khoo, T.L.; Carpenter, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    Superdeformed bands in 194 H g were studied using the early implementation of Gammasphere. The response functions for the Ge detectors were measured for the first time as part of this experiment. Experiments were performed with both a backed target (where the residue stopped in the Au backing) and a thin target (where the residue recoiled into vacuum). This will permit measurements of the decay times of the quasicontinuum γrays. The spectrum in coincidence with the yrast SD band in 194 Hg reveals the same features as found in the quasicontinuum structure in 192 Hg. These features include: statistical γrays feeding the SD band, a pronounced E2 peak from transitions feeding the SD band, a Ml/E2 bump at low energies that is associated with the last stages of feeding of the superdeformed band, and a quasicontinuous distribution from γrays linking SD and normal states, including a sizable clustering of strength around 1.7 MeV. The remarkable similarity of the spectra coincident with SD bands in 192,194 Hg provides additional support for a statistical process for decay out of the SD states. This similarity contrasts with differences observed in the spectrum coincident with the SD band in the odd-even 191 Hg, confirming the predictions about the role of pairing (in normal states) in influencing the shape of the decay-out spectrum

  2. Transition quadrupole moments in the superdeformed band of 40Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiara, C.J.; Ideguchi, E.; Devlin, M.; LaFosse, D.R.; Lerma, F.; Reviol, W.; Ryu, S.K.; Sarantites, D.G.; Baktash, C.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C.J.; Reiter, P.; Seweryniak, D.; Fallon, P.; Goergen, A.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Rudolph, D.

    2003-01-01

    The transition quadrupole moments Q t for the superdeformed band in 40 Ca have been determined through thin-target Doppler-shift attenuation analyses. A best-fit value of Q t =1.30±0.05 e b is obtained when a single value is assumed for the entire band. Fitting separate quadrupole moments for in-band transitions decaying from the high-spin states and the presumably admixed low-spin states results in Q t (high)=1.81 -0.26 +0.41 e b and Q t (low)=1.18 -0.05 +0.06 e b, respectively. Q t values extracted for individual transitions in a Doppler-broadened line-shape analysis also indicate smaller Q t values at lower spins. These results are consistent with the interpretation of this band as an eight-particle-eight-hole superdeformed band with a significant admixture of less-collective configurations at low spins

  3. Pair correlation of super-deformed rotation band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Yoshio

    1989-01-01

    The effect of pair correlation, one of the most important residual interactions associated with the super-deformed rotation band, is discussed in terms of the characteristics of the rotation band (its effect on the moment of inertia in particular), and the tunneling into an normal deformed state in relation to its effect on the angular momentum dependence of the potential energy plane as a function of the deformation. The characteristics of the rotation band is discussed in terms of the kinematic and dynamic momenta of inertia. It is shown that the pair correlation in a super-deformed rotation band acts to decrease the former and increase the latter momentum mainly due to dynamic pair correlation. A theoretical approach that takes this effect into account can provide results that are consistent with measured momenta, although large differences can occur in some cases. Major conflicts include a large measured kinetic momentum of inertia compared to the theoretical value, and the absence of the abnormality (shape increase) generally seen in low-spin experiments. The former seems likely to be associated with the method of measuring the angular momentum. (N.K.)

  4. Decay from the superdeformed bands in {sup 194}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, R.G.; Khoo, T.L.; Carpenter, M.P. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Superdeformed bands in {sup 194}H g were studied using the early implementation of Gammasphere. The response functions for the Ge detectors were measured for the first time as part of this experiment. Experiments were performed with both a backed target (where the residue stopped in the Au backing) and a thin target (where the residue recoiled into vacuum). This will permit measurements of the decay times of the quasicontinuum {gamma}rays. The spectrum in coincidence with the yrast SD band in {sup 194}Hg reveals the same features as found in the quasicontinuum structure in {sup 192}Hg. These features include: statistical {gamma}rays feeding the SD band, a pronounced E2 peak from transitions feeding the SD band, a Ml/E2 bump at low energies that is associated with the last stages of feeding of the superdeformed band, and a quasicontinuous distribution from {gamma}rays linking SD and normal states, including a sizable clustering of strength around 1.7 MeV. The remarkable similarity of the spectra coincident with SD bands in {sup 192,194}Hg provides additional support for a statistical process for decay out of the SD states. This similarity contrasts with differences observed in the spectrum coincident with the SD band in the odd-even {sup 191}Hg, confirming the predictions about the role of pairing (in normal states) in influencing the shape of the decay-out spectrum.

  5. Super rigid nature of super-deformed bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Neha; Mittal, H.M.; Jain, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of high-spin super-deformation represents one of the most remarkable discoveries in nuclear physics. A large number of SD bands have been observed in A = 60, 80, 130, 150, 190 mass regions. The cascades of SD bands are known to be connected by electric quadruple E2 transitions. Because of absence of linking transitions between superdeformed (SD) and normal deformed (ND) levels, the spin assignments of most of these bands carry a minimum uncertainty ≈ 1-2ħ. It was found in an analysis of SD bands in the context of semi classical approach that moment of inertia comes close to the rigid body value in most of the cases. Lack of knowledge of spins has led to an emphasis on the study of dynamical moment of inertia of SD bands and systematic of kinematic moment of inertia has not been examined so far. In this paper, we extract the band moment of inertia J 0 and softness parameter (σ) of all the SD bands corresponding to axes ratio (x) = 1.5 and present their systematic

  6. Intensity profiles of superdeformed bands in Pb isotopes in a two-level mixing model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, A. N.; Szigeti, S. S.; Rogers, J. I.; Davidson, P. M.; Cardamone, D. M.

    2009-01-01

    A recently developed two-level mixing model of the decay out of superdeformed bands is applied to examine the loss of flux from the yrast superdeformed bands in 192 Pb, 194 Pb, and 196 Pb. Probability distributions for decay to states at normal deformations are calculated at each level. The sensitivity of the results to parameters describing the levels at normal deformation and their coupling to levels in the superdeformed well is explored. It is found that except for narrow ranges of the interaction strength coupling the states, the amount of intensity lost is primarily determined by the ratio of γ decay widths in the normal and superdeformed wells. It is also found that while the model can accommodate the observed fractional intensity loss profiles for decay from bands at relatively high excitation, it cannot accommodate the similarly abrupt decay from bands at lower energies if standard estimates of the properties of the states in the first minimum are employed

  7. Entrance-channel effects in the population of superdeformed bands in sup 147,148 Gd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flibotte, S.; Andrews, H.R.; Drake, T.E.; Galindro-Uribarri, A.; Haas, B.; Janzen, V.P.; Prevost, D.; Radford, D.C.; Rodriguez, J.; Romain, P.; Vivien, J.P.; Waddington, J.C.; Ward, D.; Zwartz, G. (Centre de Recherches Nucleaires, F-67037 Strasbourg CEDEX (France) AECL Research, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada) Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A7 (Canada) Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4K1 (Canada))

    1992-03-01

    Discrete superdeformed bands in {sup 147,148}Gd have been populated with asymmetric and symmetric fusion-evaporation reactions. The yields of the superdeformed bands compared with the total yield of the channel exhibit a large increase for symmetric reactions. We suggest an explanation for this effect in terms of the competition between neutron emission and fission at the early stage of the deexcitation process of the composite system.

  8. Entrance-channel effects in the population of superdeformed bands in 147,148Gd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flibotte, S.; Andrews, H.R.; Drake, T.E.; Galindro-Uribarri, A.; Haas, B.; Janzen, V.P.; Prevost, D.; Radford, D.C.; Rodriguez, J.; Romain, P.; Vivien, J.P.; Waddington, J.C.; Ward, D.; Zwartz, G.

    1992-01-01

    Discrete superdeformed bands in 147,148 Gd have been populated with asymmetric and symmetric fusion-evaporation reactions. The yields of the superdeformed bands compared with the total yield of the channel exhibit a large increase for symmetric reactions. We suggest an explanation for this effect in terms of the competition between neutron emission and fission at the early stage of the deexcitation process of the composite system

  9. Comparison between the harris and ab expressions for the description of nuclear superdeformed rotational bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Zuoxian; Zeng Jinyan

    1998-01-01

    The superdeformed rotational bands in the A ≅3D 190 region are systematically analyzed using the Harris two-parameter formula and the ab expression, respectively. Similar to the situations in normally deformed nuclei, there exist obvious and systematic deviation of Harris formula from the experiments. In contrast, the prediction of ab formula is very close to experiments, and can be conveniently used for the description of nuclear superdeformed bands

  10. Description of the turnover of the dynamical moment of inertia of the superdeformed nuclear state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuxin Liu; Jiangang Song; Hong-zhou Sun; Jia-jun Wang; En-guang Zhao

    1998-01-01

    We propose in this paper an approach to describe the dynamical moment of inertia of superdeformed nuclear states in the spirit of variable moments of inertia. Both the general changing feature and the turnover of dynamical moments of inertia with rotational frequency are well described in our approach. It indicates that the competition between the angular momentum driving effect and the restraining effect plays a crucial role in determining the dynamical moments of inertia of superdeformed nuclear states. (author)

  11. Multiparticle excitations and identical bands in the superdeformed 149Gd nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flibotte, S.; Hackman, G.; Theisen, C.; Andrews, H.R.; Ball, G.C.; Beausang, C.W.; Beck, F.A.; Belier, G.; Bentley, M.A.; Byrski, T.; Curien, D.; de France, G.; Disdier, D.; Duchene, G.; Fallon, P.; Haas, B.; Janzen, V.P.; Jones, P.M.; Kharraja, B.; Kuehner, J.A.; Lisle, J.C.; Merdinger, J.C.; Mullins, S.M.; Paul, E.S.; Prevost, D.; Radford, D.C.; Rauch, V.; Smith, J.F.; Styczen, J.; Twin, P.J.; Vivien, J.P.; Waddington, J.C.; Ward, D.; Zuber, K.

    1993-01-01

    Eight superdeformed rotational bands have been observed in the 149 Gd nucleus. Several excited bands have partners in neighboring nuclei which differ by up to four nucleons, with nearly identical dynamic moments of inertia and quantized γ-ray phasing. These observations cannot be easily explained by theoretical models including an intrinsic scaling with mass of the moment of inertia. A paired backbend and an interaction due to an accidental degeneracy between two superdeformed levels have also been observed

  12. Excitation Energies of Superdeformed States in 196Pb: Towards a Systematic Study of the Second Well in Pb Isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, A.N.; Singh, A.K.; Huebel, H.; Rossbach, D.; Schonwasser, G.; Davidson, P.M.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Lane, G.J.; Goergen, A.; Korichi, A.; Hannachi, F.; Lopez-Martens, A.; Astier, A.; Azaiez, F.; Bourgeois, C.; Bazzacco, D.; Kroell, T.; Rossi-Alvarez, C.; Buforn, N.; Redon, N.

    2005-01-01

    The excitation energy of the lowest-energy superdeformed band in 196 Pb is established using the techniques of time-correlated γ-ray spectroscopy. Together with previous measurements on 192 Pb and 194 Pb, this result allows superdeformed excitation energies, binding energies, and two-proton and two-neutron separation energies to be studied systematically, providing stringent tests for current nuclear models. The results are examined for evidence of a 'superdeformed shell gap'

  13. Superdeformed bands in Hg and Tl nuclei for N≤112

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, M.P.; Jannsens, R.V.F.; Liang, Y.; Ahmad, I.; Henry, R.; Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T.; Soramel, F.; Lewis, J.M.; Riedinger, L.L.; Yu, C.H.; Garg, U.; Reviol, W.; Pilotte, S.; Bearden, I.G.; Daly, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    The study of superdeformed (SD) nuclei in the A ∼ 190 region has provided a wealth of new information on SD states at moderate to high spins (I ∼ 10 to 50 h). The dynamical moment of inertia for almost all of the SD bands reported on to date in this mass region display a similar behavior, i.e. a smooth increase with increasing rotational frequency. This increase has been attributed to both quasiparticle alignments and a decrease in pairing with increasing rotational frequency. However, standard mean-field calculations have problems reproducing the magnitude and extent of the rise. The authors' recent results on SD states in the Hg-Tl nuclei at and below the N = 112 SD-gap add support to this interpretation of the rise in the dynamical moment of inertia while at the same time showing more clearly the inadequacies of the previous theoretical calculations

  14. Assignment of Nilsson orbitals at superdeformation - identical bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragnarsson, I [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematical Physics

    1992-08-01

    The relative transition energies of superdeformed rotational bands are used to extract ``effective alignments`` of the valence particles. It is found that the effective alignments give a direct picture of the Nilsson orbitals which are active in {sup 146-150}Gd, i.e., especially the orbitals [651 1/2] and [642 5/2], and that all bands observed in these nuclei can be understood within one consistent scheme. The experimental features are reproduced in calculations using the Nilsson-Strutinsky cranking model. The nearly identical transition energies seen in neighboring odd-proton and even-proton nuclei in the Dy/Tb/Gd region are investigated using the same formalism. Again, a consistent picture seems to emerge where, as suggested previously, the nucleus with a hole in the [301 1/2] Nilsson orbital and the corresponding core nucleus have calculated transition energies which are almost identical over a large range in spin. 2 refs., figs.

  15. Decay out of the superdeformed band in {sup 143}Eu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atac, A; Piiparinen, M; Herskind, B [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark); and others

    1992-08-01

    The connection between the super-deformed (SD) and normal-deformed (ND) states had not been observed, owing its difficulty to a statistical, highly fragmented decay path out of the SD bands. This left both the spin and the excitation energy of the SD bands undetermined. In this paper, the authors present results of a new experimental approach, where they take advantage of triple and higher-fold coincidences to study the decay-out of a SD band. They carried out an experiment at the Niels Bohr Institute Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, where they used the (160 MeV) {sup 37}Cl + {sup 110}Pd {yields} {sup 143}Eu + 4n reaction. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Microscopic study of superdeformation in the A = 150 mass region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigollet, C.; Gall, B. [CNRS, Strasbourg (France); Bonche, P. [CEN Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The authors are presently investigating the properties of superdeformed (SD) nuclear states in the A=150 mass region. For that purpose, they use the cranked HFB method in which pairing correlations are treated dynamically by means of the Lipkin-Nogami prescription. Their goal is to take advantage of the large amount of experimental data to test the predictive power of their microscopic approach and of the effective interaction. In the present communication, they focus on {sup 152}Dy and {sup 153}Dy for which there are recent experimental data. In particular lifetime measurements have allowed to extract electric quadrupole moments. The new Skyrme effective force SLy4 is used to describe the nucleon-nucleon interaction, while for the pairing channel the authors use a density-dependent zero-range interaction.

  17. l-dependent potential barriers and superdeformed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gherghescu, R.A.; Royer, G.

    1999-01-01

    The macroscopic-microscopic energy of rotating nuclei moving in the fusion-like deformation valley has been determined within a generalized liquid drop model including the nuclear proximity energy, the two-center shell model and the Strutinsky method. The l-dependent potential barriers of the 84 Zr, 132 Ce, 152 Dy and 192 Hg nuclei have been determined. A first minimum having a pure microscopic origin and lodging the normally deformed states, progressively disappears with increasing angular momenta. The microscopic and macroscopic energies contribute to generate a second minimum where superdeformed states may survive. It becomes progressively the lowest one at intermediate spins. At still higher angular momenta, the minimum moves towards the foot of the external fission barrier leading to macroscopic hyper-deformed quasi-molecular states. (authors)

  18. Lifetimes of an excited superdeformed band in {sup 192}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, I.; Blumenthal, D.; Carpenter, M.P. [and others

    1995-08-01

    An excited superdeformed band was identified in {sup 192}Hg and the lifetimes of its levels measured with the Doppler-shift attenuation method from data taken with the Eurogam spectrometer. The band is proposed to be based on the two-quasineutron (v[642]3/2 [512]5/2) configuration, which after a band crossing, becomes the (v[642]3/2 [752]5/2) configuration. The transition quadrupole moment Q{sub t} of the excited band is the same as that of the yrast SD band, within experimental errors. This suggests that the deformation of the SD minimum is robust with respect to quasiparticle excitation, despite the occupation of the deformation-driving v[752]5/2 level (from the j{sub 15/2} shell) after the band crossing.

  19. Search for excited superdeformed bands in {sup 151}Dy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisius, D.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Crowell, B. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Following the first report of superdeformed (SD) bands with identical transition energies in the pairs ({sup 151}Tb*,{sup 152}Dy), ({sup 150}Gd*, {sup 151}Tb) and ({sup 153}Dy*, {sup 152}Dy) (where * denotes an excited SD band), it was proposed by Nazarewicz et al. that the observations could be understood in a strong-coupling approach if pseudo SU(3) symmetry were invoked. In this model there are three limiting values of the decoupling parameter; i.e. a = 0, {plus_minus}1. In the first two cases mentioned above the pairs of bands have nearly identical transition energies and are interpreted as proton excitations involving the [200]1/2 pseudospin orbital coupled to the {sup 152}Dy core, for which the value of the decoupling parameter is calculated to be a =+1.

  20. New features of superdeformed bands in 194Hg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, R.V.F.; Ahmad, I.; Carpenter, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    A striking difference between superdeformed (SD) nuclei near A = 190 and those in the other regions is the behavior of the dynamic moment of inertia (lm) with the rotational frequency hω. While the (lm) patterns of the SD bands near A = 130 and A = 150 show pronounced variations, the majority of the SD bands near A = 190 display the same large, smooth increase of (lm) within the frequency range 0.15 194 Hg were populated with the reaction 150 Nd( 48 Ca,4n) 194 Hg at a beam energy of 206 MeV. The gamma rays emitted in the reaction were detected with the Gammasphere detector array (32 detectors for this experiment)

  1. Detailed spectroscopy in the superdeformed second minimum of 240Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirolf, P.G.; Gassmann, D.; Habs, D.; Chromik, M.J.; Eisermann, Y.; Graw, G.; Hertenberger, R.; Maier, H.J.; Metz, A.; Reiter, P.

    2000-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Superdeformed prolate nuclei, having an axis ratio of about 2:1, have first been discovered in fission isomers in the actinide region almost 40 years ago by Polikanov et al.. Their interpretation of being the result of microscopic shell corrections on top of the macroscopic liquid drop potential leading to a second minimum in the nuclear potential energy surface is well established. 240 Pu with its 3.7 ns fission isomer may be regarded as the prototype nucleus for spectroscopic studies of superdeformed actinide nuclei since the identification of the ground state rotational band in conversion electron measurements [1]. Though from the knowledge on excited states in the first minimum and previous measurements in the second minimum low-lying collective excitations in the second minimum low-lying collective excitations in the second well of 240 Pu can be expected, none of them has been experimentally identified so far. Quite surprisingly, no low-lying collective quadrupole excitations could be observed in a recent detailed high-resolution and high-efficiency γ-spectroscopy experiment [2]. Complementary information could be obtained in conversion electron measurements in coincidence with isomeric fission performed at the Garching Accelerator Laboratory, resulting in the first identification of the lowest β-vibrational band [3]. In a combined analysis of the γ-spectroscopic and conversion electron data conversion coefficients α K or limits on α K could be deduced, thus allowing to determine the multipolarities of the transitions. A predominant population of negative parity states in the second well could be observed that can be explained by the filtering function of the inner and outer fission barrier. Complementary transmission resonance measurements have been performed, yielding new information on the fine structure of (β-)vibrational multi-phonon states. A new method could be established to determine the excitation energy of

  2. Shape evolution in the superdeformed A≅80-90 mass region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagergren, K.; Cederwall, B.; Issa, T.; Johnson, A.; Milechina, L.; Wyss, R.; Clark, R.M.; Fallon, P.; Goergen, A.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Sarantites, D.G.

    2003-01-01

    Superdeformed bands in 88 Mo, 89 Tc, and 91 Tc were populated using a 40 Ca beam with an energy of 185 MeV, impinging on a backed 58 Ni target. γ rays and charged particles emitted in the reactions were detected using the Gammasphere Ge detector array and the CsI(Tl) array Microball. Average transition quadrupole moments Q t , with significantly improved accuracy compared to earlier work, were deduced for the bands using the residual doppler shift technique. The experimental results were included into a systematic study of the Q t values throughout the superdeformed mass 80-90 region. The superdeformed shell gaps are predicted to move towards larger deformations with increasing Z and N in this mass region. This trend is confirmed by the experimental Q t values

  3. Superdeformed and high-spin nuclear structure data on the INTERNET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.; Firestone, R.B.; Chu, S.Y.F.

    1997-01-01

    With the advent of the large detector arrays GAMMASPHERE, EUROGAM, and GASP, a wealth of new information about the properties of nuclei at high spin has become available. Superdeformed and high-spin nuclear structure data and associated bibliographic information made available on INTERNET by the Isotopes Project at LBNL are described. The Table of Superdeformed Bands and Fission Isomers on the INTERNET will be updated continuously, and new recent reference lists will be provided approximately every three months. This information will also be published annually in the Table of Isotopes CD-ROM updates. (author)

  4. Microscopic structure of superdeformed states in Th, U, Pu and Cm isotopes with Gogny force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girod, M.; Delaroche, J.P.; Romain, P. [CEA/DIF, DPTA/SPN, Boite Postale 12, 91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); Libert, J. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-IN2P3, F-91406 Orsay (France)

    2002-10-01

    The structure properties of the even-even nuclei {sup 226,} {sup 228,} {sup 230,} {sup 232,} {sup 234}Th, {sup 230,} {sup 232,} {sup 234,} {sup 236,} {sup 238,} {sup 240}U, {sup 240,} {sup 242,} {sup 244,} {sup 246}Pu, and {sup 242,} {sup 244,} {sup 246,} {sup 248}Cm have been investigated at normal and superdeformed shapes in microscopic mean-field calculations based on Gogny force. Collective levels are predicted from constrained Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov and configuration mixing calculations. Two quasiparticle states are also predicted from blocking calculations for neutron and proton configurations. Predictions are shown and compared with experimental data at superdeformed shapes. (orig.)

  5. Microscopic structure of superdeformed states in Th, U, Pu and Cm isotopes with Gogny force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girod, M.; Delaroche, J.P.; Romain, P.; Libert, J.

    2002-01-01

    The structure properties of the even-even nuclei 226, 228, 230, 232, 234 Th, 230, 232, 234, 236, 238, 240 U, 240, 242, 244, 246 Pu, and 242, 244, 246, 248 Cm have been investigated at normal and superdeformed shapes in microscopic mean-field calculations based on Gogny force. Collective levels are predicted from constrained Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov and configuration mixing calculations. Two quasiparticle states are also predicted from blocking calculations for neutron and proton configurations. Predictions are shown and compared with experimental data at superdeformed shapes. (orig.)

  6. Quadrupole collective correlations and termination of the superdeformed bands in mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonche, P.; Heenen, P.H.; Krieger, S.J.; Weiss, M.S.; Meyer, J.

    1990-03-01

    Fully self-consistent Generator Coordinate Method calculations have been performed on a basis of quadrupole constrained Hartree-Fock plus BCS wave functions for the five even mercury isotopes 190-198 Hg. The GCM results support conclusions drawn from previous HF+BCS calculations. The predicted evolution of superdeformed band head (shape isomer) properties as a function of the neutron number is consistent with the data. Using calculated transition matrix elements, we evaluate in-band versus out-of-band quadrupole decay and explain the sudden termination of the superdeformed band

  7. Multiple superdeformed bands in sup 194 Hg and their dynamical moments of inertia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, M.A.; Cullen, D.M.; Alderson, A.; Ali, I.; Fallon, P.; Forsyth, P.D.; Hanna, F.; Mullins, S.M.; Roberts, J.W.; Sharpey-Schafer, J.F.; Twin, P.J. (Liverpool Univ. (UK). Oliver Lodge Lab.); Poynter, R.; Wadsworth, R. (York Univ. (UK). Dept. of Physics); Bentley, M.A.; Bruce, A.M.; Simpson, J. (Science and Engineering Research Council, Daresbury (UK). Daresbury Lab.); Sletten, G. (Niels Bohr Inst., Roskilde (Denmark). Tandem Accelerator Lab.); Nazarewicz, W. (Liverpool Univ. (UK). Oliver Lodge Lab. Politechnika Warszawska (Poland). Inst. Fizyki); Bengtsson, T. (Lund Inst. of Tech. (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematical Physics); Wyss, R. (Manne Siegbahn Inst. of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1990-05-28

    Three superdeformed bands have been observed in {sup 194}Hg. The dynamical moment of inertia J{sup (2)} of all three bands is observed to increase by 30-40% over the frequency range {Dirac h}{omega}=0.1-0.4 MeV. This phenomena can be understood in terms of the gradual alignment of pairs of high-j intruder orbitals within the framework of the cranked Woods-Saxon and Nilsson models including pairing. The calculations together with the observed J{sup (2)} behaviour of the three bands indicate that pairing correlations in the superdeformed minimum are rather weak. (orig.).

  8. The collectivity and the de-excitation of the yrast superdeformed band in sup 150 Gd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallon, P.; Alderson, A.; Ali, I.; Cullen, D.M.; Forsyth, P.D.; Riley, M.A.; Roberts, J.W.; Sharpey-Schafer, J.F.; Twin, P.J. (Liverpool Univ. (UK). Oliver Lodge Lab.); Bentley, M.A.; Bruce, A.M. (Science and Engineering Research Council, Daresbury (UK). Daresbury Lab.)

    1991-03-28

    A Doppler shift attenuation measurement has been carried out to determine the collectivity of the superdeformed band in {sup 150}Gd. The data was found to be consistent with a constant inband quadrupole moment of 17+-3 eb. This corresponds to a quadrupole deformation of {beta}{sub 2}{approx equal}0.58. In addition the measurement has resolved important questions regarding the de-excitation of the band, confirming the rapid de-excitation of the superdeformed band in {sup 150}Gd with more than 80% of the band intensity being lost over one transition. (orig.).

  9. Exotic nuclear shapes - Axial and nonaxial octupoles at normal and at super-deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, J [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland); [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium); Heenen, P [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium); Bonche, P [CEA Centre d` Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Centre d` Application et de Promotion des Rayonnements Ionisants; Flocard, H [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France); Meyer, J [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    1992-08-01

    We have studied collective octupole dynamics including nonaxial components of the octupole mean field, mainly at superdeformed shape in the Hg-Pb region. Both the Strutinsky method combined with cranking and the generator coordinate method within the self-consistent Hartree-Fock basis suggest the existence of collective octupole excitations at the superdeformed minima. GCM calculations point out to the E1 transitions as their most prominent experimental manifestation. We also comment on the nonaxial octupole components influence on octupole dynamics in traditional octupole region of Ra-Th nuclei. (author). 38 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Inter-band coincidences in the superdeformed well of {sup 190}Hg from gammasphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowell, B.; Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Very few experimental observables are ordinarily accessible for superdeformed (SD) states in the A {approximately} 150 and A {approximately} 190 regions. The gamma-decay out of the superdeformed bands usually proceeds directly to the normally deformed states, through highly fragmented pathways, making it difficult to determine the spins, parities and excitation energies of the SD states. The in-band E2 transitions are so collective (2 x 10{sup 3} single-particle units in the A {approximately} 190 region) that it is typically impossible to detect any of the competing M1 and E1 transitions between states in the SD well.

  11. Lifetime measurements and dipole transition rates for superdeformed states in {sup 190}Hg.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amro, H.

    1999-03-24

    The Doppler-shift attenuation method was used to measure life-times of superdeformed (SD) states for both the yrast and the first excited superdeformed band of {sup 190}Hg. Intrinsic quadruple moments Q{sub 0} were extracted. For the first time, the dipole transition rates have been extracted for the inter-band transitions which connect the excited SD band to the yrast states in the second minimum. The results support the interpretation of the excited SD band as a rotational band built on an octupole vibration.

  12. Lifetime measurements and dipole transition rates for superdeformed states in 190Hg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amro, H.

    1999-01-01

    The Doppler-shift attenuation method was used to measure life-times of superdeformed (SD) states for both the yrast and the first excited superdeformed band of 190 Hg. Intrinsic quadruple moments Q 0 were extracted. For the first time, the dipole transition rates have been extracted for the inter-band transitions which connect the excited SD band to the yrast states in the second minimum. The results support the interpretation of the excited SD band as a rotational band built on an octupole vibration

  13. Identification of the unfavored N=7 superdeformed band in 191Hg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Cederwall, B.; Crowell, B.; Ahmad, I.; Becker, J.A.; Brinkman, M.J.; Deleplanque, M.A.; Diamond, R.M.; Fallon, P.; Farris, L.P.; Garg, U.; Gassmann, D.; Henry, E.A.; Henry, R.G.; Hughes, J.R.; Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T.; Lee, I.Y.; Machiavelli, A.O.; Moore, E.F.; Nisius, D.; Stephens, F.S.

    1995-01-01

    A new superdeformed band has been identified in 191 Hg bringing the total number of bands observed in this nucleus to four. The new band has properties similar to those of a superdeformed band reported recently in 193 Hg. Both bands are believed to be built on the unfavored signature of the j 15/2 intruder configuration. Comparisons between the data and cranked Woods-Saxon calculations highlight the strengths and weaknesses of theory in describing high-N orbitals at large deformation

  14. Backbendings of superdeformed bands in 36;40Ar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xu-Hui; He, Xiao-Tao

    2018-05-01

    Experimentally observed superdeformed (SD) rotational bands in 36Ar and 40Ar are studied by the cranked shell model (CSM) with the pairing correlations treated by a particle-number-conserving (PNC) method. This is the first time that PNC-CSM calculations have been performed on the light nuclear mass region around A=40. The experimental kinematic moments of inertia J (1) versus rotational frequency are reproduced well. The backbending of the SD band at frequency around ℏω=1.5 MeV in 36Ar is attributed to the sharp rise of the simultaneous alignments of the neutron and proton 1d 5/2[202]5/2 pairs and 1f 7/2[321]3/2 pairs, which is a consequence of the band crossing between the 1d 5/2[202]5/2 and 1f 7/2[321]3/2 configuration states. The gentle upbending at low frequency of the SD band in 40Ar is mainly affected by the alignments of the neutron 1f 7/2[321]3/2 pairs and proton 1d 5/2[202]5/2 pairs. The PNC-CSM calculations show that besides the diagonal parts, the off-diagonal parts of the alignments play an important role in the rotational behavior of the SD bands. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11775112 and 11275098) and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions

  15. Strength distribution of γ-transitions deexciting superdeformed rotational bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Martens, A.P.; Doesing, T.; Khoo, T.L.; Korichi, A.; Hannachi, F.; Calderin, I.J.; Lauritsen, T.; Ahmad, I.; Carpenter, M.P.; Fischer, S.M.; Hackman, G.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Nisius, D.; Reiter, P.; Amro, H.; Moore, E.F.

    1999-01-01

    The strength distribution of the γ rays in the decay-out from superdeformed (SD) states is investigated by applying the maximum likelihood method, with special emphasis on the influence of the lower threshold given by experimental conditions. Clear graphical solutions are found, and a careful estimation of the dispersion in the values of the number of degrees of freedom and of the average strength of the most likely χ 2 distribution is carried out. For the 194 Hg nucleus, 41 primary transitions from the decay-out of SD states are identified above 2600 keV. It is concluded that they represent the strongest 10% of the transitions selected stochastically from a Porter-Thomas distribution. This would support the scenario of a statistical decay of SD states via coupling to a compound state at normal deformation. However, the occurrence of several very strong direct one-step transitions as previously observed in 194 Hg has a very small probability of the order of 10 -4 . This may indicate special selection rules governing the decay. However, based on the absence of strong primary transitions from SD states in adjacent nuclei, the situation in 194 Hg is viewed as a very lucky incidence

  16. Predicting superdeformed rotational band-head spin in A ∼ 190 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PACS No. 21.60.−n. 1. Introduction. Superdeformed (SD) nuclei are one of the most challenging and ... like A ∼ 60, 80, 130, 150 and 190 [2,3]. ..... work and the research is progressing to give systematic features of rotational bands of SD.

  17. Kπ=1+ pairing interaction and moments of inertia of superdeformed rotational bands in atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamoto, I.; Nazarewicz, W.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of the pairing interaction coming from the rotationally induced K π =1 + pair-density on the nuclear moments of inertia is studied. It is pointed out that, contrary to the situation at normal deformations, the inclusion of the K π =1 + pairing may appreciably modify the frequency dependence of the moments of inertia at superdeformed shapes

  18. ΔI=4 bifurcation in a superdeformed band: Evidence for a C4 symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flibotte, S.; Andrews, H.R.; Ball, G.C.; Beausang, C.W.; Beck, F.A.; Belier, G.; Byrski, T.; Curien, D.; Dagnall, P.J.; de France, G.; Disdier, D.; Duchene, G.; Finck, C.; Haas, B.; Hackman, G.; Haslip, D.S.; Janzen, V.P.; Kharraja, B.; Lisle, J.C.; Merdinger, J.C.; Mullins, S.M.; Nazarewicz, W.; Radford, D.C.; Rauch, V.; Savajols, H.; Styczen, J.; Theisen, C.; Twin, P.J.; Vivien, J.P.; Waddington, J.C.; Ward, D.; Zuber, K.; Aberg, S.

    1993-01-01

    The moment of inertia of the yrast superdeformed band in 149 Gd exhibits an unexpected bifurcation at high rotational frequency. States differing by four units of angular momentum show an energy shift of about 60 eV. This indicates the remnant of a new quantum number associated with the fourfold rotational symmetry

  19. Superdeformation studies in {sup 150}Tb and {sup 153}Ho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisius, D.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Crowell, B. [and others

    1995-08-01

    There are now over 40 superdeformed (SD) bands known in the A {approximately} 150 region and in most cases the properties of these bands are understood in terms of single-particle excitations in the absence of pairing. By continuing the search for new SD bands we hope to gain insight into (1) the ordering of the proton and neutron orbitals near the Fermi surface in the SD well, (2) the effects that the alignment of those orbitals has on the moments of inertia, and (3) the collective excitations in the SD well. For {sup 150}Tb, which is one proton and one neutron away from the SD doubly-magic nucleus {sup 152}Dy, it should be possible to study SD bands based on both proton and neutron hole excitations. By adding one proton to the {sup 152}Dy nucleus (i.e. {sup 153}Ho) proton excitations above the Z = 66 shell gap can be studied. These excitations are important as calculations suggested that the proton intruder orbital N = 7 might become occupied. Interactions between this orbital and a N = 5 level may result in softness towards octupole vibrations. High spin states in {sup 150}Th and {sup 153}Ho were populated using the {sup 124}Sn({sup 31}P,5n) and {sup 120}Sn({sup 37}Cl,4n) reactions, respectively. In both cases the early implementation phase of Gammasphere was used to detect the decay gamma rays and over 1 x 10{sup 9} triple and higher fold coincidence events were recorded. In {sup 150}Tb, the data analysis is complete and two new SD bands were identified. The fact that Im{sup (2)} moments of inertia are sensitive to the specific high-N intruder content of the SD bands was used to suggest configurations for the two new bands. A paper reporting these results is being prepared. For {sup 153}Ho, data analysis is still in its early stages.

  20. Spins of superdeformed band in {sup 192}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritsen, T.; Khoo, T.L.; Henry, R.G. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Determination of the spins of SD states is the most important challenge in the study of superdeformation. Knowledge of the spin will provide crucial information on SD bands, in particular on the fascinating phenomenon of bands with identical energies and moments of inertia. Angular distribution coefficients of the {gamma}rays decaying out of the {sup 192}Hg SD band were determined using Eurogam data. These coefficients, as well as the spectral shape and multiplicity of the spectrum, are compared with the results of calculations, thereby providing a check on these calculations. From the measured decay multiplicity and the calculated average spin removed per photon (0.3 h), we deduce the average spin {bar I}{sub decay} removed by the {gamma} rays connecting SD and normal states. The spin I{sub SD} of the SD band from which the decay occurs is given by I{sub SD} = {bar I} decay + {bar I} ND, where {bar I} ND is the average spin removed by the normal yrast states. The state from which the major decay out of the SD band occurs is found to have spin 9.5 {plus_minus} 0.8 h. Since angular momentum is (quantized), this leads to a spin assignment of 9 or 10 h. The latter value is favored since the yrast band in the SD well must have only even spin values. This constitutes the first deduction of spin from data in the mass 150 and 190 regions. The spin of 10 h agrees with the spin which is inferred from a model, using the observed moment of inertia (Im){sup (2)}{omega}.

  1. Entrance channel dependence in the population of the superdeformed bands in {sup 191}Hg and a model for the feeding mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritsen, T; Soramel, F; Khoo, T L; Janssens, R V.F.; Ahmad, I; Carpenter, M P; Liang, Y [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Fornal, B; Bearden, I; Benet, Ph; Daley, P; Grabowski, Z W; Maier, R [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States); Ye, D; Garg, U; Reviol, W [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States); Drigert, M W [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1992-08-01

    The population of the superdeformed bands in {sup 191} Hg has been measured for two reactions with different mass asymmetry. No entrance channel effect was observed, in contrast to similar measurements in the A=150 region. To further elucidate this problem, the entry distribution for the superdeformed band in {sup 192}Hg was measured and a monte Carlo model for the feeding was developed. The simulations suggest that the decision on trapping in the superdeformed well is made at the barrier between the normal and superdeformed wells rather than at the entry point. (author). 9 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Superdeformed bands in sub 64 sup 147 Gd sub 83 , a possible test of the existence of octupole correlations in superdeformed bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuber, K.; Balouka, D.; Beck, F.A.; Byrski, T.; Curien, D.; Duchene, G.; Gehringer, C.; Haas, B.; Merdinger, J.C.; Romain, P.; Santos, D.; Styczen, J.; Vivien, J.P.; Dudek, J.; Szymanski, Z.; Werner, T. (Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires)

    1990-12-24

    Two discrete superdeformed bands (SD) have been identified in the nucleus {sup 147}Gd. The transitions energies of the SD yrast band lie halfway between the {gamma}-ray energies of the yrast SD band in {sup 146}Gd while the transition energies of the excited band lie half way between the transition energies of the yrast SD band in {sup 148}Gd. These two bands are shown to exhibit the presence of the pseudo SU(3) symmetry and also indicate the possible existence of octupole correlations at large elongations and high spins. (orig.).

  3. Nuclear shape evolution starting from superdeformed state. Role of two-body collision and rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yu-xin; Sakata, Fumihiko

    1999-01-01

    With the nuclear density distribution being simulated by the Boltzmann Uehling-Uhlenbeck equation and Vlasov equation with several rotational frequencies, the time evolution of the quadrupole moment of nucleus 86 Zr starting with superdeformed shape is studied. The contribution of two-body collisions and the effects of collective rotation to the shape evolution is investigated. The numerical results indicate that the two-body collisions play a role of damping on the evolution from a superdeformed shape to a normal deformed one in a case without rotation. In a case of rotation with lower frequency, the two-body collisions accelerate the evolution process. A new role of the collective rotation to enhance the nuclear fission is proposed. (author)

  4. Band head spin assignment of superdeformed bands in 133Pr using two-parameter formulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Honey; Mittal, H. M.

    2018-03-01

    The two-parameter formulae viz. the power index formula, the nuclear softness formula and the VMI model are adopted to accredit the band head spin (I0) of four superdeformed rotational bands in 133Pr. The technique of least square fitting is used to accredit the band head spin for four superdeformed rotational bands in 133Pr. The root mean deviation among the computed transition energies and well-known experimental transition energies are attained by extracting the model parameters from the two-parameter formulae. The determined transition energies are in excellent agreement with the experimental transition energies, whenever exact spins are accredited. The power index formula coincides well with the experimental data and provides minimum root mean deviation. So, the power index formula is more efficient tool than the nuclear softness formula and the VMI model. The deviation of dynamic moment of inertia J(2) against the rotational frequency is also examined.

  5. Superfluid to normal phase transition and extreme regularity od superdeformed bands

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlichenkov, I M

    2002-01-01

    The exact semiclassical expression for the second inertial parameter B for the superfluid and normal phases is derived. Interpolation between these limiting values shows that the function B(I) changes sign at the spin I sub c , which is critical for a rotational spectrum. The quantity B turns out to be a sensitive measure of the change in static pairing correlations. The superfluid-to-normal transition reveals itself in the specific variation of the ratio B/A versus spin I with the plateau characteristic of the normal phase. This dependence is find to be universal for normal deformed and superdeformed nuclei. The long plateau with a small value B/A approx A sup - sup 8 sup / sup 3 explains the extreme regularity of superdeformed bands

  6. Nuclear moments of inertia inferred from wobbling motion in the triaxial superdeformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Masayuki; Shimizu, Yoshifumi R.; Matsuyanagi, Kenichi

    2003-01-01

    The three moments of inertia associated with the wobbling mode built on the triaxial superdeformed states in Lu-Hf region are investigated by means of the cranked shell model plus random-phase approximation to the configurations with aligned quasiparticle(s). The result indicates that it is crucial to take into account the direct contribution to the moments of inertia from the aligned quasiparticle(s)so as to realize T x > T y in positive-γ shapes. (author)

  7. Study of the superdeformed band in {sup 194}Pb with EUROGAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannachi, F [Daresbury Lab. (United Kingdom); [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse; Porquet, M G; Bastin, G; Deloncle, I; Gall, B; Schuck, C; Smith, A G [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse; Bourgeois, C; Duprat, J; Korichi, A; Perrin, N; Sergolle, H [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Poffe, N [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Astier, A; Coz, Y Le; Meyer, M; Redon, N [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Bentley, M; Simpson, J [Daresbury Lab. (United Kingdom); Sharpey-Schafer, J F; Joyce, M J; Beausang, C W; Fallon, P; Paul, E S; Dagnall, P J; Forbes, S A; Gale, S; Jones, P M [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Oliver Lodge Lab.; Wadsworth, R; Clark, R M [Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 - Gradignan (France). Centre d` Etudes Nucleaires; Curien, D [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires

    1992-08-01

    An experiment has been carried out using a subset of the EUROGAM array to investigate the decay out of the superdeformed (SD) band in {sup 194}Pb. Two new band members and a new decay pattern into the low lying states at normal deformation (ND) have been established for this band. New spectroscopic information about the level scheme at normal deformation has also been extracted. (author). 9 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  8. The spin-orbit interaction and SU(3) generators in superdeformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara-Tanabe, K [School of Social Information, Otsuma Women` s University, Tokyo (Japan); Arima, A [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    1992-08-01

    The authors found that the effect of spin-orbit coupling becomes smaller for the parity doublet level and for some other levels around superdeformation. This is because of the strongly deformed quadrupole field, which indicates the L-S coupling scheme is recovered for these levels. These levels can be described by an SU-3 group with eight generators and a Casimir operator. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Spectrum of {gamma} rays connecting superdeformed and normal states in {sup 192}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, R.G.; Lauritsen, T.; Khoo, T.L. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Almost a hundred superdeformed bands were found in the mass 150 and 190 regions. Nevertheless, the energies and spins of the SD levels are still not measured (with one possible exception). Many attempts were made to decipher the highly-fragmented pathways connecting SD and normal states, but with hitherto no success. We adopted a new approach that consists of characterizing the overall spectral shape of the {gamma} rays linking SD and normal states.

  10. Proton configurations and pairing correlations at the N=80 superdeformed shell closure: Study of 145Tb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullins, S.M.; Schmeing, N.C.; Flibotte, S.; Hackman, G.; Rodriguez, J.L.; Waddington, J.C.; Yao, L.; Andrews, H.R.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Janzen, V.P.; Radford, D.C.; Ward, D.; DeGraaf, J.; Drake, T.E.; Pilotte, S.; Paul, E.S.

    1994-01-01

    A superdeformed band has been observed in the N=80 nucleus 145 Tb which was produced with the reactions 112 Sn( 37 Cl,2p2n) and 118 Sn( 31 P,4n) at bombarding energies of 187 and 160 MeV, respectively. Since superdeformed bands also exist in the three lighter N=80 isotones 142 Sm, 143 Eu, and 144 Gd, it is now possible to understand the valence-proton configurations of these bands in a systematic way. The T (2) dynamic moment of inertia in 145 Tb shows no evidence for the N = 6 quasiproton crossing that is observed in 144 Gd. Comparison with cranked Woods-Saxon and total Routhian surface calculations suggests that the proton configuration in 145 Tb is 6 1 direct-product[404] 9/2 + 2 in which the quasiproton crossing is blocked. Furthermore, like 143 Eu and 142 Sm, there is no evidence in the T (2) for the N=6 quasineutron crossing predicted by the calculations. This may indicate that static neutron pairing correlations are quenched at the N=80 superdeformed shell closure

  11. Superdeformation studies in the odd-odd nucleus {sup 192}Tl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, S.; Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The study of yrast and near-yrast structures of odd-odd nuclei to high spins is somewhat limited due to the complexity of the spectra resulting from the many proton-neutron couplings near the Fermi surface. In superdeformed nuclei, the number of available protons and neutrons near the Fermi surface is somewhat limited due to the presence of large-shell gaps which stabilize the nuclear shape. A relatively small number of available neutron and proton configurations can lead to fragmentation of the SD intensity into a number of different bands. Two good examples of this phenomenon were found in {sup 192}Tl and {sup 194}Tl where the presence of six superdeformed bands were reported in both nuclei. We reexamined {sup 192}Tl at Gammasphere using the {sup 160}Gd({sup 37}Cl,5n) reaction at 178 MeV to populate states in the superdeformed well of this nucleus. While our previous study on {sup 192}Tl at ATLAS was very successful, a number of questions remained which formed the basis of our objectives in this experiment: obtain better {gamma}-ray energies for the known transitions and identify higher spin members in each band; determine how the bands feed the known yrast states in {sup 192}Tl as well as determine the complete spectrum in coincidence with the SD bands; look for M1 transitions connecting proposed signature partners; and attempt to identify other excitations in the superdeformed well. Analysis is underway and four of the six bands were confirmed. The reasons that two of the reported bands were not observed in this latest work is still under investigation. As of this time, no other superdeformed bands were identified in the data. Two of the confirmed SD bands have a constant moment of inertia and show indications of cross-talk between each other. This observation is not unexpected since the calculated M1 rates for the proposed configuration of the band, {pi}{sub 13/2} x {upsilon}j{sub 15/2}, indicate that M1 transitions linking the two SD bands should be observed.

  12. g factors and the interplay of collective and single-particle degrees of freedom in superdeformed mass-190 nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yang; Zhang, Jing-ye; Guidry, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Interplay of collective and single-particle degrees of freedom is a common phenomenon in strongly correlated many-body systems. Despite many successful efforts in the study of superdeformed nuclei, there is still unexplored physics that can be best understood only through the nuclear magnetic properties. We point out that study of the gyromagnetic factor (g factor) may open a unique opportunity for understanding superdeformed structure. Our calculations suggest that investigation of the g-factor dependence on spin and particle number can provide important information on single-particle structure and its interplay with collective motion in the superdeformed mass-190 nuclei. Modern experimental techniques combined with the new generation of sensitive detectors should be capable of testing our predictions

  13. 16O+16O molecular nature of the superdeformed band of 32S and the evolution of the molecular structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Masaaki; Horiuchi, Hisashi

    2004-01-01

    The relation between the superdeformed band of 32 S and 16 O+ 16 O molecular bands is studied by the deformed-basis antisymmetrized molecular dynamics with the Gogny D1S force. It is found that the obtained superdeformed band members of S have a considerable amount of the 16 O+ 16 O component. Above the superdeformed band, we have obtained two excited rotational bands which have more prominent character of the 16 O+ 16 O molecular band. These three rotational bands are regarded as a series of 16 O+ 16 O molecular bands which were predicted by using the unique 16 O- 16 O optical potential. As the excitation energy and principal quantum number of the relative motion increase, the 16 O+ 16 O cluster structure becomes more prominent but at the same time, the band members are fragmented into several states

  14. Generalized vibrating potential model for collective excitations in spherical, deformed and superdeformed systems: (1) atomic nuclei, (2) metal clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterenko, V.O.; Kleinig, W.

    1995-01-01

    The self-consistent vibrating potential model (VPM) is extended for description of Eλ collective excitations in atomic nuclei and metal clusters with practically any kind of static deformation. The model is convenient for a qualitative analysis and provides the RPA accuracy of numerical calculations. The VPM is applied to study Eλ giant resonances in spherical metal clusters and deformed and superdeformed nuclei. It is shown that the deformation splitting of superdeformed nuclei results in a very complicated (''jungle-like'') structure of the resonances, which makes the experimental observation of E2 and E3 giant resonances in superdeformed nuclei quite problematic. Calculations of E1 giant resonance in spherical sodium clusters Na 8 , Na 20 and Na 40 are presented, as a test of the VPM in this field. The results are in qualitative agreement with the experimental data. (orig.)

  15. Superdeformed bands of odd nuclei in A=190 region in the quasiparticle picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terasaki, J.; Flocard, H.; Heenen, P.H.; Bonche, P.

    1996-07-01

    Properties of the superdeformed (SD) bands of 195 Pb and 193 Hg have been studied by the cranked Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov method. The calculations reproduce the flat behavior of the dynamical moment of inertia of two of the SD bands of 195 Pb measured recently. Possible configuration assignments for the observed bands 3 and 4 of 195 Pb are discussed. The two interacting SD bands of 193 Hg have also been calculated. The analysis confirms the superiority of a density-dependent pairing force over a seniority pairing interaction. (author)

  16. A new unexpected feature of superdeformed nuclei: strange degeneracies and their origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudek, J.

    1990-01-01

    Unexpected similarities between the superdeformed bands found recently in many nuclei of the mass A ∼ 150 and A ∼ 190 regions and the physical sense of this discovery are discussed. These similarities manifest themselves through the existence of nearly identical sequences of transitions belonging to two neighboring nuclei, and by now numerous nuclear pairs manifesting this feature have been found. The underlying microscopic mechanism is traced back to two independent effects: a readjustment of nuclear deformation diminishing the role of alignment of the least bound nucleus, and, the pseudospin symmetry, responsible for an approximate decoupling of the orbital and the intrinsic (pseudo) spin-degrees of freedom. 9 figs

  17. Higher superdeformed band members in {sup 190}Hg. Evidence for a band interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bearden, I G; Daly, P J [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States); Janssens, V F; Carpenter, M P; Ahmad, I; Khoo, T L; Lauritsen, T; Liang, Y [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Drigert, M W [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garg, U; Reviol, W [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States); Wyss, R [Joint Inst. for Heavy Ion Research, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1992-08-01

    The superdeformed band of {sup 190}Hg has been traced up to a frequency {Dirac_h}{omega} {>=} 0.4 MeV by combining data from several experiments. A distinct change in the slope of the dynamic moment of inertia J{sup (2)} vs {Dirac_h}{omega} is observed at {Dirac_h}{omega} 0.32 MeV. This result is interpreted as evidence for a band interaction at the highest frequencies. Possible interpretations are reviewed. (author) 14 refs., 3 figs.

  18. A comparative study of superdeformation in 146,147,148Gd. Possible manifestations of the pseudo-SU3 symmetry, octupole shape susceptibility and superdeformed deep-hole excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuber, K.; Balouka, D.; Beck, F.A.; Byrski, T.; Curien, D.; France, G. de; Duchene, G.; Gehringer, C.; Haas, B.; Merdinger, J.C.; Romain, P.; Santos, D.; Styczen, J.; Vivien, J.P.; Dudek, J.; Szymanski, Z.; Werner, T.R.

    1991-01-01

    Two discrete superdeformed (SD) bands have been identified in the nucleus 147 Gd and the twin-band mechanism studied by comparison with SD results for 146,148 Gd. Theoretical interprettion in terms of nucleonic orbitals with the Woods-Saxon potential is consistent with the pseudo-spin symmetry picture and the octupole susceptibility mechanism predicted by theory. (orig.)

  19. A comparative study of superdeformation in sup 146,147,148 Gd. Possible manifestations of the pseudo-SU sub 3 symmetry, octupole shape susceptibility and superdeformed deep-hole excitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuber, K.; Balouka, D.; Beck, F.A.; Byrski, T.; Curien, D.; France, G. de; Duchene, G.; Gehringer, C.; Haas, B.; Merdinger, J.C.; Romain, P.; Santos, D.; Styczen, J.; Vivien, J.P.; Dudek, J.; Szymanski, Z.; Werner, T.R. (Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires)

    1991-01-24

    Two discrete superdeformed (SD) bands have been identified in the nucleus {sup 147}Gd and the twin-band mechanism studied by comparison with SD results for {sup 146,148}Gd. Theoretical interprettion in terms of nucleonic orbitals with the Woods-Saxon potential is consistent with the pseudo-spin symmetry picture and the octupole susceptibility mechanism predicted by theory. (orig.).

  20. Symmetries of the nuclear average field hamiltonian and a search for possible exotic equilibrium deformations in superdeformed nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xunjun; Dudek, J.; Romain, P. (Centre de Recherches Nucleaires, IN2P3-CNRS, Univ. Louis Pasteur, 67 - Strasbourg (France))

    1991-11-21

    Symmetry properties of the general average-field hamiltonian-matrix resulting from the geometrical symmetries of the hamiltonian itself are derived and discussed. The corresponding numerical algorithms are constructed. Total energy calculations for superdeformed nuclei are then extended to include the usually neglected deformation modes {alpha}{sub {lambda}=3{mu}{ne}0} in the expansion of the nuclear surface expression R({theta}, {phi}; {l brace}{alpha}{r brace})=c({l brace}{alpha}{r brace})R{sub 0}(1+{Sigma}{sub {lambda}} {Sigma}{sub {mu}=-{lambda}}{sup {lambda}} {alpha}{sub {lambda}{mu}}{sup *}{Upsilon}{sub {lambda}{mu}}({theta}, {phi})). The general trends in the shell-energy dependence on {alpha}{sub {lambda}=3{mu}} and the implied instabilities in the superdeformed configurations of the rare earth nuclei are studied using the Strutinsky formula with the macroscopic part taken in the form of the folded-Yukawa plus exponential interaction. A possibility of new (double superdeformed minimum) structures coexisting in some nuclei and resulting from the proton shell effects is predicted and illustrated. No significant neutron effects are found in the rare earth superdeformed nuclei considered. (orig.).

  1. The quasi-continuum of gamma rays following the decay of superdeformed bands in the Hg region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritsen, T.; Khoo, T.L.; Janssens, R.V.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The quasi-continuum part of the spectrum associated with the decay-out of the yrast superdeformed band in {sup 194}Hg has been extracted. It has for the first time been possible to compare the spin and excitation energy determined from the analysis of the quasi-continuum {gamma} rays to the exact result obtained from the one-step linking transitions.

  2. Evidence for octupole vibration in the superdeformed well of {sup 190}Hg from eurogam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowell, B.; Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Gammasphere experiments in 1993-94 brought to light the existence of an excited superdeformed (SD) band in {sup 190}Hg with the unusual property of decaying entirely to the lowest (yrast) SD band over 3-4 transitions, rather than to the normally deformed states as is usually the case in the A {approximately} 150 and A {approximately} 190 regions of superdeformation. Although M1 transitions between signature-partner SD bands were previously observed in {sup 193}Hg, no such mechanism was available to explain the situation in the even-even nucleus {sup 190}Hg, whose yrast SD band has no signature partner. The best explanation appears to lie in long-standing theoretical predictions that the SD minimum in the potential energy surface would be quite soft with respect to octupole vibrations. This would lead to enhanced E1 transitions connecting the one-phonon and zero-phonon states. The data and this interpretation were published. A shortcoming of the Gammasphere experiments was that they did not allow the definitive measurement of the energies of the gamma-ray transitions connecting the two bands, due to the very weak population of the excited band ({approximately}0.05% of the {sup 190}Hg channel) and also partly, we believed, to the angular distributions of the transitions, which were peaked near 90 degrees, where Gammasphere had few detectors.

  3. Spin assignment and behavior of superdeformed bands in A∼150 mass region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalaf, A.; Sirag, M.; Taha, M.

    2012-01-01

    The smoothed experimental dynamical moment of inertia J (2) values were fitted with a theoretical version depend on Harris three parameter formula in even power of angular frequency ω, derived for results from cranking model. The expansion parameters were adjusted by using a computer simulated search program. The best expansion parameters from the fit were used to assign the spins of the superdeformed ( SD ) rotational bands (RB ) by integrating the calculated J (2) . The data set include 23 RB's in 11 SD nuclei, which show no evidence of either irregular behavior near the bottom of the bands or abrupt angular momentum at low rotational frequency in the mass region ranging from A= 142 to A = 154. we used the differences of angular momenta at constant frequency as effective alignment. The relative properties of superdeformed rotational bands (SDRB's) are analyzed in terms of the effective alignment of the valence nucleons. The effective alignment is a powerful tool to assign the configurations, to select the identical bands as well as to predict new SD bands from other combination of the orbitals. The ΔI = 2 energy staggering observed in 3 of our selected SDRB's are also described from a smooth reference representing the finite difference approximation to the fourth derivative of the γ-ray transition energies.

  4. Microscopic structure of high-spin vibrational states in superdeformed A=190 nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatsukasa, Takashi [Chalk River Labs., Ontario (Canada); Matsuyanagi, Kenichi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Mizutori, Shoujirou [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Microscopic RPA calculations based on the cranked shell model are performed to investigate the quadrupole and octupole correlations for excited superdeformed (SD) bands in even-even A=190 nuclei. The K = 2 octupole vibrations are predicted to be the lowest excitation modes at zero rotational frequency. The Coriolis coupling at finite frequency produces different effects depending on the neutron and proton number of nucleus. The calculations also indicate that some collective excitations may produce moments of inertia almost identical to those of the yrast SD band. An interpretation of the observed excited bands invoking the octupole vibrations is proposed, which suggests those octupole vibrations may be prevalent in even-even SD A=190 nuclei.

  5. RDDS lifetime measurements of low-lying superdeformed states in {sup 194}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, R.; Dewald, A.; Kruecken, R. [Universitaet Koeln (Germany)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The lifetimes of three low-lying states in the superdeformed (SD) yrast band of {sup 194}Hg were measured by the recoil-distance Doppler-shift method. The deduced transition quadrupole moments, Q{sub t}, equal those extracted from a DSAM measurement for the high-lying states of the band corroborate the assumption that the decay out of SD bands does not strongly affect the structure of the corresponding states. By a simple mixing-model the decay can be described assuming a very small admixture of normal-deformed (ND) states to the decaying SD states. The deduced ND mixing amplitudes for the yrast SD bands in {sup 192,194}Hg and {sup 194}Pb are presented along with average transition quadrupole moments for the lower parts of the excited SD bands.

  6. γ-spectroscopy of the superdeformed 240mPu with the CLUSTER-CUBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pansegrau, D.; Ender, C.; Haertlein, T.; Koeck, F.; Reiter, P.; Schwalm, D.; Eberth, J.; Thomas, H.G.

    1997-01-01

    The study of γ-decays of excited states in the second minimum of the double-humped fission barrier in actinides can make a substantial contribution towards a better understanding of the structure of superdeformed nuclei. An experiment using the EUROBALL-CLUSTER-CUBE was performed to observe these extremely rare γ-decays. The 238 U(α, 2n)-reaction was selected to populate the shape isomer 240m Pu, which decays via delayed fission with a half life of 3.8 ns. The delayed fission enables an unambiguous trigger on the population of the shape isomer. Prompt γ-decays of excited states in the second minimum were detected in coincidence with delayed fission fragments. A strong transition at 786 keV, which shows an isotropic angular distribution, and some weaker transitions in the region of 550 keV and 820 keV could be observed. (orig.)

  7. Lifetimes of the low spin states in the superdeformed band of {sup 192}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, I Y; Baktash, C; Cullen, D; Garrett, J D; Johnson, N R; McGowan, F K; Winchell, D F [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Yu, C H [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1992-08-01

    Superdeformed (SD) states with a 2:1 axis ratio have been observed in nuclei in the A = 150, 190, and the actinide regions. These states depopulate into normally deformed (ND) states by gamma decay, but so far the linking transitions have not been observed and the depopulation mechanism is not fully understood. Nuclei in different mass regions decay out at states with different spin (I), excitation energy above the ND yrast line (U) and lifetime {tau}. This variation is due to differences in the nuclear properties such as the barrier penetration probability, the level densities and the gamma transition strength of SD and ND states. One important factor is the competition between the collective E2 decay along the SD band and the statistical decay to the ND states. These transition rates, or the partial lifetimes, can be determined if the lifetime and the intensity of the gamma rays depopulating the SD states are known. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  8. The quasicontinuum of gamma rays from the feeding and decay of the superdeformed in 194Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritsen, T.; Ahmad, I.; Carpenter, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    Over the last year we developed techniques for the study of the quasicontinuum of gamma-rays from both the feeding and especially the decay of the superdeformed (SD) bands in the Hg nuclei, most notably 192 Hg. From this analysis we could extract both the spin and energy of some of the SD bands. The quasicontinuum analysis is the only technique so far that could extract these two fundamental properties of the now more than 100 SD bands found in the A = 150 and A = 190 regions. We based our understanding of the feeding and decay on comparisons of the data with extensive Monte Carlo simulations of the emission of gamma rays, both from the entry distribution toward the SD minimum, and, at lower spins, from the decay out of the SD band back to the states in the normal well

  9. 16O + 16O molecular structures of superdeformed states in S isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Y.

    2017-06-01

    Structures of excited states in S isotopes are investigated by using the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics and generator coordinate method (GCM). The GCM basis wave functions are calculated via energy variation with a constraint on the quadrupole deformation parameter β. By applying the GCM after parity and angular momentum projections, the coexistence of positive- and negative-parity superdeformed (SD) bands are predicted in 33-36S except for negative-parity states in 36S. The SD bands have structures of 16O + 16O + valence neutron(s) in molecular orbitals around the two 16O cores in a cluster picture. The configurations of the valence neutron(s) in the SD states are δ and/or π molecular orbitals.

  10. Nuclear moments of inertia and wobbling motions in triaxial superdeformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Masayuki; Shimizu, Yoshifumi R.; Matsuyanagi, Kenichi

    2004-01-01

    The wobbling motion excited on triaxial superdeformed nuclei is studied in terms of the cranked shell model plus random phase approximation. First, by calculating at a low rotational frequency the γ dependence of the three moments of inertia associated with the wobbling motion, the mechanism of the appearance of the wobbling motion in positive-γ nuclei is clarified theoretically--the rotational alignment of the πi 13/2 quasiparticle(s) is the essential condition. This indicates that the wobbling motion is a collective motion that is sensitive to the single-particle alignment. Second, we prove that the observed unexpected rotational-frequency dependence of the wobbling frequency is an outcome of the rotational-frequency dependent dynamical moments of inertia

  11. Entrance channel effects and the superdeformed band in {sup 152}Dy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beausang, C W; Alderson, A; Ali, I; Dagnall, P J; Fallon, P; Forsyth, P D; Smith, G; Twin, P J [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom); France, G de; Duchene, G; Flibotte, S; Haas, B; Romain, P; Theisen, C H; Vivien, J P [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Bentley, M A [Daresbury Lab. (United Kingdom)

    1992-08-01

    Recent experiments on {sup 152}Dy indicate that the fraction of decays via the superdeformed (SD) band depends on the mass asymmetry in the entrance channel. Such results may indicate that the time scale for fusion is larger for mass symmetric reactions than for mass asymmetric ones, thus allowing neutron evaporation to compete better with fusion. To test this idea, one needs accurate intensity measurements of the highest member of the SD band, using a very large data set, so it is an ideal experiment for the Eurogam array. At the time of the conference, a series of experiments was being carried out using the {sup 36}S + {sup 120}Sn and {sup 82}Se + {sup 74}Ge reactions. Preliminary results were inconclusive. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Calculation of the spectrum of {gamma} rays connecting superdeformed and normally deformed nuclear states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dossing, T.; Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The decay out of superdeformed states occurs by coupling to compound nuclear states of normal deformation. The coupling is very weak, resulting in mixing of the SD state with one or two normal compound states. With a high energy available for decay, a statistical spectrum ensues. The shape of this statistical spectrum contains information on the level densities of the excited states below the SD level. The level densities are sensitively affected by the pair correlations. Thus decay-out of a SD state (which presents us with a means to start a statistical cascade from a highly-excited sharp state) provides a method for investigating the reduction of pairing with increasing thermal excitation energy.

  13. Band head spin assignment of superdeformed bands in Hg isotopes through power index formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Honey; Mittal, H. M.

    2018-05-01

    The power index formula has been used to obtain the band head spin (I 0) of all the superdeformed (SD) bands in Hg isotopes. A least squares fitting approach is used. The root mean square deviations between the determined and the observed transition energies are calculated by extracting the model parameters using the power index formula. Whenever definite spins are available, the determined and the observed transition energies are in accordance with each other. The computed values of dynamic moment of inertia J (2) obtained by using the power index formula and its deviation with the rotational frequency is also studied. Excellent agreement is shown between the calculated and the experimental results for J (2) versus the rotational frequency. Hence, the power index formula works very well for all the SD bands in Hg isotopes expect for 195Hg(2, 3, 4).

  14. Description of identical superdeformed bands of the A ∝ 190 mass region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadwal, Anshul; Mittal, H.M.

    2017-01-01

    The two-parameter formula/model viz. nuclear softness (NS) formula, semiclassical particle rotor model (PRM) and exponential model with pairing attenuation are used for the reliable phenomenological analysis of identical superdeformed bands. These formulae/models are employed to study the identical superdeformed bands of the A ∝ 190 mass region, {"1"9"1Hg(2), "1"9"3Hg(2)}, {"1"9"1Hg(3), "1"9"3Hg(3)}, {"1"9"3Tl(3), "1"9"3Tl(5)}, {"1"9"3Tl(1), "1"9"4Tl(3)}, {"1"9"3Tl(1), "1"9"4Tl(4)}, {"1"9"3Pb(3), "1"9"1Hg(2)}, {"1"9"3Pb(4), "1"9"1Hg(3)}, {"1"9"4Pb(1), "1"9"2Hg(1)}, {"1"9"4Pb(1), "1"9"4Hg(1)} and middle-point identical bands {"1"9"3Tl(1), "1"9"3Tl(2)}, {"1"9"3Tl(1), "1"9"5Tl(1)} and {"1"9"3Tl(2), "1"9"5Tl(2)}. Quantitatively, good results of γ-ray transitions energies and dynamic moment of inertia are obtained using the NS formula. The parameters, band-head moment of inertia (I_0), alignment (i) and effective pairing parameter (Δ_0) are calculated using the least-squares fitting of the γ-ray transitions energies in the NS formula, semiclassical PRM and exponential model with pairing attenuation, respectively. The calculated parameters are found to depend sensitively on the proposed band-head spin. (orig.)

  15. Description of identical superdeformed bands of the A ∝ 190 mass region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadwal, Anshul; Mittal, H.M. [Dr. B.R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar (India)

    2017-06-15

    The two-parameter formula/model viz. nuclear softness (NS) formula, semiclassical particle rotor model (PRM) and exponential model with pairing attenuation are used for the reliable phenomenological analysis of identical superdeformed bands. These formulae/models are employed to study the identical superdeformed bands of the A ∝ 190 mass region, {"1"9"1Hg(2), "1"9"3Hg(2)}, {"1"9"1Hg(3), "1"9"3Hg(3)}, {"1"9"3Tl(3), "1"9"3Tl(5)}, {"1"9"3Tl(1), "1"9"4Tl(3)}, {"1"9"3Tl(1), "1"9"4Tl(4)}, {"1"9"3Pb(3), "1"9"1Hg(2)}, {"1"9"3Pb(4), "1"9"1Hg(3)}, {"1"9"4Pb(1), "1"9"2Hg(1)}, {"1"9"4Pb(1), "1"9"4Hg(1)} and middle-point identical bands {"1"9"3Tl(1), "1"9"3Tl(2)}, {"1"9"3Tl(1), "1"9"5Tl(1)} and {"1"9"3Tl(2), "1"9"5Tl(2)}. Quantitatively, good results of γ-ray transitions energies and dynamic moment of inertia are obtained using the NS formula. The parameters, band-head moment of inertia (I{sub 0}), alignment (i) and effective pairing parameter (Δ{sub 0}) are calculated using the least-squares fitting of the γ-ray transitions energies in the NS formula, semiclassical PRM and exponential model with pairing attenuation, respectively. The calculated parameters are found to depend sensitively on the proposed band-head spin. (orig.)

  16. Predicting superdeformed rotational band-head spin in A ∼ 190 mass region using variable moment of inertia model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uma, V.S.; Goel, Alpana; Yadav, Archana; Jain, A.K.

    2016-01-01

    The band-head spin (I 0 ) of superdeformed (SD) rotational bands in A ∼ 190 mass region is predicted using the variable moment of inertia (VMI) model for 66 SD rotational bands. The superdeformed rotational bands exhibited considerably good rotational property and rigid behaviour. The transition energies were dependent on the prescribed band-head spins. The ratio of transition energies over spin Eγ/ 2 I (RTEOS) vs. angular momentum (I) have confirmed the rigid behaviour, provided the band-head spin value is assigned correctly. There is a good agreement between the calculated and the observed transition energies. This method gives a very comprehensive interpretation for spin assignment of SD rotational bands which could help in designing future experiments for SD bands. (author)

  17. First evidence for triaxial superdeformation in sup 1 sup 6 sup 1 Lu and sup 1 sup 6 sup 2 Lu

    CERN Document Server

    Bringel, P; Domscheit, J; Neusser, A; Schoenwasser, G; Singh, A K; Amro, H; Axiotis, M; Kröll, T; Napoli, D R; Bazzacco, D; Lunardi, S; Ur, C; Bhattacharya, S; Bhowmik, R; Hagemann, G B; Jensen, D R; Pancholi, S C; Petrache, C M

    2003-01-01

    High-spin states in sup 1 sup 6 sup 1 Lu and sup 1 sup 6 sup 2 Lu have been investigated using the GASP gamma-ray spectrometer array. Excited states in these nuclei have been populated through the sup 1 sup 0 sup 0 Mo( sup 6 sup 5 Cu, xn) reaction at a beam energy of 260 MeV. Four presumably triaxial superdeformed bands, three in sup 1 sup 6 sup 2 Lu and one in sup 1 sup 6 sup 1 Lu, have been observed. This is the first evidence for triaxial superdeformation in the two isotopes. (orig.)

  18. Synthetical analysis of the spin assignment for the superdeformed bands in A≅190 region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Yaomin

    2002-01-01

    The spin assignment for the superdeformed bands of even-even nuclei in A ≅190 region is given by means of using the method of synthetical analysis. The I( I + 1) expression is used to fit the experimental data of the transition γ energies. In contrast to other procedure, the convergence process of the series expansions is put stress upon, whereas taking how many terms exactly in the expression does not emphasized. Moreover as well as the method of fitting the physical quantity, by use of these series expansions the moment of inertia of band heads is also calculated and then the systematics is used for the spin assignments. In practice, when the experimental data is abundant the systematics of the moment of inertia of band heads is more efficient than the method of fitting the physical quantity in the spin assignment. As for a few bands which spin assignment is difficult, the deviation from the typical rotational bands must be considered, which may be judged easily from the second class of moment of inertia of the bands. Finally the results of the spin assignment and the comparison with other literature are presented. These results should be more reliable

  19. Search for two-{gamma} sum-energy peaks in the decay out of superdeformed bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumenthal, D.; Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The spectrum of {gamma}rays decaying out of the superdeformed (SD) band in {sup 192}Hg has a quasicontinuous distribution. Whereas methods to construct level schemes from discrete lines in coincidence spectra are well established, new techniques must still be developed to extract information from coincidences involving quasicontinuous {gamma}rays. From an experiment using Eurogam, we obtained impressively clean 1- and 2-dimensional {gamma} spectra from pairwise or single gates, respectively, on the transitions of the SD band in {sup 192}Hg. We investigated methods to exploit the 2-dimensional quasicontinuum spectra coincident with the SD band to determine the excitation energy of the SD band above the normal yrast line. No strong peaks were observed in the 2-{gamma} sum spectra; only candidates of peaks at a 2-3 {sigma} level were found. This suggests that 2-{gamma} decay is not the dominant decay branch out of SD bands, consistent with the observed multiplicity of 3.2. We shall next search for peaks in sum-spectra of 3 {gamma}s.

  20. Search for entrance-channel dependence in the population of superdeformed bands in {sup 191}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soramel, F.; Khoo, T.L.; Janssens, R.V.F. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The population intensity of some SD bands in the mass 150 region were observed to depend on the mass symmetry of the entrance channel in the fusion reaction. The authors raised the possibility that the population of SD bands had a memory of the entrance channel. To check this interesting possibility, we made measurements of the population intensities of superdeformed (SD) bands in the {sup 160}Gd({sup 36}S,5n){sup 191}Hg and {sup 130}Te({sup 64}Ni,3n){sup 191}Hg reactions. To ensure that any observed effect was not due to a simple angular momentum difference in the entrance channels, we also measured the average entry points and spin distributions of normal and SD states in {sup 191}Hg in the two reactions. The entry points and spin distributions for {sup 191}Hg are the same and, indeed, so are the SD intensities in the two reactions. Hence, no entrance-channel effect is observed in the population of the SD band in {sup 191}Hg, in contrast with data for SD bands in the mass 150 regions. We suggest that the effect observed previously in the mass 150 region is due to an angular momentum effect. A letter reporting our results was submitted for publication.

  1. The decay-out of superdeformed bands in the A = 190 region. What have we learned?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritsen, T.; Hackman, G.; Khoo, T.L.; Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Ackermann, D.; Ahmad, I.; Blumenthal, D.J.; Lopez-Martens, A.

    1997-01-01

    One-step decay transitions linking the superdeformed (SD) bands 1 and 3 in 194 Hg to yrast levels are discussed. Inter-band transitions between bands 1 and 3 have also been identified. For the first time, the spin, parity and excitation energy have been determined for two SD bands in the same nucleus. The low excitation energy of the excited band supports the view that it is based on an octupole excitation. It is believed that Porter-Thomas fluctuations play a major role in determining the strength of the one-step transitions as suggested by the fact that only one other SD band has been linked in the A = 190 mass region ( 194 Pb) at the present time. When Porter-Thomas fluctuations prevent the observation of one-step or two-step linking transitions, as e.g. in the case of 192 Hg, the analysis of the quasi-continuous part of the decay-out spectrum provides an alternative method for the determination of the excitation energy and spin of an SD band. This method is discussed in detail. (author)

  2. Multiparticle excitations in the 149 Gd superdeformed nucleus. Signature of new C4 nucleus symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theisen, C.

    1995-01-01

    The use of 8 π and EUROGAM phase I multi-detectors for the study of high spin states of 149 Gd nucleus has revealed unexpected new phenomenons about the superdeformation in this nucleus. The new excited bands confirm the omnipresence of twin bands phenomenon. A new multi-particle excitation (two protons and one neutron) has been discovered. Thanks to the second generation EUROGAM detector, unexpected discoveries such as C 4 symmetry, level interactions, complete backbending were obtained for the second potential well. The knowledge of interacting levels gives informations about the nucleon-nucleon residual interaction and could allow the determination of SD bands excitation energy. The complex processing and analysis of high multiplicity events has led to the development of new computing tools. An automatic band research program has been written for the discovery of new excited bands, and an exact method for the elimination of uncorrected events has been developed. The improvements of multi-detector performances should allow the discovery of more exceptional phenomenons and new anomalies in the SD bands. (J.S.). 222 refs., 86 figs., 38 tabs

  3. Spectra theory for nuclei with closed shells (1962); Theorie des spectres des noyaux a couches completes (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillet, V [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    second approximation which alone leads to a region of optimum agreement identical for both carbon and oxygen. An excellent general agreement is obtained with the known spectra of these two nuclei. The importance of higher order terms in the calculation of the 3{sup -} and 5{sup -} collective states for calcium 40 is demonstrated; furthermore it is possible to explain these levels only by the second approximation. Certain forecasts are made using the effective forces thus found. (author) [French] On applique une theorie unifiee des spectres des noyaux a couches completes, fondee sur les excitations elementaires particule-trou de ces systemes, a l'etude du carbone 12, de l'oxygene i6 et du calcium.40. Deux approximations sont utilisees. La premiere consiste a diagonaliser l'interaction residuelle a deux corps dans un sous-espace limite de configurations a une particule et un trou. Sa validite repose sur l'energie importante exigee pour l'excitation d'une paire particule-trou. La seconde approximation consiste a resommer la sous-serie infinie des diagrammes particule-trou. Elle est equivalente a la methode de Hartree-Fock dependante du temps ou a la methode des Quasi-Bosons. Son domaine de validite, dans le cas nucleaire, n'est pas bien compris. Les diagrammes sommes sont preponderants a la limite des fortes densites, alors que la densite nucleaire est de l'ordre de l'unite. La violation des Principe de Pauli, dans cette approximation, n'est justifiee que si le nombre de paires excitees est petit par rapport au nombre d'etats de particule disponibles; or, dans les noyaux legers les degenerescences des couches sont petites. Neanmoins cette approximation qui postule l'existence d'un champ nucleaire moyen, lentement variable dans le temps par rapport aux periodes des nucleons a le merite d'etre self-consistante, de donner des etats propres orthogonaux a l'etat non physique du centre de masse et d'ameliorer le calcul des regles de somme. Pour determiner et limiter le role de la

  4. Search and analysis of superdeformed and oblate states in 193Pb nucleus with the EUROGAM II multidetector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducroux, L.

    1997-01-01

    This work is devoted to the search and analysis of superdeformed and oblate states in 193 Pb nucleus. High spin states of this isotope, populated via fusion-evaporation reaction 168 Er ( 30 Si, 5n) 193 Pb, have been studied with the EUROGAM II γ multidetector array located near the VIVITRON accelerator in Strasbourg. New sorting and analysis programs have been developed in particular related to the background treatment. Angular distribution and linear polarisation analysis allowed us to assign the γ transition multipolarities. Five dipole bands, corresponding to a weakly oblate-deformed shape of the nucleus, have been observed and connected to the low-lying states. The level scheme has been considerably extended up to a spin of 61/2 ℎ and an excitation energy of about 8 MeV. These structures have been interpreted as based on a high-K two-quasi-proton excitation coupled to rotation aligned quasi-neutrons. Six superdeformed bands, corresponding to a high prolate-deformed shape of the nucleus, have been observed. These six bands have been interpreted as three pairs of signature partners based on quasineutron excitations. The extraction of the g-factor of a K=9/2 neutron superdeformed orbital has been done for the first time in lead isotopes, giving access to the magnetic properties of the extreme nuclear matter. All these results have been discussed in terms of microscopic mean field self-consistent Hartree-Fock calculations using the microscopic 'rotor + particle(s)' model. (author)

  5. New results on the superdeformed {sup 196}Pb nucleus: The decay of the excited bands to the yrast band

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouneau, S.; Azaiez, F.; Duprat, J. [IPN, Orsay (France)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The study of the superdeformed (SD) {sup 196}Pb nucleus has been revisited using the EUROGAM phase 2 spectrometer. In addition to the known yrast and two lowest excited SD bands, a third excited SD band has been seen. All of the three excited bands were found to decay to the yrast SD band through, presumably, E1 transitions, allowing relative spin and excitation energy assignments. Comparisons with calculations using the random-phase approximation suggest that all three excited bands can be interpreted as octupole vibrational structures.

  6. Search for the discrete non-yrast states in 152Dy around 86 ns isomer, the region into which the γ-rays drain the super-deformed band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, N.

    1991-01-01

    Further analysis of the γ-ray study of 152 Dy emitted in the decay of the super-deformed band has been performed by using the 122 Sn ( 35 Cl, P4n) reaction at low bombarding energies. Several γ-rays de-exciting non-yrast states have been identified, among these are transitions previously observed in coincidence with this super-deformed band. The lowest two members of the super-deformed cascade have also been detected, but the data is not quite good enough to make a firm connection to them. (author)

  7. Hartree-Fock theory for the equilibrium shape of light nuclei; Theorie Hartree-Fock de la forme d'equilibre des noyaux legers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripka, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-09-01

    Most of the content of this thesis is published in english in Advances In Nuclear Physics, Vol. 1 (Editors: Baranger and Vogt - Plenum Press). The Hartree- Fock equations are derived. The expansions of the orbits and the possible symmetries of the Hartree-Fock field are discussed. Wavefunctions of even-even N = Z nuclei are given for 12 {<=} A {<=} 40. The role of the monopole, quadrupole and exchange components of the force are discussed. The multiplicity of the solutions and the effect of the spin-orbit interaction are discussed. Exact angular momentum projection is used to generate rotational bands. The validity of the adiabatic rotational model in light nuclei is discussed. Hartree-Fock calculations are extended to include major-shell mixing in order to obtain quadrupole deformations without the use of effective charge. The incompressibility, of nuclei is discussed and the compatibility between the Hartree-Fock solutions, the Mottelson model of quadrupole deformations and the SU3 states of J.P. Elliott and M. Moshinsky is established. (author) [French] La theorie de Hartree-Fock est appliquee au calcul des fonctions d'onde des noyaux legers deformes. Les equations de Hartree-Fock, les symetries permises et le choix du developpement des orbites sont discutes. Les fonctions d'onde des noyaux pair-pairs N = Z (12 {<=} A {<=} 40) sont tabulees. Les contributions des composantes monopolaires et quadrupolaires ainsi que des termes d'echange de la force nucleon-nucleon sont discutees. La methode de projection de moment cinetique est utilisee pour engendrer les bandes de rotation. La validite du modele rotationnel adiabatique est discutee. Les calculs de Hartree-Fock qui tiennent compte du melange de plusieurs couches majeures dans chaque orbite sont appliques au calcul des deformations quadrupolaires sans l'utilisation de charge effective. L'incompressibilite des noyaux et la compatibilite des fonctions d'onde de Hartree- Fock avec les fonctions d'onde SU3 de J

  8. Hartree-Fock theory for the equilibrium shape of light nuclei; Theorie Hartree-Fock de la forme d'equilibre des noyaux legers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripka, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-09-01

    Most of the content of this thesis is published in english in Advances In Nuclear Physics, Vol. 1 (Editors: Baranger and Vogt - Plenum Press). The Hartree- Fock equations are derived. The expansions of the orbits and the possible symmetries of the Hartree-Fock field are discussed. Wavefunctions of even-even N = Z nuclei are given for 12 {<=} A {<=} 40. The role of the monopole, quadrupole and exchange components of the force are discussed. The multiplicity of the solutions and the effect of the spin-orbit interaction are discussed. Exact angular momentum projection is used to generate rotational bands. The validity of the adiabatic rotational model in light nuclei is discussed. Hartree-Fock calculations are extended to include major-shell mixing in order to obtain quadrupole deformations without the use of effective charge. The incompressibility, of nuclei is discussed and the compatibility between the Hartree-Fock solutions, the Mottelson model of quadrupole deformations and the SU3 states of J.P. Elliott and M. Moshinsky is established. (author) [French] La theorie de Hartree-Fock est appliquee au calcul des fonctions d'onde des noyaux legers deformes. Les equations de Hartree-Fock, les symetries permises et le choix du developpement des orbites sont discutes. Les fonctions d'onde des noyaux pair-pairs N = Z (12 {<=} A {<=} 40) sont tabulees. Les contributions des composantes monopolaires et quadrupolaires ainsi que des termes d'echange de la force nucleon-nucleon sont discutees. La methode de projection de moment cinetique est utilisee pour engendrer les bandes de rotation. La validite du modele rotationnel adiabatique est discutee. Les calculs de Hartree-Fock qui tiennent compte du melange de plusieurs couches majeures dans chaque orbite sont appliques au calcul des deformations quadrupolaires sans l'utilisation de charge effective. L'incompressibilite des noyaux et la compatibilite des fonctions d'onde de Hartree- Fock avec les

  9. Alpha particle spectra in coincidence with normal and superdeformed states in {sup 150}Tb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viesti, G.; Lunardon, M.; Bazzacco, D. [dell`Universita, Padova (Italy)]|[INFN, Padova (Italy)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The study of correlations between particle evaporation from highly excited compound nuclei at large angular momenta and the states in the final evaporation residues (ER) is a field of investigation which has been opened, in the last years, with the advent of the new large {gamma}-ray arrays. It is now possible to correlate the evaporation spectra to various bands with shapes ranging from spherical to superdeformed (SD) in the same final nucleus. It is generally accepted that the particle evaporation from the compound nucleus is chaotic and that only in the near-yrast {gamma} cascade, where the feeding of different classes of states takes place, the ordered motion is restored. The sensitivity of the particle spectra on the feeding of specific states in the residual nuclei can be taken as an indication that additional degrees of freedom might be important in the evaporation process or that particular regions of the phase space open to the decay populate preferentially some selected structures in the final cold nucleus. This latter point is important for the understanding of the feeding mechanism of SD states. Several experiments performed so far did not find a clear dependence of the shapes of the particle spectra on the excited states having different deformations in the ER. For example, the proton spectra in coincidence with transitions in the SD bands of {sup 133}Nd and {sup 152}Dy nuclei were found to be similar to those in coincidence with transitions in the normal deformed (ND) bands. Alpha particles have been proposed since long as a sensitive probe of the deformation of the emitting nucleus. Results are presented here of an experiment in which the authors have measured the energy spectra of alpha particles associated with different classes of states (ND and SD) in the {sup 150}Tb nucleus populated in the reaction {sup 37}Cl({sup 120}Sn, {alpha}3n{gamma}){sup 150}Tb.

  10. Study of superdeformation at zero spin with Skyrme-Hartree-Fock method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahara, S; Tajima, N; Onishi, N [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    Superdeformed (SD) bands have been studied extensively both experimentally and theoretically in the last decade. Since the first observation in {sup 152}Dy in 1986, SD bands have been found in four mass regions, i.e., A {approx} 80, 130, 150 and 190. While these SD bands have been observed only at high spins so far, they may also be present at zero spin like fission isomers in actinide nuclei: The familiar generic argument on the strong shell effect at axis ratio 2:1 does not assume rotations. If non-fissile SD isomers exist at zero spin, they may be utilized to develop new experimental methods to study exotic states, in a similar manner as short-lived high-spin isomers are planned to be utilized as projectiles of fusion reactions in order to populate very high-spin near-yrast states. They will also be useful to test theoretical models whether the models can describe correctly the large deformations of rare-earth nuclei without further complications due to rotations. In this report, we employ the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock method to study the SD states at zero spin. First, we compare various Skyrme force parameter sets to test whether they can reproduce the extrapolated excitation energy of the SD band head of {sup 194}Hg. Second, we systematically search large-deformation solutions with the SkM{sup *} force. The feature of our calculations is that the single-particle wavefunctions are expressed in a three-dimensional-Cartesian-mesh representation. This representation enables one to obtain solutions of various shapes (including SD) without preparing a basis specific to each shape. Solving the mean-field equations in this representation requires, however, a large amount of computation which can be accomplished only with present supercomputers. (author)

  11. Coexistence of spherical states with deformed and superdeformed bands in doubly magic 40Ca; A shell model challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caurier, E.; Nowacki, F.; Menendez, J.; Poves, A.

    2007-02-01

    Large scale shell model calculations, with dimensions reaching 10 9 , are carried out to describe the recently observed deformed (ND) and superdeformed (SD) bands based on the first and second excited 0 + states of 40 Ca at 3.35 MeV and 5.21 MeV respectively. A valence space comprising two major oscillator shells, sd and pf, can accommodate most of the relevant degrees of freedom of this problem. The ND band is dominated by configurations with four particles promoted to the pf-shell (4p-4h in short). The SD band by 8p-8h configurations. The ground state of 40 Ca is strongly correlated, but the closed shell still amounts to 65%. The energies of the bands are very well reproduced by the calculations. The out-band transitions connecting the SD band with other states are very small and depend on the details of the mixing among the different np-nh configurations, in spite of that, the calculation describes them reasonably. For the in-band transition probabilities along the SD band, we predict a fairly constant transition quadrupole moment Q 0 (t) ∼ 70 e fm 2 up to J=10, that decreases toward the higher spins. We submit also that the J=8 states of the deformed and superdeformed band are maximally mixed. (authors)

  12. Coexistence of spherical states with deformed and superdeformed bands in doubly magic 40Ca: A shell-model challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caurier, E.; Nowacki, F.; Menendez, J.; Poves, A.

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale shell-model calculations, with dimensions reaching 10 9 , are carried out to describe the recently observed deformed (ND) and superdeformed (SD) bands based on the first and second excited 0 + states of 40 Ca at 3.35 and 5.21 MeV, respectively. A valence space comprising two major oscillator shells, sd and pf, can accommodate most of the relevant degrees of freedom of this problem. The ND band is dominated by configurations with four particles promoted to the pf shell (4p-4h in short). The SD band by 8p-8h configurations. The ground state of 40 Ca is strongly correlated, but the closed shell still amounts to 65%. The energies of the bands are very well reproduced by the calculations. The out-band transitions connecting the SD band with other states are very small and depend on the details of the mixing among the different np-nh configurations; in spite of that, the calculation describes them reasonably. For the in-band transition probabilities along the SD band, we predict a fairly constant transition quadrupole moment Q 0 (t)∼170 e fm 2 up to J=10 that decreases toward the higher spins. We submit also that the J=8 states of the deformed and superdeformed bands are maximally mixed

  13. Determination of the bandheads spin and investigation of identical bands for Even - A nuclei of the superdeformed mass region 190

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalaby, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Using the three-parameter expression of harris expansion of the rotational energy, the dynamical moment of inertia is represented by a power-series expansion in even powers of the rotational frequency. The three expansion coefficients were determined by using Marquardt method of nonlinear least-squares routines, to fit the proposed dynamical moment of inertia with its recent experimental data for the superdeformed (SD) nuclei in the A 190 mass region. The calculated dynamical moment of inertia with the best parameters is then integrated to obtain the spin, which in turn was used to determine the static moment of inertia. The comparison of the dynamic moment of inertia and spin with their available experimental data shows good agreements between them. These procedures were succeedingly done for nine superdeformed bands in the A 190 nuclei: 1 90Hg(B1, B3), 1 94PB(B1, B2, B3), 1 96PB(B1, B2, B3), 1 94PB(B1, B22, B3), 1 96BP((B1, B2, B3) and 1 98PO. We have also investigated the identity exist among these SD bands. It was shown that some of these SD bands are identical to each other

  14. Study of the strength distribution of primary γ-transitions in the decay from superdeformed states in 194Hg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Martens, A.P.; Doessing, T.; Khoo, T.L.; Korichi, A.; Hannachi, F.; Calderin, I.J.; Lauritsen, T.; Ahmad, I.; Carpenter, M.P.; Fischer, S.M.; Hackman, G.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Nisius, D.; Reiter, P.; Amro, H.; Moore, E.F.

    1999-01-01

    The strength distribution of the primary γ rays in the decay from superdeformed (SD) states is investigated by applying the maximum likelihood method. For the 194 Hg nucleus, 41 primary transitions are identified above 2600 keV. It is concluded that they represent the strongest 10% of the transitions selected stochastically from a Porter-Thomas distribution. This would support the scenario of a statistical decay of SD states via coupling to a compound state at normal deformation. However, the occurrence of several very strong 'one-step linking' transitions is found to have a very small probability. Based on the absence of strong primary transitions from SD states in adjacent nuclei, the situation in 194 Hg is viewed as a very lucky incidence

  15. A particle-number conserving microscopic approach to octupole deformation of normal deformed and superdeformed states in 194Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nhan Hao, T.V.; Phu Dat, D.H.; Hoang Tung, N.; Tran, H.N.

    2015-01-01

    The left–right asymmetric deformation of normal deformed (ND) and superdeformed (SD) states of 194 Pb has been investigated in the framework of the parity-symmetry projection of the highly truncated diagonalization approach (HTDA), which is suited to treat the correlations in an explicitly particle-number conserving microscopic approach. A Skyrme energy density functional using the SIII and SkM* interactions has been considered to treat the particle–hole channel, whereas a density-independent δ force has been adopted for the residual interaction. The obtained results are compared with previous approaches. The calculated octupole phonon excitation energy is found to be in good qualitative agreement with available data in the ND state. (author)

  16. The quasicontinuum of gamma rays from the feeding and decay of the superdeformed in {sup 194}Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritsen, T.; Ahmad, I.; Carpenter, M.P. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Over the last year we developed techniques for the study of the quasicontinuum of gamma-rays from both the feeding and especially the decay of the superdeformed (SD) bands in the Hg nuclei, most notably {sup 192}Hg. From this analysis we could extract both the spin and energy of some of the SD bands. The quasicontinuum analysis is the only technique so far that could extract these two fundamental properties of the now more than 100 SD bands found in the A = 150 and A = 190 regions. We based our understanding of the feeding and decay on comparisons of the data with extensive Monte Carlo simulations of the emission of gamma rays, both from the entry distribution toward the SD minimum, and, at lower spins, from the decay out of the SD band back to the states in the normal well.

  17. Decay-out from low-lying superdeformed bands in Pb isotopes: Tunneling widths in a two-level mixing model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, A.N.; Davidson, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    A recently developed two-level mixing model of superdeformed decay is applied to evaluate the tunneling width between the superdeformed and normally deformed potential wells in 192 Pb and 194 Pb. Estimates are made of level densities and γ decay widths for levels in the normally deformed well, which are required for evaluation of the model. Experimental quasicontinuum results are used to suggest a spin-dependent reduction of the energy gap in the level spectrum, resulting in approximately constant level densities and decay widths in the normal well over the decay-out region for each isotope. However, it transpires that the model's prediction of the tunneling width is nearly independent of the normally deformed state widths for both isotopes. This observation is used to extract potential barrier heights for the two nuclei that depend mainly on experimentally determined values

  18. Study of some continuous spectra produced by nuclear reactions with light nuclei; Etude de quelques spectres continus produits par reactions nucleaires avec des noyaux legers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez, L

    1966-07-01

    The continuous spectra coming from several nuclear reactions with light nuclei were measured. The spectra can be explained by a two-step reaction mechanism; however, the reactions produced by {sup 6}Li are different. A mechanism was proposed to explain their spectra based on the following assumptions: {sup 6}Li makes a nuclear molecule with the target which subsequently breaks up in such a way that an {alpha} particle comes out with the kinetic energy that it has in the molecule. The calculated spectra and those measured are in good agreement. (author) [French] Nous avons mesure les spectres continus produits dans plusieurs reactions nucleaires avec des noyaux legers. A l'exception des spectres produits par {sup 6}Li, on a trouve qu'on pouvait expliquer ces spectres par le mecanisme des reactions en deux etapes. Nous avons propose un mecanisme pour expliquer les spectres produits par {sup 6}Li. On suppose que {sup 6}Li forme une molecule nucleaire avec la cible qui eclate ensuite de facon telle qu'une particule alpha de la molecule sort avec l'energie cinetique de son mouvement propre dans la molecule. Les spectres calcules avec ces hypotheses et les spectres mesures sont en bon accord. (auteur)

  19. Nuclear magnetic resonance of iron-57 nuclei in local fields in yttrium and iron garnets; Resonance magnetique nucleaire des noyaux du fer 57 dans les champs locaux du grenat d'yttrium et de fer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    We have demonstrated the nuclear resonance of {sup 57}Fe nuclei in the local field of each of the two magnetic sub-lattices of yttrium and iron garnets. The resonance frequencies and the relaxation times have been measured as a function of the temperature. (author) [French] Nous avons mis en evidence la resonance nucleaire des noyaux de {sup 57}Fe dans le champ local de chacun des deux sous-reseaux magnetiques du grenat d'yttrium et de fer. Les frequences de resonances et les temps de relaxation ont ete mesures en fonction de la temperature. (auteur)

  20. Study of superdeformation in {sup 151,152}Tb isotopes using Eurogam multi-detector; Etude de la superdeformation dans les isotopes {sup 151,152}Tb a l`aide du multidetecteur Eurogam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharraja, E B

    1994-06-01

    The aim of this work is the study of {sup 151}Tb and {sup 152}Tb nuclei submitted to increasing speeds using the EUROGAM (phase I) multi-detector. The production of high angular momentum excited nuclei is obtained during {sup 130}Te({sup 27}Al,xn) fusion-evaporation reaction with a 154 MeV bombardment energy. For {sup 151}Tb nucleus, the diagram of high spin normal deformation levels is first determined to allow the analysis of bonds between SD structures and normally deformed states. In addition to the two SD bands already described for {sup 151}Tb nucleus, 8 new SD bands are described (6 for {sup 151}Tb nucleus and 2 for {sup 152}Tb nucleus) using triple and quadruple events analysis. The SD structure analysis gives important informations about nuclear superdeformation in this mass region, in particular about SD bands de-excitation, intrinsic configuration in the second potential well, and gamma transition energy degeneration between twin SD bands. A detailed description of EUROGAM 4{pi}{gamma} multi-detector (phase I and II), which comprises 42 Ge detectors with Compton suppression, is given. (J.S.). 98 refs., 100 figs., 22 tabs.

  1. Multiparticle excitations in the {sup 149} Gd superdeformed nucleus. Signature of new C{sub 4} nucleus symmetry; Excitations multiparticules dans le noyau superdeforme {sup 149}Gd. Signature d`une symetrie nouvelle C{sub 4} du noyau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theisen, C

    1995-01-01

    The use of 8 {pi} and EUROGAM phase I multi-detectors for the study of high spin states of {sup 149} Gd nucleus has revealed unexpected new phenomenons about the superdeformation in this nucleus. The new excited bands confirm the omnipresence of twin bands phenomenon. A new multi-particle excitation (two protons and one neutron) has been discovered. Thanks to the second generation EUROGAM detector, unexpected discoveries such as C{sub 4} symmetry, level interactions, complete backbending were obtained for the second potential well. The knowledge of interacting levels gives informations about the nucleon-nucleon residual interaction and could allow the determination of SD bands excitation energy. The complex processing and analysis of high multiplicity events has led to the development of new computing tools. An automatic band research program has been written for the discovery of new excited bands, and an exact method for the elimination of uncorrected events has been developed. The improvements of multi-detector performances should allow the discovery of more exceptional phenomenons and new anomalies in the SD bands. (J.S.). 222 refs., 86 figs., 38 tabs.

  2. Study of link transitions between superdeformed well and normally deformed well in Hg{sup 192} and research and development for a new concept of {gamma} photons detection: the Agata array; Etude des liens entre puits superdeforme et puits normalement deforme dans {sup 192}Hg et recherche et developpement pour un nouveau concept de detection de photons {gamma}: le multidetecteur AGATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roccaz, J

    2006-07-15

    The atomic nucleus can adopt a very elongated shape with an axis ratio 2:1, this is the superdeformation phenomenon. Nowadays more than 300 superdeformed bands have been identified at high spin, but the determination of excitation energies, spins and parities of the associated states have been established for only one tenth of these bands. The former quantities (E{sup *}, I, {pi}) can only be determined via the linking gamma-transitions between the superdeformed (sd) and the normally deformed (nd) states. Within the framework of this thesis, we have investigated the Hg{sup 192} nucleus in order to establish E{sup *}, I and {pi}. This nucleus is predicted to be doubly magic at superdeformation and hence is taken as a reference in the mass {approx} 190 region. The experiment was carried out at Strasbourg using the Euroball-IV array and the vivitron accelerator. The obtained results are not convincing and seem to be at the limit of the performances of Euroball. Next generation of arrays will abandon the Compton-shields and use tracking concept to reconstruct the trajectories of incident photons, and therefore we expect a huge increase of efficiency. The second part of this work was focused on the research and development work for the AGATA (Advanced GAmma Tracking Array) project. We have performed simulations with the GEANT-4 code and developed tracking methods to reconstruct pair-creation events. The full AGATA will be operational around 2015 and will enhance by around two orders of magnitude the observational limits. (author)

  3. Evidence for octupole softness of the superdeformed shape from band interactions in sup 193,4 Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, D.M.; Riley, M.A.; Alderson, A.; Ali, I.; Fallon, P.; Forsyth, P.D.; Hanna, F.; Mullins, S.M.; Roberts, J.W.; Sharpey-Schafer, J.F.; Twin, P.J. (Liverpool Univ. (UK). Oliver Lodge Lab.); Bengtsson, T. (Lund Inst. of Tech. (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematical Physics); Bentley, M.A.; Bruce, A.M.; Simpson, J. (Science and Engineering Research Council, Daresbury (UK). Daresbury Lab.); Nazarewicz, W. (Liverpool Univ. (UK). Oliver Lodge Lab. Politechnika Warszawska (Poland). Inst. Fizyki); Poynter, R.; Regan, P.; Wadsworth, R. (York Univ. (UK). Dept. of Physics); Satula, W. (Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Inst. Fizyki Teoretycznej); Sletten, G. (Niels Bohr Inst., Roskilde (Denmark). Tandem Accelerator Lab.); Wyss, R. (Manne Siegbahn Inst. of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1990-12-24

    Three superdeformed (SD) bands have been observed in {sup 194}Hg and four (or five ) SD bands in {sup 193}Hg using the {sup 150}Nd+{sup 48}Ca reaction. All bands except for two in {sup 193}Hg show a steady increase in dynamical moment of inertia J{sup (2)} with rotational frequency. The two exceptional bands form a classical pair of strongly interacting bands. It is suggested that the strong interaction between the bands is caused by a softness to octupole deformation. Evidence is found for the existence of dipole transitions connecting bands of opposite signature in {sup 193}Hg. The strengths of these transitions suggest that they are probably E1 supporting the importance of the role of octupole vibrations. These data suggest the wider importance of octupole softness in enhancing E1 transitions in the SD feeding and decay mechanisms. The spectroscopy of the observed SD bands in {sup 193,4}Hg are discussed in detail and attention is drawn to the 'identical' energies of {gamma}-rays in these isotopes with those in lighter isotopes. The similarities in bands relate to the neutron sub-shell closure for SD nuclei at N=112. (orig.).

  4. Cranked relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov theory: formalism and application to the superdeformed bands in the A∼190 region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanasjev, A.V.; Ring, P.; Koenig, J.

    2000-01-01

    Cranked relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov theory without and with approximate particle number projection by means of the Lipkin-Nogami method is presented in detail as an extension of relativistic mean field theory with pairing correlations to the rotating frame. Pairing correlations are taken into account by a finite range two-body force of Gogny type. The applicability of this theory to the description of rotating nuclei is studied in detail on the example of superdeformed bands in even-even nuclei of the A∼190 mass region. Different aspects such as the importance of pairing and particle number projection, the dependence of the results on the parametrization of the RMF Lagrangian and Gogny force, etc., are investigated in detail. It is shown that without any adjustment of new parameters the best description of experimental data is obtained by using the well established parameter sets NL1 for the Lagrangian and D1S for the pairing force. Contrary to previous studies at spin zero it is found that the increase of the strength of the Gogny force is not necessary in the framework of relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov theory provided that particle number projection is performed

  5. Properties of superdeformed bands in the 151Tb nucleus studied with the EUROGAM French-British spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finck, Christian

    1997-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the study of superdeformation (SD) of the atomic nucleus. In the mass region A ≅ 150 those nuclei have a quadrupole deformation of about 0.6. However, this value is an average and the microscopic structure reflected in the band configurations, affects this deformation. Determination of this value by electric quadrupole moment studies is particularly useful especially for the identical SD bands (SD bands belonging to neighbouring nuclei and having the same moment of inertia). Knowledge of the different quadrupole deformation should shed light on the competition between mass difference, spin alignment and deformation of the nucleus. The electric quadrupole moments are deduced from lifetime measurements of the SD states using the Doppler Shift Attenuation Method. Experimentally, one observes a variation in the electric quadrupole moments of the lowest SD states which suggests a gradual change of the nuclear deformation towards normal less deformed shapes. The deexcitation mechanism is poorly understood in the A ≅ 150 mass region due to lack of experimental information: up to now, no transition connecting the second and the first potential well has been observed for these SD states. Experimental studies of deexcitation patterns of SD bands are therefore crucial to fix the decay-out mechanism. Experimental data on the 151 Tb nucleus were collected via fusion-evaporation reaction, using the EUROGAM phase II array. (author)

  6. Study of the first collective levels of the even-even nuclei between masses 182 and 206; Etude des premiers niveaux collectifs des noyaux pairs-pairs entre les masses 182 et 206

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barloutaud, R; Leveque, A; Lehmann, P; Quidort, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    The reduced probabilities of deexcitation of the first two 2 + levels of {sup 184}W, {sup 186}W, {sup 188}Os, {sup 190}Os, {sup 192}Os and {sup 194}Pt have been deduced from coulombic excitation experiments on these nuclei.The results are included in a chart of the properties of the first two 2 + levels of even-even nuclei situated between masses 182 and 206. The variation of these properties as a function of nuclear distortion is compared with the various theoretical predictions concerning vibration levels. (author) [French] Les probabilites reduites de desexcitation des deux premiers niveaux 2 + de {sup 184}W, {sup 186}W, {sup 188}Os, {sup 190}Os, {sup 192}Os and {sup 194}Pt ont ete deduites des experiences d'excitation coulombienne de ces noyaux. Les resultats sont inseres dans une systematique des proprietes des deux premiers niveaux 2 + des noyaux pairs-pairs situes entre les masses 182 et 206. La variation de ces proprietes en fonction de la deformation nucleaire est comparee aux diverses predictions theoriques concernant les niveaux de vibration. (auteur)

  7. Microscopic descriptions of the superdeformed bands in the region A 190: Bohr and Routhian Hamiltonians in the Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libert, J.; Girod, M.; Delaroche, J-P.; Berger, J-F.; Romain, P.; Peru, S.

    1997-01-01

    The superdeformed bands of the nuclei in the region A = 190 were described by two microscopic approaches using Gogny D1 finite range interaction. The first one consists in building a Bohr Hamiltonian in the framework of Gauss overlap approximation (GOA) of the generator-coordinate method, starting from Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov solutions under quadrupole constraints. This collective Hamiltonian microscopically determined for five quadrupolar variables is then diagonalized by a projection method on a collective based adapted to the large variety of the deformations to be considered. A special attention was given to the precise definition of the under-barrier collective wavefunctions (for which an original method of solving the collective Schroedinger equation was developed) in order to described correctly the lifetime of the shape isomeric states. The other approach, that of Routhian is based also on the Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov approximation. The calculations are carried out with and without restoring the broken symmetry associated to the particle numbers (as given by Lipkin-Nogami). The results (excitation energies, moments of inertia, etc...) of the two calculation methods are compared with most recent experimental data. The existence of the superdeformed bands corresponding to vibrational excitations similar to those appearing in β and γ bands is proposed

  8. Search and analysis of superdeformed and oblate states in {sup 193}Pb nucleus with the EUROGAM II multidetector array; Recherche et analyse des etats superdeformes et aplatis dans le noyau {sup 193}Pb a l'aide du multidetecteur EUROGAM II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducroux, L [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; [Universite Claude Bernard, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1997-01-09

    This work is devoted to the search and analysis of superdeformed and oblate states in {sup 193}Pb nucleus. High spin states of this isotope, populated via fusion-evaporation reaction {sup 168}Er ({sup 30}Si, 5n) {sup 193}Pb, have been studied with the EUROGAM II {gamma} multidetector array located near the VIVITRON accelerator in Strasbourg. New sorting and analysis programs have been developed in particular related to the background treatment. Angular distribution and linear polarisation analysis allowed us to assign the {gamma} transition multipolarities. Five dipole bands, corresponding to a weakly oblate-deformed shape of the nucleus, have been observed and connected to the low-lying states. The level scheme has been considerably extended up to a spin of 61/2 {Dirac_h} and an excitation energy of about 8 MeV. These structures have been interpreted as based on a high-K two-quasi-proton excitation coupled to rotation aligned quasi-neutrons. Six superdeformed bands, corresponding to a high prolate-deformed shape of the nucleus, have been observed. These six bands have been interpreted as three pairs of signature partners based on quasineutron excitations. The extraction of the g-factor of a K=9/2 neutron superdeformed orbital has been done for the first time in lead isotopes, giving access to the magnetic properties of the extreme nuclear matter. All these results have been discussed in terms of microscopic mean field self-consistent Hartree-Fock calculations using the microscopic 'rotor + particle(s)' model. (author)

  9. Search and analysis of superdeformed and oblate states in {sup 193}Pb nucleus with the EUROGAM II multidetector array; Recherche et analyse des etats superdeformes et aplatis dans le noyau {sup 193}Pb a l'aide du multidetecteur EUROGAM II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducroux, L. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire]|[Universite Claude Bernard, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1997-01-09

    This work is devoted to the search and analysis of superdeformed and oblate states in {sup 193}Pb nucleus. High spin states of this isotope, populated via fusion-evaporation reaction {sup 168}Er ({sup 30}Si, 5n) {sup 193}Pb, have been studied with the EUROGAM II {gamma} multidetector array located near the VIVITRON accelerator in Strasbourg. New sorting and analysis programs have been developed in particular related to the background treatment. Angular distribution and linear polarisation analysis allowed us to assign the {gamma} transition multipolarities. Five dipole bands, corresponding to a weakly oblate-deformed shape of the nucleus, have been observed and connected to the low-lying states. The level scheme has been considerably extended up to a spin of 61/2 {Dirac_h} and an excitation energy of about 8 MeV. These structures have been interpreted as based on a high-K two-quasi-proton excitation coupled to rotation aligned quasi-neutrons. Six superdeformed bands, corresponding to a high prolate-deformed shape of the nucleus, have been observed. These six bands have been interpreted as three pairs of signature partners based on quasineutron excitations. The extraction of the g-factor of a K=9/2 neutron superdeformed orbital has been done for the first time in lead isotopes, giving access to the magnetic properties of the extreme nuclear matter. All these results have been discussed in terms of microscopic mean field self-consistent Hartree-Fock calculations using the microscopic 'rotor + particle(s)' model. (author)

  10. Primary transitions between the yrast superdeformed band and low-lying normal deformed states in {sup 194}Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauschild, K.; Bernstein, L.A.; Becker, J.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The observation of one-step `primary` gamma-ray transitions directly linking the superdeformed (SD) states to the normal deformed (ND) low-lying states of known excitation energies (E{sub x}), spins and parities (J{sup {pi}}) is crucial to determining the E{sub x} and J{sup {pi}} of the SD states. With this knowledge one can begin to address some of the outstanding problems associated with SD nuclei, such as the identical band issue, and one can also place more stringent restrictions on theoretical calculations which predict SD states and their properties. Brinkman, et al., used the early implementation of the GAMMASPHERE spectrometer array (32 detectors) and proposed a single, candidate {gamma} ray linking the {sup 194}Pb yrast SD band to the low-lying ND states in {sup 194}Pb. Using 55 detectors in the GAMMASPHERE array Khoo, et al., observed multiple links between the yrast SD band in {sup 194}Hg and the low-lying level scheme and conclusively determined E{sub x} and J of the yrast SD states. Here the authors report on an experiment in which Gammasphere with 88 detectors was used and the E{sub x} and J{sup {pi}} values of the yrast SD states in {sup 194}Pb were uniquely determined. Twelve one-step linking transitions between the yrast SD band and low-lying states in {sup 194}Pb have been identified, including the transition proposed by Brinkman. These transitions have been placed in the level scheme of {sup 194}Pb using coincidence relationships and agreements between the energies of the primary transitions and the energy differences in level spacings. Furthermore, measurements of angular asymmetries have yielded the multipolarities of the primaries which have allowed J{sup {pi}} assignments of the {sup 194}Pb SD states to be unambiguously determined for the first time without a priori assumptions about the character of SD bands. A study performed in parallel to this work using the EUROGAM-II array reports similar, but somewhat less extensive, results.

  11. Contribution to the study of collective states of heavy nuclei by means of coulomb excitation; Contribution a l'etude des etats collectifs des noyaux lourds par excitation coulombienne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barloutaud, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-06-15

    The following nuclei were excited by protons of 5 MeV maximum energy: {sup 182}W - {sup 184}W - {sup 186}W - {sup 186}Os - {sup 188}Os - {sup 189}Os - {sup 190}Os - {sup 192}Os - {sup 194}Pt - {sup 196}Pt - {sup 198}Pt - {sup 198}Hg - {sup 200}Hg - {sup 202}Hg - {sup 204}Hg - {sup 206}Pb. The reduced probabilities of the various transitions were deduced from the coulomb excitation cross-section measurements. For some even-even nuclei two 2 + levels were excited. The properties of the excited levels are interpreted in terms of the collective model. (author) [French] Au moyen de protons d'energie inferieure a 5 MeV, l'excitation coulombienne des noyaux suivants a ete etudiee: {sup 182}W - {sup 184}W - {sup 186}W - {sup 186}Os - {sup 188}Os - {sup 189}Os - {sup 190}Os - {sup 192}Os - {sup 194}Pt - {sup 196}Pt - {sup 198}Pt - {sup 198}Hg - {sup 200}Hg - {sup 202}Hg - {sup 204}Hg - {sup 206}Pb. La mesure de la section efficace d'excitation coulombienne a permis de deduire les -probabilites reduites des diverses transitions observees. Dans certains noyaux pair-pair, deux niveaux de caractere 2 + ont ete excites. L'interpretation de ces niveaux en termes de niveaux de rotation et de niveaux de vibration a l'aide du modele collectif est discutee. En particulier, la variation des proprietes de ces niveaux avec la deformation nucleaire permet de fixer des limites a la validite des diverses hypotheses entrant dans le modele collectif. (auteur)

  12. Study by {alpha}-particle scattering, of the collective states of closed shell nuclei with 28 neutrons, 28 and 50 protons; Etude des etats a caractere collectif des noyaux au voisinage des couches fermees par diffusion inelastique des particules {alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruge, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-01-01

    This report gives the results from a systematic study by 44 MeV {alpha} particle scattering on the collective states of closed shell nuclei with 28 neutrons, 28 and 50 protons especially in the energy region corresponding to the two phonon vibrational triplet. The nuclei studied are: {sup 46}Ti, {sup 48}Ti, {sup 50}Ti, {sup 52}Cr, {sup 54}Fe, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 58}Fe, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 60}Ni, {sup 62}Ni, {sup 64}Ni, {sup 112}Sn, {sup 114}Sn, {sup 116}Sn, {sup 118}Sn, {sup 120}Sn, {sup 122}Sn and {sup 124}Sn. The theoretical analysis has been made with the Austern and Blair model using a phase shift analysis of the elastic scattering. Deformation lengths {delta}{sub I} = {beta}{sub I}R and transition probabilities obtained are compared with several experimental and theoretical data. (author) [French] Ce rapport donne les resultats d'une etude systematique par diffusion de particules {alpha} de 44 MeV des etats collectifs des noyaux au voisinage des couches fermees a 28 neutrons et 28 et 50 protons, specialement dans la region correspondant au triplet vibrationnel a deux phonons. Les noyaux etudies sont: {sup 46}Ti, {sup 48}Ti, {sup 50}Ti, {sup 52}Cr, {sup 54}Fe, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 58}Fe, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 60}Ni, {sup 62}Ni, {sup 64}Ni, {sup 112}Sn, {sup 114}Sn, {sup 116}Sn, {sup 118}Sn, {sup 120}Sn, {sup 122}Sn et {sup 124}Sn. L'analyse theorique a ete faite a l'aide du modele de Austern et Blair utilisant une analyse en dephasages de la diffusion elastique. Les longueurs de deformation {delta}I = {beta}{sub I}R obtenues pour chaque niveau sont comparees a plusieurs donnees experimentales et theoriques. (auteur)

  13. 16O + 16O + valence neutrons in molecular orbitals structures of positive- and negative-parity superdeformed bands in 34S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Yasutaka

    2015-01-01

    The structures of superdeformed (SD) states in 34 S have been investigated using the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics and generator coordinate method (GCM). The GCM basis wave functions are calculated via energy variation with a constraint on the quadrupole deformation parameter β. By applying the GCM after parity and angular momentum projections, the coexistence of two positive- and one negative-parity SD bands are predicted, and low-lying states and other deformed bands are obtained. The SD bands have structures of 16 O + 16 O + two valence neutrons in molecular orbitals around the two 16 O cores in a cluster picture. The configurations of the two valence neutrons are δ 2 and π 2 for the positive-parity SD bands and π 1 δ 1 for the negative-parity SD band. (author)

  14. 16O + 16O + valence neutrons in molecular orbitals structures of positive- and negative-parity superdeformed bands in 34S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Yasutaka

    2014-01-01

    The structures of superdeformed (SD) states in 34 S are investigated using the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics and generator coordinate method (GCM). The GCM basis wave functions are calculated via energy variation with a constraint on the quadrupole deformation parameter β. By applying the GCM after parity and angular momentum projections, the coexistence of two positive- and one negative-parity SD bands are predicted, and low-lying states and other deformed bands are obtained. The SD bands have structures of 16 O + 16 O + two valence neutrons in molecular orbitals around the two 16 O cores in a cluster picture. The configurations of the two valence neutrons are δ 2 and π 2 for the positive-parity SD bands and π 1 δ 1 for the negative-parity SD band

  15. Superdeformed bands in /sup 150/Gd and /sup 151/Tb: Evidence for the influence of high-N intruder states at large deformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallon, P.; Alderson, A.; Bentley, M.A.; Bruce, A.M.; Forsyth, P.D.; Howe, D.; Roberts, J.W.; Sharpey-Schafer, J.F.; Twin, P.J.; Beck, F.A.

    1989-02-16

    Rotational bands, characteristic of a superdeformed prolate shape (epsilon approx. = 0.6) and extending to above spin 60 Planck constant, have been observed in both /sup 150/Gd and /sup 151/Tb. The magnitudes of the moments of inertia I/sup (2)/ were found to vary with frequency and the variation greatly exceeded that seen in /sup 148,149/Gd and /sup 151,152/Dy. The differences in the I/sup (2)/'s are attributed to the occupation of particular high-N orbitals. Moreover, contrary to the previous examples the bands in both /sup 150/Gd and /sup 151/Tb de-excited at a much higher rotational frequency of Planck constant..omega.. approx. = 0.4 MeV and this may indicate that the pair gap extends to higher frequencies in /sup 150/Gd and /sup 151/Tb.

  16. Influence of i13/2 proton and j15/2 neutron intruding orbitals on the behaviour of 190 mass region superdeformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duprat, J.

    1995-01-01

    This work concerns the study of the nuclear superdeformation phenomenon in the A = 190 mass region. The superdeformed (SD) states in 193 Tl, 194 Tl 195 Tl were produced via heavy-ion induced reactions and studied with the EUROGAM gamma multidetector array. The analysis of high-multiplicity events allowed the study of the magnetic properties of the SD states in these nuclei. For the first time, the g-factor of a proton orbital in a SD nucleus in the A = 190 mass region has been extracted. This measurement indicates that the two known bands in 195 Tl-SD are built on the i 13/2 proton intruder orbital. A new SD band has been found in this isotope: it is the first SD band built on an excited proton state found in the A = 190 region. Finally an interaction between two pairs of bands has been established in 194 Tl; this interaction indicate the crossing of two neutron orbitals above the N = 112 gap. The magnetic properties of the states of the SD bands in 194 Tl reveals that these bands are built on configurations in which the single proton and neutron intrinsic spins are aligned. Comparison between different SD bands in the Thallium isotopes shows the prominent role of the i 13/2 proton and the j 15/2 neutron intruder orbitals in the smooth increase of the dynamical moment of inertia as a function of the rotational frequency. In addition, this work reports on the first observation of a SD rotational band produced in a (HI, αxn) reaction channel. The study of the maximum spin reached by the SD bands indicates both a competition between alpha emission and fission of the compound nucleus, and the limitation due to the fission process in the population of the SD nuclei in the A = 190 region. (author). 120 refs., 112 figs., 22 tabs., 2 ann

  17. Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Visual Impairment KidsHealth / For Teens / Visual Impairment What's in ...

  18. Impaired Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Get the Facts What Works: Strategies to Increase Car Seat and Booster Seat ... narcotics. 3 That’s one percent of the 111 million self-reported episodes of alcohol-impaired driving among U.S. ...

  19. Study of the dispersion phenomena connected with the absorption by recoilless nuclear resonance fluorescence; Etude des phenomenes de dispersion lies a l'absorption resonnante sans recul des noyaux atomiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imbert, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-12-01

    In nuclear resonance fluorescence as in the optical field abnormal dispersion curves are related to the absorption lines. It is possible, by using quadrupolar or magnetic splitting of the line in the case of recoilless resonance fluorescence (Moessbauer effect) to obtain differential dispersion effects between the two orthogonal linear or the two inverse circular components of the incident gamma radiation. These effects induce bi-refraction phenomena or Faraday rotation on the gamma beam, which have been studied on Fe-57 enriched absorbers. (author) [French] Comme dans le domaine optique, aux raies d'absorption de fluorescence resonnante des noyaux atomiques sont associees des courbes de dispersion anormale. Les decompositions des raies d'absorption de fluorescence resonnante sans recul (raies Moessbauer) par couplage quadrupolaire ou effet Zeeman permettent d'obtenir des effets dispersifs differentiels entre composantes lineaires orthogonales ou circulaires inverses du rayonnement gamma incident. Ces effets se traduisent par des phenomenes de birefringence ou de rotation Faraday, qui ont pu etre etudies sur des milieux enrichis en fer-57. (auteur)

  20. Contribution to the study of low-energy (d,p) reactions on light nuclei; Contribution a l'etude des reactions (d,p) a basse energie sur noyaux legers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Van, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-05-15

    This work is carried out with a view to analysing low energy (d,p) reactions on light nuclei measured at Grenoble or Algiers and suggesting a direct mechanism. The distorted wave approximation has been applied; this requires the development of programmes for the IBM 7044 computer at the 'Institut des Mathematiques Appliquees' in Grenoble. The (d,p) reactions on {sup 14}N, {sup 9}Be, {sup 22}Ne and {sup 16}O are dealt with. A calculation of the interference of the direct interaction and of resonating effects has been applied to {sup 16}O. (author) [French] Ce travail a pour but d'analyser les reactions (d,p) a basse energie sur noyaux legers, mesurees a Grenoble ou a Alger et qui suggerent un mecanisme direct. L'approximation des ondes distordues a ete appliquee, necessitant la mise au point de programmes sur l'ordinateur IBM 7044 de l'Institut des Mathematiques Appliquees de Grenoble. Des reactions (d,p) sur {sup 14}N, {sup 9}Be, {sup 22}Ne et {sup 16}O sont traitees. Un calcul de l'interference de l'interaction directe et des effets resonnants a ete applique a {sup 16}O. (auteur)

  1. Contribution to the study of low-energy (d,p) reactions on light nuclei; Contribution a l'etude des reactions (d,p) a basse energie sur noyaux legers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Van, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-05-15

    This work is carried out with a view to analysing low energy (d,p) reactions on light nuclei measured at Grenoble or Algiers and suggesting a direct mechanism. The distorted wave approximation has been applied; this requires the development of programmes for the IBM 7044 computer at the 'Institut des Mathematiques Appliquees' in Grenoble. The (d,p) reactions on {sup 14}N, {sup 9}Be, {sup 22}Ne and {sup 16}O are dealt with. A calculation of the interference of the direct interaction and of resonating effects has been applied to {sup 16}O. (author) [French] Ce travail a pour but d'analyser les reactions (d,p) a basse energie sur noyaux legers, mesurees a Grenoble ou a Alger et qui suggerent un mecanisme direct. L'approximation des ondes distordues a ete appliquee, necessitant la mise au point de programmes sur l'ordinateur IBM 7044 de l'Institut des Mathematiques Appliquees de Grenoble. Des reactions (d,p) sur {sup 14}N, {sup 9}Be, {sup 22}Ne et {sup 16}O sont traitees. Un calcul de l'interference de l'interaction directe et des effets resonnants a ete applique a {sup 16}O. (auteur)

  2. Octupole correlations in neutron-rich {sup 143,145}Ba and a type of superdeformed band in {sup 145}Ba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, S.J.; Wang, M.G.; Long, G.L.; Zhu, L.Y.; Gan, C.Y.; Yang, L.M.; Sakhaee, M.; Li, M.; Deng, J.K. [Physics Department, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, Peoples Republic of (China); Zhu, S.J.; Hamilton, J.H.; Ramayya, A.V.; Jones, E.F.; Hwang, J.K.; Zhang, X.Q.; Gore, P.M.; Peker, L.K.; Drafta, G.; Babu, B.R.; Deng, J.K.; Ginter, T.N.; Beyer, C.J.; Kormicki, J.; Ter-Akopian, G.M.; Daniel, A.V. [Physics Department, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Zhu, S.J.; Ter-Akopian, G.M.; Daniel, A.V. [Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Ma, W.C. [Physics Department, Mississippi State University, Mississippi 39762 (United States); Cole, J.D.; Aryaeinejad, R.; Drigert, M.W. [Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 (United States); Rasmussen, J.O.; Asztalos, S.; Lee, I.Y.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Chu, S.Y.; Gregorich, K.E.; Mohar, M.F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Ter-Akopian, G.M.; Daniel, A.V.; Oganessian, Y.T.; Kliman, J. [Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russia); Donangelo, R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, RG (Brazil); Stoyer, M.A.; Lougheed, R.W.; Moody, K.J.; Wild, J.F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Prussin, S.G. [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Kliman, J. [Institute of Physics, SASc, Dubravskacesta 9, 84228 Bratislava (Slovakia); Griffin, H.C. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104 (United States)

    1999-11-01

    High spin states in neutron-rich odd-{ital Z} {sup 143,145}Ba nuclei have been investigated from the study of prompt {gamma} rays in the spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf by using {gamma}-{gamma}- and {gamma}-{gamma}-{gamma}- coincidence techniques. Alternating parity bands are identified for the first time in {sup 145}Ba and extended in {sup 143}Ba. A new side band, with equal, constant dynamic, and kinetic moments of inertia equal to the rigid body value, as found in superdeformed bands, is discovered in {sup 145}Ba. Enhanced E1 transitions between the negative- and positive-parity bands in these nuclei give evidence for strong octupole deformation in {sup 143}Ba and in {sup 145}Ba. These collective bands show competition and coexistence between symmetric and asymmetric shapes in {sup 145}Ba. Evidence is found for crossing M1 and E1 transitions between the s=+i and s={minus}i doublets in {sup 143}Ba. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  3. Physical Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewin, Shari

    Many health conditions can lead to physical impairments that impact computer and Web access. Musculoskeletal conditions such as arthritis and cumulative trauma disorders can make movement stiff and painful. Movement disorders such as tremor, Parkinsonism and dystonia affect the ability to control movement, or to prevent unwanted movements. Often, the same underlying health condition also has sensory or cognitive effects. People with dexterity impairments may use a standard keyboard and mouse, or any of a wide range of alternative input mechanisms. Examples are given of the diverse ways that specific dexterity impairments and input mechanisms affect the fundamental actions of Web browsing. As the Web becomes increasingly sophisticated, and physically demanding, new access features at the Web browser and page level will be necessary.

  4. Cortical visual impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Koželj, Urša

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we discuss cortical visual impairment, diagnosis that is in the developed world in first place, since 20 percent of children with blindness or low vision are diagnosed with it. The objectives of the thesis are to define cortical visual impairment and the definition of characters suggestive of the cortical visual impairment as well as to search for causes that affect the growing diagnosis of cortical visual impairment. There are a lot of signs of cortical visual impairment. ...

  5. Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) Overview Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate stage between the expected cognitive decline of normal aging and the more-serious decline of dementia. It ...

  6. Adapting for Impaired Patrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Describes how a library, with an MCI Corporation grant, approached the process of setting up computers for the visually impaired. Discusses preparations, which included hiring a visually-impaired user as a consultant and contacting the VIP (Visually Impaired Persons) group; equipment; problems with the graphical user interface; and training.…

  7. Memory Impairment in Children with Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Gillian; Dworzynski, Katharina; Slonims, Vicky; Simonoff, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess whether any memory impairment co-occurring with language impairment is global, affecting both verbal and visual domains, or domain specific. Method: Visual and verbal memory, learning, and processing speed were assessed in children aged 6 years to 16 years 11 months (mean 9y 9m, SD 2y 6mo) with current,…

  8. Properties of superdeformed bands in the {sup 151}Tb nucleus studied with the EUROGAM French-British spectrometer; Proprietes des bandes superdeformees dans le noyau de {sup 151}Tb etudiees avec le spectrometre franco-britannique EUROGAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finck, Christian [Centre de Recherches Nucleaires de Strasbourg-Cronenbourg, 67 (France)

    1997-04-24

    The subject of this thesis is the study of superdeformation (SD) of the atomic nucleus. In the mass region A {approx_equal} 150 those nuclei have a quadrupole deformation of about 0.6. However, this value is an average and the microscopic structure reflected in the band configurations, affects this deformation. Determination of this value by electric quadrupole moment studies is particularly useful especially for the identical SD bands (SD bands belonging to neighbouring nuclei and having the same moment of inertia). Knowledge of the different quadrupole deformation should shed light on the competition between mass difference, spin alignment and deformation of the nucleus. The electric quadrupole moments are deduced from lifetime measurements of the SD states using the Doppler Shift Attenuation Method. Experimentally, one observes a variation in the electric quadrupole moments of the lowest SD states which suggests a gradual change of the nuclear deformation towards normal less deformed shapes. The deexcitation mechanism is poorly understood in the A {approx_equal} 150 mass region due to lack of experimental information: up to now, no transition connecting the second and the first potential well has been observed for these SD states. Experimental studies of deexcitation patterns of SD bands are therefore crucial to fix the decay-out mechanism. Experimental data on the {sup 151}Tb nucleus were collected via fusion-evaporation reaction, using the EUROGAM phase II array. (author) 121 refs., 61 figs., 22 tabs.

  9. Criteria for driver impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brookhuis, K.A.; De Waard, D.; Fairclough, S.H

    2003-01-01

    Most traffic accidents can be attributed to driver impairment, e.g. inattention, fatigue, intoxication, etc. It is now technically feasible to monitor and diagnose driver behaviour with respect to impairment with the aid of a limited number of in-vehicle sensors. However, a valid framework for the

  10. Congenital hearing impairment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robson, Caroline D. [Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Establishing the etiology of congenital hearing impairment can significantly improve treatment for certain causes of hearing loss and facilitates genetic counseling. High-resolution CT and MRI have contributed to the evaluation and management of hearing impairment. In addition, with the identification of innumerable genetic loci and genetic defects involved in hearing loss, genetic testing has emerged as an invaluable tool in the assessment of hearing impairment. Some of the common forms of congenital hearing loss are reviewed and their imaging features illustrated. (orig.)

  11. Congenital hearing impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robson, Caroline D.

    2006-01-01

    Establishing the etiology of congenital hearing impairment can significantly improve treatment for certain causes of hearing loss and facilitates genetic counseling. High-resolution CT and MRI have contributed to the evaluation and management of hearing impairment. In addition, with the identification of innumerable genetic loci and genetic defects involved in hearing loss, genetic testing has emerged as an invaluable tool in the assessment of hearing impairment. Some of the common forms of congenital hearing loss are reviewed and their imaging features illustrated. (orig.)

  12. Microscopic descriptions of the superdeformed bands in the region A 190: Bohr and Routhian Hamiltonians in the Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov approximation; Descriptions microscopiques des bandes superdeformees dans la region A 190: Hamiltonien de Bohr et Routhian a l`approximation de Hartee-Fock-Bogolyubov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libert, J. [Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires, Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 Gradignan (France); Girod, M.; Delaroche, J-P.; Berger, J-F.; Romain, P.; Peru, S. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France)

    1997-06-01

    The superdeformed bands of the nuclei in the region A = 190 were described by two microscopic approaches using Gogny D1 finite range interaction. The first one consists in building a Bohr Hamiltonian in the framework of Gauss overlap approximation (GOA) of the generator-coordinate method, starting from Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov solutions under quadrupole constraints. This collective Hamiltonian microscopically determined for five quadrupolar variables is then diagonalized by a projection method on a collective based adapted to the large variety of the deformations to be considered. A special attention was given to the precise definition of the under-barrier collective wavefunctions (for which an original method of solving the collective Schroedinger equation was developed) in order to described correctly the lifetime of the shape isomeric states. The other approach, that of Routhian is based also on the Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov approximation. The calculations are carried out with and without restoring the broken symmetry associated to the particle numbers (as given by Lipkin-Nogami). The results (excitation energies, moments of inertia, etc...) of the two calculation methods are compared with most recent experimental data. The existence of the superdeformed bands corresponding to vibrational excitations similar to those appearing in {beta} and {gamma} bands is proposed

  13. Impairments to Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an external Non-Government web site. Impairments to Vision Normal Vision Diabetic Retinopathy Age-related Macular Degeneration In this ... pictures, fixate on the nose to simulate the vision loss. In diabetic retinopathy, the blood vessels in ...

  14. Stormwater Impaired Watersheds

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Stormwater impaired watersheds occuring on both the Priority Waters (Part D - Completed TMDL) and 303(d) list of waters (Part A - need TMDL) The Vermont State...

  15. Vascular cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Vakhnina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular pathology of the brain is the second most common cause of cognitive impairment after Alzheimer's disease. The article describes the modern concepts of etiology, pathogenetic mechanisms, clinical features and approaches to diagnosis and therapy of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI. Cerebrovascular accident, chronic cerebral circulatory insufficiency and their combination, sometimes in combination with a concomitant neurodegenerative process, are shown to be the major types of brain lesions leading to VCI. The clinical presentation of VCI is characterized by the neuropsychological status dominated by impairment of the executive frontal functions (planning, control, attention in combination with focal neurological symptoms. The diagnosis is based on comparing of the revealed neuropsychological and neurological features with neuroimaging data. Neurometabolic, acetylcholinergic, glutamatergic, and other vasoactive drugs and non-pharmacological methods are widely used to treat VCI. 

  16. Lithium and Renal Impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, René Ernst; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Nolen, Willem A

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lithium is established as an effective treatment of mania, of depression in bipolar and unipolar disorder, and in maintenance treatment of these disorders. However, due to the necessity of monitoring and concerns about irreversible adverse effects, in particular renal impairment......, after long-term use, lithium might be underutilized. METHODS: This study reviewed 6 large observational studies addressing the risk of impaired renal function associated with lithium treatment and methodological issues impacting interpretation of results. RESULTS: An increased risk of renal impairment...... associated with lithium treatment is suggested. This increased risk may, at least partly, be a result of surveillance bias. Additionally, the earliest studies pointed toward an increased risk of end-stage renal disease associated with lithium treatment, whereas the later and methodologically most sound...

  17. Social communication impairments: pragmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Robert L

    2007-06-01

    Social communication or pragmatic impairments are characterized and illustrated as involving inappropriate or ineffective use of language and gesture in social contexts. Three clinical vignettes illustrate different pragmatic impairments and the wealth of diagnostic information that can be garnered from observation of a child's social communication behavior. Definitions of, and developmental milestones in, domains of pragmatic competence are provided. Several screening instruments are suggested for use in assessing pragmatic competence within the time-frame of a pediatric examination. Frequent comorbid psychiatric conditions are described and a sample of current neurobiologic research is briefly summarized.

  18. Medications and impaired driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetland, Amanda; Carr, David B

    2014-04-01

    To describe the association of specific medication classes with driving outcomes and provide clinical recommendations. The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for articles published from January 1973 to June 2013 on classes of medications associated with driving impairment. The search included outcome terms such as automobile driving, motor vehicle crash, driving simulator, and road tests. Only English-language articles that contained findings from observational or interventional designs with ≥ 10 participants were included in this review. Cross-sectional studies, case series, and case reports were excluded. Driving is an important task and activity for the majority of adults. Some commonly prescribed medications have been associated with driving impairment measured by road performance, driving simulation, and/or motor vehicle crashes. This review of 30 studies identified findings with barbiturates, benzodiazepines, hypnotics, antidepressants, opioid and nonsteroidal analgesics, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, antiparkinsonian agents, skeletal muscle relaxants, antihistamines, anticholinergic medications, and hypoglycemic agents. Additional studies of medication impact on sedation, sleep latency, and psychomotor function, as well as the role of alcohol, are also discussed. Psychotropic agents and those with central nervous system side effects were associated with measures of impaired driving performance. It is difficult to determine if such associations are actually a result of medication use or the medical diagnosis itself. Regardless, clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of impaired driving with specific classes of medications, educate their patients, and/or consider safer alternatives.

  19. Grammatical Impairments in PPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cynthia K; Mack, Jennifer E

    2014-09-01

    Grammatical impairments are commonly observed in the agrammatic subtype of primary progressive aphasia (PPA-G), whereas grammatical processing is relatively preserved in logopenic (PPA-L) and semantic (PPA-S) subtypes. We review research on grammatical deficits in PPA and associated neural mechanisms, with discussion focused on production and comprehension of four aspects of morphosyntactic structure: grammatical morphology, functional categories, verbs and verb argument structure, and complex syntactic structures. We also address assessment of grammatical deficits in PPA, with emphasis on behavioral tests of grammatical processing. Finally, we address research examining the effects of treatment for progressive grammatical impairments. PPA-G is associated with grammatical deficits that are evident across linguistic domains in both production and comprehension. PPA-G is associated with damage to regions including the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and dorsal white matter tracts, which have been linked to impaired comprehension and production of complex sentences. Detailing grammatical deficits in PPA is important for estimating the trajectory of language decline and associated neuropathology. We, therefore, highlight several new assessment tools for examining different aspects of morphosyntactic processing in PPA. Individuals with PPA-G present with agrammatic deficit patterns distinct from those associated with PPA-L and PPA-S, but similar to those seen in agrammatism resulting from stroke, and patterns of cortical atrophy and white matter changes associated with PPA-G have been identified. Methods for clinical evaluation of agrammatism, focusing on comprehension and production of grammatical morphology, functional categories, verbs and verb argument structure, and complex syntactic structures are recommended and tools for this are emerging in the literature. Further research is needed to investigate the real-time processes underlying grammatical impairments in

  20. Working with impairments

    OpenAIRE

    Maroesjka Versantvoort; Patricia van Echtelt

    2012-01-01

    Original title: Belemmerd aan het werk The Netherlands was long known as a country with high sickness absenteeism rates and a burgeoning group of people who were unfit for work. In response to this, many policy measures have been introduced in recent decades which attempt to limit the benefit volume and foster the reintegration of people with health impairments. What is the position of the Netherlands today in this regard? The main trends in sickness absenteeism, degree of incapacity for work...

  1. Age-Related Sensory Impairments and Risk of Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Mary E; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Schubert, Carla R; Pinto, Alex A; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Klein, Barbara EK; Klein, Ronald; Tweed, Ted S.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives To evaluate the associations of sensory impairments with the 10-year risk of cognitive impairment. Previous work has primarily focused on the relationship between a single sensory system and cognition. Design The Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS) is a longitudinal, population-based study of aging in the Beaver Dam, WI community. Baseline examinations were conducted in 1993 and follow-up exams have been conducted every 5 years. Setting General community Participants EHLS members without cognitive impairment at EHLS-2 (1998–2000). There were 1,884 participants (mean age = 66.7 years) with complete EHLS-2 sensory data and follow-up information. Measurements Cognitive impairment was a Mini-Mental State Examination score of impairment was a pure-tone average of hearing thresholds (0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz) of > 25 decibel Hearing Level in either ear. Visual impairment was Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity of impairment was a San Diego Odor Identification Test score of impairment were independently associated with cognitive impairment risk [Hearing: Hazard Ratio (HR) = 1.90, 95% Confidence Interval (C.I.) = 1.11, 3.26; Vision: HR = 2.05, 95% C.I. = 1.24, 3.38; Olfaction: HR = 3.92, 95% C.I. = 2.45, 6.26]. However, 85% with hearing impairment, 81% with visual impairment, and 76% with olfactory impairment did not develop cognitive impairment during follow-up. Conclusion The relationship between sensory impairment and cognitive impairment was not unique to one sensory system suggesting sensorineural health may be a marker of brain aging. The development of a combined sensorineurocognitive measure may be useful in uncovering mechanisms of healthy brain aging. PMID:27611845

  2. Assessment of Hearing Impaired Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Doin E., Ed.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The issue of Directions contains 11 articles on assessment of hearing impaired individuals. Entries have the following titles and authors: "Classroom Assessment Techniques for Hearing Impaired Students--A Literature Review" (B. McKee, M. Hausknecht); "Informal Assessment of Hearing Impaired Students In the Classroom" (B. Culhane, R. Hein);…

  3. 20 CFR 220.184 - If the annuitant becomes disabled by another impairment(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... impairment(s). 220.184 Section 220.184 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE... Activity or Medical Improvement § 220.184 If the annuitant becomes disabled by another impairment(s). If a new severe impairment(s) begins in or before the month in which the last impairment(s) ends, the Board...

  4. Cognitive impairments in epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Anatolyevich Kostylev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairments in epilepsy are a current problem in neurology. The basis of the idea on the pathogenesis of higher nervous system dysfunctions is the interaction of a few factors that include the form and duration of the disease, gender differences, and the impact of antiepileptic therapy. The role of interattack epileptiform changes in the development of cognitive deficit in adults and epileptic encephalopathies in children is discussed. Up-to-date neurophysiological and neuroimaging diagnostic methods allow the detection of new features in the course and progression of higher nervous system dysfunctions in epilepsy.

  5. Cognitive impairment and pragmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Rexach, Javier; Schatz, Sara

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important ingredients of felicitous conversation exchanges is the adequate expression of illocutionary force and the achievement of perlocutionary effects, which can be considered essential to the functioning of pragmatic competence. The breakdown of illocutionary and perlocutionary functions is one of the most prominent external features of cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's Disease, with devastating psychological and social consequences for patients, their family and caregivers. The study of pragmatic functions is essential for a proper understanding of the linguistic and communicative aspects of Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Fertility impairment in radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Biedka

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Infertility as a result of antineoplastic therapy is becoming a very important issue due to the growing incidence of neoplastic diseases. Routinely applied antineoplastic treatments and the illness itself lead to fertility disorders. Therapeutic methods used in antineoplastic treatment may cause fertility impairment or sterilization due to permanent damage to reproductive cells. The risk of sterilization depends on the patient’s sex, age during therapy, type of neoplasm, radiation dose and treatment area. It is known that chemotherapy and radiotherapy can lead to fertility impairment and the combination of these two gives an additive effect. The aim of this article is to raise the issue of infertility in these patients. It is of growing importance due to the increase in the number of children and young adults who underwent radiotherapy in the past. The progress in antineoplastic therapy improves treatment results, but at the same time requires a deeper look at existential needs of the patient. Reproductive function is an integral element of self-esteem and should be taken into account during therapy planning.

  7. Gamma multi-detectors and nuclear structure studies: search for superdeformed structures in {sup 147}Gd and {sup 144}Gd isotopes using Crystal Castle; simulation calculations for EUROGAM multi-detector definition; Multidetecteurs gamma et etudes de structure nucleaire: recherche avec le Chateau de Cristal de structures superdeformees dans les isotopes {sup 147}Gd et {sup 144}Gd; calculs de simulation pour la definition du multidetecteur EUROGAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    France, G de

    1992-12-31

    Computer simulations have been used for the calculation of the new generation of 4 {pi}{gamma} multi-detectors (Castle Crystal) of EUROGAM system (phase I and II). Two superdeformed bands (I and II), comprising 16 and 13 transitions respectively, have been described for {sup 147}Gd nucleus during the {sup 122}Sn({sup 30}Si,5n) fusion-evaporation reaction in a 155 MeV bombardment energy. Dynamic inertia momentum similarities and gamma transition energy similarities have been observed between band I and {sup 148}Gd nucleus and between band II and {sup 146}Gd nucleus, respectively. These similarities can be related to a pseudo-spin symmetry. Calculations suggest the existence of an octupolar susceptibility in this mass region. {sup 144}Gd nucleus has been studied using {sup 120}Sn({sup 29}Si,5n) fusion-evaporation reaction in a 155 MeV bombardment energy and using {sup 100}Mo({sup 48}Ti,4n) reactions in a 200 MeV bombardment energy. {gamma}-{gamma} coincidences have revealed the existence of a 58 keV width valley in the matrix representation compatible with theoretical predictions. In spite of the evidence for about ten transitions during these experiments, no superdeformed structure has been demonstrated for {sup 144}Gd nucleus. (J.S.). 87 refs., 57 figs., 41 tabs.

  8. Post-stroke cognitive impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Anatolyevna Katunina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-stroke cognitive impairments are common effects of stroke. Vascular cognitive impairments are characterized by the heterogeneity of the neuropsychological profile in relation to the site and pattern of stroke. Their common trait is the presence of dysregulation secondary to frontal dysfunction. The treatment of vascular cognitive impairments should be multimodality and aimed at stimulating neuroplasticity processes, restoring neurotransmitter imbalance, and preventing recurrent vascular episodes.

  9. Impairments in Skin Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphree, Rose W

    2017-09-01

    Altered skin integrity increases the chance of infection, impaired mobility, and decreased function and may result in the loss of limb or, sometimes, life. Skin is affected by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Intrinsic factors can include altered nutritional status, vascular disease issues, and diabetes. Extrinsic factors include falls, accidents, pressure, immobility, and surgical procedures. Ensuring skin integrity in the elderly requires a team approach and includes the individual, caregivers, and clinicians. The twenty-first century clinician has several online, evidence-based tools to assist with optimal treatment plans. Understanding best practices in addressing skin integrity issues can promote positive outcomes with the elderly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Multilingualism and specific language impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkkila, Eva; Smolander, Sini; Laasonen, Marja

    2013-01-01

    Specific language impairment is one of the most common developmental disturbances in childhood. With the increase of the foreign language population group an increasing number of children assimilating several languages and causing concern in language development attend clinical examinations. Knowledge of factors underlying the specific language impairment and the specific impairment in general, special features of language development of those learning several languages, as well as the assessment and support of the linguistic skills of a multilingual child is essential. The risk of long-term problems and marginalization is high for children having specific language impairment.

  11. Evidences for magicity in superdeformed shapes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    inertia (0) and nuclear softness parameter (σ) for the SD bands in all the mass regions ... to a good understanding of the observed SD bands and fission isomers. .... to the positions of least level density, we expect the. SD bands near magic nucleon numbers to be more close to exact rigid rotor. The usual. 30 40. 50. 60. 70.

  12. Spectra of γ rays feeding superdeformed bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritsen, T.; Khoo, T.L.; Henry, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    The spectrum of γrays coincident with SD transitions contains the transitions which populate the SD band. This spectrum can provide information on the feeding mechanism and on the properties (moment of inertia, collectivity) of excited SD states. We used a model we developed to explain the feeding of SD bands, to calculate the spectrum of feeding γrays. The Monte Carlo simulations take into account the trigger conditions present in our Eurogam experiment. Both experimental and theoretical spectra contain a statistical component and a broad E2 peak (from transitions occurring between excited states in the SD well). There is good resemblance between the measured and calculated spectra although the calculated multiplicity of an E2 bump is low by ∼30%. Work is continuing to improve the quality of the fits, which will result in a better understanding of excited SD states. In addition, a model for the last steps, which cool the γ cascade into the SD yrast line, needs to be developed. A strong M1/E2 low-energy component, which we believe is responsible for this cooling, was observed

  13. Spectra of {gamma} rays feeding superdeformed bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritsen, T.; Khoo, T.L.; Henry, R.G. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The spectrum of {gamma}rays coincident with SD transitions contains the transitions which populate the SD band. This spectrum can provide information on the feeding mechanism and on the properties (moment of inertia, collectivity) of excited SD states. We used a model we developed to explain the feeding of SD bands, to calculate the spectrum of feeding {gamma}rays. The Monte Carlo simulations take into account the trigger conditions present in our Eurogam experiment. Both experimental and theoretical spectra contain a statistical component and a broad E2 peak (from transitions occurring between excited states in the SD well). There is good resemblance between the measured and calculated spectra although the calculated multiplicity of an E2 bump is low by {approximately}30%. Work is continuing to improve the quality of the fits, which will result in a better understanding of excited SD states. In addition, a model for the last steps, which cool the {gamma} cascade into the SD yrast line, needs to be developed. A strong M1/E2 low-energy component, which we believe is responsible for this cooling, was observed.

  14. The Hg region: Superdeformation and other shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, R.V.F.; Carpenter, M.P.; Fernandez, P.B.; Moore, E.F.; Ahmad, I.; Khoo, T.L.; Wolfs, F.L.H.; Drigert, M.W.; Ye, D.; Beard, K.B.; Reviol, W.; Bearden, I.; Benet, P.; Daly, P.J.; Grabowski, Z.W.

    1990-01-01

    We shall first summarize the present experimental situation concerning 192 Hg, the nucleus regarded as the analog of 152 Dy 8 for this SD region in that shell gaps are calculated 5 to occur at large deformation for Z=80 and N=112. Proton and neutron excitations out of te 192 Hg core will then be reviewed with particular emphasis on 191 Hg and 193 Tl. The implications of the results for pairing at large deformations and the need to consider other degrees of freedom (such as octupole correlations) will be addressed. The presentation will conclude with a brief discussion on other shapes seen in this region, with a particular emphasis on 191 Hg

  15. 20 CFR 416.998 - If you become disabled by another impairment(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false If you become disabled by another impairment... Disability Or Blindness § 416.998 If you become disabled by another impairment(s). If a new severe impairment(s) begins in or before the month in which your last impairment(s) ends, we will find that your...

  16. 20 CFR 404.1598 - If you become disabled by another impairment(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false If you become disabled by another impairment... Disability § 404.1598 If you become disabled by another impairment(s). If a new severe impairment(s) begins in or before the month in which your last impairment(s) ends, we will find that your disability is...

  17. Cognitive Impairment Associated with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergrass, J. Cara; Harrison, John E.

    2018-01-01

    This brief review explores the areas of cognitive impairment that have been observed in cancer patients and survivors, the cognitive assessment tools used, and the management of the observed cognitive changes. Cognitive changes and impairment observed in patients with cancer and those in remission can be related to the direct effects of cancer itself, nonspecific factors or comorbid conditions that are independent of the actual disease, and/or the treatments or combination of treatments administered. Attention, memory, and executive functioning are the most frequently identified cognitive domains impacted by cancer. However, the prevalence and extent of impairment remains largely unknown due to marked differences in methodology, definitions of cognitive impairment, and the assessment measures used. Assessment of cognitive functioning is an important and necessary part of a comprehensive oncological care plan. Research is needed to establish a better understanding of cognitive changes and impairments associated with cancer so that optimal patient outcomes can be achieved. PMID:29497579

  18. Nutrition and cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando-Requejo, Virgilio

    2016-07-12

    Dementia, closely linked to environmental predisposing factors such as diet, is a public health problem of increasing magnitude: currently there are more than 35 million patients with Alzheimer´s disease, and is expected to exceed 135 million by 2050. If we can delay the development of dementia 5 years will reduce its prevalence by 50%. Patients with dementia modify their diet, and it has been reported in them deficits, among others, of folic acid, vitamin B12, B6, C, E, A, D, K, beta carotene and omega 3 fatty acids, that must be resolved with proper diet and with extra contributions if needed in some cases. But to reduce, or at least delay, the prevalence of dementia we advocate prevention through proper diet from the beginning of life, an idea that is reinforced given that cardiovascular risk factors are related directly to the development of dementia. A lot of literature are available that, although with limits, allows us to make nutritional recommendations for preventing cognitive impairment. Better results are achieved when complete diets have been studied and considered over specific nutrients separately. Particularly, the Mediterranean diet has great interest in this disease, since it ensures a high intake of vegetables, fruits, nuts, legumes, cereals, fish and olive oil, and moderate intake of meat, dairy products and alcohol. We will focus more on this article in this type of diet.

  19. A framework for communication between visually impaired, hearing impaired and speech impaired using arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujatha, R.; Khandelwa, Prakhar; Gupta, Anusha; Anand, Nayan

    2017-11-01

    A long time ago our society accepted the notion of treating people with disabilities not as unviable and disabled but as differently-abled, recognizing their skills beyond their disabilities. The next step has to be taken by our scientific community, that is, to normalize lives of the people with disabilities and make it so as if they are no different to us. The primary step in this direction would be to normalize communication between people. People with an impaired speech or impaired vision or impaired hearing face difficulties while having a casual conversation with others. Any form of communication feels so strenuous that the impaired end up communicating just the important information and avoid a casual conversation. To normalize conversation between the impaired we need a simple and compact device which facilitates the conversation by providing the information in the desired form.

  20. Cognitive impairment in elderly women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Berg; Bagger, Yu Z; Tankó, László B

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A variety of factors contribute to the development of cognitive impairment in elderly people. Previous studies have focused upon a single or a few risk factors. In this study we assessed and compared the significance of a wide variety of potential risk factors for cognitive impairment...... in postmenopausal women. METHODS: A total of 208 pairs of elderly women (mean age = 73.2 years) were examined in a cross-sectional case-control study. Each pair consisted of a case (with impaired cognition) and a control subject matched by age and educational status. Cognitive functions were determined using...

  1. Brain visual impairment in childhood: mini review

    OpenAIRE

    Kozeis, N

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) is one of the leading causes of severe visual impairment in childhood. This article was written to highlight any new knowledge related to cerebral visual impairment in childhood.

  2. Electrophysiology in visually impaired children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genderen, Maria Michielde van

    2006-01-01

    Inherited retinal disorders and posterior visual pathway abnormalities are important causes of visual impairment in children. Visual electrophysiology often is indispensable in diagnosing these conditions. This thesis shows the wide range of use of pediatric electro-ophthalmology, and demonstrates

  3. Quantum algebra U{sub qp}(u{sub 2}) and application to the rotational collective dynamics of the nuclei; Algebre quantique U{sub qp}(u{sub 2}) et application a la dynamique collective de rotation dans les noyaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbier, R

    1995-09-22

    This thesis concerns some aspects of new symmetries in Nuclear Physics. It comprises three parts. The first one is devoted to the study of the quantum algebra U{sub qp}(u{sub 2}). More precisely, we develop its Hopf algebraic structure and we study its co-product structure. The bases of the representation theory of U{sub qp}(u{sub 2}) are introduced. On one hand, we construct the finite-dimensional irreducible representations of U{sub qp}(u{sub 2}). On the other hand, we calculate the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients with the projection operator method. To complete our study, we construct some deformed boson mappings of the quantum algebras U{sub qp}(u{sub 2}), U{sub q{sup 2}}(su{sub 2}) and U{sub qp}(u{sub 1,1}). The second part deals with the construction of a new phenomenological model of the non rigid rotator. This model is based on the quantum algebra U{sub qp}(u{sub 2}). The rotational energy and the E2 reduced transition probabilities are obtained. They depend on the two deformation parameters q and p of the quantum algebra. We show how the use of the two-parameter deformation of the algebra U{sub qp}(u{sub 2}) leads to a generalization of the U{sub q}(su{sub 2})-rotator model. We also introduce a new model of the anharmonic oscillator on the basis of the quantum algebra U{sub qp}(u{sub 2}). We show that the system of the U{sub q}(su{sub 2})-rotator and of the anharmonic oscillator can be coupled with the use of the deformation parameters of U{sub qp}(u{sub 2}). A ro-vibration energy formula and expansion `a la` Dunham are obtained. The aim of the last part is to apply our non rigid rotator model to the rotational collective dynamics of the superdeformed nuclei of the A{approx}130 - 150 and A{approx}190 mass regions and deformed nuclei of the actinide and rare earth series. We adjust the free parameters of our model and compare our results with those from four other models of the non rigid rotator. A comparative analysis is given in terms of transition energies.

  4. Dystypia: isolated typing impairment without aphasia, apraxia or visuospatial impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Mika; Soma, Yoshiaki; Arihiro, Shoji; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Naritomi, Hiroaki

    2002-01-01

    We report a 60-year-old right-handed Japanese man who showed an isolated persistent typing impairment without aphasia, agraphia, apraxia or any other neuropsychological deficit. We coined the term 'dystypia' for this peculiar neuropsychological manifestation. The symptom was caused by an infarction in the left frontal lobe involving the foot of the second frontal convolution and the frontal operculum. The patient's typing impairment was not attributable to a disturbance of the linguistic process, since he had no aphasia or agraphia. The impairment was not attributable to the impairment of the motor execution process either, since he had no apraxia. Thus, his typing impairment was deduced to be based on a disturbance of the intermediate process where the linguistic phonological information is converted into the corresponding performance. We hypothesized that there is a specific process for typing which branches from the motor programming process presented in neurolinguistic models. The foot of the left second frontal convolution and the operculum may play an important role in the manifestation of 'dystypia'. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  5. Arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxuan; Lyu, Peiyuan; Ren, Yanyan; An, Jin; Dong, Yanhong

    2017-09-15

    Arterial stiffness is one of the earliest indicators of changes in vascular wall structure and function and may be assessed using various indicators, such as pulse-wave velocity (PWV), the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), the ankle-brachial index (ABI), pulse pressure (PP), the augmentation index (AI), flow-mediated dilation (FMD), carotid intima media thickness (IMT) and arterial stiffness index-β. Arterial stiffness is generally considered an independent predictor of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. To date, a significant number of studies have focused on the relationship between arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment. To investigate the relationships between specific arterial stiffness parameters and cognitive impairment, elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the relationship between arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment and determine how to interfere with arterial stiffness to prevent cognitive impairment, we searched PUBMED for studies regarding the relationship between arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment that were published from 2000 to 2017. We used the following key words in our search: "arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment" and "arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment mechanism". Studies involving human subjects older than 30years were included in the review, while irrelevant studies (i.e., studies involving subjects with comorbid kidney disease, diabetes and cardiac disease) were excluded from the review. We determined that arterial stiffness severity was positively correlated with cognitive impairment. Of the markers used to assess arterial stiffness, a higher PWV, CAVI, AI, IMT and index-β and a lower ABI and FMD were related to cognitive impairment. However, the relationship between PP and cognitive impairment remained controversial. The potential mechanisms linking arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment may be associated with arterial pulsatility, as greater arterial pulsatility

  6. Patterns of Semantic Memory Impairment in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Joubert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the semantic memory impairment has been largely documented in Alzheimer's disease, little is known about semantic memory in the preclinical phase of the disease (Mild Cognitive Impairment. The purpose of this study was to document the nature of semantic breakdown using a battery of tests assessing different aspects of conceptual knowledge: knowledge about common objects, famous people and famous public events. Results indicate that all domains of semantic memory were impaired in MCI individuals but knowledge about famous people and famous events was affected to a greater extent than knowledge about objects. This pattern of results suggests that conceptual entities with distinctive and unique properties may be more prone to semantic breakdown in MCI. In summary, results of this study support the view that genuine semantic deficits are present in MCI. It could be useful to investigate the etiological outcome of patients failing or succeeding at such tests.

  7. Cognitive impairment and driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, David W; Molnar, Lisa J

    2012-11-01

    As the populations of many countries continue to age, cognitive impairment will likely become more common. Individuals with cognitive impairment pose special challenges for families, health professionals, driving safety professionals, and the larger community, particularly if these older adults depend on driving as their primary means of community mobility. It is vital that we continue to extend our knowledge about the driving behavior of individuals' with cognitive impairment, as well as try to develop effective means of screening and assessing these individuals for fitness to drive and help facilitate their transition to non-driving when appropriate. This special issue is intended to provide researchers and practitioners an opportunity to present the most recent research findings on driving-related issues among older adults with cognitive impairment. The issue contains 11 original contributions from seven countries. The topics covered by these papers are: crash risks; screening, assessment, and fitness to drive; driving performance using a driving simulator; and driving behaviors and driving-related decisions of people with cognitive impairments. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. [Behavioral impairments in Parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashihara, Kenichi

    2004-09-01

    Behavioral impairments in parkinsonian patients include agitation, hypersexuality, stereotypic movement, pathological gambling, abuse of antiparkinsonian drugs, REM sleep behavioral disorder, and restless legs syndrome. Dementia, psychoses, and emotional disorders, such as depression and anxiety/panic disorder, also impair behavior. Symptoms may be produced by dysfunction of the central nervous system, medication, and/or the psychosocial problems associated with Parkinson's disease. Treatment therefore should be based on the cause of the symptoms seen. In some cases, the reduction or change of antiparkinsonian drugs, or both, may be effective. Treatment of the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, including motor fluctuations, may reduce the risk of panic attacks being evoked in the 'off' period. Use of antidepressants, sedatives, and neuroleptics may often be effective. Physicians should identify the causes of the symptoms of behavioral impairment and select appropriate treatments.

  9. Language Impairment and Generative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Stopar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with different types of language impairment from the perspective of generative grammar. The paper focuses on syntactic deficiencies observed in aphasic and SLI (specific language impairment patients. We show that the observed ungrammatical structures do not appear in a random fashion but can be predicted by that theory of universal sentence structure which posits a strict hierarchy of its constituent parts. The article shows that while the hierarchically lower elements remain unaffected, the higher positions in the hierarchy show various degrees of syntactic impairment. The paper supports the implementation of recent developments in the field of generative grammar with the intention of encouraging further theoretical, experimental and therapeutic research in the field.

  10. Lysosomal impairment in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehay, Benjamin; Martinez-Vicente, Marta; Caldwell, Guy A; Caldwell, Kim A; Yue, Zhenyue; Cookson, Mark R; Klein, Christine; Vila, Miquel; Bezard, Erwan

    2013-06-01

    Impairment of autophagy-lysosomal pathways (ALPs) is increasingly regarded as a major pathogenic event in neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD). ALP alterations are observed in sporadic PD brains and in toxic and genetic rodent models of PD-related neurodegeneration. In addition, PD-linked mutations and post-translational modifications of α-synuclein impair its own lysosomal-mediated degradation, thereby contributing to its accumulation and aggregation. Furthermore, other PD-related genes, such as leucine-rich repeat kinase-2 (LRRK2), parkin, and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), have been mechanistically linked to alterations in ALPs. Conversely, mutations in lysosomal-related genes, such as glucocerebrosidase (GBA) and lysosomal type 5 P-type ATPase (ATP13A2), have been linked to PD. New data offer mechanistic molecular evidence for such a connection, unraveling a causal link between lysosomal impairment, α-synuclein accumulation, and neurotoxicity. First, PD-related GBA deficiency/mutations initiate a positive feedback loop in which reduced lysosomal function leads to α-synuclein accumulation, which, in turn, further decreases lysosomal GBA activity by impairing the trafficking of GBA from the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi to lysosomes, leading to neurodegeneration. Second, PD-related mutations/deficiency in the ATP13A2 gene lead to a general lysosomal impairment characterized by lysosomal membrane instability, impaired lysosomal acidification, decreased processing of lysosomal enzymes, reduced degradation of lysosomal substrates, and diminished clearance of autophagosomes, collectively contributing to α-synuclein accumulation and cell death. According to these new findings, primary lysosomal defects could potentially account for Lewy body formation and neurodegeneration in PD, laying the groundwork for the prospective development of new neuroprotective/disease-modifying therapeutic strategies

  11. Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Etesam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment can emerge in the earliest phases of multiple sclerosis. It strongly impacts different aspects of Multiple Sclerosis (MS patients' lives, like employment, social relationships and the overall quality of life; thus, its on-time recognition and treatment is mandatory. This paper discusses issues, diagnostic methods and treatment options for cognitive dysfunctions in MS. This paper is a descriptive review of the related studies in the recent 10 years, performing a keyword search in the main databases4T. Cognitive impairment mostly involves aspects of information processing, memory and executive functioning in MS. Neuropsychological tests like MACFIMS and BRB-N are recommended for its assessment. Still, there is no fully efficient treatment for cognitive impairment. Researchers have shown some positive effects, using disease-modifying therapies and cognitive rehabilitation. Depression, pain, fatigue and other factors influencing cognitive functions must be paid attention to4T. Recognizing cognitive impairment as a major symptom for MS, makes studying this subject one of the priorities in dealing with the disease. Therefore, a consecutive research for identification and management of this part of quality of life in MS patients is obligatory4T.4T

  12. Current therapy for cognitive impairments

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Vasilyevna Vakhnina

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive impairments (CIs) are a highly common type of neurological disorders particularly in elderly patients. Choice of a therapeutic strategy for CI is determined by the etiology of abnormalities and their degree. Measures to prevent CI progression and dementia: adequate treatment of existing cardiovascular diseases, prevention of stroke, balanced nutrition, moderate physical and intellectual exercises, and combatting overweight and low activity are of ba...

  13. Language Impairment in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Ann Virginia

    Discussed is the language impairment of children with infantile autism. The speech patterns of autistic children, including echolalia, pronomial reversal, silent language, and voice imitation, are described. The clinical picture of the autistic child is compared to that of children with such other disorders as deafness, retardation, and…

  14. Language Impairment in Cerebellar Ataxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gaalen, Judith; de Swart, Bert J. M.; Oostveen, Judith; Knuijt, Simone; van de Warrenburg, Bart P. C.; Kremer, Berry (H. ) P. H.

    Background: Several studies have suggested that language impairment can be observed in patients with cerebellar pathology. The aim of this study was to investigate language performance in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6). Methods: We assessed speech and language in 29 SCA6 patients

  15. Evaluation des conditions de germination des noyaux de Grewia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    personnel

    31 janv. 2014 ... 1Laboratoire de Physiologie et Production Végétales, Université Marien NGOUABI,. Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, BP.69. Brazzaville, Republique du Congo. 2Ecole Nationale Supérieure d'Agronomie et Forestérie, Université Marien NGOUABI,. BP. 69. Brazzaville, Republique du Congo.

  16. Exotic nuclei and radioactive beams; Noyaux exotiques et faisceaux radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomaz, P.

    1996-12-31

    The Nuclei called exotic are all the nuclei that it is necessary to recreate in laboratory to study them. Their life time is too short -in relation to earth age- for it remains enough on earth. The researchers are going to have at their s disposal at GANIL (Caen) with the S.P.I.R.A.L. project, exotic nuclei beams and will study new kinds of nuclear reactions to better understand the atom nucleus. (N.C.). 2 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Evaluation des conditions de germination des noyaux de Grewia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    personnel

    31 janv. 2014 ... graines de G.coriacea afin de parvenir à un meilleur taux de germination naturellement médiocre. ... fourchettes) et comme matériau de ...... contre, les chocs thermiques par l'eau .... stockage et de la durée de chauffage.

  18. Impaired sleep and allostatic load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Alice Jessie; Dich, Nadya; Lange, Theis

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Understanding the mechanisms linking sleep impairment to morbidity and mortality is important for future prevention, but these mechanisms are far from elucidated. We aimed to determine the relation between impaired sleep, both in terms of duration and disturbed sleep, and allostatic load...... Biobank with comprehensive information on sleep duration, disturbed sleep, objective measures of an extensive range of biological risk markers, and physical conditions. Results: Long sleep (mean difference 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.13, 0.32) and disturbed sleep (0.14; 0.06, 0.22) were associated...... with higher AL as well as with high-risk levels of risk markers from the anthropometric, metabolic, and immune system. Sub-analyses suggested that the association between disturbed sleep and AL might be explained by underlying disorders. Whereas there was no association between short sleep and AL...

  19. Cognitive impairment in anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Volel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are an important biomedical problem due to the high prevalence and significant negative impact on the quality of life and the course of concomitant somatic and neurological diseases. Cognitive impairment (CI is one of the most intensively studied aspects of pathological anxiety. Impairments in attention, executive functions, memory, cognitive deficit, as well as abnormal cognitions and metacognitions are identified in anxiety disorders. Moreover, the treatment of the latter with the most frequently used drugs (antidepressants, atypical antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, tranquilizers does not lead to a significant improvement in cognitive functions, and often contributes to their worsening. In this connection, in addition to psychotherapy, cognitive function-improving agents play a large role in treating anxiety diseases associated with cognitive dysfunction. Ginkgo Biloba extract (EGb 761, Tanakan® that positively affects cognitive functions, especially in the domains of memory, concentration and attention deserves special attention.

  20. Cognitive impairment in Chinese neuromyelitis optica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, N.; Li, Y.J.; Fu, Y.; Shao, J.H.; Luo, L.L.; Yang, L.; Shi, F.D.; Liu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cognitive dysfunction is frequently seen in neuromyelitis optica (NMO). However, the features and influencing factors of cognitive impairment of Chinese NMO patients are unclear. Objective: To investigate the patterns of cognitive impairment in Chinese NMO patients, and correlate the

  1. Multilingualism and Specific Language Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Is a multilingual education beneficial for children? What are the optimal conditions under which a child can become perfectly multilingual? When should we be concerned about a multilingual child's language skills? What are the signs of Specific Language Impairment in a child who speaks more than one language? Developmental psychologist and Associate Professor in multilingual cognitive development at the University of Luxembourg Pascale Engel de Abreu will address these questions based on what...

  2. Environmental injustice and mobility impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cahill

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of mobility is a growth area in the social sciences. The car system (automobility has hadas one of its consequences reduced opportunities for mobility impaired people to walk in their localenvironment. Immobility has resulted for many people with disabilities. Despite the promotion ofphysical activity by public health guidance local environments are often hazardous for mobilityimpaired people. In particular, there is a problem with cars parking on pavements and pavementcycling.  

  3. Cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing YUAN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease cognitive impairment (PD-CI is one of the major non-motor symtoms (NMS of PD, including Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment (PD - MCI and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD. Executive dysfunction is relatively prominent, but other cognitive domains as visuospatial ability, memory and language can also be affected. Main risk factors for PD-CI include male gender, advanced age, low education, severe motor symptoms, low baseline cognitive function and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS. Lewy bodies are main pathological changes, and Alzheimer's disease (AD related pathological changes can also be seen. The application value of decreased α?synuclein (α-Syn and β-amyloid 1-42 (Aβ1-42 levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF as biomarkers remains controversial. There are few related research and no defined pathogenic genes currently. Both dopaminergic pathway and acetylcholinergic pathway are involved in the occurrence of PD - CI as demonstrated in PET studies. Cortical and subcortical atrophy are associated with PD - CI as observed in MRI studies. Olfactory dysfunction may be one of the predictors of cognitive impairment. PDD and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB share common biological characteristics, therefore the differential diagnosis sometimes is difficult. Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs and memantine help to improve clinical symptoms, but treatment decision should be made with individualization. Cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT has potential clinical value and should be investigated by more studies. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.06.004

  4. Impaired reproduction after exposure to ADHD drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danborg, Pia Brandt; Simonsen, Anders Lykkemark; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have reported on long-term harms caused by ADHD drugs but they are known to impair growth. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether ADHD drugs impair reproduction in mammals. METHODS: Systematic review of reproduction in studies of animals treated with ADHD drugs. DATA SOURCES: Pub....... CONCLUSION: ADHD drugs impair the reproduction in animals....

  5. Communication Skills and Learning in Impaired Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliöz, Murat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the communication skills of individuals with different disabilities with athletes and sedentary people and to examine their learning abilities which influence the development of communication. A total of 159 male subjects 31 sedentary, 30 visually impaired, 27 hearing impaired, 40 physically impaired and 31…

  6. Mobile Device Impairment ... Similar Problems, Similar Solutions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Simon; Yesilada, Yeliz; Chen, Tianyi

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have defined a new type of impairment in which an able-bodied user's behaviour is impaired by both the characteristics of a device and the environment in which it is used. This behavioural change is defined as a situationally-induced impairment and is often associated with small devices used in a mobile setting or constrained…

  7. Cognitive Impairment in Infratentorial Strokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melek Kandemir

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Beginning in the mid-1980s, with anatomical, behavioral, and neuropsychological evidence, it was suggested that the role of the cerebellum extends beyond a purely motor domain. A series of articles were published reviewing the potential role of the cerebellum in cognition. Both of these functions are supported by connections of dentate nucleus and frontal cortex through the thalamus. The cognitive profile of isolated subtentorial and cerebellar infarcts is related to the involved frontal circuit (especially executive functions. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the cognitive profile of cerebellar and subtentorial infarcts. METHODS: Nineteen patients with infratentorial infarcts and 19 neurologically healthy individuals as a control group were included in this study. Neuropsychometric test battery was employed in both of the groups. RESULTS: Age, sex, education, clinical syndrome, and localization had no effect on the cognitive test performances. Performance on the California Verbal Learning Test, a verbal memory test, was worse in the patient group. Patients had difficulties in recognizing the items of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, and spent significantly more time to complete the trail making test part B. The patient group also demonstrated lower performance level in the verbal fluency test when compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: The cognitive impairment pattern of the verbal and visual memory tests and impairment determined on the verbal fluency test and the trail making tests may imply frontal impairment. Our results support the knowledge that cerebellar or brainstem strokes cause mild frontal type cognitive syndrome by damaging cerebello-ponto-thalamo-cortical pathways

  8. Impaired reward responsiveness in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nicholas; Hollis, Jeffrey P; Corcoran, Sarah; Gross, Robin; Cuthbert, Bruce; Swails, Lisette W; Duncan, Erica

    2018-03-08

    Anhedonia is a core negative symptom of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia patients report largely intact pleasure in consuming rewards, but have impairments in generating motivated behavior to pursue rewards, and show reduced fMRI activation of the reward pathway during presentation of rewarded stimuli. A computer based task measuring the development of a response bias in favor of rewarded stimuli permits assessment of reward-induced motivation. We hypothesized that subjects with schizophrenia would be impaired on this task. 58 schizophrenia subjects (SCZ) and 52 healthy controls (CON) were studied with a signal detection task to assess reward responsiveness. In multiple trials over three blocks subjects were asked to correctly identify two stimuli that were paired with unequal chance of monetary reward. The critical outcome variable was response bias, the development of a greater percent correct identification of the stimulus that was rewarded more often. An ANOVA on response bias with Block as a repeated-measures factor and Diagnosis as a between-group factor indicated that SCZ subjects achieved a lower bias to rewarded stimuli than CON subjects (F(1,105)=8.82, p=0.004, η 2 =0.078). Post hoc tests indicated that SCZ subjects had significantly impaired bias in Block 1 (p=0.002) and Block 2 (p=0.05), indicating that SCZ were slower to achieve normal levels of bias during the session. SCZ subjects were slower to develop response bias to rewarded stimuli than CON subjects. This finding is consonant with the hypothesis that people with schizophrenia have a blunted capacity to modify behavior in response to reward. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Impaired Follistatin Secretion in Cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinnov, Anders Rasmussen; Plomgaard, Peter; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2016-01-01

    compared to healthy control participants. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: To experimentally increase the glucagon-insulin ratio (mimicking the hormonal effect of exercise), we infused glucagon/somatostatin (to inhibit insulin secretion) and compared the acute follistatin increase in eight male cirrhosis...... controls (27.6 ± 3.8 vs 34.5 ± 2.9%, respectively; P = .001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with cirrhosis show impaired capacity to acutely secrete follistatin. The decrease in acute follistatin release may contribute to the loss of muscle mass in liver cirrhosis....

  10. Reduced Mastication Impairs Memory Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima-Nakayama, Y; Ono, Takehito; Hayashi, M; Inoue, M; Wake, H; Ono, Takashi; Nakashima, T

    2017-08-01

    Mastication is an indispensable oral function related to physical, mental, and social health throughout life. The elderly tend to have a masticatory dysfunction due to tooth loss and fragility in the masticatory muscles with aging, potentially resulting in impaired cognitive function. Masticatory stimulation has influence on the development of the central nervous system (CNS) as well as the growth of maxillofacial tissue in children. Although the relationship between mastication and cognitive function is potentially important in the growth period, the cellular and molecular mechanisms have not been sufficiently elucidated. Here, we show that the reduced mastication resulted in impaired spatial memory and learning function owing to the morphological change and decreased activity in the hippocampus. We used an in vivo model for reduced masticatory stimuli, in which juvenile mice were fed with powder diet and found that masticatory stimulation during the growth period positively regulated long-term spatial memory to promote cognitive function. The functional linkage between mastication and brain was validated by the decrease in neurons, neurogenesis, neuronal activity, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampus. These findings taken together provide in vivo evidence for a functional linkage between mastication and cognitive function in the growth period, suggesting a need for novel therapeutic strategies in masticatory function-related cognitive dysfunction.

  11. Ego depletion impairs implicit learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kelsey R; Sanchez, Daniel J; Wesley, Abigail H; Reber, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Implicit skill learning occurs incidentally and without conscious awareness of what is learned. However, the rate and effectiveness of learning may still be affected by decreased availability of central processing resources. Dual-task experiments have generally found impairments in implicit learning, however, these studies have also shown that certain characteristics of the secondary task (e.g., timing) can complicate the interpretation of these results. To avoid this problem, the current experiments used a novel method to impose resource constraints prior to engaging in skill learning. Ego depletion theory states that humans possess a limited store of cognitive resources that, when depleted, results in deficits in self-regulation and cognitive control. In a first experiment, we used a standard ego depletion manipulation prior to performance of the Serial Interception Sequence Learning (SISL) task. Depleted participants exhibited poorer test performance than did non-depleted controls, indicating that reducing available executive resources may adversely affect implicit sequence learning, expression of sequence knowledge, or both. In a second experiment, depletion was administered either prior to or after training. Participants who reported higher levels of depletion before or after training again showed less sequence-specific knowledge on the post-training assessment. However, the results did not allow for clear separation of ego depletion effects on learning versus subsequent sequence-specific performance. These results indicate that performance on an implicitly learned sequence can be impaired by a reduction in executive resources, in spite of learning taking place outside of awareness and without conscious intent.

  12. Sleep, Torpor and Memory Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palchykova, S.; Tobler, I.

    It is now well known that daily torpor induces a sleep deficit. Djungarian hamsters emerging from this hypometabolic state spend most of the time in sleep. This sleep is characterized by high initial values of EEG slow-wave activity (SWA) that monotonically decline during recovery sleep. These features resemble the changes seen in numerous species during recovery after prolonged wakefulness or sleep deprivation (SD). When hamsters are totally or partially sleep deprived immediately after emerging from torpor, an additional increase in SWA can be induced. It has been therefore postulated, that these slow- waves are homeostatically regulated, as predicted by the two-process model of sleep regulation, and that during daily torpor a sleep deficit is accumulated as it is during prolonged waking. The predominance of SWA in the frontal EEG observed both after SD and daily torpor provides further evidence for the similarity of these conditions. It has been shown in several animal and human studies that sleep can enhance memory consolidation, and that SD leads to memory impairment. Preliminary data obtained in the Djungarian hamster showed that both SD and daily torpor result in object recognition deficits. Thus, animals subjected to SD immediately after learning, or if they underwent an episode of daily torpor between learning and retention, displayed impaired recognition memory for complex object scenes. The investigation of daily torpor can reveal mechanisms that could have important implications for hypometabolic state induction in other mammalian species, including humans.

  13. Cognitive Impairment in Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efthimios Dardiotis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment (CI is increasingly recognized as a common adverse consequence of heart failure (HF. Although the exact mechanisms remain unclear, microembolism, chronic or intermittent cerebral hypoperfusion, and/or impaired cerebral vessel reactivity that lead to cerebral hypoxia and ischemic brain damage seem to underlie the development of CI in HF. Cognitive decline in HF is characterized by deficits in one or more cognition domains, including attention, memory, executive function, and psychomotor speed. These deficits may affect patients’ decision-making capacity and interfere with their ability to comply with treatment requirements, recognize and self-manage disease worsening symptoms. CI may have fluctuations in severity over time, improve with effective HF treatment or progress to dementia. CI is independently associated with disability, mortality, and decreased quality of life of HF patients. It is essential therefore for health professionals in their routine evaluations of HF patients to become familiar with assessment of cognitive performance using standardized screening instruments. Future studies should focus on elucidating the mechanisms that underlie CI in HF and establishing preventive strategies and treatment approaches.

  14. Genetic testing for hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topsakal, V; Van Camp, G; Van de Heyning, P

    2005-01-01

    For some patients, genetic testing can reveal the etiology of their hearing impairment, and can provide evidence for a medical diagnosis. However, a gap between fundamental genetic research on hereditary deafness and clinical otology emerges because of the steadily increasing number of discovered genes for hereditary hearing impairment (HHI) and the comparably low clinical differentiation of the HHIs. In an attempt to keep up with the scientific progress, this article enumerates the indications of genetic testing for HHI from a clinical point of view and describes the most frequently encountered HHIs in Belgium. Domains of recent scientific interest, molecular biological aspects, and some pitfalls with HHIs are highlighted. The overview comprises bilateral congenital hearing loss, late-onset progressive high frequency hearing loss, progressive bilateral cochleo-vestibular deficit, and progressive low frequency hearing loss. Also, several syndromal forms of HHI are summarized, and the availability of genetic tests mentioned. Finally, the requirements for successful linkage analysis, an important genetic research tool for localizing the potential genes of a trait on a chromosome, are briefly described.

  15. An index of reservoir habitat impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, L.E.; Hunt, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    Fish habitat impairment resulting from natural and anthropogenic watershed and in-lake processes has in many cases reduced the ability of reservoirs to sustain native fish assemblages and fisheries quality. Rehabilitation of impaired reservoirs is hindered by the lack of a method suitable for scoring impairment status. To address this limitation, an index of reservoir habitat impairment (IRHI) was developed by merging 14 metrics descriptive of common impairment sources, with each metric scored from 0 (no impairment) to 5 (high impairment) by fisheries scientists with local knowledge. With a plausible range of 5 to 25, distribution of the IRHI scores ranged from 5 to 23 over 482 randomly selected reservoirs dispersed throughout the USA. The IRHI reflected five impairment factors including siltation, structural habitat, eutrophication, water regime, and aquatic plants. The factors were weakly related to key reservoir characteristics including reservoir area, depth, age, and usetype, suggesting that common reservoir descriptors are poor predictors of fish habitat impairment. The IRHI is rapid and inexpensive to calculate, provides an easily understood measure of the overall habitat impairment, allows comparison of reservoirs and therefore prioritization of restoration activities, and may be used to track restoration progress. The major limitation of the IRHI is its reliance on unstandardized professional judgment rather than standardized empirical measurements. ?? 2010 US Government.

  16. Symptoms predicting psychosocial impairment in bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Paul E; Staniford, Jessica; Luck, Amy

    2017-05-12

    The current study aimed to determine which particular eating disorder (ED) symptoms and related features, such as BMI and psychological distress, uniquely predict impairment in bulimia nervosa (BN). Two hundred and twenty-two adults with BN completed questionnaires assessing ED symptoms, general psychological distress, and psychosocial impairment. Regression analyses were used to determine predictors which account for variance in impairment. Four variables emerged as significant predictors of psychosocial impairment: concerns with eating; concerns with weight and shape; dietary restraint; and general psychological distress. Findings support previous work highlighting the importance of weight and shape concerns in determining ED-related impairment. Other ED symptoms, notably dietary restraint and concerns with eating, were also significant predictors as was psychological distress. Results suggest that cognitive aspects of EDs, in addition to psychological distress, may be more important determinants of impairment than behavioural symptoms, such as binge eating or purging.

  17. The relationship between separation anxiety and impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Debra L; Rowe, Richard; Maes, Hermine; Silberg, Judy; Eaves, Lindon; Pickles, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize the contemporaneous and prognostic relationship between symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD) and associated functional impairment. The sample comprised n=2067 8–16 year-old twins from a community-based registry. Juvenile subjects and their parents completed a personal interview on two occasions, separated by an average follow-up period of 18 months, about the subject’s current history of SAD and associated functional impairment. Results showed that SAD symptoms typically caused very little impairment but demonstrated significant continuity over time. Older youth had significantly more persistent symptoms than younger children. Prior symptom level independently predicted future symptom level and diagnostic symptom threshold, with and without impairment. Neither diagnostic threshold nor severity of impairment independently predicted outcomes after taking account of prior symptom levels. The results indicate that impairment may index current treatment need but symptom levels provide the best information about severity and prognosis. PMID:17658718

  18. Treatment of Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Pierson, Susan H.; Griffith, Nathan

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis is an increasingly recognized entity. This article reviews the cognitive impairment of multiple sclerosis, its prevalence, its relationship to different types of multiple sclerosis, and its contribution to long-term functional prognosis. The discussion also focuses on the key elements of cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis which distinguish it from other forms of cognitive impairment. Therapeutic interventions potentially effective for the co...

  19. Marital Conflict, Depressive Symptoms, and Functional Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Heejeong; Marks, Nadine F.

    2008-01-01

    Guided by a stress process perspective, we investigated (a) whether marital conflict might directly lead to changes in depression and functional impairment, (b) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in functional impairment via depression, and (c) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in depression via functional impairment. We estimated a latent variable causal model using 3 waves of data from the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 1,832)....

  20. Ego Depletion Impairs Implicit Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kelsey R.; Sanchez, Daniel J.; Wesley, Abigail H.; Reber, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Implicit skill learning occurs incidentally and without conscious awareness of what is learned. However, the rate and effectiveness of learning may still be affected by decreased availability of central processing resources. Dual-task experiments have generally found impairments in implicit learning, however, these studies have also shown that certain characteristics of the secondary task (e.g., timing) can complicate the interpretation of these results. To avoid this problem, the current experiments used a novel method to impose resource constraints prior to engaging in skill learning. Ego depletion theory states that humans possess a limited store of cognitive resources that, when depleted, results in deficits in self-regulation and cognitive control. In a first experiment, we used a standard ego depletion manipulation prior to performance of the Serial Interception Sequence Learning (SISL) task. Depleted participants exhibited poorer test performance than did non-depleted controls, indicating that reducing available executive resources may adversely affect implicit sequence learning, expression of sequence knowledge, or both. In a second experiment, depletion was administered either prior to or after training. Participants who reported higher levels of depletion before or after training again showed less sequence-specific knowledge on the post-training assessment. However, the results did not allow for clear separation of ego depletion effects on learning versus subsequent sequence-specific performance. These results indicate that performance on an implicitly learned sequence can be impaired by a reduction in executive resources, in spite of learning taking place outside of awareness and without conscious intent. PMID:25275517

  1. Ego depletion impairs implicit learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey R Thompson

    Full Text Available Implicit skill learning occurs incidentally and without conscious awareness of what is learned. However, the rate and effectiveness of learning may still be affected by decreased availability of central processing resources. Dual-task experiments have generally found impairments in implicit learning, however, these studies have also shown that certain characteristics of the secondary task (e.g., timing can complicate the interpretation of these results. To avoid this problem, the current experiments used a novel method to impose resource constraints prior to engaging in skill learning. Ego depletion theory states that humans possess a limited store of cognitive resources that, when depleted, results in deficits in self-regulation and cognitive control. In a first experiment, we used a standard ego depletion manipulation prior to performance of the Serial Interception Sequence Learning (SISL task. Depleted participants exhibited poorer test performance than did non-depleted controls, indicating that reducing available executive resources may adversely affect implicit sequence learning, expression of sequence knowledge, or both. In a second experiment, depletion was administered either prior to or after training. Participants who reported higher levels of depletion before or after training again showed less sequence-specific knowledge on the post-training assessment. However, the results did not allow for clear separation of ego depletion effects on learning versus subsequent sequence-specific performance. These results indicate that performance on an implicitly learned sequence can be impaired by a reduction in executive resources, in spite of learning taking place outside of awareness and without conscious intent.

  2. Impaired neutrophil function in intestinal lymphangiectasia.

    OpenAIRE

    Bolton, R P; Cotter, K L; Losowsky, M S

    1986-01-01

    Impaired neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis were shown in three patients with intestinal lymphangiectasia. Abnormalities in cell associated and serum derived activity occurred, and possible mechanisms are suggested.

  3. Treatment of Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Susan H.; Griffith, Nathan

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis is an increasingly recognized entity. This article reviews the cognitive impairment of multiple sclerosis, its prevalence, its relationship to different types of multiple sclerosis, and its contribution to long-term functional prognosis. The discussion also focuses on the key elements of cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis which distinguish it from other forms of cognitive impairment. Therapeutic interventions potentially effective for the cognitive impairment of multiple sclerosis are reviewed including the effects of disease modifying therapies and the use of physical and cognitive interventions. PMID:16720960

  4. Cardiovascular disease risk factors and cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, David T; Fillit, Howard

    2006-04-15

    The role of cardiovascular disease risk factors in the occurrence and progression of cognitive impairment has been the subject of a significant number of publications but has not achieved widespread recognition among many physicians and educated laymen. It is apparent that the active treatment of certain of these cardiovascular disease risk factors is accompanied by a reduced risk for cognitive impairment. Patients with hypertension who are treated experience fewer cardiovascular disease events as well as less cognitive impairment than similar untreated patients. Patients who exercise may present with less cognitive impairment, and obesity may increase the risk for cognitive impairment. Lipid abnormalities and genetic markers are associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and cognitive impairment. Autopsy studies have demonstrated a correlation between elevated levels of cholesterol and amyloid deposition in the brain. Research has demonstrated a relation between atherosclerotic obstruction lesions in the circle of Willis and dementia. Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and cognitive impairment. A number of nonpharmacologic factors have a role in reducing the risk for cognitive impairment. Antioxidants, fatty acids, and micronutrients may have a role, and diets rich in fruits and vegetables and other dietary approaches may improve the outlook for patients considered at risk for cognitive impairment.

  5. Clean Water Act 303(d) Listed Impaired Waters and their Causes of Impairment from All Years

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Waters identified as impaired as well as their associated causes of impairment from all approved Clean Water Act 303(d) lists submitted by the states. Includes all...

  6. Spatial Coding of Individuals with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Koustriava, Eleni; Kartasidou, Lefkothea

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the ability of children and adolescents with visual impairments to code and represent near space. Moreover, it examines the impact of the strategies they use and individual differences in their performance. A total of 30 individuals with visual impairments up to the age of 18 were given eight different object…

  7. Recess for Students with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    During recess, the participation of a student with visual impairments in terms of movement can often be both challenging and rewarding for the student and general education teacher. This paper will address common characteristics of students with visual impairments and present basic solutions to improve the participation of these students in the…

  8. Pragmatic language impairment and associated behavioural problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaars, M.P.; Cuperus, J.; Jansonius, K.; Verhoeven, L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Specific language impairment (SLI) is diagnosed when a child shows isolated structural language problems. The diagnosis of pragmatic language impairment (PLI) is given to children who show difficulties with the use of language in context. Unlike children with SLI, these children tend to

  9. Cognitive impairment in COPD: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Torres-Sánchez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to characterize and clarify the relationships between the various cognitive domains affected in COPD patients and the disease itself, as well as to determine the prevalence of impairment in the various cognitive domains in such patients. To that end, we performed a systematic review using the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect. We included articles that provided information on cognitive impairment in COPD patients. The review of the findings of the articles showed a significant relationship between COPD and cognitive impairment. The most widely studied cognitive domains are memory and attention. Verbal memory and learning constitute the second most commonly impaired cognitive domain in patients with COPD. The prevalence of impairment in visuospatial memory and intermediate visual memory is 26.9% and 19.2%, respectively. We found that cognitive impairment is associated with the profile of COPD severity and its comorbidities. The articles reviewed demonstrated that there is considerable impairment of the cognitive domains memory and attention in patients with COPD. Future studies should address impairments in different cognitive domains according to the disease stage in patients with COPD.

  10. Cognitive impairment in COPD: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Sánchez, Irene; Rodríguez-Alzueta, Elisabeth; Cabrera-Martos, Irene; López-Torres, Isabel; Moreno-Ramírez, Maria Paz; Valenza, Marie Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize and clarify the relationships between the various cognitive domains affected in COPD patients and the disease itself, as well as to determine the prevalence of impairment in the various cognitive domains in such patients. To that end, we performed a systematic review using the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect. We included articles that provided information on cognitive impairment in COPD patients. The review of the findings of the articles showed a significant relationship between COPD and cognitive impairment. The most widely studied cognitive domains are memory and attention. Verbal memory and learning constitute the second most commonly impaired cognitive domain in patients with COPD. The prevalence of impairment in visuospatial memory and intermediate visual memory is 26.9% and 19.2%, respectively. We found that cognitive impairment is associated with the profile of COPD severity and its comorbidities. The articles reviewed demonstrated that there is considerable impairment of the cognitive domains memory and attention in patients with COPD. Future studies should address impairments in different cognitive domains according to the disease stage in patients with COPD.

  11. Marital Conflict, Depressive Symptoms, and Functional Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Heejeong; Marks, Nadine F

    2008-01-01

    Guided by a stress process perspective, we investigated (a) whether marital conflict might directly lead to changes in depression and functional impairment, (b) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in functional impairment via depression, and (c) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in depression via…

  12. Affective Education for Visually Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Don C.; Gerler, Edwin R., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of the Human Development Program (HDP) and the Developing Understanding of Self and Others (DUSO) program used with visually impaired children. Although HDP and DUSO affected the behavior of visually impaired children, they did not have any effect on children's attitudes toward school. (RC)

  13. 38 CFR 4.10 - Functional impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Functional impairment. 4.10 Section 4.10 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES General Policy in Rating § 4.10 Functional impairment. The basis of disability...

  14. Survivable Impairment-Aware Traffic Grooming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beshir, A.; Nuijts, R.; Malhotra, R.; Kuipers, F.

    2011-01-01

    Traffic grooming allows efficient utilization of network capacity by aggregating several independent traffic streams into a wavelength. In addition, survivability and impairment-awareness (i.e., taking into account the effect of physical impairments) are two important issues that have gained a lot

  15. Adaptive behavior of children with visual impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive behavior includes a wide range of skills necessary for independent, safe and adequate performance of everyday activities. Practical, social and conceptual skills make the concept of adaptive behavior. The aim of this paper is to provide an insight into the existing studies of adaptive behavior in persons with visual impairment. The paper mainly focuses on the research on adaptive behavior in children with visual impairment. The results show that the acquisition of adaptive skills is mainly low or moderately low in children and youth with visual impairment. Children with visual impairment achieve the worst results in social skills and everyday life skills, while the most acquired are communication skills. Apart from the degree of visual impairment, difficulties in motor development also significantly influence the acquisition of practical and social skills of blind persons and persons with low vision.

  16. Cognitive impairment and mortality among nonagenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kjeld; Nybo, Hanne; Gaist, David

    2002-01-01

    Cognitive impairment has been associated with increased mortality. Most studies, however, have only included small numbers, if at all, of the very old. In a large nationwide survey of all Danes born in 1905 and still alive in 1998, where the baseline examination was conducted, we examined...... the impact of cognitive impairment on mortality over a 2-year period. No cognitive impairment was defined as a score of 24-30 points on the Mini Mental State Examination, mild cognitive impairment was defined as a score of 18-23 points, and severe impairment was defined as a score of 0-17 points. Cox...... regression analysis was applied to adjust for a number of known and suspected factors known or suspected of being associated with cognition and mortality (e.g. sociodemographic factors, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, depressive symptoms, and physical abilities), and yielded hazard ratios (95% confidence...

  17. Energy Metabolism Impairment in Migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevoli, Sabina; Favoni, Valentina; Cortelli, Pietro

    2018-06-22

    Migraine is a common disabling neurological disorder which is characterised by recurring headache associated with a variety of sensory and autonomic symptoms. The pathophysiology of migraine remains not entirely understood, although many mechanisms involving the central and peripheral nervous system are now becoming clear. In particular, it is widely accepted that migraine is associated with energy metabolic impairment of the brain. The purpose of this review is to present an update overview of the energy metabolism involvement in the migraine pathophysiology. Several biochemical, morphological and magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies have confirmed the presence of energy production deficiency together with an increment of energy consumption in migraine patients. An increment of energy demand over a certain threshold create metabolic and biochemical preconditions for the onset of the migraine attack. The defect of oxidative energy metabolism in migraine is generalized. It remains to be determined if the mitochondrial deficit in migraine is primary or secondary. Riboflavin and Co-Enzyme Q10, both physiologically implicated in mitochondrial respiratory chain functioning, are effective in migraine prophylaxis, supporting the hypothesis that improving brain energy metabolism may reduce the susceptibility to migraine. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. A methoxydiphenidine-impaired driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachel, Nicole; Jacobsen-Bauer, Andrea; Skopp, Gisela

    2016-03-01

    Methoxydiphenidine (MXP) was first reported in 1989 as a dissociative anesthetic but did not enter the market for pharmaceuticals. The substance re-appeared in 2013 as a new psychoactive substance. A case of driving under the influence of MXP is reported. The concentration of MXP has been determined from a serum sample (57 ng/mL) by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry following liquid-liquid extraction. In addition, amphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine, and its major metabolite were present in concentrations of 111, 28, and 3 ng/mL, respectively. The subject presented with amnesia, out-of-body experiences, bizarre behavior, and decreased motor abilities. At present, information on human toxicity of MXP is not available. MXP is comparable in structure as well as in action at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor to phencyclidine or ketamine. Therefore, it is likely that MXP exerts similar severe psychotropic action in man. However, there is no information on the duration and intensity of MXP's impairing effects, the interpretation of a particular concentration in the blood or serum, and its detectability in routine drug screenings. Confirmation analysis may be confined to cases where the police has specific intelligence that points to MXP use.

  19. 20 CFR 404.1511 - Definition of a disabling impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of a disabling impairment. 404... Definition of a disabling impairment. (a) Disabled workers, persons disabled since childhood and, for months... disabling impairment is an impairment (or combination of impairments) which, of itself, is so severe that it...

  20. Cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutashov V.A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to identify the degree of cognitive impairment (CN and to optimize the treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. Material and methods. A total of 695 patients (278 men and 417 women were ranged from 18 to 63 years. The mean age was 30.2±0.7 years: women (417 28.5±0.5 years, while for men (278 31.8±0.7 years. Relaps-ing-remitting type (RT of MS was established in 520 patients (74.8%, secondary progressive type (VPT MS in 132 patients (18.9% and primary progressive type (PPT MS in 10 patients (1.5%. Clinically isolated syndrome (CIS was detected in 33 patients (4.8%. The diagnosis of MS 662 patients according to the criteria McDonald etal. (2005. Score of neurologic deficit was carried out on an extended scale of disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale — EDSS. CN were evaluated by conventional tests. To estimate the orientation in time, assessment of short-term and long-term memory, attention and concentration, as well as executive functions, memory, language, evaluation of optical-spatial activities, conceptual thinking, the account used by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale (MoCA. For the screening of dementia with a primary lesion of the frontal lobes and subcortical cerebral structures used battery frontal test to assess frontal dysfunction. Results. The ratio of male (265 and female (397 was 1:1.5. The severity of the condition patients EDSS scale ranged from 1.5 to 8.0 points, and the average score was 3.5±1.2. In the group of patients with RT RS average score EDSS was more than a half (2.5±1.1, than in the group of patients with MS VAC (5.5±1.2 and POS PC (6.5±1.2. In the study of history, it was found that the development of the RS (662 patients was preceded by the following conditions: a viral infection in 277 patients (41.84%; fatigue in 147 patients (22.21%; transferred psycho-emotional load from 218 (32.93%; after pregnancy and childbirth in 20 patients (3.02%. Conclusion. Among the patients with MS

  1. Acute lesions that impair affective empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Kenichi; Hsu, John; Lindquist, Martin; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Jarso, Samson; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Mori, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    Functional imaging studies of healthy participants and previous lesion studies have provided evidence that empathy involves dissociable cognitive functions that rely on at least partially distinct neural networks that can be individually impaired by brain damage. These studies converge in support of the proposal that affective empathy—making inferences about how another person feels—engages at least the following areas: prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal gyrus, anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, temporal pole, amygdala and temporoparietal junction. We hypothesized that right-sided lesions to any one of these structures, except temporoparietal junction, would cause impaired affective empathy (whereas bilateral damage to temporoparietal junction would be required to disrupt empathy). We studied 27 patients with acute right hemisphere ischaemic stroke and 24 neurologically intact inpatients on a test of affective empathy. Acute impairment of affective empathy was associated with infarcts in the hypothesized network, particularly temporal pole and anterior insula. All patients with impaired affective empathy were also impaired in comprehension of affective prosody, but many patients with impairments in prosodic comprehension had spared affective empathy. Patients with impaired affective empathy were older, but showed no difference in performance on tests of hemispatial neglect, volume of infarct or sex distribution compared with patients with intact affective empathy. PMID:23824490

  2. Intracranial stenosis in cognitive impairment and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilal, Saima; Xu, Xin; Ikram, M Kamran; Vrooman, Henri; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Chen, Christopher

    2017-06-01

    Intracranial stenosis is a common vascular lesion observed in Asian and other non-Caucasian stroke populations. However, its role in cognitive impairment and dementia has been under-studied. We, therefore, examined the association of intracranial stenosis with cognitive impairment, dementia and their subtypes in a memory clinic case-control study, where all subjects underwent detailed neuropsychological assessment and 3 T neuroimaging including three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography. Intracranial stenosis was defined as ≥50% narrowing in any of the intracranial arteries. A total of 424 subjects were recruited of whom 97 were classified as no cognitive impairment, 107 as cognitive impairment no dementia, 70 vascular cognitive impairment no dementia, 121 Alzheimer's Disease, and 30 vascular dementia. Intracranial stenosis was associated with dementia (age/gender/education - adjusted odds ratios (OR): 4.73, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.93-11.60) and vascular cognitive impairment no dementia (OR: 3.98, 95% CI: 1.59-9.93). These associations were independent of cardiovascular risk factors and MRI markers. However, the association with Alzheimer's Disease and vascular dementia became attenuated in the presence of white matter hyperintensities. Intracranial stenosis is associated with vascular cognitive impairment no dementia independent of MRI markers. In Alzheimer's Disease and vascular dementia, this association is mediated by cerebrovascular disease. Future studies focusing on perfusion and functional markers are needed to determine the pathophysiological mechanism(s) linking intracranial stenosis and cognition so as to identify treatment strategies.

  3. Cognitive impairments, HCI and daily living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keates, Simeon; Kozloski, James; Varker, Philip

    2009-01-01

    As computer systems become increasingly more pervasive in everyday life, it is simultaneously becoming ever more important that the concept of universal access is accepted as a design mantra. While many physical impairments and their implications for human-computer interaction are well understood......, cognitive impairments have received comparatively little attention. One of the reasons for this is the general lack of sufficiently detailed cognitive models. This paper examines how cognitive impairments can affect human-computer interaction in everyday life and the issues involved in trying to make...

  4. Mild Cognitive Impairment Status and Mobility Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mette; Holt, Nicole E; Grande, Laura

    2014-01-01

    : An analysis was conducted on baseline data from the Boston Rehabilitative Impairment Study in the Elderly study, a cohort study of 430 primary care patients aged 65 or older. Neuropsychological tests identified participants with MCI and further subclassified those with impairment in memory domains (a......BACKGROUND: The prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mobility limitations is high among older adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MCI status and both performance-based and self-report measures of mobility in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS...

  5. Release of Fission Products from UC-ZrC Fuel Inserts; Degagement des produits de fission liberes dans des noyaux combustibles UC-ZrC; Vydelenie produktov deleniya iz topliv UC - ZrC; Liberacion de productos de fision por pastillas de combustible de UC-ZrC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, F.; Von der Decken, C. B.; Schifferstein, K. [Brown Boveri/Krupp Reaktorbau G.M.B.H., Duesseldorf (Germany); Clauss, A.; Reichel, H.; Rygaert, J.; Ruston, W. R. [Societe d' Etudes de Recherches et d' Applications pour l' Industrie (S.E.R.A.I.), Brussels (Belgium)

    1963-11-15

    energies obtained from different types of pellets, although the values of D/r{sub 0}{sup 2} sometimes differed by four orders of magnitude at the same sample temperatures. After irradiation, the activities of the isotopes I{sup 131}, Sr{sup 85}, Ba{sup 140} and Ce{sup 141} were determined in the graphite of the capsules. Except for I{sup 131}, the activities were higher than those expected for a release by recoil only. The values for Sr{sup 89}, Ba{sup 140} and Ce{sup 141} are too high to be a result of a diffusion of their corresponding rare gas precursors. It is assumed that the measured isotopes or their non-rare gas precursors were released by diffusion. (author) [French] Les auteurs ont etudie sous irradiation, dans une boucle, le degagement des produits de fission liberes par des pastilles dont la composition approximative etait UC + 20 ZrC. Il s'agissait de verifier la possibilite d'utiliser ces pastilles comme noyaux d'elements combustibles spheriques pour le reacteur a haute temperature actuellement construit a Juliers par la societe Brown-Boveri/Krupp Reaktorbau GmbH. Les essais ont ete faits sur des pastilles encapsulees dans du graphite et sur des pastilles non encapsulees. La surface de certaines pastilles etait constituee par une couche de carbure de zirconium pur d'une epaisseur de 1 a 2 mm. Les echantillons ent ete places dans des fours electriques a resistance pouvant atteindre une temperature de 1600{sup o}C. Pendant l'irradiation, les flux de neutrons etaient de 3 a 4 x 10{sup 10}n/cm{sup 2}s. La boucle permettait de mesurer, pendant l'irradiation, le degagement de {sup 85m}Kr, {sup 87}Kr, {sup 88}Kr, {sup 133}Xe et {sup 135}Xe et de determiner indirectement les quantites de {sup 133}I et {sup 135}I, apres l'arret du reacteur. Le degagement minimum de {sup 131}I, {sup 89}Sr, {sup 140}Ba et {sup 141}Ce a ete determine radiochimiquement apres retrait des echantillons. Il a ete egalement possible de mesurer la fraction de recul {epsilon}{sub R} seule, le

  6. Find Services for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Blind or Visually Impaired Find Services for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired Category All ... Territory Other (International) Organization Name Find Services for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired Browse All ...

  7. Some Sleep Drugs Can Impair Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Some Sleep Drugs Can Impair Driving Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. Most Widely Used Sleep Drug Zolpidem—which has been on the market ...

  8. State Alcohol-Impaired-Driving Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2012 Data DOT HS 812 017 May 2014 State Alcohol-Impaired-Driving Estimates This fact sheet contains ... alcohol involvement in fatal crashes for the United States and individually for the 50 States, the District ...

  9. Streptozotocin diabetes and insulin resistance impairment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... insulin resistance impairment of spermatogenesis in adult rat testis: Central Vs local ... Summary: Mammalian reproduction is dynamically regulated by the pituitary ... Group 3 > Streptozotocin-insulin treated group; received a single dose IP ...

  10. Impaired decision making among morbidly obese adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brogan, Amy

    2011-02-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) measures affective decision making and has revealed decision making impairments across a wide range of eating disorders. This study aimed to investigate affective decision making in severely obese individuals.

  11. Tone language fluency impairs pitch discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle ePeretz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Here we present evidence that native speakers of a tone language, in which pitch contributes to word meaning, are impaired in the discrimination of falling pitches in tone sequences, as compared to speakers of a non-tone language. Both groups were presented with monotonic and isochronous sequences of five tones (i.e., constant pitch and intertone interval. They were required to detect when the fourth tone was displaced in pitch or time. While speakers of a tone language performed more poorly in the detection of downward pitch changes, they did not differ from non-tone language speakers in their perception of upward pitch changes or in their perception of subtle time changes. Moreover, this impairment cannot be attributed to low musical aptitude since the impairment remains unchanged when individual differences in musical pitch-based processing is taken into account. Thus, the impairment appears highly specific and may reflect the influence of statistical regularities of tone languages.

  12. Osteogenesis imperfecta in childhood: impairment and disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelbert, R. H.; van der Graaf, Y.; van Empelen, R.; Beemer, F. A.; Helders, P. J.

    1997-01-01

    To determine clinical characteristics in children with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) regarding impairment (range of joint motion and muscle strength) and disability (functional skills) in relation to the different types of the disease, and to study the correlation between characteristics of

  13. Hearing impairment in genotyped Wolfram syndrome patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, R.F.; Pennings, R.J.E.; Huygen, P.L.M.; Bruno, R.; Eller, P.; Barrett, T.G.; Vialettes, B.; Paquis-Fluklinger, V.; Lombardo, F.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Wolfram syndrome is a progressive neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by the features "DIDMOAD" (diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness). We sought to study the audiometric data of genotyped Wolfram syndrome patients with sensorineural hearing impairment.

  14. Communication difficulties in teenagers with health impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samokhvalova, Anna G.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary psychological and pedagogical studies pay special attention to the socialization of physically impaired children, inclusive education and methods of providing such children with a safe environment to assist in their development. However, difficulties in interpersonal communication experienced by children with health impairments have remained beyond the research scope. The authors conducted a comparative analysis of communication difficulties in typically developed teenagers aged 12-13 years (n = 100 and the problems faced by their peers with visual (n = 30, auditory (n = 30, speech (n = 25 and motor (n = 15 impairments. Actual communication difficulties in teenagers were studied in two ways: the subjective component of impaired communication was registered through a content analysis of a sentence completion test and the objective manifestations of impaired communication were identified through expert evaluation of children’s communicative behavior (educators and psychologists who had been in close contact with the teenagers acted as experts. First, the authors identified typical standard communication problems that were characteristic of teenagers aged 12-13 years, that is, problems with aggression, tolerance, the ability to admit wrongdoing and make concessions, empathy, self-control, self-analysis and self-expression in communication. Second, typical communication difficulties characteristic of physically impaired children were revealed: failure to understand meaning; feelings of awkwardness and shame of oneself; expectations of a negative attitude toward oneself; gelotophobia; and manifestations of despotism, petulance and egotism as defensive reactions in situations of impaired communication. Third, the authors described specific communication difficulties in teenagers with auditory, visual, speech and motor impairments.

  15. Cargo distributions differentiate pathological axonal transport impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cassie S; Lee, Robert H

    2012-05-07

    Axonal transport is an essential process in neurons, analogous to shipping goods, by which energetic and cellular building supplies are carried downstream (anterogradely) and wastes are carried upstream (retrogradely) by molecular motors, which act as cargo porters. Impairments in axonal transport have been linked to devastating and often lethal neurodegenerative diseases, such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Huntington's, and Alzheimer's. Axonal transport impairment types include a decrease in available motors for cargo transport (motor depletion), the presence of defective or non-functional motors (motor dilution), and the presence of increased or larger cargos (protein aggregation). An impediment to potential treatment identification has been the inability to determine what type(s) of axonal transport impairment candidates that could be present in a given disease. In this study, we utilize a computational model and common axonal transport experimental metrics to reveal the axonal transport impairment general characteristics or "signatures" that result from three general defect types of motor depletion, motor dilution, and protein aggregation. Our results not only provide a means to discern these general impairments types, they also reveal key dynamic and emergent features of axonal transport, which potentially underlie multiple impairment types. The identified characteristics, as well as the analytical method, can be used to help elucidate the axonal transport impairments observed in experimental and clinical data. For example, using the model-predicted defect signatures, we identify the defect candidates, which are most likely to be responsible for the axonal transport impairments in the G93A SOD1 mouse model of ALS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Adaptive behavior of children with visual impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Anđelković Marija

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive behavior includes a wide range of skills necessary for independent, safe and adequate performance of everyday activities. Practical, social and conceptual skills make the concept of adaptive behavior. The aim of this paper is to provide an insight into the existing studies of adaptive behavior in persons with visual impairment. The paper mainly focuses on the research on adaptive behavior in children with visual impairment. The results show that the acquisition of adaptive skills is ...

  17. Reading comprehension of pupils with hearing impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Pinkasová, Lucie

    2010-01-01

    Presented diploma thesis is focused on reading problems of people with hearing impairment. The theoretical part deals a hearing impairment, process of acquisition of reading skills of healthy people and deaf people as well. The practical part efforts to clarify preparations, process and results of the research. I am presenting my own reading comprehension test, which was compiled on purpose due to the research. The goal of my diploma thesis is to determine when the level of reading acquiremen...

  18. Vestibular Function Impairment in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamagoe, Kiyotaka; Fujimiya, Suguru; Koganezawa, Tadachika; Kadono, Kotarou; Shimizu, Kotone; Fujizuka, Natsu; Takiguchi, Shino; Ueno, Tomoyuki; Monzen, Tatsuya; Tamaoka, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Falls and fractures due to impaired balance in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have an adverse effect on the clinical course of the disease. To evaluate balance impairment in AD from the viewpoint of vestibular functional impairment. The subjects were 12 patients with AD, 12 dementia-free elderly adults, and 12 younger adults. Vestibular function was assessed using a stepping test, caloric nystagmus, and a visual suppression (VS) test. The stepping test was abnormal in 9 of the 12 patients in the AD group. An abnormal stepping test was not associated with self-reported dizziness or tendency to fall. Significant VS abnormalities were present in the AD group. The suppression rate of VS was lower in AD patients with either a tendency to fall or constructional apraxia than in AD patients without either. The velocity of the rapid phase of caloric nystagmus before the VS test was similar in the AD group and the elderly control group. Significant abnormalities of both caloric nystagmus and VS were not present in either the elderly or the younger control groups. AD could involve impairments in the vestibular control of balance. The VS test is useful for assessing the tendency to fall in AD. Impairment of VS in AD might arise from cerebral vestibular cortex impairment rather than comorbid peripheral vestibular disorders.

  19. Measuring and managing cognitive impairment in HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Sam; Winston, Alan

    2017-06-01

    : Cognitive impairment remains a frequently reported complaint in HIV-positive patients despite virologically suppressive antiretroviral therapy. Rates of cognitive impairment in antiretroviral treated HIV-positive cohorts vary and strongly depend on definitions utilized.The underlying pathogenesis is likely to be multifactorial and includes immune activation, neuroinflammation, antiretroviral neurotoxicity, the presence of noninfectious comorbidities such as vascular disease and depression and patient lifestyle factors such as recreational drug use.Contributing factors to cognitive impairment may change over time with ageing HIV-positive populations. Cerebrovascular disease and neurodegenerative causes of cognitive impairment may become more common with advancing age; how these factors interact with HIV-associated cognitive impairment is not yet known.Cerebrospinal fluid HIV RNA escape may occur in up to 10% of patients undergoing lumbar puncture clinically and can be associated with compartmentalized and resistant virus.Changes in antiretroviral therapy in patients with cognitive impairment should be based on current and historic resistance profiles of cerebrospinal fluid and plasma virus, or on potential antiretroviral drug neurotoxicity. Whether and how antiretroviral therapy should be changed in the absence of these factors is not known and requires study in adequately powered randomized trials in carefully selected clinical cohorts.

  20. 20 CFR 416.921 - What we mean by a not severe impairment(s) in an adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What we mean by a not severe impairment(s) in an adult. 416.921 Section 416.921 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL... Disability § 416.921 What we mean by a not severe impairment(s) in an adult. (a) Non-severe impairment(s). An...

  1. The combined effect of visual impairment and cognitive impairment on disability in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Heather E; Cousins, Scott W; Burchett, Bruce M; Hybels, Celia F; Pieper, Carl F; Cohen, Harvey J

    2007-06-01

    To determine the risk of disability in individuals with coexisting visual and cognitive impairment and to compare the magnitude of risk associated with visual impairment, cognitive impairment, or the multimorbidity. Prospective cohort. North Carolina. Three thousand eight hundred seventy-eight participants in the North Carolina Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly with nonmissing visual status, cognitive status, and disability status data at baseline Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (cognitive impairment defined as > or =4 errors), self reported visual acuity (visual impairment defined as inability to see well enough to recognize a friend across the street or to read newspaper print), demographic and health-related variables, disability status (activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), mobility), death, and time to nursing home placement. Participants with coexisting visual and cognitive impairment were at greater risk of IADL disability (odds ratio (OR)=6.50, 95% confidence interval (CI)=4.34-9.75), mobility disability (OR=4.04, 95% CI=2.49-6.54), ADL disability (OR=2.84, 95% CI=1.87-4.32), and incident ADL disability (OR=3.66, 95%, CI=2.36-5.65). In each case, the estimated OR associated with the multimorbidity was greater than the estimated OR associated with visual or cognitive impairment alone, a pattern that was not observed for other adverse outcomes assessed. No significant interactions were observed between cognitive impairment and visual impairment as predictors of disability status. Individuals with coexisting visual impairment and cognitive impairment are at high risk of disability, with each condition contributing additively to disability risk. Further study is needed to improve functional trajectories in patients with this prevalent multimorbidity. When visual or cognitive impairment is present, efforts to maximize the other function may be beneficial.

  2. Preexisting cognitive impairment in intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, M; Horstmann, S; Möhlenbruch, M; Schueler, S; Rizos, T; Veltkamp, R

    2017-06-01

    Preexisting cognitive impairment is a predictor of cognitive decline after ischemic stroke, but evidence in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is limited. We aimed to determine the prevalence of premorbid cognitive impairment in patients with ICH. We included patients with acute ICH. Pre-ICH cognitive impairment was determined based on the results of the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE) that uses information from close relatives. Patients were assessed as having been cognitively impaired with an IQCODE score of ≥3.44; an IQCODE ≥4.00 indicated pre-ICH dementia. CT and MRI images were reviewed to determine the extent of white matter lesions and to measure the radial width of the temporal horn as marker of brain atrophy. We investigated differences of cardiovascular risk factors and imaging data between patients with and without pre-ICH cognitive impairment using correlation analyses, uni- and multivariable regression models. Functional neurological state was assessed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). The mRS was dichotomized at the level of 3, and a premorbid mRS of 0-2 was considered as functional independency. Among the 89 participants, median age was 70 years (interquartile range 58-78) and 52 (58.4%) were male. IQCODE indicated pre-ICH cognitive impairment in 18.0% (16 of 89), and 83.1% were functionally independent before ICH. Cognitive impairment was associated with a premorbid mRS≥3 (chi squared test, P=0.009). In multivariable analysis, prior stroke/transient ischemic attack (OR 18.29, 95%-CI 1.945-172.033, P=.011) and hematoma volume (OR 0.90, 95%-CI 0.812-0.991, P=.033) were independently associated with pre-ICH cognitive impairment. In conclusion, cognitive impairment frequently precedes ICH. A higher frequency of cerebrovascular events suggests a role of vascular processes in the development of cognitive impairment before ICH. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Pain in cognitively impaired older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmelee, P A

    1996-08-01

    To summarize, there has been shamefully little empirical research directly examining the prevalence and correlates of pain among cognitively impaired older people. Even less is known about techniques for assessing and managing pain in this group. Existing evidence suggests that cognitively impaired older persons may voice fewer complaints about pain, but there is no reason to believe that they are in fact at less risk of pain than their cognitively intact age-mates. Rather, for whatever reason, persons with cognitively deficits appear to be less inclined to report pain than are intact elders of similar health status. This reporting difference may account at least in part for the fact that pain is less likely to be treated aggressively among cognitively impaired individuals. Unfortunately, knowing the reason for this state of affairs does not mitigate its implication: cognitive deficits place frail older persons at risk of unnecessary pain simply because it is not properly identified. Data reviewed in this chapter suggest that accurate assessment of pain in cognitively impaired older persons, far from being impossible, may actually be only slightly more demanding than it is in intact individuals. Even among markedly impaired elders, self-reports should certainly be taken as valid indicators; early evidence suggests promising avenues for developing reliable, clear-cut guidelines for the nonverbal assessment of pain in very severely demented individuals. As the nation grows older and medical care advances, a growing proportion of individuals can expect to live well into their eighth and even ninth decades. Unfortunately, with this extended life span comes increased likelihood of both cognitive impairment and pain. Thus, expansion of our repertoire of techniques for assessing and managing pain among cognitively impaired older persons must be a central priority for research on pain in late life.

  4. Effect of Somatosensory Impairments on Balance Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Hassanpour

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The somatosensory system is one of the most effective systems in balance control. It consists of peripheral and central components. Knowing the role of these components in balance control assists the developing of effective rehabilitation protocols. In some diseases peripheral components and in others central components are impaired. This paper reviews the effect of impairment of peripheral and central components of the somatosensory system on balance control.Methods: In this study publication about somatosensory impairments from 1983 through 2011 in PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, Google Scholar, Iran Medex, Iran Doc and Magiran were reviewed. Medical subject headings terms and keywords related to balance, somatosensory, somatosensory loss, and sensory integration/processing were used to perform the searches.Conclusion: Somatosensory impairments either with peripheral or central origin, can cause problems in balance control. However, these problems are not considered in some patients. In these impairments, balance training is recommended to be used alongside other routine treatments in the patients' rehabilitation programs.

  5. Intervention for Mixed Receptive-Expressive Language Impairment: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, James; McCartney, Elspeth; O'Hare, Anne; Law, James

    2010-01-01

    Studies indicate that language impairment that cannot be accounted for by factors such as below-average non-verbal ability, hearing impairment, behaviour or emotional problems, or neurological impairments affects some 6% of school-age children. Language impairment with a receptive language component is more resistant to intervention than specific…

  6. 20 CFR 416.911 - Definition of disabling impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with your age, education and work experience, would result in a finding that you are disabled under... combination of impairments that meets the requirements in §§ 416.920 (c) through (f). (b) If you are a child, a disabling impairment is an impairment (or combination of impairments) that causes marked and...

  7. 38 CFR 4.85 - Evaluation of hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... impairment. 4.85 Section 4.85 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Impairment of Auditory Acuity § 4.85 Evaluation of hearing impairment. (a) An examination for hearing impairment for VA purposes must be conducted by a state-licensed...

  8. Assessing Psychosocial Impairment in Children and Adolescents: A Review of the Barkley Functional Impairment Scale (BFIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Ryan J.

    2014-01-01

    Appraising psychosocial impairment is an essential enterprise of diagnostic decision-making in the field of school psychology. Despite its importance, few practitioners utilize systematic procedures when engaging in this process, despite the fact that a number of impairment measures and scales have been developed specifically for this purpose. The…

  9. 20 CFR 220.102 - Non-severe impairment(s), defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Non-severe impairment(s), defined. 220.102 Section 220.102 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT... these include— (1) Physical functions such as walking, standing, sitting, lifting, pushing, pulling...

  10. Spectroscopic study of near closed-shell nuclei Z = 50, by means of the ({sup 3}He,d) and (d, {sup 3}He) reactions on all even tin isotopes, and the ({sup 3}He, d) reaction on the A = 113 and A = 115 indium isotopes; Etude spectroscopique des noyaux au voisinage de la couche fermee Z = 50, au moyen des reactions ({sup 3}He, d) et (d, {sup 3}He) sur tous les isotopes pairs de l'etain, et de la reaction ({sup 3}He, d) sur les isotopes 113, 115 de l'indium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harar, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-06-01

    A systematic study of ({sup 3}He, d) reactions at 18 MeV incident energy and (d, {sup 3}He) reactions at 22 MeV incident energy on {sup 112,114,116,118,120,122,124}Sn is presented. The distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) is used to extract informations on (a) the transferred angular momentum l{sub p}, (b) the change of parity and (c) the spectroscopic factor. We have investigated the influence of the proton-neutron residual interaction on the spread of the pure proton configuration (particle or hole), and on the observed level sequence. Experimental results and predictions of the Kisslinger and Sorensen model are in reasonable agreement. A study of {sup 113,115}In ({sup 3}He, d) {sup 114,116}Sn reactions shows strong experimental evidence that the proton particle hole components are weak in the first excited states of tin nuclei. Furthermore, highly excited states ({approx} 4 to 6 MeV) having a simple structure with one predominant particle-hole configuration have been located. (authors) [French] Nous presentons une etude systematique des reactions ({sup 3}He, d) a 18 MeV et (d, {sup 3}He) a 22 MeV sur {sup 112,114,116,118,120,122,124}Sn. L'approximation des ondes deformees (DWBA) est utilisee pour obtenir des informations sur le moment angulaire transfere l{sub p}, sur le changement de parite et le facteur spectroscopique. Nous avons etudie l'influence de l'interaction residuelle proton-neutron sur la repartition de l'intensite a une seule particule ou trou de proton, et sur les sequences des niveaux observes. Les resultats experimentaux et les previsions theoriques du modele de Kisslinger et Sorensen sont en assez bon accord. L'etude des reactions {sup 113,115}In ({sup 3}He, d) {sup 114,116}Sn apporte la preuve experimentale que les composantes particule - trou de protons des premiers etats excites des noyaux residuels sont faibles. Elle permet aussi de localiser des niveaux a une energie d'excitation elevee ({approx} 4 a 6 Me

  11. Spectroscopic study of near closed-shell nuclei Z = 50, by means of the ({sup 3}He,d) and (d, {sup 3}He) reactions on all even tin isotopes, and the ({sup 3}He, d) reaction on the A = 113 and A = 115 indium isotopes; Etude spectroscopique des noyaux au voisinage de la couche fermee Z = 50, au moyen des reactions ({sup 3}He, d) et (d, {sup 3}He) sur tous les isotopes pairs de l'etain, et de la reaction ({sup 3}He, d) sur les isotopes 113, 115 de l'indium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harar, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-06-01

    A systematic study of ({sup 3}He, d) reactions at 18 MeV incident energy and (d, {sup 3}He) reactions at 22 MeV incident energy on {sup 112,114,116,118,120,122,124}Sn is presented. The distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) is used to extract informations on (a) the transferred angular momentum l{sub p}, (b) the change of parity and (c) the spectroscopic factor. We have investigated the influence of the proton-neutron residual interaction on the spread of the pure proton configuration (particle or hole), and on the observed level sequence. Experimental results and predictions of the Kisslinger and Sorensen model are in reasonable agreement. A study of {sup 113,115}In ({sup 3}He, d) {sup 114,116}Sn reactions shows strong experimental evidence that the proton particle hole components are weak in the first excited states of tin nuclei. Furthermore, highly excited states ({approx} 4 to 6 MeV) having a simple structure with one predominant particle-hole configuration have been located. (authors) [French] Nous presentons une etude systematique des reactions ({sup 3}He, d) a 18 MeV et (d, {sup 3}He) a 22 MeV sur {sup 112,114,116,118,120,122,124}Sn. L'approximation des ondes deformees (DWBA) est utilisee pour obtenir des informations sur le moment angulaire transfere l{sub p}, sur le changement de parite et le facteur spectroscopique. Nous avons etudie l'influence de l'interaction residuelle proton-neutron sur la repartition de l'intensite a une seule particule ou trou de proton, et sur les sequences des niveaux observes. Les resultats experimentaux et les previsions theoriques du modele de Kisslinger et Sorensen sont en assez bon accord. L'etude des reactions {sup 113,115}In ({sup 3}He, d) {sup 114,116}Sn apporte la preuve experimentale que les composantes particule - trou de protons des premiers etats excites des noyaux residuels sont faibles. Elle permet aussi de localiser des niveaux a une energie d'excitation elevee ({approx} 4 a 6 MeV), ayant une structure simple a

  12. Efferocytosis is impaired in Gaucher macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflaki, Elma; Borger, Daniel K; Grey, Richard J; Kirby, Martha; Anderson, Stacie; Lopez, Grisel; Sidransky, Ellen

    2017-04-01

    Gaucher disease, the inherited deficiency of lysosomal glucocerebrosidase, is characterized by the presence of glucosylceramide-laden macrophages resulting from impaired digestion of aged erythrocytes or apoptotic leukocytes. Studies of macrophages from patients with type 1 Gaucher disease with genotypes N370S/N370S, N370S/L444P or N370S/c.84dupG revealed that Gaucher macrophages have impaired efferocytosis resulting from reduced levels of p67 phox and Rab7. The decreased Rab7 expression leads to impaired fusion of phagosomes with lysosomes. Moreover, there is defective translocation of p67 phox to phagosomes, resulting in reduced intracellular production of reactive oxygen species. These factors contribute to defective deposition and clearance of apoptotic cells in phagolysosomes, which may have an impact on the inflammatory response and contribute to the organomegaly and inflammation seen in patients with Gaucher disease. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  13. Eating disorder severity and functional impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Annika Helgadóttir; Hoyt, William T.; Poulsen, Stig Bernt

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim was to examine duration of illness and body mass index as possible moderators of the relationship between eating disorder severity and functional impairment, as well as psychological distress as a possible mediator of this relationship. Methods: The study included 159 patients...... was measured with the Sheehan Disability Scale, and psychological distress was measured with the Symptom Check List-90-R. Duration of illness and body mass index were assessed clinically. Results: Duration of illness significantly moderated the relationship between eating disorder severity and functional...... impairment; the relationship was strongest for patients with a shorter duration of illness. Psychological distress partly mediated the relationship between eating disorder severity and functional impairment. Duration of illness significantly moderated the relationship between psychological distress...

  14. Is Hearing Impairment Associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emamifar, Amir; Bjoerndal, Kristine; Jensen Hansen, Inger Marie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic, inflammatory disease that affects 1% of the population. The auditory system may be involved during the course of disease; however the association of RA and hearing impairment has not been clearly defined. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review...... is to evaluate published clinical reports related to hearing impairment in patients with RA. Furthermore, we discuss possible pathologies and associated factors as well as new treatment modalities. METHOD: A thorough literature search was performed using available databases including Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane...... and ComDisDome to cover all relative reports. The following keywords were used: hearing loss, hearing difficulties, hearing disorders, hearing impairment, sensorineural hearing loss, conductive hearing loss, mixed hearing loss, autoimmune hearing loss, drug ototoxicity, drug-induced hearing loss, hearing...

  15. Evacuation characteristics of visually impaired people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Janne Gress; Dederichs, Anne

    2015-01-01

    speed depends on the degree of vision loss. The design of the building environment is important for the ability to orientation for people with reduced sight. Walls and handrails are important for the orientation possibilities for people with visual impairments. Furthermore, obstacles placed......-D). The mean free walking speed descending stairs for category C and D were found to be comparable with values found in Danish and Swedish guidelines. The walking speed of people with visible impairments was not affected by an increasing density on stairs to the same extent as the walking speed of able......-bodied adults. It was found that people with visual impairments were able to uphold a higher walking speed descending stairs than able-bodied adults for increasing person density. The initial walking speed on horizontal planes is lower than the value suggested by the N&M-model. The horizontal mean free walking...

  16. [Clinical characteristics in Parkinson's disease patients with cognitive impairment and effects of cognitive impairment on sleep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yan; Xiong, Kang-ping; Mao, Cheng-jie; Huang, Juan-ying; Hu, Wei-dong; Han, Fei; Chen, Rui; Liu, Chun-feng

    2013-09-03

    To analyze the clinical characteristics, correlation factors and clinical heterogeneities in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with cognitive impairment and identify whether cognitive impairment could influence the aspect of sleep. A total of 130 PD outpatients and inpatients of sleep center at our hospital were eligible for participation. According to Montreal cognitive assessment (MOCA), they were divided into cognitive normal group (MOCA ≥ 26) (n = 51) and cognitive impairment group (MOCA cognitive impairment (MOCA cognitive impairment, the PD patients with cognitive impairment had significantly higher score of HAMD (10 ± 7 vs 7 ± 4), increased incidence of hallucinations (40.50% vs 19.60%) and REM behavior disorders (RBD) (63.29% vs 39.21%), significantly higher H-Y stage [2.5(2.0-3.0) vs 2.0 (2.0-2.5)] , United Kingdom Parkinson Disease Society (UPDRS) part III (22 ± 10 vs 19 ± 10) and levodopa-equivalent daily dose (LED) (511 ± 302vs 380 ± 272) (all P 0.05). Non-conditional Logistic regression analysis showed that PD duration, score of HAMD and H-Y stage were the major influencing factors of cognition. On PSG, significantly decreased sleep efficiency (57% ± 21% vs 66% ± 17%), higher percentage of non-REM sleep stage 1 (NREMS1) (37% ± 21% vs 27% ± 13%), lower percentage of NREMS2 (40% ± 17% vs 46% ± 13%) and REM sleep (39% ± 28% vs 54% ± 36%) were found for PD patients with cognitive impairment (all P cognitive impairment have more severe disease and partial nonmotor symptoms. And the severity of disease and depression is closely associated with cognitive impairment. Cognitive impairment may also affect sleep to cause decreased sleep efficiency and severe sleep structure disorder.

  17. Superdeformation, Hyperdeformation and Clustering in the Actinide Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasznahorkay, A.; Habs, D.; Hunyadi, M.; Gassmann, D.; Csatlos, M.; Eisermann, Y.; Faestermann, T.; Graw, G.; Gulyas, J.; Hertenberger, R.; Maier, H. J.; Mate, Z.; Metz, A.; Ott, J.; Thirolf, P.; van der Werf, S. Y.

    2001-03-01

    Excited states in the second minimum of 240Pu were populated by the 238U(α ,2n) reaction at Eα=25 MeV. Conversion electrons from electromagnetic transitions preceding the fission of the 3.7 ns 240fPu shape isomer have been measured. In a combined analysis of e- and high resolution γ -ray spectroscopy data previously established octupole bands could be studied in more detail. In order to study higher lying states in the second and third minimum the 239Pu(d,pf)240Pu, and the 233U(d,pf)234U reactions have been studied with high energy resolution. The observed fission resonances were described as members of rotational bands with rotational parameters characteristic to super- and hyperdeformed nuclear shapes. The level density of the most strongly excited states has been compared to the prediction of the back-shifted Fermi-gas formula and the energy of the ground state in third minimum has been estimated for the first time in 234U. The fission fragment mass distribution of the hyperdeformed states in 236U has also been measured. The width of the mass distribution, coincident with the hyperdeformed bands, is significantly smaller than the ones obtained in coincidence with background regions below and above the resonances, which suggests a pear-shaped di-nuclear configuration of 236U in the third well of the potential barrier.

  18. Spins of superdeformed rotational bands in Tl isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadwal, Anshul; Mittal, H.M. [Dr. B.R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar (India)

    2017-01-15

    The two-parameter model defined for even-even nuclei viz. soft-rotor formula is used to assign the band-head spin of the 17 rotational bands in Tl isotopes. The least-squares fitting method is employed to obtain the spins of these bands in the A ∝ 190 mass region. The calculated transition energies are found to depend sensitively on the proposed spin. Whenever a correct spin assignment is made, the calculated and experimental transition energies coincide very well. The dynamic moment of inertia is also calculated and its variation with rotational frequency is explored. (orig.)

  19. ΔI = 2 Nuclear Staggering in Superdeformed Rotational Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okasha M. D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A four parameters model including collective rotational en ergies to fourth order is ap- plied to reproduce the ∆ I = 2 staggering in transition energies in four selected super deformed rotational bands, namely, 148 Gd (SD6, 194 Hg (SD1, SD2, SD3. The model parameters and the spin of the bandhead have been extracted a ssuming various val- ues to the lowest spin of the bandhead at nearest integer, in o rder to obtain a minimum root mean square deviation between calculated and the exper imental transition energies. This allows us to suggest the spin values for the energy level s which are experimentally unknown. For each band a staggering parameter represent the deviation of the transition energies from a smooth reference has been determined by calc ulating the fourth order derivative of the transition energies at a given spin. The st aggering parameter contains five consecutive transition energies which is denoted here a s the five-point formula. In order to get information about the dynamical moment of ine rtia, the two point for- mula which contains only two consecutive transition energi es has been also considered. The dynamical moment of inertia decreasing with increasing rotational frequency for A ∼ 150, while increasing for A ∼ 190 mass regions.

  20. Cognitive impairment in methadone maintenance patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintzer, Miriam Z; Stitzer, Maxine L

    2002-06-01

    Few well-controlled studies have examined psychomotor and cognitive performance in methadone maintenance patients (MMP). In the present study, performance of 18 opioid-dependent MMP was evaluated relative to that of 21 control participants without substance abuse histories. The MMP and control groups were balanced with respect to gender, race, age, years of education, current employment status, current reading level, and estimated IQ score. Recent drug abstinence was verified by urine testing. Participants with a urine screen positive for benzodiazepines or a breathalyzer test positive for alcohol prior to performance testing were excluded. To avoid testing under conditions of acute heroin or cocaine intoxication, but without testing under conditions of acute withdrawal, participants with current use of heroin or cocaine were only required to abstain for 24 h prior to performance testing. MMP exhibited impairment relative to controls in psychomotor speed (digit symbol substitution and trail-making tests), working memory (two-back task), decision making (gambling task), and metamemory (confidence ratings on a recognition memory test); results also suggested possible impairment in inhibitory mechanisms (Stroop color-word paradigm). MMP did not exhibit impairment in time estimation, conceptual flexibility or long-term memory. The wide range of impaired functions is striking, and may have important implications for daily functioning in MMP. Further research is necessary to determine the clinical significance of the impairments in laboratory-based tests for daily performance in the natural environment, as well as to differentiate impairments due to acute methadone dosing, chronic methadone maintenance, chronic poly-drug abuse, and other factors. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Irealnd Ltd.

  1. Embodied emotion impairment in Huntington's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinkler, Iris; Devignevielle, Sévérine; Achaibou, Amal; Ligneul, Romain V; Brugières, Pierre; Cleret de Langavant, Laurent; De Gelder, Beatrice; Scahill, Rachael; Schwartz, Sophie; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine

    2017-07-01

    Theories of embodied cognition suggest that perceiving an emotion involves somatovisceral and motoric re-experiencing. Here we suggest taking such an embodied stance when looking at emotion processing deficits in patients with Huntington's Disease (HD), a neurodegenerative motor disorder. The literature on these patients' emotion recognition deficit has recently been enriched by some reports of impaired emotion expression. The goal of the study was to find out if expression deficits might be linked to a more motoric level of impairment. We used electromyography (EMG) to compare voluntary emotion expression from words to emotion imitation from static face images, and spontaneous emotion mimicry in 28 HD patients and 24 matched controls. For the latter two imitation conditions, an underlying emotion understanding is not imperative (even though performance might be helped by it). EMG measures were compared to emotion recognition and to the capacity to identify and describe emotions using alexithymia questionnaires. Alexithymia questionnaires tap into the more somato-visceral or interoceptive aspects of emotion perception. Furthermore, we correlated patients' expression and recognition scores to cerebral grey matter volume using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). EMG results replicated impaired voluntary emotion expression in HD. Critically, voluntary imitation and spontaneous mimicry were equally impaired and correlated with impaired recognition. By contrast, alexithymia scores were normal, suggesting that emotion representations on the level of internal experience might be spared. Recognition correlated with brain volume in the caudate as well as in areas previously associated with shared action representations, namely somatosensory, posterior parietal, posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and subcentral sulcus. Together, these findings indicate that in these patients emotion deficits might be tied to the "motoric level" of emotion expression. Such a double

  2. Different Patterns of Theory of Mind Impairment in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Noémie; Rauzy, Stéphane; Bonnefoi, Bernadette; Renié, Laurent; Martinez-Almoyna, Laurent; Viallet, François; Champagne-Lavau, Maud

    2015-01-01

    Theory of Mind refers to the ability to infer other’s mental states, their beliefs, intentions, or knowledge. To date, only two studies have reported the presence of Theory of Mind impairment in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In the present study,we evaluated 20 MCI patients and compared them with 25 healthy control participants using two Theory of Mind tasks. The first task was a false belief paradigm as frequently used in the literature, and the second one was a referential communication task,assessing Theory of Mind in a real situation of interaction and which had never been used before in this population. The results showed that MCI patients presented difficulties inferring another person’s beliefs about reality and attributing knowledge to them in a situation of real-life interaction. Two different patterns of Theory of Mind emerged among the patients. In comparison with the control group, some MCI patients demonstrated impairment only in the interaction task and presented isolated episodicmemory impairment, while others were impaired in both Theory of Mind tasks and presented cognitive impairment impacting both episodic memory and executive functioning. Theory of Mind is thus altered in the very early stages of cognitive impairment even in real social interaction, which could impact precociously relationships in daily life.

  3. Working Memory and Developmental Language Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Lucy A.; Botting, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Children with developmental language impairments (DLI) are often reported to show difficulties with working memory. This review describes the four components of the well-established working memory model, and considers whether there is convincing evidence for difficulties within each component in children with DLI. The emphasis is on the most…

  4. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and exercise impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusch, Jane E B; Bridenstine, Mark; Regensteiner, Judith G

    2013-03-01

    Limitations in physical fitness, a consistent finding in individuals with both type I and type 2 diabetes mellitus, correlate strongly with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. These limitations may significantly contribute to the persistent excess cardiovascular mortality affecting this group. Exercise impairments in VO2 peak and VO2 kinetics manifest early on in diabetes, even with good glycemic control and in the absence of clinically apparent complications. Subclinical cardiac dysfunction is often present but does not fully explain the observed defect in exercise capacity in persons with diabetes. In part, the cardiac limitations are secondary to decreased perfusion with exercise challenge. This is a reversible defect. Similarly, in the skeletal muscle, impairments in nutritive blood flow correlate with slowed (or inefficient) exercise kinetics and decreased exercise capacity. Several correlations highlight the likelihood of endothelial-specific impairments as mediators of exercise dysfunction in diabetes, including insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, decreased myocardial perfusion, slowed tissue hemoglobin oxygen saturation, and impairment in mitochondrial function. Both exercise training and therapies targeted at improving insulin sensitivity and endothelial function improve physical fitness in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Optimization of exercise functions in people with diabetes has implications for diabetes prevention and reductions in mortality risk. Understanding the molecular details of endothelial dysfunction in diabetes may provide specific therapeutic targets for the remediation of this defect. Rat models to test this hypothesis are under study.

  5. Progesterone impairs social recognition in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychowski, Meaghan E; Auger, Catherine J

    2012-04-01

    The influence of progesterone in the brain and on the behavior of females is fairly well understood. However, less is known about the effect of progesterone in the male system. In male rats, receptors for progesterone are present in virtually all vasopressin (AVP) immunoreactive cells in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and the medial amygdala (MeA). This colocalization functions to regulate AVP expression, as progesterone and/or progestin receptors (PR)s suppress AVP expression in these same extrahypothalamic regions in the brain. These data suggest that progesterone may influence AVP-dependent behavior. While AVP is implicated in numerous behavioral and physiological functions in rodents, AVP appears essential for social recognition of conspecifics. Therefore, we examined the effects of progesterone on social recognition. We report that progesterone plays an important role in modulating social recognition in the male brain, as progesterone treatment leads to a significant impairment of social recognition in male rats. Moreover, progesterone appears to act on PRs to impair social recognition, as progesterone impairment of social recognition is blocked by a PR antagonist, RU-486. Social recognition is also impaired by a specific progestin agonist, R5020. Interestingly, we show that progesterone does not interfere with either general memory or olfactory processes, suggesting that progesterone seems critically important to social recognition memory. These data provide strong evidence that physiological levels of progesterone can have an important impact on social behavior in male rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Blindness and visual impairment in opera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Pinar; Ritch, Robert; O'Dwyer, John

    2018-01-01

    The performing arts mirror the human condition. This study sought to analyze the reasons for inclusion of visually impaired characters in opera, the cause of the blindness or near blindness, and the dramatic purpose of the blindness in the storyline. We reviewed operas from the 18 th century to 2010 and included all characters with ocular problems. We classified the cause of each character's ocular problem (organic, nonorganic, and other) in relation to the thematic setting of the opera: biblical and mythical, blind beggars or blind musicians, historical (real or fictional characters), and contemporary or futuristic. Cases of blindness in 55 characters (2 as a choir) from 38 operas were detected over 3 centuries of repertoire: 11 had trauma-related visual impairment, 5 had congenital blindness, 18 had visual impairment of unknown cause, 9 had psychogenic or malingering blindness, and 12 were symbolic or miracle-related. One opera featured an ophthalmologist curing a patient. The research illustrates that visual impairment was frequently used as an artistic device to enhance the intent and situate an opera in its time.

  7. A case of impaired shape integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Marstrand, Lisbet; Habekost, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    We describe a patient, HE, who was left with a remarkably selective deficit in intermediate vision following an infarct in the right occipito-temporal region. Thus, HE was able to group elements by colour and proximity but impaired in grouping based on similarity in shape. This finding supports...

  8. Preventing cognitive impairment in children with epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braun, Kees P J

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cognitive impairments are common in children with epilepsy. They may already be present before the onset of epilepsy or occur – and even progress – during its course. Many variables contribute to cognitive dysfunction. Those that can be targeted to prevent (further) cognitive

  9. Low Vision Aids for Visually Impaired Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurink, J.; Cox, R. F. A.; Cillessen, A. H. N.; van Rens, G. H. M. B.; Boonstra, F. N.

    2011-01-01

    It is a widely accepted belief in clinical practice that children with a visual impairment can profit from the use of a low vision aid (LVA). However, we found a considerable gap in our scientific understanding of LVA use, particularly in young children. This is the reason for the analysis presented in this paper. A selected overview of LVA use in…

  10. Distance Education for People with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakou, Maria; Manousou, Evaggelia

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the standards of higher Distance Education, focusing on the Hellenic Open University, for people who have visual impairments, so that it becomes fully accessible and thus helps reduce social exclusion. Specifically, it aims to study the operational context of Distance Education, the possibilities that modern technology provides…

  11. Motor Imagery Impairment in Postacute Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niclas Braun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Not much is known about how well stroke patients are able to perform motor imagery (MI and which MI abilities are preserved after stroke. We therefore applied three different MI tasks (one mental chronometry task, one mental rotation task, and one EEG-based neurofeedback task to a sample of postacute stroke patients (n=20 and age-matched healthy controls (n=20 for addressing the following questions: First, which of the MI tasks indicate impairment in stroke patients and are impairments restricted to the paretic side? Second, is there a relationship between MI impairment and sensory loss or paresis severity? And third, do the results of the different MI tasks converge? Significant differences between the stroke and control groups were found in all three MI tasks. However, only the mental chronometry task and EEG analysis revealed paresis side-specific effects. Moreover, sensitivity loss contributed to a performance drop in the mental rotation task. The findings indicate that although MI abilities may be impaired after stroke, most patients retain their ability for MI EEG-based neurofeedback. Interestingly, performance in the different MI measures did not strongly correlate, neither in stroke patients nor in healthy controls. We conclude that one MI measure is not sufficient to fully assess an individual’s MI abilities.

  12. The nature of pragmatic language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaars, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    The present dissertation reports on research into the nature of Pragmatic Language Impairment (PLI) in children aged 4 to 7 in the Netherlands. First, the possibility of screening for PLI in the general population is examined. Results show that this is indeed possible as well as feasible. Second, an

  13. Impaired decisional impulsivity in pathological videogamers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Irvine

    Full Text Available Pathological gaming is an emerging and poorly understood problem. Impulsivity is commonly impaired in disorders of behavioural and substance addiction, hence we sought to systematically investigate the different subtypes of decisional and motor impulsivity in a well-defined pathological gaming cohort.Fifty-two pathological gaming subjects and age-, gender- and IQ-matched healthy volunteers were tested on decisional impulsivity (Information Sampling Task testing reflection impulsivity and delay discounting questionnaire testing impulsive choice, and motor impulsivity (Stop Signal Task testing motor response inhibition, and the premature responding task. We used stringent diagnostic criteria highlighting functional impairment.In the Information Sampling Task, pathological gaming participants sampled less evidence prior to making a decision and scored fewer points compared with healthy volunteers. Gaming severity was also negatively correlated with evidence gathered and positively correlated with sampling error and points acquired. In the delay discounting task, pathological gamers made more impulsive choices, preferring smaller immediate over larger delayed rewards. Pathological gamers made more premature responses related to comorbid nicotine use. Greater number of hours played also correlated with a Motivational Index. Greater frequency of role playing games was associated with impaired motor response inhibition and strategy games with faster Go reaction time.We show that pathological gaming is associated with impaired decisional impulsivity with negative consequences in task performance. Decisional impulsivity may be a potential target in therapeutic management.

  14. Respiratory Symptoms and Pulmonary Function Impairment among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The industrial process of detergent production could be deleterious to lung function. This study describes respiratory symptoms and ventilatory function impairment among detergent workers in Jos, Northern Nigeria. Methods: Two hundred detergent plant workers and controls were studied for the presence of ...

  15. Cognitive impairment in relapsing remitting Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saška Roškar

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to identify changes in cognitive abilities that affect patients with relapsing remitting form of multiple sclerosis (MS and to find out which instrument manifests them best. The performance of MS patients was compared to a matched group of healthy people using three neuropsychological tests: Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST, Stroop color and word test and Trail making test (TMT part B. Results on all three tests indicate general cognitive impairments in the group of patients. Compared to the group of healthy people patients with MS exhibited impaired ability of abstract reasoning (WCST, impaired cognitive flexibility and less resistance to irrelevant stimuli (Stroop color and word test, slowed information processing and impaired ability of shifting attention from one symbol to another (TMT. The largest differences between groups occured in Stroop color and word test as well as in TMT. The estimation of cognitive abilities of MS patients is of high importance and sistematicaly observing of changes in those abilities should be considered.

  16. Eye-Pressing by Visually Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, James E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The nature of eye-pressing as a visual stimulation mannerism in children with severely impaired eyesight is examined, and a possible physiological explanation (that self-stimulation occurs when the demand of the brain for meaningful visual information is not met) is offered. (CL)

  17. Hearing impairment associated with oral terbinafine use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholl, Joep; Van Grootheest, Kees; Van Puijenbroek, Eugene

    Background: The Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre Lareb received six reports of hearing impairment in association with oral terbinafine use. This study describes these cases and provides support for this association from the Lareb database of spontaneous ADR reporting and from Vigibase, the

  18. Including Students with Visual Impairments: Softball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian, Ali; Haegele, Justin A.

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that while students with visual impairments are likely to be included in general physical education programs, they may not be as active as their typically developing peers. This article provides ideas for equipment modifications and game-like progressions for one popular physical education unit, softball. The purpose of these…

  19. Music Therapy for the Visually Impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Anita Louise; Crawford, Celeste

    1982-01-01

    The development and implementation of a music therapy program to achieve behavioral change in visually impaired children and adolescents are described. Goals targeted by the music therapist at the Cleveland Society for the Blind include altering unusual body movements, poor posture, and other mannerisms often associated with blindness. (SEW)

  20. Speech and neurology-chemical impairment correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayre, Harb S.

    2002-05-01

    Speech correlates of alcohol/drug impairment and its neurological basis is presented with suggestion for further research in impairment from poly drug/medicine/inhalent/chew use/abuse, and prediagnosis of many neuro- and endocrin-related disorders. Nerve cells all over the body detect chemical entry by smoking, injection, drinking, chewing, or skin absorption, and transmit neurosignals to their corresponding cerebral subsystems, which in turn affect speech centers-Broca's and Wernick's area, and motor cortex. For instance, gustatory cells in the mouth, cranial and spinal nerve cells in the skin, and cilia/olfactory neurons in the nose are the intake sensing nerve cells. Alcohol depression, and brain cell damage were detected from telephone speech using IMPAIRLYZER-TM, and the results of these studies were presented at 1996 ASA meeting in Indianapolis, and 2001 German Acoustical Society-DEGA conference in Hamburg, Germany respectively. Speech based chemical Impairment measure results were presented at the 2001 meeting of ASA in Chicago. New data on neurotolerance based chemical impairment for alcohol, drugs, and medicine shall be presented, and shown not to fully support NIDA-SAMSHA drug and alcohol threshold used in drug testing domain.

  1. B vitamins influence vascular cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the number of elderly in the USA and globally continues to increase, age-related neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia, are a growing concern. The loss of memory, emotional changes, and impairments in general cognitive functioning frequently result in social is...

  2. Causes of permanent childhood hearing impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, Anna M. H.; Admiraal, Ronald J. C.; Kant, Sarina G.; Dekker, Friedo W.; Wever, Capi C.; Kunst, Henricus P. M.; Frijns, Johan H. M.; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie; Oudesluys-Murphy, A. M.; Korver, A. M. H.; Frijns, J. H. M.; Wever, C. C.; Konings, S.; Beers, W.; Dekker, F. W.; de Vries, J. J. C.; Vossen, A. C. T. M.; Kant, S. G.; van den Akker-van Marle, M. E.; Rieffe, C.; Ens-Dokkum, M. H.; van Straaten, H. L. M.; Uilenburg, N. N.; Elvers, B.; Loeber, G.; Meuwese-Jongejeugd, J.; Maré, M. J.; Van Zanten, G. A.; Goedegebure, A.; Coster, F.; Goverts, S. T.; Admiraal, R. J. C.; Cremers, C. W. R. J.; Kunst, H. P. M.; de Leeuw, M.; Dijkhuizen, J.; Scharloo, M.; Hoeben, D.; Rijpma, G.; Graef, W.; Linschoten, D.; Kuijper, J.; Hof, N. J.; Pans, D.; Jorritsma, F.; van Beurden, M.; ter Huurne, C. T.; Brienesse, P.; Koldewijn, G. J.; Letourneur, K. G.

    2011-01-01

    The causes of Permanent Childhood Hearing Impairment (PCHI) are often quoted as being hereditary in 50%, acquired in 25%, and unknown in 25% of cases. Interest in the causes of PCHI has grown recently due to increasing diagnostic possibilities. We investigated the evidence for the reported

  3. Causes of permanent childhood hearing impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, A.M.; Admiraal, R.J.C.; Kant, S.G.; Dekker, F.W.; Wever, C.; Kunst, H.P.M.; Frijns, J.H.; Oudesluys-Murphy, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The causes of Permanent Childhood Hearing Impairment (PCHI) are often quoted as being hereditary in 50%, acquired in 25%, and unknown in 25% of cases. Interest in the causes of PCHI has grown recently due to increasing diagnostic possibilities. We investigated the evidence for the

  4. Psychological Education for Visually Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Don C.; Gerler, Edwin R., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of two psychological education programs (Developing Understanding of Self and Others--DUSO, and Human Development Program--HDP or Magic Circle) on the affective growth of 42 visually impaired children in grades kindergarten through 3. (Author/SBH)

  5. Hearing impairment in genotyped Wolfram syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantinga, Rutger F; Pennings, Ronald J E; Huygen, Patrick L M; Bruno, Rocco; Eller, Philipp; Barrett, Timothy G; Vialettes, Bernard; Paquis-Fluklinger, Veronique; Lombardo, Fortunato; Cremers, Cor W R J

    2008-07-01

    Wolfram syndrome is a progressive neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by the features "DIDMOAD" (diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness). We sought to study the audiometric data of genotyped Wolfram syndrome patients with sensorineural hearing impairment. Pure tone threshold data of 23 Wolfram syndrome patients were used for cross-sectional analysis in subgroups (age less than 16 years or between 19 and 25 years, gender, and origin). All subgroups, with 1 exception, showed a fairly similar type of hearing impairment with, on average, thresholds of about 25 dB (range, 0 to 65 dB) at 0.25 to 1 kHz, gently sloping downward to about 60 dB (range, 25 to 95 dB) at 8 kHz. The subgroup of Dutch women, which was excluded from the calculations of the average hearing thresholds, showed a higher degree of hearing impairment. Only the latter subgroup showed progression; however, contrary to the previous longitudinal analysis, progression was not significant in the present cross-sectional analysis, presumably because of the high degree of cross-subject variability. This unique collection of audiometric data from genotyped Wolfram syndrome patients shows no substantial progression in sensorineural hearing impairment with advancing age, no relation to the types of WFS1 mutations identified, and, with exclusion of the subgroup of Dutch female patients, no significant sex-related differences.

  6. TOWARDS A CLASSIFICATION OF VISUAL IMPAIRMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERWILDT, GJ; KOOIJMAN, AC; DUMBAR, G; CORNELISSEN, FW

    1992-01-01

    For the rehabilitation of people with impaired vision, it is essential to have adequate (preferably quantitative) information about their residual visual functions. Special attention is given to the extra information provided by the results of measurement of the contrast sensitivity, especially in

  7. Nutrition of patients with severe neurologic impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orel Anija

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Commercial enteral formulas are generally recommended for gastrostomy feeding in patients with severe neurologic impairment. However, pureed food diets are still widely used and even gaining popularity among certain groups. We tried to compare the effectiveness of gastrostomy feeding for treatment of severe malnutrition with either enteral formulas or pureed feeds.

  8. Sleep deprivation impairs object recognition in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palchykova, S; Winsky-Sommerer, R; Meerlo, P; Durr, R; Tobler, Irene

    2006-01-01

    Many studies in animals and humans suggest that sleep facilitates learning, memory consolidation, and retrieval. Moreover, sleep deprivation (SD) incurred after learning, impaired memory in humans, mice, rats, and hamsters. We investigated the importance of sleep and its timing in in object

  9. Perceived Competence of Children with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Deborah R.; Moffett, Aaron; Lieberman, Lauren; Dummer, Gail M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of competence of 43 children with visual impairments who were attending a summer sports camp. It found there were meaningful differences in the perceived competence of the girls, but not the boys, after they attended the camp, and no differences in the perceptions of competence with age.

  10. Proteasome impairment by α-synuclein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Zondler

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder worldwide and characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the patients' midbrains. Both the presence of the protein α-synuclein in intracellular protein aggregates in surviving neurons and the genetic linking of the α-synuclein encoding gene point towards a major role of α-synuclein in PD etiology. The exact pathogenic mechanisms of PD development are not entirely described to date, neither is the specific role of α-synuclein in this context. Previous studies indicate that one aspect of α-synuclein-related cellular toxicity might be direct proteasome impairment. The 20/26S proteasomal machinery is an important instrument of intracellular protein degradation. Thus, direct proteasome impairment by α-synuclein might explain or at least contribute to the formation of intracellular protein aggregates. Therefore this study investigates direct proteasomal impairment by α-synuclein both in vitro using recombinant α-synuclein and isolated proteasomes as well as in living cells. Our experiments demonstrate that the impairment of proteasome activity by α-synuclein is highly dependent upon the cellular background and origin. We show that recombinant α-synuclein oligomers and fibrils scarcely affect 20S proteasome function in vitro, neither does transient α-synuclein expression in U2OS ps 2042 (Ubi(G76V-GFP cells. However, stable expression of both wild-type and mutant α-synuclein in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y and PC12 cells results in a prominent impairment of the chymotrypsin-like 20S/26S proteasomal protein cleavage. Thus, our results support the idea that α-synuclein in a specific cellular environment, potentially present in dopaminergic cells, cannot be processed by the proteasome and thus contributes to a selective vulnerability of dopaminergic cells to α-synuclein pathology.

  11. Cognitive impairment and stroke in elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Coco D

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Daniele Lo Coco,1 Gianluca Lopez,1 Salvatore Corrao,2,31Neurology and Stroke Unit, 2Department of Internal Medicine, National Relevance and High Specialization Hospital Trust ARNAS Civico, Di Cristina, Benfratelli, Palermo, 3Centre of Research for Effectiveness and Appropriateness in Medicine (C.R.E.A.M., Di.Bi.M.I.S., University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy Abstract: We reviewed current knowledge about the interaction between stroke and vascular risk factors and the development of cognitive impairment and dementia. Stroke is increasingly recognized as an important cause of cognitive problems and has been implicated in the development of both Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. The prevalence of cognitive impairment after stroke is high, and their combined effects significantly increase the cost of care and health resource utilization, with reflections on hospital readmissions and increased mortality rates. There is also substantial evidence that vascular risk factors (such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, and tobacco smoking are independently associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Thus, a successful management of these factors, as well as optimal acute stroke management, might have a great impact on the development of cognitive impairment. Notwithstanding, the pathological link between cognitive impairment, stroke, and vascular risk factors is complex and still partially unclear so that further studies are needed to better elucidate the boundaries of this relationship. Many specific pharmacological treatments, including anticholinergic drugs and antihypertensive medications, and nonpharmacological approaches, such as diet, cognitive rehabilitation, and physical activity, have been studied for patients with vascular cognitive impairment, but the optimal care is still far away. Meanwhile, according to the most recent knowledge, optimal stroke care should also include cognitive assessment in the

  12. Multiple sclerosis with predominant, severe cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, Nathan P.; Lucchinetti, Claudia F.; Keegan, B. Mark

    2009-01-01

    Objective To describe the characteristics of multiple sclerosis (MS) presenting with severe cognitive impairment as its primary disabling manifestation. Design Retrospective case series. Setting Tertiary referral center. Patients Patients were identified through the Mayo Clinic data retrieval system (1996–2008) with definite MS (McDonald criteria) and severe cognitive impairment as their primary neurological symptom without accompanying significant MS-related impairment or alternative diagnosis for cognitive dysfunction. Twenty-three patients meeting inclusion criteria were compared regarding demographics, clinical course and radiological features. Main Outcome Measures Demographic, clinical, and radiological characteristics of the disease. Results Twelve patients were men. The median age of the first clinical symptom suggestive of CNS demyelination was 33 years, and severe MS-related cognitive impairment developed at a median of 39 years. Cognitive impairment could be dichotomized as subacute fulminant (n=9) or chronic progressive (n=14) in presentation, which corresponded to subsequent relapsing or progressive MS courses. Study patients commonly exhibited psychiatric (65%), mild cerebellar (57%) and cortical symptoms and signs (e.g. seizure, aphasia, apraxia) (39%). Fourteen of 21 (67%), where documented, smoked cigarettes. Brain MRI demonstrated diffuse cerebral atrophy in 16 and gadolinium enhancing lesions in 11. Asymptomatic spinal cord MRI lesions were present in 12 of 16 patients (75%). Immunomodulatory therapies were generally ineffective in improving these patients. Conclusions We describe patients with MS whose clinical phenotype is characterized by severe cognitive dysfunction and prominent cortical and psychiatric signs presenting as a subacute fulminant or chronic progressive clinical course. Cigarette smokers may be over represented in this phenotype. PMID:19752304

  13. Polypharmacy Cutoff for Gait and Cognitive Impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Langeard

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polypharmacy is a well-established risk factor for falls, and these are one of the major health problems that affect the quality of life as people age. However, the risk of mobility and cognitive impairments consecutive to polypharmacy has been little addressed, despite the association between these adverse outcomes and falls. Moreover, the rare polypharmacy cut-offs were all but one arbitrarily determined. OBJECTIVE: Studying relationships between polypharmacy and both mobility and cognitive impairments, and statistically determining a cut-off point in the number of drugs beyond which polypharmacy has deleterious consequences with respect to mobility and cognitive impairment. METHODS: We enrolled 113 community-dwelling adults aged 55 years and older with a fall history, with or without injury, in the previous year. We carefully collected information about daily medications taken. We assessed basic mobility and global cognition with the Time-Up-and-Go and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA test, respectively. (clinicaltrials.gov NCT02292316RESULTS: TUG and MoCA scores were both significantly correlated with the number of medications used. ROC curves indicate, with high prediction (p<0.002, that daily consumption of five or more medications is associated with risk for both impaired mobility and global cognition. These relationships were independent of the number of comorbidities and of the pharmacological class. CONCLUSION: Community-dwelling adults aged 55 years and older who take five or more daily drugs are at high risk for both mobility and cognitive impairments. Physicians and patients should be aware of these new findings, especially when there are multiple prescribers involved in the care of the patient.

  14. Correlates of impaired function in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensrud, K E; Nevitt, M C; Yunis, C; Cauley, J A; Seeley, D G; Fox, K M; Cummings, S R

    1994-05-01

    To determine the factors associated with impaired function in older women. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data collected for a multicenter, prospective study of risk factors for osteoporotic fractures. Four clinical centers in Portland, Oregon, Minneapolis, Minnesota, Baltimore, Maryland, and the Monongahela Valley, Pennsylvania. A total of 9,704 ambulatory, non-black women, aged 65 years and older, recruited from population-based listings. Independent variables, including demographic and historical information (medical conditions, health habits, and medications) and physiologic measures (anthropometry, blood pressure, mental status, vision, and neuromuscular performance) were obtained from a baseline questionnaire, interview, and examination. Measurement of function was assessed by self-reported ability to perform six physical and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL) and impaired function (dependent variable) was defined as difficulty performing three or more physical and instrumental ADLs. In order of decreasing strength of association, hip fracture, osteoarthritis, parkinsonism, slower walking speed, lower hip abduction force, back pain, greater Quetelet index, osteoporosis, former alcohol use, stroke, never drinking alcohol, lower mental status, use of anxiolytics and/or sleeping medications, inability to hold the tandem position, postural dizziness, cataracts, greater waist to hip ratio, lower physical activity in the past year, greater lifetime cigarette consumption, and lower grip strength were independently associated with impaired function in multivariate analyses. Age, low educational level, diabetes, current heavy alcohol use, postural hypotension, depth perception, and contrast sensitivity were not independent predictors. A combination of neuromuscular performance measures, including decreased muscle strength and impaired balance and gait, appeared to account for the effect of age on disability. A combination of many factors, including

  15. Photofission of Even-Even Nuclei Near the Threshold; Photofission des Noyaux Pair-Pair au Voisinage du Seuil; 0424 041e 0422 041e 0414 0415 041b 0415 041d 0418 0415 0427 0415 0422 041d 041e - 0427 0415 0422 041d 042b 0425 042f 0414 0415 0420 0412 0411 041b 0418 0417 0418 041f 041e 0420 041e 0413 0410 ; Fotofision de los Nucleos Par-Par Cerca del Umbral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabotnov, N. S.; Smirenkin, G. N.; Soldatov, A. C.; Usachev, L. N. [Fiziko-Energeticheskij Institut, Obninsk, SSSR (Russian Federation); Kapica, S. P.; Cipenjuk, I. Ju.M. [Institut Fizicheskih Problem, Moskva, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1965-07-15

    -Than-Or-Equal-To 6 MeV, les fissions liees a l'absorption quadripolaire des photons contribuent faiblement a la section efficace totale de fission. On montre pour la premiere fois que conformement aux previsions theoriques fondees sur le modele des voies de fission elabore par A. Bohr, le poids relatif de la composante quadripolaire ne joue un role important que lorsque les energies d'excitation sont inferieures au seuil de fission 'bipolaire' correspondant a la voie lv(K = 0). Ainsi, dans la distribution angulaire des fragments de photofission de {sup 238}U, lorsque le spectre du rayonnement de freinage presente une energie maximum E{sub max} = 5,4 MeV et 5,2 MeV, la contribution de la composante quadripdlaire a la section efficace totale de photofission s'eleve respectivement a 10 et 43%, alors-que pour E{sub max} > 6 MeV, elle ne depasse pas 3 a 3,5%. Parmi les noyaux fissiles Selon le mode pair-pair, l'effet de fission 'quadripolaire' apparaft le plus nettement pour {sup 240}Pu et moins nettement pour {sup 232}Th. Grace aux resultats de ces mesures on peut evaluer le rapport entre les sections efficaces partielles de photoabsorption dans les noyaux lourds. Les auteurs examinent la question de la parite de l'etat fondamental de {sup 239}Pu en tenant compte des resultats obtenus par les mesures de la distribution angulaire des fragments de photofission de {sup 239}Pu, qui revele une modification du signe de l'anisotropie conformement aux previsions theoriques relatives aux voies K = 1/2 et 3/2. (author) [Spanish] En la memoria se presentan los resultados de la medicion de las distribuciones angulares de los fragmentos formados en la fotofision del {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 240}Pu y {sup 239}Pu, en un haz de rayos gamma de frenado. Como fuente se utilizo el microtron de 12 MeV del Instituto de Problemas Fisicos de la Academia de Ciencias de la Union Sovietica. El empleo de esta fuente permitio medir la distribucion angular en el intervalo de energias gamma, importante pero aun

  16. The relationship between impaired driving crashes and beliefs about impaired driving: do residents in high crash rate counties have greater concerns about impaired driving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kenneth H; Yan, Alice F; Wang, Min Qi; Kerns, Timothy J; Burch, Cynthia A

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship between impaired driving crashes and public beliefs and concerns about impaired driving across each of Maryland's twenty-four counties (including Baltimore City). It was hypothesized that residents of counties that experience higher impaired driving crashes would express more concerns about impaired driving and perceive more risks about driving impaired than residents of counties that have lower rates of impaired driving. Data for alcohol impaired driving crashes were obtained for the years 2004-2006. These data were compared to public opinion data that was obtained annually by random-digit-dial telephone surveys from 2004 to 2007. Concerns about drunk driving as well as perceptions of the likelihood of being stopped by the police if one were to drive after having too much to drink were related to counties with higher serious impaired driving crash rates, as were perceptions that the police and the legal system were too lenient. Perceptions about the likelihood of being stopped by the police were higher in those counties with more impaired driving enforcement activity. Perceptions of concern appear to be shaped more by crash exposure than enforcement activity. Campaigns that address impaired driving prevention should substantially increase enforcement, strengthen the adjudication process of impaired drivers, and emphasize the potential seriousness of drinking-driving crashes in their promotional activities.

  17. Awareness of deficits in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: do MCI patients have impaired insight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Stokholm, Jette; Gade, Anders

    2004-01-01

    In this study we investigated impaired awareness of cognitive deficits in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Very few studies have addressed this topic, and methodological inconsistencies make the comparison of previous studies difficult. From a prospective...... heterogeneity in the clinical presentation of awareness. The results demonstrate that subjective memory problems should not be a mandatory prerequisite in suspected dementia or MCI, which makes reports from informants together with thorough clinical interview and observation central when assessing suspected...

  18. Extent and neural basis of semantic memory impairment in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeau, Emmanuel J; Didic, Mira; Joubert, Sven; Guedj, Eric; Koric, Lejla; Felician, Olivier; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Cozzone, Patrick; Ceccaldi, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that semantic memory is impaired in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, the extent and the neural basis of this impairment remain unknown. The aim of the present study was: 1) to evaluate whether all or only a subset of semantic domains are impaired in MCI patients; and 2) to assess the neural substrate of the semantic impairment in MCI patients using voxel-based analysis of MR grey matter density and SPECT perfusion. 29 predominantly amnestic MCI patients and 29 matched control subjects participated in this study. All subjects underwent a full neuropsychological assessment, along with a battery of five tests evaluating different domains of semantic memory. A semantic memory composite Z-score was established on the basis of this battery and was correlated with MRI grey matter density and SPECT perfusion measures. MCI patients were found to have significantly impaired performance across all semantic tasks, in addition to their anterograde memory deficit. Moreover, no temporal gradient was found for famous faces or famous public events and knowledge for the most remote decades was also impaired. Neuroimaging analyses revealed correlations between semantic knowledge and perirhinal/entorhinal areas as well as the anterior hippocampus. Therefore, the deficits in the realm of semantic memory in patients with MCI is more widespread than previously thought and related to dysfunction of brain areas beyond the limbic-diencephalic system involved in episodic memory. The severity of the semantic impairment may indicate a decline of semantic memory that began many years before the patients first consulted.

  19. Image and Video for Hearing Impaired People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aran Oya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a global overview of image- and video-processing-based methods to help the communication of hearing impaired people. Two directions of communication have to be considered: from a hearing person to a hearing impaired person and vice versa. In this paper, firstly, we describe sign language (SL and the cued speech (CS language which are two different languages used by the deaf community. Secondly, we present existing tools which employ SL and CS video processing and recognition for the automatic communication between deaf people and hearing people. Thirdly, we present the existing tools for reverse communication, from hearing people to deaf people that involve SL and CS video synthesis.

  20. Experimentally-induced dissociation impairs visual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, Chris R; Mersaditabari, Niloufar

    2013-12-01

    Dissociation is a phenomenon common in a number of psychological disorders and has been frequently suggested to impair memory for traumatic events. In this study we explored the effects of dissociation on visual memory. A dissociative state was induced experimentally using a mirror-gazing task and its short-term effects on memory performance were investigated. Sixty healthy individuals took part in the experiment. Induced dissociation impaired visual memory performance relative to a control condition; however, the degree of dissociation was not associated with lower memory scores in the experimental group. The results have theoretical and practical implications for individuals who experience frequent dissociative states such as patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Impaired inhibitory control in recreational cocaine users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza S Colzato

    Full Text Available Chronic use of cocaine is associated with impairment in response inhibition but it is an open question whether and to which degree findings from chronic users generalize to the upcoming type of recreational users. This study compared the ability to inhibit and execute behavioral responses in adult recreational users and in a cocaine-free-matched sample controlled for age, race, gender distribution, level of intelligence, and alcohol consumption. Response inhibition and response execution were measured by a stop-signal paradigm. Results show that users and non users are comparable in terms of response execution but users need significantly more time to inhibit responses to stop-signals than non users. Interestingly, the magnitude of the inhibitory deficit was positively correlated with the individuals lifetime cocaine exposure suggesting that the magnitude of the impairment is proportional to the degree of cocaine consumed.

  2. Piracetam treatment in patients with cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Mukund G; Holla, Bharath; Varambally, Shivarama; Raveendranathan, Dhanya; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2013-01-01

    Piracetam is a cognitive-enhancing agent that is used for the treatment of cognitive impairments of various etiologies. Little is known about its side effect profile, especially in those with psychiatric illness. We herewith present two cases with cognitive impairment who had contrasting responses to piracetam. One of them with organic amnestic syndrome had significant improvement, whereas the other who had an organic personality change as well as a family history of mental illness had significant worsening of behavioral problems after piracetam was introduced. This report highlights the need for caution in the use of piracetam, especially in those with past or family history of psychiatric illness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Loss of Mitochondrial Function Impairs Lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers-Lamarche, Julie; Guillebaud, Gérald; Tlili, Mouna; Todkar, Kiran; Bélanger, Noémie; Grondin, Martine; Nguyen, Angela P; Michel, Jennifer; Germain, Marc

    2016-05-06

    Alterations in mitochondrial function, as observed in neurodegenerative diseases, lead to disrupted energy metabolism and production of damaging reactive oxygen species. Here, we demonstrate that mitochondrial dysfunction also disrupts the structure and function of lysosomes, the main degradation and recycling organelle. Specifically, inhibition of mitochondrial function, following deletion of the mitochondrial protein AIF, OPA1, or PINK1, as well as chemical inhibition of the electron transport chain, impaired lysosomal activity and caused the appearance of large lysosomal vacuoles. Importantly, our results show that lysosomal impairment is dependent on reactive oxygen species. Given that alterations in both mitochondrial function and lysosomal activity are key features of neurodegenerative diseases, this work provides important insights into the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Modeling Speech Intelligibility in Hearing Impaired Listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheidiger, Christoph; Jørgensen, Søren; Dau, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    speech, e.g. phase jitter or spectral subtraction. Recent studies predict SI for normal-hearing (NH) listeners based on a signal-to-noise ratio measure in the envelope domain (SNRenv), in the framework of the speech-based envelope power spectrum model (sEPSM, [20, 21]). These models have shown good...... agreement with measured data under a broad range of conditions, including stationary and modulated interferers, reverberation, and spectral subtraction. Despite the advances in modeling intelligibility in NH listeners, a broadly applicable model that can predict SI in hearing-impaired (HI) listeners...... is not yet available. As a firrst step towards such a model, this study investigates to what extent eects of hearing impairment on SI can be modeled in the sEPSM framework. Preliminary results show that, by only modeling the loss of audibility, the model cannot account for the higher speech reception...

  5. Impairment of the glymphatic system after diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Quan; Zhang, Li; Ding, Guangliang

    2017-01-01

    diabetes affects the glymphatic system. The current study is the first investigation of the effect of diabetes on the glymphatic system and the link between alteration of glymphatic clearance and cognitive impairment in Type-2 diabetes mellitus rats. MRI analysis revealed that clearance of cerebrospinal...... to the retention of Gd-DTPA contrast and fluorescent tracer in the hippocampus of Type-2 diabetes mellitus rats. Type-2 diabetes mellitus suppresses clearance of interstitial fluid in the hippocampus and hypothalamus, suggesting that an impairment of the glymphatic system contributes to Type-2 diabetes mellitus......The glymphatic system has recently been shown to clear brain extracellular solutes and abnormalities in glymphatic clearance system may contribute to both initiation and progression of neurological diseases. Despite that diabetes is known as a risk factor for vascular diseases, little is known how...

  6. Parkinson's disease associated with impaired oxidative phosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finsterer, J.; Jarius, C.; Baumgartner, M.

    2001-01-01

    Parkinson's disease may be due to primary or secondary oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) defects. In a 76-year-old man with Parkinson's disease since 1992, slightly but recurrently elevated creatine phosphokinase, recurrently elevated blood glucose, thickening of the left ventricular myocardium, bifascicular block and hypacusis were found. Cerebral MRI showed atrophy, periventricular demyelination, multiple, disseminated, supra- and infratentorial lacunas, and haemosiderin deposits in both posterior horns. Muscle biopsy showed typical features of an OXPHOS defect. Whether the association of Parkinson's disease and impaired OXPHOS was causative or coincidental remains unknown. Possibly, the mitochondrial defect acted as an additional risk factor for Parkinson's disease or the OXPHOS defect worsened the preexisting neurological impairments by a cumulative or synergistic mechanism. In conclusion, this case shows that Parkinson's disease may be associated with a mitochondrially or nuclearly encoded OXPHOS defect, manifesting as hypacusis, myopathy, axonal polyneuropathy, cardiomyopathy and recurrent subclinical ischaemic strokes and haemorrhages. (orig.)

  7. Residual impairment after lower extremity fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faergemann, C; Frandsen, P A; Röck, N D

    1998-01-01

    In a prospective follow-up study of 158 consecutive patients 18 to 64 years old with unilateral lower extremity fracture, our aim was to disclose the impairment and disability 6 months after the injury. The patients were interviewed within 1 week after the trauma, and all patients returned...... the functional status before the injury. Additionally, three major aspects of impairments were measured 6 months after the fractures: range of motion, muscle strength, and pain. Most patients had a significantly higher SIP score 6 months after the fracture(s) than pretraumatically. The mean overall SIP score...... was 2.7 pretraumatically and 8.7 6 months posttraumatically. Major deficits in range of motion was observed, especially in the ankle joint. Additionally, loss of muscle strength was observed in the thigh and calf muscles in one fourth of the patients. Only low levels of residual pain were reported after...

  8. Nutrient Impaired 303(d) Streams for the Pacific Northwest

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — “Under section 303(d) of the 1972 Clean Water Act, states, territories, and authorized tribes are required to develop lists of impaired waters. These impaired waters...

  9. Carotid Atherosclerosis and Cognitive Impairment in Nonstroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Hong Chen

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Carotid atherosclerosis can be used to predict the risk of cognitive impairment. Furthermore, diagnosing and treating carotid atherosclerosis at early stage might help clinicians prevent and treat vascular cognitive impairment in nonstroke patients.

  10. Evaluating Causes of Ecological Impairments in the Estuaries of Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukrainian estuaries have not undergone a systematic evaluation of the causes of ecological impairments caused by anthropogenic contamination. The objective of this evaluation is to use recently developed diagnostic tools to determine the causes of benthic ecological impairments. ...

  11. 20 CFR 220.145 - Impairment-related work expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; medication used to allay the side effects of certain treatments; radiation treatment or chemotherapy for cancer patients; corrective surgery for spinal impairments; electroencephalograms and brain scans related... examinations, optician services (unrelated to a disabling visual impairment) and dental examinations. (6...

  12. Risks and benefits of antireflux operations in neurologically impaired children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgstein, E. S.; Heij, H. A.; Beugelaar, J. D.; Ekkelkamp, S.; Vos, A.

    1994-01-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GER) in neurologically impaired children often causes feeding problems and complications of oesophagitis and is frequently resistant to medical treatment. Fifty neurologically impaired children underwent anterior gastropexy as anti-reflux operation, combined with

  13. Mild Cognitive Impairment and Progession to Dementia: New Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... David C. Spencer, MD Steven Karceski, MD Mild cognitive impairment and progression to dementia New findings John C.S. ... exami- nations showed that 534 persons had mild cognitive impairment, or MCI (see About MCI, following sec- tion). ...

  14. Effect of exercise intervention on vestibular related impairments in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Venkadesan Rajendran

    2012-11-09

    Nov 9, 2012 ... related impairments in hearing-impaired children. Venkadesan ..... referenced vision, fixed support; (4) eyes open, sway-referenced support; (5) eyes ..... Canada: Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research;. 1997. 29.

  15. HIV/AIDS among Adolescents with Hearing Impairment in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AIDS to be elusive; such as prejudice against individuals with hearing impairment, lack of adequate data, exclusion from programmes that talk about sexuality, cultural beliefs, poor knowledge and attitude of adolescents with hearing impairment ...

  16. Visual impairment and blindness in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Dorottya; Sándor, Gábor László; Tóth, Gábor; Pék, Anita; Lukács, Regina; Szalai, Irén; Tóth, Georgina Zsófia; Papp, András; Nagy, Zoltán Zsolt; Limburg, Hans; Németh, János

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and causes of blindness, severe visual impairment (SVI), moderate visual impairment (MVI), and early visual impairment (EVI) and its causes in an established market economy of Europe. A cross-sectional population-based survey. A sample size of 3675 was calculated using the standard Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) software in Hungary. A total of 105 clusters of 35 people aged 50 years or older were randomly selected with probability proportionate to size by the Hungarian Central Statistical Office. Households within the clusters were selected using compact segment sampling. Visual acuity (VA) was assessed with a Snellen tumbling E-chart with or without a pinhole in the households. The adjusted prevalences of bilateral blindness, SVI, MVI and EVI were 0.9% (95% CI: 0.6-1.2), 0.5% (95% CI: 0.2-0.7), 5.1% (95% CI: 4.3-5.9) and 6.9% (95% CI: 5.9-7.9), respectively. The major causes of blindness in Hungary were age-related macular degeneration (AMD; 27.3%) and other posterior segment diseases (27.3%), cataract (21.2%) and glaucoma (12.1%). Cataract was the main cause of SVI, MVI and EVI. Cataract surgical coverage (CSC) was 90.7%. Of all bilateral blindness in Hungary, 45.5% was considered avoidable. This study proved that RAAB methodology can be successfully conducted in industrialized countries, which often lack reliable epidemiologic data. The prevalence of blindness was relatively low, with AMD and other posterior segment diseases being the leading causes, and cataract is still a significant cause of visual impairment. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Cervical Musculoskeletal Impairments and Temporomandibular Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Armijo-Olivo; David Magee

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The study of cervical muscles and their significance in the development and perpetuation of Temporomandibular Disorders has not been elucidated. Thus this project was designed to investigate the association between cervical musculoskeletal impairments and Temporomandibular Disorders. Material and Methods A sample of 154 subjects participated in this study. All subjects underwent a series of physical tests and electromyographic assessment (i.e. head and neck posture, maxima...

  18. Predictors of vision impairment in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Dalmau, Bernardo; Martinez-Lapiscina, Elena H; Pulido-Valdeolivas, Irene; Zubizarreta, Irati; Llufriu, Sara; Blanco, Yolanda; Sola-Valls, Nuria; Sepulveda, Maria; Guerrero, Ana; Alba, Salut; Andorra, Magi; Camos, Anna; Sanchez-Vela, Laura; Alfonso, Veronica; Saiz, Albert; Villoslada, Pablo

    2018-01-01

    Visual impairment significantly alters the quality of life of people with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The objective of this study was to identify predictors (independent variables) of visual outcomes, and to define their relationship with neurological disability and retinal atrophy when assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT). We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 119 consecutive patients with MS, assessing vision using high contrast visual acuity (LogMar), 2.5% and 1.25% low contrast visual acuity (Sloan charts), and color vision (Hardy-Rand-Rittler plates). Quality of vision is a patient reported outcome based on an individual's unique perception of his or her vision and was assessed with the Visual Functioning Questionnaire-25 (VFQ-25) with the 10 neuro-ophthalmologic items. MS disability was assessed using the expanded disability status scale (EDSS), the MS functional composite (MSFC) and the brief repetitive battery-neuropsychology (BRB-N). Retinal atrophy was assessed using spectral domain OCT, measuring the thickness of the peripapillar retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) and the volume of the ganglion cell plus inner plexiform layer (GCIPL). The vision of patients with MS was impaired, particularly in eyes with prior optic neuritis. Retinal atrophy (pRNFL and GCIPL) was closely associated with impaired low contrast vision and color vision, whereas the volume of the GCIPL showed a trend (p = 0.092) to be associated with quality of vision. Multiple regression analysis revealed that EDSS was an explanatory variable for high contrast vision after stepwise analysis, GCIPL volume for low contrast vision, and GCIPL volume and EDSS for color vision. The explanatory variables for quality of vision were high contrast vision and color vision. In summary, quality of vision in MS depends on the impairment of high contrast visual acuity and color vision due to the disease.

  19. Peroxides and radiation impairment of oxidative phosphorylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dovgii, I E; Akoev, I G

    1975-09-01

    An increase in the peroxidase activity of the mitochondria and a simultaneous rise in the amount of peroxide compounds, which are half lipid-like substances, are detected within the first 10 minutes after irradiation (1000 r). A mechanism of radiation impairment of oxidative phosphorylation is connected with the penetration of its inhibitors to the mitochondria due to the disturbed permeability of membranes affected by peroxides.

  20. Intelligence of visually impaired children : assessment considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrialavičiūtė, Ingrida

    2007-01-01

    Problems and possibilities assessing intellectual abilities of visually impaired children are addressed in the article. In other countries, usually there are few or no nationally standardized tests available for use with this population. Therefore parts of available instruments designed for normally sighted children are used. Sometimes test procedures or stimuli are modified what affects the validity of the results and they need to be interpreted with caution. Intellectual abilities of Lithua...

  1. Behavioral symptoms related to cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillon C

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Carol Dillon,1 Cecilia M Serrano,1 Diego Castro,1 Patricio Perez Leguizamón,1 Silvina L Heisecke,1,2 Fernando E Taragano1 1CEMIC (Centro de Educación Médica e Investigaciones Clínicas University Institute, 2CONICET (Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina Abstract: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS are core features of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. On one hand, behavioral symptoms in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI can indicate an increased risk of progressing to dementia. On the other hand, mild behavioral impairment (MBI in patients who usually have normal cognition indicates an increased risk of developing dementia. Whatever the cause, all dementias carry a high rate of NPI. These symptoms can be observed at any stage of the disease, may fluctuate over its course, are a leading cause of stress and overload for caregivers, and increase rates of hospitalization and early institutionalization for patients with dementia. The clinician should be able to promptly recognize NPI through the use of instruments capable of measuring their frequency and severity to support diagnosis, and to help monitor the treatment of behavioral symptoms. The aims of this review are to describe and update the construct ‘MBI’ and to revise the reported NPS related to prodromal stages of dementia (MCI and MBI and dementia stages of Alzheimer’s disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Keywords: behavioral or neuropsychiatric symptoms, cognitive impairment, dementia

  2. [Is olfactory function impaired in moderate height?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, M; Welsch, H; Zahnert, T; Hummel, Thomas

    2009-09-01

    The human sense of smell seems to be influenced by the surrounding barometric pressure. These factors appear to be especially important during flights, for example, in order to recognize the smell of fire etc. Thus, questions are whether pilots or passengers exhibit an impaired smell sensitivity when tested at moderate heights, or, whether changes in humidity would affect the sense of smell. Using climate chambers, odor discrimination and butanol odor thresholds were tested in 77 healthy normosmic volunteers (5 female, 72 male; aged 25+/-8 years from 18 up to 53 years) under hypobaric (2 700+/-20 m, 20 degrees C+/-1 K, rh=50+/-5%) and hyperbaric, (10+/-0.5 m (2 bar)) and different humidity conditions (30 vs. 80%, 20 degrees C+/-1 K, normobaric). During all conditions cognitive performance was tested. Among other effects, olfactory sensitivity was impaired at threshold, but not suprathreshold level, in a hypobaric compared to a hyperbaric milieu, and thresholds were lower in humid, compared to relatively dry conditions. In conclusion, environmental conditions modulate the sense of smell, and may, consecutively, influence results from olfactory tests. During flight hypobaric conditions, mild hypoxia and dry air may cause impaired sensitivity of smell. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart * New York.

  3. Detection of phenazepam in impaired driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, Sarah; Mellon, Monica Brady; Hinners, Paige

    2013-10-01

    Phenazepam is a potent 1,4-benzodiazepine that has gained notoriety among recreational drug users. First synthesized in Ukraine in the 1970s, it is one of the most commonly prescribed benzodiazepines in Russia and other commonwealth of independent state nations, where it is used therapeutically as a prescription drug. Reports of abuse are widespread and several European countries have taken steps to control its use. However, in the USA, phenazepam is not approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration, nor scheduled under the Federal Controlled Substances Act. Phenazepam is widely available on the Internet, and recreational drug users report a potency 10-fold greater than that of nordiazepam. We report a case of a 24-year-old male driver who was apprehended for impaired driving following a two-vehicle crash. The subject exhibited slurred speech and profound psychomotor impairment. Toxicology testing revealed phenazepam at a concentration of 76 ng/mL in blood, with no other drugs detected. This case report not only demonstrates the potential for adverse traffic safety consequences following the misuse of phenazepam, but also highlights the importance of analytical factors such as immunoassay cutoff concentration, cross-reactivity and comprehensive screening using chromatographic-based techniques for impaired driving investigations.

  4. Caffeine cravings impair memory and metacognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Matthew A; Sauer, James D; Ling, Angus; Riza, Joshua

    2017-10-01

    Cravings for food and other substances can impair cognition. We extended previous research by testing the effects of caffeine cravings on cued-recall and recognition memory tasks, and on the accuracy of judgements of learning (JOLs; predicted future recall) and feeling-of-knowing (FOK; predicted future recognition for items that cannot be recalled). Participants (N = 55) studied word pairs (POND-BOOK) and completed a cued-recall test and a recognition test. Participants made JOLs prior to the cued-recall test and FOK judgements prior to the recognition test. Participants were randomly allocated to a craving or control condition; we manipulated caffeine cravings via a combination of abstinence, cue exposure, and imagery. Cravings impaired memory performance on the cued-recall and recognition tasks. Cravings also impaired resolution (the ability to distinguish items that would be remembered from those that would not) for FOK judgements but not JOLs, and reduced calibration (correspondence between predicted and actual accuracy) for JOLs but not FOK judgements. Additional analysis of the cued-recall data suggested that cravings also reduced participants' ability to monitor the likely accuracy of answers during the cued-recall test. These findings add to prior research demonstrating that memory strength manipulations have systematically different effects on different types of metacognitive judgements.

  5. Renal Impairment in Cirrhosis Unrelated to Hepatorenal Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Low

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal impairment is common in liver disease and may occur as a consequence of the pathophysiological changes that underpin cirrhosis or secondary to a pre-existing unrelated insult. Nevertheless, the onset of renal impairment often portends a worsening prognosis. Hepatorenal syndrome remains one of the most recognized and reported causes of renal impairment in cirrhosis. However, other causes of renal impairment occur and can be classified into prerenal, intrinsic or postrenal, which are the subjects of the present review.

  6. Views of Children with Visual Impairment on the Challenges of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study sought to examine the views of children with visual impairment on the challenges of inclusion. A questionnaire was administered on 20 children with visual impairment. These had been randomly selected from three schools that were including children with visual impairment in their teaching and learning ...

  7. The Impact of Visual Impairment on Perceived School Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Benjamin; Larwin, Karen H.

    2015-01-01

    The current investigation examines whether visual impairment has an impact on a student's perception of the school climate. Using a large national sample of high school students, perceptions were examined for students with vision impairment relative to students with no visual impairments. Three factors were examined: self-reported level of…

  8. Theory of Mind Ability in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillott, A.; Furniss, F.; Walter, A.

    2004-01-01

    Whilst evidence of theory of mind impairments in children with autism is well established, possible impairments in children with language disorder have only recently been investigated. Children with specific language impairment aged between eight and 12 years were matched by age and gender to high functioning children with autism and normally…

  9. Annual research review : conceptualising functional impairment in children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapee, R.M.; Bogels, S.M.; van der Sluis, Cathy .M.; Craske, M.G.; Ollendick, T.

    2012-01-01

    Functional impairment is a key factor in the clinical importance of mental health problems in children. Yet, the nature of impairment and criteria for defining and assessing impairment in childhood disorders has been surprisingly overlooked in much of the literature. The current article examines the

  10. Cerebellum, Language, and Cognition in Autism and Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Steven M.; Makris, Nikos; Kennedy, David N.; Caviness, Verne S., Jr.; Howard, James; McGrath, Lauren; Steele, Shelly; Frazier, Jean A.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Harris, Gordon J.

    2010-01-01

    We performed cerebellum segmentation and parcellation on magnetic resonance images from right-handed boys, aged 6-13 years, including 22 boys with autism [16 with language impairment (ALI)], 9 boys with Specific Language Impairment (SLI), and 11 normal controls. Language-impaired groups had reversed asymmetry relative to unimpaired groups in…

  11. Demographic Characteristics and Impairments of Louisiana Students with Usher's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S. C.

    1987-01-01

    Of 51 Louisiana students with Usher's Syndrome (a genetic condition characterized by hearing loss and progressive blindness), 71 percent manifested visual impairment and hearing loss, 9 percent had neither, 10 percent had visual impairments but a less-than-profound hearing loss, and 10 percent had profound hearing loss and no visual impairment.…

  12. 10 CFR 26.77 - Management actions regarding possible impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Management actions regarding possible impairment. 26.77... Sanctions To Be Imposed § 26.77 Management actions regarding possible impairment. (a) This section defines... alcohol with no other behavioral or physical indications of impairment, then only an alcohol test is...

  13. Annual research review: conceptualising functional impairment in children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapee, R.M.; Bögels, S.M.; van der Sluis, C.M.; Craske, M.G.; Ollendick, T.

    2012-01-01

    Functional impairment is a key factor in the clinical importance of mental health problems in children. Yet, the nature of impairment and criteria for defining and assessing impairment in childhood disorders has been surprisingly overlooked in much of the literature. The current article examines the

  14. 38 CFR 4.86 - Exceptional patterns of hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hearing impairment. 4.86 Section 4.86 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Impairment of Auditory Acuity § 4.86 Exceptional patterns of hearing impairment. (a) When the puretone threshold at each of the four specified...

  15. Attentional Processes in Young Children with Congenital Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadic, Valerie; Pring, Linda; Dale, Naomi

    2009-01-01

    The study investigated attentional processes of 32 preschool children with congenital visual impairment (VI). Children with profound visual impairment (PVI) and severe visual impairment (SVI) were compared to a group of typically developing sighted children in their ability to respond to adult directed attention in terms of establishing,…

  16. Comparison of the quick mild cognitive impairment (Qmci) screen and the SMMSE in screening for mild cognitive impairment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Caoimh, Rónán

    2012-09-01

    differentiating mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from normal cognition (NC) is difficult. The AB Cognitive Screen (ABCS) 135, sensitive in differentiating MCI from dementia, was modified to improve sensitivity and specificity, producing the quick mild cognitive impairment (Qmci) screen.

  17. Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Philip B.; Scuteri, Angelo; Black, Sandra E.; DeCarli, Charles; Greenberg, Steven M.; Iadecola, Costantino; Launer, Lenore J.; Laurent, Stephane; Lopez, Oscar L.; Nyenhuis, David; Petersen, Ronald C.; Schneider, Julie A.; Tzourio, Christophe; Arnett, Donna K.; Bennett, David A.; Chui, Helena C.; Higashida, Randall T.; Lindquist, Ruth; Nilsson, Peter M.; Roman, Gustavo C.; Sellke, Frank W.; Seshadri, Sudha

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose This scientific statement provides an overview of the evidence on vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia. Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia of later life are common. Definitions of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), neuropathology, basic science and pathophysiological aspects, role of neuroimaging and vascular and other associated risk factors, and potential opportunities for prevention and treatment are reviewed. This statement serves as an overall guide for practitioners to gain a better understanding of VCI and dementia, prevention, and treatment. Methods Writing group members were nominated by the writing group co-chairs on the basis of their previous work in relevant topic areas and were approved by the American Heart Association Stroke Council Scientific Statement Oversight Committee, the Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, and the Manuscript Oversight Committee. The writing group used systematic literature reviews (primarily covering publications from 1990 to May 1, 2010), previously published guidelines, personal files, and expert opinion to summarize existing evidence, indicate gaps in current knowledge, and, when appropriate, formulate recommendations using standard American Heart Association criteria. All members of the writing group had the opportunity to comment on the recommendations and approved the final version of this document. After peer review by the American Heart Association, as well as review by the Stroke Council leadership, Council on Epidemiology and Prevention Council, and Scientific Statements Oversight Committee, the statement was approved by the American Heart Association Science Advisory and Coordinating Committee. Results The construct of VCI has been introduced to capture the entire spectrum of cognitive disorders associated with all forms of cerebral vascular brain injury—not solely stroke—ranging from mild cognitive impairment through fully developed

  18. A methodology for the characterization and diagnosis of cognitive impairments-Application to specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Jesús; Serrano, J Ignacio; del Castillo, M Dolores; Iglesias, Angel

    2014-06-01

    The diagnosis of mental disorders is in most cases very difficult because of the high heterogeneity and overlap between associated cognitive impairments. Furthermore, early and individualized diagnosis is crucial. In this paper, we propose a methodology to support the individualized characterization and diagnosis of cognitive impairments. The methodology can also be used as a test platform for existing theories on the causes of the impairments. We use computational cognitive modeling to gather information on the cognitive mechanisms underlying normal and impaired behavior. We then use this information to feed machine-learning algorithms to individually characterize the impairment and to differentiate between normal and impaired behavior. We apply the methodology to the particular case of specific language impairment (SLI) in Spanish-speaking children. The proposed methodology begins by defining a task in which normal and individuals with impairment present behavioral differences. Next we build a computational cognitive model of that task and individualize it: we build a cognitive model for each participant and optimize its parameter values to fit the behavior of each participant. Finally, we use the optimized parameter values to feed different machine learning algorithms. The methodology was applied to an existing database of 48 Spanish-speaking children (24 normal and 24 SLI children) using clustering techniques for the characterization, and different classifier techniques for the diagnosis. The characterization results show three well-differentiated groups that can be associated with the three main theories on SLI. Using a leave-one-subject-out testing methodology, all the classifiers except the DT produced sensitivity, specificity and area under curve values above 90%, reaching 100% in some cases. The results show that our methodology is able to find relevant information on the underlying cognitive mechanisms and to use it appropriately to provide better

  19. Brain GLUT4 Knockout Mice Have Impaired Glucose Tolerance, Decreased Insulin Sensitivity, and Impaired Hypoglycemic Counterregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reno, Candace M; Puente, Erwin C; Sheng, Zhenyu; Daphna-Iken, Dorit; Bree, Adam J; Routh, Vanessa H; Kahn, Barbara B; Fisher, Simon J

    2017-03-01

    GLUT4 in muscle and adipose tissue is important in maintaining glucose homeostasis. However, the role of insulin-responsive GLUT4 in the central nervous system has not been well characterized. To assess its importance, a selective knockout of brain GLUT4 (BG4KO) was generated by crossing Nestin-Cre mice with GLUT4-floxed mice. BG4KO mice had a 99% reduction in GLUT4 protein expression throughout the brain. Despite normal feeding and fasting glycemia, BG4KO mice were glucose intolerant, demonstrated hepatic insulin resistance, and had reduced glucose uptake in the brain. In response to hypoglycemia, BG4KO mice had impaired glucose sensing, noted by impaired epinephrine and glucagon responses and impaired c-fos activation in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Moreover, in vitro glucose sensing of glucose-inhibitory neurons from the ventromedial hypothalamus was impaired in BG4KO mice. In summary, BG4KO mice are glucose intolerant, insulin resistant, and have impaired glucose sensing, indicating a critical role for brain GLUT4 in sensing and responding to changes in blood glucose. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  20. Brain GLUT4 Knockout Mice Have Impaired Glucose Tolerance, Decreased Insulin Sensitivity, and Impaired Hypoglycemic Counterregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reno, Candace M.; Puente, Erwin C.; Sheng, Zhenyu; Daphna-Iken, Dorit; Bree, Adam J.; Routh, Vanessa H.; Kahn, Barbara B.

    2017-01-01

    GLUT4 in muscle and adipose tissue is important in maintaining glucose homeostasis. However, the role of insulin-responsive GLUT4 in the central nervous system has not been well characterized. To assess its importance, a selective knockout of brain GLUT4 (BG4KO) was generated by crossing Nestin-Cre mice with GLUT4-floxed mice. BG4KO mice had a 99% reduction in GLUT4 protein expression throughout the brain. Despite normal feeding and fasting glycemia, BG4KO mice were glucose intolerant, demonstrated hepatic insulin resistance, and had reduced glucose uptake in the brain. In response to hypoglycemia, BG4KO mice had impaired glucose sensing, noted by impaired epinephrine and glucagon responses and impaired c-fos activation in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Moreover, in vitro glucose sensing of glucose-inhibitory neurons from the ventromedial hypothalamus was impaired in BG4KO mice. In summary, BG4KO mice are glucose intolerant, insulin resistant, and have impaired glucose sensing, indicating a critical role for brain GLUT4 in sensing and responding to changes in blood glucose. PMID:27797912

  1. External ear anomalies and hearing impairment in Noonan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Trier, Dorothée C; van Nierop, Josephine; Draaisma, Jos M Th; van der Burgt, Ineke; Kunst, Henricus; Croonen, Ellen A; Admiraal, Ronald J C

    2015-06-01

    This is the first cohort in which hearing impairment and external ear anomalies in Noonan Syndrome are described extensively. Retrospective analysis of the otorhinolaryngological and clinical genetic data from 97 Noonan Syndrome (NS) patients. Forty-four NS patients were seen by an otorhinolaryngologist for the analysis of hearing impairment. In our cohort 80 of the 97 patients were genetically tested. In 71 of these mutations were found: in 48 patients a mutation in PTPN11, in 10 patients in SOS1, in 5 patients in SHOC2, in 5 patients in RAF1, in 1 patient in MAP2K2, in 1 patient in KRAS and in 1 patient in A2ML1. External ear anomalies were reported in 75 NS patients (77%). In 69 patients the ears were low-set, 28 patients had posteriorly rotated ears, 14 patients showed protruding ears and 18 had thickened helices. Hearing impairment was detected in 34 NS patients. Nine patients had sensorineural hearing impairment, two a permanent conductive hearing impairment, two other patients had mixed hearing impairment and 20 patients had conductive hearing impairment in the past, caused by otitis media with effusion. Their temporary conductive hearing impairment resolved between the ages of 2 and 18 years. Sensorineural hearing impairment varied between mild high-frequency hearing impairment and profound (uni- and bilateral) hearing impairment and was progressive in three patients. Four NS patients received cochlear implants for their severe sensorineural hearing impairment. The cohort is small for genotype-phenotype correlations, but sensorineural hearing impairment, especially the bilateral severe hearing impairment, was only seen in patients with a PTPN11 mutation. NS is characterized by dysmorphic external ear anomalies and both sensorineural and conductive hearing impairment. Audiological examinations are recommended in all patients with Noonan Syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Comparison of Social Skills in Turkish Children with Visual Impairments, Children with Intellectual Impairments and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkubat, Ufuk; Ozdemir, Selda

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the social skills of five groups of children: children with visual impairments attending inclusive education schools, children with visual impairments attending schools for the blind, children with intellectual impairments attending inclusive education schools, children with intellectual impairments…

  3. Meta-Analysis of Social Cognition in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Emre; Yener, Görsev G

    2017-07-01

    Social cognitive abilities are impaired in Alzheimer disease and other dementias. Recent studies suggested that social cognitive abilities might be also impaired in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Current meta-analysis aimed to summarize available evidence for deficits in theory of mind (ToM) and emotion recognition in MCI. In this meta-analysis of 17 studies, facial emotion recognition and ToM performances of 513 individuals with MCI and 693 healthy controls were compared. Mild cognitive impairment was associated with significant impairments falling in the medium effect sizes range in ToM ( d = 0.63) and facial emotion recognition ( d = 0.58). Among individual emotions, recognition of fear and sadness were particularly impaired. There were no significant between-group differences in recognition of disgust, happiness, and surprise. Social cognitive deficits were more severe in multidomain MCI. There is a need for longitudinal studies investigating the potential role of social cognitive impairment in predicting conversion to dementia.

  4. Epidemiology, aetiology and management of visual impairment in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solebo, Ameenat Lola; Rahi, Jugnoo

    2014-04-01

    An estimated 19 million of the world's children are visually impaired, while 1.4 million are blind. Using the UK as a model for high income countries, from a population-based incidence study, the annual cumulative incidence of severe visual impairment/blindness (SVL/BL) is estimated to be 6/10 000 by age 15 years, with the incidence being highest in the first year of life. The population of visually impaired children within high, middle and lower income countries differ considerably between and within countries. The numerous and mainly uncommon disorders which can cause impaired vision result in heterogeneous population which includes a substantial proportion (for SVI/BL, the majority) of children with additional systemic disorders or impairments whose needs differ substantially from those with isolated vision impairment. Paediatricians and other paediatric professionals have a key role in early detection and multidisciplinary management to minimise the impact of visual impairment (VI) in childhood.

  5. Cervical Musculoskeletal Impairments and Temporomandibular Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, David

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The study of cervical muscles and their significance in the development and perpetuation of Temporomandibular Disorders has not been elucidated. Thus this project was designed to investigate the association between cervical musculoskeletal impairments and Temporomandibular Disorders. Material and Methods A sample of 154 subjects participated in this study. All subjects underwent a series of physical tests and electromyographic assessment (i.e. head and neck posture, maximal cervical muscle strength, cervical flexor and extensor muscles endurance, and cervical flexor muscle performance) to determine cervical musculoskeletal impairments. Results A strong relationship between neck disability and jaw disability was found (r = 0.82). Craniocervical posture was statistically different between patients with myogenous Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) and healthy subjects. However, the difference was too small (3.3º) to be considered clinically relevant. Maximal cervical flexor muscle strength was not statistically or clinically different between patients with TMD and healthy subjects. No statistically significant differences were found in electromyographic activity of the sternocleidomastoid or the anterior scalene muscles in patients with TMD when compared to healthy subjects while executing the craniocervical flexion test (P = 0.07). However, clinically important effect sizes (0.42 - 0.82) were found. Subjects with TMD presented with reduced cervical flexor as well as extensor muscle endurance while performing the flexor and extensor muscle endurance tests when compared to healthy individuals. Conclusions Subjects with Temporomandibular Disorders presented with impairments of the cervical flexors and extensors muscles. These results could help guide clinicians in the assessment and prescription of more effective interventions for individuals with Temporomandibular Disorders. PMID:24422022

  6. Cervical Musculoskeletal Impairments and Temporomandibular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Armijo-Olivo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study of cervical muscles and their significance in the development and perpetuation of Temporomandibular Disorders has not been elucidated. Thus this project was designed to investigate the association between cervical musculoskeletal impairments and Temporomandibular Disorders. Material and Methods: A sample of 154 subjects participated in this study. All subjects underwent a series of physical tests and electromyographic assessment (i.e. head and neck posture, maximal cervical muscle strength, cervical flexor and extensor muscles endurance, and cervical flexor muscle performance to determine cervical musculoskeletal impairments. Results: A strong relationship between neck disability and jaw disability was found (r = 0.82. Craniocervical posture was statistically different between patients with myogenous Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD and healthy subjects. However, the difference was too small (3.3º to be considered clinically relevant. Maximal cervical flexor muscle strength was not statistically or clinically different between patients with TMD and healthy subjects. No statistically significant differences were found in electromyographic activity of the sternocleidomastoid or the anterior scalene muscles in patients with TMD when compared to healthy subjects while executing the craniocervical flexion test (P = 0.07. However, clinically important effect sizes (0.42 - 0.82 were found. Subjects with TMD presented with reduced cervical flexor as well as extensor muscle endurance while performing the flexor and extensor muscle endurance tests when compared to healthy individuals. Conclusions: Subjects with Temporomandibular Disorders presented with impairments of the cervical flexors and extensors muscles. These results could help guide clinicians in the assessment and prescription of more effective interventions for individuals with Temporomandibular Disorders.

  7. [Impaired theory of mind in anorexia nervosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gál, Zita; Egyed, Katalin; Pászthy, Bea; Németh, Dezsö

    2011-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe mental illness, which is characterized by a continuously growing occurrence in the population and by the shift of the onset for earlier ages. The understanding of factors playing role in AN and the importance of effective prevention is an essential issue in science as well as in the society. AN also affects the social domain of life, patients with AN may exhibit impaired social interaction, social isolation, difficulties in emotion recognition and egocentric thinking in cognitive processing. Therefore, the aim of present study was to investigate the theory of mind (ToM) deficits is anorexia nervosa. Although previous studies have reported ToM deficits in autism and in schizophrenia, the number of studies investigating ToM functioning in eating disorders are particularly low. Even though ToM difficulties, such as the affective ToM impairments were found in AN, however, the evidence of cognitive ToM deficits in anorexia patients is still lacking. Twenty anorexia nervosa patients and 20 healthy control adolescent girls participated in the experiment. EDI, BAT, Fallon-Rozin Test and Anamoprhic Micro Body Image Assesment Programme questionnaires and body-image tests were applied to discriminate anorexia nervosa group from healthy control group. The Hungarian version of Faux Pas Recognition Test was applied to evaluate ToM functioning. Compared to healthy control group, impairment in ToM functioning was found in AN group, especially in affective mental state attribution. Our results can raise new aspects for research, therapy and prevention of anorexia nervosa.

  8. Nicotine Impairs Macrophage Control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiyuan; Stitzel, Jerry A; Bai, An; Zambrano, Cristian A; Phillips, Matthew; Marrack, Philippa; Chan, Edward D

    2017-09-01

    Pure nicotine impairs macrophage killing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), but it is not known whether the nicotine component in cigarette smoke (CS) plays a role. Moreover, the mechanisms by which nicotine impairs macrophage immunity against MTB have not been explored. To neutralize the effects of nicotine in CS extract, we used a competitive inhibitor to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-mecamylamine-as well as macrophages derived from mice with genetic disruption of specific subunits of nAChR. We also determined whether nicotine impaired macrophage autophagy and whether nicotine-exposed T regulatory cells (Tregs) could subvert macrophage anti-MTB immunity. Mecamylamine reduced the CS extract increase in MTB burden by 43%. CS extract increase in MTB was also significantly attenuated in macrophages from mice with genetic disruption of either the α7, β2, or β4 subunit of nAChR. Nicotine inhibited autophagosome formation in MTB-infected THP-1 cells and primary murine alveolar macrophages, as well as increased the intracellular MTB burden. Nicotine increased migration of THP-1 cells, consistent with the increased number of macrophages found in the lungs of smokers. Nicotine induced Tregs to produce transforming growth factor-β. Naive mouse macrophages co-cultured with nicotine-exposed Tregs had significantly greater numbers of viable MTB recovered with increased IL-10 production and urea production, but no difference in secreted nitric oxide as compared with macrophages cocultured with unexposed Tregs. We conclude that nicotine in CS plays an important role in subverting macrophage control of MTB infection.

  9. Vascular cognitive impairment neuropathology guidelines (VCING): the contribution of cerebrovascular pathology to cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrobot, Olivia A; Attems, Johannes; Esiri, Margaret; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Ironside, James W; Kalaria, Rajesh N; King, Andrew; Lammie, George A; Mann, David; Neal, James; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Kehoe, Patrick G; Love, Seth

    2016-11-01

    There are no generally accepted protocols for post-mortem assessment in cases of suspected vascular cognitive impairment. Neuropathologists from seven UK centres have collaborated in the development of a set of vascular cognitive impairment neuropathology guidelines (VCING), representing a validated consensus approach to the post-mortem assessment and scoring of cerebrovascular disease in relation to vascular cognitive impairment. The development had three stages: (i) agreement on a sampling protocol and scoring criteria, through a series of Delphi method surveys; (ii) determination of inter-rater reliability for each type of pathology in each region sampled (Gwet's AC2 coefficient); and (iii) empirical testing and validation of the criteria, by blinded post-mortem assessment of brain tissue from 113 individuals (55 to 100 years) without significant neurodegenerative disease who had had formal cognitive assessments within 12 months of death. Fourteen different vessel and parenchymal pathologies were assessed in 13 brain regions. Almost perfect agreement (AC2 > 0.8) was found when the agreed criteria were used for assessment of leptomeningeal, cortical and capillary cerebral amyloid angiopathy, large infarcts, lacunar infarcts, microhaemorrhage, larger haemorrhage, fibrinoid necrosis, microaneurysms, perivascular space dilation, perivascular haemosiderin leakage, and myelin loss. There was more variability (but still reasonably good agreement) in assessment of the severity of arteriolosclerosis (0.45-0.91) and microinfarcts (0.52-0.84). Regression analyses were undertaken to identify the best predictors of cognitive impairment. Seven pathologies-leptomeningeal cerebral amyloid angiopathy, large infarcts, lacunar infarcts, microinfarcts, arteriolosclerosis, perivascular space dilation and myelin loss-predicted cognitive impairment. Multivariable logistic regression determined the best predictive models of cognitive impairment. The preferred model included moderate

  10. STUDENTS WITH VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS: BRAILLE READING RATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Blagoj Dimitrova-Radojichikj

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparison reading performance was done between 8 students who are using Braille and 14 students who are using enlarged print to read. Reading performance was determined using reading rate (words per minute, wpm. Reading rate results showed no significant difference (p>0.05 between those using the Braille (16.62±11.61 wpm and those using the enlarged print (27.21±24.89 wpm. This study has shown that Braille reader students read at lower reading rate compared to print reader students with visual impairment.

  11. Impaired esophageal motor function in eosinophilic esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilio Santander

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic immunoallergic inflammatory disease of the esophagus that represents a major cause of digestive morbidity among the pediatric and young adult populations. Despite the fact that key symptoms in adults include dysphagia and food impaction, many patients lack structural changes in the esophagus to account for their complaints, which suggests the presence of underlying motor disorders and esophageal distensibility impairment. In the last few years the esophageal motility of these patients has been studied using various approaches, most particularly high-resolution manometry, ambulatory manometry, and impedance planimetry. This review focuses on the most relevant findings and scientific evidence regarding esophageal motor disorders in eosinophilic esophagitis.

  12. Impaired esophageal motor function in eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santander, Cecilio; Chavarría-Herbozo, Carlos M; Becerro-González, Irene; Burgos-Santamaría, Diego

    2015-10-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic immunoallergic inflammatory disease of the esophagus that represents a major cause of digestive morbidity among the pediatric and young adult populations. Despite the fact that key symptoms in adults include dysphagia and food impaction, many patients lack structural changes in the esophagus to account for their complaints, which suggests the presence of underlying motor disorders and esophageal distensibility impairment. In the last few years the esophageal motility of these patients has been studied using various approaches, most particularly high-resolution manometry, ambulatory manometry, and impedance planimetry. This review focuses on the most relevant findings and scientific evidence regarding esophageal motor disorders in eosinophilic esophagitis.

  13. Serial position effects in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howieson, Diane B; Mattek, Nora; Seeyle, Adriana M; Dodge, Hiroko H; Wasserman, Dara; Zitzelberger, Tracy; Jeffrey, Kaye

    2011-03-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is often associated with the preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Special scoring of word-list recall data for serial position has been suggested to improve discrimination of normal aging from dementia. We examined serial position effects in word-list recall for MCI participants compared to Alzheimer patients and controls. Individuals with MCI, like Alzheimer patients, had a diminished primacy effect in recalling words from a list. No alternative scoring system was better than standard scoring of word-list recall in distinguishing MCI patients from controls. Retention weighted scoring improved the discrimination of MCI and AD groups.

  14. Wearable Smart System for Visually Impaired People

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Jasim Ramadhan

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present a wearable smart system to help visually impaired persons (VIPs) walk by themselves through the streets, navigate in public places, and seek assistance. The main components of the system are a microcontroller board, various sensors, cellular communication and GPS modules, and a solar panel. The system employs a set of sensors to track the path and alert the user of obstacles in front of them. The user is alerted by a sound emitted through a buzzer and by vibrations o...

  15. A potential source of hearing impairment; headphones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabraiz, S.; Asif, M.B.; Iftekhar, S.; Ishtiaq, T.

    2014-01-01

    Technological expansions have been observed in recent years for portable devices with hi-fi audio playback capability such as MP4 players, multimedia phones and hand-held game consoles. Usually these devices are used with headphones; therefore the noise levels of different headphones are of particular relevance. Despite of its several benefits, noise levels can be quite high and may cause hearing impairment. In this research, different headphones were selected to check noise levels at varying volumes. It was found in majority of cases that noise levels ranged from 75dB to 85 dB; surpassing the NEQ's and OSHA standard values. (author)

  16. Olfactory memory impairment in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahuleyan, Biju; Singh, Satendra

    2012-10-01

    Olfactory disorders are noted in a majority of neurodegenerative diseases, but they are often misjudged and are rarely rated in the clinical setting. Severe changes in the olfactory tests are observed in Parkinson's disease. Olfactory deficits are an early feature in Alzheimer's disease and they worsen with the disease progression. Alterations in the olfactory function are also noted after severe head injuries, temporal lobe epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, and migraine. The purpose of the present review was to discuss the available scientific knowledge on the olfactory memory and to relate its impairment with neurodegenerative diseases.

  17. Impaired lung transfer factor in fibromyalgia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Maurizio; Atzeni, Fabiola; Airoldi, Andrea; Masala, Ignazio Francesco; Frassanito, Francesca; Salaffi, Fausto; Macaluso, Claudio; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether pulmonary diffusing capacity is impaired in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) as it is in those with other diseases characterised by autonomic nerve system (ANS) dysfunction such as type 1 diabetes. Forty-five consecutive anti-nuclear antibody (ANA)-negative female Caucasian patients aged 50.1± 5.6 years with FM and compared with 45 healthy female control volunteers matched in terms of age and body mass index (BMI). The autonomic function has been evaluated by means of standard electrocardiography (ECG), finger blood pressure respiration, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) at rest and during a stepwise tilt test up to 75°. Their autonomic profiles were drawn up on the basis of MSNA, plasma catecholamine levels, and spectral indices of cardiac sympathetic and vagal modulation, and sympathetic vasomotor control computed by means of the spectrum analysis of RR and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) variability. Lung volumes and dynamic spirometry parameters were assessed by means of plethysmography. All of the patients were clinically evaluated and completed the FQI and COMPASS questionnaire. There was no difference in lung volumes between the FM patients and healthy controls, but DLCO (83±4 vs. 96±5; p<0.001), Kco (84±5 vs 98±5; p<0.001), DM (12.7±2.4 vs 13.6±1.8; p<0.05) and Vc (48±3.9 vs 65±7; p<0.001) were significantly reduced in the patients. The COMPASS-31, RCS and pain VAS scores significantly correlated with DLCO, Kco and Vc with the correlation being particularly close in the case of Vc. Furthermore, univariate Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that the three scores were all significantly associated with an increased risk of impaired DLCO (respectively, χ(2) 16.21, p<0.0005; χ(2) 7.09, p<0.005; χ(2) 6.37, p<0.01). FM impairs DLCO mainly as a result of a reduction in Vc, and that this defect is inversely proportional to the severity of the dysfunction suggesting a relationship between

  18. Study of some properties of 's' neutron resonance parameters for target nuclei I = 1/2 and I = 3/2 in function of spin value J = I + 1/2 in the energy range 1 {yields} 5000 eV; Etude de quelques proprietes des parametres de resonances des neutrons ''s'' pour des noyaux cibles I = 1/2 et I = 3/2 en fonction de la valeur du spin J = I + 1/2 dans le domaine d'energie 1 eV {yields} 5000 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julien, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-05-15

    Different kinds of experiments and analysis methods allowing to achieve neutron resonances parameters in the low energy range (1 eV {yields} 5000 eV) are described. A great deal of effort to improve experimental conditions and data processing in order to know the spin value J = I {+-} 1/2 has been spent. The time of flight method was used. A few target nuclei I = 3/2 and 1 = 1/2 have been studied. For I = 3/2 (Ga, As, 3r, Au) we find S{sub o} J = 2 {approx_equal} 2 S{sub o} J = 1 and S{sub o} J = 1 {approx_equal} S{sub o} J = 0 for I = 1/2 (Tm, Pt) but {sup 77}Se. Fluctuations of the total radiative width {gamma}{sub {gamma}} depend on the spin value I = I {+-} 1/2 when E1 transition, are enhanced for one of the both spin states. The magnitude of these fluctuations can be explained of the strength of E1 transitions (E{sub {gamma}} {approx} 7 MeV) is supposed to be proportional to E{sup 5}{sub {gamma}} instead of E{sup 3}{sub {gamma}}. The distribution of levels spacings against spin value J are considered and are compared to theoretical predictions. (author) [French] On decrit les differentes methodes d'analyse permettant d'obtenir les parametres des resonances de neutron dans le domaine d'energie 1 eV {yields} 5000 eV. Un effort particulier a ete fait pour connaitre la valeur du spin J = I {+-} 1/2. Les types d'experience et les analyses des donnees, developpes et ameliores pour determiner J sont decrits. Les resultats obtenus ont permis l'etude de differentes proprietes en fonction du spin J. On trouve: S{sub o} J 2 {approx_equal} 2 S{sub o} J = 1 pour les noyaux I = 3/2 etudies (Ga, As, Br, Au) et S{sub o} J = 1 {approx_equal} S{sub o} J = 0 Pour le Tm et {sup 195}Pt de spin I = 1/2. On constate que les largeurs radiatives totales {gamma}{sub {gamma}} fluctuent si des transitions E1 aux premiers etats excites sont favorisees. Ces fluctuations peuvent etre expliquees si on suppose que les intensites de ces transitions sont proportionnelles a E{sup 5}{sub {gamma

  19. As Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) Increases, So Does Impairment | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 30% Severe Impairment – 0.16 - 0.30% Speech, memory, coordination, attention, reaction time, balance significantly impaired All driving-related skills dangerously impaired Judgement and decision making dangerously impaired Blackouts (amnesia) Vomiting and other signs ...

  20. Impaired coronary microvascular function in diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimoto, Go

    2000-01-01

    Global and regional myocardial uptake was determined with technetium-99m tetrofosmin and a 4 hour exercise (370 MBq iv) and rest (740 MBq iv) protocol, in 24 patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and in 22 control subjects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate impaired coronary microvascular function in diabetics by measurement of % uptake increase in myocardial counts. The parameter of % uptake increase (ΔMTU) was calculated as the ratio of exercise counts to rest myocardial counts with correction of myocardial uptake for dose administered and physical decay between the exercise study and the rest study. Global ΔMTU was significantly lower in the diabetics than in control subjects (14.4±5.4% vs. 21.7±8.5%, p<0.01). Regional ΔMTU in each of 4 left ventricular regions (anterior, septal, inferior, posterolateral) was significantly lower in the diabetic group than in the control group (p<0.01) respectively, but there were no significant differences between ΔMTU in the 4 left ventricular regions in the same group. ΔMTU was useful as a non-invasive means of evaluating impaired coronary microvascular function in diabetics. (author)

  1. Impaired healing of extraperitoneal intestinal anastomoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierie, J P; de Graaf, P W; Vroonhoven, T J; Renooij, W; Obertop, H

    1999-05-01

    The extra-anatomical position of a cervical oesophagogastrostomy might be a reason for impaired anastomotic healing. This hypothesis was tested in a rat model. Jejunal resection with an end-to-end jejunojejunostomy was placed intra-abdominally in group 1 (n = 24) and subcutaneously in group 2 (n = 30). Jejunum without anastomosis was placed subcutaneously in group 3 (n = 12). After 3, 7 or 14 days the rats were killed; the bursting pressure of the anastomosis or jejunum was measured and the hydroxyproline level was determined. Two of 24 rats in group 1 and eight of 30 in group 2 died following anastomotic leakage (P not significant) and were excluded from other measurements. Bursting pressure was decreased after 3 days in group 1 (mean(s.e.) 62(10) mmHg) and group 2 (57(10) mmHg) compared with that in group 3 (204(17) mmHg) (P < 0.001). After 7 days, it was in the normal range in group 1 (200(14) mmHg), but lower in group 2 (104(15) mmHg) compared with that in group 3 (230(8) mmHg) (P < 0.001). Differences in hydroxyproline levels were not statistically significant between the groups after 3, 7 and 14 days. Healing of jejunojejunostomies is impaired in an extraperitoneal position compared with an intra-abdominal position.

  2. Pridopidine Reverses Phencyclidine-Induced Memory Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlholm, Kristoffer; Valle-León, Marta; Fernández-Dueñas, Víctor; Ciruela, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    Pridopidine is in clinical trials for Huntington's disease treatment. Originally developed as a dopamine D 2 receptor (D 2 R) ligand, pridopidine displays about 100-fold higher affinity for the sigma-1 receptor (sigma-1R). Interestingly, pridopidine slows disease progression and improves motor function in Huntington's disease model mice and, in preliminarily reports, Huntington's disease patients. The present study examined the anti-amnesic potential of pridopidine. Thus, memory impairment was produced in mice by administration of phencyclidine (PCP, 10 mg/kg/day) for 10 days, followed by 14 days' treatment with pridopidine (6 mg/kg/day), or saline. Finally, novel object recognition performance was assessed in the animals. Mice receiving PCP and saline exhibited deficits in novel object recognition, as expected, while pridopidine treatment counteracted PCP-induced memory impairment. The effect of pridopidine was attenuated by co-administration of the sigma receptor antagonist, NE-100 (10 mg/kg). Our results suggest that pridopidine exerts anti-amnesic and potentially neuroprotective actions. These data provide new insights into the therapeutic potential of pridopidine as a pro-cognitive drug.

  3. Behavioral symptoms related to cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Carol; Serrano, Cecilia M; Castro, Diego; Leguizamón, Patricio Perez; Heisecke, Silvina L; Taragano, Fernando E

    2013-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are core features of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. On one hand, behavioral symptoms in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) can indicate an increased risk of progressing to dementia. On the other hand, mild behavioral impairment (MBI) in patients who usually have normal cognition indicates an increased risk of developing dementia. Whatever the cause, all dementias carry a high rate of NPI. These symptoms can be observed at any stage of the disease, may fluctuate over its course, are a leading cause of stress and overload for caregivers, and increase rates of hospitalization and early institutionalization for patients with dementia. The clinician should be able to promptly recognize NPI through the use of instruments capable of measuring their frequency and severity to support diagnosis, and to help monitor the treatment of behavioral symptoms. The aims of this review are to describe and update the construct 'MBI' and to revise the reported NPS related to prodromal stages of dementia (MCI and MBI) and dementia stages of Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration.

  4. Pragmatic communication is impaired in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Deborah; Ouyang, Bichun; Lonnquist, Eryn; Newcombe, Jill

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether severity of disease, cognitive function, age, gender, or amount of social interaction were associated with pragmatic dysfunction in Parkinson disease. No studies have previously been done to investigate variables that may be associated with pragmatic dysfunction in Parkinson disease. A case-control study was conducted with 17 Parkinson disease patients and 17 convenience controls. Each Parkinson disease patient and a control were interviewed, and their pragmatic skills were evaluated using a scale of pragmatic communication skills. Correlation analysis was used to determine what factors were associated with pragmatic dysfunction in the Parkinson disease patients. Cases scored lower on the pragmatic scale with a mean of 29.7 compared with 38.9 in the controls (p communication skills had moderate to strong correlations with the MMSE (r = .81, p = .002), Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score (r = -.71, p = .002), and duration of disease (r = -.53, p = .03). These results show that Parkinson disease patients have impaired pragmatic function compared with controls on both verbal and nonverbal sections, and this impairment correlates with mental state, duration, and severity of disease.

  5. Cortical visual impairment: Characteristics and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the latest studies, Cortical visual impairment – CVI is one of the most common causes of problems and difficulties in visual functioning. It results from the impairment of the central part of visual system, i.e. visual cortex, posterior visual pathway, or both. The diagnosis is usually made in the first three years of life. The aim of this paper is to present the characteristics of children with CVI, and the strategies used for treatment. CVI has a negative impact on almost all developmental domains, visual-perceptive skills, motor skills, cognitive skills, and social skills. In children with CVI, vision ranges from the total inability to see to minimal visual perceptive difficulties, while more than 50% have multiple disabilities. Due to the progress in understanding the patterns of neuron activity and neuroplasticity, as well as the intensive studies of strengths and weaknesses of children with CVI, special treatment has been designed and performed in the last few decades, which provides optimal visual functioning in everyday life for these children.

  6. Impaired hand size estimation in CRPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltz, Elena; Seifert, Frank; Lanz, Stefan; Müller, Rüdiger; Maihöfner, Christian

    2011-10-01

    A triad of clinical symptoms, ie, autonomic, motor and sensory dysfunctions, characterizes complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS). Sensory dysfunction comprises sensory loss or spontaneous and stimulus-evoked pain. Furthermore, a disturbance in the body schema may occur. In the present study, patients with CRPS of the upper extremity and healthy controls estimated their hand sizes on the basis of expanded or compressed schematic drawings of hands. In patients with CRPS we found an impairment in accurate hand size estimation; patients estimated their own CRPS-affected hand to be larger than it actually was when measured objectively. Moreover, overestimation correlated significantly with disease duration, neglect score, and increase of two-point-discrimination-thresholds (TPDT) compared to the unaffected hand and to control subjects' estimations. In line with previous functional imaging studies in CRPS patients demonstrating changes in central somatotopic maps, we suggest an involvement of the central nervous system in this disruption of the body schema. Potential cortical areas may be the primary somatosensory and posterior parietal cortices, which have been proposed to play a critical role in integrating visuospatial information. CRPS patients perceive their affected hand to be bigger than it is. The magnitude of this overestimation correlates with disease duration, decreased tactile thresholds, and neglect-score. Suggesting a disrupted body schema as the source of this impairment, our findings corroborate the current assumption of a CNS involvement in CRPS. Copyright © 2011 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Noradrenergic Stimulation Impairs Memory Generalization in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluen, Lisa Marieke; Agorastos, Agorastos; Wiedemann, Klaus; Schwabe, Lars

    2017-07-01

    Memory generalization is essential for adaptive decision-making and action. Our ability to generalize across past experiences relies on medial-temporal lobe structures, known to be highly sensitive to stress. Recent evidence suggests that stressful events may indeed interfere with memory generalization. Yet, the mechanisms involved in this generalization impairment are unknown. We tested here whether a pharmacological elevation of major stress mediators-noradrenaline and glucocorticoids-is sufficient to disrupt memory generalization. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, healthy men and women received orally a placebo, hydrocortisone, the α2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine that leads to increased noradrenergic stimulation, or both drugs, before they completed an associative learning task probing memory generalization. Drugs left learning performance intact. Yohimbine, however, led to a striking generalization impairment in women, but not in men. Hydrocortisone, in turn, had no effect on memory generalization, neither in men nor in women. The present findings indicate that increased noradrenergic activity, but not cortisol, is sufficient to disrupt memory generalization in a sex-specific manner, with relevant implications for stress-related mental disorders characterized by generalization deficits.

  8. Impaired strategic decision making in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyojin; Lee, Daeyeol; Shin, Young-Min; Chey, Jeanyung

    2007-11-14

    Adaptive decision making in dynamic social settings requires frequent re-evaluation of choice outcomes and revision of strategies. This requires an array of multiple cognitive abilities, such as working memory and response inhibition. Thus, the disruption of such abilities in schizophrenia can have significant implications for social dysfunctions in affected patients. In the present study, 20 schizophrenia patients and 20 control subjects completed two computerized binary decision-making tasks. In the first task, the participants played a competitive zero-sum game against a computer in which the predictable choice behavior was penalized and the optimal strategy was to choose the two targets stochastically. In the second task, the expected payoffs of the two targets were fixed and unaffected by the subject's choices, so the optimal strategy was to choose the target with the higher expected payoff exclusively. The schizophrenia patients earned significantly less money during the first task, even though their overall choice probabilities were not significantly different from the control subjects. This was mostly because patients were impaired in integrating the outcomes of their previous choices appropriately in order to maintain the optimal strategy. During the second task, the choices of patients and control subjects displayed more similar patterns. This study elucidated the specific components in strategic decision making that are impaired in schizophrenia. The deficit, which can be characterized as strategic stiffness, may have implications for the poor social adjustment in schizophrenia patients.

  9. Impairment of the glymphatic system after diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Quan; Zhang, Li; Ding, Guangliang; Davoodi-Bojd, Esmaeil; Li, Qingjiang; Li, Lian; Sadry, Neema; Nedergaard, Maiken; Chopp, Michael; Zhang, Zhenggang

    2017-04-01

    The glymphatic system has recently been shown to clear brain extracellular solutes and abnormalities in glymphatic clearance system may contribute to both initiation and progression of neurological diseases. Despite that diabetes is known as a risk factor for vascular diseases, little is known how diabetes affects the glymphatic system. The current study is the first investigation of the effect of diabetes on the glymphatic system and the link between alteration of glymphatic clearance and cognitive impairment in Type-2 diabetes mellitus rats. MRI analysis revealed that clearance of cerebrospinal fluid contrast agent Gd-DTPA from the interstitial space was slowed by a factor of three in the hippocampus of Type-2 diabetes mellitus rats compared to the non-DM rats and confirmed by florescence imaging analysis. Cognitive deficits detected by behavioral tests were highly and inversely correlated to the retention of Gd-DTPA contrast and fluorescent tracer in the hippocampus of Type-2 diabetes mellitus rats. Type-2 diabetes mellitus suppresses clearance of interstitial fluid in the hippocampus and hypothalamus, suggesting that an impairment of the glymphatic system contributes to Type-2 diabetes mellitus-induced cognitive deficits. Whole brain MRI provides a sensitive, non-invasive tool to quantitatively evaluate cerebrospinal fluid and interstitial fluid exchange in Type-2 diabetes mellitus and possibly in other neurological disorders, with potential clinical application.

  10. Neurocognitive impairment in childhood chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei eMizuno

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurocognitive impairment is a feature of childhood chronic fatigue syndrome (CCFS. Several studies have demonstrated reduced attention control in CCFS patients in switching and divided attention tasks. In students, the extent of deterioration in task performance depends on the level of fatigue. Poor performance in switching and divided attention is common in both fatigued students and CCFS patients. Additionally, attentional functions show dramatic development from childhood to adolescence, suggesting that abnormal development of switching and divided attention may be induced by chronic fatigue. The brain structures associated with attentional control are situated in the frontal and parietal cortices, which are the last to mature, suggesting that severe fatigue in CCFS patients and students may inhibit normal structural and functional development in these regions. A combination of treatment with cognitive behavioral therapy and antidepressant medication is effective to improve attentional control processing in CCFS patients. Studies identifying the features of neurocognitive impairment in CCFS have improved our current understanding of the neurophysiological mechanisms of CCFS.

  11. Balance impairment in individuals with Wolfram syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Kristen A; Duncan, Ryan P; Paciorkowski, Alex R; Permutt, M Alan; Marshall, Bess; Hershey, Tamara; Earhart, Gammon M

    2012-07-01

    Wolfram syndrome (WFS), a rare neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by early onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, deafness, diabetes insipidus, and neurological abnormalities. Although previously unreported, we hypothesized that neurological complications may be detectable in relatively early stages of the disease. As the cerebellum and brainstem seem particularly vulnerable in WFS, we focused on balance functions critically dependent on these regions. The primary goal of this investigation was to compare balance in young individuals with WFS, in relatively early stages of the disease, to an age-matched cohort using a clinically applicable test. Balance was assessed via the mini-BESTest in 13 children, adolescents and young adults with WFS and 30 typically developing age-matched individuals. A significant difference was observed between groups in balance as well as in three of four subcomponents of the mini-BESTest and in two timed tasks related to balance. Mini-BESTest scores were correlated with age among typically developing individuals. In the WFS group, mini-BESTest scores were related to overall motor dysfunction, but not age. Impairments in balance in WFS may occur earlier in the disease process than previously recognized and appear to be related to overall neurological progression rather than chronological age. Recognizing balance impairments and understanding which balance systems contribute to balance deficits in those with WFS may allow for development of effective patient-centered treatment paradigms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Revealing and Quantifying the Impaired Phonological Analysis Underpinning Impaired Comprehension in Wernicke's Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Holly; Keidel, James L.; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Sage, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Wernicke's aphasia is a condition which results in severely disrupted language comprehension following a lesion to the left temporo-parietal region. A phonological analysis deficit has traditionally been held to be at the root of the comprehension impairment in Wernicke's aphasia, a view consistent with current functional neuroimaging which finds…

  13. Real-space path integration is impaired in Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mokrišová, I.; Laczó, J.; Andel, R.; Gažová, I.; Vyhnálek, M.; Nedělská, Z.; Levčík, David; Cerman, J.; Vlček, Kamil; Hort, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 307, Jul 1 (2016), s. 150-158 ISSN 0166-4328 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Alzheimer disease * mild cognitive impairment * spatial navigation * hippocampus * path integration Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.002, year: 2016

  14. Hidden Language Impairments in Children: Parallels between Poor Reading Comprehension and Specific Language Impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, Kate; Clarke, Paula; Marshall, Catherine M.; Durand, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the oral language skills of 8-year-old children with impaired reading comprehension. Despite fluent and accurate reading and normal nonverbal ability, these children are poor at understanding what they have read. Tasks tapping 3 domains of oral language, namely phonology, semantics, and morphosyntax, were administered,…

  15. Sensory Impairments and Cognitive Function in Middle-Aged Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Carla R; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Fischer, Mary E; Chen, Yanjun; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Pinto, A Alex

    2017-08-01

    Hearing, visual, and olfactory impairments have been associated with cognitive impairment in older adults but less is known about associations with cognitive function in middle-aged adults. Sensory and cognitive functions were measured on participants in the baseline examination (2005-2008) of the Beaver Dam Offspring Study. Cognitive function was measured with the Trail Making tests A (TMTA) and B (TMTB) and the Grooved Peg Board test. Pure-tone audiometry, Pelli-Robson letter charts, and the San Diego Odor Identification test were used to measure hearing, contrast sensitivity, and olfaction, respectively. There were 2,836 participants aged 21-84 years with measures of hearing, visual, olfactory, and cognitive function at the baseline examination. Nineteen percent of the cohort had one sensory impairment and 3% had multiple sensory impairments. In multivariable adjusted linear regression models that included all three sensory impairments, hearing impairment, visual impairment, and olfactory impairment were each independently associated with poorer performance on the TMTA, TMTB, and Grooved Peg Board (p cognitive function tests independent of the other sensory impairments and factors associated with cognition. Sensory impairments in midlife are associated with subtle deficits in cognitive function which may be indicative of early brain aging. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. A possible contributory mechanism for impaired idiom perception in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, Tal; Lavidor, Michal; Mitchell, Rachel L C

    2015-09-30

    In this review, we focus on the ability of people with schizophrenia to correctly perceive the meaning of idioms; figurative language expressions in which intended meaning is not derived from the meaning of constituent words. We collate evidence on how idiom perception is impaired, ascertain the clinical relevance of this impairment, and consider possible psychological and neural mechanisms behind the impairment. In reviewing extant literature, we searched the PubMed database, from 1975-2014, focussing on articles that directly concerned schizophrenia and idioms, with follow up searches to explore the viability of possible underlying mechanisms. We learn that there is clear evidence of impairment, with a tendency to err towards literal interpretations unless the figurative meaning is salient, and despite contextual cues to figurative interpretations. Given the importance of idioms in everyday language, the potential impact is significant. Clinically, impaired idiom perception primarily relates to positive symptoms of schizophrenia, but also to negative symptoms. The origins of the impairment remain speculation, with impaired executive function, impaired semantic functions, and impaired context processing all proposed to explain the phenomenon. We conclude that a possible contributory mechanism at the neural level is an impaired dorsolateral prefrontal cortex system for cognitive control over semantic processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The relationship between diabetic retinopathy and cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby-Nwaobi, Roxanne R; Sivaprasad, Sobha; Amiel, Stephanie; Forbes, Angus

    2013-10-01

    Recent studies have shown an increased risk for cognitive impairment and dementia in patients with diabetes. An association between diabetic retinopathy (DR) and retinal microvasculature disease and cognitive impairment has been reported as potential evidence for a microvascular component to the cognitive impairment. It was hypothesized that severity of DR would be associated with cognitive impairment in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Three hundred eighty patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited from a population-based eye screening program and grouped by severity of DR as follows: no/mild DR (n=252) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) (n=128). Each participant underwent psychosocial assessment; depression screening; ophthalmic and physical examination, including blood assays; and cognitive assessment with the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and the Mini-Cog. General linear modeling was used to examine severity of DR and cognitive impairment, adjusting for confounders. Severity of DR demonstrated an inverse relationship with cognitive impairment (fully adjusted R2=0.415, Pcognitive impairment scores on ACE-R (adjusted mean±SE 77.0±1.9) compared with the PDR group (82.5±2.2, Pcognitive impairment compared with 5% in the PDR group (n=6). Patients with minimal DR demonstrated more cognitive impairment than those with advanced DR. Therefore, the increased prevalence of cognitive impairment in diabetes may be associated with factors other than evident retinal microvascular disease.

  18. Evaluating the role of functional impairment in personality psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Jennifer K; Damnjanovic, Tatjana; Anderson, Jaime L

    2018-03-22

    DSM-5's Section III Alternative Model for Personality Disorder (AMPD) model states that an individual must show impairment in self and interpersonal functioning for PD diagnosis. The current study investigated dimensional personality trait associations with impairment, including differential patterns of impairment across specific PDs, and whether traits have improved our assessment of functional impairment in PDs. Two-hundred and seventy-seven participants were administered measures of Antisocial PD, Avoidant PD, Borderline PD, Narcissistic PD, Obsessive-Compulsive PD, and Schizotypal PD from the perspectives of Section II (PDQ-4) and Section III (PID-5) PD models, as well as measures of functional impairment in interpersonal and intrapersonal domains. Pearson correlations showed associations between ratings of impairment and most Section II and Section III PDs and trait facets, with the exception of narcissistic PD. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that Section III PDs added predictive validity beyond Section II PDs in predicting impairment, except narcissistic PD. These findings provide support both for the impairment criterion in the AMPD and for the association between trait-based PDs and impairment, and suggest that this trait-based measurement adds uniquely to the understanding of functional impairment. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. A conceptual framework for evaluating impairments in myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Carolina; Bril, Vera; Kapral, Moira; Kulkarni, Abhaya; Davis, Aileen M

    2014-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis is characterized by weakness and fatigability of different muscle groups, including ocular, bulbar and the limbs. Therefore, a measure of disease severity at the impairment level in myasthenia needs to reflect all the relevant impairments, as well as their variations with activity and fatigue. We conducted a qualitative study of patients with myasthenia, to explore their experiences and related impairments, aimed at developing a conceptual framework of disease severity at the impairment level in myasthenia gravis. Twenty patients representing the spectrum of disease participated in semi-structured interviews. Interviews were recorded and the transcripts were analyzed by content analysis using an inductive approach with line-by-line open coding. Themes were generated from these codes. Two main themes were identified: the severity of the impairments and fatigability (i.e., triggering or worsening of an impairment with activity). The impairments were further classified within body regions (ocular, bulbar and axial/limbs). Fatigability was described as a phenomenon affecting the whole body but also affecting specific impairments, and was associated with fluctuation of the symptoms. Patients were concerned that clinical examination at a single point in time might not reflect their true clinical state due to fatigability and fluctuations in severity. This conceptual framework reflects the relevance of both severity and fatigability in understanding impairment-based disease severity in myasthenia. This framework could inform the development of impairment measures in myasthenia gravis.

  20. A conceptual framework for evaluating impairments in myasthenia gravis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Barnett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Myasthenia gravis is characterized by weakness and fatigability of different muscle groups, including ocular, bulbar and the limbs. Therefore, a measure of disease severity at the impairment level in myasthenia needs to reflect all the relevant impairments, as well as their variations with activity and fatigue. We conducted a qualitative study of patients with myasthenia, to explore their experiences and related impairments, aimed at developing a conceptual framework of disease severity at the impairment level in myasthenia gravis. METHODS: Twenty patients representing the spectrum of disease participated in semi-structured interviews. Interviews were recorded and the transcripts were analyzed by content analysis using an inductive approach with line-by-line open coding. Themes were generated from these codes. RESULTS: Two main themes were identified: the severity of the impairments and fatigability (i.e., triggering or worsening of an impairment with activity. The impairments were further classified within body regions (ocular, bulbar and axial/limbs. Fatigability was described as a phenomenon affecting the whole body but also affecting specific impairments, and was associated with fluctuation of the symptoms. Patients were concerned that clinical examination at a single point in time might not reflect their true clinical state due to fatigability and fluctuations in severity. CONCLUSIONS: This conceptual framework reflects the relevance of both severity and fatigability in understanding impairment-based disease severity in myasthenia. This framework could inform the development of impairment measures in myasthenia gravis.

  1. Characterisation of Physical Frailty and Associated Physical and Functional Impairments in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Shwe Zin Nyunt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo characterize the physical frailty phenotype and its associated physical and functional impairments in mild cognitive impairment (MCI.MethodParticipants with MCI (N = 119, normal low cognition (NLC, N = 138, and normal high cognition (NHC, N = 1,681 in the Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Studies (SLAS-2 were compared on the prevalence of physical frailty, low lean body mass, weakness, slow gait, exhaustion and low physical activity, and POMA balance and gait impairment and fall risk.ResultsThere were significantly higher prevalence of frailty in MCI (18.5%, than in NLC (8.0% and NHC (3.9%, and pre-frailty in MCI (54.6%, NLC (52.9% than in NHC (48.0%. Age, sex, and ethnicity-adjusted OR (95% CI of association with MCI (versus NHC for frailty were 4.65 (2.40–9.04 and for pre-frailty, 1.67 (1.07–2.61. Similar significantly elevated prevalence and adjusted ORs of association with MCI were observed for frailty-associated physical and functional impairments. Further adjustment for education, marital status, living status, comorbidities, and GDS significantly reduced the OR estimates. However, the OR estimates remained elevated for frailty: 3.86 (1.83–8.17, low body mass: 1.70 (1.08–2.67, slow gait: 1.84 (1.17–2.89, impaired gait: 4.17 (1.98–8.81, and elevated fall risk 3.42 (1.22–9.53.ConclusionTwo-thirds of MCI were physically frail or pre-frail, most uniquely due to low lean muscle mass, slow gait speed, or balance and gait impairment. The close associations of frailty and physical and functional impairment with MCI have important implications for improving diagnostic acuity of MCI and targetting interventions among cognitively frail individuals to prevent dementia and disability.

  2. Cognitive Impairment and Pain Among Nursing Home Residents With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Catherine E; Mack, Deborah S; Hunnicutt, Jacob N; Lapane, Kate L

    2018-06-01

    The prevalence of pain and its management has been shown to be inversely associated with greater levels of cognitive impairment. To evaluate whether the documentation and management of pain varies by level of cognitive impairment among nursing home residents with cancer. Using a cross-sectional study, we identified all newly admitted U.S. nursing home residents with a cancer diagnosis in 2011-2012 (n = 367,462). Minimum Data Set 3.0 admission assessment was used to evaluate pain/pain management in the past five days and cognitive impairment (assessed via the Brief Interview for Mental Status or the Cognitive Performance Scale for 91.6% and 8.4%, respectively). Adjusted prevalence ratios with 95% CI were estimated from robust Poisson regression models. For those with staff-assessed pain, pain prevalence was 55.5% with no/mild cognitive impairment and 50.5% in those severely impaired. Pain was common in those able to self-report (67.9% no/mild, 55.9% moderate, and 41.8% severe cognitive impairment). Greater cognitive impairment was associated with reduced prevalence of any pain (adjusted prevalence ratio severe vs. no/mild cognitive impairment; self-assessed pain 0.77; 95% CI 0.76-0.78; staff-assessed pain 0.96; 95% CI 0.93-0.99). Pharmacologic pain management was less prevalent in those with severe cognitive impairment (59.4% vs. 74.9% in those with no/mild cognitive impairment). In nursing home residents with cancer, pain was less frequently documented in those with severe cognitive impairment, which may lead to less frequent use of treatments for pain. Techniques to improve documentation and treatment of pain in nursing home residents with cognitive impairment are needed. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Depreciation and impairment. A tradeoff in a stewardship setting

    OpenAIRE

    Scholze, Andreas; Wielenberg, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between depreciation and future impairment losses. This relationship exists, since impairment losses can only be recognized if the carrying amount of an asset exceeds a certain recoverable amount that can be defined in different ways. Sufficiently large depreciation charges in the beginning of the asset's useful life make it very unlikely that an impairment acutally occurs in future periods. In the context of a multi-period agency model with ex ante long-t...

  4. Diabetes mellitus and impairment of intestinal barier function

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmanová, Iva

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Impairment of intestinal barrier function is involved in pathogenesis of immune mediated diseases (such as type 1 diabetes mellitus or celiac disease) and metabolic diseases (such as type 2 diabetes mellitus). Aims of study: The first aim was to analyze impairment of mucosal part of intestinal barrier in both type of diabetes and to describe differences when compared to celiac disease, which is a typical condition associated with impairment of intestinal barrier function. The se...

  5. Nutraceuticals in cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecocci, P; Tinarelli, C; Schulz, R J; Polidori, M C

    2014-01-01

    Several chemical substances belonging to classes of natural dietary origin display protective properties against some age-related diseases including neurodegenerative ones, particularly Alzheimer's disease (AD). These compounds, known as nutraceuticals, differ structurally, act therefore at different biochemical and metabolic levels and have shown different types of neuroprotective properties. The aim of this review is to summarize data from observational studies, clinical trials, and randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in humans on the effects of selected nutraceuticals against age-related cognitive impairment and dementia. We report results from studies on flavonoids, some vitamins and other natural substances that have been studied in AD and that might be beneficial for the maintenance of a good cognitive performance. Due to the substantial lack of high-level evidence studies there is no possibility for recommendation of nutraceuticals in dementia-related therapeutic guidelines. Nevertheless, the strong potential for their neuroprotective action warrants further studies in the field.

  6. SUCCES AT SCHOOL IN VISUALLY IMPAIRED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanika DIKIC

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The research included 200 visually impaired children of primary school during the period from 1992 to 1996. By means of adequate instruments we have tested the relation between the success at school of partially seeing children and hyperkinetic behavior, active and passive vocabulary richness, visuo-motoric coordination and the maturity of handwriting. Besides the already known factors (intellectual level, specific learning disturbances, emotional and neurotic disturbances, cultural deprivation, the success in class depends very much on the intensity of hyperkinetic behavior as well as its features: unstable attention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. Visual-motor coordination eye-hand and the maturity of handwriting have a strong influence on their success at school.

  7. Impaired Visual Motor Coordination in Obese Adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gaul, David

    2016-09-01

    Objective. To investigate whether obesity alters the sensory motor integration process and movement outcome during a visual rhythmic coordination task. Methods. 88 participants (44 obese and 44 matched control) sat on a chair equipped with a wrist pendulum oscillating in the sagittal plane. The task was to swing the pendulum in synchrony with a moving visual stimulus displayed on a screen. Results. Obese participants demonstrated significantly (p < 0.01) higher values for continuous relative phase (CRP) indicating poorer level of coordination, increased movement variability (p < 0.05), and a larger amplitude (p < 0.05) than their healthy weight counterparts. Conclusion. These results highlight the existence of visual sensory integration deficiencies for obese participants. The obese group have greater difficulty in synchronizing their movement with a visual stimulus. Considering that visual motor coordination is an essential component of many activities of daily living, any impairment could significantly affect quality of life.

  8. Cognitive impairment in heart failure patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leto, Laura; Feola, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive damage in heart failure (HF) involves different domains thus interfering with the ability for single patient to self-care and to cope with treatment regimens, modifying symptoms and health behaviours. Many cerebral and functional changes were detected in brain imaging, involving areas of both grey and white matter deputed to cognition. Although various instruments are available to explore cognition, no consensus was obtained on better tools to be used in HF population. Reduction in cerebral blood flow, decreased cardiac output, alterations of cerebrovascular reactivity and modification of blood pressure levels are the main features involved in the etiopathogenetic mechanisms of cognitive deficit. Several cardiac variables, laboratory parameters, demographic and clinical elements were studied for their possible relation with cognition and should be properly evaluated to define patients at increased risk of impairment. The present review gathers available data pointing out assured information and discussing possible areas of research development. PMID:25593581

  9. Functional Hubs in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Adrián; Papo, David; Boccaletti, Stefano; Del-Pozo, F.; Bajo, Ricardo; Maestú, Fernando; Martínez, J. H.; Gil, Pablo; Sendiña-Nadal, Irene; Buldú, Javier M.

    We investigate how hubs of functional brain networks are modified as a result of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a condition causing a slight but noticeable decline in cognitive abilities, which sometimes precedes the onset of Alzheimer's disease. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate the functional brain networks of a group of patients suffering from MCI and a control group of healthy subjects, during the execution of a short-term memory task. Couplings between brain sites were evaluated using synchronization likelihood, from which a network of functional interdependencies was constructed and the centrality, i.e. importance, of their nodes was quantified. The results showed that, with respect to healthy controls, MCI patients were associated with decreases and increases in hub centrality respectively in occipital and central scalp regions, supporting the hypothesis that MCI modifies functional brain network topology, leading to more random structures.

  10. Spelling impairments in Spanish dyslexic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Olivia; Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Spelling deficits have repeatedly been observed in children with dyslexia. However, the few studies addressing this issue in dyslexic adults have reported contradictory results. We investigated whether Spanish dyslexics show spelling deficits in adulthood and which components of the writing production process might be impaired in developmental dyslexia. In order to evaluate the involvement of the lexical and the sublexical routes of spelling as well as the graphemic buffer, lexical frequency, phonology-to-orthography consistency and word length were manipulated in two writing tasks: a direct copy transcoding task and a spelling-to-dictation task. Results revealed that adults with dyslexia produced longer written latencies, inter-letter intervals, writing durations and more errors than their peers without dyslexia. Moreover, the dyslexics were more affected by lexical frequency and word length than the controls, but both groups showed a similar effect of P-O consistency. Written latencies also revealed that while the dyslexics initiated the response later in the direct copy transcoding task than in the spelling-to-dictation task, the controls showed the opposite pattern. However, the dyslexics were slower than the controls in both tasks. Results were consistent with the hypothesis that spelling difficulties are present in adults with dyslexia, at least in a language with a transparent orthography such as Spanish. These difficulties seem to be associated with a deficit affecting both lexical processing and the ability to maintain information about the serial order of the letters in a word. However, the dyslexic group did not differ from the control group in the application of the P-O conversion procedures. The spelling impairment would be in addition to the reading deficit, leading to poorer performance in direct copy transcoding compared to spelling-to-dictation.

  11. Screening for Cognitive Impairments in Primary Blepharospasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Song, Wei; Wei, Qianqian; Ou, Ruwei; Cao, Bei; Liu, Wanglin; Shao, Na; Shang, Hui-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Studies have reported that non-motor symptoms are an important component of primary dystonia. However, evidence supporting cognitive impairment in primary dystonia is limited and contradictory. We applied the Chinese version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) to screen for cognitive impairment in patients with primary blepharospasm. In addition, we investigated the relationship between performance on the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised and quality of life as measured by the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form (SF36). The study included 68 primary blepharospasm patients and 68 controls matched by age, sex and education. The prevalence of cognitive deficits was 22.0% and 32.3% in primary blepharospasm patients group, as measured by the MMSE and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised, respectively. Primary blepharospasm patents had a broad range of cognitive deficits, with the most frequently affected domains being visuospatial function (30.9%) and language (30.9%), followed by memory (27.9%), orientation/attention (26.4%) and verbal fluency (22.0%). Patients with cognitive deficits had lower total SF36 scores, especially in the subdomains of physical functioning, role-physical and social functioning, compared to those without cognitive deficits. Scores on the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised were significantly correlated with both the SF36 scores and the scores on the subdomains of physical functioning and social functioning. Some patients with primary blepharospasm have cognitive deficits. Poor performance on the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised is related to poorer quality of life.

  12. Toxoplasma gondii impairs memory in infected seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Patrick D; Falkenstein, Michael; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus

    2014-02-01

    Almost 30% of humans present a Toxoplasma gondii positive antibody status and its prevalence increases with age. The central nervous system is the main target. However, little is known about the influence of asymptomatic i.e. latent Toxoplasmosis on cognitive functions in humans. To investigate neurocognitive dysfunctions in asymptomatic older adults with T. gondii positive antibody status a double-blinded neuropsychological study was conducted. The participants were classified from a population-based sample (N=131) of healthy participants with an age of 65 years and older into two groups with 42 individuals each: Toxoplasmosis positive (T-pos; IgG>50 IU/ml) and Toxoplasmosis negative (T-neg; IgG=0 IU/ml). The outcome measures were a computer-based working-memory test (2-back) and several standardized psychometric tests of memory and executive cognitive functions. T-pos seniors showed an impairment of different aspects of memory. The rate of correctly detected target symbols in a 2-back task was decreased by nearly 9% (P=0.020), corresponding to a performance reduction of about 35% in working memory relative to the T-neg group. Moreover, T-pos seniors had a lower performance in a verbal memory test, both regarding immediate recall (10% reduction; P=0.022), delayed recognition (6%; P=0.037) and recall from long-term memory assessed by the word fluency tests (12%; P=0.029). In contrast, executive functions were not affected. The effects remained mostly unchanged after controlling for medication. The impairment of memory functions in T-pos seniors was accompanied by a decreased self-reported quality of life. Because of the high prevalence of asymptomatic Toxoplasmosis and an increasing population of older adults this finding is of high relevance for public health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Constitutional bone impairment in Noonan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarre, Giuseppina; Mussa, Alessandro; Carli, Diana; Molinatto, Cristina; Ferrero, Giovanni Battista

    2017-03-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant trait characterized by genotypic and phenotypic variability. It belongs to the Ras/MAPK pathway disorders collectively named Rasopathies or neurocardiofaciocutaneous syndromes. Phenotype is characterized by short stature, congenital heart defects, facial dysmorphisms, skeletal and ectodermal anomalies, cryptorchidism, mild to moderate developmental delay/learning disability, and tumor predisposition. Short stature and skeletal dysmorphisms are almost constant and several studies hypothesized a role for the RAS pathway in regulating bone metabolism. In this study, we investigated the bone quality assessed by phalangeal quantitative ultrasound (QUS) and the metabolic bone profiling in a group of patients with NS, to determine whether low bone mineralization is primary or secondary to NS characteristics. Thirty-five patients were enrolled, including 20 males (55.6%) and 15 females (44.5%) aged 1.0-17.8 years (mean 6.4 ± 4.5, median 4.9 years). Each patients was submitted to clinical examination, estimation of the bone age, laboratory assays, and QUS assessment. Twenty-five percent of the cohort shows reduced QUS values for their age based on bone transmission time. Bone measurement were adjusted for multiple factors frequently observed in NS patients, such as growth retardation, delayed bone age, retarded puberty, and reduced body mass index, potentially affecting bone quality or its appraisal. In spite of the correction attempts, QUS measurement indicates that bone impairment persists in nearly 15% of the cohort studied. Our results indicate that bone impairment in NS is likely primary and not secondary to any of the phenotypic traits of NS, nor consistent with metabolic disturbances. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Extended driving impairs nocturnal driving performances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Sagaspe

    Full Text Available Though fatigue and sleepiness at the wheel are well-known risk factors for traffic accidents, many drivers combine extended driving and sleep deprivation. Fatigue-related accidents occur mainly at night but there is no experimental data available to determine if the duration of prior driving affects driving performance at night. Participants drove in 3 nocturnal driving sessions (3-5 am, 1-5 am and 9 pm-5 am on open highway. Fourteen young healthy men (mean age [+/-SD] = 23.4 [+/-1.7] years participated Inappropriate line crossings (ILC in the last hour of driving of each session, sleep variables, self-perceived fatigue and sleepiness were measured. Compared to the short (3-5 am driving session, the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings increased by 2.6 (95% CI, 1.1 to 6.0; P<.05 for the intermediate (1-5 am driving session and by 4.0 (CI, 1.7 to 9.4; P<.001 for the long (9 pm-5 am driving session. Compared to the reference session (9-10 pm, the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings were 6.0 (95% CI, 2.3 to 15.5; P<.001, 15.4 (CI, 4.6 to 51.5; P<.001 and 24.3 (CI, 7.4 to 79.5; P<.001, respectively, for the three different durations of driving. Self-rated fatigue and sleepiness scores were both positively correlated to driving impairment in the intermediate and long duration sessions (P<.05 and increased significantly during the nocturnal driving sessions compared to the reference session (P<.01. At night, extended driving impairs driving performances and therefore should be limited.

  15. 45 CFR 1308.17 - Eligibility criteria: Other impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... classified as deaf-blind, whose concomitant hearing and visual impairments cause such severe communication... areas: physical development, cognitive development, communication development, social or emotional...

  16. Social Inequality and Visual Impairment in Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whillans, Jennifer; Nazroo, James

    2018-03-02

    Visual impairment is the leading cause of age-related disability, but the social patterning of loss of vision in older people has received little attention. This study's objective was to assess the association between social position and onset of visual impairment, to empirically evidence health inequalities in later life. Visual impairment was measured in 2 ways: self-reporting fair vision or worse (moderate) and self-reporting poor vision or blindness (severe). Correspondingly, 2 samples were drawn from the English Longitudinal Study on Ageing (ELSA). First, 7,483 respondents who had good vision or better at Wave 1; second, 8,487 respondents who had fair vision or better at Wave 1. Survival techniques were used. Cox proportional hazards models showed wealth and subjective social status (SSS) were significant risk factors associated with the onset of visual impairment. The risk of onset of moderate visual impairment was significantly higher for the lowest and second lowest wealth quintiles, whereas the risk of onset of severe visual impairment was significantly higher for the lowest, second, and even middle wealth quintiles, compared with the highest wealth quintile. Independently, lower SSS was associated with increased risk of onset of visual impairment (both measures), particularly so for those placing themselves on the lowest rungs of the social ladder. The high costs of visual impairment are disproportionately felt by the worst off elderly. Both low wealth and low SSS significantly increase the risk of onset of visual impairment.

  17. Does my older cancer patient have cognitive impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snaedal, Jon

    2018-05-01

    Cancer and impaired cognition are both frequent conditions in old age and consequently coexist to certain degree. The prevalence of impaired cognition increases sharply after the age of 65 and the more advanced form of cognitive impairment; dementia, is exceeding 30% by the age of 85years. Adequate cognition is crucial for understanding important facts and for giving consent for intervention. There are many different stages of cognitive impairment, ranging from subjective cognitive impairment to severe dementia. The mildest stages of cognitive impairment are sometimes reversible but in more severe stages, there is brain damage of some kind, most frequently caused by neurodegenerative disorder such as Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, some kind of evaluation of cognition should be offered to all older individuals with cancer and in need for intervention. In this evaluation, information should also be sought from a close relative. In the earlier stages of cognitive impairment, the individual usually retains ability to give consent and understands information given but in later stages of dementia, a surrogate decision maker is needed. In milder stages of dementia, an individual evaluation is needed for decision of capability for consent. A specific diagnosis of a disorder such as Alzheimer's disease does not in itself preclude the individual from giving consent, the degree of cognitive impairment, impaired judgement and poor insight are more decisive in this regard. It is also important to know the difference of delirium, most often a time limited condition and dementia that usually is progressive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Visual impairment and traits of autism in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzesińska, Magdalena; Kapias, Joanna; Nowakowska-Domagała, Katarzyna; Kocur, Józef

    2017-04-30

    Visual impairment present from birth or from an early childhood may lead to psychosocial and emotional disorders. 11-40% of children in the group with visual impairment show traits of autism. The aim of this paper was to present the selected examples of how visual impairment in children is related to the occurrence of autism and to describe the available tools for diagnosing autism in children with visual impairment. So far the relation between visual impairment in children and autism has not been sufficiently confirmed. Psychiatric and psychological diagnosis of children with visual impairment has some difficulties in differentiating between "blindism" and traits typical for autism resulting from a lack of standardized diagnostic tools used to diagnosing children with visual impairment. Another difficulty in diagnosing autism in children with visual impairment is the coexistence of other disabilities in case of most children with vision impairment. Additionally, apart from difficulties in diagnosing autistic disorders in children with eye dysfunctions there is also a question of what tools should be used in therapy and rehabilitation of patients.

  19. Including persistency of impairment in mild cognitive impairment classification enhances prediction of 5-year decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermorris, Susan; Hultsch, David F; Hunter, Michael A; MacDonald, Stuart W S; Strauss, Esther

    2011-02-01

    Although older adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) show elevated rates of conversion to dementia as a group, heterogeneity of outcomes is common at the individual level. Using data from a prospective 5-year longitudinal investigation of cognitive change in healthy older adults (N = 262, aged 64-92 years), this study addressed limitations in contemporary MCI identification procedures which rely on single occasion assessment ("Single-Assessment [SA] MCI") by evaluating an alternate operational definition of MCI requiring evidence of persistent cognitive impairment over multiple-testing sessions ("Multiple-Assessment [MA] MCI"). As hypothesized, prevalence of SA-MCI exceeded that of MA-MCI. Further, the MA-MCI groups showed lower baseline cognitive and functional performance and steeper cognitive decline compared with Control and SA-MCI group. Results are discussed with reference to retest effects and clinical implications.

  20. Verbal declarative memory impairments in specific language impairment are related to working memory deficits

    OpenAIRE

    Lum, Jarrad A.G.; Ullman, Michael T.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2015-01-01

    This study examined verbal declarative memory functioning in SLI and its relationship to working memory. Encoding, recall, and recognition of verbal information was examined in children with SLI who had below average working memory (SLILow WM), children with SLI who had average working memory (SLIAvg. WM) and, a group of non-language impaired children with average working memory (TDAvg. WM). The SLILow WM group was significantly worse than both the SLIAvg. WM and TDAvg. WM groups at encoding ...

  1. PSYCHOSOCIAL INFLUENCE OF HEARING IMPAIRMENT ON THE INTERPERSONAL BEHAVIOR OF YOUTHS WITH HEARING IMPAIRMENT IN OYO STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osisanya AYO

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with hearing impairment are confronted with a lot of problems due to the condition of their disability. This has a negative impact on their social and psychological well-being with multiplying effect on their interpersonal relationship. Therefore, this study investigated the psycho-social influence of hearing impairment on interpersonal behavior of youths with hearing loss.MethodologyThe study adopted a survey research design. A sample consisting of 211 participants with hearing loss were purposively selected from the Federal College of Education (Special Oyo, Nigeria. A questionnaire, part of Psycho-social Competence Scale (PCS, was used for data collection with reliability coefficient of 0.72.ResultsThe findings revealed that hearing impairement affects social interaction of youths with hearing impairment, hearing loss affects emotional well-being of youths with hearing impairment and youths with hearing impairment feel inferior in company of persons without hearing impairment. Based on this, it was recommended that a friendly home environment should be made and youths with hearing impairment should be advised to accept their loss and take it as a challenge that can be used to achieve a better end and the society should have right attitude and beliefs toward youths with hearing impairment.

  2. Renal impairment in a rural African antiretroviral programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lessells Richard J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little knowledge regarding the prevalence and nature of renal impairment in African populations initiating antiretroviral treatment, nor evidence to inform the most cost effective methods of screening for renal impairment. With the increasing availability of the potentially nephrotixic drug, tenofovir, such information is important for the planning of antiretroviral programmes Methods (i Retrospective review of the prevalence and risk factors for impaired renal function in 2189 individuals initiating antiretroviral treatment in a rural African setting between 2004 and 2007 (ii A prospective study of 149 consecutive patients initiating antiretrovirals to assess the utility of urine analysis for the detection of impaired renal function. Severe renal and moderately impaired renal function were defined as an estimated GFR of ≤ 30 mls/min/1.73 m2 and 30–60 mls/min/1.73 m2 respectively. Logistic regression was used to determine odds ratio (OR of significantly impaired renal function (combining severe and moderate impairment. Co-variates for analysis were age, sex and CD4 count at initiation. Results (i There was a low prevalence of severe renal impairment (29/2189, 1.3% 95% C.I. 0.8–1.8 whereas moderate renal impairment was more frequent (287/2189, 13.1% 95% C.I. 11.6–14.5 with many patients having advanced immunosuppression at treatment initiation (median CD4 120 cells/μl. In multivariable logistic regression age over 40 (aOR 4.65, 95% C.I. 3.54–6.1, male gender (aOR 1.89, 95% C.I. 1.39–2.56 and CD4 Conclusion In this rural African setting, significant renal impairment is uncommon in patients initiating antiretrovirals. Urine analysis alone may be inadequate for identification of those with impaired renal function where resources for biochemistry are limited.

  3. Dispositional Optimism and Incidence of Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawronski, Katerina A B; Kim, Eric S; Langa, Kenneth M; Kubzansky, Laura D

    2016-09-01

    Higher levels of optimism have been linked with positive health behaviors, biological processes, and health conditions that are potentially protective against cognitive impairment in older adults. However, the association between optimism and cognitive impairment has not been directly investigated. We examined whether optimism is associated with incident cognitive impairment in older adults. Data are from the Health and Retirement Study. Optimism was measured by using the Life Orientation Test-R and cognitive impairment with a modified version of the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status derived from the Mini-Mental State Examination. Using multiple logistic regression models, we prospectively assessed whether optimism was associated with incident cognitive impairment in 4624 adults 65 years and older during a 4-year period. Among participants, 312 women and 190 men developed cognitive impairment during the 4-year follow-up. Higher optimism was associated with decreased risk of incident cognitive impairment. When adjusted for sociodemographic factors, each standard deviation increase in optimism was associated with reduced odds (odds ratio [OR] = 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.61-0.81) of becoming cognitively impaired. A dose-response relationship was observed. Compared with those with the lowest levels of optimism, people with moderate levels had somewhat reduced odds of cognitive impairment (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.59-1.03), whereas people with the highest levels had the lowest odds of cognitive impairment (OR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.36-0.74). These associations remained after adjusting for health behaviors, biological factors, and psychological covariates that could either confound the association of interest or serve on the pathway. Optimism was prospectively associated with a reduced likelihood of becoming cognitively impaired. If these results are replicated, the data suggest that potentially modifiable aspects of positive psychological functioning such

  4. Sensory Impairment and Health-Related Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    KWON, Hye-Jin; KIM, Ji-su; KIM, Yoon-jung; KWON, Su-jin; YU, Jin-Na

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sensory impairment is a common condition that exerts negative effects on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in the elderly. This study aimed to determine the relationship between sensory impairment and HRQoL and identify sensory-specific differences in the HRQoL of elderly. Methods: This study used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V (2010–2012), analyzing 5,260 subjects over 60 years of age who completed ophthalmic and otologic examinations. Vision and hearing impairment were measured and classified. HRQoL was determined according to the European QoL five dimension test (EQ-5D). Multivariate logistic regression analysis and analysis of covariance were performed to identify relationships between sensory impairment and HRQoL dimensions as well as differences in HRQoL scores. Results: In the final adjusted multivariate model, there was a statistically higher proportion of those with dual sensory impairment who reported problems with mobility (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.45–5.03), usual activities (aOR 2.32, 95% CI 1.16–4.64), and pain/discomfort among EQ-5D subcategories (aOR 1.79, 95% CI 1.07–2.97). In the EQ-5D dimensions, the means and standard deviations of vision impairment (0.86 [0.01]) and dual sensory impairment (0.84 [0.02]) appeared meaningfully lower than those for no sensory impairment (0.88 [0.00]) or hearing impairment (0.88 [0.01]); P = .02). Conclusion: Sensory impairment reduces HRQoL in the elderly. Improvement of HRQoL in the elderly thus requires regular screening and appropriate management of sensory impairment. PMID:26258089

  5. Visual impairment in children and adolescents in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Olav H; Bredrup, Cecilie; Rødahl, Eyvind

    2016-06-01

    BACKGROUND Due to failures in reporting and poor data security, the Norwegian Registry of Blindness was closed down in 1995. Since that time, no registration of visual impairment has taken place in Norway. All the other Nordic countries have registries for children and adolescents with visual impairment. The purpose of this study was to survey visual impairments and their causes in children and adolescents, and to assess the need for an ophthalmic registry.MATERIAL AND METHOD Data were collected via the county teaching centres for the visually impaired in the period from 2005 - 2010 on children and adolescents aged less than 20 years with impaired vision (n = 628). This was conducted as a point prevalence study as of 1 January 2004. Visual function, ophthalmological diagnosis, systemic diagnosis and additional functional impairments were recorded.RESULTS Approximately two-thirds of children and adolescents with visual impairment had reduced vision, while one-third were blind. The three largest diagnostic groups were neuro-ophthalmic diseases (37 %), retinal diseases (19 %) and conditions affecting the eyeball in general (14 %). The prevalence of additional functional impairments was high, at 53 %, most often in the form of motor problems or cognitive impairments.INTERPRETATION The results of the study correspond well with similar investigations in the other Nordic countries. Our study shows that the registries associated with teaching for the visually impaired are inadequate in terms of medical data, and this underlines the need for an ophthalmic registry of children and adolescents with visual impairment.

  6. High passage MIN6 cells have impaired insulin secretion with impaired glucose and lipid oxidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Cheng

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by the inability of beta-cells to secrete enough insulin to maintain glucose homeostasis. MIN6 cells secrete insulin in response to glucose and other secretagogues, but high passage (HP MIN6 cells lose their ability to secrete insulin in response to glucose. We hypothesized that metabolism of glucose and lipids were defective in HP MIN6 cells causing impaired glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS. HP MIN6 cells had no first phase and impaired second phase GSIS indicative of global functional impairment. This was coupled with a markedly reduced ATP content at basal and glucose stimulated states. Glucose uptake and oxidation were higher at basal glucose but ATP content failed to increase with glucose. HP MIN6 cells had decreased basal lipid oxidation. This was accompanied by reduced expressions of Glut1, Gck, Pfk, Srebp1c, Ucp2, Sirt3, Nampt. MIN6 cells represent an important model of beta cells which, as passage numbers increased lost first phase but retained partial second phase GSIS, similar to patients early in type 2 diabetes onset. We believe a number of gene expression changes occurred to produce this defect, with emphasis on Sirt3 and Nampt, two genes that have been implicated in maintenance of glucose homeostasis.

  7. Physical impairment aware transparent optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antona, Jean-Christophe; Morea, Annalisa; Zami, Thierry; Leplingard, Florence

    2009-11-01

    As illustrated by optical fiber and optical amplification, optical telecommunications have appeared for the last ten years as one of the most promising candidates to increase the transmission capacities. More recently, the concept of optical transparency has been investigated and introduced: it consists of the optical routing of Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) channels without systematic optoelectronic processing at nodes, as long as propagation impairments remain acceptable [1]. This allows achieving less power-consuming, more scalable and flexible networks, and today partial optical transparency has become a reality in deployed systems. However, because of the evolution of traffic features, optical networks are facing new challenges such as demand for higher transmitted capacity, further upgradeability, and more automation. Making all these evolutions compliant on the same current network infrastructure with a minimum of upgrades is one of the main issues for equipment vendors and operators. Hence, an automatic and efficient management of the network needs a control plan aware of the expected Quality of Transmission (QoT) of the connections to set-up with respect to numerous parameters such as: the services demanded by the customers in terms of protection/restoration; the modulation rate and format of the connection under test and also of its adjacent WDM channels; the engineering rules of the network elements traversed with an accurate knowledge of the associated physical impairments. Whatever the method and/or the technology used to collect this information, the issue about its accuracy is one of the main concerns of the network system vendors, because an inaccurate knowledge could yield a sub-optimal dimensioning and so additional costs when installing the network in the field. Previous studies [1], [2] illustrated the impact of this knowledge accuracy on the ability to predict the connection feasibility. After describing usual methods to build

  8. Emotional Intelligence Levels of Students with Sensory Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tal, Suhair; AL-Jawaldeh, Fuad; AL-Taj, Heyam; Maharmeh, Lina

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at revealing the emotional intelligence levels of students with sensory disability in Amman in Jordan. The participants of the study were 200 students; 140 hearing impaired students and 60 visual impaired students enrolled in the special education schools and centers for the academic year 2016-2017. The study adopted the…

  9. Promoting Healthful Exercise for Visually Impaired Persons with Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzman, D. M.

    1993-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of exercise for many people with visual impairments and diabetes. It lists precautions for the person with visual impairments and diabetes and specifies who should not exercise, explains "diabetes-specific" benefits of exercise, suggests a format for a safe workout, and includes an example of a successful…

  10. Visual Impairment and Blindness in 5 Communities in IMO State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent estimates in Sub-Saharan Africa showed that 21.4 million people are visually impaired with 4.8 million of these blind. Approximately 80% of these are preventable or curable through the delivery of cost-effective eye care services. Aim: This study aims to determine the burden of visual impairment and blindness in Imo ...

  11. Contribution of refractive errors to visual impairment in patients at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the contribution of refractive error to visual impairment in visually impaired patients attending Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Ghana. Method: This study was conducted over a period of 1 year beginning October 2002 at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital. Every 4th consecutive new case attending the eye ...

  12. Impaired Odor Recognition Memory in Patients with Hippocampal Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Daniel A.; Squire, Larry R.; Hopkins, Ramona O.

    2004-01-01

    In humans, impaired recognition memory following lesions thought to be limited to the hippocampal region has been demonstrated for a wide variety of tasks. However, the importance of the human hippocampus for olfactory recognition memory has scarcely been explored. We evaluated the ability of memory-impaired patients with damage thought to be…

  13. AODA Training Experiences of Blindness and Visual Impairment Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S. J.; Koch, D. Shane; McKee, Marissa F.; Nelipovich, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Co-existing alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA) and blindness or visually impairment may complicate the delivery of rehabilitation services. Professionals working with individuals who are blind or visually impaired need to be aware of unique issues facing those with co-existing disabilities. This study sought to examine the AODA training needs,…

  14. Syllabic compression and speech intelligibility in hearing impaired listeners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuure, J.; Dreschler, W. A.; de Haan, E. H.; van Cappellen, M.; Hammerschlag, R.; Maré, M. J.; Maas, A. J.; Hijmans, A. C.

    1993-01-01

    Syllabic compression has not been shown unequivocally to improve speech intelligibility in hearing-impaired listeners. This paper attempts to explain the poor results by introducing the concept of minimum overshoots. The concept was tested with a digital signal processor on hearing-impaired

  15. The Need for Visually Impaired Students Participation in Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the counselling implication of the need for the visually impaired students' participation in science education. Descriptive research design was adopted for the study while a validated structured questionnaire tagged visually impaired students perception of science education (VISPSE) was administered ...

  16. Impairments in Learning Due to Motivational Conflict: Situation Really Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassler, Nina K.; Grund, Axel; Hilckmann, Kristina; Fries, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Although many theories mention distractions by conflicting alternatives as a problem for self-regulation, motivational conflicts are rarely considered when explaining impairments in learning. In two studies, we investigate the assumption of motivational interference theory that students show different amounts of impairments in learning depending…

  17. Development of Object Permanence in Visually Impaired Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, S. J.; Puchalski, C. B.

    1988-01-01

    Development of object permanence skills was examined longitudinally in 20 visually impaired infants (ages 4-25 months). Order of skill acquisition and span of time required to master skills paralleled that of sighted infants, but the visually impaired subjects were 8-12 months older than sighted counterparts when similar skills were acquired.…

  18. Visual impairments and their influence on road safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    Visual perception is an important source of information when driving a car. Visual impairments of drivers will therefore have an effect on performing the driving task. However, the effects on the crash rate are limited. The reason is, among other things, that people with visual impairments often

  19. Exploratory study on the acceptance of the visually impaired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to find out the extent to which students with Mental Retardation, Visual Impairment and Hearing Impairment would accept the idea of mainstreaming programmes in Ghana. In carrying out the study, 90 students were selected randomly from three of the country\\'s special schools. A-15 item ...

  20. Experiences of Students with Visual Impairments in Canadian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Maureen; Curtis, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This article presents a study of the higher education experiences of students with visual impairments in Canada. Methods: Students with visual impairments and the staff members of disability programs were surveyed and interviewed regarding the students' experiences in entering higher education and completing their higher education…