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Sample records for norwegian hospital sector

  1. Productivity growth, case mix and optimal size of hospitals. A 16-year study of the Norwegian hospital sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthun, Kjartan Sarheim; Kittelsen, Sverre Andreas Campbell; Magnussen, Jon

    2017-04-01

    This paper analyses productivity growth in the Norwegian hospital sector over a period of 16 years, 1999-2014. This period was characterized by a large ownership reform with subsequent hospital reorganizations and mergers. We describe how technological change, technical productivity, scale efficiency and the estimated optimal size of hospitals have evolved during this period. Hospital admissions were grouped into diagnosis-related groups using a fixed-grouper logic. Four composite outputs were defined and inputs were measured as operating costs. Productivity and efficiency were estimated with bootstrapped data envelopment analyses. Mean productivity increased by 24.6% points from 1999 to 2014, an average annual change of 1.5%. There was a substantial growth in productivity and hospital size following the ownership reform. After the reform (2003-2014), average annual growth was case mix between hospitals, and thus provides a framework for future studies. The study adds to the discussion on optimal hospital size. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Facts 2010 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  3. Facts 2010 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  4. Facts 2011 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-15

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  5. Facts 2009 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Contents: Foreword; The petroleum sector; Norwegian resource management; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology; Environmental considerations; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  6. Facts 2011 - The Norwegian petroleum sector; Fakta 2011 - norsk petroleumsverksemd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-15

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  7. Facts 2010 - The Norwegian petroleum sector; Fakta 2010 - norsk petroleumsverksemd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  8. Environment 2004. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gooderham, Rolf E. (ed.)

    2004-07-01

    The Ministry of Petroleum and Energy produces an annual environmental review in cooperation with the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. The purpose of this publication is threefold: (1) to increase knowledge about the environmental aspects of Norwegian oil and gas activities, (2) to take a more detailed look at a specific topic which particularly concerns both the industry and the authorities, and identify the challenges and options faced, (3) to emphasise the government's goal of ensuring that Norway reconciles its role as a large energy producer with a pioneering position on environmental issues. This year's edition focuses on the topic of produced water treatment techniques. It demonstrates that new Norwegian technology helps to limit the risk of environmental harm. New treatment techniques have been developed and adopted, but it can be difficult to understand why a specific solution is not applicable to every field. Through the thematic section in part 2, we endeavour to explain why the choice of solution will vary from field to field, and how that reflects such considerations as technical reservoir conditions and costs. The strong focus on the environmental aspects of Norwegian oil and gas production has undoubtedly helped to make the Norwegian petroleum sector a leader in this area. That reflects both the way the authorities have incorporated environmental considerations extensively into the industry's frame conditions, and from the commitment made by the industry itself. Environment 2004 also incorporates a factual section, which covers the status of emissions discharges, environmental impacts, measures to reduce discharges to the sea and emissions to the air from petroleum activities.

  9. Facts 2009 - The Norwegian petroleum sector; Fakta 2009 - norsk petroleumsverksemd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Contents: Foreword; The petroleum sector; Norwegian resource management; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology; Environmental considerations; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  10. Facts 2002. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The petroleum sector is highly significant for the Norwegian economy. Its share of gross domestic product, exports and total government revenues has been substantial over the past two decades, reaching a particularly high level in 2000 and 2001. The principal reason why revenues were so high in these two years is a combination of high oil prices, a strong USD against the NOK and historically high petroleum production. The share of petroleum investment in total capital spending in the Norwegian economy was at its highest in the early 1990s. Total investment in the petroleum sector has been above NOK 40 bn every year since 1992, and peaked in 1998 at roughly NOK 80 bn. Capital spending declined to around NOK 56.9 bn in 2001. The government's most important revenue sources in recent years have been cash flow from the state's direct financial interest (SDFI) and from taxes. Production of crude oil has averaged around three mill barrels per day since 1996. The figure for 2001 was 3.1 mill barrels. Including natural gas liquids (NGL) and condensate raises the 2001 average to 3.4 mill barrels oe per day. At 53 mill scm oe, gas production was also high in 2001. Oil production is expected to remain more or less unchanged over the next few years, and then to go into a gradual decline. Gas output, on the other hand, should expand substantially over the coming decade and is expected to be increasingly significant in Norwegian petroleum output in future. The petroleum sector is also a substantial player internationally. Norway ranks as the world's sixth largest producer and third largest net exporter of oil. It is also the world's third largest exporter of pipeline gas, and Norwegian foreign sales of this commodity accounted for about two per cent of global consumption in 2001. Roughly 10 per cent of west European gas consumption is covered from Norway. Several changes were made to state participation in the petroleum sector during 2001. The government sold 15 per cent of the

  11. Facts 2002. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The petroleum sector is highly significant for the Norwegian economy. Its share of gross (domestic product, exports and total government revenues has been substantial over the past two decades, reaching a particularly high level in 2000 and 2001. The principal reason why revenues were so high in these two years is a combination of high oil prices, a strong USD against the NOK and historically high petroleum production. The share of petroleum investment in total capital spending in the Norwegian economy was at its highest in the early 1990s. Total investment in the petroleum sector has been above NOK 40 bn every year since 1992, and peaked in 1998 at roughly NOK 80 bn. Capital spending declined to around NOK 56.9 bn in 2001. The government's most important revenue sources in recent years have been cash flow from the state's direct financial interest (SDFI) and from taxes. Production of crude oil has averaged around three mill barrels per day since 1996. The figure for 2001 was 3.1 mill barrels. Including natural gas liquids (NGL) and condensate raises the 2001 average to 3.4 mill barrels oe per day. At 53 mill scm oe, gas production was also high in 2001. Oil production is expected to remain more or less unchanged over the next few years, and then to go into a gradual decline. Gas output, on the other hand, should expand substantially over the coming decade and is expected to be increasingly significant in Norwegian petroleum output in future. The petroleum sector is also a substantial player internationally. Norway ranks as the world's sixth largest producer and third largest net exporter of oil. It is also the world's third largest exporter of pipeline gas, and Norwegian foreign sales of this commodity accounted for about two per cent of global consumption in 2001. Roughly 10 per cent of west European gas consumption is covered from Norway. Several changes were made to state participation in the petroleum sector during 2001. The government sold 15 per cent of the

  12. Facts 2002. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The petroleum sector is highly significant for the Norwegian economy. Its share of gross domestic product, exports and total government revenues has been substantial over the past two decades, reaching a particularly high level in 2000 and 2001. The principal reason why revenues were so high in these two years is a combination of high oil prices, a strong USD against the NOK and historically high petroleum production. The share of petroleum investment in total capital spending in the Norwegian economy was at its highest in the early 1990s. Total investment in the petroleum sector has been above NOK 40 bn every year since 1992, and peaked in 1998 at roughly NOK 80 bn. Capital spending declined to around NOK 56.9 bn in 2001. The government's most important revenue sources in recent years have been cash flow from the state's direct financial interest (SDFI) and from taxes. Production of crude oil has averaged around three mill barrels per day since 1996. The figure for 2001 was 3.1 mill barrels. Including natural gas liquids (NGL) and condensate raises the 2001 average to 3.4 mill barrels oe per day. At 53 mill scm oe, gas production was also high in 2001. Oil production is expected to remain more or less unchanged over the next few years, and then to go into a gradual decline. Gas output, on the other hand, should expand substantially over the coming decade and is expected to be increasingly significant in Norwegian petroleum output in future. The petroleum sector is also a substantial player internationally. Norway ranks as the world's sixth largest producer and third largest net exporter of oil. It is also the world's third largest exporter of pipeline gas, and Norwegian foreign sales of this commodity accounted for about two per cent of global consumption in 2001. Roughly 10 per cent of west European gas consumption is covered from Norway. Several changes were made to state participation in the petroleum sector during 2001. The government sold

  13. Environment 2002. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The Ministry of Petroleum and Energy produces an annual environmental review in cooperation with the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. The purpose of this publication is threefold: (1) to increase knowledge about the environmental aspects of Norwegian oil and gas activities, (2) to take a more detailed look at a specific topic which particularly concerns both the industry and the authorities, and identify the challenges and options faced, (3) to emphasise the governments goal of ensuring that Norway reconciles its role as a large energy producer with a pioneering position on environmental issues. This year's edition focuses on the topic of ''oil and fish - common sea''. Both the petroleum and fishing industries depend on the waters off Norway. Ever since petroleum activities began on the Norwegian continental shelf more than 30 years ago, the authorities have been keen to ensure that these two sectors can work in the same sea areas. What challenges and opportunities face the petroleum industry over discharges to the sea and living marine resources? How can the authorities ensure that this sector is able to coexist with the fisheries? These and similar questions about the relationship between the petroleum and fishing industries in their shared seas are covered in section two of this publication. Environment 2002 also incorporates a factual section, which covers the status of emissions/discharges, environmental impacts and measures to reduce discharges to the sea and emissions to the air from petroleum activities. The MPE hopes that a publication of this kind can enhance basic knowledge about petroleum activities and environmental issues.

  14. Environment 2002. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Ministry of Petroleum and Energy produces an annual environmental review in cooperation with the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. The purpose of this publication is threefold: (1) to increase knowledge about the environmental aspects of Norwegian oil and gas activities, (2) to take a more detailed look at a specific topic which particularly concerns both the industry and the authorities, and identify the challenges and options faced, (3) to emphasise the governments goal of ensuring that Norway reconciles its role as a large energy producer with a pioneering position on environmental issues. This year's edition focuses on the topic of ''oil and fish - common sea''. Both the petroleum and fishing industries depend on the waters off Norway. Ever since petroleum activities began on the Norwegian continental shelf more than 30 years ago, the authorities have been keen to ensure that these two sectors can work in the same sea areas. What challenges and opportunities face the petroleum industry over discharges to the sea and living marine resources? How can the authorities ensure that this sector is able to coexist with the fisheries? These and similar questions about the relationship between the petroleum and fishing industries in their shared seas are covered in section two of this publication. Environment 2002 also incorporates a factual section, which covers the status of emissions/discharges, environmental impacts and measures to reduce discharges to the sea and emissions to the air from petroleum activities. The MPE hopes that a publication of this kind can enhance basic knowledge about petroleum activities and environmental issues

  15. Fact 2004. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gooderham, Rolf E [ed.

    2004-07-01

    The oil and gas sector is Norway's largest industry by value creation and has been a key driving force in Norwegian economic development for several decades. Developments in the petroleum industry are crucial for the future progress of Norwegian society and will remain so. While the petroleum sector has so far been characterised by growth, we can now see the beginning of a gradual reduction in the level of activity. This will have significant spin-offs for other industries and consequences for the Norwegian economy as a whole. Thus, it is important to ensure that profitable petroleum activities are pursued in order to moderate the pace of decline. This publication provides a broad picture of Norway's petroleum activities, and covers most aspects of the industry. It presents useful information and statistics on the sector both for those already familiar with this business and for readers who know less about it. Since petroleum production began on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) in 1971, a total of 3.8 bn standard cubic metres of oil equivalent (scm oe) has been produced. This corresponds to just under 30 per cent of the original recoverable reserves, and so substantial oil and gas resources remain. The government's Report no 38 (2001-2002) to the Storting (the Norwegian Parliament) described a long-term scenario for the NCS in which estimates for recoverable reserves from the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate are recovered. It is very important to ensure that the long-term scenario is achieved based on due consideration of environmental and safety issues. Norway's role as a major energy producer must be reconciled with the ambition to be a pioneer in the environmental area. This goal has always characterized government policy towards the petroleum industry. The strong focus on the environment has created a positive trend in safeguarding environmental concerns on the NCS. Production of oil and natural gas liquids averaged 3.3 mill barrels a day in 2003, while gas

  16. Fact 2004. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gooderham, Rolf E. (ed.)

    2004-07-01

    The oil and gas sector is Norway's largest industry by value creation and has been a key driving force in Norwegian economic development for several decades. Developments in the petroleum industry are crucial for the future progress of Norwegian society and will remain so. While the petroleum sector has so far been characterised by growth, we can now see the beginning of a gradual reduction in the level of activity. This will have significant spin-offs for other industries and consequences for the Norwegian economy as a whole. Thus, it is important to ensure that profitable petroleum activities are pursued in order to moderate the pace of decline. This publication provides a broad picture of Norway's petroleum activities, and covers most aspects of the industry. It presents useful information and statistics on the sector both for those already familiar with this business and for readers who know less about it. Since petroleum production began on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) in 1971, a total of 3.8 bn standard cubic metres of oil equivalent (scm oe) has been produced. This corresponds to just under 30 per cent of the original recoverable reserves, and so substantial oil and gas resources remain. The government's Report no 38 (2001-2002) to the Storting (the Norwegian Parliament) described a long-term scenario for the NCS in which estimates for recoverable reserves from the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate are recovered. It is very important to ensure that the long-term scenario is achieved based on due consideration of environmental and safety issues. Norway's role as a major energy producer must be reconciled with the ambition to be a pioneer in the environmental area. This goal has always characterized government policy towards the petroleum industry. The strong focus on the environment has created a positive trend in safeguarding environmental concerns on the NCS. Production of oil and natural gas liquids averaged 3.3 mill barrels a

  17. Danish and Norwegian hospital social workers’ cross-institutional work amidst inter-sectoral restructuring of health and social welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søbjerg Nielsen, Ulla; Harsløf, Ivan; Feiring, Marte

    2017-01-01

    , they report increasing difficulties in ‘making their way through’ the state-municipal bureaucracy. However, by drawing on the formal health knowledge derived from medical settings and the symbolic capital it bestows on them, they often manage to negotiate the work-and-welfare services, thereby transforming......-makers have instituted economic incentives to both individuals and the health and welfare organisations who handle them. Through an institutional logics approach, this paper explores how hospital social workers in these countries are experiencing these changes. The ‘social’ part of post-treatment care...

  18. Facts 2006. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokka, Ane; Midttun, Oeyvind

    2006-01-01

    The petroleum sector is extremely important to Norway. The industry is responsible for one fourth of all value creation in the country and more than one fourth of the state's revenues. It is currently Norway's largest industry, and the spillover effects to other industries are substantial. Norway ranks as the world's third largest exporter of oil and the eighth largest oil producer. Less than one third of the estimated petroleum reserves Norway has have been produced. The level of activity on the Norwegian continental shelf was very high in 2005. The number of producing fields was 50, and these fields produced 3 million barrels of oil (including NGL and condensate) per day and 85 billion standard cubic metres (scm) gas, for a total production saleable petroleum of 257 million scm of oil equivalents. Resource management is conducted through the models of cooperation and competition. Annual licensing rounds are held by the authorities where companies are given access to new exploration areas. The interest in the 19th licensing round in 2005 was considerable, indicating a continuous high interest in the Norwegian continental shelf. The Norwegian Petroleum Directorate estimates for the future a gradual increase in the petroleum production up until 2011, and a gradual fall thereafter. Gas production is expected to increase until 2013. Gas production represents 35 percent of the total production in 2006. It is expected that by 2013 it will represent 50 percent of the total. Other aspects accounted for include government petroleum revenues, environmental considerations, petroleum resources and overviews of fields in production, fields where production has ceased and fields under development

  19. Facts 2000. The Norwegian Petroleum Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-02-01

    Petroleum production on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) in the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea totalled 2.7 bn scm oil equivalents (oe) up to 1998. Per December 1999, remaining reserves totalled 1.5 bn scm of oil, 1.2 bn scm oe gas and 0.2 bn scm oe of NGL/condensate. Twenty-eight exploration wells were completed or temporarily abandoned on the NCS in 1999. By 31 December 1999, 967 exploration wells had been completed or temporarily abandoned off Norway. Discoveries totalled 45-60 mill scm of oil and 45-70 bn scm of gas. Governmental approval was given in 1999 for the Tune, Borg and Sygna developments. Investment in exploration, field development and pipeline transport totalled about NOK 67 bn in 1998. Oil and gas production in 1999 was roughly on the par with 1998, while NGL/condensate sales rose by 19 per cent. The Balder, Gullfaks South, Jotun, Oseberg East, Visund and Aasgard projects came on stream during 1999. It is estimated that, with the present production rate, Norway's remaining discovered oil resources will last for 17 years, and gas, 93 years. The estimated value of Norwegian petroleum export in 1999 was NOK 168 bn, which is about 36% of the country's total earnings from foreign sales. Published by the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy, the book is a major source of information on the Norwegian offshore petroleum activities

  20. Facts 2000. The Norwegian Petroleum Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    Petroleum production on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) in the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea totalled 2.7 bn scm oil equivalents (oe) up to 1998. Per December 1999, remaining reserves totalled 1.5 bn scm of oil, 1.2 bn scm oe gas and 0.2 bn scm oe of NGL/condensate. Twenty-eight exploration wells were completed or temporarily abandoned on the NCS in 1999. By 31 December 1999, 967 exploration wells had been completed or temporarily abandoned off Norway. Discoveries totalled 45-60 mill scm of oil and 45-70 bn scm of gas. Governmental approval was given in 1999 for the Tune, Borg and Sygna developments. Investment in exploration, field development and pipeline transport totalled about NOK 67 bn in 1998. Oil and gas production in 1999 was roughly on the par with 1998, while NGL/condensate sales rose by 19 per cent. The Balder, Gullfaks South, Jotun, Oseberg East, Visund and Aasgard projects came on stream during 1999. It is estimated that, with the present production rate, Norway's remaining discovered oil resources will last for 17 years, and gas, 93 years. The estimated value of Norwegian petroleum export in 1999 was NOK 168 bn, which is about 36% of the country's total earnings from foreign sales. Published by the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy, the book is a major source of information on the Norwegian offshore petroleum activities.

  1. Facts 2000. The Norwegian Petroleum Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    Petroleum production on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) in the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea totalled 2.7 bn scm oil equivalents (oe) up to 1998. Per December 1999, remaining reserves totalled 1.5 bn scm of oil, 1.2 bn scm oe gas and 0.2 bn scm oe of NGL/condensate. Twenty-eight exploration wells were completed or temporarily abandoned on the NCS in 1999. By 31 December 1999, 967 exploration wells had been completed or temporarily abandoned off Norway. Discoveries totalled 45-60 mill scm of oil and 45-70 bn scm of gas. Governmental approval was given in 1999 for the Tune, Borg and Sygna developments. Investment in exploration, field development and pipeline transport totalled about NOK 67 bn in 1998. Oil and gas production in 1999 was roughly on the par with 1998, while NGL/condensate sales rose by 19 per cent. The Balder, Gullfaks South, Jotun, Oseberg East, Visund and Aasgard projects came on stream during 1999. It is estimated that, with the present production rate, Norway's remaining discovered oil resources will last for 17 years, and gas, 93 years. The estimated value of Norwegian petroleum export in 1999 was NOK 168 bn, which is about 36% of the country's total earnings from foreign sales. Published by the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy, the book is a major source of information on the Norwegian offshore petroleum activities.

  2. Facts 2002. The Norwegian petroleum sector; Fakta 2002. Norsk petroleumsvirksomhet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The petroleum sector is highly significant for the Norwegian economy. Its share of gross domestic product, exports and total government revenues has been substantial over the past two decades, reaching a particularly high level in 2000 and 2001. The principal reason why revenues were so high in these two years is a combination of high oil prices, a strong USD against the NOK and historically high petroleum production. The share of petroleum investment in total capital spending in the Norwegian economy was at its highest in the early 1990s. Total investment in the petroleum sector has been above NOK 40 bn every year since 1992, and peaked in 1998 at roughly NOK 80 bn. Capital spending declined to around NOK 56.9 bn in 2001. The government's most important revenue sources in recent years have been cash flow from the state's direct financial interest (SDFI) and from taxes. Production of crude oil has averaged around three mill barrels per day since 1996. The figure for 2001 was 3.1 mill barrels. Including natural gas liquids (NGL) and condensate raises the 2001 average to 3.4 mill barrels oe per day. At 53 mill scm oe, gas production was also high in 2001. Oil production is expected to remain more or less unchanged over the next few years, and then to go into a gradual decline. Gas output, on the other hand, should expand substantially over the coming decade and is expected to be increasingly significant in Norwegian petroleum output in future. The petroleum sector is also a substantial player internationally. Norway ranks as the world's sixth largest producer and third largest net exporter of oil. It is also the world's third largest exporter of pipeline gas, and Norwegian foreign sales of this commodity accounted for about two per cent of global consumption in 2001. Roughly 10 per cent of west European gas consumption is covered from Norway. Several changes were made to state participation in the petroleum sector during 2001. The government sold

  3. The energy sector abroad. Part 5. Norwegian energy sector large exporter of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gelder, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    Some facts about the Norwegian natural gas and oil industry are presented. In 1995 the industries took 12.5% of GNP and no less than 47.6% of export revenues. The use of natural gas in Norway is low. In 1996 Norway exported 37.9 billion m 3 of natural gas. It is planned to double that volume within the next 10 years. Therefore, a strategic alliance between two major foreign competitors (Gasunie in the Netherlands and Gazprom in the Russian Federation) was not met with enthusiasm. The three most important companies in the Norwegian oil and gas industry are Statoil, Norsk Hydro, and Saga Petroleum. Overall turnover of the sector in 1994 was 40.6 billion Dutch guilders. Some 17,500 people are directly employed by the sector. 5 ills., 5 tabs

  4. Climate cure 2020 measures and instruments to achieve Norwegian climate goals by 2020. Chapter 10 - the transport sector analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-15

    This document is a translation of Chapter 10, Sector analysis of transport, in the Norwegian report Climate Cure 2020, Measures and Instruments for Achieving Norwegian Climate Goals by 2020. The sector analysis has been prepared by an inter agency working group, conducted by the Norwegian Public Road Administration. (Author)

  5. Use of complementary and alternative medicine within Norwegian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, R; Fønnebø, V M; Foss, N; Kristoffersen, A E

    2015-08-13

    Over the recent decades complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use within and outside of the public health care system in Norway has increased. The aim of this study is to describe to what extent CAM is offered in Norwegian hospitals in 2013 and investigate possible changes since 2008. In January 2013 a one-page questionnaire was sent to the medical director of all included hospitals (n = 80). He/she was asked to report whether or not one or more specific CAM therapies were offered in the hospital. Fifty-nine (73.8%) hospitals responded and form the basis for the analyses. CAM was offered in 64.4% of the responding hospitals. No major differences were found between public and private, or between somatic and psychiatric, hospitals. Acupuncture was the most frequent CAM method offered, followed by art- and expression therapy and massage. The proportion of hospitals offering CAM has increased from 50.5% in 2008 to 64.4% in 2013 (p = 0.089). The largest increase was found in psychiatric hospitals where 76.5% of hospitals offered CAM in 2013 compared to 28.6% in 2008 (p = 0.003). A small decrease was found in the proportion of hospitals offering acupuncture between 2008 (41.4%) and 2013 (37.3%). A majority of Norwegian hospitals offer some sort of CAM. The largest increase since 2008 was found in psychiatric hospitals. Psychiatric hospitals seem to have established a practice of offering CAM to their patients similar to the practice in somatic hospitals. This could indicate a shift in the attitude with regard to CAM in psychiatric hospitals.

  6. Norwegian supply of goods and services to the British offshore sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heide, M.; Noedland, S.I.

    1991-02-01

    Representatives from ten Norwegian companies in the offshore supplies industry were interviewed to explore the opportunities and barriers they had experienced in their effort to enter the British offshore sector. The interviews revealed that there are mainly four reasons why British sector is regarded as a favorable market: British sector is a natural homemarket, buyers operate both on the British and the Norwegian sector, the British sector can be a ''door-opener'' to the rest of the English speaking world, and finally the British sector is a market of considerable size. The companies had mainly encountered three types of barriers: British culture/communication problems, heavy competition from British suppliers, and protectionism. The report is concluded by summarizing what we believe are the critical success factors for entering the British sector. Directions for further research are also given

  7. Use of complementary and alternative medicine within Norwegian hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobsen, Renate; Fønnebø, Vinjar; Foss, Nina; Kristoffersen, Agnete Egilsdatter

    2015-01-01

    Background: Over the recent decades complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use within and outside of the public health care system in Norway has increased. The aim of this study is to describe to what extent CAM is offered in Norwegian hospitals in 2013 and investigate possible changes since 2008. Methods: In January 2013 a one-page questionnaire was sent to the medical director of all included hospitals (n = 80). He/she was asked to report whether or not one or more specifi...

  8. AUDIT FEE DETERMINANTS IN THE HOSPITAL SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderbeke Dave; Christiaens Johan; Verbruggen Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Although the number of non-profit audit fee studies recently has risen, evidence in the hospital sector is rather scarce. Apart from NHS studies, hospitals are a fairly new topic and several specific fee determinants are yet to be tested. For instance, hospitals can have a private or a public status and they have a distinct number of clinical services. These and other dependent variables known from earlier research are added to a fee model and investigated. As hypothesized the hospital status...

  9. Exporting the 'Norwegian Model': The effect of administrative design on oil sector performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurber, Mark C.; Hults, David R.; Heller, Patrick R.P.

    2011-01-01

    Norway has administered its petroleum resources using three distinct government bodies: a national oil company engaged in commercial hydrocarbon operations; a government ministry to direct policy; and a regulatory body to provide oversight and technical expertise. Norway's relative success in managing its hydrocarbons has prompted development institutions to consider whether this 'Norwegian Model' of separated government functions should be recommended to other oil-producing countries. By studying ten countries that have used widely different approaches in administering their hydrocarbon sectors, we conclude that separation of functions is not a prerequisite to successful oil sector development. Countries where separation of functions has worked are characterized by the combination of high institutional capacity and robust political competition. Unchallenged leaders often appear able to adequately discharge commercial and policy/regulatory functions using the same entity, although this approach may not be robust against political changes. Where institutional capacity is lacking, better outcomes may result from consolidating commercial, policy, and regulatory functions until such capacity has further developed. Countries with vibrant political competition but limited institutional capacity pose the most significant challenge for oil sector reform: Unitary control over the sector is impossible but separation of functions is often difficult to implement. - Highlights: → The 'Norwegian Model' separates commercial, policy, and regulatory functions in oil. → We study ten oil-producing countries to assess the separation of functions model. → The model is useful where there is institutional capacity and political competition. → Consolidation of functions can work better when political power is concentrated. → Countries with low capacity may also be better off consolidating functions.

  10. Hospital sector: further trends in privatization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Terkel

    2009-01-01

    Due to a strike among nurses in the spring of 2008, the existing waiting time guarantee of one month was suspended until June 1, 2009. Regions turned to private hospitals to assist reducing the hump of patients. It has been claimed that the private sector used to be favorably treated by the Liber...

  11. [Health, hospitality sector and tobacco industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella Pons, Francesc; Córdoba Garcia, Rodrigo; Suárez Bonel, Maria Pilar

    2012-11-01

    To present the strategies used by the tobacco industry to meet government regulatory measures of its products. To demonstrate the relationship between tobacco industry and the hospitality sector. Note that the arguments and strategies used routinely by the hospitality industry have been previously provided by the tobacco industry. Location of key documents by meta-search, links to declassified documents, specific websites of the tobacco and hospitality industry, news sources and published articles in health journals. This review reveals the close relationship between tobacco industry and hospitality sector. It highlights the strategies carried out by the tobacco industry, including strategic hoarding of information, public relations, lobbying, consultation program, smoker defence groups, building partnerships, intimidation and patronage. The arguments and strategies used by the hospitality industry to match point by point that used by the tobacco industry. These arguments are refutable from the point of view of public health as it is scientifically proven that totally smoke-free environments are the only way to protect non-smokers from tobacco smoke exposure and its harmful effects on health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of complementary and alternative medicine at Norwegian and Danish hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies have found that a high proportion of the population in western countries use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). However, little is known about whether CAM is offered in hospitals. The aim of this study was to describe to what extent CAM is offered in Norwegian and Danish hospitals and investigate possible changes in Norway since 2001. Methods A one-page questionnaire was sent to all included hospitals in both countries. The questionnaire was sent to the person responsible for the clinical activity, typically the medical director. 99 hospitals in the authority (85%) in Norway and 126 in Denmark (97%) responded. Given contact persons were interviewed. Results CAM is presently offered in about 50% of Norwegian hospitals and one-third of Danish hospitals. In Norway CAM was offered in 50 hospitals, 40 of which involved acupuncture. 19 hospitals gave other alternative therapies like biofeedback, hypnosis, cupping, ear-acupuncture, herbal medicine, art therapy, homeopathy, reflexology, thought field therapy, gestalt therapy, aromatherapy, tai chi, acupressure, yoga, pilates and other. 9 hospitals offered more than one therapy form. In Denmark 38 hospitals offered acupuncture and one Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Light Therapy. The most commonly reported reason for offering CAM was scientific evidence in Denmark. In Norway it was the interest of a hospital employee, except for acupuncture where the introduction is more often initiated by the leadership and is more based on scientific evidence of effect. All persons (except one) responsible for the alternative treatment had a medical or allied health professional background and their education/training in CAM treatment varied substantially. Conclusions The extent of CAM being offered has increased substantially in Norway during the first decade of the 21st century. This might indicate a shift in attitude regarding CAM within the conventional health care system. PMID

  13. Use of complementary and alternative medicine at Norwegian and Danish hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Launsø Laila

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have found that a high proportion of the population in western countries use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. However, little is known about whether CAM is offered in hospitals. The aim of this study was to describe to what extent CAM is offered in Norwegian and Danish hospitals and investigate possible changes in Norway since 2001. Methods A one-page questionnaire was sent to all included hospitals in both countries. The questionnaire was sent to the person responsible for the clinical activity, typically the medical director. 99 hospitals in the authority (85% in Norway and 126 in Denmark (97% responded. Given contact persons were interviewed. Results CAM is presently offered in about 50% of Norwegian hospitals and one-third of Danish hospitals. In Norway CAM was offered in 50 hospitals, 40 of which involved acupuncture. 19 hospitals gave other alternative therapies like biofeedback, hypnosis, cupping, ear-acupuncture, herbal medicine, art therapy, homeopathy, reflexology, thought field therapy, gestalt therapy, aromatherapy, tai chi, acupressure, yoga, pilates and other. 9 hospitals offered more than one therapy form. In Denmark 38 hospitals offered acupuncture and one Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Light Therapy. The most commonly reported reason for offering CAM was scientific evidence in Denmark. In Norway it was the interest of a hospital employee, except for acupuncture where the introduction is more often initiated by the leadership and is more based on scientific evidence of effect. All persons (except one responsible for the alternative treatment had a medical or allied health professional background and their education/training in CAM treatment varied substantially. Conclusions The extent of CAM being offered has increased substantially in Norway during the first decade of the 21st century. This might indicate a shift in attitude regarding CAM within the conventional

  14. New Technologies to Assist Training in Hospitality Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Sabah

    2007-01-01

    Hospitality sector needs new technological training tools, which can assist to improve sector employees' skills and services quality. The sector might be more interactive when these technological training tools used on the job-training program. This study addresses to issue of illumination of new technologic tools that enforce training in which…

  15. UV-treatment in dermatology. Equipment and methods in Norwegian university hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, T.; Johnsen, B.; Johnsson, M.; Nordal, E.; Thune, P.; Kjeldstad, B.; Reitan, J.B.

    1994-12-01

    The use of phototherapy and the phototherapy-equipment were studied in five Norwegian university hospitals. The indications and the methods used were relatively similar, as well as the equipment used for dosimetry. The spectra and irradiance from the phototherapy lamps were measured and the variations in these parameters were evaluated. It is discussed whether there is a need for closer control and standardization of these parameters. The UVA-irradiance that could be experienced by the persons employed in the departments was found to be lower than the recommended limits. 12 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs

  16. [Salary and clinical productivity among physicians in Norwegian somatic hospitals 2001-2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Karl-Arne

    2010-09-23

    Analysis of the future need for medical doctors necessitates an assessment of their productivity. The goals of this study were to analyze the relation between doctors' work force and the increased activity in hospitals, and to describe the development of working hours and salary for hospital doctors in a gender perspective. Information about man-labour years, working time and salary for doctors in Norwegian somatic hospitals was retrieved for the period 2001-2008. Number of hospital stays, DRG points and outpatient consultations per man-labour year are used as measures of doctors' clinical productivity. The percentage of female doctors increased from 34.7 % to 42.2 %. The mean annual salary increased more for men (14.4 % higher in 2001 and 16.6 % higher in 2008) than women. Total salary costs for doctors increased by 69.9 % (from 3.66 bill to 6.22 bill. NOK); 42.6 % of this increase was generated by new positions (1 306 man-labour years, + 21.2 %). Labour years from extended working hours increased by 6.8 % (constituting 1043 labour years in 2008; 12.2 % of the total), but the average extended labour time per doctor decreased (-16.7 % for women and -9.6 % for men). The number of hospital stays increased by 13.2 %, DRG points increased by 12.4 % and outpatient consultations increased by 9.3 % per doctor's work year in the period 2001-2008. Higher salaries for men may be explained by age, more men in senior positions and longer working hours than for women. The productivity of Norwegian doctors still increased from 2001 to 2008 (taking into account the increase in salary).

  17. Exporting the 'Norwegian Model': The effect of administrative design on oil sector performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurber, Mark C., E-mail: mark.thurber@stanford.edu [Program on Energy and Sustainable Development, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Hults, David R. [Program on Energy and Sustainable Development, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Heller, Patrick R.P. [Revenue Watch Institute, New York, NY 10019 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Norway has administered its petroleum resources using three distinct government bodies: a national oil company engaged in commercial hydrocarbon operations; a government ministry to direct policy; and a regulatory body to provide oversight and technical expertise. Norway's relative success in managing its hydrocarbons has prompted development institutions to consider whether this 'Norwegian Model' of separated government functions should be recommended to other oil-producing countries. By studying ten countries that have used widely different approaches in administering their hydrocarbon sectors, we conclude that separation of functions is not a prerequisite to successful oil sector development. Countries where separation of functions has worked are characterized by the combination of high institutional capacity and robust political competition. Unchallenged leaders often appear able to adequately discharge commercial and policy/regulatory functions using the same entity, although this approach may not be robust against political changes. Where institutional capacity is lacking, better outcomes may result from consolidating commercial, policy, and regulatory functions until such capacity has further developed. Countries with vibrant political competition but limited institutional capacity pose the most significant challenge for oil sector reform: Unitary control over the sector is impossible but separation of functions is often difficult to implement. - Highlights: > The 'Norwegian Model' separates commercial, policy, and regulatory functions in oil. > We study ten oil-producing countries to assess the separation of functions model. > The model is useful where there is institutional capacity and political competition. > Consolidation of functions can work better when political power is concentrated. > Countries with low capacity may also be better off consolidating functions.

  18. Practices regarding hospital waste management at public and private sector hospitals of Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, S.; Din, N.U.; Mohsin, J.

    2011-01-01

    Health care (Biomedical) waste is a term used for all waste arising from health care establishments. In most of health care centers of Pakistan, including Lahore, hospital wastes are simply mixed with the municipal waste in collecting bins at road-sides and disposed off similarly. Proper Management of biomedical waste, especially the hazardous one, being produced in hospital settings is important in terms of their ability to cause harm to the related per-sons and the environment as well. To Observe and compare the practices regarding Hospital Waste management of the public sector hospital with private sector hospital. Descriptive, Cross sectional. Methodology: Standardized checklist was used to assess the practices of nursing and sanitary staff. Practices regarding waste segregation were same at both hospitals. While practices regarding waste collection and transportation were better at The Children's Hospital. Public sector hospital has, paradoxically, better practices regarding hospital waste management in comparison to private sector hospital. (author)

  19. Major hazard risk indicators for monitoring of trends in the Norwegian offshore petroleum sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinnem, Jan Erik; Aven, Terje; Husebo, Torleif; Seljelid, Jorunn; Tveit, Odd J.

    2006-01-01

    The Petroleum Safety Authority Norway (PSA, formerly Norwegian Petroleum Directorate) took in 1999 the initiative to develop a method in order to assess trends and status for the risk levels in the Norwegian offshore petroleum industry. A method was developed, and a pilot study report was issued in April 2001, covering the period 1996-2000. Annual updates have been performed since then, and the latest report covers the period 1996-2004. The statistical approach is based on recording occurrence of near misses and relevant incidents, performance of barriers and results from risk assessments. Of similar importance is an evaluation of safety culture, motivation, communication and perceived risk. This is covered through the use of social science methods, such as questionnaire surveys and a number of interviews, audit and inspection reports as well as accident and incident investigations. There are also indicators for occupational accidents and occupational illness/-physical working environment factors. The focus is on the major hazard risk components for personnel staying on the offshore installations. An overview of the indicators used to illustrate these risk aspects is presented, followed by a discussion of the analytical approach used for these indicators. Results from the risk assessment for the Norwegian Continental Shelf in the period 1996-2004 are used throughout for illustration, and discussion of challenges

  20. Coping styles relate to health and work environment of Norwegian and Dutch hospital nurses : A comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, Jolanda A. H.; Roelen, Corne A. M.; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Mageroy, Nils; Pallesen, Stale; Bjorvatn, Bjorn; Moen, Bente E.

    2012-01-01

    Nurses exposed to high nursing stress report no health complaints as long as they have high coping abilities. The purpose of this study was to investigate coping styles in relation to the health status and work environment of Norwegian and Dutch hospital nurses. This comparative study included a

  1. Cost of capital to the hospital sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, F A; Valvona, J; Hassan, M; Morrisey, M A

    1988-03-01

    This paper provides estimates of the cost of equity and debt capital to for-profit and non-profit hospitals in the U.S. for the years 1972-83. The cost of equity is estimated using, alternatively, the Capital Asset Pricing Model and Arbitrage Pricing Theory. We find that the cost of equity capital, using either model, substantially exceeded anticipated inflation. The cost of debt capital was much lower. Accounting for the corporate tax shield on debt and capital paybacks by cost-based insurers lowered the net cost of capital to hospitals.

  2. Corporate Social Responsibility in the Hospitality Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Singal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With its large footprint in terms of employment and consumption of natural resources, the hospitality is often at the forefront of social responsibility practices. From environmental to social causes, brands must make sure that their corporate social responsibility practices are both genuine and align with business strategy.

  3. How do Restructuring Processes Influence Low- and Unskilled Immigrant and Nonimmigrant Workers and their Managers in a Norwegian Hospital?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Enehaug

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a well-known fact that workplace restructuring has undesirable effects on the psychosocial work environment, health, and sick leave, but no attention has been given to the health effects of work environments characterized by restructuring, a multicultural staff, and a strong socioeconomic occupational hierarchy. In this casestudy, we examine a large Norwegian hospital in which all of these features are present. Through in-depth interviews with employees and their managers we investigate the healthiness of the restructuring process, and the consequences of the restructuring process on the work environment, subjective health, and sick leave. Results show that immigrant workers received less information, had higher level of frustration and less control over work, and experienced a decrease in well-being, autonomy, and social support. Immigrant worker vulnerability, that is, the handicap of poor understanding of the Norwegian language and a lack of understanding of general and local organizational norms and practices in the Norwegian workplace, is an important explanation. Immigrant workers with a poor Norwegian language understanding are even worse off. We conclude that a strong occupational hierarchy within the hospital exerts an overall influence on the position of low/unskilled employees in the restructuring process as well as their perception of and involvement in it.

  4. Emotional cues and concerns in hospital encounters with non-Western immigrants as compared with Norwegians: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Emine; Finset, Arnstein; Eikeland, Hanne-Lise; Gulbrandsen, Pål

    2011-09-01

    To identify potential barriers in communication with non-Western immigrant patients by comparing the frequency and nature of emotional cues and concerns, as well as physician responses during consultations, between ethnically Norwegian patients and immigrant patients in a general hospital setting. Consultations with 56 patients (30 non-Western immigrants and 26 ethnic Norwegians) were coded using the Verona Coding Definitions of Emotional Sequences (VR-CoDES) and the Verona Codes for Provider Responses (Verona Codes-P). There were no significant differences in frequencies of cues and concerns between immigrant and Norwegian patients. However, the immigrant patients with high language proficiency expressed more concerns compared to immigrant patients with language problems and Norwegian patients. Moreover, more concerns were expressed during consultations with female physicians than with male physicians. Expression of cues and concerns in immigrant patients is dependent on the patient's language proficiency and the physician's gender. Providers should recognize that immigrant patients may have many emotional cues and concerns, but that language problems may represent a barrier for the expression of these concerns. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Returns and solvency in the Norwegian district heating sector 2010; Avkastning og soliditet i fjernvarmebransjen 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    On behalf of Enova Pareto conducted an analysis of returns and solvency in the district heating sector for fiscal years 2009 and 2010. The analysis focuses on a representative sample of the largest district heating companies in Norway. A total of 26 companies have been analyzed. These companies provide a total of ~ 80% of the district heating in Norway. (eb)

  6. Hazardous drinkers in Norwegian hospitals – a cross-sectional study of prevalence and drinking patterns among somatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Oppedal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: High alcohol intake has been associated with increased risk of hospital admission, increased complication rates, and prolonged hospital stay. Thus, hospital admission may present a relevant opportunity for alcohol intervention. To understand the potential of alcohol interventions we need knowledge about patients’ drinking patterns. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the drinking patterns in a Norwegian hospital population.Methods: A multicentre cross-sectional survey was carried out at three university hospitals. Patients were asked about alcohol intake one month prior to admission/outpatient treatment. The questionnaire included weekly alcohol intake calculated by frequency X quantity as well as episodes of binge drinking (drinking more than 5 AU during a single day. AUDIT-C was used to determine the frequency of patients having a hazardous drinking pattern during the 12 months prior to hospital treatment.Results: In total we assessed 2,932 patients for eligibility. A total of 2,350 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. We included 1,522 patients (65% in the analyses. Six percent of the women and 11% of the men reported drinking more than the weekly limits of nine alcohol units (AU for women and 14 AU for men. Fourteen percent of the women and 29% of the men reported binge drinking during the last month. The frequency of women scoring more or equal to 4 points on AUDIT-C was 20%. The frequency of men scoring more or equal to 5 points was 25%.Conclusion: Hazardous drinking among Norwegian hospital patients may be more prevalent than what has been reported for the Norwegian population in general. Binge drinking is the dominant drinking pattern.

  7. The Social Construction of Skills: A Hospitality Sector Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Tom

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the nature of skills in service work with specific reference to international tourism and its hospitality subsector. It explores the role of experiential factors (cultural, emotional and aesthetic) in equipping those entering work in the sector. The specific context of work in less developed countries and within migrant labour…

  8. Analysis of hospital logistics and costs of the Clinical Engineering Sector in a Philanthropic Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Artur de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hospitals are considered complex organizations mainly due to the high cost of the health care structure employed for care. Reducing operating costs is a challenge for hospital managers. Particularly in the clinical engineering sector, adequate hospital logistics can reduce costs. In this context, the aim of the research was to analyze the activities of hospital logistics of the Clinical Engineering department at a charity hospital, focusing on cost reduction. The paper presents a case study in a large charity hospital located in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, MG. The analysis focuses on the activities of hospital logistics at this hospital clinical engineering sector. The work in this sector is concentrated in the realization and implementation of equipment maintenance, to the detriment of efforts to reduce costs and increase safety for all streams managed by the sector. It was also found that there are risks of increased costs with inadequate routines: (i acquisition of new and large equipment; (ii maintenance and release schedule for use; and (iii the theft of equipment.

  9. Downsizing in the public sector: Metro-Toronto's hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Douglas H

    2003-01-01

    This study has two objectives. First, to predict the outcomes of a public sector downsizing; second to measure effects of downsizing at organizational and inter-organizational levels. Primary data to assess the organizational level effects was collected through interviews with senior executives at two of Metro-Toronto's hospitals. Secondary data, to assess the inter-organizational effects, was collected from government documents and media reports. Due to the exploratory nature of the study's objectives a case study method was employed. Most institutional downsizing practices aligned with successful outcomes. Procedures involved at the inter-organizational level aligned with unsuccessful outcomes and negated organizational initiatives. This resulted in an overall alignment with unsuccessful procedures. The implication, based on private sector downsizings, is that the post-downsized hospital system was more costly and less effective.

  10. Determinant Factors of Green Marketing Adoption in the Hospitality Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Vlad, Liviu B.; Vasile, Dragos C.; Macovei, Octav-Ionut; Tuclea, Claudia E.

    2016-01-01

    Green marketing is falling into the category of answers provided by the business world to the requirement to combine the economic development with the preservation of natural resources which represents a pressing concern of the modern times. In this context, the hospitality sector is facing as well an increasing pressure to pay attention to environmental issues, hotel organizations are increasingly tending to use environmentally friendly products and services, and to implement programs to man...

  11. FinTech in Norway : the effect of FinTech on the traditional Norwegian banking sector

    OpenAIRE

    Omreng, Stian; Gjendem, Ida

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the effect of FinTech on the Norwegian banking industry. We investigate the drivers of FinTech, the current and potential Norwegian FinTech market, and the international competitiveness of the Norwegian FinTech movement. We identify nine segments of FinTech within the traditional banking functions Financing, Asset management, Payments and Authentication, and we find the key drivers behind the rapid growth of the FinTech market as cha...

  12. Determinant Factors of Green Marketing Adoption in the Hospitality Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu B. Vlad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Green marketing is falling into the category of answers provided by the business world to the requirement to combine the economic development with the preservation of natural resources which represents a pressing concern of the modern times. In this context, the hospitality sector is facing as well an increasing pressure to pay attention to environmental issues, hotel organizations are increasingly tending to use environmentally friendly products and services, and to implement programs to manage energy and water consumption and waste. The adoption of green marketing in hospitality industry is significantly facilitated by internal and external factors. The paper focuses on the analysis of determinant internal factors: first and foremost on the pro-environmental behavior of the hotel managers and employees, and also on the already implemented green practices in the daily hotel activity. The implementation of green marketing strategies further examined being taken into account the organizational change theory, discloses a third determinant factor, namely, to what extent the process of changing is prepared. This paper is advancing an integrated model of determinant internal factors of green marketing implementation in the hospitality sector. The proposed research model has been tested and validated after analyzing the data collected in a quantitative research conducted on 330 managers and employees from the hospitality industry in Romania. The results show that the three predictors - pro-environmental behavior, current green practices and the change readiness - are having a significant influence on the implementation of green marketing.

  13. Pre-hospital intubation by anaesthesiologists in patients with severe trauma: an audit of a Norwegian helicopter emergency medical service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lossius Hans

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaesthesiologists are airway management experts, which is one of the reasons why they serve as pre-hospital emergency physicians in many countries. However, limited data are available on the actual quality and safety of anaesthesiologist-managed pre-hospital endotracheal intubation (ETI. To explore whether the general indications for ETI are followed and what complications are recorded, we analysed the use of pre-hospital ETI in severely traumatised patients treated by anaesthesiologists in a Norwegian helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS. Methods A retrospective audit of prospectively registered data concerning patients with trauma as the primary diagnosis and a National Committee on Aeronautics score of 4 - 7 during the period of 1994-2005 from a mixed rural/urban Norwegian HEMS was performed. Results Among the 1255 cases identified, 238 successful pre-hospital ETIs out of 240 attempts were recorded (99.2% success rate. Furthermore, we identified 47 patients for whom ETI was performed immediately upon arrival to the emergency department (ED. This group represented 16% of all intubated patients. Of the ETIs performed in the ED, 43 patients had an initial Glasgow Coma Score (GCS Conclusions We found a very high success rate of pre-hospital ETI and few recorded complications in the studied anaesthesiologist-manned HEMS. However, a substantial number of trauma patients were intubated first on arrival in the ED. This delay may represent a quality problem. Therefore, we believe that more studies are needed to clarify the reasons for and possible clinical consequences of the delayed ETIs.

  14. Assessment of Future Skills Requirements in the Hospitality Sector in Ireland, 2015-2020

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The hospitality sector is one of the most important employment services sectors in the Irish economy, and there is significant potential for future expansion. The objective of this study is to assess the skills demand needs arising within the Hospitality sector in Ireland – hotels, restaurants, bars, canteens and catering – over the period to 2020. The aim is to ensure that there will be the right supply of skills to help drive domestic hospitality sector business and employment growth.

  15. Concentration in the Greek private hospital sector: a descriptive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutsioli, Zoe

    2007-07-01

    Over the last 20 years, governments all around the world have attempted to boost the role of market and competition in health care industries in order to increase efficiency and reduce costs. The increased competition and the significant implications on costs and prices of health care services resulted in health care industries being transformed. Large firms are merging and acquiring other firms. If this trend continues, few firms will dominate the health care markets. In this study, I use the simple concentration ratio (CR) for the largest 4, 8 and 20 companies to measure the concentration of Greek private hospitals during the period 1997-2004. Also, the Gini coefficient for inequality is used. For the two different categories of hospitals used (a) general and neuropsychiatric and (b) obstetric/gynaecological it is evident that the top four firms of the first category accounted for 43% of sales in 1997, and 52% in 2004, while the four largest firms of the second category accounted for almost 83% in 1997, and 81% in 2004. Also, the Gini coefficient increases over the 8-year period examined from 0.69 in 1997 to 0.82 in 2004. It explains that the market of the private health care services becomes less equal in the sense that fewer private hospitals and clinics hold more and more of the share of the total sales. From a cross-industry analysis it is clear that the private hospital sector has the highest concentration rate. Finally, it appears that the market structure of the private hospitals in Greece resembles more closely to an oligopoly rather than a monopolistic competition, since very few firms dominate the market.

  16. Newborn screening for congenital hypothyroidism in a public sector hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafoor, F.; Mohsin, S.N.; Mukhtar, S.; Hussain, W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Congenital hypothyroidism if left untreated results in growth failure, irreversible mental retardation, and cretinism. National neonatal screening programs are therefore, launched to diagnose congenital hypothyroidism and manage it timely. Objectives: To screen new borns for congenital hypothyroidism in two public sector hospitals of Lahore. Study type, settings and duration:Cross sectional descriptive study conducted at departments of Gynae/Obs and Pediatric Shaikh Zayed Hospital and Jinnah Hospital, Lahore from February 2010 to November 2011. Subjects and Methods: Awareness brochures for congenital hypothyroidism were developed and attached with the antenatal card of each pregnant case attending antenatal clinic at Gynae/Obs OPD. Newborns who had stayed in hospital for more than 24 hour, and whose parents consented for heal prick were tested for blood spot thyroid-stimulating hormone. Results were reported within four days and thyroid-stimulating hormone >= 20mIU/L was taken as high value. Parents of those neonates who had high value were contacted to give a fresh sample for confirmation. Confirmed results were provided within next 4-5 days to the parents and treating pediatrician for appropriate treatment. Results: A total of 1357 samples were screened using blood spot thyroid-stimulating hormone and out of these 1330 were normal ( =20mIU/L). These 27 neonates were further tested using confirmatory tests For serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, T3 and T4. After confirmatory tests only one case had congenital hypothyroidism who was referred for treatment. Three cases were suspected to have subclinical hypothyroidism and these were retested after six months which, picked another case of confirmed subclinical hypothyroidism who was referred for treatment. The incidence of congenital hypothyroidism was 2 out of 1357 cases. Conclusion: The screening could pick 2 cases of hypothyroidism from a total of 1357 cases which is high when compared to global rates

  17. The goal of the Norwegian educational institutions and the needs of the oil sector; Utdanningsinstitusjonenes maal og oljebransjens behov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loevland, Joergen

    1998-07-01

    This presentation discusses the following items: (1) The present structure of the Norwegian educational system as relevant to the petroleum industry, (2) The goal of that education, (3) Studies at the technical university in Trondheim, (4) The form of the teaching and reaching the goal, (5) Teaching methods and resources, (6) Evaluation of the studies, (7) How to meet the needs of the industry, (8) Post-qualifying education.

  18. The prevalence, prevention and multilevel variance of pressure ulcers in Norwegian hospitals: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredesen, Ida Marie; Bjøro, Karen; Gunningberg, Lena; Hofoss, Dag

    2015-01-01

    Pressure ulcers are preventable adverse events. Organizational differences may influence the quality of prevention across wards and hospitals. To investigate the prevalence of pressure ulcers, patient-related risk factors, the use of preventive measures and how much of the pressure ulcer variance is at patient, ward and hospital level. A cross-sectional study. Six of the 11 invited hospitals in South-Eastern Norway agreed to participate. Inpatients ≥18 years at 88 somatic hospital wards (N=1209). Patients in paediatric and maternity wards and day surgery patients were excluded. The methodology for pressure ulcer prevalence studies developed by the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel was used, including demographic data, the Braden scale, skin assessment, the location and severity of pressure ulcers and preventive measures. Multilevel analysis was used to investigate variance across hierarchical levels. The prevalence was 18.2% for pressure ulcer category I-IV, 7.2% when category I was excluded. Among patients at risk of pressure ulcers, 44.3% had pressure redistributing support surfaces in bed and only 22.3% received planned repositioning in bed. Multilevel analysis showed that although the dominant part of the variance in the occurrence of pressure ulcers was at patient level there was also a significant amount of variance at ward level. There was, however, no significant variance at hospital level. Pressure ulcer prevalence in this Norwegian sample is similar to comparable European studies. At-risk patients were less likely to receive preventive measures than patients in earlier studies. There was significant variance in the occurrence of pressure ulcers at ward level but not at hospital level, indicating that although interventions for improvement are basically patient related, improvement of procedures and organization at ward level may also be important. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Uncomfortable realities: the challenge of creating real change in Europe's consolidating hospital sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, P.P.; Duran, A.; Saltman, R.B.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This article examines uncomfortable realities that the European hospital sector currently faces and the potential impact of wide-spread rationalization policies such as (hospital) payment reform and privatization. METHODS: Review of relevant international literature. RESULTS: Based on

  20. Experience with the use of copper alloys in seawater systems in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, Roy [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2004-07-01

    Offshore oil and gas has been produced on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) for nearly 30 years. Seawater has been used extensively as cooling medium and firewater. Copper alloys have been an alternative material both for piping and equipment like pumps, valves, heat exchangers and screens. In this presentation the experience from the use from different oil companies will be presented. The paper will also contain a discussion about the future for copper alloys in seawater systems. This part will be based on input and discussions with senior corrosion specialists in oil companies. (authors)

  1. Outsourcing: two case studies from the Victorian public hospital sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Suzanne

    2007-02-01

    Outsourcing was one process of privatisation used in the Victorian public health sector in the 1990s. However it was used to varying degrees and across a variety of different services. This paper attempts to answer the questions: Why have managers outsourced? What have managers considered when they have decided to outsource? The research was carried out in a rural hospital and a metropolitan network in Victoria. The key findings highlight the factors that decision makers considered to be important and those that led to negative outcomes. Economic factors, such as frequency of exchange, length of relationships between the parties, and information availability, were often ignored. However, other factors such as outcome measurability, technology, risk, labour market characteristics and goal conflict, and political factors such as relative power of management over labour were often perceived as important in the decision-making process. Negative outcomes from outsourcing were due to the short length of relationships and accompanying difficulties with trust, commitment and loyalty; poor quality; and excessive monitoring and the measurement of outcomes.

  2. Strategic Brand Management in Hospitality Sector: How to Manage Co-branding in Hotels and Restaurants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhet Genc

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Companies in the hospitality sector (hotels, restaurants etc. aim to distinguish their brandimage and differentiate their product or service among the competitors by adopting particular brandstrategies since identifying a target customer base and understanding their needs and preferences areof primary significance for hospitality firms. The achievement of a distinguished designationnecessitates utilizing research based and strategic branding techniques and suggestions. One majorbranding strategy particularly for international firms is co-branding. Nevertheless, there are scarcestudies which examine the role of strategic co-brand management in the hospitality sector. Thisreview paper aims to critically discuss the current position of strategic co-branding in the hospitalitysector and possible problems involved in this issue. Recommendations for future research on cobrandingof hospitality firms within the strategic management paradigm are provided. Furthermore,managers in the hospitality sector are given suggestions for enhancing strategic management of cobrandingin hospitality and particularly in destination firms.

  3. Containing costs in public sector hospitals - a strategy for the future ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Containing costs in public sector hospitals - a strategy for the future. ... is increasing concern about expenditure in the public and the private health care sectors. ... at the micro-level comparison of expenditure over a 14-year period in one major ...

  4. Trends in the Food and Beverage Sector of the Hospitality Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Melia, Detta

    2011-01-01

    The hospitality sector in Ireland represents an important part of the tourism industry and comprises hotels, restaurants, pubs and clubs, guesthouses and self-catering operations. The largest component within the Irish hospitality sector is hotels. In addition to hotels, food and beverage operations comprise a significant proportion of the industry. These businesses operate in a highly competitive environment as a consequence of a number of factors. First, there is a downturn in the global an...

  5. Hospital safeguards capital program through private sector partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J; Lungo, A; Bobrow, M

    1984-02-01

    As access to capital tightens, more hospitals are exploring the benefits of partnerships with private companies. A California hospital, burdened by the long-term debt it incurred for a medical office building, worked together with its medical staff and an outside real estate developer. By selling the building to the developer, not only was the hospital able to finance a much-needed expansion and reconstruction project, but the hospital's medical staff had an opportunity to become limited partners in the ownership of the building.

  6. Nosocomial candidemia; risk factors and prognosis revisited; 11 years experience from a Norwegian secondary hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Erik Berdal

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to review the epidemiology and prognosis of candidemia in a secondary hospital, and to examine the intra-hospital distribution of candidemia patients. Study design is a retrospective cohort study. Trough 2002-2012, 110 cases of candidemia were diagnosed, giving an incidence of 2, 6/100,000 citizens/year. Overall prognosis of candidemia was dismal, with a 30 days case fatality rate of 49% and one year case fatality rate of 64%. Candidemia was a terminal event in 55% of 30 days non-survivors, defined as Candida blood cultures reported positive on the day of death or thereafter (39%, or treatment refrained due to hopeless short-term prognosis (16%. In terminal event candidemias, advanced or incurable cancer was present in 29%. Non-survivors at 30 days were 9 years (median older than survivors. In 30 days survivors, candidemia was not recognised before discharge in 13% of cases. No treatment were given and no deaths or complications were observed in this group. Candidemia patients were grouped into 8 patient categories: Abdominal surgery (35%, urology (13%, other surgery (11%, pneumonia (13%, haematological malignancy (7%, intravenous drug abuse (4%, other medical (15%, and new-borns (3%. Candidemia was diagnosed while admitted in the ICU in 46% of patients. Urology related cases were all diagnosed in the general ward. Multiple surgical procedures were done in 60% of abdominal surgery patients. Antibiotics were administered prior to candidemia in 87% of patients, with median duration 17 (1-108 days. Neutropenia was less common than expected in patients with candidemia (8/105 and closely associated to haematological malignancy (6/8. Compared with previous national figures the epidemiology of invasive candidiasis seems not to have changed over the last decade.

  7. Attitudes towards semi-processed foods in the hospital sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Friis, Alan; Lassen, Anne Dahl

    2005-01-01

    The paper addresses some of the challenges the food service sector faces in relation to the increased pressure for cost effective operations. The approach pertains to application of semi-prepared constituents for meals the so-called meal elements. The study uncovers attitudes towards application ...

  8. Is the Green Key standard the golden key for sustainability measurement in the hospitality sector?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietbergen, M.G.; Van Rheede, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Green Key is an eco-rating program that aims at promoting sustainable business practices in the hospitality sector. The Green Key assesses amongst others the sustainable management of energy, water and waste within hotels and other hospitality firms. The Green Key standard awards points if

  9. Corporate social responsibility in health sector: a case study in the government hospitals in Medan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlina Nurbaity Lubis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary society demands that every organization operate with a sense of social responsibility. Many organizations now include corporate social responsibility (CSR activities in their work programs. In the health sector, however, the role of CSR has not been studied as intensively as in private corporations because the services provided by the health sector are already valued as directly serving humanity. This research aims to evaluate the impact of CSR on the health sector, specifically on government hospitals. This model was developed by analyzing the influence of CSR on hospital reputation, customer loyalty, and hospital values. By answering questionnaires, a total of 200 hospital patients from four government hospitals participated in the study. The proposed model was evaluated using path analysis with AMOS tools. The results of this study provide empirical evidence that overall, CSR positively affects the reputation of the hospital, patient loyalty, and hospital value. Although there is a direct negative effect of CSR on hospital value, the larger influence of indirect effect that occurs through the mediating role of reputation and patient loyalty variables shows that CSR is able to increase the hospital value. Practically, these results imply that CSR should be applied as a strategic tool in improving the value of the hospital.

  10. A Sectoral Approach to Training in the Printing Industry and the Hospital Sector. Synthesis Report of a Study in Five European Countries. CEDEFOP Panorama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmerdam, John

    The development of sectoral training systems in two economic sectors--the printing industry and the sector of health care in hospitals--was examined in a study that entailed parallel research projects in five European countries: Belgium, Latvia, The Netherlands, Norway, and the United Kingdom. The study was based on the assumption that the…

  11. Comparison of organizational learning capabilities of the personnel in public and private sector hospitals of Kermanshah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoun Abbasi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hospitals are among the most interactive organizations in which the rate of knowledge transfer and learning is considerably high. The investigation of the level of organizational learning between public and private sector hospitals can be useful for managers to select proper organizational learning strategies aiming at improving service delivery and organizational behaviour (1. This study was carried out to compare the organizational learning capabilities of the personnel in public and private sector hospitals of Kermanshah. Methods: This descriptive survey was performed on the personnel in public and private sector hospitals of Kermanshah. According to Krejcie and Morgan’s table, 175 employees were selected via stratified random sampling from 6 public and 2 private hospitals. The instrument for gathering data was Organizational Learning Capability Questionnaire (OLCQ by Gomez et al. (2005 (2. Data were analysed by inferential statistics (K-S test, Levene’s test, t-test, one-way ANOVA using SPSS software (version 20.00. Results: The level of organizational learning capabilities of personnel was higher in the private hospitals than in public hospitals, indicating a statistically significant difference between them (T (26= 11.779, P0.01، F (3, 68 = 1.859. Conclusion: With regard to the higher average of knowledge transfer and integration than the other capabilities in public and private hospitals, it seems that the managers of hospitals should make use of this component to promote the organizational knowledge of the personnel and improve other organizational learning capabilities too.

  12. Does hospital ownership affect patient experience? An investigation into public-private sector differences in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérotin, Virginie; Zamora, Bernarda; Reeves, Rachel; Bartlett, Will; Allen, Pauline

    2013-05-01

    Using patient experience survey data, the paper investigates whether hospital ownership affects the level of quality reported by patients whose care is funded by the National Health Service in areas other than clinical quality. We estimate a switching regression model that accounts for (i) some observable characteristics of the patient and the hospital episode; (ii) selection into private hospitals; and (iii) unmeasured hospital characteristics captured by hospital fixed effects. We find that the experience reported by patients in public and private hospitals is different, i.e. most dimensions of quality are delivered differently by the two types of hospitals, with each sector offering greater quality in certain specialties or to certain groups of patients. However, the sum of all ownership effects is not statistically different from zero at sample means. In other words, hospital ownership in and of itself does not affect the level of quality of the average patient's reported experience. Differences in mean reported quality levels between the private and public sectors are entirely attributable to patient characteristics, the selection of patients into public or private hospitals and unobserved characteristics specific to individual hospitals, rather than to hospital ownership. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Competition and quality indicators in the health care sector: empirical evidence from the Dutch hospital sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croes, R R; Krabbe-Alkemade, Y J F M; Mikkers, M C

    2018-01-01

    There is much debate about the effect of competition in healthcare and especially the effect of competition on the quality of healthcare, although empirical evidence on this subject is mixed. The Netherlands provides an interesting case in this debate. The Dutch system could be characterized as a system involving managed competition and mandatory healthcare insurance. Information about the quality of care provided by hospitals has been publicly available since 2008. In this paper, we evaluate the relationship between quality scores for three diagnosis groups and the market power indicators of hospitals. We estimate the impact of competition on quality in an environment of liberalized pricing. For this research, we used unique price and production data relating to three diagnosis groups (cataract, adenoid and tonsils, bladder tumor) produced by Dutch hospitals in the period 2008-2011. We also used the quality indicators relating to these diagnosis groups. We reveal a negative relationship between market share and quality score for two of the three diagnosis groups studied, meaning that hospitals in competitive markets have better quality scores than those in concentrated markets. We therefore conclude that more competition is associated with higher quality scores.

  14. [Evaluation of the efficiency and quality of hospitals publicly owned with private management and hospitals of the public sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldes, Maria Do Rosário

    2007-01-01

    should be compensated and contract-programmes, between other, must be celebrated. The low rate of autopsies, 5.9%, is a indicator of quality which needs an intervention. The inequalities existing in this indicator are high in all hospital groups, due to the fact that most of the hospitals show no activity in this area. The low percentage of surgeries in ambulatory, 17.6 %, which does not exist in several hospitals, show the need for a politic of intervention in this area. The percentage of cesearians in total deliveries is very high in all the hospitals with a low variation coefficient. Norms of intervention should be defined in what management indicators are concerned in relation to the areas of expenditure with day hospital care, drugs in day hospital, drugs in outpatient care and rehabilitation by user. Day hospital, which is more used for hemodyalisis and chimiotherapy should be developed in all hospitals with those specialities, after cost-effective analysis studies with the involvement of the private sector. The area of hotel support, as well in what laundry and food are concerned, present high inequalities in all hospital groups and need a special intervention. Process indicators, as cesearians in total deliveries, ambulatory surgeries intervention, and the rate of autopsies, are important areas of the quality of the hospital and should be developed. The outcome indicator, percentage of inpatient care after surgeries due to infection needs also attention. This area which has already been subject to an intervention with actions at hospital level and specific actions of teaching in this area should be developed due to the high value of this indicator of 0.12%.

  15. Strategic Brand Management in Hospitality Sector: How to Manage Co-branding in Hotels and Restaurants

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhet Genc

    2010-01-01

    Companies in the hospitality sector (hotels, restaurants etc.) aim to distinguish their brand image and differentiate their product or service among the competitors by adopting particular brand strategies since identifying a target customer base and understanding their needs and preferences are of primary significance for hospitality firms. The achievement of a distinguished designation necessitates utilizing research based and strategic branding techniques and suggestions. One major branding...

  16. Career Competencies And Career Success Of Thai Employees In Tourism And Hospitality Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Aurathai Lertwannawit; Sirivan Serirat; Siroj Pholpantin

    2011-01-01

    This research assesses the relationship between career competencies and career success of Thai employees in the tourism and hospitality sector. The authors distinguished and operationalized four career competencies, i.e. computer and language skills, work spirits and ethics, team working and leadership, and tourism and hospitality knowledge and skills, and two career successes, i.e. objective and subjective career successes. A quantitative study was performed using 800 employees in four indus...

  17. Career trajectories of nurses leaving the hospital sector in Ontario, Canada (1993-2004).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameddine, Mohamad; Baumann, Andrea; Laporte, Audrey; O'Brien-Pallas, Linda; Levinton, Carey; Onate, Kanecy; Deber, Raisa

    2009-05-01

    This paper is a report of an analysis of the career trajectories of nurses 1 year after leaving hospitals. Although hospitals are traditionally the largest employers of nurses, technological advances and budgetary constraints have resulted in many countries in relative shrinkage of the hospital sector and a shift of care (and jobs) into home/community settings. It has been often assumed that nurses displaced from hospitals will move to work in the other workplaces, especially the community sector. Employment patterns were tracked by examining a longitudinal database of all 201,463 nurses registered with the College of Nurses Ontario (Canada) between 1993 and 2004. Focusing on the employment categories Active (Working in nursing), Eligible-Seeking nursing employment or Dropout from the nursing labour market, year-to-year transition matrixes were generated by sector and sub-sector of employment, nurse type, age group and work status. For every nurse practising nursing in any non-hospital job or in the community a year after leaving hospitals, an average of 1.3 and four nurses, respectively, dropped out of Ontario's labour market. The proportion of nurses leaving hospitals transitioning to the Dropout category ranged from 63.3% (1994-95) to 38.6% (2001-02). The proportion dropping out of Ontario's market was higher for Registered Practical Nurses (compared to Registered Nurses), increased with age and decreased with degree of casualization in nurses' jobs. Downsizing hospitals without attention to the potentially negative impact on the nursing workforce can lead to retention difficulties and adversely affects the overall supply of nurses.

  18. Do follow-on therapeutic substitutes induce price competition between hospital medicines? Evidence from the Danish hospital sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostenkamp, Gisela

    2013-01-01

    Objective The pricing of follow-on drugs, that offer only limited health benefits over existing therapeutic alternatives, is a recurring health policy debate. This study investigates whether follow-on therapeutic substitutes create price competition between branded hospital medicines. Methods New...... pioneer products were significantly reduced as a reaction to competition from follow-on drugs. Conclusion Competition between patented therapeutic substitutes did not seem to increase price competition and containment of pharmaceutical expenditures in the Danish hospital market. Strengthening hospitals......’ incentives to consider the price of alternative treatment options paired with a more active formulary management may increase price competition between therapeutic substitutes in the Danish hospital sector in the future....

  19. Exploring interhospital transfers and partnerships in the hospital sector in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assareh, Hassan; Achat, Helen M; Levesque, Jean-Frederic; Leeder, Stephen R

    2017-12-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to explore characteristics of interhospital transfers (IHT) and sharing of care among hospitals in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Methods Data were extracted from patient-level linked hospital administrative datasets for separations from all NSW acute care hospitals from 1 July 2013 to 30 June 2015. Patient discharge and arrival information was used to identify IHTs. Characteristics of patients and related hospitals were then analysed. Results Transfer-in patients accounted for 3.9% of all NSW admitted patients and, overall, 7.3% of NSW admissions were associated with transfers (IHT rate). Patients with injuries and circulatory system diseases had the highest IHT rate, accounting for one-third of all IHTs. Patients were more often transferred to larger than smaller hospitals (61% vs 29%). Compared with private hospitals, public hospitals had a higher IHT rate (8.4% vs 5.1%) and a greater proportion of transfer-out IHTs (52% vs 28%). Larger public hospitals had lower IHT rates (3-8%) compared with smaller public hospitals (13-26%). Larger public hospitals received and retransferred higher proportions of IHT patients (52-58% and 11% respectively) than their smaller counterparts (26-30% and 2-3% respectively). Less than one-quarter of IHTs were between the public and private sectors or between government health regions. The number of interacting hospitals and their interactions varied across hospital peer groups. Conclusion NSW IHTs were often to hospitals with greater speciality services. The patterns of interhospital interactions could be affected by organisational and regional preferences. What is known about the topic? IHTs aim to provide efficient and effective care. Nonetheless, information on transfers and the sharing of care among hospitals in an Australian setting is lacking. Studies of transfers and hospital partnership patterns will inform efforts to improve patient-centred transfers and hospital accountability

  20. Patient safety in surgical environments: Cross-countries comparison of psychometric properties and results of the Norwegian version of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nortvedt Monica W

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background How hospital health care personnel perceive safety climate has been assessed in several countries by using the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety (HSOPS. Few studies have examined safety climate factors in surgical departments per se. This study examined the psychometric properties of a Norwegian translation of the HSOPS and also compared safety climate factors from a surgical setting to hospitals in the United States, the Netherlands and Norway. Methods This survey included 575 surgical personnel in Haukeland University Hospital in Bergen, an 1100-bed tertiary hospital in western Norway: surgeons, operating theatre nurses, anaesthesiologists, nurse anaesthetists and ancillary personnel. Of these, 358 returned the HSOPS, resulting in a 62% response rate. We used factor analysis to examine the applicability of the HSOPS factor structure in operating theatre settings. We also performed psychometric analysis for internal consistency and construct validity. In addition, we compared the percent of average positive responds of the patient safety climate factors with results of the US HSOPS 2010 comparative data base report. Results The professions differed in their perception of patient safety climate, with anaesthesia personnel having the highest mean scores. Factor analysis using the original 12-factor model of the HSOPS resulted in low reliability scores (r = 0.6 for two factors: "adequate staffing" and "organizational learning and continuous improvement". For the remaining factors, reliability was ≥ 0.7. Reliability scores improved to r = 0.8 by combining the factors "organizational learning and continuous improvement" and "feedback and communication about error" into one six-item factor, supporting an 11-factor model. The inter-item correlations were found satisfactory. Conclusions The psychometric properties of the questionnaire need further investigations to be regarded as reliable in surgical environments. The operating

  1. Methods and Models for Capacity and Patient Flow Analysis in Hospital Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozlowski, Dawid

    at a private hospital in Denmark or at a hospital abroad if the public healthcare system is unable to provide treatment within the stated maximum waiting time guarantee. A queue modelling approach is used to analyse the potential negative consequences of the policy on the utilization of public hospital......This thesis is concerned about the novel applications of operations research methods for capacity and flow analysis within hospital sector. The first part of the thesis presents a detailed Discrete-Event Simulation (DES) model that has been developed as an analytical tool designed to facilitate...... by an improved patient flow. The specially developed structure of the model facilitates its reuse at different units, with no advanced modelling skills required in day-to-day use. This feature amplifies the usefulness of DES in conducting comprehensive patient flow analyses at any department with emergency...

  2. Level of compliance with the radiation protection regulation-A survey among Norwegian hospitals and X-ray institutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friberg, E. G.; Widmark, A.; Solberg, M.; Woehni, T.

    2011-01-01

    To identify the level of compliance with the new radiation protection regulation among Norwegian health care enterprises (HCEs). Totally, 41 HCEs were authorised to use advanced X-ray equipment for medical purposes during 2005-07. Follow-up inspections with 14 HCEs were carried out during 2007-09. Main topics for the inspections were those requirements identified as most challenging to implement in the authorisation process. Totally, 192 non-conformities with the regulation were revealed during the authorisation process. The inspections revealed that 93 % of the inspected HCEs had non-conformities with the regulation. Most common non-conformities dealt with skills in radiation protection, establishment of local diagnostic reference levels, access to medical physicists and performance of quality control of X-ray equipment. Inspections are an effective tool for implementation of regulation the requirements at the HCEs, thus improving radiation protection awareness. (authors)

  3. Screening of HBsAg and anti HCV from tertiary care, private and public sector hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, R.A.W.; Ahmed, W.; Alam, S.E.; Arif, A

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To find out the frequency of hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C antibodies in patients referred from a tertiary care public sector hospital, other public sector and private hospitals of Karachi. Settings and duration: Pakistan Medical Research Council's Specialized Research Centre for Gastroenterology and Hepatology, at Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre Karachi from January to December 2009. Patients and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted where patients were referred from different departments of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (tertiary care public sector hospital), other public sector hospitals, private hospitals and clinics for the screening of hepatitis B and C virus infection. Three ml blood was collected from each patient, serum separated and tested for HBsAg and Anti HCV using Abbott Murex fourth Generation ELISA kits. Results: A total of 2965 cases were referred in a year. Overall sero prevalence of HBsAg and Anti-HCV was 5.9% and 12.8% respectively. HBsAg positivity in patient referred from public sector hospitals was 5.8%, those from private hospitals/clinics were 7.2%, and self-referred patients was 5.6%. Anti HCV positivity rates amongst these cases were 12.5%, 16.7% and 8.5% respectively. Co-infection of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus was seen in 0.9, 2.5 and 1.4% cases respectively. Breakdown of viral positivity within different departments of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre Karachi showed HBsAg positivity of 7.1% in Medical department, 5.2% in Surgical department, 5.0% in Gynaecology department, 6.6% in other departments of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre while, only 1.7% were positive from Pakistan Railway, hospital Anti HCV positivity was maximally (20.3%) seen in medical department followed by 14% in other departments, 10.9% in surgical department, 7.9% in gynaecology and 5.1% in railway hospital. Co-infection of HBV and HCV was seen in 2% cases referred from medical department, while rest of the

  4. Weekly working hours for Norwegian hospital doctors since 1994 with special attention to postgraduate training, work–home balance and the European Working Time Directive: a panel study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosta, Judith; Aasland, Olaf G

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the weekly working hours of Norwegian hospital doctors from 1994 to 2012 with special emphasis on the quality of postgraduate training and work–home balance, and in relation to the requirements of the European Working Time Directive (EWTD). Design Panel study based on postal questionnaires. Setting Norway. Participants Unbalanced cohort of 1300–1600 doctors in 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012. Outcome measures Self-reported total weekly working hours and whether 45 weekly working hours are too short, sufficient, or too long to meet the quality requirements of obligatory postgraduate training for junior doctors. Results From 1994 to 2012, the number of weekly working hours was stable for senior (46–47 h) and junior (45–46 h) hospital doctors. In 2012, significantly more senior (27–35%) than junior (11–20%) doctors reported suboptimal work–home balance, defined as working more than 48 h a week. The majority perceived the present situation with an average of 45 h per week for juniors as sufficient for obligatory postgraduate specialist training, but doctors of higher age (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.08), senior doctors (1.07, 1.04 to 1.11) and doctors working in surgical specialties (OR 1 vs laboratory medicine 0.03, 0.01 to 0.25, internal medicine 0.31, 0.17 to 0.58, psychiatry 0.12, 0.04 to 0.36, paediatrics 0.36, 0.12 to 1.07, anaesthesiology 0.08, 0.02 to 0.39, gynaecology 0.07, 0.01 to 0.56 and others 0.39, 0.04 to 3.56) were more likely to want the work-week to be longer. Conclusions The weekly working hours of Norwegian hospital doctors were always below the EWTD requirements. A significant growth of hospital doctor density over the past two decades, national regulations and cultural values might be important factors. Specialty differences in perception of sufficient training time may call for more flexibility in working time regulations. PMID:25311038

  5. Weekly working hours for Norwegian hospital doctors since 1994 with special attention to postgraduate training, work-home balance and the European working time directive: a panel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosta, Judith; Aasland, Olaf G

    2014-10-13

    To examine the weekly working hours of Norwegian hospital doctors from 1994 to 2012 with special emphasis on the quality of postgraduate training and work-home balance, and in relation to the requirements of the European Working Time Directive (EWTD). Panel study based on postal questionnaires. Norway. Unbalanced cohort of 1300-1600 doctors in 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012. Self-reported total weekly working hours and whether 45 weekly working hours are too short, sufficient, or too long to meet the quality requirements of obligatory postgraduate training for junior doctors. From 1994 to 2012, the number of weekly working hours was stable for senior (46-47 h) and junior (45-46 h) hospital doctors. In 2012, significantly more senior (27-35%) than junior (11-20%) doctors reported suboptimal work-home balance, defined as working more than 48 h a week. The majority perceived the present situation with an average of 45 h per week for juniors as sufficient for obligatory postgraduate specialist training, but doctors of higher age (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.08), senior doctors (1.07, 1.04 to 1.11) and doctors working in surgical specialties (OR 1 vs laboratory medicine 0.03, 0.01 to 0.25, internal medicine 0.31, 0.17 to 0.58, psychiatry 0.12, 0.04 to 0.36, paediatrics 0.36, 0.12 to 1.07, anaesthesiology 0.08, 0.02 to 0.39, gynaecology 0.07, 0.01 to 0.56 and others 0.39, 0.04 to 3.56) were more likely to want the work-week to be longer. The weekly working hours of Norwegian hospital doctors were always below the EWTD requirements. A significant growth of hospital doctor density over the past two decades, national regulations and cultural values might be important factors. Specialty differences in perception of sufficient training time may call for more flexibility in working time regulations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Norwegian oil and gas policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjerde, B

    1978-04-01

    The Norwegian Minister of Oil and Energy explains the importance of integrating petroleum policy into the broad political picture because of Norway's economic situation. Since oil was found on the continental shelf 13 years ago, changes have been made in projected production levels to reflect the international recession and concerns over unemployment in Norway. Policies are aimed at keeping a constant activity in the petroleum sector through allocation of particular block development that will improve continental shelf mapping and encourage new deepwater exploration and development. He outlines licensing criteria and future exploratory activities. The report covers aspects of safety, transportation, and landing and the impacts of petroleum activities on Norwegian communities.

  7. Cost of delivering secondary-level health care services through public sector district hospitals in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinja, Shankar; Balasubramanian, Deepak; Jeet, Gursimer; Verma, Ramesh; Kumar, Dinesh; Bahuguna, Pankaj; Kaur, Manmeet; Kumar, Rajesh

    2017-01-01

    Background & objectives: Despite an impetus for strengthening public sector district hospitals for provision of secondary health care in India, there is lack of robust evidence on cost of services provided through these district hospitals. In this study, an attempt was made to determine the unit cost of an outpatient visit consultation, inpatient bed-day of hospitalization, surgical procedure and overall per-capita cost of providing secondary care through district hospitals. Methods: Economic costing of five randomly selected district hospitals in two north Indian States - Haryana and Punjab, was undertaken. Cost analysis was done using a health system perspective and employing bottom-up costing methodology. Quantity of all resources - capital or recurrent, used for delivering services was measured and valued. Median unit costs were estimated along with their 95 per cent confidence intervals. Sensitivity analysis was undertaken to assess the effect of uncertainties in prices and other assumptions; and to generalize the findings for Indian set-up. Results: The overall annual cost of delivering secondary-level health care services through a public sector district hospital in north India was 11,44,13,282 [US Dollars (USD) 2,103,185]. Human resources accounted for 53 per cent of the overall cost. The unit cost of an inpatient bed-day, surgical procedure and outpatient consultation was 844 (USD 15.5), i; 3481 (USD 64) and 170 (USD 3.1), respectively. With the current set of resource allocation, per-capita cost of providing health care through district hospitals in north India was 139 (USD 2.5). Interpretation & conclusions: The estimates obtained in our study can be used for Fiscal planning of scaling up secondary-level health services. Further, these may be particularly useful for future research such as benefit-incidence analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis and national health accounts including disease-specific accounts in India. PMID:29355142

  8. Cost of delivering secondary-level health care services through public sector district hospitals in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinja, Shankar; Balasubramanian, Deepak; Jeet, Gursimer; Verma, Ramesh; Kumar, Dinesh; Bahuguna, Pankaj; Kaur, Manmeet; Kumar, Rajesh

    2017-09-01

    Despite an impetus for strengthening public sector district hospitals for provision of secondary health care in India, there is lack of robust evidence on cost of services provided through these district hospitals. In this study, an attempt was made to determine the unit cost of an outpatient visit consultation, inpatient bed-day of hospitalization, surgical procedure and overall per-capita cost of providing secondary care through district hospitals. Economic costing of five randomly selected district hospitals in two north Indian States - Haryana and Punjab, was undertaken. Cost analysis was done using a health system perspective and employing bottom-up costing methodology. Quantity of all resources - capital or recurrent, used for delivering services was measured and valued. Median unit costs were estimated along with their 95 per cent confidence intervals. Sensitivity analysis was undertaken to assess the effect of uncertainties in prices and other assumptions; and to generalize the findings for Indian set-up. The overall annual cost of delivering secondary-level health care services through a public sector district hospital in north India was ' 11,44,13,282 [US Dollars (USD) 2,103,185]. Human resources accounted for 53 per cent of the overall cost. The unit cost of an inpatient bed-day, surgical procedure and outpatient consultation was ' 844 (USD 15.5), ' 3481 (USD 64) and ' 170 (USD 3.1), respectively. With the current set of resource allocation, per-capita cost of providing health care through district hospitals in north India was ' 139 (USD 2.5). The estimates obtained in our study can be used for Fiscal planning of scaling up secondary-level health services. Further, these may be particularly useful for future research such as benefit-incidence analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis and national health accounts including disease-specific accounts in India.

  9. Hospital Capacity, Waiting Times and Sick Leave Duration - an Empirical Analysis of a Norwegian Health Policy Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Aakvik, Arild; Holmås, Tor Helge; Kjerstad, Egil

    2012-01-01

    A health policy reform aiming to reduce hospital waiting times and sickness absences, the Faster Return to Work (FRW) scheme, is evaluated by creating treatment and control groups to facilitate causal interpretations of the empirical results. We use a unique dataset on individuals where we match hospital data with social security data and socio-economic characteristics. The main idea behind the reform is that long waiting times for hospital treatment lead to unnecessarily long periods of sick...

  10. Information Technology Adoption by Small and Medium Enterprises in the Hospitality Sector in Sergipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Amaral e Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tourism big companies make extensive use of Information Technology (IT, also named Information and Communication Technology (ICT, to promote their products or services and this trend has also been incorporated by Small and Medium Enterprises (SME from the hospitality sector. This study intend to increase the understanding of this phenomenon in order to analyze IT adoption by SME businesses of hospitality industry examined exclusively in the state of Sergipe. It was used a qualitative approach with a multiple case study strategy. It has been found that all hospitality enterprises analyzed own computers and they are all connected to Internet. It has also been found that IT failure has a high impact. Different managers’ profiles had been identified and it was observed that staff’s IT knowledge is considered indispensable. Limitations of this research are directly connected to the limits of multiple case study strategy.

  11. Autonomy and performance in the public sector: the experience of English NHS hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzulli, Rossella; Jacobs, Rowena; Goddard, Maria

    2018-05-01

    Since 2004, English NHS hospitals have been given the opportunity to acquire a more autonomous status known as a Foundation Trust (FT), whereby regulations and restrictions over financial, management, and organizational matters were reduced in order to create incentives to deliver higher-quality services in the most efficient way. Using difference-in-difference models, we test whether achieving greater autonomy (FT status) improved hospital performance, as proxied by measures of financial management, quality of care, and staff satisfaction. Results provide little evidence that the FT policy per se has made any difference to the performance of hospitals in most of these domains. Our findings have implications for health policy and inform the trend towards granting greater autonomy to public-sector organizations.

  12. Community/hospital indicators in South African public sector mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Crick; Flisher, Alan J

    2003-12-01

    The need to balance resources between community and hospital-based mental health services in the post-deinstitutionalisation era has been well-documented. However, few indicators have been developed to monitor the relationship between community and hospital services, in either developed or developing countries. There is a particular need for such indicators in the South African context, with its history of inequitable services based in custodial institutions under apartheid, and a new policy that proposes the development of more equitable community-based care. Indicators are needed to measure the distribution of resources and the relative utilisation of community and hospital-based services during the reform process. These indicators are potentially useful for assessing the implementation of policy objectives over time. To develop and document community/hospital indicators in public sector mental health services in South Africa. A questionnaire was distributed to provincial mental health coordinators requesting numbers of full-time equivalent (FTE) staff who provide mental health care at all service levels, annual patient admissions to hospitals and annual patient attendances at ambulatory care facilities. The information was supplemented by consultations with mental health coordinators in each of the 9 provinces. Population data were obtained from preliminary findings of the 1996 census. The community/hospital indicator measuring staff distribution was defined as the ratio of staff employed in community settings to all staff, expressed as a percentage. The community/hospital indicator measuring patient service utilisation was defined as the ratio of the annual ambulatory care attendance rate per 100,000 population to the sum of this rate and the annual hospital admission rate per 100,000 population, expressed as a percentage. Of psychiatric public sector staff, 25% are located in community settings in South Africa (provincial range: 11-70%). If hospital outpatient

  13. Promoting coordination in Norwegian health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor I. Romøren

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction: The Norwegian health care system is well organized within its two main sectors - primary health and long term care on the one hand, and hospitals and specialist services on the other. However, the relation between them lacks mediating structures.Policy practice: Enhancing coordination between primary and secondary health care has been central in Norwegian health care policy the last decade. In 2003 a committee was appointed to identify coordination problems and proposed a lot of practical and organisational recommendations. It relied on an approach challenging primary and secondary health care in shared geographical regions to take action. However, these proposals were not implemented. In 2008 a new Minister of Health and Care worked out plans under the key term "Coordination Reform". These reform plans superseded and expanded the previous policy initiatives concerning cooperation, but represented also a shift in focus to a regulative and centralised strategy, including new health legislation, structural reforms and use of economic incentives that are now about to be implemented.Discussion: The article analyses the perspectives and proposals of the previous and the recent reform initiatives in Norway and discusses them in relation to integrated care measures implemented in Denmark and Sweden.

  14. How the Norwegian Maritime Sector can succeed in internationalizing LNG-technology to Southeast Asia: A Case Study of Rolls-Royce Marine

    OpenAIRE

    Tveten, Rolf Erik; Løset, Gaute Dag

    2012-01-01

    The future potential of LNG as a bunker fuel in the Southeast Asian market is huge, although it is still immature. An emerging market for LNG-propulsion in the region creates a business opportunity for Norwegian companies delivering relevant products and services. This is a summary of the strategy that will yield the highest return on a foreign market entry with focus on export of LNG-technology in the Southeast Asian region. This thesis has assessed the gas producing and consuming countries,...

  15. A Survey of Job Satisfaction among Health Sector Staff of Tabriz Taleghani Educational Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Rastgar-Farajzadeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Job satisfaction is one of the most important variables in organizational behavior and the key variable in organizational researches and theories as well. The aim of present investigation was to determine the level of job satisfaction among health sector staff of Tabriz Taleghani Educational Hospital. Material and Methods : This cross-sectional study was performed in 2014. Health sector staffs of Taleghani Educational Hospital were studied through census method. Data collection tool was a questionnaire based on previous studies and consisted of 3 parts: demographic information (7 items, job satisfaction (21 questions and factors related to employee dissatisfaction (10 items. After collecting and entering data into IBM SPSS software, independent t tests, chi-square and ANOVA were applied. Results : The highest level of job satisfaction was in the field of relationship with colleagues and lowest level of job satisfaction was related to salary and benefits. The most common cause of employee dissatisfaction was pressure and stressful working environment and the least cause was the improper distribution of employees based on workload . Conclusion : According to the findings, the majority of job satisfaction among staff was at low and medium-level. Since job satisfaction is an important factor in the performance and quality of services provided by the hospital staff, it is recommended that managers and officials pay attention to defects and shortcomings and remove barriers.

  16. Inpatient satisfaction at different public sector hospitals of a metropolitan city in Pakistan: a comparative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mehwish; Rehman, Rehana; Ikramuddin, Zia; Asad, Nava; Farooq, Ayesha

    2018-04-01

    To observe inpatient satisfaction at different public sector hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. A cross sectional study was carried out during 2010-2012 in four major public sector hospitals of Karachi. A total of 710 patients completed the study. Responses were gathered in a self-structured questionnaire that comprised of four dimensions of satisfaction with doctor, staff, administration and treatment. Average Score of each dimension was taken and compared using one way analysis of variance. Satisfaction with doctors, staff and administration of provincial and federal hospitals were comparatively similar (P > 0.05). However, satisfaction with treatment significantly differed in all four hospitals (P public sector hospitals showed satisfaction with healthcare personnel and related administration. However, treatment dimension needs to be improved to get more satisfaction.

  17. Managerial competencies of hospital managers in South Africa: a survey of managers in the public and private sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pillay Rubin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa has large public and private sectors and there is a common perception that public sector hospitals are inefficient and ineffective while the privately owned and managed hospitals provide superior care and are more sustainable. The underlying assumption is that there is a potential gap in management capacity between the two sectors. This study aims to ascertain the skills and competency levels of hospital managers in South Africa and to determine whether there are any significant differences in competency levels between managers in the different sectors. Methods A survey using a self administered questionnaire was conducted among hospital managers in South Africa. Respondents were asked to rate their proficiency with seven key functions that they perform. These included delivery of health care, planning, organizing, leading, controlling, legal and ethical, and self-management. Ratings were based on a five point Likert scale ranging from very low skill level to very high skill level. Results The results show that managers in the private sector perceived themselves to be significantly more competent than their public sector colleagues in most of the management facets. Public sector managers were also more likely than their private sector colleagues to report that they required further development and training. Conclusion The findings confirm our supposition that there is a lack of management capacity within the public sector in South Africa and that there is a significant gap between private and public sectors. It provides evidence that there is a great need for further development of managers, especially those in the public sector. The onus is therefore on administrators and those responsible for management education and training to identify managers in need of development and to make available training that is contextually relevant in terms of design and delivery.

  18. Improving service quality in NHS Trust hospitals: lessons from the hotel sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desombre, T; Eccles, G

    1998-01-01

    This article looks to review recent practice undertaken within the UK hotel sector to improve customer service, and suggests ideals that could be implemented within National Health (NHS) Trust hospitals. At a time of increasing competition, hotel firms are using service enhancement as a means to gain competitive advantage, and therefore developing a range of techniques to measure levels of service quality improvement. With continued change in the health service, where greater focus now lies with patient satisfaction, so there is a requirement for managers to adapt techniques presently being offered in other service industries to improve levels of customer service and ensure patients are targeted to define their levels of satisfaction.

  19. [Transparency in public sector acquisitions. The case of hospitals in the City of Buenos Aires].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, T; Murillo Fort, C; Puente Karolys, J C

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with corruption and the lack of transparency in public sector purchases as well as with the main instruments to obtain adequate results in purchase negotiation.Firstly, we discuss how corruption causes concern to national governments, international organizations, academic centers, non-governmental organizations and society in general. The consequences of corruption in Argentina and other Latin American countries are highlighted, especially the effect of corruption on economic growth and the way it creates economic inefficiency and inequality.Secondly, the database created by the Subsecretary of Strategic Management of the Autonomous Government of the City of Buenos Aires is analyzed. The central purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of the Administrative Reform of 1998 on the prices of 24 products acquired by 13 general acute care hospitals from 1998-1999. The weighted prices, the number of units purchased and the total number of contracts given in this period, as well as the products with the greatest utilization rate, are analyzed. Multivariante analysis was used to identify hospitals with appropriate activity and efficient budget administration (activity and negotiation indicators). Price development was analyzed using the regression technique (ordinary least squares), which demonstrated an 8% reduction in prices for the year 1999. The contribution of each hospital to this variation is presented using dummy variables. Thus, six of the 13 hospitals significantly contributed to the decrease in prices. Of these six, three hospitals also contributed to reduction in price dispersion. The results obtained allow us to conclude that, if public hospitals have adequate purchase negotiation instruments and a uniform legal framework, they can achieve a good level of activity. Furthermore, public hospitals can contribute to reductions in price and price dispersion, at the same time as improving efficiency in the assignation and utilization of

  20. Overweight, obesity and related conditions: a cross-sectional study of adult inpatients at a Norwegian Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Overweight, obesity and associated conditions are major public health concerns in Norway. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the general population in Norway is increasing, but there are limited data on how the situation is in hospitals. This study aimed to find the prevalence of overweight and obesity, and explore the associations of overweight, obesity and its related medical conditions in an adult in-patient sample at specified somatic and psychiatric departments at St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim. Results A total of 497 patients participated. The mean BMI for the total sample at screening was 25.4 kg/m2. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 45.1%. There was a higher association of overweight and obesity among patients aged 40–59 years (OR: 1.7) compared to those being younger. There was no significant difference between the somatic and the psychiatric samples. In the somatic sample overweight and obesity was associated with obesity-related conditions for both genders (OR: 2.0 and 2.1, respectively), when adjusted for age. Conclusion The substantial prevalence of overweight and obese patients may pose a threat to future hospital services. To further address the burden of overweight and obesity in hospitals, we need more knowledge about consequences of length of stay, use of resources and overall cost. PMID:24571809

  1. Corporate Investors Increased Common Ownership In Hospitals And The Postacute Care And Hospice Sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Annabelle C; Grabowski, David C; Gambrel, Robert J; Huskamp, Haiden A; Stevenson, David G

    2017-09-01

    The sharing of investors across firms is a new antitrust focus because of its potential negative effects on competition. Historically, the ability to track common investors across the continuum of health care providers has been limited. Thus, little is known about common investor ownership structures that might exist across health care delivery systems and how these linkages have evolved over time. We used data from the Provider Enrollment, Chain, and Ownership System of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services to identify common investor ownership linkages across the acute care, postacute care, and hospice sectors within the same geographic markets. To our knowledge, this study provides the first description of common investor ownership trends in these sectors. We found that the percentage of acute care hospitals having common investor ties to the postacute or hospice sectors increased from 24.6 percent in 2005 to 48.9 percent in 2015. These changes have important implications for antitrust, payment, and regulatory policies. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  2. Modeling climate change impact in hospitality sector, using building resources consumption signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Armando; Bernardino, Mariana; Silva Santos, António; Pimpão Silva, Álvaro; Espírito Santo, Fátima

    2016-04-01

    Hotels are one of building types that consumes more energy and water per person and are vulnerable to climate change because in the occurrence of extreme events (heat waves, water stress) same failures could compromise the hotel services (comfort) and increase energy cost or compromise the landscape and amenities due to water use restrictions. Climate impact assessments and the development of adaptation strategies require the knowledge about critical climatic variables and also the behaviour of building. To study the risk and vulnerability of buildings and hotels to climate change regarding resources consumption (energy and water), previous studies used building energy modelling simulation (BEMS) tools to study the variation in energy and water consumption. In general, the climate change impact in building is evaluated studying the energy and water demand of the building for future climate scenarios. But, hotels are complex buildings, quite different from each other and assumption done in simplified BEMS aren't calibrated and usually neglect some important hotel features leading to projected estimates that do not usually match hotel sector understanding and practice. Taking account all uncertainties, the use of building signature (statistical method) could be helpful to assess, in a more clear way, the impact of Climate Change in the hospitality sector and using a broad sample. Statistical analysis of the global energy consumption obtained from bills shows that the energy consumption may be predicted within 90% confidence interval only with the outdoor temperature. In this article a simplified methodology is presented and applied to identify the climate change impact in hospitality sector using the building energy and water signature. This methodology is applied to sixteen hotels (nine in Lisbon and seven in Algarve) with four and five stars rating. The results show that is expect an increase in water and electricity consumption (manly due to the increase in

  3. Deceased donor liver transplant: Experience from a public sector hospital in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamecha, Viniyendra; Borle, Deeplaxmi Purushottam; Kumar, Senthil; Bharathy, Kishore Gurumoorthy Subramanya; Sinha, Piyush Kumar; Sasturkar, Shridhar Vasantrao; Sharma, Vibuti; Pandey, Chandra Kant; Sarin, Shiv Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Deceased donor liver transplant (DDLT) is an uncommon procedure in India. We present our experience of DDLT from a public sector teaching hospital. A retrospective analysis of all DDLT was performed from April 2012 till September 2016. Demographics, intraoperative, donor factors, morbidity, and outcome were analyzed. During the study period, 305 liver transplants were performed, of which 36 were DDLT (adult 32, pediatric 4; 35 grafts; 1 split). The median age was 42.5 (1-62) years; 78% were men. The median donor age was 28 (1-77) years; 72.2% were men. About 45% of organs were procured from outside of Delhi and 67% of all grafts used were marginal. Three of 38 liver grafts (7.8%) were rejected due to gross steatosis. Commonest indication was cryptogenic cirrhosis (19.4%). The median model for end-stage liver disease sodium and pediatric end-stage liver disease scores were 23.5 (9-40) and 14.5 (9-22), respectively. Median warm and cold ischemia times were 40 (23-56) and 396 (111-750) min, respectively. Major morbidity of grade III and above occurred in 63.8%. In hospital (90 days), mortality was 16.7% and there were two late deaths because of chronic rejection and biliary sepsis. The overall survival was 77.8% at median follow up of 8.6 (1-54) months. DDLT can be performed with increasing frequency and safety in a public sector hospital. The perioperative and long-term outcomes are acceptable despite the fact that most organs were extended criteria grafts.

  4. Workplace violence against women nurses working in two public sector hospitals of Lahore, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafree, Sara Rizvi

    Cultural and structural forces help sustain workplace violence (WPV) against feminized professions like nursing in Pakistan. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence and patterns of workplace violence (WPV) against women nurses (more than 95% of entire nursing population) in two hospitals of Pakistan. A standardized international survey developed by the World Health Organization was used to collect cross-sectional data. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and multivariate regression were used for data analysis. A total of 309 nurse respondents were sampled from two public sector tertiary care hospitals of Lahore. Findings show that 73.1% of nurses reported experiencing some sort of violence in the last 12 months; with 53.4% suffering from physical violence, 57.3% from verbal violence, and 26.9% from sexual violence. The main perpetrators were reported to be male coworkers, patients, and attendants. Higher risk for WPV includes single status, non-Punjabi provincial belonging, Islamic faith, staff and student nurse designations, temporary government contract, and working additional hours in the evening and night. The primary response to violence included not doing anything and remaining silent. It was also reported that nurse victims experienced moderate levels of emotional grievances after facing violence. The results of this study suggest that public sector hospitals in the region need to improve their policy for the protection and monitoring of WPV against female nurses. Reporting and counseling bodies need to be installed to encourage both complaints and the seeking of medical attention after victimization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [The influence of intellectual capital in performance evaluation: a case-study in the hospital sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacim, Carlos Alberto Grespan; Araújo, Adriana Maria Procópio de

    2010-06-01

    This paper contributes to public institutions with the adaptation of a performance evaluation tool based on private companies. The objective is to demonstrate how the impact of an educational activity might be measured in the economic value added for the society of a public university hospital. The paper was divided in four parts, despite the introductory and methodological aspects and the final remarks. First, the hospital sector is explained, specifically in the context of the public university hospitals. Then, the definitions, the nature and measure of the intellectual capital are presented, followed by the disclosure of the main economic performance evaluation models. Finally, an adapted model is presented, under the approach of the value based management, considering adjustments of the return and the respective investment measures, showing the impacts of the intellectual capital management and the education activity on the economic result of those institutions. The study was developed based on a methodology supported by a bibliographical research, using a comparative method procedure in the descriptive modality. At last, it is highlighted the importance of accountability for the society regarding the use of public resources and how this study can help in this way.

  6. Measurement of air contamination in different wards of public sector hospital, Sukkur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Badaruddin AllahDino; Bhutto, Gul Hassan; Rizvi, Wajid Hussain

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and assess the index of bacterial contamination in different wards of the Public Sector Hospital of Sukkur (Teaching) Pakistan; whether or not the air contamination was statistically different from the acceptable level using active and passive sampling. In addition to this main hypothesis, other investigations included: occurrence of the most common bacteria, whether or not the bacterial contamination in the wards was a persistent problem and identification of the effective antibiotics against the indentified bacteria. The evidence sought based on the One Sample T test suggests that there is a (statistically) significant difference between the observed (higher) than the acceptance level (pcontamination problem was persistent as there was no significant difference among observed contamination of all three visits at (p>0.01) and the result of antibiotic susceptibility test highlights sensitivity and resistance level of antibiotics for the indentified bacteria.

  7. [Smoking in the hospitality sector: an observational study in Barcelona (Spain), 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalbí, Joan R; Baranda, Lucía; López, M José; Nebot, Manel

    2010-01-01

    To describe the actual presence of smoking in restaurant and hospitality premises after the smoking prevention act banning smoking in workplaces came into force in 2006, with wide exemptions in this sector. We performed an observational, descriptive study in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) in 2008 based on cluster sampling, with 1130 premises. The results were stratified by premise type. Up to 85.7% of food shops allowing consumption within their premises (bakeries, pastry shops...) ban smoking, as well as 85% of fast food establishments. Among restaurants, 40% are smoke-free or have separate smoking areas. Bar-cafés and café-restaurants (the most abundant premises) usually allow smoking. There are more smoke-free options in central districts and in shopping malls. Up to 75.4% of all premises allow smoking freely. These results show the limitations of the law. Copyright 2009 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Leadership in Surgery for Public Sector Hospitals in Jamaica: Strategies for the Operating Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawich, Shamir O; Harding, Hyacinth E; Crandon, Ivor W; McGaw, Clarence D; Barnett, Alan T; Tennant, Ingrid; Evans, Necia R; Martin, Allie C; Simpson, Lindberg K; Johnson, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The barriers to health care delivery in developing nations are many: underfunding, limited support services, scarce resources, suboptimal health care worker attitudes, and deficient health care policies are some of the challenges. The literature contains little information about health care leadership in developing nations. This discursive paper examines the impact of leadership on the delivery of operating room (OR) services in public sector hospitals in Jamaica. Delivery of OR services in Jamaica is hindered by many unique cultural, financial, political, and environmental barriers. We identify six leadership goals adapted to this environment to achieve change. Effective leadership must adapt to the environment. Delivery of OR services in Jamaica may be improved by addressing leadership training, workplace safety, interpersonal communication, and work environment and by revising existing policies. Additionally, there should be regular practice audits and quality control surveys. PMID:24355903

  9. Assessment of critical success factors of TQM culture in hospitality sector in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bujar Pira

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper attemts to ilustrate how the managers and the staff of a 5 star hotel in Kosovo define quality. Furthermore, it explores the number of critical success factors related to TQM culture and how they are applied in the hotel operations. Different theories related to the quality in the field of service provision, more particular in hospitality or hotel sector and the introduction of the TQM culture in the same sector. A conceptual framework based on existing theories and literature is developed which is than confirms through the research findings and analysis. The findings suggest that most features associated with TQM, like critical success factors assessed throughout the research (leadership, customer focus, training, communication, teams and staff empowerment can produce an advantage for the 5 star hotel operations that will affect the quality of service. Furthermore, it confirms that some of the TQM aspects are applied and can be applied in 5 star hotel operations in Kosovo. The issue is whether these aspects are understood as TQM principles and whether their added value is embraced in the day-to-day running of the hotel. The outcomes imply that, indeed, the TQM culture is present in the The Hotel, a 5 star hotel in Kosovo. Some of the critical success factors are directly linked to TQM and some less and it also provides suggestions for improvement where needed, especially related to specific tools that are integral parts of the TQM culture.

  10. Examining the Feasibilities of Industry 4.0 for the Hospitality Sector with the Lens of Management Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Shamim, S.; Cang, Shuang; Yu, H.N.A.; Liu, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Industry 4.0 and its impact in the manufacturing sector are well documented. However, the service sector is understudied, and it is also facing the challenges of mass customization, digital enhancement, smart work environment, and efficient supply chain. The aim of this study is to fill this research gap by exploring the issues of Industry 4.0 in the service sector, with cases in the hospitality industry. All the challenges of Industry 4.0 require continuous innovation and learning, which is ...

  11. [Job satisfaction among Norwegian doctors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylenna, Magne; Aasland, Olaf Gjerløw

    2010-05-20

    Doctors' job satisfaction has been discussed internationally in recent years based on reports of increasing professional dissatisfaction. We have studied Norwegian doctors' job satisfaction and their general satisfaction with life. A survey was conducted among a representative sample of practicing Norwegian doctors in 2008. The validated 10-item Job Satisfaction Scale was used to assess job satisfaction. 1,072 (65 %) doctors responded. They reported a mean job satisfaction of 5.3 on a scale from 1 (very dissatisfied) to 7 (very satisfied). Job satisfaction increased with increasing age. Private practice specialists reported the highest level of job satisfaction (5.8), and general practitioners reported higher job satisfaction (5.5) than hospital doctors (5.1). Among specialty groups, community doctors scored highest (5.6) and doctors in surgical disciplines lowest (5.0). While long working hours was negatively correlated with job satisfaction, the perception of being professionally updated and having part-time affiliation(s) in addition to a regular job were positively correlated with job satisfaction. 52.9 % of doctors reported a very high general satisfaction. Norwegian doctors have a high level of job satisfaction. Satisfaction with life in general is also high and at least in line with that in the Norwegian population.

  12. Hospital Mergers in Norway: Employee Health and Turnover to Three Destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Holm Ingelsrud

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the probability of turnover to three destinations following hospital merg- ers: within the hospital sector, out of the hospital sector, and out of work. It is hypothesized that mergers increase turnover to nonemployment among employees with poor health and increase turnover to employment outside of the hospital sector among healthy employees. Discrete-time survival analyses show that mergers increase turnover within the hospital sector for all employ- ees, regardless of health. Turnover to other sectors and out of work does not increase. Possible explanations for the limited turnover out of the sector associated with mergers are aspects of the Norwegian labor market such as the institution of employee participation, low unemployment, and labor shortages within hospitals.

  13. Convergent and divergent country trends in coordinated wage-setting and collective bargaining in the public hospitals sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimshaw, D.; Jaehrling, K.; van der Meer, M.; Méhaut, P.; Shimron, N.

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on the findings of research in the public hospitals sector in five European countries1—France, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway and the UK—this article assesses the character of change in wage setting and collective bargaining. It demonstrates the diversity of national arrangements by

  14. Costs of Dengue Control Activities and Hospitalizations in the Public Health Sector during an Epidemic Year in Urban Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalagala, Neil; Tissera, Hasitha; Palihawadana, Paba; Amarasinghe, Ananda; Ambagahawita, Anuradha; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Shepard, Donald S; Tozan, Yeşim

    2016-02-01

    Reported as a public health problem since the 1960s in Sri Lanka, dengue has become a high priority disease for public health authorities. The Ministry of Health is responsible for controlling dengue and other disease outbreaks and associated health care. The involvement of large numbers of public health staff in dengue control activities year-round and the provision of free medical care to dengue patients at secondary care hospitals place a formidable financial burden on the public health sector. We estimated the public sector costs of dengue control activities and the direct costs of hospitalizations in Colombo, the most heavily urbanized district in Sri Lanka, during the epidemic year of 2012 from the Ministry of Health's perspective. The financial costs borne by public health agencies and hospitals are collected using cost extraction tools designed specifically for the study and analysed retrospectively using a combination of activity-based and gross costing approaches. The total cost of dengue control and reported hospitalizations was estimated at US$3.45 million (US$1.50 per capita) in Colombo district in 2012. Personnel costs accounted for the largest shares of the total costs of dengue control activities (79%) and hospitalizations (46%). The results indicated a per capita cost of US$0.42 for dengue control activities. The average costs per hospitalization ranged between US$216-609 for pediatric cases and between US$196-866 for adult cases according to disease severity and treatment setting. This analysis is a first attempt to assess the economic burden of dengue response in the public health sector in Sri Lanka. Country-specific evidence is needed for setting public health priorities and deciding about the deployment of existing or new technologies. Our results suggest that dengue poses a major economic burden on the public health sector in Sri Lanka.

  15. Costs of Dengue Control Activities and Hospitalizations in the Public Health Sector during an Epidemic Year in Urban Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalagala, Neil; Tissera, Hasitha; Palihawadana, Paba; Amarasinghe, Ananda; Ambagahawita, Anuradha; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Shepard, Donald S.; Tozan, Yeşim

    2016-01-01

    Background Reported as a public health problem since the 1960s in Sri Lanka, dengue has become a high priority disease for public health authorities. The Ministry of Health is responsible for controlling dengue and other disease outbreaks and associated health care. The involvement of large numbers of public health staff in dengue control activities year-round and the provision of free medical care to dengue patients at secondary care hospitals place a formidable financial burden on the public health sector. Methods We estimated the public sector costs of dengue control activities and the direct costs of hospitalizations in Colombo, the most heavily urbanized district in Sri Lanka, during the epidemic year of 2012 from the Ministry of Health’s perspective. The financial costs borne by public health agencies and hospitals are collected using cost extraction tools designed specifically for the study and analysed retrospectively using a combination of activity-based and gross costing approaches. Results The total cost of dengue control and reported hospitalizations was estimated at US$3.45 million (US$1.50 per capita) in Colombo district in 2012. Personnel costs accounted for the largest shares of the total costs of dengue control activities (79%) and hospitalizations (46%). The results indicated a per capita cost of US$0.42 for dengue control activities. The average costs per hospitalization ranged between US$216–609 for pediatric cases and between US$196–866 for adult cases according to disease severity and treatment setting. Conclusions This analysis is a first attempt to assess the economic burden of dengue response in the public health sector in Sri Lanka. Country-specific evidence is needed for setting public health priorities and deciding about the deployment of existing or new technologies. Our results suggest that dengue poses a major economic burden on the public health sector in Sri Lanka. PMID:26910907

  16. Frequency of Magnetic Resonance Imaging patterns of tuberculous spondylitis in a public sector hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Sumera; Haider, Shahbaz

    2016-01-01

    To determine frequencies of different MRI patterns of tuberculous spondylitisin a public sector hospital in Karachi. This descriptive multidisciplinary case series study was done from October 25, 2011 to May 28, 2012 in Radiology Department and Department of Medicine in the Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center Karachi. MRI scans (dorsal / lumbosacral spine) of the Patients presenting with backache in Medical OPD, were performed in Radiology Department. Axial and sagittal images of T1 weighted, T2 weighted and STIR sequences of the affected region were taken. A total of 140 patients who were diagnosed as having tuberculous spondylitis were further evaluated and analyzed for having different patterns of involvement of the spine and compared with similar studies. Among frequencies of different MRI pattern of tuberculous spondylitis, contiguous vertebral involvement was 100%, discal involvement 98.6%, paravertebral abscess 92.1% cases, epidural abscess 91.4%, spinal cord / thecal sac compression 89.3%, vertebral collapse 72.9%, gibbus deformity 42.9% and psoas abscess 36.4%. Contiguous vertebral involvement was commonest MRI pattern, followed by disk involvement, paravertebral & epidural abscesses, thecal sac compression and vertebral collapse.

  17. On Apologizing in Norwegian

    OpenAIRE

    Awedyk, Witosław

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses selected points concerning the verbal realization of the speech act of apology in Norwegian. It sets out to establish prevailing tendencies in the choice of apology strategies applied by the native speakers of Norwegian. The present findings, which seem to indicate that Norwegian apology strategies are fairly routinized, ought to be perceived as preliminary as a more detailed analysis of apology formulae will be presented in an upcoming article.

  18. Geographical distribution and profile of medical doctors in public sector hospitals of the Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntuli, Samuel T; Maboya, Edwin

    2017-09-27

    The shortage and unequal distribution of medical doctors in low- and middle-income countries continues to be a public health concern. To establish the geographical distribution and demographic profile of medical doctors in public sector hospitals of the Limpopo Province, South Africa. The PERSAL system was used to obtain information on the number of medical doctors employed in public sector hospitals of the Limpopo Province. Data were exported from PERSAL's database and then analysed using STATA version 9.0. The mean age of the 887 medical doctors was 40.1 ± 11.2 years (range 24-79 years). Sixty per cent of the doctors were male, 66% were aged ≤ 45 years and 84% were African. Most of the doctors (86%) were medical officers, of which 55% had < 5 years working experience. Overall, the doctor-to-population ratio for the five districts in the province was 16.4/100 000, with Capricorn (33.7/100 000) and Waterberg (20.2/100 000) recording the highest ratios. A large proportion (43%) of medical officers are employed in the Capricorn District, of which 71% were practising at the tertiary hospital. This study demonstrated a shortage and maldistribution of medical doctors in the public sector hospitals of the Limpopo Province. This has a potentially negative effect on the delivery of an appropriate and efficient healthcare service to the population and requires urgent attention.

  19. Parallel imports of hospital pharmaceuticals: An empirical analysis of price effects from parallel imports and the design of procurement procedures in the Danish hospital sector

    OpenAIRE

    Hostenkamp, Gisela; Kronborg, Christian; Arendt, Jacob Nielsen

    2012-01-01

    We analyse pharmaceutical imports in the Danish hospital sector. In this market medicines are publicly tendered using first-price sealed-bid procurement auctions. We analyse whether parallel imports have an effect on pharmaceutical prices and whether the way tenders were organised matters for the competitive effect of parallel imports on prices. Our theoretical analysis shows that the design of the procurement rules affects both market structure and pharmaceutical prices. Parallel imports may...

  20. Conceptual framework for the study of food waste generation and prevention in the hospitality sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papargyropoulou, Effie; Wright, Nigel; Lozano, Rodrigo; Steinberger, Julia; Padfield, Rory; Ujang, Zaini

    2016-03-01

    Food waste has significant detrimental economic, environmental and social impacts. The magnitude and complexity of the global food waste problem has brought it to the forefront of the environmental agenda; however, there has been little research on the patterns and drivers of food waste generation, especially outside the household. This is partially due to weaknesses in the methodological approaches used to understand such a complex problem. This paper proposes a novel conceptual framework to identify and explain the patterns and drivers of food waste generation in the hospitality sector, with the aim of identifying food waste prevention measures. This conceptual framework integrates data collection and analysis methods from ethnography and grounded theory, complemented with concepts and tools from industrial ecology for the analysis of quantitative data. A case study of food waste generation at a hotel restaurant in Malaysia is used as an example to illustrate how this conceptual framework can be applied. The conceptual framework links the biophysical and economic flows of food provisioning and waste generation, with the social and cultural practices associated with food preparation and consumption. The case study demonstrates that food waste is intrinsically linked to the way we provision and consume food, the material and socio-cultural context of food consumption and food waste generation. Food provisioning, food consumption and food waste generation should be studied together in order to fully understand how, where and most importantly why food waste is generated. This understanding will then enable to draw detailed, case specific food waste prevention plans addressing the material and socio-economic aspects of food waste generation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [The Hospital, patients, health and territories Act and the recentralisation of the social and long term care sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdain, Alain; Muñoz, Jorge; Hudebine, Hervé

    2017-07-10

    Hypothesis: The 2009 Hospital, Patients, Health and Territories Act crystallises a central government attempt to regain control over the social and long term care sector, which involves the utilisation of policy instruments borrowed from the hospital sector: capped budgets, agreements on targets and resources, competitive tendering or quasi-market mechanisms involving hospitals and services, etc. This paper is therefore based on the hypothesis of a recentralisation and healthicization of the social and long term care sector, with a key role for the regional health authorities. Method and data: 27 semi-structured interviews were conducted with actors operating within and outside the regional health agencies and thereafter analysed using Alceste. The aim was to describe and to analyse the positioning of the RHAs in relation to key actors of the social and long-term care sector in 2 regions in 2011. Results: Key issues for public organisations include the style of planning and knowhow transfer, while the professionals were chiefly concerned with the intensity of the ambulatory turn and needs analysis methodology. The compromises forged were related to types of democratic legitimacy, namely representative or participatory democracy. Conclusion: There is little evidence to support the initial hypothesis, namely the existence of a link between the creation of RHAs and a recentralisation of health policy between 2009 and 2013. One may rather suggest that a reconfiguration of the activities and resources of the actors operating at the centre (RHAs and conseils départementaux) and at the periphery (territorial units of the RHAs and third sector umbrella organisations) has occurred.

  2. The indirect costs of agency nurses in South Africa: a case study in two public sector hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispel, Laetitia C; Moorman, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Globally, flexible work arrangements - through the use of temporary nursing staff - are an important strategy for dealing with nursing shortages in hospitals. The objective of the study was to determine the direct and indirect costs of agency nurses, as well as the advantages and the problems associated with agency nurse utilisation in two public sector hospitals in South Africa. Following ethical approval, two South African public sector hospitals were selected purposively. Direct costs were determined through an analysis of hospital expenditure information for a 5-year period from 2005 until 2010, obtained from the national transversal Basic Accounting System database. At each hospital, semi-structured interviews were conducted with the chief executive officer, executive nursing services manager, the maternity or critical care unit nursing manager, the human resource manager, and the finance manager. Indirect costs measured were the time spent on pre-employment checks, and nurse recruitment, orientation, and supervision. All expenditure is expressed in South African Rands (R: 1 USD=R7, 2010 prices). In the 2009/10 financial year, Hospital 1 spent R38.86 million (US$5.55 million) on nursing agencies, whereas Hospital 2 spent R10.40 million (US$1.49 million). The total estimated time spent per week on indirect cost activities at Hospital 1 was 51.5 hours, and 60 hours at Hospital 2. The estimated monetary value of this time at Hospital 1 was R962,267 (US$137,467) and at Hospital 2 the value was R300,121 (US$42,874), thus exceeding the weekly direct costs of nursing agencies. Agency nurses assisted the selected hospitals in dealing with problems of nurse recruitment, absenteeism, shortages, and skills gaps in specialised clinical areas. The problems experienced with agency nurses included their perceived lack of commitment, unreliability, and providing sub-optimal quality of patient care. Hospital managers and policy-makers need to address the effective

  3. The indirect costs of agency nurses in South Africa: a case study in two public sector hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia C. Rispel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, flexible work arrangements – through the use of temporary nursing staff – are an important strategy for dealing with nursing shortages in hospitals. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the direct and indirect costs of agency nurses, as well as the advantages and the problems associated with agency nurse utilisation in two public sector hospitals in South Africa. Methods: Following ethical approval, two South African public sector hospitals were selected purposively. Direct costs were determined through an analysis of hospital expenditure information for a 5-year period from 2005 until 2010, obtained from the national transversal Basic Accounting System database. At each hospital, semi-structured interviews were conducted with the chief executive officer, executive nursing services manager, the maternity or critical care unit nursing manager, the human resource manager, and the finance manager. Indirect costs measured were the time spent on pre-employment checks, and nurse recruitment, orientation, and supervision. All expenditure is expressed in South African Rands (R: 1 USD=R7, 2010 prices. Results: In the 2009/10 financial year, Hospital 1 spent R38.86 million (US$5.55 million on nursing agencies, whereas Hospital 2 spent R10.40 million (US$1.49 million. The total estimated time spent per week on indirect cost activities at Hospital 1 was 51.5 hours, and 60 hours at Hospital 2. The estimated monetary value of this time at Hospital 1 was R962,267 (US$137,467 and at Hospital 2 the value was R300,121 (US$42,874, thus exceeding the weekly direct costs of nursing agencies. Agency nurses assisted the selected hospitals in dealing with problems of nurse recruitment, absenteeism, shortages, and skills gaps in specialised clinical areas. The problems experienced with agency nurses included their perceived lack of commitment, unreliability, and providing sub-optimal quality of patient care. Conclusion

  4. Hospital utilization and out of pocket expenditure in public and private sectors under the universal government health insurance scheme in Chhattisgarh State, India: Lessons for universal health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Sulakshana; Schneider, Helen; Dixit, Priyanka

    2017-01-01

    Research on impact of publicly financed health insurance has paid relatively little attention to the nature of healthcare provision the schemes engage. India's National Health Insurance Scheme or RSBY was made universal by Chhattisgarh State in 2012. In the State, public and private sectors provide hospital services in a context of extensive gender, social, economic and geographical inequities. This study examined enrolment, utilization (public and private) and out of pocket (OOP) expenditure for the insured and uninsured, in Chhattisgarh. The Chhattisgarh State Central sample (n = 6026 members) of the 2014 National Sample Survey (71st Round) on Health was extracted and analyzed. Variables of enrolment, hospitalization, out of pocket (OOP) expenditure and catastrophic expenditure were descriptively analyzed. Multivariate analyses of factors associated with enrolment, hospitalization (by sector) and OOP expenditure were conducted, taking into account gender, socio-economic status, residence, type of facility and ailment. Insurance coverage was 38.8%. Rates of hospitalization were 33/1000 population among the insured and 29/1000 among the uninsured. Of those insured and hospitalized, 67.2% utilized the public sector. Women, rural residents, Scheduled Tribes and poorer groups were more likely to utilize the public sector for hospitalizations. Although the insured were less likely to incur out of pocket (OOP) expenditure, 95.1% of insured private sector users and 66.0% of insured public sector users, still incurred costs. Median OOP payments in the private sector were eight times those in the public sector. Of households with at least one member hospitalized, 35.5% experienced catastrophic health expenditures (>10% monthly household consumption expenditure). The study finds that despite insurance coverage, the majority still incurred OOP expenditure. The public sector was nevertheless less expensive, and catered to the more vulnerable groups. It suggests the need to

  5. Hospital utilization and out of pocket expenditure in public and private sectors under the universal government health insurance scheme in Chhattisgarh State, India: Lessons for universal health coverage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulakshana Nandi

    Full Text Available Research on impact of publicly financed health insurance has paid relatively little attention to the nature of healthcare provision the schemes engage. India's National Health Insurance Scheme or RSBY was made universal by Chhattisgarh State in 2012. In the State, public and private sectors provide hospital services in a context of extensive gender, social, economic and geographical inequities. This study examined enrolment, utilization (public and private and out of pocket (OOP expenditure for the insured and uninsured, in Chhattisgarh. The Chhattisgarh State Central sample (n = 6026 members of the 2014 National Sample Survey (71st Round on Health was extracted and analyzed. Variables of enrolment, hospitalization, out of pocket (OOP expenditure and catastrophic expenditure were descriptively analyzed. Multivariate analyses of factors associated with enrolment, hospitalization (by sector and OOP expenditure were conducted, taking into account gender, socio-economic status, residence, type of facility and ailment. Insurance coverage was 38.8%. Rates of hospitalization were 33/1000 population among the insured and 29/1000 among the uninsured. Of those insured and hospitalized, 67.2% utilized the public sector. Women, rural residents, Scheduled Tribes and poorer groups were more likely to utilize the public sector for hospitalizations. Although the insured were less likely to incur out of pocket (OOP expenditure, 95.1% of insured private sector users and 66.0% of insured public sector users, still incurred costs. Median OOP payments in the private sector were eight times those in the public sector. Of households with at least one member hospitalized, 35.5% experienced catastrophic health expenditures (>10% monthly household consumption expenditure. The study finds that despite insurance coverage, the majority still incurred OOP expenditure. The public sector was nevertheless less expensive, and catered to the more vulnerable groups. It suggests

  6. Using integrated control methodology to optimize energy performance for the guest rooms in UAE hospitality sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlFaris, Fadi; Abu-Hijleh, Bassam; Abdul-Ameer, Alaa

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy efficiency in 4 and 5 star luxury hotels in the United Arab Emirates. • The normalized energy use index (EUI) ranges between 241.5 and 348.4 kWh/m"2/year for post 2003 hotels. • The normalized energy use index (EUI) ranges between 348.4 and 511.1 kWh/m"2/year for pre 2003 hotels. • Integrated HVAC and lighting control strategies can reduce total energy consumption by up to 31.5%. - Abstract: The hospitality sector is growing rapidly in the UAE and especially in Dubai. As a result, it contributes substantially in the UAE's carbon footprint. This research was conducted to measure, evaluate and increase the energy efficiency in 4 and 5 star luxury hotels in UAE. Energy benchmarking analysis was used to analyze the energy data of 19 hotel buildings to differentiate between usual and best practice of energy performance. Moreover, the normalized energy use index (EUI) kWh/m"2/year has been identified for the best, usual and poor practice hotels. It was found that the normalized EUI ranges between 241.5 kWh/m"2/year or less as a best practice to more than 361.3 kWh/m"2/year of the poor energy practice for the hotels constructed after the year of 2003. Whereas the hotels' energy data showed higher values for those constructed before 2003, as the normalized EUI varies between 348.4 kWh/m"2/year as best practice to more than 511.1 kWh/m"2/year. An integrated control strategy has been employed to improve the energy performance and assess the energy saving for the guestroom. This technique showed that the overall energy performance improvement reached to 31.5% out of entire energy consumption of the hotel including electricity and gas. This reduction resulted in 43.2% savings from the cooling system and 13.2% from the lighting system due to the installing of the integrated control system in the guestrooms.

  7. Assessing a Norwegian translation of the Organizational Climate Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstrøm, Vilde Hoff; Lone, Jon Anders; Bjørkli, Cato A; Ulleberg, Pål; Hoff, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the Norwegian translation of the Organizational Climate Measure developed by Patterson and colleagues. The Organizational Climate Measure is a global measure of organizational climate based on Quinn and Rohrbaugh's competing values model. The survey was administered to a Norwegian branch of an international service sector company (N = 555). The results revealed satisfactory internal reliability and interrater agreement for the 17 scales, and confirmatory factor analysis supported the original factor structure. The findings gave preliminary support for the Organizational Climate Measure as a reliable measure with a stable factor structure, and indicated that it is potentially useful in the Norwegian context.

  8. The role of human capital and collaboration with academia for innovation in hospitality sector: the case of Mugla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummuhan Gökovalı

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of human capital and collaboration with academia for innovation in the hospitality sector has never been denied, but the empirical evidence for this link is inadequate as far as Turkey is concerned. This paper intends to contribute to the knowledge in this area by employingself generated survey data for the province of Mugla, which is one of the most attractive holiday destinations in Turkey. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effects of human capital and collaboration with academia on innovation performance of hospitality firms. The results of the survey data and empirical investigation of logit and probit econometric models indicate that these factors are indeed conducive factors for the innovation performance of hospitality firms

  9. Assessment of bacterial contamination in the sectors of Clinical Medicine and Surgery Small Animal Veterinary Hospital, UFCG, PB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Alves Dias

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Dias R.A., Souza A.P. & Garino Júnior F. [Assessment of bacterial contamination in the sectors of Clinical Medicine and Surgery Small Animal Veterinary Hospital, UFCG, PB.] Avaliação da contaminação bacteriana nos setores de Clínica e Cirurgia de Pequenos Animais do Hospital Veterinário da UFCG, PB. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(2:173-177, 2015. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Av. Universitária, s/n, Bairro Santa Cecília, Patos, PB 58708-110, Brasil. E-mail: rafa.ad@hotmail.com With this study aimed to evaluate bacterial contamination sectors Clinic and Surgery Small Animal Veterinary Hospital UFCG, in order to prevent infections in patients attending hospital. An assessment of the environmental contamination of sectors before and after disinfection, where was collected samples of air, surfaces and hands of people who deal directly with the animals. Then the test was made of the effectiveness of disinfectants used. Of the 40 samples collected, was identified in 5 of them (12.5% Enterobacteria such as Escherichia coli and Klebisiella pneumoniae and in 22 samples (55% was identified Staphylococcus coagulase negative and positive. Was seen in the quantitative analysis that the number of cfu in some sample was above the indicated. The test showed that the disinfectant solution was effective against all micro-organisms found in the environments. The results indicate that more attention to procedures performed in the disinfection of areas evaluated, and also include measures to prevent contamination at these sites.

  10. Stakeholder influence in public sector information systems strategy implementation-The case of public hospitals in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwabamungu, Boroto; Brown, Irwin; Williams, Quentin

    2018-01-01

    Recent literature on organisational strategy has called for greater emphasis on individuals (stakeholders) and what they do in the process of strategizing. Public sector organisations have to engage with an array of heterogeneous stakeholders in fulfilling their mandate. The public health sector in particular needs to engage with a diversity of stakeholders at local, regional and national levels when strategising. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of stakeholder relations on the implementation of Information Systems (IS) strategy in public hospitals in South Africa. An interpretive approach using two provinces was employed. The Activity Analysis and Development (ActAD) framework, an enhanced form of activity theory, was used as the theoretical framework. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews, meetings, documents analysis, physical artefacts and observation. The collected data was analysed using thematic analysis. Findings reveal that IS strategy implementation in public hospitals involves a large and complex network of stakeholder groups at different levels, and over different time periods. These stakeholder groups act in accordance with formal and informal roles, rules and modalities. Various contextual conditions together with the actions of, and interactions between stakeholder groups give rise to the situationality of stakeholder relations dynamics and strategy implementation. The multiple actions and interactions over time lead to the realisation of some aspects of the IS strategy in public hospitals. Given the complexity and dynamism of the context there are also certain unplanned implementations as well. These relationships are captured in a Stakeholder Relations Influence (SRI) framework. The SRI framework can be assistive in the assessment and mapping of stakeholders and stakeholder relations, and the assessment of the implications of these relations for effective IS strategy implementation in public hospitals. The

  11. [Orientation of patients referred by their general practionner to the public or private hospital sector in France: A prospective epidemiologic study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, P-G; Kernéis, S; Turbelin, C; Souty, C; Arena, C; Gavazzi, G; Sarazin, M; Blanchon, T; Hanslik, T

    2012-12-01

    In-patients characteristics generate cost differences between hospitals. In France, there are few data on the characteristics on the patients referred to hospitals by their general practitioners (GPs) and none on the predictors of referral to the public or for-profit hospitals. The aim of this study was to analyze those characteristics and the predictors of referral to the public or for-profit hospitals. We collected, prospectively, the request for hospitalizations made by the GPs of the Sentinelles network in France, from 2007 to 2009. Patients' characteristics and also the reasons for that request were analyzed. A logistic regression was used to compare the population between local hospitals. Ten thousand seven hundred and eighteen statements were collected. The median age was 73 years. Patients were women in 51% of the cases, and only 14% of the hospitalizations had been planned. Hospitalization in the public sector was preferred for young children and the elderly (Pprivate sector, patients addressed to the public sector were more often seen for emergencies (OR: 2.3 [2.0-2.8]), by a doctor different from their referring GP (OR: 1.7 [1.4-2.1]) and out of the GP's office. The reasons for hospital admission were different depending on the sector of hospitalization (Ppublic sector hospitals presented with greater comorbidity or more complex diagnosis (for example: feeling ill, fainting or syncope and fever) or a greater disability (for example: stroke, neurological and psychiatric diseases). This study suggests that GPs send their patients to the public or for-profit hospitals according to criteria of severity, comorbidity and disability. Copyright © 2012 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Stated preferences for future management developments in the hospitality sector: a case study of Abu Dhabi, UAE

    OpenAIRE

    Al Suwaidi, Hamed

    2014-01-01

    Abu-Dhabi (AD) is the largest of the seven Emirates that comprise the United Arab Emirates. Abu-Dhabi, the capital of the UAE with 1,493,000 inhabitants, accounts for 86.7% of the total surface area of the state. The emirate of Abu-Dhabi, through its Policy Agenda 2007-2008, the strategic Plan 2008-2012 and the Plan Vision Abu-Dhabi 2030 has recently re-branded itself and has made a series of assertive moves in order to boost the tourism and hospitality sectors as a means to a more diversifie...

  13. International comparisons of the technical efficiency of the hospital sector: panel data analysis of OECD countries using parametric and non-parametric approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varabyova, Yauheniya; Schreyögg, Jonas

    2013-09-01

    There is a growing interest in the cross-country comparisons of the performance of national health care systems. The present work provides a comparison of the technical efficiency of the hospital sector using unbalanced panel data from OECD countries over the period 2000-2009. The estimation of the technical efficiency of the hospital sector is performed using nonparametric data envelopment analysis (DEA) and parametric stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). Internal and external validity of findings is assessed by estimating the Spearman rank correlations between the results obtained in different model specifications. The panel-data analyses using two-step DEA and one-stage SFA show that countries, which have higher health care expenditure per capita, tend to have a more technically efficient hospital sector. Whether the expenditure is financed through private or public sources is not related to the technical efficiency of the hospital sector. On the other hand, the hospital sector in countries with higher income inequality and longer average hospital length of stay is less technically efficient. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Factors associated with occupancy of pharmacist positions in public sector hospitals in Uganda: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obua, Thomas Ocwa; Adome, Richard Odoi; Kutyabami, Paul; Kitutu, Freddy Eric; Kamba, Pakoyo Fadhiru

    2017-01-05

    Pharmacists are invaluable resources in health care. Their expertise in pharmacotherapy and medicine management both ensures that medicines of appropriate quality are available in health facilities at the right cost and are used appropriately. Unfortunately, some countries like Uganda have shortage of pharmacists in public health facilities, the dominant providers of care. This study investigated the factors that affect the occupancy of pharmacist positions in Uganda's public hospitals, including hiring patterns and job attraction and retention. A cross-sectional survey of 91 registered pharmacists practicing in Uganda and desk review of records from the country's health care worker (HCW) recruiting agency was done in the months of May, June, and July, 2016. Pharmacist interviews were done using self-administered structured questionnaire and analyzed by descriptive statistics and chi-square test. Slight majority (53%) of the interviewed pharmacists work in two sectors. About 60% of the pharmacists had ever applied for public hospital jobs. Of those who received offers (N = 46), 30% had declined them. Among those who accepted the offers (N = 41), 41% had already quit. Meanwhile, the pace of hiring pharmacists into Uganda's public sector is too slow. Low socio-economic status of family in childhood (χ 2  = 2.77, p = 0.10), admission through matriculation and diploma scheme (χ 2  = 2.37, p = 0.12), internship in countryside hospitals (χ 2  = 2.24, p = 0.13), working experience before pharmacy school (χ 2  = 2.21, p = 0.14), salary expectation (χ 2  = 1.76, p = 0.18), and rural secondary education (χ 2  = 1.75, p = 0.19) favored attraction but in a statistically insignificant manner. Retention was most favored by zero postgraduate qualification (χ 2  = 4.39, p = 0.04), matriculation and diploma admission scheme (χ 2  = 2.57, p = 0.11), and working experience in private sector (χ 2  = 2

  15. Hospital volunteerism as human resource solution: Motivation for both volunteers and the public health sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guinevere M. Lourens

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A volunteer programme with 50 registered volunteers was established in 2007 at a secondary-level public, semi-rural regional hospital in the Cape Winelands, South Africa. This was a rapid response to the extensive renovations and system changes brought about by the hospital revitalisation initiated in 2006 and the resultant expanded services, which required additional human resources. This study describes the hospital volunteer programme and provides hospital administrators with practical planning guidance for hospital volunteer programme implementation. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to (1 describe the outcomes of the hospital volunteer programme implementation intervention and (2 to make sound recommendations for volunteer programme implementation. Methodology and approach: A qualitative case-study methodology was employed using purposive sampling as a technique. Participants were recruited from a public hospital in the Western Cape. A case-study design was applied to explore the hospital volunteer programme implementation. In-depth interviews and a focus group discussion with thematic content analysis of transcripts as well as document reviews were conducted to conclude the study during 2015. The key participants were individually interviewed and included two members of the hospital management, two volunteers and one volunteer coordinator. A focus group discussion consisting of three volunteers was also conducted. Findings: The findings of this study indicate that a volunteer programme can meet needs and be a motivational force for both the individual volunteer and the organisation. However, it requires co-ordination and some secure funding to remain sustainable. Such a programme holds huge benefits in terms of human resource supplementation, organisational development, as well as the possibility of gainful employment for the previously unemployed. Practical implications: In practice, a health service contemplating a

  16. Competition in the Dutch hospital sector: an analysis of health care volume and cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbe-Alkemade, Y J F M; Groot, T L C M; Lindeboom, M

    2017-03-01

    This paper evaluates the impact of market competition on health care volume and cost. At the start of 2005, the financing system of Dutch hospitals started to be gradually changed from a closed-end budgeting system to a non-regulated price competitive prospective reimbursement system. The gradual implementation of price competition is a 'natural experiment' that provides a unique opportunity to analyze the effects of market competition on hospital behavior. We have access to a unique database, which contains hospital discharge data of diagnosis treatment combinations (DBCs) of individual patients, including detailed care activities. Difference-in-difference estimates show that the implementation of market-based competition leads to relatively lower total costs, production volume and number of activities overall. Difference-in-difference estimates on treatment level show that the average costs for outpatient DBCs decreased due to a decrease in the number of activities per DBC. The introduction of market competition led to an increase of average costs of inpatient DBCs. Since both volume and number of activities have not changed significantly, we conclude that the cost increase is likely the result of more expensive activities. A possible explanation for our finding is that hospitals look for possible efficiency improvements in predominantly outpatient care products that are relatively straightforward, using easily analyzable technologies. The effects of competition on average cost and the relative shares of inpatient and outpatient treatments on specialty level are significant but contrary for cardiology and orthopedics, suggesting that specialties react differently to competitive incentives.

  17. Competition in the Dutch hospital sector : an analysis of health care volume and cost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbe-Alkemade, Y. J F M; Groot, T. L C M; Lindeboom, M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper evaluates the impact of market competition on health care volume and cost. At the start of 2005, the financing system of Dutch hospitals started to be gradually changed from a closed-end budgeting system to a non-regulated price competitive prospective reimbursement system. The gradual

  18. Narrowing the Skills Gap for Innovation: An Empirical Study in the Hospital Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Casimiro; Escoval, Ana

    2014-09-23

    The current financial crisis and the increasing burden of chronic diseases are challenging hospitals to enhance their innovation capacity to deliver new and more effective health services. However, the shortage of skills has been widely recognized as a key obstacle for innovation. Ensuring the presence of a skilled workforce has become a priority for the health system in Portugal and across Europe. The aim of this study was to examine the demand of new skills and their influence in both investments in innovation and development of skills. We used a mixed-methods approach combining statistical analysis of data survey and content analysis of semistructured interviews with the Administration Boards of hospitals, using a nominal group technique. The results illustrate an increasing demand of a broad range of skills for innovation development, including responsibility and quality consciousness (with a significant increase of 55%, 52/95), adaptation skills (with an increase of 44%, 42/95) and cooperation and communication skills (with an increase of 55%, 52/95). Investments in the development of skills for innovation are mainly focused on aligning professional training with an organizational strategy (69%, 66/95) as well as collaboration in taskforces (61%, 58/95) and cross-department teams (60%, 57/95). However, the dynamics between the supply and demand of skills for innovation are better explained through a broader perspective of organizational changes towards enhancing learning opportunities and engagement of health professionals to boost innovation. The results of this study illustrate that hospitals are unlikely to enhance their innovation capacity if they pursue strategies failing to match the skills needed. Within this context, hospitals with high investments in innovation tend to invest more in skills development. The demand of skills and investments in training are influenced by many other factors, including the hospital's strategies, as well as changes in the

  19. Job satisfaction among nurses working in the private and public sectors: a qualitative study in tertiary care hospitals in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid S

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Saima Hamid,1 Asmat Ullah Malik,2 Irum Kamran,3 Musarat Ramzan41Health Services Academy, Islamabad, Pakistan; 2Integrated Health Services, Islamabad, Pakistan; 3GIZ, Islamabad, Pakistan; 4Wah Medical College, Wah Cantt, University of Health Sciences, Wah, PakistanBackground: Many low and middle income countries lack the human resources needed to deliver essential health interventions. A health care system with a limited number of nurses cannot function effectively. Although the recommended nurse to doctor ratio is 4:1, the ratio in Pakistan is reversed, with 2.7 doctors to one nurse.Methods: A qualitative study using narrative analysis was undertaken in public and private tertiary care hospitals in Pakistan to examine and compare job satisfaction among nurses and understand the factors affecting their work climate. Interactive interviews were conducted with nurses working with inpatients and outpatients.Results: All of the respondents had joined the profession by choice and were supported by their families in their decision to pursue their career, but now indicated that they were dissatisfied with their jobs. Three types of narratives were identified, namely, “Working in the spirit of serving humanity”, “Working against all odds”, and “Working in a functional system and facing pressures of increased accountability”. Nurses working in a public sector hospital are represented in the first two narrative types, whereas the third represents those working in a private sector hospital. The first narrative represents nurses who were new in the profession and despite hard working conditions were performing their duties. The second narrative represents nurses working in the public sector with limited resources, and the third narrative is a representation of nurses who were working hard and stressed out despite a well functioning system.Conclusion: The study shows that the presence of a well trained health workforce is vital, and that certain

  20. Staff training in hospitality sector as benefit for improved service quality

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanka Nestoroska; Irina Petrovska

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary hotel industry is facing many challenges which are closely connected to the changes that occur both in the field of tourist demand and tourist supply. The changes refer to quality of services at first place, since the needs of tourists change rapidly towards higher quality and different products. Having in mind the character of the activities in hospitality industry where a direct contact between employees and guests is necessary for providing and realizing the services, the succ...

  1. Supertankers are threatening the Norwegian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steensen, Anders J.; Haaland, Leif

    2003-01-01

    The article has three sections. The first discusses the environmental problems the tanker traffic poses to the Norwegian coastal waters and shores. Various precautionary measures and requirements are briefly presented. The size of the present marine transportation and the future Russian marine petroleum activity in the Barents area are briefly mentioned. The second named, conflicting exploration drilling, presents the conflicting interests regarding exploratory drilling in the Barents Sea in Norway. The environmental problems are large and have lead to an on-going reevaluation. Some pollution abatement measures are mentioned. The regional economic development is briefly outlined. The third deals with the Norwegian governmental safety activities and presents a brief survey of the official safety activities in the petroleum sector in Norway and the international cooperation particularly with the Russian Federation. The emphasis is on the maritime security, the safety of the maritime transportation systems, the environmental aspects such as pollution management and on the legal frameworks

  2. Deaf Workers in Restaurant, Retail, and Hospitality Sector Employment: Harnessing Research to Promote Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokar, Hayley

    2017-01-01

    A quarter-century after the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA, 1990 ), workplace accommodation is still a struggle for deaf employees and their managers. Many challenges are the result of communication barriers that can be overcome through much needed-although often absent-advocacy and training. This article highlights the literature on the employment of deaf individuals in the United States service industries of food service, retail, and hospitality conducted from 2000 to 2016. Exploring dimensions of both hiring and active workplace accommodation, suggestions are made for how social work advocates can harness information and strengthen their approaches for educating managers and supporting workers.

  3. Moniliformin in Norwegian grain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlig, S.; Torp, M.; Jarp, J.; Parich, A.; Gutleb, A.C.; Krska, R.

    2004-01-01

    Norwegian grain samples (73 oats, 75 barley, 83 wheat) from the 2000-02 growing seasons were examined for contamination with moniliformin, and the association between the fungal metabolite and the number of kernels infected with common Fusaria was investigated. Before quantification of moniliformin

  4. The work engagement of nurses in multiple hospital sectors in Saudi Arabia: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboshaiqah, Ahmad E; Hamadi, Hanadi Y; Salem, Olfat A; Zakari, Nazik M A

    2016-05-01

    To examine the differences in work engagement among nurses in Saudi Arabia and its relationship with personal characteristics across different hospital affiliations. Quality care requires an adequate supply of engaged nurses who are dedicated, energised and absorbed in their work. In the nursing profession, work engagement is of considerable importance, owing to the shortage of nurses and the continuing reduction in healthcare costs. An analytic comparative cross-sectional design was used. Eight hospitals from three provinces and different affiliation types participated in the study. The Utrecht work engagement scale (UWES) was used to measure 980 nurses' work engagement. The findings indicate that nurses' total engagement scores were closer to the higher end of the Likert scale. The findings indicate generally high levels of work engagement, particularly regarding the element of dedication. Furthermore, the study shows significant differences in nurses' engagement among the various work settings and in nurses' age and experience. A number of nurses' personal characteristics have independent influences on their work engagement. Nurse leaders should acknowledge that a statement of professional nursing scope of practice is a necessity to encourage and fulfil engagement. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Future challanges for the maturing Norwegian salmon aquaculture industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asche, Frank; Guttormsen, Atle G.; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze total factor productivity change in the Norwegian salmon aquaculture sector from 1996 to 2008. During this period, the production has on average been growing with 8% per year. At the same time, the price of salmon has stabilized indicating that an increase in demand...... factor to future production growth in the salmon aquaculture industry....

  6. Characteristic and quality control test in sector collimator gamma knife perfexion at Siloam hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manik, Jhon Wesly; Hidayanto, Eko; Sutanto, Heri

    2017-01-01

    In this study conducted to evaluate the collimator 4 mm, 8 mm, 16 mm to determine the level of precision Gamma Knife Perfexion there three years and eight months has not carried out measurements after the first year and verify the alignment of sector 1-8. Measurement with three axes (x-axis, y-axis, z-axis) using the film Gafcromic EBT-3, which will be signaled to a central point in the film to be measured and given a dose of 5 Gy for 10 minutes and then scanned and analyzed using ImageJ softwere 1.50 and dose rate in film comparison with measurent dose rate using electrometer. Alignment of Patient-Positioning System (PPS) with Radiation Focal Point (RFP) determination of quality control testing each collimator 4 mm in the standard test with < 0.1 and > 0.4 mm passive voice AAPM 54. The results of the standard are still in conformity item 0.21 mm for 4 mm and corelasi dose rate film and measurent using electrometer collimator 4 mm = 0.965, 8 mm = 0.964, 16 mm = 0.959. (paper)

  7. Vitamin d deficiency in healthy female medical students of a public sector hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanani, F.H.; Noor, F.; Jamil, F.; Khanani, R.; Hossein, N.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine Vitamin D levels in healthy female medical students. Setting and duration of study:Public sector university in Karachi during the month of November 2010. Subjects and Methods: A total of 84 healthy, female medical students were included in the study. 25(OH) Vitamin D, serum calcium, phosphorous and alkaline phosphatase levels were determined in their blood samples.Vitamin D was analyzed by chemiluminesence technique, while serum calcium, phosphorous and alkaline phosphatase were determined photometrically. A comprehensive questionnaire was also filled out by 57 students which included biometrics, dietary habits, sun exposure and physical activity details. Results Almost all (98.8%) subjects had low levels of vitamin D, with 96.4% having values less than 10 ng/ml. There was no correlation of low Vitamin D levels with calcium, phosphorous or alkaline phosphatase levels or with biometric measurements. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency was very common even in apparently healthy young females with no correlation to calcium, phosphorous and alkaline phosphatase levels. Nationwide studies are needed to see the cases for low levels of vitamins D. (author)

  8. Characteristic and quality control test in sector collimator gamma knife perfexion at Siloam hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesly Manik, Jhon; Hidayanto, Eko; Sutanto, Heri

    2017-01-01

    In this study conducted to evaluate the collimator 4 mm, 8 mm, 16 mm to determine the level of precision Gamma Knife Perfexion there three years and eight months has not carried out measurements after the first year and verify the alignment of sector 1-8. Measurement with three axes (x-axis, y-axis, z-axis) using the film Gafcromic EBT-3, which will be signaled to a central point in the film to be measured and given a dose of 5 Gy for 10 minutes and then scanned and analyzed using ImageJ softwere 1.50 and dose rate in film comparison with measurent dose rate using electrometer. Alignment of Patient-Positioning System (PPS) with Radiation Focal Point (RFP) determination of quality control testing each collimator 4 mm in the standard test with 0.4 mm passive voice AAPM 54. The results of the standard are still in conformity item 0.21 mm for 4 mm and corelasi dose rate film and measurent using electrometer collimator 4 mm = 0.965, 8 mm = 0.964, 16 mm = 0.959.

  9. Patterns of adherence to and compliance with the Portuguese smoke-free law in the leisure-hospitality sector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fátima Reis

    Full Text Available In 2008, the Portuguese smoke-free law came into effect including partial bans in the leisure-hospitality (LH sector. The objective of the study is to assess the prevalence of smoking control policies (total ban, smoking permission and designated smoking areas adopted by the LH sector in Portugal. The levels of noncompliance with each policy are investigated as well as the main factors associated with smoking permission and noncompliance with the law.Cross-sectional study conducted between January 2010 and May 2011. A random sample of venues was selected from the Portuguese LH sector database, proportionally stratified according to type, size and geographical area. All venues were assessed in loco by an observer. The independent effects of venues' characteristics on smoking permission and the level of noncompliance with the law were explored using logistic regression.Overall, 1.412 venues were included. Total ban policy was adopted by 75.9% of venues, while 8.4% had designated smoking areas. Smoking ban was more prevalent in restaurants (85.9%. Only 29.7% of discos/bars/pubs opted for complete ban. Full or partial smoking permission was higher in discos/bar/pubs (OR = 7.37; 95%CI 4.87 to 11.17. Noncompliance with the law was higher in venues allowing smoking and lower in places with complete ban (33.6% and 7.6% respectively, p<0.001. Discos/bars/pubs with full smoking permission had the highest level of noncompliance (OR = 3.31; 95%CI 1.40 to 7.83.Our findings show a high adherence to smoking ban policy by the Portuguese LH sector. Nonetheless, one quarter of the venues is fully or partially permissive towards smoking, with the discos/bars/pubs considerably contributing to this situation. Venues with smoking permission policies were less compliant with the legislation. The implementation of a comprehensive smoke-free law, without any exceptions, is essential to effectively protect people from the second hand smoke.

  10. Patterns of adherence to and compliance with the Portuguese smoke-free law in the leisure-hospitality sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Maria Fátima; Namorado, Sónia; Aguiar, Pedro; Precioso, José; Nunes, Baltazar; Veloso, Luís; Santos, Sandra; Miguel, José Pereira

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, the Portuguese smoke-free law came into effect including partial bans in the leisure-hospitality (LH) sector. The objective of the study is to assess the prevalence of smoking control policies (total ban, smoking permission and designated smoking areas) adopted by the LH sector in Portugal. The levels of noncompliance with each policy are investigated as well as the main factors associated with smoking permission and noncompliance with the law. Cross-sectional study conducted between January 2010 and May 2011. A random sample of venues was selected from the Portuguese LH sector database, proportionally stratified according to type, size and geographical area. All venues were assessed in loco by an observer. The independent effects of venues' characteristics on smoking permission and the level of noncompliance with the law were explored using logistic regression. Overall, 1.412 venues were included. Total ban policy was adopted by 75.9% of venues, while 8.4% had designated smoking areas. Smoking ban was more prevalent in restaurants (85.9%). Only 29.7% of discos/bars/pubs opted for complete ban. Full or partial smoking permission was higher in discos/bar/pubs (OR = 7.37; 95%CI 4.87 to 11.17). Noncompliance with the law was higher in venues allowing smoking and lower in places with complete ban (33.6% and 7.6% respectively, p<0.001). Discos/bars/pubs with full smoking permission had the highest level of noncompliance (OR = 3.31; 95%CI 1.40 to 7.83). Our findings show a high adherence to smoking ban policy by the Portuguese LH sector. Nonetheless, one quarter of the venues is fully or partially permissive towards smoking, with the discos/bars/pubs considerably contributing to this situation. Venues with smoking permission policies were less compliant with the legislation. The implementation of a comprehensive smoke-free law, without any exceptions, is essential to effectively protect people from the second hand smoke.

  11. Determinants of regional labour productivity growth: A study for the hospitality sector in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bienvenido Ortega Aguaza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the determinants of labour productivity growth in the hospitality industry in Spain using regional data over the period 1996-2004. The results obtained suggest that the increase in the number of 3-star hotels and the reduction process in the stock of physical capital per worker are factors which may have contributed to the fall in productivity growth. However, increased regional tourism intensity has a positive impact on the growth of labour productivity. Nonetheless, changes in demand-related factors, such as average length of stay and the seasonality of demand, have not had a significant aggregate impact on labour productivity growth during this period.

  12. Risk factors for syphilis and hiv infection in pregnant women attending a tertiary care public sector hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batool, K.; Bano, K.A.; Sherwani, M.I.K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Syphilis, a sexually transmitted disease which seemed to have disappeared or had been controlled over the years, has now been re-emerged as a major public health problem in many communities. It can complicate the pregnancies with serious consequences. Appropriate treatment of pregnant women often prevents such complications. Aims: To study the frequency of syphilis in pregnant women attending a tertiary care public sector hospital, and see the positivity for HIV/AIDS among syphilis positive women. Patients and Methods: This cross sectional and interventional study was conducted among pregnant women attending Sir Ganga Ram hospital for antenatal care at PMRC Research Centre, Fatima Jinnah Medical College, Lahore. Blood samples from 2000 women were collected after taking consent. The blood was tested for syphilis by Treponema Pallidum Haemagglutination. History of the subjects for risks factors was also taken. Syphilis positive women were further screened for human immunodeficiency virus positivity. Results: The treponemal antibodies were detected in less than one percent (9) pregnant women. The highest positivity was observed among age group of 21-26 years. Women in third trimester were significantly more infected with syphilis. Risk factors included husband's history with frequent traveling and drug abuse. All husbands of syphilis positive women were also positive. All syphilis positive women and their husbands were negative for Human immunodeficiency virus /Acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Conclusions: Less than 1% of pregnant women were infected with syphilis, and most of the spouses of these positive women were either travelers or drug addicts.(author)

  13. Ischaemic stroke management by emergency care physicians at public sector hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luni, F.K.; Hamid, S.A.; Mamji, S.; Baig, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the clinicians management of patients presenting with acute ischaemic stroke in the emergency departments of two large state run hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. A questionnaire was filled by 59 registered medical practitioners working at these two government hospitals who would be managing stroke patients presenting in the emergency. It was a descriptive cross sectional study designed to assess the methods used by the doctors for diagnosing and treating stroke patients. The data was collected from October to November 2007 and entered using Epi Data Entry and analyzed by SPSS 13.0. Results: The preferred overall investigation for a suspected stroke patient in an emergency ward was an ECG (98%). 51% of the respondents would prescribe aspirin to most patients (300 mg by 40% respondents). Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator was thought to be beneficial by 43% of doctors, low molecular weight heparin by 91%, subcutaneous heparin by 86.5%, intravenous Vitamin B complex by 20% and steroids by 39% of respondents. Regarding elevated blood pressure, 60% answered that they would manage the blood pressure according to the type of stroke and 73% responded that they would lower blood pressure when it reached greater than 150/80. 88% of the doctors answered that they would use cholesterol lowering drugs in the management of stroke patients in an emergency. 97% of the doctors recommended rehabilitation and 88% of the respondents believed that there should be separate stroke units. Conclusion: The development of a standardized protocol and stroke team is recommended which should speed the clinical assessment, decisions for early management and also increase the performance of diagnostic studies. (author)

  14. "We're Not Slaves--We Are Actually the Future!" A Follow-up Study of Apprentices' Experiences in the Norwegian Hospitality Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkevig Dagsland, Åse Helene; Mykletun, Reidar Johan; Einarsen, Ståle

    2015-01-01

    This study addresses the socialisation processes taking place during the apprenticeship period within the hospitality industry, searching for explanations of drop-out and early staff turnover in the personal, social and educational experiences of the apprentices during their organisational socialisation process and vocational training. Data were…

  15. Women as Emotional Entities in the Hospitality Sector of Mauritius. A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rughoobur Soujata

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Emotions and feelings have always been part of human beings. Its use in the organisational context in order to achieve competitive advantage, that is, the management of emotions by female workers remains a matter of great debate. Hochschild through her book “The Managed Heart: Commercialisation of Human Feeling” in 1983 brought forward the concept of Emotional labour. This paper has attempted to explore areas where female workers are being employed to carry out emotional work and for this purpose a hotel in the eastern cost of Mauritius was chosen being part of the hospitality industry. The survey was conducted there so as to be able to gather quantitative information about this subject issue and a personal interview was also being carried out in order to obtain the opinions of the human resource manager on this concept as being a woman and a manager herself. A series of recommendations have been provided in order to encourage better treatment of women and make them happy employees.

  16. Climatic impact of Norwegian gas power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, Finn Roar; Golombek, Rolf; Kittelsen, Sverre A.C.; Rosendal, Knut Einar

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses model calculations of the impact of a Norwegian gas power plant on the total carbon dioxide emission in Western Europe. The authors have set up a model that is based on the assumption that the European markets for electricity and gas be liberalized as defined in various EU directives. The model calculates all energy prices and the energy produced and consumed in Western Europe within a time horizon where all the capacities of the energy sector are given. If gas power plants are built in Norway after such liberalization, the model predicts a reduction of CO 2 emissions in Western Europe even if the gas power plant increases the local emission in Norway. This is primarily because of the phasing-out of the coal-fired power plants in other countries. Alternative calculations using different assumptions about taxes, transportation capacity, minimum run-off years in Norway give the same type of results. Thus, the principal result about the climatically beneficial effect of a Norwegian gas power plant is robust within the model. However, alternative assumptions about the extent of the liberalization and the time horizon may lead to other conclusions. In any case, the impact of a Norwegian gas power plant (6 TWh) is so small on the European scale as to be rather symbolic

  17. Norwegian Cyber Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    reliance on proprietary networks and hardware, SCADA systems were considered safe from cyber attacks and were not designed for security. The situation...operational data that could result in public safety concerns.43 In 2013 Norwegian newspaper Dagbladet found over 2,500 SCADA systems in Norway used for ...a. Siberian Pipeline Explosion (1982) In 1982, intruders planted a Trojan horse in the SCADA system that controls the Siberian Pipeline . This is the

  18. Radon in Norwegian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Green, B.M.R.; Lomas, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    The results of a large-scale survey of radon concentrations in Norwegian dwellings are reported. Measurements of radon have been made in a total of 7500 dwellings. The dwellings were randomly selected and the number in each municipality is proportional to its population. The measurements were performed using etched track detectors from the National Radiological Protection Board in the UK. One detector was placed in the main bedroom in each dwelling for 6 months. The annual average of radon concentration in Norwegian bedrooms is calculated to be 51 Bq.m -3 . The frequency distribution is approximately log-normal with a geometric mean of 26 Bq.m -3 and about 4% of the bedrooms have concentrations above 200 Bq.m -3 . The radon concentrations are found to be about 40% higher for bedrooms in single-family houses than in blocks of flats and other multifamily houses. In a large proportion of single-family houses the living room and the kitchen are located on the ground floor and the bedrooms on the first floor. An additional factor is that the winters of 1987-1988 and 1988-1989 were much warmer than normal. Taking these factors into account, the average radon concentration in Norwegian dwellings is estimated to be between 55 and 65 Bq.m -3 . (author)

  19. Transforming Norwegian Special Operation Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robertsen, Tom A

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the transformation of Norwegian Special Operation Forces (NORSOF), raising the hypothesis that its current organizational structure is inconsistent with its future roles and missions...

  20. Changes in air quality and second-hand smoke exposure in hospitality sector businesses after introduction of the English Smoke-free legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotz, N K; van Tongeren, M; Wareing, H; Wallace, L M; Semple, S; Maccalman, L

    2008-12-01

    To monitor and disseminate the short-term effects of the English Smoke-free legislation on air quality and employee exposure in businesses of the hospitality industry. Indoor particle concentrations and salivary cotinine levels were measured in businesses in the hospitality sector and non-smoking employees one month before and after the implementation of the legislation. Results were immediately released to the media to announce the improvements in air quality and employee exposure to the wider public. Measurements were collected in 49 businesses and from 75 non-smoking individuals. Indoor PM(2.5) concentrations decreased by 95% from 217 microg/m(3) at baseline to 11 microg/m(3) at follow-up (P hospitality industry sector. We believe that quick and positive feedback to the public on the effects of smoking restrictions is essential when introducing public health legislation such as the Smoke-free legislation.

  1. The strategic role of cross-sectoral research in the design of hospitals: the contribution of TESIS* research center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Del Nord

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The design of buildings, such as hospitals where the complexity concerns as much the interpretation of the requirements framework as their required permeability to the ever accelerated dynamics of bio-technological innovations proposed by the market, requires continuous research which in- creasingly goes beyond the boundaries of the architectural discipline as it is currently codified. Constant dialogue with what scientific research produces in the international sphere and with culturally differentiated approaches becomes an imperative for those – professionals or institutions – wishing to operate with real time up-dating in order to increase the performance quality of their products. Scientific organizations that set themselves these objectives cannot disregard the constraints imposed by this scenario, with the consequent require- ment to actively position themselves in international networks which, with their constant cross-sectoral production, fuel the debate on foreseeable trends and the implications that all this determines with regard to design. The following article seeks to represent the coordinates of this new operating scenario of scientific research, highlighting the methods and the operating practices put in place by the TESIS Interuniversity Centre for Re- search of Florence.

  2. Exploring example models of cross-sector, sessional employment of pharmacists to improve medication management and pharmacy support in rural hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Amy Cw; Emmerton, Lynne M; Hattingh, Laetitia; La Caze, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Many rural hospitals in Australia are not large enough to sustain employment of a full-time pharmacist, or are unable to recruit or retain a full-time pharmacist. The absence of a pharmacist may result in hospital nurses undertaking medication-related roles outside their scope of practice. A potential solution to address rural hospitals' medication management needs is contracted part-time ('sessional') employment of a local pharmacist external to the hospital ('cross-sector'). The aim of this study was to explore the roles and experiences of pharmacists in their provision of sessional services to rural hospitals with no on-site pharmacist and explore how these roles could potentially address shortfalls in medication management in rural hospitals. A qualitative study was conducted to explore models with pharmacists who had provided sessional services to a rural hospital. A semi-structured interview guide was informed by a literature review, preliminary research and stakeholder consultation. Participants were recruited via advertisement and personal contacts. Consenting pharmacists were interviewed between August 2012 and January 2013 via telephone or Skype for 40-55 minutes. Thirteen pharmacists with previous or ongoing hospital sessional contracts in rural communities across Australia and New Zealand participated. Most commonly, the pharmacists provided weekly services to rural hospitals. All believed the sessional model was a practical solution to increase hospital access to pharmacist-mediated support and to address medication management gaps. Roles perceived to promote quality use of medicines were inpatient consultation services, medicines information/education to hospital staff, assistance with accreditation matters and system reviews, and input into pharmaceutical distribution activities. This study is the first to explore the concept of sessional rural hospital employment undertaken by pharmacists in Australia and New Zealand. Insights from participants

  3. Norwegian gas export policy - management of external change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claes, Dag Harald.

    1997-01-01

    This report is the first study in the research project '' Norwegian gas policy - external change and national adaptation''. The project is financed through Norges forskningsraad's research program ''Petropol''. The main aim of the project is to understand the market, political and institutional changes in the European gas market as well as what implications they may have for the political and institutional design of the Norwegian gas sector. In this report an approach model is developed for studying the connection between changes in the European gas market and the Norwegian petroleum policy which will be central in several of the later works in the project. The report gives a historic account of Norwegian gas export policy as well, a field where altered frame conditions have given the authorities political and institutional challenges. The main focus in the report is however, connected to the empirical explanation of the connection between changed external environments and alterations in the Norwegian gas export policy. The question the study tries to answer is: To what extent and how the Norwegian gas export policy is affected by alterations in the European gas market and the EU policy towards this market. In the centre of the study of the gas export policy is the element of governmental control. The governmental control assumes ability to formulate national aims as well as the ability to produce laws and regulations which reflects the goals and counts on that the aims are reached in addition to that the authorities either implement the policies themselves or if this is left to other parties, have ability to survey and sanction these parties should they break the guidelines or oppose the national political aims. The report shows how these aspects are affected by changes in the environments surrounding the Norwegian gas export. 6 figs., 1 tab., 45 refs

  4. Norwegian mastitis control programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østerås O

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd level and improve the consumers' attitude to milk products. In 1996, a decision was made to reduce the use of antibiotics in all animal production enterprises in Norway by 25% within five years. Relevant data has been collected through the Norwegian Cattle Herd Recording System (NCHRS; including health records since 1975 and somatic cell count (SCC data since 1980. These data have been integrated within the NCHRS. Since 2000, mastitis laboratory data have also been included in the NCHRS. Data on clinical disease, SCC and mastitis bacteriology have been presented to farmers and advisors in monthly health periodicals since 1996, and on the internet since 2005. In 1996, Norwegian recommendations on the treatment of mastitis were implemented. Optimal milking protocols and milking machine function have been emphasised and less emphasis has been placed on dry cow therapy. A selective dry cow therapy program (SDCTP was implemented in 2006, and is still being implemented in new areas. Research demonstrates that the rate of clinical mastitis could be reduced by 15% after implementing SDCTP. The results so far show a 60% reduction in the clinical treatment of mastitis between 1994 and 2007, a reduction in BMSCC from 250,000 cells/ml to 114,000 cells/ml, and a total reduction in the mastitis cost from 0.23 NOK to 0.13 NOK per litre of milk delivered to the processors, corresponding to a fall from 9.2% to 1.7% of the milk price, respectively. This reduction is attributed to

  5. Norwegian mastitis control programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS) since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd level and improve the consumers' attitude to milk products. In 1996, a decision was made to reduce the use of antibiotics in all animal production enterprises in Norway by 25% within five years. Relevant data has been collected through the Norwegian Cattle Herd Recording System (NCHRS); including health records since 1975 and somatic cell count (SCC) data since 1980. These data have been integrated within the NCHRS. Since 2000, mastitis laboratory data have also been included in the NCHRS. Data on clinical disease, SCC and mastitis bacteriology have been presented to farmers and advisors in monthly health periodicals since 1996, and on the internet since 2005. In 1996, Norwegian recommendations on the treatment of mastitis were implemented. Optimal milking protocols and milking machine function have been emphasised and less emphasis has been placed on dry cow therapy. A selective dry cow therapy program (SDCTP) was implemented in 2006, and is still being implemented in new areas. Research demonstrates that the rate of clinical mastitis could be reduced by 15% after implementing SDCTP. The results so far show a 60% reduction in the clinical treatment of mastitis between 1994 and 2007, a reduction in BMSCC from 250,000 cells/ml to 114,000 cells/ml, and a total reduction in the mastitis cost from 0.23 NOK to 0.13 NOK per litre of milk delivered to the processors, corresponding to a fall from 9.2% to 1.7% of the milk price, respectively. This reduction is attributed to changes in attitude and

  6. The air quality in Norwegian cities. Development - reasons - measures - future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larssen, Steinar; Hagen, Leif Otto

    1998-12-01

    There is an increasing focus on the air quality in Norwegian cities and townships. The air quality depends on several factors and the connections are complex. The aim of this report is to present a short and simple survey of this complex field. The report consists of three parts: Part 1 is a survey of the development until today. Measurements of SO 2 and soot were started in the 1950's. Systematic determinations of NO x and NO 2 , CO and particles, ozone and benzene was started during the last three decades. The population exposure to air pollutants and their main sources are described as well as the air quality in Norwegian cities compared to other cities in Europe. In part 2 developments within transport, a sector necessary for understanding the development, are described. Part 3 is a survey of forecasting the air quality in Norway, pollution warnings and surveillance. The forecasts are based on assumed developments in important sectors such as transport, energy consumption for heating and industrial purposes and the effects of demands for fuel and vehicles. Effect analyses of further measures which may be useful for reaching the national goals for the air quality are carried out. A survey of the most important limiting values and criteria as well as technical terms is presented in the report and in the appendix. The report is commissioned by the Norwegian Petroleum Institute (Norsk Petroleumsinstitutt) and the Norwegian Road Federation (Opplysningsraadet for Veitrafikken)

  7. The Norwegian Downsizing Approach in Terms of the Insider Threat - An interpretive study

    OpenAIRE

    Benjaminsen, Terje

    2017-01-01

    This research examined how the Norwegian organizations approach a downsizing in terms of the insider threat. Ten subject matter experts in large Norwegian enterprises were interviewed. These subject matter experts serve in various industry sectors such as; petroleum and energy, climate and environment, agriculture and food, defense, finance, and maritime. The size of the organizations varies from around 400 to more than 10,000 employees. The results of these interviews have been discussed and...

  8. Money laundering in the norwegian securities market: on the conditions of money laundering

    OpenAIRE

    Ingvaldsen, Karsten Olaf F.; Larsson, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This is the final text version of the article, it may contain minor differences from the publisher's pdf version. Norwegian authorities often claim that the financial sector, and especially the securities market, is particularly vulnerable to activities of money laundering. Money laundering is a recurrent theme in the Norwegian media. Usually the media tend to present the forms and extent of money laundering in simple and rather vague terms. The numbers circulating in the media are based u...

  9. [The Unified National Health System and the third sector: Characterization of non-hospital facilities providing basic health care services in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canabrava, Claudia Marques; Andrade, Eli Iôla Gurgel; Janones, Fúlvio Alves; Alves, Thiago Andrade; Cherchiglia, Mariangela Leal

    2007-01-01

    In Brazil, nonprofit or charitable organizations are the oldest and most traditional and institutionalized form of relationship between the third sector and the state. Despite the historical importance of charitable hospital care, little research has been done on the participation of the nonprofit sector in basic health care in the country. This article identifies and describes non-hospital nonprofit facilities providing systematically organized basic health care in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, in 2004. The research focused on the facilities registered with the National Council on Social Work, using computer-assisted telephone and semi-structured interviews. Identification and description of these organizations showed that the charitable segment of the third sector conducts organized and systematic basic health care services but is not recognized by the Unified National Health System as a potential partner, even though it receives referrals from basic government services. The study showed spatial and temporal overlapping of government and third-sector services in the same target population.

  10. HRM practices and knowledge processes outcomes: empirical evidence from a quasi-experiment on UK SMEs in the tourism hospitality and leisure sector

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Georgiadis; Christos N. Pitelis

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents empirical evidence of the relationship between human resources practices and the effectiveness of a firm to capitalise on investment in knowledge as measured by the returns to innovation and business development expenditure. The empirical design is based on exploiting a natural experiment provided by a policy intervention that offers human resources-related support to small and medium sized enterprises in the UK Tourism Hospitality and Leisure sector. Our findings suggest ...

  11. Radon in Norwegian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Green, B.M.R; Lomas, P.R.; Mangnus, K.; Stranden, E.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of radon in indoor air have been made in a total of about 7500 randomly selected dwellings in Norway from all parts of the country. The number of selected dwellings in each municipality is about proportional to its population, except for the two largest municipalities, Oslo and Bergen, where somewhat smaller samples were taken due to the higher population density. The measurements were performed by nuclear track detectors from the National Radiological Protection Boards in United Kingdom, and the integration time for the measurements was 6 months. The detectors were spread evenly over all seasons of the year to eliminate influence from seasonal variation in the radon level. One single measurement was performed in each dwelling: in the main bedroom. The results shows that the distribution of radon concentrations in Norwegian bedrooms is log-normal. The aritmetic mean of the measurements, including all categories of dwellings, is calculated to be 51 Bq/m 3 and the corresponding geometric mean to be 26 Bq/m 3 . In a large proportion of single-family houses the living room and the kitchen are located on the ground floor while the bedrooms are located one floor higher. The results of the study shows that the radon level is somewhat higher at the ground floor than on the first floor, and higher in the basement than on the first floor. Taking this into account, and assuming that measurements in bedrooms on the first floor is a representative average for living room and kitchen, the average radon concentration for Norwegian dwellings is estimated to be between 55-65 Bq/m 3 . In this estimate, possible influences of the fact that the winters 87/88 and 88/89 were much warmer than normal and may therefor have lowered the results, has been taken into account. 15 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs

  12. Situation analysis of health care waste management in private sector hospitals in federal capital territory, islamabad, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, M.; Hasan, S.; Umar, M.; Azad, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    The deleterious and harmful effects of hospital waste on environment and human health is well documented in Pakistan. The hospital waste that may be produced as a result of patient care in hospitals, clinical settings including the diagnostic laboratories is one of the potential health hazards. It significantly contributes to the transfusion transmitted diseases and ever increasing incidence of HBV, HCV and HIV. (author)

  13. Slavic Forest, Norwegian Wood (models)

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Rudolf; Žabokrtský, Zdeněk; Zeman, Daniel; Mareček, David

    2017-01-01

    Trained models for UDPipe used to produce our final submission to VarDial 2017 shared task (https://bitbucket.org/hy-crossNLP/vardial2017) and described in a paper by the same authors titled Slavic Forest, Norwegian Wood.

  14. Beyond the hospital door: a retrospective, cohort study of associations between birthing in the public or private sector and women's postpartum care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodribb, Wendy; Zadoroznyj, Maria; Nesic, Michelle; Kruske, Sue; Miller, Yvette D

    2015-01-22

    In Australia, maternity care is available through universal coverage and a parallel, competitive private health insurance system. Differences between sectors in antenatal and intrapartum care and associated outcomes are well documented but few studies have investigated differences in postpartum care following hospital discharge and their impact on maternal satisfaction and confidence. Women who birthed in Queensland, Australia from February to May 2010 were mailed a self-report survey 4 months postpartum. Regression analysis was used to determine associations between sector of birth and postpartum care, and whether postpartum care experiences explained sector differences in postpartum well-being (satisfaction, parenting confidence and feeling depressed). Women who birthed in the public sector had higher odds of health professional contact in the first 10 days post-discharge and satisfaction with the amount of postpartum care. After adjusting for demographic and postpartum contact variables, sector of birth no longer had an impact on satisfaction (AOR 0.95, 99% CI 0.78-1.31), but any form of health professional contact did. Women who had a care provider's 24 hour contact details had higher odds of being satisfied (AOR 3.64, 95% CI 3.00-4.42) and confident (AOR 1.34, 95% CI 1.08- 1.65). Women who birthed in the public sector appeared more satisfied because they had higher odds of receiving contact from a health professional within 10 days post-discharge. All women should have an opportunity to speak to and/or see a doctor, midwife or nurse in the first 10 days at home, and the details of a person they can contact 24 hours a day.

  15. Does labour epidural slow the progress of labour and lead to complications? Obstetricians' perception working in private and public sector teaching hospitals in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohaib, Muhammad; Ismail, Samina

    2015-12-01

    Obstetricians play a major role in the decision making for provision of analgesia for the woman in labour. As epidural analgesia (EA) is the most preferred technique, it is important to know obstetricians' perception regarding its effect on progress of labour and associated complications. The 6 months cross-sectional study included 114 obstetricians from teaching hospitals. After informed consent, obstetricians were asked to fill a predesigned questionnaire containing 13 close ended questions regarding their perception on the effect of EA on progress of labour, EA complications and whether they would recommend EA to their patients or not. Other variables included age, gender, training in EA, practice type and hospital settings (private or public sector). Majority of the obstetricians had the perception of EA prolonging the first stage (89.5%) and second stage (98.2%) of labour, increasing the rate of caesarean section (87.7%), instrumental delivery (58.8%) and increasing the incidence of backache (85.5%). None of the obstetricians received any formal training in EA. Majority (84.2%) were not sure if they would recommend EA to their patients. When these responses were compared between public and private sector, a statistically higher percentage (P sector obstetricians had negative perception of EA. Perception of obstetrician regarding EA is contrary to the current evidence. There is a need to introduce formal curriculum on EA in obstetric training program and conduct regular refresher courses.

  16. Does labour epidural slow the progress of labour and lead to complications? Obstetricians′ perception working in private and public sector teaching hospitals in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sohaib

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Obstetricians play a major role in the decision making for provision of analgesia for the woman in labour. As epidural analgesia (EA is the most preferred technique, it is important to know obstetricians′ perception regarding its effect on progress of labour and associated complications. Methods: The 6 months cross-sectional study included 114 obstetricians from teaching hospitals. After informed consent, obstetricians were asked to fill a predesigned questionnaire containing 13 close ended questions regarding their perception on the effect of EA on progress of labour, EA complications and whether they would recommend EA to their patients or not. Other variables included age, gender, training in EA, practice type and hospital settings (private or public sector. Results: Majority of the obstetricians had the perception of EA prolonging the first stage (89.5% and second stage (98.2% of labour, increasing the rate of caesarean section (87.7%, instrumental delivery (58.8% and increasing the incidence of backache (85.5%. None of the obstetricians received any formal training in EA. Majority (84.2% were not sure if they would recommend EA to their patients. When these responses were compared between public and private sector, a statistically higher percentage (P < 0.001 of public sector obstetricians had negative perception of EA. Conclusion: Perception of obstetrician regarding EA is contrary to the current evidence. There is a need to introduce formal curriculum on EA in obstetric training program and conduct regular refresher courses.

  17. Objective working hour characteristics and work-life conflict among hospital employees in the Finnish public sector study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karhula, Kati; Puttonen, Sampsa; Ropponen, Annina; Koskinen, Aki; Ojajärvi, Anneli; Kivimäki, Mika; Härmä, Mikko

    2017-01-01

    This epidemiological cohort study, based on Finnish public sector data, investigated the associations between objective working hour characteristics and work-life conflict in day and shift work. The comprehensive data of hospital workers (n = 8 931, 92% women, average age 45 years), consisted of survey responses from 2012, linked with the payroll data of working hour characteristics from 91 days preceding the survey. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the associations between working hour characteristics and experiencing work-life conflict often/very often. The analyses were adjusted for age (50 years), sex, level of education, marital status, number of small (0-6 years) and school-aged (7-18 years) children, and the overall stressfulness of the life situation. We also conducted stratified analyses of age and sex on the basis of significant interactions. Difficulties in combining work and life were more often associated with shift work without night shifts and shift work with night shifts than with day work (41% and 34 versus 27%; OR for shift work with night shifts 1.78, 95% CI 1.59-2.00, OR for shift work without night shifts 1.42, 95% CI 1.26-1.60). A high proportion (> 25%) of long (> 40h, (OR 1.26, 95% 1.14-1.39) and very long (> 48h, OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.15-1.49) weekly working hours were associated with work-life conflict, and in the stratified analysis, the latter was also true among women (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.25-1.89). Of the unsocial working hour characteristics, a relatively large amount (> 10% of all shifts) of evening (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.41-1.72) and night shifts (OR 1.46, 95%CI 1.32-1.61), a high proportion (> 25% of all shifts) of quick returns (work (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.31-1.58) were associated with work-life conflict. A large amount of single days off (> 25% of all days off) was associated with work-life conflict among men (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.11-3.25), but not in the whole sample. When the two types of shift work were analyzed separately

  18. Comparison of two public sector tertiary care hospitals' management in reducing direct medical cost burden on breast carcinoma patients in Lahore, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed Khaliq, Imran; Zahid Mahmood, Hafiz; Akhter, Naveed; Danish Sarfraz, Muhammad; Asim, Khadija; Masood Gondal, Khalid

    2018-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the major causes of death incurring highest morbidity and mortality amongst women of Pakistan. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the role of two public sector tertiary care hospitals' management in reducing out of pocket (OOP) expenses on direct medical costs borne by breast carcinoma patients' household from diagnosis through treatment. Moreover, the study intended to explore the reasons of opting private diagnostic facilities by the said patients during the services taken from the foresaid tertiary care centers. A purposive sample of 164 primary breast carcinoma patients was recruited for data collection of this cross-sectional study. Face to face interviews and semistructured questionnaires were adopted as method of data gathering tools. Major cost components of direct medical costs were used to compare the financial strain on the patients' households of both targeted hospitals. In addition, information was collected regarding the reasons of opting private diagnostic centers for investigations. Frequency, percentages, median and inter quartile range (IQR) were calculated for the data. Non-parametric variables were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. It was observed that overall direct medical cost borne by the breast carcinoma patients' households in Jinnah hospital (median US$1153.93 / Rs. 118,589) was significantly higher than Mayo hospital (median US$427.93 /Rs. 43,978), pprivately opted investigations procedures was the common issue of the patients under treatment in both hospitals.

  19. Three Norwegian Varieties of a Nordic Model — A Historical Perspective on Working Life Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Heiret

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Through the use of a historical perspective, the aim of this article is to discuss and clarify the concurrent and conflicting interests and norms that have characterized the establishment and development of important institutions in Norwegian working life. The article concentrates on collective bargaining systems, the arrangements for codetermination, and the working environment regulations in both the public and private sector, which are regarded as the main institutions in the Norwegian and Nordic models of working life relations. The article is structured by an analytical distinction between three different historical periods that have constituted three distinct versions of the Norwegian model. By presenting a historical synthesis of Norwegian experiences, the article is a contribution to the ongoing debate on the varieties in the Nordic model, as to further comparisons and broader transnational studies.

  20. Stakeholder influence in public sector information systems strategy implementation—The case of public hospitals in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hwabamungu, B

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available in fulfilling their mandate. The public health sector in particular needs to engage with a diversity of stakeholders at local, regional and national levels when strategising. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of stakeholder relations...

  1. Hospitals

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This database contains locations of Hospitals for 50 states and Washington D.C. , Puerto Rico and US territories. The dataset only includes hospital facilities and...

  2. Access to emergency hospital care provided by the public sector in sub-Saharan Africa in 2015: a geocoded inventory and spatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouma, Paul O; Maina, Joseph; Thuranira, Pamela N; Macharia, Peter M; Alegana, Victor A; English, Mike; Okiro, Emelda A; Snow, Robert W

    2018-03-01

    %) women of child bearing age are located more than 2-h travel time from the nearest hospital. Marked differences were observed within and between countries, ranging from less than 25% of the population within 2-h travel time of a public hospital in South Sudan to more than 90% in Nigeria, Kenya, Cape Verde, Swaziland, South Africa, Burundi, Comoros, São Tomé and Príncipe, and Zanzibar. Only 16 countries reached the international benchmark of more than 80% of their populations living within a 2-h travel time of the nearest hospital. Physical access to emergency hospital care provided by the public sector in Africa remains poor and varies substantially within and between countries. Innovative targeting of emergency care services is necessary to reduce these inequities. This study provides the first spatial census of public hospital services in Africa. Wellcome Trust and the UK Department for International Development. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Access to emergency hospital care provided by the public sector in sub-Saharan Africa in 2015: a geocoded inventory and spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul O Ouma, MSc

    2018-03-01

     282 013 (29·0% people and 64 495 526 (28·2% women of child bearing age are located more than 2-h travel time from the nearest hospital. Marked differences were observed within and between countries, ranging from less than 25% of the population within 2-h travel time of a public hospital in South Sudan to more than 90% in Nigeria, Kenya, Cape Verde, Swaziland, South Africa, Burundi, Comoros, São Tomé and Príncipe, and Zanzibar. Only 16 countries reached the international benchmark of more than 80% of their populations living within a 2-h travel time of the nearest hospital. Interpretation: Physical access to emergency hospital care provided by the public sector in Africa remains poor and varies substantially within and between countries. Innovative targeting of emergency care services is necessary to reduce these inequities. This study provides the first spatial census of public hospital services in Africa. Funding: Wellcome Trust and the UK Department for International Development.

  4. Nurse perceptions of organizational culture and its association with the culture of error reporting: a case of public sector hospitals in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafree, Sara Rizvi; Zakar, Rubeena; Zakar, Muhammad Zakria; Fischer, Florian

    2016-01-05

    There is an absence of formal error tracking systems in public sector hospitals of Pakistan and also a lack of literature concerning error reporting culture in the health care sector. Nurse practitioners have front-line knowledge and rich exposure about both the organizational culture and error sharing in hospital settings. The aim of this paper was to investigate the association between organizational culture and the culture of error reporting, as perceived by nurses. The authors used the "Practice Environment Scale-Nurse Work Index Revised" to measure the six dimensions of organizational culture. Seven questions were used from the "Survey to Solicit Information about the Culture of Reporting" to measure error reporting culture in the region. Overall, 309 nurses participated in the survey, including female nurses from all designations such as supervisors, instructors, ward-heads, staff nurses and student nurses. We used SPSS 17.0 to perform a factor analysis. Furthermore, descriptive statistics, mean scores and multivariable logistic regression were used for the analysis. Three areas were ranked unfavorably by nurse respondents, including: (i) the error reporting culture, (ii) staffing and resource adequacy, and (iii) nurse foundations for quality of care. Multivariable regression results revealed that all six categories of organizational culture, including: (1) nurse manager ability, leadership and support, (2) nurse participation in hospital affairs, (3) nurse participation in governance, (4) nurse foundations of quality care, (5) nurse-coworkers relations, and (6) nurse staffing and resource adequacy, were positively associated with higher odds of error reporting culture. In addition, it was found that married nurses and nurses on permanent contract were more likely to report errors at the workplace. Public healthcare services of Pakistan can be improved through the promotion of an error reporting culture, reducing staffing and resource shortages and the

  5. Estimating technical efficiency in the hospital sector with panel data: a comparison of parametric and non-parametric techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliani, Luigi

    2006-01-01

    Policy makers are increasingly interested in developing performance indicators that measure hospital efficiency. These indicators may give the purchasers of health services an additional regulatory tool to contain health expenditure. Using panel data, this study compares different parametric (econometric) and non-parametric (linear programming) techniques for the measurement of a hospital's technical efficiency. This comparison was made using a sample of 17 Italian hospitals in the years 1996-9. Highest correlations are found in the efficiency scores between the non-parametric data envelopment analysis under the constant returns to scale assumption (DEA-CRS) and several parametric models. Correlation reduces markedly when using more flexible non-parametric specifications such as data envelopment analysis under the variable returns to scale assumption (DEA-VRS) and the free disposal hull (FDH) model. Correlation also generally reduces when moving from one output to two-output specifications. This analysis suggests that there is scope for developing performance indicators at hospital level using panel data, but it is important that extensive sensitivity analysis is carried out if purchasers wish to make use of these indicators in practice.

  6. Operating costs on Norwegian fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunnevaag, K.; Nansve, A.H.

    1992-09-01

    In this report we summarize some of the findings in a project for A/S Norske Shell, where the objective was to find trends in the development of operating expenditures on the Norwegian Continental Shelf if any, and to explain these. We also present a short compilation of articles on the subject. 23 refs., 13 figs

  7. A window-DEA based efficiency evaluation of the public hospital sector in Greece during the 5-year economic crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flokou, Angeliki; Aletras, Vassilis; Niakas, Dimitris

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to apply the non-parametric method of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to measure the efficiency of Greek NHS hospitals between 2009-2013. Hospitals were divided into four separate groups with common characteristics which allowed comparisons to be carried out in the context of increased homogeneity. The window-DEA method was chosen since it leads to increased discrimination on the results especially when applied to small samples and it enables year-by-year comparisons of the results. Three inputs -hospital beds, physicians and other health professionals- and three outputs-hospitalized cases, surgeries and outpatient visits- were chosen as production variables in an input-oriented 2-year window DEA model for the assessment of technical and scale efficiency as well as for the identification of returns to scale. The Malmquist productivity index together with its components (i.e. pure technical efficiency change, scale efficiency change and technological scale) were also calculated in order to analyze the sources of productivity change between the first and last year of the study period. In the context of window analysis, the study identified the individual efficiency trends together with "all-windows" best and worst performers and revealed that a high level of technical and scale efficiency was maintained over the entire 5-year period. Similarly, the relevant findings of Malmquist productivity index analysis showed that both scale and pure technical efficiency were improved in 2013 whilst technological change was found to be in favor of the two groups with the largest hospitals.

  8. Norwegian Gas in International Affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    Scarcity of oil and gas will continue to characterize international energy markets, either in an economic, physical or political sense, over shorter or longer time. With a constantly increasing Norwegian petroleum production, it is likely that the international community closely will observe petroleum developments in Norway. Apart from security policy, petroleum issues may be the most central single factor in Norwegian foreign policy, simply because the outside world defines it so. The size of the natural gas exports makes Norway a strategic player in a market of vital interest for the energy supplies to Europe. The economic development and national security of the receiving countries depend on secure supplies of energy at stable prices on an acceptable level. Norwegian gas strategy must be conscious that the USA, the EU and great European purchasing countries like Germany, France, the UK and Italy, as well as competitors Russia, Algeria and others, will be interested in its content. As an example of how Norwegian petroleum policy may be influenced from the outside world, the author analyzes the case when Norwegian energy policy first became an explicit element in a larger political game. In order to prevent Western European countries from completing a notable gas contract with the Soviet Union in 1982, the U.S. introduced a ban on all American exports to firms supporting the project. Also the U.S. boycotted European firms supplying equipment. The Americans claimed that if Western Europe became too dependent on Soviet gas, one might come under pressure in a future political crisis if the Soviets turned off the taps to stop the energy supply. The U. S. urged Norway to increase her gas exports as a substitute for Soviet gas. Norway, on the other hand, maintained that gas production could not be increased as quickly as desired. The Norwegians also wanted, in case a development should be accelerated, a ''price premium'' to justify an act that otherwise would have been

  9. Modernising Education: New Public Management Reform in the Norwegian Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Jorunn; Skedsmo, Guri

    2013-01-01

    Since the end of the 1980s, the Norwegian education system has gone through major reform, influenced largely by new managerialist ideas. Strategies to renew the public sector were promoted as the new public management (NPM). This paper investigates the way ideas connected to NPM reforms have been introduced and interpreted in the Norwegian…

  10. Assessing the extent of utilization of biopsychosocial model in doctor-patient interaction in public sector hospitals of a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadir, Maha; Hamza, Muhammad; Mehmood, Nadir

    2018-01-01

    Biopsychosocial (BPS) model has been a mainstay in the ideal practice of modern medicine. It is attributed to improve patient care, compliance, and satisfaction and to reduce doctor-patient conflict. The study aimed to understand the importance given to BPS model while conducting routine doctor-patient interactions in public sector hospitals of a developing country where health resources are limited. The study was conducted in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. The study design is qualitative. Structured interviews were conducted from 44 patients from surgical and medical units of Benazir Bhutto Hospital and Holy Family Hospital. The questions were formulated based on patient-centered interviewing methods by reviewing the literature on BPS model. The analysis was done thematically using the software NVivo 11 for qualitative data. The study revealed four emerging themes: (1) Lack of doctor-patient rapport. (2) Utilization of a paternalistic approach during treatment. (3) Utilization of a reductionist biomedical approach during treatment. (4) Patients' concern with their improvement in health and doctor's demeanor. The study highlights the fact that BPS is not given considerable importance while taking routine medical history. This process remains doctor centered and paternalistic. However, patients are more concerned with their improvement in health rather than whether or not they are being provided informational care. Sequential studies will have to be conducted to determine whether this significantly affects patient care and compliance and whether BPS is a workable model in the healthcare system in the third world.

  11. Antecedentes de las curas en ambiente húmedo (CAH: El "método español" de tratamiento de heridas de guerra y el Hospital Sueco-Noruego de Alcoy History of cures in moist enviroment (CME: The "Spanish Method" of wound war treatment and the Swedish-Norwegian hospital in Alcoy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Enrique Moltó Abad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante la Guerra Civil española se instaló en Alcoy un hospital de sangre. Esto fue posible gracias a la solidaridad de los pueblos sueco y noruego. Los escandinavos desplazaron hasta Alcoy personal médico y de enfermería especializado, junto con todo el material necesario para instalar un hospital destinado para atender heridos de guerra. Tras su marcha, se hizo cargo de los servicios quirúrgicos del hospital el Dr. D. Manuel Bastos Ansart, cirujano, traumatólogo, ortopeda militar y toda una autoridad en el tratamiento de heridas de guerra. El Dr. Bastos junto con el Dr. D. Josep Trueta i Raspall fueron los padres del método oclusivo de curas, base y fundamento de las actuales curas en ambiente húmedo. Gracias al "método español" se consiguió evitar infinidad de amputaciones y muertes debidas a las septicemias producidas por heridas de guerra. Este sistema de curas nació como la suma de diferentes técnicas y tratamientos de diversos cirujanos que se fueron acumulando y depurando a lo largo del tiempo. El "método español" consistía en una limpieza exahustiva de la herida y posterior exéresis de todo el tejido desvitalizado, aplicando después un apósito de escayola que se debía mantener sin cambiar el máximo tiempo posible (siempre y cuando el paciente no presentara complicaciones. Acabada la Guerra Civil española, y ya durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, fue el Dr. Trueta quien depuró, sistematizó y divulgó el método entre el bando aliado, siendo aún hoy en día el método de elección de tratamiento de las heridas y fracturas abiertas de guerra.During the Spanish Civil War, a hospital of blood is installed in Alcoy. This was posible thanks to the solidarity of Swedish and Norwegian people. Medical and specialized nursing staff were sent by the Scandinavians, with all the necesary material, to install a hospital to see war wounded. Dr. D. Manuel Bastos Ansart was the surgical chief when the scandinavians left Alcoy. He

  12. Patient safety challenges in a case study hospital--of relevance for transfusion processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aase, Karina; Høyland, Sindre; Olsen, Espen; Wiig, Siri; Nilsen, Stein Tore

    2008-10-01

    The paper reports results from a research project with the objective of studying patient safety, and relates the finding to safety issues within transfusion medicine. The background is an increased focus on undesired events related to diagnosis, medication, and patient treatment in general in the healthcare sector. The study is designed as a case study within a regional Norwegian hospital conducting specialised health care services. The study includes multiple methods such as interviews, document analysis, analysis of error reports, and a questionnaire survey. Results show that the challenges for improved patient safety, based on employees' perceptions, are hospital management support, reporting of accidents/incidents, and collaboration across hospital units. Several of these generic safety challenges are also found to be of relevance for a hospital's transfusion service. Positive patient safety factors are identified as teamwork within hospital units, a non-punitive response to errors, and unit manager's actions promoting safety.

  13. The role of human capital and collaboration with academia for innovation in hospitality sector: the case of Mugla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummuhan Gökovali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La literatura no niega la relevancia del capital humano y la colaboración con las universidadesen vistas a la innovación en el sector de hostelería, pero la evidencia empírica de este enlace es insufi ciente por lo que se refi ere a Turquía. Este trabajo pretende contribuir al conocimiento en estaárea mediante el empleo de datos generados a través de una encuesta hecha en la provincia de Mugla, uno de los destinos turísticos más atractivos de Turquía. El objetivo de este trabajo es investigar losefectos del capital humano y la colaboración con instituciones académicas en el nivel de innovaciónde las empresas de hostelería. Los resultados de los datos del estudio y la investigación empírica delos modelos logit y probit econométricos indican que estos factores son realmente los que propician la innovación en las empresas de hostelería.

  14. Green Roofs: A feasible tool for environmental management in the hospitality sector of El Rodadero, Santa Marta?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, Seweryn; Garda Collante, Mario Alberto; Vega Paternina, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The accelerated urban development generates a series of problems, not only social and economic, but also environmental. The green roofs are one of the new technologies that can be used as a tool for environmental management in buildings. However, there are many barriers that prevent from their implementation on a large scale. This article is based on a detailed review of the experiences and results of many studies on the subject, underlining the benefits of green roofs and demonstrating the limitations for their implementation in the hotel sector of El Rodadero in the city of Santa Marta. The methodology consists of secondary research of studies carried out in different cities, making an emphasis on researches in climatic conditions similar to those in the study area. Additionally, the owners and managers of 18 hotels were interviewed about their opinion on the topic. In result, it was concluded that green roofs can be an effective tool for environmental management if they are implemented on a large scale. However, in the case of El Rodadero it is not feasible, although there is an interest to implement pilot projects that could dissipate the lack of confidence of the local managers.

  15. Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The challenge could be briefly seen in these terms: hospitals as places for treatment where there’s a technology focus and hospitals for healing where there’s a human focus. In the 60s - 70s wave of new hospital building, an emphasis on technology can be seen. It’s time to move from the technology...... focus. It is not enough to consider only the factors of function within architecture, hygiene, economy and logistics. We also need to look at aspects of aesthetics, bringing nature into the building, art, color, acoustics, volume and space as we perceive them. Contemporary methods and advances...... placed, accessible, provided with plenty of greenery, and maximize sensory impressions, providing sounds, smells, sight and the possibility to be touched. This is a very well documented area I can say. Hygiene, in terms of architecture can give attention to hand wash facilities and their positioning...

  16. Status of Norwegian climate policy 2011; Statusrapport for norsk klimapolitikk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Norwegians are generally little impressed what Norway as a society has achieved in the climate policy. This is consistent with the actual situation as it is mapped in this year's edition of the Status of Norwegian climate policy. The results obtained in a survey by TNS Gallup which was commissioned by BI Centre for Climate Strategy in connection with the disclosure of the agency's annual status report for the Norwegian climate policy. 1000 Norwegians have been asked about how good or bad they perceive the overall results in various areas of climate policy. Even for climate-friendly heating, which is the area where most perceive that there has been progress, only 39% of the population consider the results as very good or good. In addition to heating, energy efficiency in buildings, Norway's international efforts, research on climate technology and information to the public areas where most Norwegians still think the results are good, and which are the least dissatisfied.Year Status Report on Norwegian climate policy is a joint project between the organization Holder de ord (Do they keep promises) and BI Centre for Climate Strategy. The report shows that people have a fairly accurate picture of climate policy. In most areas, there is little substantial progress since the Low Emission submitted its recommendations in 2006. It is symptomatic that climate policy was recently delayed again - now to 2012. While it is a positive development in the areas that are at the top of people's list. Since 2006, for example, there has been a substantial expansion of district heating in Norway, and building standards have become much stricter when it comes to energy use. Motor vehicle taxes are changed and greenhouse emissions from new cars is 25% lower than in 2006. Norway also play a constructive role, both in relation to the negotiations at the UN on a new climate deal, but also for example in relation to a global sectoral agreement for shipping that was signed

  17. Transparencia en las adquisiciones del sector público: el caso de los hospitales de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires Transparency in public sector acquisitions: The case of hospitals in the City of Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rossi

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo trata el tema de la corrupción y falta de transparencia en las adquisiciones del sector público y los instrumentos que pueden colaborar para obtener resultados positivos en la gestión de compras. En primer lugar, se plantea el estado actual de la discusión del tema y la preocupación que manifiestan los gobiernos, los organismos internacionales, los centros académicos, las organizaciones no gubernamentales y la sociedad civil ante el avance de la corrupción. Se destaca la importancia del tema en Argentina y en otros países latinoamericanos, sobre todo su impacto en el crecimiento económico y las ineficiencias e inequidades que crea en la economía. En segundo término, se analiza la base de datos generada por la Subsecretaría de Gerenciamiento Estratégico del Gobierno Autónomo de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires. El objetivo central es evaluar el impacto de la Reforma Administrativa (1998 en los precios de 24 productos adquiridos por 13 hospitales generales de agudos durante el período 1998-1999. Se analizan los precios ponderados, las cantidades adquiridas y los montos de las contrataciones para el citado período y el conjunto de productos de mayor tasa de utilización. Se utilizó el análisis factorial multivariante a fin de identificar aquellos establecimientos asistenciales que tuvieron un buen nivel de actividad y a la vez un buen manejo presupuestario (indicadores de actividad y gestión. El análisis del comportamiento de los precios se realiza a través de una serie de regresiones que permiten demostrar que los precios bajaron un 8% en 1999. La contribución de cada hospital a esta variación se modela con variables dicotómicas. Así, 6 de los 13 hospitales aportan significativamente a la reducción de precios, de los cuales 3 contribuyen además a la baja en la dispersión de precios. Los resultados obtenidos permiten concluir que si los establecimientos asistenciales públicos cuentan con instrumentos de

  18. Conference on Norwegian fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of instituting a systematic research programme in Norway on aspects of thermonuclear and plasma physics has been raised. The conference here reported was intended to provide basic information on the status of fusion research internationally and to discuss a possible Norwegian programme. The main contributions covered the present status of fusion research, international cooperation, fusion research in small countries and minor laboratories, fusion research in Denmark and Sweden, and a proposed fusion experiment in Bergen. (JIW)

  19. The flexibilization of employment relationships in the health sector: the reality in a Federal University Hospital in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Sheila Maria Parreira; Coelho, Maria Carlota de Rezende; Borges, Luiz Henrique; Cruz, César Albenes de Mendonça; Massaroni, Leila; Maciel, Paulete Maria Ambrósio

    2015-10-01

    This was a socio-historical study that aimed to analyze the repercussions of the flexibilization of labor relationships within a University hospital (UH) using the thematic oral history method and triangulation of sources made up of workers' statements, institutional documents and relevant literature. It was observed that flexibilization, driven by state reform in the 1990s, had a structural impact on the trajectory of this institution, that, due to government downsizing policy, adopted outsourcing to maintain staff, leading to high staff turnover, various types of conflicts, and discontinuity and lack of organization of work processes. We conclude that the flexibilization of employment relationships became a handicap for this UH, disrupting services, negatively affecting students and service users, contributing to the deterioration of working conditions and lack of protection of workers.

  20. State intervention causing inefficiency: an empirical analysis of the Norwegian Continental Shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashani, Hossein A.

    2005-01-01

    State intervention in the Norwegian Continental Shelf started with the establishment of Statoil as the medium of state ownership over the found petroleum and as a tool to monitor oil companies' procurement behaviour. This paper tests the extent to which the state intervention created inefficiencies in the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) activities, as measured by data envelopment analysis, stochastic frontier analysis, Malmquist Indices, and standard regression analysis. Our results confirm such inefficiencies. Accordingly, the results provide an important insight into NCS production techniques and, more generally, into governments' abilities to influence private sector behaviour through contracts and tendering

  1. Acceso a un programa de condiciones crónicas en un hospital del sector público

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Camargo Rojas

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. Los esfuerzos del Gobierno para cumplir con estrategias planteadas por la política pública para el envejecimiento y la vejez en Bogotá, Colombia, la cual tiene como propósito fundamental “promocionar un envejecimiento activo y transformar condiciones de dependencia de las personas mayores para una vejez con dignidad en el Distrito Capital”, ha presentado dificultades en el acceso de programas. Objetivo. Identificar las condiciones de acceso que tienen los adultos mayores con enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles a los programas de promoción y prevención, de un Hospital de la red pública en Bogotá. Materiales y métodos. Estudio mixto, descriptivo de corte transversal. Población: adultos mayores con condiciones crónicas registradas en el sistema de Información de un hospital de la red pública. Muestra: se contó con un universo de 3356 personas mayores con condiciones crónicas y una población de 155 para una muestra representativa, con un intervalo de confianza de 95% y error admisible de 0,05. Resultados. Se evidenciaron dificultades en el proceso de seguimiento de los usuarios, la articulación entre servicios y el establecimiento de protocolos en la institución; igualmente se presentaron problemas en la contratación del personal por flexibilidad laboral; y, por último, se identificaron dificultades geográficas y económicas en la población. Conclusión. El incremento de las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles y la alta demanda de los servicios de salud generan un reto para los sistemas de salud, los cuales han comenzado a reorientar los servicios hacia acciones promocionales y preventivas.

  2. Using caregivers’ perceptions of rehabilitation services for children with Cerebral Palsy at public sector hospitals to identify the components of an appropriate service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Saloojee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite  a  growing  body  of  evidence  favouring  a  family-centred approach to rehabilitation services for children with cerebral palsy (cp, the essential components for a quality service for children with disabilities and their families living in poorly-resourced South African (SA settings  remains unknown.  The  study  aimed  to  identify  key  components of  an appropriate  rehabilitation  service  which  would  meet  the  needs of children  with  CP  and  their  caregivers  at  SA  public  sector  hospitals. This cross-sectional descriptive study used the modified Measure of processes of care (Mpoc-20 questionnaire together with two open-endedquestions with  a  convenience  sample  of  caregivers attending therapy  at  CP  Clinics in gauteng and limpopo hospitals. A total of 263 caregivers attending cerebral palsy clinics at 31 public sector hospitals in gauteng and limpopo were interviewed. Kind and caring attitudes, exercises or “training” for the child,  and  practical  assistance  (handling  ideas  and suggestions,  assistive devices, food supplements, nappies, advice were components of care most valued. The most frustration was caused by long queues waiting for files or at the pharmacy and being treated disrespectfully whilst providing caregivers with information and explanations regarding treatment choice were services that could be improved.  Key components for  an  appropriate  therapy  service  include  caring  and respectful  attitudes,  hands-on  therapy,  handling  suggestions and practical assistance. Logistical and administrative procedures together with disrespectul and unhelpful attitudes negatively impact rehabilitation service delivery.

  3. Occurrence and location of Transmissible Venereal Tumors in Dogs seen at the Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro Veterinary Hospital: Oncology Sector between 2010 and 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Caicó Collares Araujo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Araujo D.C.C., Antonioli T., Costa T.S., de Carvalho J.R.G., Laguna A.G.V., Ramadinha R.H.R. & Fernandes J.I. Occurrence and location of Transmissible Venereal Tumors in Dogs seen at the Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro Veterinary Hospital: Oncology Sector between 2010 and 2014. [Ocorrência e localização do Tumor Venéreo Transmissível em cães atendidos entre 2010 e 2014 no Setor de Oncologia do Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.] Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(3:277-280, 2016. Programa de Residência em Medicina Veterinária, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR-465, Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23851-970, Brasil. E-mail: dayanecaico@hotmail.com The Transmissible Venereal Tumor (TVT is a round cell neoplasm mostly affecting the genital of dogs. They can affect both sexes, and most animals are sexually active. Metastases, which occur in less than 5% of cases, occur through lymphatic or hematogenous. Diagnosis can be made by cytology and the most effective treatment is chemotherapy with vincristine sulfate. This study reports the occurrence of TVT from January 2010 to December 2014 in the UFRRJ Veterinary Hospital at the Oncology sector; clinical records were reviewed: 1,522 animals were seen and 123 (8.08% presented TVT. Of 123 animals afflicted, 71.54% were adults, 23.57% were senior and 4.87% had less than a year. A higher frequency of females (74 was observed, when compared to males (49. A higher incidence in mutts (78.05% was found, followed by poodles (7.32%, pinscher and Labrador (3.25%. Genital location was most common (79.04%, followed by a genito-cutaneous presentation (8.94%, nasal (5.69%, cutaneous (5.69% and ocular (0.81%. It can be linked with large quantities of stray dogs and poor animal control policies in the region.

  4. Norwegian Foreign Direct Investment : Destination Singapore Inc.

    OpenAIRE

    Hasli, Siri Hetle

    2009-01-01

    The growth and spread of FDI during the 20th century has been described as a significant economic-geographic development. Norwegian FDI has been increasing since the 1980s, but the large scale of it is a new phenomenon. Singapore is now the third most important host country for Norwegian FDI. This thesis is a study of Norwegian FDI in Singapore, and the research question is: Which economic and political factors do Norwegian companies regard as important when investing abroad, and to what degr...

  5. Levels of Depression and Anxiety Post-Mastectomy in Breast Cancer Patients at a Public Sector Hospital in Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sara; Khan, Naveed Ali; Rehman, Ata Ur; Khan, Iqra; Samo, Khursheed A; Memon, Amjad Siraj

    2016-01-01

    There is a noticeable change in the approach with which women nowadays seek help for diseases like breast cancer, primarily due to awareness campaigns, but what happens after surgical procedures is of great significance too. This study focused on the several psychological connotations attached to mastectomy and how the patients cope. To understand the pattern of anxiety and level of depression among Pakistani patients undergoing mastectomy. The sample size consisted of 88 patients who had undergone mastectomy at the different surgical units of the Civil Hospital, Karachi, from January 2012- December 2014; The questionnaire was administered before they were discharged i.e. within 3 days of surgical procedures. The patients were asked if they were willing to participate in this study, those who agreed signed the consent form and then we preceded by asking questions with a standardized tool. A self made questionnaire was constructed keeping in mind the nature and specification of the disease, which consisted of 20 questions related to anxiety and depression, focusing on a mixture of psychological and physiological symptoms. There were a total of 88 patients out of which 36 (41%) were aged 51 to 60 years, 24 (27.2%) of the patients were in the age category of 41 to 50 years, 17 aged 61 and above (19.3%) and only 11 (12.5%) 30-40 years of age, the youngest of all the age categories. The pattern of depression and anxiety was found to be similar among all age categories, severe depression and anxiety predominating over moderate level of such symptoms, with only relatively few patients sufering mild or no depression symptoms. It was concluded that going through mastectomy leads to moderate to severe levels of depression and anxiety, primarily because the females feel incomplete and insecure after losing a part of themselves.

  6. Final report: The effect of climate change on the Norwegian Energy System towards 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seljom, P.; Rosenberg, E.; Fidje, A.; Meir, M.; Haugen, J.E.; Jarlseth, T.

    2010-08-15

    The climate impact on the renewable resources, end use demand, and on the Norwegian energy system towards 2050 is identified. Climate change will reduce the heat demand, increase the cooling demand, result in no impact on the wind power potential, and increase the hydro power potential. The total impact is reduced energy system costs, and lower Norwegian electricity prices. The net electricity export will increase, and national investments in new renewable power production like offshore wind- , tidal- and wave power will decrease due to climate change. Additionally, the electricity consumption in the residential and in the commercial sector will decrease, and climate change will lead to an earlier profitable implementation of electric based vehicles in Norway. Despite great uncertainties in the future climate, various future emission scenarios are compatible regarding the Norwegian climate impact, although the magnitude of the impact varies. (Author)

  7. PREVALENCE OF LOW BACK PAIN AND LEVEL OF KNOWLEDE ABOUT PATIENT HANDLING AND SHIFTING TECHNIQUES AMONG NURSES OF A PUBLIC SECTOR HOSPITAL IN KARACHI A SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferkhanda Imdad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low back pain has been found to be the most prevailing musculoskeletal condition as well as a common cause of absence from workplace. Studies report that low back pain is common and accounts for a large number of reported disabilities among nurses. In fact nursing have one of the highest levels of back injury in all occupation groups. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of low back pain among nurses in a public sector teaching hospital of Karachi. This study has mainly focused on confounding factors leading to low back pain and level of education among nurses regarding patients handling or shifting techniques. Methods: A self-administered questionnaires comprises of three sections, were used to collect data. The first section requested for socio-demographic information, followed by medical history of back pain during last month and during last year.The second section assessed the medical history of LBP in two categories i.e. during last month and during last year.The third and last section inquired about participants’ level of education about ergonomics with simply in yes or no pattern.The questionnaires were given to 100 nurses. All questionnaires were completed in the presence of theresearcher. Out of 100 questionnaires distributed and recorded, only 47 participants returned the questionnaire. Results: Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 19.0 was used for statistical analysis. Relationship between the prevalence of low back pain and training in patient moving techniques, manual material handling techniques is significant (p=0.017,p= 0.068. There is a weak relationship with the knowledge of ergonomics, biomechanics and back pain preventive measures (p=0.719,p=0.457,p=0.704. Conclusion: More than two third of the participated nurses were well trained in transfer techniques, manual material training and preventive measures of back pain. But they lack the biomechanical knowledge. The prevalence

  8. Norwegian gas export policy - management of external change; Norsk gasseksportpolitikk - haandtering av ytre endring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claes, Dag Harald

    1997-12-31

    This report is the first study in the research project `` Norwegian gas policy - external change and national adaptation``. The project is financed through Norges forskningsraad`s research program ``Petropol``. The main aim of the project is to understand the market, political and institutional changes in the European gas market as well as what implications they may have for the political and institutional design of the Norwegian gas sector. In this report an approach model is developed for studying the connection between changes in the European gas market and the Norwegian petroleum policy which will be central in several of the later works in the project. The report gives a historic account of Norwegian gas export policy as well, a field where altered frame conditions have given the authorities political and institutional challenges. The main focus in the report is however, connected to the empirical explanation of the connection between changed external environments and alterations in the Norwegian gas export policy. The question the study tries to answer is: To what extent and how the Norwegian gas export policy is affected by alterations in the European gas market and the EU policy towards this market. In the centre of the study of the gas export policy is the element of governmental control. The governmental control assumes ability to formulate national aims as well as the ability to produce laws and regulations which reflects the goals and counts on that the aims are reached in addition to that the authorities either implement the policies themselves or if this is left to other parties, have ability to survey and sanction these parties should they break the guidelines or oppose the national political aims. The report shows how these aspects are affected by changes in the environments surrounding the Norwegian gas export. 6 figs., 1 tab., 45 refs

  9. Can Parallelingualism Save Norwegian from Extinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Andrew R.

    2010-01-01

    Language extinction is one of the most pressing issues in linguistics today, and the literature is full of discussion about how to combat it. Statements that Norwegian is amongst the languages that are already extinct are merely examples of a widespread tendency in the literature towards erroneous information about Norwegian. Nonetheless, there is…

  10. Norwegian gas supplies for the European market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, B.L.

    1994-01-01

    The conference paper deals with the Norwegian key role in the European gas market with increasing market shares. The supply capacity in a long-term perspective can be 65-70 bcm/year or more if export prices support the development of new and more costly gas resources. The main challenges for the Norwegian shelf are discussed. 5 figs

  11. Homotolerance and Heterosexuality as Norwegian Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothing, Ase; Svendsen, Stine Helena Bang

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, equality between homosexual and heterosexual relationships has increasingly been presented as a marker for Norwegian values. Norwegian schooling encourages tolerance toward homosexuals, and the state shows active interest in counteracting bullying against LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) youth by supporting research…

  12. Homotolerance and Heteronormativity in Norwegian Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothing, Ase

    2008-01-01

    This article is based on classroom observations and discusses sexual education that addresses homosexuality. Tolerance of queer lifestyles as well as support for judicial equality between heterosexual and homosexual couples is generally perceived as being high in the Norwegian political context. Norwegian sexual politics is, however, based on a…

  13. Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation. Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation. https://www.norad.no/en/front/. Think Tank Initiative. This initiative is creating high-quality independent research and policy institutions throughout the developing world. View more. Think Tank Initiative · View all initiatives.

  14. Norwegian resource policy: The production rate for Norwegian petroleum resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, P.

    1995-01-01

    Petroleum activities have become a large industry in Norway. This has led to extensive changes in Norwegian economy and society. In the public debate on this activity there has been little discussion of what would be the most profitable production rate. However, it is generally agreed that the great wealth implied by the petroleum resources must be managed in ways suitable to both present and coming generations. This report discusses the production rate based on the following questions: (1) How high can the production rate be before the petroleum activities and the expenditure of the income from them influence the remaining Norwegian economy too strongly? (2) How much of this wealth should reasonably be used by present generations and how much should be left for future generations? There is much to gain from a high tempo and from relocating some of the petroleum wealth. The possibilities of influencing the production rate are mainly connected with the allotments of production licences. The consequences of uncertainties in the petroleum activities for the choice of exploitation tempo are unclear. The environment is not much affected by the production rate. The contractor activity has become Norway's largest industry. 42 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  15. A mathematical programming framework for energy planning in services' sector buildings under uncertainty in load demand: The case of a hospital in Athens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavrotas, George; Diakoulaki, Danae; Florios, Kostas; Georgiou, Paraskevas

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an integrated modeling and optimization framework for energy planning in large consumers of the services' sector based on mathematical programming. The power demand is vaguely known and the underlying uncertainty is modeled using elements from fuzzy set theory. The defined fuzzy programming model is subsequently transformed to an equivalent multi-objective problem, where the minimization of cost and the maximization of demand satisfaction are the objective functions. The Pareto optimal solutions of this problem are obtained using a novel version of the ε-constraint method and represent the possibly optimal solutions of the original problem under uncertainty. In the present case, in order to select the most preferred Pareto optimal solution, the minimax regret criterion is properly used to indicate the preferred configuration of the system (i.e. the size of the installed units) given the load uncertainty. Furthermore, the paper proposes a model reduction technique that can be used in similar cases and further examines its effect in the final results. The above methodology is applied to the energy rehabilitation of a hospital in the Athens area. The technologies under consideration include a combined heat and power unit for providing power and heat, an absorption unit and/or a compression unit for providing cooling load. The obtained results demonstrate that, increasing the degree of demand satisfaction, the total annual cost increases almost linearly. Although data compression allows obtaining realistic results, the size of the proposed units might be slightly changed

  16. Adolescent Linkage to Care After a Large-scale Transfer From a Hospital-based HIV Clinic to the Public Sector in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Avila, Lynn; Regan, Susan; Cloete, Christie; Crankshaw, Tamaryn; Rabideau, Dustin J; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Parker, Robert A; Walensky, Rochelle P; Losina, Elena; Bassett, Ingrid V

    2017-03-01

    HIV clinics formerly supported by the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief are transferring patients to public-sector clinics. We evaluated adolescent linkage to care after a large-scale transfer from a President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief-subsidized pediatric HIV clinic in Durban, South Africa. All adolescents (11-18 years) in care at a pediatric state-subsidized, hospital-based clinic (HBC) were transferred, from May to June 2012, to government sites [primary health care (PHC) clinic; community health center (CHC); and HBCs] or private clinics. Caregivers were surveyed 7-8 months after transfer to assess their adolescents' linkage to care and their reports were validated by clinic record audits in a subset of randomly selected clinics. Of the 309 (91%) caregivers reached, only 5 (2%) reported that their adolescent did not link. Of the 304 adolescents who linked, 105 (35%) were referred to a PHC, 73 (24%) to a CHC and 106 (35%) to a HBC. A total of 146 (48%) linked adolescents attended a different clinic than that assigned. Thirty-five (20%) of the 178 who linked and were assigned to a PHC or CHC ultimately attended a HBC. Based on clinic validation, the estimated transfer success was 88% (95% confidence interval: 77%-97%). The large majority of adolescents successfully transferred to a new HIV clinic, although nearly half attended a clinic other than that assigned.

  17. [How do Norwegian dermatologists keep themselves professionally updated?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjersvik, P J; Nylenna, M; Aasland, O G

    2001-12-10

    We have explored continuing medical education among Norwegian dermatologists, especially their use of medical journals and the Internet. In April 2001, a questionnaire was sent to 170 dermatologists, including junior doctors in specialist training. 129 questionnaires (76%) were returned, of which 16 were excluded from the analysis. Mean time used per week reading articles in medical journals was 149 minutes (95% confidence interval (CI) 129-168 minutes). 90% of the respondents had Internet access at work and/or at home. Hospital consultants used the Internet for medical purposes for significantly more time per week than doctors in private practice (146 minutes (CI 98-195 minutes) versus 72 minutes (CI 52-93 minutes)). More hospital doctors had difficulties in getting or taking time off to attend courses and congresses (p private practice. Most dermatologists found the paper version of journals (88%) and courses and congresses (79%) to be important for their continuing medical education, while fewer found medical databases on the Internet (57%) and the Internet version of journals (35%) to be so. In a logistic regression model, fewer private practitioners than hospital doctors (p = 0.011) and more female than male doctors (p = 0.014) had a feeling of insufficiency in regard to the increasing amount of medical information. The Internet has become part of the professional life of most Norwegian dermatologists, but has so far not replaced traditional forms of continuing medical education.

  18. Norwegian climate research. An evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    [English] In early 2011, the Norwegian Research Council (RCN) appointed a committee to review Norwegian climate research. The aim of the evaluation was to provide a critical review of Norwegian climate research in an international perspective and to recommend measures to enhance the quality, efficiency and relevance of future climate research. The Evaluation Committee met three times: in August and December 2011, and March 2012. RCN sent an invitation to 140 research organisations to participate by delivering background information on their climate research. Based on the initial response, 48 research units were invited to submit self-assessments and 37 research units responded. These were invited to hearings during the second meeting of the Evaluation Committee in December. In our judgement, a great majority of the most active research units are covered by this evaluation report. It should be emphasised that the evaluation concerned the Norwegian landscape of climate research rather than individual scientists or research units. Bibliometric analyses and social network analyses provided additional information. We are aware of problems in making comparisons across disciplinary publishing traditions, especially with regard to the differences between the natural and social sciences and the humanities. The Evaluation Committee also reviewed a number of governmental and RCN policy documents and conducted interviews with the chairs of the NORKLIMA Programme Steering Board and the Norwegian IPY Committee, as well as with staff members of RCN. Additional information was received from hearings organised by RCN with the science communities and various stakeholders in January 2012. For the purpose of this evaluation, climate research was divided into three broad thematic areas: 1. The climate system and climate change: research on climate variability and change in order to improve our capability of understanding climate and of projecting climate change for different time

  19. Developing framework to analyze world-class maintenance (wcm) indicators: gap analysis to highlight challenges and opportunities for the Norwegian petroleum industry

    OpenAIRE

    Imam, Syeda Fahmida

    2012-01-01

    Master's thesis in Offshore Technology World-class Maintenance (WCM) is a unique business process which actually does not cost, rather pays back. This study was an initial attempt to understand the extent of WCM concept being utilized in the Norwegian industry. The aim of the study was to develop a framework for analyzing the WCM indicators. For this purpose, the study was focused to: identify measurable WCM indicators, find the trends of WCM in the Norwegian sector, and find gap betwee...

  20. Norwegians GPs' use of electronic patient record systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Tom; Faxvaag, Arild; Loerum, Hallvard; Grimsmo, Anders

    2009-12-01

    To evaluate GPs use of three major electronic patient record systems with emphasis on the ability of the systems to support important clinical tasks and to compare the findings with results from a study of the three major hospital-wide systems. A national, cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in Norwegian primary care. 247 (73%) of 338 GPs responded. Proportions of the respondents who reported to use the EPR system to conduct 23 central clinical tasks, differences in the proportions of users of different EPR systems and user satisfaction and perceived usefulness of the EPR system were measured. The GPs reported extensive use of their EPR systems to support clinical tasks. There were no significant differences in functionality between the systems, but there were differences in reported software and hardware dysfunction and user satisfaction. The respondents reported high scores in computer literacy and there was no correlation between computer usage and respondent age or gender. A comparison with hospital physicians' use of three hospital-wide EPR systems revealed that GPs had higher usage than the hospital-based MDs. Primary care EPR systems support clinical tasks far better than hospital systems with better overall user satisfaction and reported impact on the overall quality of the work. EPR systems in Norwegian primary care that have been developed in accordance with the principles of user-centered design have achieved widespread adoption and highly integrated use. The quality and efficiency of the clinical work has increased in contrast to the situation of their hospital colleagues, who report more modest use and benefits of EPR systems.

  1. The Norwegian hydrogen guide 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen technologies are maturing at rapid speed, something we experience in Norway and around the globe every day as demonstration projects for vehicles and infrastructure expand at a rate unthinkable of only a few years ago. An example of this evolution happened in Norway in 2009 when two hydrogen filling stations were opened on May the 11th, making it possible to arrange the highly successful Viking Rally from Oslo to Stavanger with more than 40 competing teams. The Viking Rally demonstrated for the public that battery and hydrogen-electric vehicles are technologies that exist today and provide a real alternative for zero emission mobility in the future. The driving range of the generation of vehicles put into demonstration today is more than 450 km on a full hydrogen tank, comparable to conventional vehicles. As the car industry develops the next generation of vehicles for serial production within the next 4-5 years, we will see vehicles that are more robust, more reliable and cost effective. Also on the hydrogen production and distribution side progress is being made, and since renewable hydrogen from biomass and electrolysis is capable of making mobility basically emission free, hydrogen can be a key component in combating climate change and reducing local emissions. The research Council of Norway has for many years supported the development of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, and The Research Council firmly believes that hydrogen and fuel cell technologies play a crucial role in the energy system of the future. Hydrogen is a flexible transportation fuel, and offers possibilities for storing and balancing intermittent electricity in the energy system. Norwegian companies, research organisations and universities have during the last decade developed strong capabilities in hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, capabilities it is important to further develop so that Norwegian actors can supply high class hydrogen and fuel cell technologies to global markets

  2. The communication atmosphere between physician colleagues: competitive perfectionism or supportive dialogue? A Norwegian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akre, V; Falkum, E; Hoftvedt, B O; Aasland, O G

    1997-02-01

    Open and supportive communication is probably one of the most important promotors of learning, coping and satisfaction at the workplace. The aim of this paper is to describe and predict the communication atmosphere between Norwegian physicians. Twenty statements describing communication, as perceived by the physicians themselves, were presented to a random sample of the members of the Norwegian Medical Association of which more than 90% of the physicians in the country are members (N = 2628). In general, this investigation indicates that the communication atmosphere among Norwegian physicians is characterised by support and mutual respect. More than half of the respondents fully agreed that communication between colleagues in the workplace is marked by solidarity, and that experienced colleagues show respect for the less experienced in both personal and professional matters. Physicians working in hospitals described the communication atmosphere as substantially more selfish and competitive than non-hospital physicians, whilst general practitioners considered the atmosphere between colleagues to be more supportive than non-specialists. In addition, high perceived stress was associated with the perception of a less supportive atmosphere. However, the strongest predictor of the communication atmosphere was clearly the physician's perceived autonomy. The comprehensive retrenchment programmes implemented in Norwegian hospitals during recent years have increased stress and restricted professional autonomy among both physicians and other occupational groups. Our findings indicate that the communication atmosphere necessary to secure continuity of knowledge within the medical profession may have been jeopardised by this process. In the long term, this may prove hazardous to the quality of medical care.

  3. Market penetration analysis of hydrogen vehicles in Norwegian passenger transport towards 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, Eva; Fidje, Audun; Espegren, Kari Aamodt; Stiller, Christoph; Svensson, Ann Mari; Moeller-Holst, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    The Norwegian energy system is characterized by high dependency on electricity, mainly hydro power. If the national targets to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases should be met, a substantial reduction of CO 2 emissions has to be obtained from the transport sector. This paper presents the results of the analyses of three Norwegian regions with the energy system model MARKAL during the period 2005-2050. The MARKAL models were used in connection with an infrastructure model H2INVEST. The analyses show that a transition to a hydrogen fuelled transportation sector could be feasible in the long run, and indicate that with substantial hydrogen distribution efforts, fuel cell cars can become competitive compared to other technologies both in urban (2025) and rural areas (2030). In addition, the result shows the importance of the availability of local energy resources for hydrogen production, like the advantages of location close to chemical industry or surplus of renewable electricity. (author)

  4. Stereotypes of Norwegian social groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, Hege H; Herrebrøden, Henrik; Hjetland, Gunnhild J; Røyset, Guro Ø; Westby, Linda L

    2014-10-01

    We present a pilot study and two main studies that address the nature of stereotypes of social groups in Norway within the framework of the Stereotype Content Model (SCM). The first study focused on stereotypes of a wide range of groups across categories such as gender, age, religious conviction, socioeconomic and health status. The second study focused on stereotypes of immigrant groups. Participants (n = 244 and n = 63, respectively) rated the groups on perceived warmth, competence, status, and competition. Results from both studies support the applicability of the SCM in Norway and provides a unique insight into stereotypes of Norwegian social groups. © 2014 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Norwegian Ocean Observatory Network (NOON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Bénédicte; Mienert, Jürgen; Winther, Svein; Hageberg, Anne; Rune Godoe, Olav; Partners, Noon

    2010-05-01

    The Norwegian Ocean Observatory Network (NOON) is led by the University of Tromsø and collaborates with the Universities of Oslo and Bergen, UniResearch, Institute of Marine Research, Christian Michelsen Research and SINTEF. It is supported by the Research Council of Norway and oil and gas (O&G) industries like Statoil to develop science, technology and new educational programs. Main topics relate to ocean climate and environment as well as marine resources offshore Norway from the northern North Atlantic to the Arctic Ocean. NOON's vision is to bring Norway to the international forefront in using cable based ocean observatory technology for marine science and management, by establishing an infrastructure that enables real-time and long term monitoring of processes and interactions between hydrosphere, geosphere and biosphere. This activity is in concert with the EU funded European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) roadmap and European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observation (EMSO) project to attract international leading research developments. NOON envisions developing towards a European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ERIC). Beside, the research community in Norway already possesses a considerable marine infrastructure that can expand towards an international focus for real-time multidisciplinary observations in times of rapid climate change. PIC The presently established cable-based fjord observatory, followed by the establishment of a cable-based ocean observatory network towards the Arctic from an O&G installation, will provide invaluable knowledge and experience necessary to make a successful larger cable-based observatory network at the Norwegian and Arctic margin (figure 1). Access to large quantities of real-time observation from the deep sea, including high definition video, could be used to provide the public and future recruits to science a fascinating insight into an almost unexplored part of the Earth beyond the Arctic Circle

  6. Big challenges for the Norwegian processessing industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The emission of greenhouse gases from the Norwegian aluminium industry has been reduced by 50 per cent during the last decade. This is due to the large sums invested by the industry in environmental technology. The article deals with the environmental challenges of the Norwegian processing industry in general, but with an emphasis on energy recovery from waste. It also discusses industrial competitivity; unlike Norway, some of the major competing countries have not committed themselves to the Kyoto agreement

  7. Fact sheet. Norwegian petroleum activity 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westgaard, T. [ed.

    1996-02-01

    The present report from the Royal Ministry of Industry and Energy deals with the Norwegian petroleum activity. Main topics are as follow: Historical overview; state organisation of petroleum activities; the economic impact of Norwegian oil and gas; state revenues; mainland activities; petroleum resources; production; marketing situation for petroleum products; environmental aspects; the legal and licence framework; licensing rounds; exploration; fields in production; fields under development; discoveries with development plan under consideration; transportation systems; licence interests; company interests. 36 refs., 24 figs., 15 tabs.

  8. Norwegian implementation of the Climate Convention; Norsk gjennomfoering av Klimakonvensjonen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The international climate cooperation has become one of the most important results of the UN conference on environment and development that took place in Rio in 1992. This report examines whether Norway has fulfilled the goal of the Climate Convention. Norway played an important role in the negotiations of the Climate Convention, on issues of joint implementation, on the need for a just sharing of burden and on the goal of cost effectiveness. Since the end of the 1980s, Norway has implemented a series of climate measures, although probably not all directly due to the Climate Convention. A carbon dioxide tax was introduced already in 1991. The effects of the measures are still uncertain, but they appear to be insufficient. Norwegian gas emissions are increasing. The increased oil- and gas activities in the North Sea and plans for a gas power station in the western part of Norway make it very difficult to attain the goal of stabilising the CO{sub 2} emissions on the 1989 level within the year 2000. The oil- and energy policy of the Norwegian government is being criticised by the opposition and by the environmental movement. It seems that it will become difficult for Norway to assume a leading role in international climate policy that is compatible with the same country`s business interests in the energy sector. 29 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Agriculture Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.

  10. White Paper No 21 (2011-2012). Norwegian Climate Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Norwegian Government intends to take a number of steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and promote technological advances. Some of the most important are: establishing a new climate and energy fund, raising the CO 2 tax rate for the offshore industry, and improving public transport. The white paper keeps to the targets set out in the 2008 agreement on climate policy. Measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions will be implemented in most sectors in Norway. A climate and energy fund will be established for the development of emission reduction technology. The CO 2 tax on emissions from Norway's offshore petroleum production will rise by Nok 200 per tonne, giving operating companies a stronger incentive to use electricity generated onshore. The Government will also focus on public transport, energy-efficient housing and forest-related measures to maintain and increase CO 2 uptake.(Author)

  11. Norwegian petroleum technology. A success story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    In many ways, the Norwegian petroleum industry is an economic and technological fairy tale. In the course of a little more than 30 years Norway has developed a petroleum industry with world class products and solutions. This book highlights some of the stories behind this Norwegian success. A strong Norwegian home market has helped Norwegian industries to develop technologies in the absolute forefront. In some important areas, like the subsea market, the Norwegian 'oil cluster' became world leaders through companies like Vetco, Aker Kvaerner and FMC Technologies. Advanced products for the domestic market, with cost effective and flexible solutions, are also sought after in the international market place. Norwegian companies are now involved in some of the world's foremost projects, from Sakhalin in the east to Brazil in the west and Angola in the south. Norway, with its 4.5 million inhabitants, is a very small country indeed. As an energy supplier, however, Norway will play an increasingly important role. This will require an even stronger emphasis on research, competence and technology development. Today some 75.000 highly qualified people are working directly in the Norwegian petroleum industry, where the domestic market is still strong with large field developments like Snoehvit and Ormen Lange. Norway has established a unique Petroleum Fund, which currently is passing $ 160 billion, and political leaders in resource rich oil countries are looking to Norway for inspiration and guidance. This book describes some of the best technology stories that have emerged from Norwegian research institutions. Financial support, text and illustrations from the companies and institutions presented in the book have made its publication possible and are gratefully acknowledged. An editorial committee has been responsible for producing the book under the chairmanship of Research Director Ole Lindefjeld of ConocoPhillips, who once demonstrated a multiplier effect of at least 15

  12. Energy Return on Investment for Norwegian Oil and Gas from 1991 to 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Höök

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Norwegian oil and gas fields are relatively new and of high quality, which has led, during recent decades, to very high profitability both financially and in terms of energy production. One useful measure for profitability is Energy Return on Investment, EROI. Our analysis shows that EROI for Norwegian petroleum production ranged from 44:1 in the early 1990s to a maximum of 59:1 in 1996, to about 40:1 in the latter half of the last decade. To compare globally, only very few, if any, resources show such favorable EROI values as those found in the Norwegian oil and gas sector. However, the declining trend in recent years is most likely due to ageing of the fields whereas varying drilling intensity might have a smaller impact on the net energy gain of the fields. We expect the EROI of Norwegian oil and gas production to deteriorate further as the fields become older. More energy-intensive production techniques will gain in importance.

  13. Developing electronic cooperation tools: a case from norwegian health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Eli; Mydske, Per Kristen

    2013-06-19

    Many countries aim to create electronic cooperational tools in health care, but the progress is rather slow. The study aimed to uncover how the authoritys' financing policies influence the development of electronic cooperational tools within public health care. An interpretative approach was used in this study. We performed 30 semistructured interviews with vendors, policy makers, and public authorities. Additionally, we conducted an extensive documentation study and participated in 18 workshops concerning information and communication technology (ICT) in Norwegian health care. We found that the interorganizational communication in sectors like health care, that have undergone an independent development of their internal information infrastructure would find it difficult to create electronic services that interconnect the organizations because such connections would affect all interconnected organizations within the heterogenic structure. The organizations would, to a large extent, depend on new functionality in existing information systems. Electronic patient records play a central role in all parts of the health care sector and therefore dependence is established to the information systems and theirs vendors. The Norwegian government authorities, which run more than 80% of the Norwegian health care, have not taken extraordinary steps to compensate for this dependency-the government's political philosophy is that each health care institution should pay for further electronic patient record development. However, cooperational tools are complex due to the number of players involved and the way they are intertwined with the overall workflow. The customers are not able to buy new functionalities on the drawing table, while the electronic patient record vendors are not willing to take the economic risk in developing cooperational tools. Thus, the market mechanisms in the domain are challenged. We also found that public projects that were only financed for the first

  14. Fact sheet. Norwegian petroleum activity 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harv, M.R.

    1995-02-01

    This report on the Norwegian petroleum activity in 1994 is published by the Royal Ministry of Industry and Energy. Production to the end of 1994 totaled 1.63 billion scm oe. At 31 Dec 1994, total reserves on the Norwegian continental shelf comprised 1.34 billion scm oe of oil, 1.35 billion scm oe of gas and 0.1 billion scm oe of NGLs. The net increment in oil and gas during 1994 was about 115 million scm oe. Twenty-seven exploration wells, including 22 wildcats and five appraisal wells, were completed or temporarily abandoned on the Norwegian continental shelf in 1994. Governmental approval was given for developing the second phase of the Ekofisk field, the Vigdis and Snorre Lunde oil fields, and two smaller formations on the Veslefrikk field. Investment in petroleum operations totaled about NOK 50 billion. Norwegian oil and gas production came to about 180 million scm oe. At present levels of output, Norway's petroleum resources are sufficient to support production of oil for 20 years and of gas for 115 years. The estimated value of Norwegian petroleum exports in 1994 is NOK 114 billion, representing about 34% of the country's total export earnings. State revenues from taxes and royalties on petroleum operations came to about NOK 23.7 billion, or eight per cent of total government revenues. 24 figs., 13 tabs

  15. [Harassment in the public sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puech, Paloma; Pitcho, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The French Labour Code, which provides full protection against moral and sexual harassment, is not applicable to public sector workers. The public hospital is however not exempt from such behaviour, which could go unpunished. Public sector workers are therefore protected by the French General Civil Service Regulations and the penal code.

  16. Healthcare and Social Assistance Sector (NAICS 62)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental regulations and information for the Healthcare sector, including doctor's offices, hospitals, and medical laboratories. Includes information about dental amalgam wastewater, sterilizers, and medical waste.

  17. White Paper No 54 (2000-2001). Norwegian Climate Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This White Paper from the Norwegian Government discusses the climate problem as a global challenge, Norway's strategy for meeting the Climate Convention and the Kyoto Protocol, the national climate policies of other countries, Norwegian national climate policy in the short term, and Norwegian national climate policy with the Kyoto agreement in force

  18. Norwegian gas on the European market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noreng, Oeystein

    1999-01-01

    Article. Norsk Hydro's acquisition of Saga has made the organization of Norwegian gas sales a very topical issue. Traditionally, Norwegian gas has been sold on long-term take-or-pay contracts where the sales volume is secured and the price is linked to the prices of other energy carriers, primarily oil. Norway has sold large volumes of gas to the continent and has an increasing share of the market. However, the long-term contracts place most of the price risk on the seller. Although the sale is guaranteed, earnings are low. Statoil, the largest seller of Norwegian gas, has so far earned much more by transporting the gas to the continent than by producing and selling it. The long-term take-or-pay contracts are no longer safe. In Germany, the power market is quickly opening for competition, implying falling prices and lapsing long-term contracts. A similar development is likely to occur in the gas market. From Norwegian quarters there has been little interest in establishing oneself in the gas markets on the continent, which worries the author. However, the traditional contracts will have to be renegotiated so that the prices will reflect the real competition in the market. It is argued that a sensible Norwegian strategy will be to prepare for a new world for gas, not to hold tight to historical positions. It is suggested that old plans to establish a gas transport company, Gassledd, should be revived. Such a company would be subject to the European Gas Directive and would have to admit a third party. It is likely that the Norwegian opposition to liberalization of the European gas market will one day appear poorly thought out, and that defensive considerations have overshadowed new opportunities

  19. Assessing spatial access to public and private hospitals in Sichuan, China: The influence of the private sector on the healthcare geography in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jay; Zhao, Hanqing; Wang, Xiuli; Shi, Xun

    2016-12-01

    In 2009, the Chinese government launched a new round of healthcare reform, which encourages development of private hospitals. Meanwhile, many public hospitals in China also became increasingly profit-oriented. These trends have led to concerns about social justice and regional disparity. However, there is a lack of empirical scientific analysis to support the debate. We started to fill this gap by conducting a regional-level analysis of spatial variation in spatial access to hospitals in the Sichuan Province. Such variation is an important indication of (in) equity in healthcare resource allocation. Using data of 2012, we intended to provide a snapshot of the situation that was a few years later since the new policies had set out. We employed two methods to quantify the spatial access: the nearest-neighbor method and the enhanced two-step floating catchment area (E2SFCA) method. We recognized two sub-regions of Sichuan: the rural West Sichuan and the well-developed East Sichuan. We classified the hospitals using both ownership and level. We applied the analysis to the resulting groups of hospitals and their combinations in the two sub-regions. The two sub-regions have a high contrast in the spatial access to hospitals, in terms of both quantity and spatial pattern. Public hospitals still dominated the service in the province, especially in the West Sichuan, which had been solely relying on public hospitals. Private hospitals only occurred in the East Sichuan, and at the primary level, they had surpassed public hospitals in terms of spatial accessibility. However, the governmental health expenditures seemed to be disconnected with the actual situation of the spatial access to hospitals. The government should continue carrying on its responsibility in allocating healthcare resources, be cautious about marketizing public hospitals, and encourage private hospitals to expand into rural areas. Methodologically, the results from the two methods are concurring but not

  20. Norwegian Petroleum Activity 97. Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report is the official governmental review of the offshore operations on the Norwegian Continental Shelf in 1996. It covers the following topics: (1) Summary, (2) Historical overview, (3) State organization of petroleum activities, (4) The economic impact of Norwegian oil and gas, (5) State revenues, (6) Mainland activities, (7) Petroleum resources, (8) Production, (9) Marketing situation for petroleum products, (10) Environmental aspects, (11) The legal and license framework, (12) Licensing rounds, (13) Exploration, (14) Fields in production, (15) Fields under development, (16) Discoveries with development plan under consideration, (17) Transportation systems, (18) License interests, (19) Company interests, (20) White papers, (21) Useful postal addresses. 24 figs., 16 tabs.

  1. Norwegians would - UK wouldn't

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, David.

    1988-01-01

    The Norwegians are now the world leaders in wave power technology and are exporting oscillating water column power stations to Tonga, Western Samoa, Vanuatu and Bali. The United Kingdom research programme was curtailed, although a wave power unit is being constructed on Islay in the Inner Hebrides. Those who favour nuclear energy generation claim that renewable sources, such as wave power, are uneconomic, but the Norwegians claim that the cost of wave-generated electricity is between 3p and 8p depending on local conditions. The economic case for nuclear power over renewables that will be presented at the Hinkley Point C Inquiry is thus less convincing. (U.K.)

  2. Transparencia en las adquisiciones del sector público: el caso de los hospitales de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires Transparency in public sector acquisitions: The case of hospitals in the City of Buenos Aires

    OpenAIRE

    T. Rossi; C. Murillo Fort; J.C. Puente Karolys

    2002-01-01

    El presente trabajo trata el tema de la corrupción y falta de transparencia en las adquisiciones del sector público y los instrumentos que pueden colaborar para obtener resultados positivos en la gestión de compras. En primer lugar, se plantea el estado actual de la discusión del tema y la preocupación que manifiestan los gobiernos, los organismos internacionales, los centros académicos, las organizaciones no gubernamentales y la sociedad civil ante el avance de la corrupción. Se destaca la i...

  3. Standardization of tests of quality control with the aid of quality tools used in management systems of processes at the Sector of Nuclear Medicine of the University Hospital of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Cas, E.V.; Weis, G.L.; Bahunhardt, T.; Shuch, L.A.; Lopes, L.F.D.

    2009-01-01

    This work tries to standardize the tests of quality control at the Sector of Nuclear Medicine at the University Hospital of Santa Maria, using tools of the quality used in systems of management of processes such as, PDCA, brainstorming, diagram of cause and effect (Ishikawa), 5W2H, verifying list and fluxogram. The tests of quality control refer to the scintillation camera (center of rotation, intrinsic uniformity, intrinsic spatial resolution and linearity, energy resolution for each radionuclide), to the dose calibrator (accuracy, reproducibility and linearity), to the Geiger-Mueller detector (reproducibility of the detector). (author)

  4. A cost analysis of a hospital-based palliative care outreach program: implications for expanding public sector palliative care in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongoro, Charles; Dinat, Natalya

    2011-06-01

    Increasing access to palliative care services in low- and middle-income countries is often perceived as unaffordable despite the growing need for such services because of the increasing burden of chronic diseases including HIV and AIDS. The aim of the study was to establish the costs and cost drivers for a hospital outreach palliative care service in a low-resource setting, and to elucidate possible consequential quality-of-life improvements and potential cost savings. The study used a cost accounting procedure to cost the hospital outreach services--using a step-down costing method to measure unit (average) costs. The African Palliative Care Association Palliative Outcome Score (APCA POS) was applied at five intervals to a cohort of 72 consecutive and consenting patients, enrolled in a two-month period. The study found that of the 481 and 1902 patients registered for outreach and in-hospital visits, respectively, 4493 outreach hospital visits and 3412 in-hospital visits were done per year. The costs per hospital outreach visit and in-hospital visit were US$71 and US$80, respectively. The cost per outreach visit was 50% less than the average cost of a patient day equivalent for district hospitals of $142. Some of the POS of a subsample (n=72) showed statistically significant improvements. Hospital outreach services have the potential to avert hospital admissions in generally overcrowded services in low-resource settings and may improve the quality of life of patients in their home environments. Copyright © 2011 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The air quality in Norwegian cities. Development - reasons - measures - future; Luftkvaliteten i norske byer. Utvikling - aarsaker - tiltak - framtid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larssen, Steinar; Hagen, Leif Otto

    1998-12-01

    There is an increasing focus on the air quality in Norwegian cities and townships. The air quality depends on several factors and the connections are complex. The aim of this report is to present a short and simple survey of this complex field. The report consists of three parts: Part 1 is a survey of the development until today. Measurements of SO{sub 2} and soot were started in the 1950's. Systematic determinations of NO{sub x} and NO{sub 2}, CO and particles, ozone and benzene was started during the last three decades. The population exposure to air pollutants and their main sources are described as well as the air quality in Norwegian cities compared to other cities in Europe. In part 2 developments within transport, a sector necessary for understanding the development, are described. Part 3 is a survey of forecasting the air quality in Norway, pollution warnings and surveillance. The forecasts are based on assumed developments in important sectors such as transport, energy consumption for heating and industrial purposes and the effects of demands for fuel and vehicles. Effect analyses of further measures which may be useful for reaching the national goals for the air quality are carried out. A survey of the most important limiting values and criteria as well as technical terms is presented in the report and in the appendix. The report is commissioned by the Norwegian Petroleum Institute (Norsk Petroleumsinstitutt) and the Norwegian Road Federation (Opplysningsraadet for Veitrafikken)

  6. The energy sector at a cross roads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The power and gas markets in Europe are changing radically. Increasing competition and comprehensive structural changes affect the conditions for value creation in the energy sector and the development of the Norwegian energy companies, which are mainly publicly owned. At the same time the demand on the owners is increasing, above all when it comes to strategic vigour in connection with necessary structural changes to adapt the companies to the new market conditions. The development of powerful Norwegian energy companies requires that the owners consider changes in the corporate structures, that the companies are partially privatised and at the same time that the goals of the ownership are clarified and the owner competence strengthened

  7. Recruitment to the Norwegian fishing fleet: storylines, paradoxes, and pragmatism in Norwegian fisheries and recruitment policy

    OpenAIRE

    Sønvisen, Signe Annie

    2013-01-01

    The majority of actors in the Norwegian fisheries consider recruitment of fishers to be the main future challenge for the Norwegian fishing fleet. As fleet recruitment is a highly politicized field, the problem of how to mitigate the recruitment problem is a subject of heavy debate. Some argue that recruitment problems are caused by low fleet profitability, while others argue that recruitment problems are caused by fleet restructuring polices. This article aims to explore th...

  8. Transforming Economies. The Case of the Norwegian Electricity Market Reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Per Ingvar

    2000-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is the shaping of modern economies, represented by a case-study of the Norwegian electricity market reform process. The essential questions raised are: Why are industries and economies organized the way they are? and Why and how do they occasionally experience fairly radical transformations during which we come to see their organizational structures and associated behaviors in entirely different ways? To answer these questions, the author has followed a radical market-making economic reform process through its many projects, processes and rivalries, from its roots in specific historical controversies through its major breakthrough and into a stabilized new economic system. A major argument through out the analysis is that economics as a scientific activity and -community plays a particularly important role in the re-shaping of economic systems. Large scale economic reforms are found to be dependent upon scientific and political powers and legitimacy which results from broad consensus within the relevant scientific communities. In order to make his point, the author presents and discusses various historical economic reform initiatives both within the Norwegian electricity sector, within other sectors of the economy and in other countries. He also presents elements of a broad process of reorientation within economics during the 1970s and follows these new conceptions up to the electricity market reform process in the late 1980s. The analysis tries to explain why Norway became a hotbed for market reform of the technically integrated and institutionally complex and locked-in electricity system, but also fries to extract medium range insights about economic reform processes and to discuss more general implications for other large scale economic reform projects as well as for economic theories about economic change - through a rethinking of some of the basics in economic thought. The thesis is separated into four parts. The first part discusses

  9. Transforming Economies. The Case of the Norwegian Electricity Market Reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Per Ingvar

    2000-07-01

    The topic of this thesis is the shaping of modern economies, represented by a case-study of the Norwegian electricity market reform process. The essential questions raised are: Why are industries and economies organized the way they are? and Why and how do they occasionally experience fairly radical transformations during which we come to see their organizational structures and associated behaviors in entirely different ways? To answer these questions, the author has followed a radical market-making economic reform process through its many projects, processes and rivalries, from its roots in specific historical controversies through its major breakthrough and into a stabilized new economic system. A major argument through out the analysis is that economics as a scientific activity and -community plays a particularly important role in the re-shaping of economic systems. Large scale economic reforms are found to be dependent upon scientific and political powers and legitimacy which results from broad consensus within the relevant scientific communities. In order to make his point, the author presents and discusses various historical economic reform initiatives both within the Norwegian electricity sector, within other sectors of the economy and in other countries. He also presents elements of a broad process of reorientation within economics during the 1970s and follows these new conceptions up to the electricity market reform process in the late 1980s. The analysis tries to explain why Norway became a hotbed for market reform of the technically integrated and institutionally complex and locked-in electricity system, but also fries to extract medium range insights about economic reform processes and to discuss more general implications for other large scale economic reform projects as well as for economic theories about economic change - through a rethinking of some of the basics in economic thought. The thesis is separated into four parts. The first part discusses

  10. Patient safety culture in Norwegian nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondevik, Gunnar Tschudi; Hofoss, Dag; Husebø, Bettina Sandgathe; Deilkås, Ellen Catharina Tveter

    2017-06-20

    Patient safety culture concerns leader and staff interaction, attitudes, routines, awareness and practices that impinge on the risk of patient-adverse events. Due to their complex multiple diseases, nursing home patients are at particularly high risk of adverse events. Studies have found an association between patient safety culture and the risk of adverse events. This study aimed to investigate safety attitudes among healthcare providers in Norwegian nursing homes, using the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire - Ambulatory Version (SAQ-AV). We studied whether variations in safety attitudes were related to professional background, age, work experience and mother tongue. In February 2016, 463 healthcare providers working in five nursing homes in Tønsberg, Norway, were invited to answer the SAQ-AV, translated and adapted to the Norwegian nursing home setting. Previous validation of the Norwegian SAQ-AV for nursing homes identified five patient safety factors: teamwork climate, safety climate, job satisfaction, working conditions and stress recognition. SPSS v.22 was used for statistical analysis, which included estimations of mean values, standard deviations and multiple linear regressions. P-values safety factors teamwork climate, safety climate, job satisfaction and working conditions. Not being a Norwegian native speaker was associated with a significantly higher mean score for job satisfaction and a significantly lower mean score for stress recognition. Neither professional background nor work experience were significantly associated with mean scores for any patient safety factor. Patient safety factor scores in nursing homes were poorer than previously found in Norwegian general practices, but similar to findings in out-of-hours primary care clinics. Patient safety culture assessment may help nursing home leaders to initiate targeted quality improvement interventions. Further research should investigate associations between patient safety culture and the occurrence

  11. Country-wide quality control of equipment in Norwegian laboratories performing in vivo nuclear medicine examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skretting, A.; Rootwelt, K.; Berthelsen, T.

    1984-01-01

    The report presents the methods used and the results obtained in quality control tests performd in all Norwegian hospital laboratories performing in vivo nuclear medicine examinations. The tests included activity meters and scintillation cameras. The activity meters were tested by means of calibrated, long-lived radioactive sources. The quality of these instruments were judged to be satisfactory for moderate and high activities, non of them showing a deviation of more than 10% from the calibration value. Deviations were larger at low activities and were for some laboratories unacceptable. The scintillation cameras test included studies of flood field (homogeneity), geometrical resolution and energy resolution, as well as measurements of count rate characteristics and sensitivity. 40% of the cameras were judged to have flood field responses with satisfactory homogeneity, whereas 32% of the cameras had a satisfactory resolution ability. A liver/abdomen phantom test was carried out by the staff of the actual laboratory. This test proved that only 20% of the laboratories had a satisfactory total performance, managing to detect and describe satisfactorily 4 out of 5 simulated defects in the liver phantom. Lack of information density and insufficient number of projections was the main reason for unsatisfactory results with good cameras. It is recommended that quality control equipment as used in the described tests should be made available to Norwegian hospitals for self assessment. Regular quality assurance tests as recommended by the Norwegian Association for Radiation Physics and Norwegian Society of Nuclear Medicine should be implemented in all hospitals. Moreover, a practical training course in quality assurance should be arranged. (RF)

  12. The strategy of ethic investment of the Norwegian petroleum fund and arms companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulin, Cedric

    2006-01-01

    The author comments the background of the consecutive disengagements of the Norwegian Government Petroleum Fund from several companies belonging to the arms sector, a disengagement which complies with the opinion of various actors in favour of a socially responsible investment, and of NGOs and associations opposed to the armament sector. After having recalled the global definition of this fund which was created in 1990, and of its investment policy, the author analyses the framework within which these disengagements occur, comments how these different spheres (the fund and the other above mentioned actors) finally met. He also wanders whether this ethics actually concern arms company or is in fact related to a problem proper to investment funds in general. The author notably indicates the various arms companies from which the Petroleum Fund withdrew its investments. The author also outlines some remaining ambiguities of the strategy of ethic investment of the former Norwegian Petroleum Fund, and shows that its methodology of ethic and socially responsible investment applied to the arms sector is in fact not yet precisely defined

  13. Developing a Model for Measuring Risk Exposure Status in IT Outsourcing Projects of Iran Health Sector (Survey Study about Tehran Hospitals and Health Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali Heidari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The presented research paper aims to introduce a model in order to identify risks and risk factors associated with outsourcing of information technology in conjunction with health systems, measuring the probability of happening each of them and the loss of each risk. The data used in this research has been gathered from the IT experts of the healthcare sector in Tehran through the questionnaire made by the author. Then the indexes of risk exposure has been classified and ordered in seven factors, using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. At the end, the probability and the associated loss of each factor have been measured

  14. Norwegian building's energy policy: multiple and inconsistent; Norsk byggenergipolitikk: mangfoldig og inkonsistent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boasson, Elin Lerum

    2009-09-15

    Historically, Norwegian building-construction policies have been part of the state's welfare policy. After 2000, a new conceptualisation of buildings emerged in Europe. Buildings were now regarded as a part of the energy system. The term 'energy performance of buildings' covers both the thermal quality of the building envelope and on-site energy production. In 2002 the EU developed an Energy Performance of Buildings Directive, while EU state aid regulations constrained national support schemes directed at fostering buildings with high energy performance. The building construction industry is a loosely coupled industry, and by year 2000 building construction was rather de-politicized. Although governmental regulations tend to be developed by governmental organisations and research communities in collaboration, political executives have, from time to time after year 2000, engaged directly in the development policy regarding energy performance of buildings. This report explores: 1) Why have Norwegian governments, in the period between 2000 and 2008, developed four strains of policies directed toward promoting buildings with high energy performance? 2) How did the European environment, the building construction sector (industry and governmental regulators) and the Norwegian governmental hierarchical steering intervene and shape the outcomes? (Author)

  15. Determinants of investment under incentive regulation: The case of the Norwegian electricity distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poudineh, Rahmatallah; Jamasb, Tooraj

    2016-01-01

    Investment in electricity networks, as regulated natural monopolies, is among the highest regulatory and energy policy priorities. The electricity sector regulators adopt different incentive mechanisms to ensure that the firms undertake sufficient investment to maintain and modernise the grid. Thus, an effective regulatory treatment of investment requires understanding the response of companies to the regulatory incentives. This study analyses the determinants of investment in electricity distribution networks using a panel dataset of 129 Norwegian companies observed from 2004 to 2010. A Bayesian Model Averaging approach is used to provide a robust statistical inference by taking into account the uncertainties around model selection and estimation. The results show that three factors drive nearly all network investments: investment rate in previous period, socio-economic costs of energy not supplied and finally useful life of assets. The results indicate that Norwegian companies have, to some degree, responded to the investment incentives provided by the regulatory framework. However, some of the incentives do not appear to be effective in driving the investments. - Highlights: • This paper investigates determinants of investment under incentive regulation. • We apply a Bayesian model averaging technique to deal with model uncertainty. • Dataset comprises 129 Norwegian electricity network companies from 2004 to 2010. • The results show that firms have generally responded to investment incentives. • However, some of the incentives do not appear to have been effective.

  16. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity The Norwegian Centre for Addiction Research (SERAF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramness, Jørgen G; Clausen, Thomas; Duckert, Fanny; Ravndal, Edle; Waal, Helge

    2011-08-01

    The Norwegian Centre for Addiction Research (SERAF) at the University of Oslo is a newly established, clinical addiction research centre. It is located at the Oslo University Hospital and has a major focus on opioid dependency, investigating Norwegian opioid maintenance treatment (OMT), with special interest in OMT during pregnancy, mortality, morbidity and criminality before, during and after OMT and alternatives to OMT, such as the use of naltrexone implants. The well-developed health registries of Norway are core assets that also allow the opportunity for other types of substance abuse research. This research includes health services, abuse of prescription drugs and drugs of abuse in connection with traffic. The centre also focuses upon comorbidity, investigating the usefulness and limitations of psychometric instruments, drug abuse in different psychiatric treatment settings and internet-based interventions for hazardous alcohol consumption. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. [On comparison of hospital performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjekshus, L E

    2000-10-20

    The motivation to identify the causes of rising health care cost and variations across providers has intensified in all industrialized countries. These countries have an ongoing debate on efficiency and effectiveness in hospital production. In this debate, national and international comparative studies are important. There are very few international comparative studies that include Norwegian hospitals. Actually we know very little about how Norwegian hospitals are performing compared to others. This paper gives an introduction to comparative studies and to the DEA model which is often used in such studies and also a multilevel model which is not so common. A short review is given of a comparative study of Norwegian and North American hospitals. I also discuss the feasibility of comparative studies of hospitals from the Nordic countries, with references to several comparative studies performed in these countries. Comparative studies are often closely linked to national health politics, policy making and reforms; thus the outcome of such studies is important for the hospitals included. This makes such studies a sensitive field of research. It is important to be aware of the strength and weaknesses of comparative studies and acknowledge their importance beyond the development of new knowledge.

  18. Radioactivity in the Norwegian Marine Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The national monitoring programme for radioactivity in the marine environment was established in 1999. The programme is coordinated by the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) in cooperation with the Institute of Marine Research (IMR). The principal objective of the programme is to document levels, distributions and trends of radionuclides in the marine environment. Data regarding discharges of radionuclides from both Norwegian and other sources are collected, and assessments of the resulting radiation exposures of humans and biota will be carried out. Results from the analysis of environmental samples collected in 1999 are presented in a new NRPA report (NRPA, 2001:9 ''Radioactivity in the Marine Environment 1999''. Some results from the monitoring programme in 1999 are summarised below along with more recent data concerning concentrations of the radionuclide technetium-99. (author)

  19. Relexification in a Northern Norwegian dialect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Sollid

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how the process of relexification can contribute to the understanding of the genesis of the new Norwegian dialect of Sappen in Nordreisa. The dialect has emerged in the context of language shift from Finnish to Norwegian, and the dialect syntax has features that might be regarded as products of relexification. One example is declarative main clauses with the finite verb in the third position (V3. The discussion adheres to a more general discussion of approaches to language genesis, where substratist and universalist (and also superstratist theories often are regarded as contrary to each other. I argue that different theories can contribute to the understanding of different aspects of the same question.

  20. Tanker spills Norwegian crude oil off Shetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports that crude oil was spilling last week from the U.S. owned Braer tanker after the 89,000 dwt vessel ran aground on the south end of Scotland's Shetland Islands. Workers were trying to assess the extent of damage to the tanker, shoreline, and wildlife after the January 5 accident. Braer's cargo amounted to 607,000 bbl of Norwegian oil bound for Canada. Braer loaded its cargo and sailed January 3 from Den norske stats oljeselskap AS's Mongstad, Norway, terminal with crude from Gullfaks field in the Norwegian North Sea. The $11 million shipment was destined for Ultramar Canada Inc.'s 125,000 b/d refinery at St. Romuald, Que

  1. Industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainul Hayati Daud; Hazmimi Kasim

    2010-01-01

    The industrial sector is categorized as related to among others, the provision of technical and engineering services, supply of products, testing and troubleshooting of parts, systems and industrial plants, quality control and assurance as well as manufacturing and processing. A total of 161 entities comprising 47 public agencies and 114 private companies were selected for the study in this sector. The majority of the public agencies, 87 %, operate in Peninsular Malaysia. The remainders were located in Sabah and Sarawak. The findings of the study on both public agencies and private companies are presented in subsequent sections of this chapter. (author)

  2. Agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainul Hayati Daud; Hazmimi Kasim

    2010-01-01

    The applications of nuclear technology in agriculture sector cover the use of the technology at every aspects of agricultural activity, starting from the seed to harvesting as well as the management of plantations itself. In this sector, a total of 55 entities comprising 17 public agencies and 38 private companies were selected for the study. Almost all, 91 % of them are located in Peninsular Malaysia; the rest operates in Sabah and Sarawak. The findings of the study in the public agencies and private companies are presented in the next sections. (author)

  3. Fact Sheet 1999. Norwegian Petroleum Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breivik, Jan

    1999-10-01

    As discussed in this publication, petroleum resources in the order of 9.5 billion (bn) standard cubic metres (scm) oil equivalents (oe) have been discovered on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS), 77 per cent in the North Sea, 19 per cent in the Norwegian Sea and four per cent in the Barents Sea. By the end of 1998, remaining reserves on the NCS totalled 1.6 bn scm of oil, 1.2 bn scm oe gas and 160 mill scm oe of natural gas liquids. Thirty-two exploration wells, including 21 wildcats and 11 for appraisal, were completed or temporarily abandoned on the NCS in 1998. 939 exploration wells had been completed or temporarily abandoned off Norway. In 1998 governmental approval was given for the Huldra, Snorre B phase II, Gullfaks satellites phase II and Yme Beta West. Norwegian offshore petroleum production in 1998 totalled 222.5 scm oe, including 168.9 mill scm oe of oil, 43.6 mill scm oe of gas and 10 mill scm oe of NGL/condensate. Oil production declined by 4 per cent compared with 1997, while gas sales rose by 2 per cent. The estimated value of Norwegian petroleum exports in 1998 was NOK 123 bn, or about 30 per cent of the country`s total earnings from foreign sales. Petroleum production and pipeline transport accounted for 12 per cent of Norway`s gross national product. Net government revenues from taxes and royalties on petroleum operations is put at 27.6 billion NOK. The publication also includes a list of white papers and a list of useful postal addresses. 23 figs., 14 tabs.

  4. Online consumer behavior among Norwegian business students

    OpenAIRE

    Møller-Hansen, Tor Ragnar

    2013-01-01

    Masteroppgave i økonomi og administrasjon - Universitetet i Agder 2013 E-commerce is an ever growing phenomenon which merits further research. This study conducts a literature review in the field of online consumer behavior, focusing on online consumer purchase intention and online consumer loyalty in the context of Norwegian business students. We also conduct a survey with 196 business students in Norway, and go on to identify three important variables impacting online consumer purchase i...

  5. Norwegian patients and retail chicken meat share cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli and IncK/blaCMY-2 resistance plasmids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, E. S.; Wester, A. L.; Ahrenfeldt, Johanne

    2017-01-01

    In 2012 and 2014 the Norwegian monitoring programme for antimicrobial resistance in the veterinary and food production sectors (NORM-VET) showed that 124 of a total of 406 samples (31%) of Norwegian retail chicken meat was contaminated with extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli....... The aim of this study was to compare selected cephalosporin-resistant E. coli from humans and poultry to determine their genetic relatedness based on whole genome sequencing (WGS). E. coli representing three prevalent cephalosporin-resistant multi-locus sequence types (STs) isolated from poultry (n=17...

  6. Written Language Shift among Norwegian Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil ÖZERK

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In Norway there are two written Norwegian languages, Bokmål and Nynorsk. Of these two written languages Bokmål is being used by the majority of the people, and Bokmål has the highest prestige in the society. This article is about the shift of written language from Nynorsk to Bokmål among young people in a traditional Nynorsk district in the country. Drawing on empirical data we conclude that many adolescents are experiencing written language shift. We discuss various reasons for this phenomenon in the linguistic landscape of Norway. In our discussions we emphasize the importance of the school with regard to language maintenance and language revitalization. We call for a new language policy in the educational system that can prevent language shift. Having several dialects and two officially written forms of Norwegian in the country, creates a special linguistic landscape in Norway. Despite the fact that the Norwegian language situation is in several ways unique, it’s done very little research on how the existing policy works in practice. Our research reveals that the existing language policy and practice in the school system is not powerful enough to prevent language shift and language decay among the youngsters. The school system functions like a fabric for language shift.

  7. Breivik--the Norwegian terrorist case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syse, Aslak

    2014-01-01

    On July 22, 2011, there were two murderous attacks in Norway. Both assaults - the bombing of governmental buildings in Oslo City center and the lethal shooting down of young members of the Labour Party on an island - were planned and accomplished by a lone perpetrator. These episodes give rise to several interesting questions. What happened really, and how could it happen? Was the perpetrator sane or insane? What was the ideological background for the attacks? It is unnecessary to discuss in any detail whether or not these acts should be categorized as terrorism. However, there is good reason to consider what these terror attacks imply for Norwegian society at large. What significance did the attacks have for Norwegian democracy, and did they have any impact on the 2013 parliamentary elections? What will be the future for the offender, both in the short term and in years to come? What will happen to the Norwegian insanity defense? These questions are addressed in this article. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The Technical Student Programme draws Norwegians

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Erik Hejne, second from left, Chairman of the Technical Students Committee, and Jens Vigen, who is concerned spefically with Norwegian students at CERN, with some of the Norwegian technical students who arrived at CERN in spring 2005, together with their teachers. From mid-April, CERN's PH and IT Departments are hosting ten Norwegian students from Bergen University College, the Sør-Trøndelag University College and the University of Science and Technology in Trondheim to take part in the Laboratory's Technical Student Programme. The Technical Student Programme is open to students of universities and technical higher education establishments in the Member States who, in the course of their studies, are required to complete a period of professional training in industry or in a laboratory. Around 70 Technical Students come to work at CERN each year. Selected by a committee, they spend between six months and one year with the Organization. The programme is funded by CERN. However, once the Laboratory's quota of...

  9. Beverage Consumption Patterns among Norwegian Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Mari Mohn; Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-01-01

    Beverages may be important contributors for energy intake and dietary quality. The purpose of the study was to investigate how beverage consumption varies between different meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper/evening meal, snacks) and between weekdays and weekend-days in Norwegian adults. A cross-sectional dietary survey was conducted among Norwegian adults (n = 1787) in 2010–2011. Two telephone-administered 24 h recalls were used for dietary data collection. Breakfast was the most important meal for milk and juice consumption, dinner for sugar-sweetened beverages and wine, and snacks for water, coffee, artificially sweetened beverages, and beer. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages did not differ between weekdays and weekend-days among consumers. The average intake of wine and beer (men only) was higher on weekend-days. Higher age was positively associated with wine consumption and negatively associated with consumption of water, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened beverages. Higher education was associated with consumption of water, beer, and wine, whereas lower education was associated with sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Beverage consumption patterns among Norwegian adults vary between different meal types and in subgroups of the population. Alcohol consumption was higher on weekend-days. Knowledge regarding beverage consumption patterns in the population should be considered when revising dietary guidelines in the future. PMID:27649236

  10. Cultural and musical activity among Norwegian doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylenna, Magne; Aasland, Olaf Gjerløw

    2013-06-25

    The cultural and musical activity of Norwegian doctors was studied in 1993. We wished to re-examine their cultural and musical activity, analyse the development and study the correlation with satisfaction, health and other leisure activities. In the autumn of 2010, a survey was undertaken among a representative sample of economically active Norwegian doctors. The survey asked the same questions as in 1993, and the responses were also compared to the population studies conducted by Statistics Norway. We also used a cultural index that we have developed ourselves. Altogether 1,019 doctors (70%) responded to the survey. They reported a higher level of cultural activity in 2010 than in 1993, measured in terms of reading of non-medical literature and visits to the cinema, theatre and concerts. The doctors engaged in musical activity of their own especially frequently: 58% reported to be able to play an instrument, and 21% reported to play on a regular basis, which is more than among other academic professions. We found a significant correlation between the doctors' level of cultural activity and their job satisfaction, general satisfaction, self-reported health and physical activity. The doctors who engage most frequently in cultural activities are thus most satisfied with their work and with life in general. Furthermore, they also have better self-reported health. Norwegian doctors give priority to cultural and musical activities. The assertion that doctors are particularly fond of music is more than just a myth.

  11. Beverage Consumption Patterns among Norwegian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Mari Mohn; Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-09-13

    Beverages may be important contributors for energy intake and dietary quality. The purpose of the study was to investigate how beverage consumption varies between different meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper/evening meal, snacks) and between weekdays and weekend-days in Norwegian adults. A cross-sectional dietary survey was conducted among Norwegian adults (n = 1787) in 2010-2011. Two telephone-administered 24 h recalls were used for dietary data collection. Breakfast was the most important meal for milk and juice consumption, dinner for sugar-sweetened beverages and wine, and snacks for water, coffee, artificially sweetened beverages, and beer. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages did not differ between weekdays and weekend-days among consumers. The average intake of wine and beer (men only) was higher on weekend-days. Higher age was positively associated with wine consumption and negatively associated with consumption of water, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened beverages. Higher education was associated with consumption of water, beer, and wine, whereas lower education was associated with sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Beverage consumption patterns among Norwegian adults vary between different meal types and in subgroups of the population. Alcohol consumption was higher on weekend-days. Knowledge regarding beverage consumption patterns in the population should be considered when revising dietary guidelines in the future.

  12. Calculation of dietary exposure to acrylamide in the Norwegian population

    OpenAIRE

    Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety

    2015-01-01

    The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (VKM) is requested by the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (NFSA) to calculate the dietary exposure to acrylamide in the Norwegian population. NFSA refers to the recent scientific opinion on acrylamide in food by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). EFSA concludes that acrylamide in food potentially increases the risk of developing cancer for consumers in all age groups.

  13. Ichthyophonus hoferi disease in the herring in Norwegian waters

    OpenAIRE

    Hjeltnes, Brit K.; Skagen, Dankert W.

    1992-01-01

    After the discovery of I. hoferi disease in Norwegian spring spawning herring in summer 1991, a program for systematic surveillance of the disease in the herring in Norwegian waters was developed. The programme, which aims primarily at monitoring the prevalence of the disease, is described. Macroscopic lesions in the heart emerged as the standard diagnostic criterium. The results so far indicate that the situation for Norwegian spring spawning herring is not alarming, ...

  14. Production development on the Norwegian continental shelf; KonKraft rapport 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    After almost 40 years of virtually uninterrupted growth, total hydrocarbon production on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) has reached its highest level ever, with a daily output of 4-4.5 million barrels of oil equivalent per day. It is expected to remain at this level for the next 7 years. After 2015 or thereabouts, however, total oil and gas production is forecast to start declining. Oil production is already falling. Gas output has been increasing, but this is not expected to continue offsetting the drop in liquid production beyond 2015 or thereabouts if no action is taken. Only half the combined oil and gas resources predicted by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD) will have been produced in 2015. Remaining recoverable resources, including those expected to be found by further exploration, are currently estimated to be 38-77 billion barrels of oil equivalent (boe). This estimate could be 25-65 billion boe in 2015. Only 40 per cent of the total expected remaining hydrocarbon resources remains to be discovered today, which explains the wide range in the estimates. This huge potential must be managed well to avoid a sharp decline in production and to support a healthy level of long-term investment. The report on production development on the Norwegian continental shelf is published at a time when major changes are taking place both inside and outside the petroleum industry. Several factors make a review of what can be done to address the production decline particularly urgent. Although the current level of activity in the Norwegian petroleum sector is high, assessing the long-term perspectives for the industry is very important. In many cases, the period between the award of licences and the start of production can be 15 years or more. Decisions taken now may have important implications for levels of production and activity in the 2020s. (Author)

  15. Production development on the Norwegian continental shelf; KonKraft rapport 2; Produksjonsutviklingen paa norsk sokkel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    After almost 40 years of virtually uninterrupted growth, total hydrocarbon production on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) has reached its highest level ever, with a daily output of 4-4.5 million barrels of oil equivalent per day. It is expected to remain at this level for the next 7 years. After 2015 or thereabouts, however, total oil and gas production is forecast to start declining. Oil production is already falling. Gas output has been increasing, but this is not expected to continue offsetting the drop in liquid production beyond 2015 or thereabouts if no action is taken. Only half the combined oil and gas resources predicted by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD) will have been produced in 2015. Remaining recoverable resources, including those expected to be found by further exploration, are currently estimated to be 38-77 billion barrels of oil equivalent (boe). This estimate could be 25-65 billion boe in 2015. Only 40 per cent of the total expected remaining hydrocarbon resources remains to be discovered today, which explains the wide range in the estimates. This huge potential must be managed well to avoid a sharp decline in production and to support a healthy level of long-term investment. The report on production development on the Norwegian continental shelf is published at a time when major changes are taking place both inside and outside the petroleum industry. Several factors make a review of what can be done to address the production decline particularly urgent. Although the current level of activity in the Norwegian petroleum sector is high, assessing the long-term perspectives for the industry is very important. In many cases, the period between the award of licences and the start of production can be 15 years or more. Decisions taken now may have important implications for levels of production and activity in the 2020s. (Author)

  16. New indicators of innovation in the health sector

    OpenAIRE

    Sivertsen, Gunnar; Kværner, Kari J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a new model for the measurement and stimulation of service innovation and commercialization in the health sector which has been developed for the Norwegian Ministry of Health and will be piloted in 2016. Data for the indicators are recorded from a new shared national innovation management and information system in which the primary function (independent of measurement) is to aid the phase-to-phase efficiency and valuation work in daily innovation processes, and to create...

  17. Modelling energy demand in the Norwegian building stock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartori, Igor

    2008-07-15

    Energy demand in the building stock in Norway represents about 40% of the final energy consumption, of which 22% goes to the residential sector and 18% to the service sector. In Norway there is a strong dependency on electricity for heating purposes, with electricity covering about 80% of the energy demand in buildings. The building sector can play an important role in the achievement of a more sustainable energy system. The work performed in the articles presented in this thesis investigates various aspects related to the energy demand in the building sector, both in singular cases and in the stock as a whole. The work performed in the first part of this thesis on development and survey of case studies provided background knowledge that was then used in the second part, on modelling the entire stock. In the first part, a literature survey of case studies showed that, in a life cycle perspective, the energy used in the operating phase of buildings is the single most important factor. Design of low-energy buildings is then beneficial and should be pursued, even though it implies a somewhat higher embodied energy. A case study was performed on a school building. First, a methodology using a Monte Carlo method in the calibration process was explored. Then, the calibrated model of the school was used to investigate measures for the achievement of high energy efficiency standard through renovation work. In the second part, a model was developed to study the energy demand in a scenario analysis. The results showed the robustness of policies that included conservation measures against the conflicting effects of the other policies. Adopting conservation measures on a large scale showed the potential to reduce both electricity and total energy demand from present day levels while the building stock keeps growing. The results also highlighted the inertia to change of the building stock, due to low activity levels compared to the stock size. It also became clear that a deeper

  18. How do food bloggers and PR practitioners in the hospitality sector view their relationships? A UK perspective / ¿Cómo ven su relación los bloggers de alimentos y los profesionales de relaciones públicas en el sector de la hostelería? Desde Reino Unido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Yeomans

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bloggers are increasingly viewed by public relations practitioners as important influencers within the online media environment, yet research that explores relationships between bloggers and PR practitioners, particularly in the UK, is relatively limited. This paper reports on findings from a small-scale, in depth qualitative study of food blogger-practitioner relationships within the hospitality sector in the UK. The study explored why bloggers write about their restaurant experiences and how they view their relationships with PR professionals; while PR practitioners were questioned about their relationships with bloggers and the influence bloggers are having on PR clients’ reputations. In keeping with previous research, this study found that the practitioner-blogger relationship is complex. The PR practitioners interviewed within the hospitality sector viewed restaurant review bloggers as highly influential to their clients’ reputations and view the relationship as one that is built on mutual interests and trust. However, bloggers do not perceive the relationship in this light and are sceptical of PR practitioners’ motives. While bloggers had different motivations for blogging, they shared a common passion for blogging and a drive to provide reliable information and objective advice to their readers. Concerns within the blogging community were highlighted in regard to accepting incentives (free meals from PR practitioners, and how this can be damaging to bloggers’ reputations. While some bloggers claim to resist PR practitioners’ attempts to influence their blog content, other bloggers take an active role in building relationships with PR practitioners. It is argued that both parties are engaged in ‘identity work’ in order to protect their respective identities and practices and that emotion management plays a part in the practitioner-blogger relationship.

  19. Energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Within the framework of assessing the state of the environment in Lebanon, this chapter describes primary energy demand, the electricity generating sector and environmental impacts arising from the energy sector.Apart from hydropower and traditional energy sources, which together represent 1.7% of energy consumption, all energy in Lebanon derives from imported petroleum products and some coal.Tables present the imports of different petroleum products (Gasoil, Kerosene, fuel oil, coal etc...), their use, the energy balance and demand.Energy pricing and pricing policies, formal and informal electricity generations in Lebanon are described emphasized by tables. The main environmental impacts are briefly summarized. Thermal power stations give rise to emissions of Sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), particulates, oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) and CO/CO 2 from combustion of primary fuel informally generated power from both industry and domestic consumption produce particulate materials and emissions of NO x and SO 2 projected emissions of SO 2 from the power sector with the present generating capacity and with the new combined cycle power plants in operation are shown. Other environmental impacts are described. Recommendations for supply and environment policy are presented

  20. The UK and British Gas: Any future for Norwegian gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungles, P.

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with the UK natural gas market and the future for Norwegian gas in the UK. The role of the British Gas in the domestic and European markets is discussed. Topics are: The UK gas supply market; the UK upstream gas market and the Interconnector; the European market, competition and deregulation; the prospects for Norwegian gas

  1. European energy security: The future of Norwegian natural gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederbergh, Bengt; Jakobsson, Kristofer; Aleklett, Kjell

    2009-01-01

    The European Union (EU) is expected to meet its future growing demand for natural gas by increased imports. In 2006, Norway had a 21% share of EU gas imports. The Norwegian government has communicated that Norwegian gas production will increase by 25-40% from today's level of about 99 billion cubic meters (bcm)/year. This article shows that only a 20-25% growth of Norwegian gas production is possible due to production from currently existing recoverable reserves and contingent resources. A high and a low production forecast for Norwegian gas production is presented. Norwegian gas production exported by pipeline peaks between 2015 and 2016, with minimum peak production in 2015 at 118 bcm/year and maximum peak production at 127 bcm/year in 2016. By 2030 the pipeline export levels are 94-78 bcm. Total Norwegian gas production peaks between 2015 and 2020, with peak production at 124-135 bcm/year. By 2030 the production is 96-115 bcm/year. The results show that there is a limited potential for increased gas exports from Norway to the EU and that Norwegian gas production is declining by 2030 in all scenarios. Annual Norwegian pipeline gas exports to the EU, by 2030, may even be 20 bcm lower than today's level.

  2. Monitoring of harmful algal blooms along the Norwegian coast using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Norwegian monitoring system for harmful algal blooms, consisting of an Observer Network, the State Food Hygiene Control Agency, the Oceanographic Company of Norway, the Institute of Marine Research and the Directorate for Fisheries, is reviewed. Potentially harmful algae on the Norwegian coast are found primarily ...

  3. Work Plans 2011 – Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety

    2011-01-01

    The annual work plan for 2011 summaries activities for the Scientific Steering Committee and the 9 panels of the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (VKM). VKM carries out independent risk assessments for the Norwegian Food Safety Authority across the Authority’s field of responsibility as well as environmental risk assessments of genetically modified organisms for the Directorate for Nature Management.

  4. Topicality and Complexity in the Acquisition of Norwegian Object Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderssen, Merete; Bentzen, Kristine; Rodina, Yulia

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the acquisition of object shift in Norwegian child language. We show that object shift is complex derivationally, distributionally, and referentially, and propose a new analysis in terms of IP-internal topicalization. The results of an elicited production study with 27 monolingual Norwegian-speaking children (ages…

  5. Who are they? Identities in the Norwegian radiographer profession as presented in the Norwegian printed press

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stalsberg, R.; Thingnes, E.R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To explore how Norwegian radiographers are portrayed in written press. Method: Textual discourse analysis, following a multiple step strategy, combining both a quantitative and a qualitative approach. 189 newspaper articles were included. The articles were registered and subject fields were inductively categorized. Each subject field was analysed regarding the field's role as an agent of influence on public perception of radiographers. Results: On average, less than one article a year concerning radiography profession is published in Norwegian newspapers. A majority are published in newspapers with small circulation figures, often reporting on resources in the local health services where radiographers are involved. Mostly radiographers are placed in the articles' background playing supporting roles, frequently mentioned in the cutline as an operator of a new medical technology. There is a heavy emphasis on the technology, leaving the specialized expertise and radiography knowledge out. This focus persist in the instances where radiographers play a main role in the texts. When patient stories are told, positive value-laden words are used to describe the radiographer and both the technical and the patient-care aspects of being a radiographer are noticeable. Conclusion: Norwegian radiographers typically appear, in glimpses, as anonymous allied health technicians in local reports on new diagnostic equipment or resource utilization. The professional qualities and decisive skills required to handle sophisticated diagnostic equipment and continuity of patient care are underestimated. A more-nuanced media coverage might give radiographers a strengthened identity as important health-care service contributors. - Highlights: • The radiography profession is an inconspicuous topic in Norwegian written press. • Written press involving radiographers highlight new equipment and medical technology. • Radiographers' professional qualities and decisive

  6. Characterization of Norwegian women eating wholegrain bread

    OpenAIRE

    Bakken, Toril; Braaten, Tonje; Olsen, Anja; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri

    2015-01-01

    Source: doi: 10.1017/S1368980015000245 To investigate dietary and non-dietary characteristics of wholegrain bread eaters in the Norwegian Women and Cancer study.Cross-sectional study using an FFQ.Women were divided into two groups according to wholegrain bread consumption.Adult women (n 69 471).Median daily consumption of standardized slices of wholegrain bread was 2·5 in the low intake group and 4·5 in the high intake group. The OR for high wholegrain bread consumption was 0·28, 2·19 and ...

  7. NOM removal technologies – Norwegian experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ødegaard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overview of the methods for removal of natural organic matter (NOM in water, particularly humic substances (HS, with focus on the Norwegian experiences. It is demonstrated that humic substances may be removed by a variety of methods, such as; molecular sieving through nanofiltration membranes, coagulation with subsequent floc separation (including granular media or membrane filtration, oxidation followed by biofiltration and sorption processes including chemisorption (ion exchange and physical adsorption (activated carbon. All these processes are in use in Norway and the paper gives an overview of the operational experiences.

  8. Komparativ analyse - Scandinavian Airlines & Norwegian Air Shuttle

    OpenAIRE

    Kallesen, Martin Nystrup; Singh, Ravi Pal; Boesen, Nana Wiaberg

    2017-01-01

    The project is based around a pondering of how that a company the size of Scandinavian Airlines or Norwegian Air Shuttle use their Finances and how they see their external environment. This has led to us researching the relationship between the companies and their finances as well as their external environment, and how they differ in both.To do this we have utilised a myriad of different methods to analyse the companies, including PESTEL, SWOT, TOWS; DCF, risk analysis, Sensitivity, Porter’s ...

  9. The Norwegian Climate and Ozone Research Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlin, E. [ed.

    1996-03-01

    This report includes abstracts from a workshop arranged by the Norwegian Climate and Ozone Research Programme 11-12 March 1996. The abstracts are organized according to the sessions: (1) Regional effects of climate change with emphasis on ecology, (2) Climate research related to the North Atlantic, (3) What lessons can be drawn from paleoclimatology about changes in the current climate?, (4) Changes in the ozone layer and their effect on UV and biology. Abstracts of a selection of papers presented at the workshop can be found elsewhere in the present data base. 70 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. The Norwegian state as a natural gas entrepreneur : the impact of the EEA agreement and EU gas market liberalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2009-07-01

    intended benefit of the industry and the state itself. When Norway entered the 1990s and EU integration processes were increasingly evident, her petroleum policy and natural gas strategy was under strong political control. The EEA agreement changed the legal framework for Norwegian domestic policy and economic activities in many areas, including the petroleum sector. In particular, it changed the institutional and regulative framework for natural gas production, transportation and sales, and the way the state could continue the control and innovation of her comprehensive gas model. Furthermore, the liberalization of downstream EU natural gas markets changed the external economic and political maneuvering room. However, the EU has not succeeded in fully liberalizing her natural gas markets. This study argues that markets for natural gas in the EU are and will remain largely imperfect and politicized for the foreseeable future, in which opportunities for adaptation, influencing developments and exercising entrepreneurship must be understood. The study therefore focuses on the effects on entrepreneurship, both from a perspective of a largely full liberalization, and from a perspective of de facto liberalization. The final chapter includes a summary of empirical findings, along with an assessment of how the study may contribute to understanding Norwegian petroleum policy and the Norwegian - EU relationship, respectively. Some theoretical implications are addressed. The study draws upon endogenous growth theory to understand the role of the Norwegian state as a political entrepreneur in the creation of her petroleum industry. Endogenous growth theory demonstrates that policy, entrepreneurship and innovation, and not only changes in exogenous factors, have an impact on the long-run growth of an industry, and more general on a national economy. To understand EU integration processes and their impact on national policy making, the disciplines of economics and political science are

  11. The acquisition of compositional definiteness in Norwegian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merete Anderssen

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aim to explain why the prenominal definiteness marker found in modified structures only is acquired much later than the suffixal definite article in Norwegian. The coexistence of the two definiteness markers is the result of the so-called double definiteness phenomenon in Norwegian which occurs in definite structures involving an attributive adjective. As the prenominal determiner only occurs in modified contexts, one obvious explanation that presents itself is that the omission of the prenominal determiner is related to the fact that it is much less frequent in the input than the suffixal article. However, if we consider the form of this determiner, it is clear that the form itself must be very frequent in the input, as it is homophonous with the demonstrative and with inanimate third person pronouns, which are all frequent in use. Consequently, a lexical insertion approach to the double definiteness phenomenon is proposed according to which the discrepancy in the order of acquisition is argued to be due to a combination of prosodic saliency and the lexicalisation of semantic features, the latter of which will be dealt with here.

  12. The Norwegian nuclear emergency preparedness system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naadland, E.; Stranden, E.

    1995-01-01

    A new national organisation for nuclear emergency preparedness was established in Norway in 1993, based on experiences from the Chernobyl accident. This organisation is based on authorities and research institutions which in a normal situation have responsibilities and knowledge in fields that are also of major importance in a nuclear accident situation. The national emergency preparedness organisation consists of the Ministerial Co-ordination Committee, the Advisory Committee for Nuclear Accidents and their secretariat at the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, and an Information Group. The organisations participating in the Advisory Committee operate measuring networks, stations and laboratories. In an early phase of an accident, a minor group from the Advisory Committee forms a Crisis Committee for Nuclear Accidents. This committee has been delegated the authority to make decisions in this phase. The organisation represented by its secretariat at the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority is responsible for coordinating the emergency planning, the measuring capacities and the professional needs ordinarily. The secretariat is on call 24 hours a day as point of contact according to bilateral and international agreements on early notification. In this paper the features of the emergency preparedness organisation are presented. (Author)

  13. COPD predicts mortality in HF: the Norwegian Heart Failure Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Blois, Jonathan; Simard, Serge; Atar, Dan; Agewall, Stefan

    2010-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic heart failure (HF) are common clinical conditions that share tobacco as a risk factor. Our aim was to evaluate the prognostic impact of COPD on HF patients. The Norwegian Heart Failure Registry was used. The study included 4132 HF patients (COPD, n = 699) from 22 hospitals (mean follow-up, 13.3 months). COPD patients were older, more often smokers and diabetics, less often on beta-blockers and had a higher heart rate. They were more often in New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class III or IV (COPD, 63%; no COPD, 51%), although left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) distribution was similar. COPD independently predicted death (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.188; 95% CI: 1.015 to 1.391; P = 0.03) along with age, creatinine, NYHA Class III/IV (HR, 1.464; 95% CI: 1.286 to 1.667) and diabetes. beta-blockers at baseline were associated with improved survival in patients with LVEF < or =40% independently of COPD. COPD is associated with a poorer survival in HF patients. COPD patients are overrated in terms of NYHA class in comparison with patients with similar LVEF. Nonetheless, NYHA class remains the strongest predictor of death in these patients. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Norwegian company suppliers for the oil and gas exploitation in Norway and abroad 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristiansen, Frode; Heum, Per; Vatne, Eirik; Wiig, Wibecke

    2004-09-01

    The Institute for Research in Economics and Business Administration has for the forth time monitored how Norwegian suppliers to the petroleum activity find their way to various markets. The data are valid for activities during 2003. The study is carried out among 413 companies at the business level and for 21 at the corporation level. The companies are mainly small and middle sized while the corporations that comprises several companies, are to be considered as large in the Norwegian context. 204 of the small and middle sized companies replied. In the group of larger corporations about 95 % replied. As the latter group is responsible for 80-90 % of the turnover in the Norwegian petroleum sector the total estimates in the investigation should be quite accurate. More than 90 % of the registered sales abroad may be contributed to 22 companies. It should therefore be possible to catch important development characteristics in the petroleum sector by focusing on 30-40 companies. Another structural characteristic is that the companies involved in petroleum activities rarely involve themselves in pure research and development activities. The current innovation is made in the context of solving specific challenges connected to reservoir, ocean depth, climate and distance and usually in relation to customers and suppliers. The petroleum sector had an average turnover of 39 % in their trade with foreign countries in 2003 which is an increase. The majority of the companies have a registered sale abroad. The tendency is increasing. The petroleum regions that receive the majority of the Norwegian sales during 2003 as previously, are the UK/North Sea, the USA/Canada and South East Asia/Australia. The sales to the Western Africa and South America are also considerable. The petroleum sector in Norway has achieved market positions over almost the entire globe in less than 10 years. With the collected data material as a basis it is estimated a 34 thousand million NOK petroleum

  15. Sectoral assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J M; Fenhann, J; Gorham, R; Makundi, W; Sathaye, J

    1999-09-01

    This publication contains five papers that were written as a part of the GEF project, The Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations. The main goal of the project was to assess the greenhouse gas reductions and incremental costs of mitigation option sin Ecuador, Argentina, Senegal, Mauritius, Vietnam, Indonesia, Estonia and Hungary. In addition, regional studies were conducted for the Andean Pact nations and Southern Africa to assess various aspects of regional co-operation in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The GEF study also involved the development of a methodological framework for climate change assessment, with a special emphasis on developing countries. These guidelines have been published in a separate document, Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations: Methodological Guidelines. The papers in this publication focus on various methodological and policy aspects of greenhouse gas mitigation at the sectoral level, and are outgrowth of work performed on other parts of the GEF project. (au)

  16. Greenhouse gas quotas on the Norwegian continental shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torvanger, Asbjoern; Godal, Odd; Kolshus, Hans H.; Aaheim, Asbjoern

    2002-01-01

    This report discusses advantages and disadvantages of voluntary quota obligations in a greenhouse gas emissions trading system at the company level, and advantages and disadvantages associated with various initial allocation mechanisms in a quota system. The analysis is based on the situation for the Norwegian oil industry in an early Norwegian emissions trading system in the period 2005-2007, and on oil companies' participation in international emissions trading under the Kyoto Protocol in the period 2008-2012. The report has been commissioned by the Norwegian Oil Industry Association, and was written in the period March-April 2002. (author)

  17. Riscos de acidentes com materiais perfurocortantes no setor de urgência de um hospital público Risks of accidents with needlestick materials at the urgency sector of a public hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Francineide Andrade da Silva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Conhecer os fatores de risco relacionados aos acidentes com material perfurocortante presente no trabalho dos técnicos de enfermagem do setor de atendimento de urgência de um hospital público. Método:Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, de abordagem qualitativa realizado com 14 profissionais. Os dados foram obtidos por meio de entrevistas semi-estruturadas, no período de julho a setembro de 2010 e analisados seguindo a análise temática categorial. Resultados: As categorias emergidas dos discursos dos entrevistados foram: situações de urgências e emergências, adesão aos Equipamentos de Proteção Individual, Descuido e armazenamento inadequado do material perfurocortante. Conclusão: Observou-se que as condições de trabalho no setor de urgência necessitam ser revistas, a fim de oferecer um ambiente adequado para minimizar os riscos ocupacionais durante o desenvolvimento dos procedimentos de enfermagem. Descritores: Saúde do trabalhador, riscos ocupacionais, fatores de risco.

  18. Cross-cultural validation and psychometric testing of the Norwegian version of the TeamSTEPPS® teamwork perceptions questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballangrud, Randi; Husebø, Sissel Eikeland; Hall-Lord, Marie Louise

    2017-12-02

    Teamwork is an integrated part of today's specialized and complex healthcare and essential to patient safety, and is considered as a core competency to improve twenty-first century healthcare. Teamwork measurements and evaluations show promising results to promote good team performance, and are recommended for identifying areas for improvement. The validated TeamSTEPPS® Teamwork Perception Questionnaire (T-TPQ) was found suitable for cross-cultural validation and testing in a Norwegian context. T-TPQ is a self-report survey that examines five dimensions of perception of teamwork within healthcare settings. The aim of the study was to translate and cross-validate the T-TPQ into Norwegian, and test the questionnaire for psychometric properties among healthcare personnel. The T-TPQ was translated and adapted to a Norwegian context according to a model of a back-translation process. A total of 247 healthcare personnel representing different professionals and hospital settings responded to the questionnaire. A confirmatory factor analysis was carried out to test the factor structure. Cronbach's alpha was used to establish internal consistency, and an Intraclass Correlation Coefficient was used to assess the test - retest reliability. A confirmatory factor analysis showed an acceptable fitting model (χ 2 (df) 969.46 (546), p teamwork dimension clearly represents that specific construct. The Cronbach's alpha demonstrated acceptable values on the five subscales (0.786-0.844), and test-retest showed a reliability parameter, with Intraclass Correlation Coefficient scores from 0.672 to 0.852. The Norwegian version of T-TPQ was considered to be acceptable regarding the validity and reliability for measuring Norwegian individual healthcare personnel's perception of group level teamwork within their unit. However, it needs to be further tested, preferably in a larger sample and in different clinical settings.

  19. Norwegian High-School Students Internship Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    2017-01-01

    The High-School Students Internship Programme (HSSIP is a programme developed by the ECO group’s Teacher and Student Programmes section to engage students from a young age with scientific research and innovation. Norway was selected as one out of five countries for the pilot programmes run in 2017. Out of some 150 applications, 10 boys and 14 girls, from Longyearbyen (Svalbard) in the North to Flekkefjord in the South, were invited to participate in the Norwegian programme that took place from 15 October - 28 October. The youngsters were offered an intense two-week internship at CERN, during which they took part in many diverse activities. Accompanied by mentors, the students got a deeper insight into how CERN supports particle physics by working on their own projects and through a variety of visits.

  20. Food safety practices among Norwegian consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røssvoll, Elin Halbach; Lavik, Randi; Ueland, Øydis; Jacobsen, Eivind; Hagtvedt, Therese; Langsrud, Solveig

    2013-11-01

    An informed consumer can compensate for several potential food safety violations or contaminations that may occur earlier in the food production chain. However, a consumer can also destroy the work of others in the chain by poor food handling practices, e.g., by storing chilled ready-to-eat foods at abusive temperatures. To target risk-reducing strategies, consumer groups with high-risk behavior should be identified. The aim of this study was to identify demographic characteristics associated with high-risk food handling practices among Norwegian consumers. More than 2,000 randomly selected Norwegian consumers were surveyed, and the results were analyzed with a risk-based grading system, awarding demerit points for self-reported food safety violations. The violations were categorized into groups, and an ordinary multiple linear regression analysis was run on the summarized demerit score for each group and for the entire survey group as a whole. Young and elderly men were identified as the least informed consumer groups with the most unsafe practices regarding food safety. Single persons reported poorer practices than those in a relationship. People with higher education reported poorer practices than those with lower or no education, and those living in the capital of Norway (Oslo) reported following more unsafe food practices than people living elsewhere in Norway. Men reported poorer food safety practices than women in all categories with two exceptions: parboiling raw vegetables before consumption and knowledge of refrigerator temperature. These findings suggest that risk-reducing measures should target men, and a strategy is needed to change their behavior and attitudes.

  1. Facts publication. Norwegian petroleum activities 1998; Faktaheftet. Norsk petroleumsvirksomhet 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaarde, Kjetil (ed.)

    1998-04-01

    This is an annual publication by the Norwegian Ministry of Industry and Energy of statistical data on petroleum resources, exploration, development, production and revenue. However, it also includes analyses and comments, and sections on history, the environment, legislation, concession etc.

  2. Facts publication. Norwegian petroleum activities 1997; Faktaheftet. Norsk petroleumsvirksomhet 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaarde, Kjetil (ed.)

    1997-02-01

    This is an annual publication by the Norwegian Ministry of Industry and Energy of statistical data on petroleum resources, exploration, development, production and revenue. However, it also includes analyses and comments, and sections on history, the environment, legislation, concession etc.

  3. Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Seas Regional Climatology (NODC Accession 0112824)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To provide an improved oceanographic foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Seas (GINS), NODC developed a new set...

  4. Cooperation between Norwegian and Russian Regulatory Authorities: NRPA and Rostechnadzor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority has been cooperating with the Federal Environmental, Industrial and Nuclear Supervision Service, Rostechnadzor, on the upgrading of the regulatory framework for the safe decommissioning and disposal of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators. (Author)

  5. Meat and masculinity in the Norwegian Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kildal, Charlotte Lilleby; Syse, Karen Lykke

    2017-05-01

    In 2013, the Norwegian Armed Forces decided to introduce a meat reduction scheme in its military mess halls, for both health reasons and environmental concerns. This article explores Norwegian soldiers' reactions to the introduction of Meat free Monday, and their attitudes towards reducing meat consumption. As of yet, Meat free Monday has not been implemented due to both structural and contextual challenges. We explore both the process and potential of the Norwegian military's Meat free Monday initiative to promote sustainable and climate friendly diets. We found significant barriers preventing the military from implementing Meat free Monday. The main reason behind the resistance to reduce meat consumption among Norwegian soldiers was meat's associations with protein, masculinity and comfort. Our results underline the importance of acknowledging the social and cultural role of food. The study is qualitative and uses focus group interviews as its main methodology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. How sustainable is the framework for Norwegian gas sales?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunnevaag, K.J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the way Norway has organized its gas sales, and to what extent Norwegian regulatory goals are reconcilable with EU gas market objectives. Although there are strong arguments in favor of governmental resource management and coordination of Norwegian offshore activities, there are also a series of reasons why the existing organization of gas sales is not the right one in a liberalized market. (Author)

  7. Facts 2000. Norwegian petroleum activities; Fakta 2000. Norsk petroleumsvirksomhet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The petroleum resources discovered on the Norwegian Continental Shelf amounts to about 9,6 billion Sm{sup 3} oil equivalents, 76 percent in the North Sea, 20 percent in the Norwegian Sea and 4 percent in the Barents Sea. The present publication gives a summary of the resources, the exploration, the field development, the production of oil and gas, and the revenue from petroleum sale for the year 1999.

  8. Relations between Agronomic Practice and Earthworms in Norwegian Arable Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Pommeresche, Reidun; Løes, Anne-Kristin

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents Norwegian studies of earthworms (density, biomass, burrows density, species, juvenile to adult ratios) in arable soil in Norway conducted during the last 20 years. The effects of crop rotations, fertilization, soil tillage and compaction on earthworms are presented, based on various field experiments. Geophagous (soil eating) species such as Aporrectodea caliginosa and A. rosea dominate the earthworm fauna in Norwegian arable soil. Lumbricus terrestris is also present; in ...

  9. Gender Identity and Labor Division In Norwegian Households

    OpenAIRE

    Hafzi, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Master's thesis in Economic analysis We investigate if gender identity has any effect on the division of household labor among Norwegian couples. By deriving the potential income distribution of the Norwegian population, we compare couples’ comparative advantage in market work. Our results indicate that women who have higher potential income than their spouse are more likely to increase their labor supply and work full-time, rather than reduce their hours allocated to market work in order ...

  10. Spontal-N: A Corpus of Interactional Spoken Norwegian

    OpenAIRE

    Sikveland, A.; Öttl, A.; Amdal, I.; Ernestus, M.; Svendsen, T.; Edlund, J.

    2010-01-01

    Spontal-N is a corpus of spontaneous, interactional Norwegian. To our knowledge, it is the first corpus of Norwegian in which the majority of speakers have spent significant parts of their lives in Sweden, and in which the recorded speech displays varying degrees of interference from Swedish. The corpus consists of studio quality audio- and video-recordings of four 30-minute free conversations between acquaintances, and a manual orthographic transcription of the entire material. On basis of t...

  11. The Norwegian sounding rocket programme 1980-83

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egeland, A.; Gundersen, A.

    1980-01-01

    As illustrated by the rocket program presented and discussed in this paper, exploration of the polar ionosphere still plays a central part in the Norwegian research program in science. A cornerstone in the Norwegian space program is the Andoeya Rocket Range. It will be shown that advanced radio installations in northern Scandinavia together with the new optical site at Svalbard will stimulate towards further in situ measurements and theoretical work of the polar ionosphere. (Auth.)

  12. The Norwegian sounding rocket programme 1978-81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landmark, B.

    1978-01-01

    The Norwegian sounding rocket programme is reasonably well defined up to and including the winter of 1981/82. All the projects have been planned and will be carried out in international cooperation. Norwegian scientists so far plan to participate in a number of 24 rocket payloads over the period. Out of these 18 will be launched from the Andoya rocket range, 3 from Esrange and 3 from the siple station in the antarctic. (author)

  13. The Cash-out Refinancing in the Norwegian Housing Market

    OpenAIRE

    Almaas, Synne Schanke; Bystrøm, Line Synnøve

    2014-01-01

    The housing prices in Norway and the ratio of Norwegian household debt to disposable income have reached unprecedentedly high levels in recent years, raising concerns about whether we are in a serious housing bubble. This attracts much attention and initiates debates among politicians, researchers as well as the entire society. Contributing to the debates, the present thesis studies "cash-out" refinancing in the Norwegian housing market and has two main findings. First, along with the soaring...

  14. Investors' performance and trading behavior on the Norwegian stock market

    OpenAIRE

    Che, Limei

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation examines investors’ performance and trading behavior on the Norwegian stock market, using a unique and extensive data set of monthly holdings of all the investors. The first paper studies how Norwegian individual investors, financial institutional investors and foreign investors affect stock return volatility and finds surprising and interesting results: domestic individual investors and financial institutional investors dampen stock return volatility, and foreign investors ...

  15. The prevalence and nature of intellectual disability in Norwegian prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndenaa, E; Rasmussen, K; Palmstierna, T; Nøttestad, J

    2008-12-01

    The objective of the study was to calculate the prevalence of inmates with intellectual disabilities (ID), and identify historical, medical and criminological characteristics of a certain impact. A random sample of 143 inmates from a Norwegian prison cross sectional sample was studied. The Hayes Ability Screening Index (HASI) was validated with the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI). The prevalence of inmates with ID, IQ intellectual handicap, are mostly absent in the Norwegian criminal justice system.

  16. The performance of Norwegian investment grade bond funds

    OpenAIRE

    Berge, Hjalmar Laudal; Kamalanathan, Sayanthan

    2016-01-01

    The following thesis examines the performance of Norwegian investment grade bond mutual funds in the period from January 2011 to January 2016. In this study we addresstwo important issues. Firstly, by applying a CAPM model framework, we examine whether funds are able to outperform passive portfolios. Due to the lack of appropriate benchmarks for evaluation in the Norwegian market, we construct and include a bond index in our analysis. Across several different model specifi...

  17. Effectiveness and regulation in the Norwegian power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittelsen, S.A.C.

    1994-03-01

    The report deals with the Norwegian research project dubbed ''Effectiveness in the power supply''. The aim of the project was to develop a methodology and a suitable tool (EDB-PC) to assess the cost effectiveness in the electric power distribution network in order to stipulate the average prices of power distribution in the different network levels. Topics cover as follow: Demand of regulation; measuring method and data; measured effectiveness; regulation of the Norwegian power distribution. 52 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs

  18. Introduction of hydrogen in the Norwegian energy system. NorWays - Regional model analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva; Fidje, Audun; Espegren, Kari Aamodt

    2008-12-15

    The overall aim of the NorWays project has been to provide decision support for the introduction of hydrogen as an energy carrier in the Norwegian energy system. The NorWays project is a research project funded by the Research Council of Norway. An important task has been to develop alternative scenarios and identifying market segments and regions of the Norwegian energy system where hydrogen may play a significant role. The main scenarios in the project have been: Reference: Based on the assumptions of World Energy Outlook with no new transport technologies; HyWays: Basic assumptions with technology costs (H{sub 2}) based on results from the HyWays project; No tax: No taxes on transport energy ('revenue neutral'); CO{sub 2} reduction: Reduced CO{sub 2} emissions by 75% in 2050. Three regional models have been developed and used to analyse the introduction of hydrogen as energy carrier in competition with other alternatives such as natural gas, electricity, district heating and bio fuels.The focus of the analysis has been on the transportation sector. (Author)

  19. El tabaco en los establecimientos de restauración y hostelería: estudio observacional en Barcelona, 2008 Smoking in the hospitality sector: an observational study in Barcelona (Spain, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan R. Villalbí

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Describir la situación real del consumo de tabaco en los locales de restauración y hostelería tras la ley de medidas sanitarias frente al tabaquismo, que establece exenciones en este sector a la prohibición general de fumar en el trabajo desde 2006. Métodos Estudio observacional descriptivo en Barcelona en 2008, con muestreo por conglomerados de 1130 establecimientos. Se presentan los resultados estratificados por tipo de establecimiento. Resultados: En el 85,7% de los comercios con degustación (panaderías, pastelerías… y el 85% de los locales de comida rápida se prohíbe fumar. El 40% de los restaurantes son libres de humo u ofrecen zonas separadas. En los bares-cafeterías y cafeterías-restaurantes (locales más abundantes no se suele prohibir fumar. Hay mayor oferta de locales sin humo en los distritos céntricos y centros comerciales. Conclusiones: En un 75,4% de los locales se permite fumar libremente. Estos resultados muestran las limitaciones de la ley.Objectives: To describe the actual presence of smoking in restaurant and hospitality premises after the smoking prevention act banning smoking in workplaces came into force in 2006, with wide exemptions in this sector. Methods: We performed an observational, descriptive study in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain in 2008 based on cluster sampling, with 1130 premises. The results were stratified by premise type. Results: Up to 85.7% of food shops allowing consumption within their premises (bakeries, pastry shops… ban smoking, as well as 85% of fast food establishments. Among restaurants, 40% are smoke-free or have separate smoking areas. Bar-cafés and café-restaurants (the most abundant premises usually allow smoking. There are more smoke-free options in central districts and in shopping malls. Conclusions: Up to 75.4% of all premises allow smoking freely. These results show the limitations of the law.

  20. Influência do capital intelectual na avaliação de desempenho aplicada ao setor hospitalar The influence of intellectual capital in performance evaluation: a case-study in the hospital sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Grespan Bonacim

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo contribui com a adaptação, para as entidades públicas, de uma ferramenta de avaliação de desempenho sedimentada nas empresas privadas. O objetivo é demonstrar como pode ser mensurado o impacto da atividade de ensino no valor econômico agregado por um hospital universitário público à sociedade. Para tanto, o texto foi dividido em quatro partes, além dos aspectos introdutórios, metodológicos e das considerações finais. Inicialmente, será contextualizado o setor hospitalar, mais especificamente os hospitais universitários públicos. Logo após, serão apresentadas as definições, a natureza e mensuração do capital intelectual, seguidas da demonstração dos principais modelos avaliação de desempenho econômico. Finalmente, será apresentado um modelo adaptado, sob o enfoque da gestão baseada no valor, propondo ajuste nos indicadores de retorno e do respectivo investimento, demonstrando os impactos da gestão do capital intelectual e da atividade de ensino no resultado econômico de tais instituições. O estudo foi elaborado por intermédio de uma metodologia consubstanciada em uma pesquisa bibliográfica, sob o prisma do método de procedimento comparativo descritivo. Ressalta-se, por fim, a importância da prestação de contas para a sociedade quanto ao uso do recurso público.This paper contributes to public institutions with the adaptation of a performance evaluation tool based on private companies. The objective is to demonstrate how the impact of an educational activity might be measured in the economic value added for the society of a public university hospital. The paper was divided in four parts, despite the introductory and methodological aspects and the final remarks. First, the hospital sector is explained, specifically in the context of the public university hospitals. Then, the definitions, the nature and measure of the intellectual capital are presented, followed by the disclosure of the main

  1. Well-to-wheel study of passenger vehicles in the Norwegian energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mari Svensson, Ann; Moller-Holst, Steffen; Gloeckner, Ronny; Maurstad, Ola

    2007-01-01

    For the evaluation of potential routes for production and application of hydrogen in a future energy system, well-to-wheel (WtW) methodologies provide a means of comparing overall impacts of technologies and fuels in a consistent and transparent manner. Such analysis provides important background information for decision makers when implementing political incentives for the conversion to more environmentally friendly energy production and consumption. In this study, a WtW approach was applied in order to evaluate the energetic and environmental impacts of introducing hydrogen in the transportation sector, in terms of energy efficiency and emissions of CO 2 and NO x , under conditions relevant for the Norwegian energy system. The hydrogen chains were compared to reference chains with conventional fuels

  2. Norwegian Natural Gas. Liberalization of the European Gas Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    regulatory regimes. It is shown how multipart tariffs may give the best ''second best'' results, but that first best result may never be achieved. The liberalization of the European gas market is not an isolated phenomenon. In the OECD countries, a large number of sectors have been liberalized over the last couple of decades. Chapter 9 discusses the changes in the North American gas markets (USA and Canada) and in Great Britain, and the relevance these experiences may have for the understanding of the European market. Chapter 10 discusses the role of natural gas in international affairs. Particular focus is put on the US embargo of Soviet gas in 1982. Chapter 11 discusses consuming countries supply security for natural gas, natural gas as the environment's best friend and the use of Strategic Gas Reserves (SGRs) to mitigate a crisis, in the same way as the Strategic Petroleum Reserves (SPRs) is assumed to do in the oil market. Based on these deliberations, Chapter 12 focuses on consequences of a more liberal European gas market for important variables for Norway as an exporter. In particular the effects on prices and taxes, contractual forms and modulation, existing and new long-term contracts, security of supply and environmental concerns are discussed. The impact on the formulation of a Norwegian gas strategy is discussed in Chapter 13. This applies to the organization of production, transportation and sale of natural gas. It also applies to energy related policies of the EU and of EU countries and strategies of other natural gas exporters, like Russia. Some implications of foreign and security policy character are discussed

  3. Eight attention points when evaluating large-scale public sector reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Breidahl, Karen Nielsen; Furubo, Jan-Eric

    2017-01-01

    This chapter analyses the challenges related to evaluations of large-scale public sector reforms. It is based on a meta-evaluation of the evaluation of the reform of the Norwegian Labour Market and Welfare Administration (the NAV-reform) in Norway, which entailed both a significant reorganization...... sector reforms. Based on the analysis, eight crucial points of attention when evaluating large-scale public sector reforms are elaborated. We discuss their reasons and argue that other countries will face the same challenges and thus can learn from the experiences of Norway....

  4. Autism Spectrum Disorder, ADHD, Epilepsy, and Cerebral Palsy in Norwegian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, Inger Johanne; Aase, Heidi; Chin, Richard; Gunnes, Nina; Lie, Kari Kveim; Magnus, Per; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Schjølberg, Synnve; Øyen, Anne-Siri; Stoltenberg, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have investigated the prevalence of neurologic and neurodevelopmental disorders individually, but few have examined them collectively, and there is uncertainty as to what extent they overlap. METHODS: The study has determined the proportions of children aged 0 to 11 years with diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), epilepsy, and cerebral palsy (CP) in Norway. The data were obtained from the Norwegian Patient Register, which is nationwide and contains diagnoses assigned by Norwegian specialist health services (hospitals and outpatient clinics). The Norwegian Patient Register started collecting individual-level data in 2008, and the follow-up period for the study is years 2008 through 2010. RESULTS: For ASD, ADHD, and epilepsy, the proportions were highest in the oldest children. At age 11 years, the incidence was 0.7% for ASD, 2.9% for ADHD, and 0.9% for epilepsy. The cumulative incidence is likely to be higher because some cases diagnosed before 2008 were probably missed. For CP, the proportions were ∼0.3% for age ≥5 years. There was considerable overlap between diagnoses. For all disorders, boys had a significantly increased risk. In school-age children (aged 6–11 years) the male/female ratio was 4.3 for ASD, 2.9 for ADHD, 1.2 for epilepsy, and 1.3 for CP. CONCLUSIONS: The findings demonstrate the significant burden of disease associated with neurologic and neurodevelopmental disorders in children and that this burden is disproportionately skewed toward boys. PMID:22711729

  5. Organic environmental poisons in Norwegian freshwater fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    According to this article, the level of organic poisons in Norwegian freshwater fish is, on the whole, is too small to threaten human health. It has been found, however, that liver from some species such as burbot, from some lakes, should not be eaten. These lakes are found to contain higher levels of PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) and DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane). Previously, pregnant or breast-feeding women anywhere in Norway have been advised not to eat pike, large perch or large trout because of too much mercury. Other people should not eat these species more often than once per month. In general, the level of organic environmental poisons is higher in the southern part of the country than in the northern part. The sediments of the lakes in large parts of South Norway are contaminated with lead, mercury and cadmium as compared with the conditions before the industrial revolution. However, the level of metals in the lake sediments are relatively low, and these substances are unlikely to appear in the food chain, by and large. The anthropogenic emission of lead was insignificant before the industrial revolution. The exception of lead from German mining industry in the 1700s

  6. Lifestyle and mortality among Norwegian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotevatn, S; Akslen, L A; Bjelke, E

    1989-07-01

    Information on six different habits (cigarette smoking, physical activity, frequency of alcohol and of fruit/vegetable consumption, and daily bread and potato consumption) was obtained by two postal surveys (1964 and 1967) among Norwegian men. The answers were related to mortality among 10,187 respondents ages 35-74 years at the start of the follow-up period (1967-1978). Analyses, stratified by age, place of residence, marital status, and socioeconomic group, showed an association between the six variables and observed/expected deaths, as well as odds ratio estimates. A health practice score, obtained by adding the number of favorable habits, showed a strong inverse relationship with total mortality as well as deaths from cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and other causes. Odds ratio estimates for men with only favorable habits vs those with at most one such habit, were 0.31 for total mortality, 0.44 for cancer, and 0.36 for cardiovascular mortality. Separate analyses among current smokers and nonsmokers showed a particularly strong association between the five other habits and mortality from cardiovascular disease.

  7. Zooplankton Distribution in Four Western Norwegian Fjords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsky, G.; Flood, P. R.; Youngbluth, M.; Picheral, M.; Grisoni, J.-M.

    2000-01-01

    A multi-instrumental array constructed in the Laboratoire d'Ecologie du Plancton Marin in Villefranche sur mer, France, named the Underwater Video Profiler (UVP), was used to investigate the vertical distribution of zooplankton in four western Norwegian fjords in the summer 1996. Six distinct zoological groups were monitored. The fauna included: (a) small crustaceans (mainly copepods), (b) ctenophores (mainly lobates), (c) siphonophores (mainly physonects), (d) a scyphomedusa Periphylla periphylla, (e) chaetognaths and (f) appendicularians. The use of the non-disturbing video technique demonstrated that the distribution of large zooplankton is heterogeneous vertically and geographically. Furthermore, the abundance of non-migrating filter feeders in the deep basins of the fjords indicates that there is enough food (living and non-living particulate organic matter) to support their dietary needs. This adaptation may be considered as a strategy for survival in fjords. Specifically, living in dark, deep water reduces visual predation and population loss encountered in the upper layer due to advective processes.

  8. Dampness and Moisture Problems in Norwegian Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Becher

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of dampness and mold in the indoor environment is associated with respiratory-related disease outcomes. Thus, it is pertinent to know the magnitude of such indoor environment problems to be able to estimate the potential health impact in the population. In the present study, the moisture damage in 10,112 Norwegian dwellings was recorded based on building inspection reports. The levels of moisture damage were graded based on a condition class (CC, where CC0 is immaculate and CC1 acceptable (actions not required, while CC2 and CC3 indicate increased levels of damage that requires action. Of the 10,112 dwellings investigated, 3125 had verified moisture or mold damage. This amounts to 31% of the surveyed dwellings. Of these, 27% had CC2 as the worst grade, whereas 4% had CC3 as the worst grade level. The room types and building structures most prone to moisture damage were (in rank order crawl spaces, basements, un-insulated attics, cooling rooms, and bathrooms. The high proportion of homes with moisture damage indicate a possible risk for respiratory diseases in a relatively large number of individuals, even if only the more extensive moisture damages and those located in rooms where occupants spend the majority of their time would have a significant influence on adverse health effects.

  9. Characterization of Norwegian women eating wholegrain bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, Toril; Braaten, Tonje; Olsen, Anja; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri

    2015-10-01

    To investigate dietary and non-dietary characteristics of wholegrain bread eaters in the Norwegian Women and Cancer study. Cross-sectional study using an FFQ. Women were divided into two groups according to wholegrain bread consumption. Adult women (n 69 471). Median daily consumption of standardized slices of wholegrain bread was 2·5 in the low intake group and 4·5 in the high intake group. The OR for high wholegrain bread consumption was 0·28, 2·19 and 4·63 for the first, third and fourth quartile of energy intake, respectively, compared with the second quartile. Living outside Oslo or in East Norway and having a high level of physical activity were associated with high wholegrain bread consumption. BMI and smoking were inversely associated with wholegrain bread consumption. Intake of many food items was positively associated with wholegrain bread consumption (P trend food items was inversely associated with wholegrain bread consumption (P trend <0·001). The mean intakes of thiamin and Fe were higher in those with high wholegrain bread consumption, even after taking energy intake into account. Energy intake was strongly positively associated with wholegrain bread consumption. Geographical differences in wholegrain bread consumption were observed. Our study suggests that women with high wholegrain bread consumption do not generally have a healthier diet than those who eat less wholegrain bread, but that they tend to be healthier in regard to other lifestyle factors.

  10. Applying Blockchain Technology: Evidence from Norwegian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne H. Gausdal

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop a theoretical framework for blockchain, operations in particular. Furthermore, we aim to identify the main drivers and barriers of digital innovation and explore the general possibilities of blockchain applications within the maritime industry. A case study approach is applied: the Norwegian offshore industry. Primary data is collected through interviews, while secondary data is collected from industrial and company reports, the Internet, and national and international media reports. We have discovered that cost reduction intentions, the high level of regulation in the maritime industry, and the large amount of data that maritime companies should process, along with the intention to work more effectively, are the main drivers of digital innovation. On the other hand, the high cost of implementation, the bad quality of Internet connections offshore, the old age of decision-makers, the technology-oriented culture, the lack of investment initiatives, the low level of blockchain diffusion through the supply chain, and risk aversion are the main barriers. The results of the qualitative study show that some of the barriers and motives of digital innovation and the introduction to blockchain technology were pointed out by earlier studies. However, we have identified several unique drivers and barriers specific to the industry. Finally, the blockchain process framework is developed.

  11. Norwegian resource policy: The production rate for Norwegian petroleum resources; Norsk ressurspolitikk: Utvinningstempoet for norske petroleumsressurser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiner, P.

    1995-12-31

    Petroleum activities have become a large industry in Norway. This has led to extensive changes in Norwegian economy and society. In the public debate on this activity there has been little discussion of what would be the most profitable production rate. However, it is generally agreed that the great wealth implied by the petroleum resources must be managed in ways suitable to both present and coming generations. This report discusses the production rate based on the following questions: (1) How high can the production rate be before the petroleum activities and the expenditure of the income from them influence the remaining Norwegian economy too strongly? (2) How much of this wealth should reasonably be used by present generations and how much should be left for future generations? There is much to gain from a high tempo and from relocating some of the petroleum wealth. The possibilities of influencing the production rate are mainly connected with the allotments of production licences. The consequences of uncertainties in the petroleum activities for the choice of exploitation tempo are unclear. The environment is not much affected by the production rate. The contractor activity has become Norway`s largest industry. 42 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Mental health among Norwegian priests: associations with effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Bjørn

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms among Norwegian priests and to examine their associations with effort-reward imbalance (ERI) and overcommitment. Eight hundred four priests in the Norwegian Church completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire (ERI-Q), and the Intrinsic Effort Scale, measuring overcommitment. A significant proportion of the priests (23.4%) had HADS scores indicating a possible anxiety problem. Somewhat fewer had depression problems (9.3%). Both anxiety and depression difficulties were associated with an imbalance between effort given and rewards received at work. Priests characterized by a combination of this imbalance and high scores on overcommitment had more anxiety and depression symptoms. There is a higher occurrence of mental health challenges among priests than among the regular population. This applies in particular to anxiety symptoms measured by the HADS. These findings also indicate that it may be fruitful to explore mental health conditions among priests who report different combinations of effort-reward and overcommitment.

  13. The Norwegian Plasma Fractionation Project--a 12 year clinical and economic success story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flesland, O; Seghatchian, J; Solheim, B G

    2003-02-01

    The establishment of the Norwegian Fractionation Project (Project) was of major importance in preserving national self-sufficiency when plasma, cryoprecipitate and small batch factor IX-concentrates were replaced by virus inactivated products in the last part of the 1980s. Fractionation was performed abroad by contract with Octapharma after tenders on the European market. All Norwegian blood banks (>50) participated in the Project. Total yearly production was 50-60 tons of mainly recovered plasma. From 1993 solvent detergent (SD) treated plasma has replaced other plasma for transfusion. The blood banks paid for the fractionation and/or viral inactivation process, while the plasma remained the property of the blood banks and the final products were returned to the blood banks. The Project sold surplus products to other Norwegian blood banks and the majority of the coagulation factor concentrates to The Institute of Haemophilia and Rikshospitalet University Hospital. Both plasma and blood bank quality was improved by the Project. Clinical experience with the products has been satisfactory and self-sufficiency has been achieved for all major plasma proteins and SD plasma, but a surplus exceeding 3 years consumption of albumin has accumulated due to decreasing clinical use.The Project has secured high yields of the fractionated products and the net income from the produced products is NOK 1115 (140 Euros or US dollars) per litre plasma. An increasing surplus of albumin and the possibility of significant sales abroad of currently not fractionated IVIgG, could lead to a reorganisation of the Project from that of a co-ordinator to a national plasma handling unit. This unit could buy the plasma from the blood banks and have the plasma fractionated by contract after tender, before selling the products back for cost recovery. The small blood banks could produce plasma for products for the Norwegian market, while surplus products from the larger blood banks which are

  14. Formation waters of the Norwegian Continental Shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCartney, R. A.; Rein, E.

    2006-03-15

    New and previously published analyses of formation waters for the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) have been evaluated and interpreted to determine the compositional distribution of formation waters in the region and factors controlling their compositions, and also to obtain information on subsurface fluid flow. Formation waters in the region are Na-Cl and Na-Ca-Cl-type waters that display a wide range of salinity (2500-212000 mg/kg Cl). Generally, the concentrations of most dissolved constituents are positively correlated with Cl so that their distribution in formation waters largely reflects the variations shown by salinity. Exceptions are SO4 which is generally low (less than 40 mg/l) regardless of Cl, and HCO3 and in-situ pH which are negatively correlated with Cl. The main factors determining the compositions of the formation waters are mixing of meteoric water (probably late-Jurassic to Eocene), ancient seawater and primary brine together with diagenetic reactions that have affected each of these components individually as well as mixtures of them. Evaluation of the distribution of salinity has helped us identify where vertical and/or lateral migration of brine from the evaporites has occurred. This has in turn provided us with information on the presence of leak-points and vertical mixing, although further investigation of the location of evaporites and basin palaeohydrogeology are required to determine whether regional lateral advection has occurred in the past. The results of this study may benefit oil exploration and production activities in the NCS including constraint of hydrocarbon migration models, economic evaluation of undrilled prospects, scale management and compartmentalisation studies. (Author)

  15. Review of arctic Norwegian bioremediation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sveum, P.

    1991-09-01

    Traditional oil spill onshore clean up in arctic and sub-arctic parts of Norway involves methods that are both time-consuming, and labor intensive. The applicability of the methods depends both on the environmental constraints of the area, and the availability of man-power. If oil exploration is successful this will mean that the exploitation of oil moves north into the arctic regions of Norway. This area is remote, both in terms of accessability and lack of inhabitants. The threat to natural resources that always accompanies oil activities, will move into areas that are considered vulnerable, and which are also highly valued in terms of natural resources. Contingency measures must be adapted both to be feasible and to meet the framework in which they must operate. This situation has increased the focus on alternative methods for oil spill clean-ups, especially on shorelines. SINTEF (The Foundation for Scientific and Industrial Research at the Norwegian Institute of Technology) Applied Chemistry has evaluated the application of fertilizers as a practical measure in oil spill treatment for years. Several fertilizers have been assessed, in different environments. The effect of these products is difficult to establish categorically since their efficiency seems to be greatly dependent on the environment in which the test is conducted, as well as the design of the test. The aim of this paper is to summarize and evaluate a series of tests conducted with INIPOL EAP22, an oil soluble fertilizer developed by Elf Aquitaine, and water soluble fertilizers. The paper will emphasize treatment failure and success, and point out some necessary prerequisites that must be met for fertilizers to work. 14 refs., 3 figs

  16. Cancer in the Norwegian printing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvam, Bård M N; Romundstad, Pål Rikard; Boffetta, Paolo; Andersen, Aage

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate cancer risk among Norwegian workers in the printing industry, particularly lung and bladder cancer. Cancer incidence was investigated from 1953 through 1998 in a cohort of 10 549 male members of a trade union in the printing industry in Oslo and nearby areas. Rates from the region, were used to calculate standardized incidence ratios (SIR) separately for the skilled and unskilled workers. Smoking data from a sample of the cohort were utilized for evaluating the risk estimates of smoking-related cancers. Specific exposure data were not available. Among the skilled workers, significantly elevated risks of cancer of the urinary bladder [standardized incidence ratio (SIR) 1.47, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.19-1.79], liver (SIR 1.92, 95% CI 1.15-2.99), pancreas (SIR 1.46, 95% CI 1.07-1.94) and colon (SIR 1.27, 95% CI 1.05-1.55) were observed, whereas an increased risk of lung cancer in this group was confined to those born before 1910. Among the unskilled workers, there were significantly increased risks of cancer of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, larynx, lung, and all sites. The study showed that workers in the printing industry were at increased risk of several types of cancer. In particular the increased risk of bladder cancer among the skilled workers is suggestive of an occupational cause. However, no specific agent could be identified as an occupational carcinogen. The results did not support the hypothesis of a generally increased risk of lung cancer. The risk pattern for unskilled workers may reflect confounding by nonoccupational factors.

  17. Review of arctic Norwegian bioremediation research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sveum, P

    1991-09-01

    Traditional oil spill onshore clean up in arctic and sub-arctic parts of Norway involves methods that are both time-consuming, and labor intensive. The applicability of the methods depends both on the environmental constraints of the area, and the availability of man-power. If oil exploration is successful this will mean that the exploitation of oil moves north into the arctic regions of Norway. This area is remote, both in terms of accessability and lack of inhabitants. The threat to natural resources that always accompanies oil activities, will move into areas that are considered vulnerable, and which are also highly valued in terms of natural resources. Contingency measures must be adapted both to be feasible and to meet the framework in which they must operate. This situation has increased the focus on alternative methods for oil spill clean-ups, especially on shorelines. SINTEF (The Foundation for Scientific and Industrial Research at the Norwegian Institute of Technology) Applied Chemistry has evaluated the application of fertilizers as a practical measure in oil spill treatment for years. Several fertilizers have been assessed, in different environments. The effect of these products is difficult to establish categorically since their efficiency seems to be greatly dependent on the environment in which the test is conducted, as well as the design of the test. The aim of this paper is to summarize and evaluate a series of tests conducted with INIPOL EAP22, an oil soluble fertilizer developed by Elf Aquitaine, and water soluble fertilizers. The paper will emphasize treatment failure and success, and point out some necessary prerequisites that must be met for fertilizers to work. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Food and Nutrient Intake among 12-Month-Old Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Navnit Kaur; Andersen, Lene Frost; Kolve, Cathrine Solheim; Kverndalen, Ingrid; Torheim, Liv Elin

    2016-09-28

    The aim of the present paper was to describe food and nutrient intake among 12-month-old Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi infants, with a focus on iron and vitamin D intake. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from August 2013 through September 2014. Eighty-nine mothers/infants of Somali origin and 77 mothers/infants of Iraqi origin residing in Eastern Norway participated in the study. Data were collected using two 24-h multiple-pass recalls. Forty percent of the Norwegian-Somali infants and 47% of the Norwegian-Iraqi infants were breastfed at 12 months of age ( p = 0.414). Median energy percentages (E%) from protein, fat and carbohydrates were within the recommended intake ranges, except the level of saturated fats (12-13 E%). Median intakes of almost all micronutrients were above the recommended daily intakes. Most of the infants consumed iron-enriched products (81%) and received vitamin D supplements (84%). The median intakes of iron and vitamin D were significantly higher among infants receiving iron-enriched products and vitamin D supplements compared to infants not receiving such products ( p food and nutrient intake of this group of infants in general seems to be in accordance with Norwegian dietary recommendations. Foods rich in iron and vitamin D supplements were important sources of the infants' intake of iron and vitamin D and should continue to be promoted.

  19. DETERMINANTS OF ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTION: The Case of Norwegian Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Indarti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify determinants of entrepreneurial intentions among young people. The empirical basis is Norwegian students, while an objective is also to create a basis for comparative studies among different economic and cultural contexts. Independent variables in the study include demographic factors and individual background, personality traits, and contextual elements like access to capital and information. The individual perceptions of self-efficacy and instrumental readiness are the variables that affect entrepreneurial intentions most significantly. Age, gender and educational background have no statistically significant impact. Generally, the level of the entrepreneurial intentions among Norwegian students is relatively low, which may be explained by social status and economic remuneration of entrepreneurs compared with employees in the Norwegian context.

  20. GML Validation Based on Norwegian Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Min, Heng

    2010-01-01

    Geographic information plays an important part in people’s life. Especially with the development of computer science and Internet. GIS also went into a new era, from paper works to digital formats. The digital geographic data files can be spread and shared fast and widely via Internet. However, establishing new geographic data is expensive, thus the data users are not always the data establisher. In the hight speed developing GI society, many private sectors have participated in geographic da...

  1. A framework for assessing uncertainties in benefit cost analyses in the Norwegian road sector.

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez Blanco, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, every time there is a need of undertaking a project, different alternatives are considered. The differences between those alternatives can be related to technical or economical aspects, so in order to identify the best alternative a deep evaluation of both technical and economical aspects must be carried out. According to this it is important to highlight that there exist different ways of evaluating projects depending on the impacts that are taken into account. For this reason,...

  2. Offshore wind power. Market opportunities for the Norwegian supply industry, and regulatory framework needed to realize these opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volden, G.; Bull-Berg, H.; Skjeret, F.; Finne, H.; Hofmann, M.

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Offshore wind power has received much attention these last few years, from governments, NGOs as well as energy companies. There are still huge technological challenges to overcome, especially concerning floating constructions on deep water, but offshore wind has a potential to become an important energy source in the future. The main objective of our study was to build more knowledge about market opportunities for the Norwegian supply industry, most of which is closely related to offshore oil and gas activities. We started by mapping and quantifying the parts of the supply industry that could be relevant to offshore wind, which is actually most of it. Then, through interviews and questionnaires, we asked potential suppliers about their attitude and strategies towards offshore wind. An over-whelming majority was optimistic about future markets internationally, whereas there was less belief in large-scale power production on the Norwegian shelf. Suppliers do not necessarily find the lack of a Norwegian 'home market' to be a barrier. However many of them expressed that the risk is high and it may be crucial to establish a national demo program, for supplier to test new technological solutions at low cost, gain references and develop industrial relations with other suppliers. We argue that being part of an industrial cluster may be a success criterion within offshore wind. By using Michael Porter's 'Diamond Model' we analyse Norway's inherent competitiveness as a potential host for an offshore wind cluster - with or without energy producers. Norway's most important advantage is the existing industrial environment, with a strong maritime sector and engineering companies with special competence in floating and fixed installations for the oil industry. Norway also has disadvantages; such as lack of traditions within wind power and wind turbine manufacturing, as well as high salaries and lack of engineers. So far it is also

  3. [Citation analysis of research articles from Norwegian health enterprises, 2005-2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, Fredrik Niclas; Aksnes, Dag W

    2014-08-19

    The citation frequency of a publication is often interpreted as an expression of its scientific impact. Previous citation analyses of Norwegian medical research have either focused on universities and university hospitals or on subject areas at the national level. Such analyses have paid little attention to other health enterprises, despite a strong increase in their research activity during the last decade. For all health enterprises with more than 25 publications in the Web of Science during the period 2005-2011 we have calculated field normalized citation indexes at the institution and subject levels. On the whole, research undertaken by the health enterprises is frequently cited, and some medium-sized health enterprises stand out in terms of their high average citation indexes: Helse Stavanger Health Enterprise, Diakonhjemmet Hospital and Helse Nord-Trøndelag Health Enterprise, although Oslo University Hospital Health Enterprise and Helse Bergen Health Enterprise account for more than half of the most cited articles. In citation analyses at the aggregated level, highly and infrequently cited research groups/departments may balance each other. This appears to be the case in the largest health enterprises. Some medium-sized health enterprises that have a more concentrated research portfolio will thus accumulate higher average citation indexes than the largest university hospitals.

  4. Standardization of tests of quality control with the aid of quality tools used in management systems of processes at the Sector of Nuclear Medicine of the University Hospital of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul;Padronizacao de testes de controle de qualidade com o auxilio de ferramentas da qualidade utilizadas em sistemas de gerenciamento de processos, junto ao Setor de Medicina Nuclear do Hospital Universitario de Santa Maria, RS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Cas, E.V.; Weis, G.L.; Bahunhardt, T.; Shuch, L.A. [Hospital Universitario de Santa Maria, RS (Brazil). Servico de Fisica Medica; Lopes, L.F.D. [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Estatistica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Producao

    2009-07-01

    This work tries to standardize the tests of quality control at the Sector of Nuclear Medicine at the University Hospital of Santa Maria, using tools of the quality used in systems of management of processes such as, PDCA, brainstorming, diagram of cause and effect (Ishikawa), 5W2H, verifying list and fluxogram. The tests of quality control refer to the scintillation camera (center of rotation, intrinsic uniformity, intrinsic spatial resolution and linearity, energy resolution for each radionuclide), to the dose calibrator (accuracy, reproducibility and linearity), to the Geiger-Mueller detector (reproducibility of the detector). (author)

  5. Impacts on the receiving states of Norwegian petroleum investments with an emphasis on Angola; Effekter i mottakerlandene av norske petroleumsivesteringer med hovedvekt paa Angola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordaas, Hildegunn Kyvik; Tvedten, Inge; Wiig, Arne

    1999-07-01

    This report examines how Norwegian petroleum investments may contribute to develop industry and a more even distribution of income in the receiving states. It also examines to what extent such investments may help to improve social development, humane rights, health, the environment and safety. The study concentrates on Norwegian investments in Angola. Offshore petroleum activities are capital-intensive and technologically demanding industry which often becomes an enclave in countries with a weakly developed industrial basis and few skilled workers. The profit from this industry accounts for a very large part of the export earnings and of the earnings of the public sector while at the same time this sector creates relatively few jobs in the local community. Thus, the income from the petroleum industry is not widely distributed. The petroleum sector tends to increase the growth of income during its development period but then causes little further development. This can be remedied by an economic policy that deliberately smoothes differences and by taking macro-economic measures which prevent overheating of the economy and which creates space for development in the private sector in the mainland economy. This is difficult, and few oil-exporting developing countries have succeeded so far. In Angola it is hardly possible under the current circumstances with civil war and the absence of institutions that work. The report emphasises that oil companies can contribute with knowledge transfer to local employees and the local state oil company. They should also help to extract Angola's resources in the most efficient and environmentally friendly way. But the social and economical development is the responsibility of the local authorities. Norwegian authorities may provide technical and economical aid, if desired, but it is stressed that there should be a clear division of roles between the authorities and the oil companies.

  6. Norwegian hydropower a valuable peak power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brekke, Hermod

    2010-07-01

    given on a possible increase of the Norwegian hydropower peak power production to meet the growing the European demand for peak power caused by the growing non stationary production from wind mills and ocean energy from waves and sea current. Also building of reversible pump turbine power plants will be discussed even if approximately 10% power will be consumed by loss in the pumping phase compared to direct use of the water from reservoirs. (Author)

  7. Fraud in Hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Musau, Steve; Vian, Taryn

    2008-01-01

    Hospitals are vulnerable to corruption. In the U.S., health care fraud has been stimated to cost $60 billion per year, or 3% of total health care expenditures - much of it in the hospital sector. Hospitals account for 50% or more of health care pending in many countries. Fraud and corruption in hospitals negatively affect access and quality, as public servants make off with resources which could have been used to reduce out-of-pocket expenditures for patients, or improve needed services. This...

  8. The Ostomy Adjustment Scale: translation into Norwegian language with validation and reliability testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrebø, Kirsten Lerum; Andersen, John Roger; Natvig, Gerd Karin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt the Ostomy Adjustment Scale to a Norwegian version and to assess its construct validity and 2 components of its reliability (internal consistency and test-retest reliability). One hundred fifty-eight of 217 patients (73%) with a colostomy, ileostomy, or urostomy participated in the study. Slightly more than half (56%) were men. Their mean age was 64 years (range, 26-91 years). All respondents had undergone ostomy surgery at least 3 months before participation in the study. The Ostomy Adjustment Scale was translated into Norwegian according to standard procedures for forward and backward translation. The questionnaire was sent to the participants via regular post. The Cronbach alpha and test-retest were computed to assess reliability. Construct validity was evaluated via correlations between each item and score sums; correlations were used to analyze relationships between the Ostomy Adjustment Scale and the 36-item Short Form Health Survey, the Quality of Life Scale, the Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale, and the General Self-Efficacy Scale. The Cronbach alpha was 0.93, and test-retest reliability r was 0.69. The average correlation quotient item to sum score was 0.49 (range, 0.31-0.73). Results showed moderate negative correlations between the Ostomy Adjustment Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (-0.37 and -0.40), and moderate positive correlations between the Ostomy Adjustment Scale and the 36-item Short Form Health Survey, the Quality of Life Scale, and the General Self-Efficacy Scale (0.30-0.45) with the exception of the pain domain in the Short Form 36 (0.28). Regression analysis showed linear associations between the Ostomy Adjustment Scale and sociodemographic and clinical variables with the exception of education. The Norwegian language version of the Ostomy Adjustment Scale was found to possess construct validity, along with internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The instrument is

  9. Norwegian Residential Energy Demand: Coordinated use of a System Engineering and a Macroeconomic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor A Johnsen

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available In Norway, the system engineering model MARKAL and the macroeconomic model MSG-EE are both used in studies of national CO2 controlling strategies. MARKAL is a linear programming model that calculates a composite set of technologies necessary to meet demand and environmental constraints at minimised total energy expenditure. MSG-EE is an applied general equilibrium model including the link between economic activity, energy demand and emissions to air. MSG-EE has a theory consistent description of the link between income, prices and energy demand, but the representation of technological improvements is simple. MARKAL has a sophisticated description of future energy technology options, but includes no feedback to the general economy. A project for studying the potential for a coordinated use of these two models was initiated and funded by the Norwegian Research Council (NFR. This paper gives a brief presentation of the two models. Results from independent model calculations show that MARKAL gives a signficant lower residential energy demand than MSG-EE does. This is explained by major differences in modelling approach. A first attempt of coordinating the residential energy demand in the models is reported. This attempt shows that implementing results from MARKAL, in MSG-EE for the residential sector alone gives little impact on the general economy. A further development of an iteration procedure between the models should include all energy using sectors.

  10. Psychometric properties of the Norwegian version of the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ, Generic version (Short Form 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofoss Dag

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background How to protect patients from harm is a question of universal interest. Measuring and improving safety culture in care giving units is an important strategy for promoting a safe environment for patients. The Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ is the only instrument that measures safety culture in a way which correlates with patient outcome. We have translated the SAQ to Norwegian and validated the translated version. The psychometric properties of the translated questionnaire are presented in this article. Methods The questionnaire was translated with the back translation technique and tested in 47 clinical units in a Norwegian university hospital. SAQ's (the Generic version (Short Form 2006 the version with the two sets of questions on perceptions of management: on unit management and on hospital management were distributed to 1911 frontline staff. 762 were distributed during unit meetings and 1149 through the postal system. Cronbach alphas, item-to-own correlations, and test-retest correlations were calculated, and response distribution analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were performed, as well as early validity tests. Results 1306 staff members completed and returned the questionnaire: a response rate of 68%. Questionnaire acceptability was good. The reliability measures were acceptable. The factor structure of the responses was tested by confirmatory factor analysis. 36 items were ascribed to seven underlying factors: Teamwork Climate, Safety Climate, Stress Recognition, Perceptions of Hospital Management, Perceptions of Unit Management, Working conditions, and Job satisfaction. Goodness-of-Fit Indices showed reasonable, but not indisputable, model fit. External validity indicators – recognizability of results, correlations with "trigger tool"-identified adverse events, with patient satisfaction with hospitalization, patient reports of possible maltreatment, and patient evaluation of organization of hospital work

  11. Holding Norwegian companies accountable: the case of Western Sahara : an exploration of the Norwegian government's approach to dealing with Norwegian companies' complicity in violations of human rights abroad

    OpenAIRE

    Skogsrud, Marte

    2011-01-01

    Morocco illegally occupies the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, and they are strategically exploiting the natural resources rightfully belonging to the local Saharawi people. Both of these actions are in violation of international law and fundamental human rights. Norwegian companies have been complicit in Morroco‟s trade in natural resources thereby legitimising the occupation and exploitation in political, legal, moral and economic terms. In this context this thesis invest...

  12. Sector Information Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fishing sectors were established in the Greater Atlantic region in 2010 under catch share management initiatives. Sector data kept at GARFO is mostly a collection of...

  13. The Norwegian "Christianity, Religion and Philosophy" Subject "KRL" in Strasbourg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lied, Sidsel

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the judgement and dissent of the European Court of Human Rights in the "Case of Folgero and others v. Norway" regarding the subject "Christianity, Religion and Philosophy (KRL)" in Norwegian state schools. The verdict, reached with dissenting votes of 9-8, states that parents' freedom of ensuring their…

  14. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Norwegian dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stormoen Marit

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is a major problem for the sheep industry as it may cause reproduction problems. The importance of T. gondii in Norwegian goat herds is uncertain, but outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in dairy goat farms have been recorded. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of T. gondii infection in Norwegian dairy goats by using serology. Findings Goat serum originally collected as part of two nationwide surveillance and control programmes between 2002 and 2008 were examined for T. gondii antibodies by using direct agglutination test. In total, 55 of 73 herds (75% had one or more serologically positive animals, while 377 of 2188 (17% of the individual samples tested positive for T. gondii antibodies. Conclusions This is the first prevalence study of T. gondii infection in Norwegian goats. The results show that Norwegian goat herds are commonly exposed to T. gondii. Nevertheless, the majority of goat herds have a low prevalence of antibody positive animals, which make them vulnerable to infections with T. gondii during the gestation period.

  15. Intercultural Empathy among Norwegian Students: An Inclusive Citizenship Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solhaug, Trond; Osler, Audrey

    2018-01-01

    In recent decades, Norwegian schools have experienced increased cultural diversification among students. Growing heterogeneity in origin and culture may enhance the risk of student marginalisation, segregation and exclusion. In response to these challenges, this paper examines students' intercultural empathy and, particularly, how schools can…

  16. Educating Voters: Political Education in Norwegian Upper-Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhaug, Kjetil

    2008-01-01

    Research on political education in schools suggests that an emphasis on formal structure, constitutional principles, formal citizen rights, and debates on current issues is common. The Norwegian national curriculum on political education envisions a different political education emphasizing that students should be critical of political life and…

  17. Predicting Intentions to Perform Protective Sexual Behaviours among Norwegian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myklestad, Ingri; Rise, Jostein

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the socio-cognitive processes underlying intentions to use condoms and contraceptive pills, using the Theory of Planned Behaviour extended with prototypes in a group of young Norwegian adolescents. The data are derived from a questionnaire survey comprising all pupils in Grade Nine at three schools in Oslo (n = 196). Using…

  18. Actual Leisure Participation of Norwegian Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolva, Anne-Stine; Kleiven, Jo; Kollstad, Marit

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the actual participation in leisure activities by a sample of Norwegian adolescents with Down syndrome aged 14. Representing a first generation to grow up in a relatively inclusive context, they live with their families, attend mainstream schools, and are part of common community life. Leisure information was obtained in…

  19. Radon concentrations in Norwegian kindergartens: survey planning and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birovljev, A.; Strand, T.; Heiberg, A.

    1998-01-01

    An extensive radon survey in Norwegian kindergartens and schools was started in early 1997; so far 2481 kindergartens were examined. Preliminary results of the first phase of the survey are presented in tabular and graphic form including, among others, the dependence of average radon concentration on the construction year of the kindergartens and on the age of the buildings. (A.K.)

  20. Typing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains in Norwegian cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fluge, G; Ojeniyi, B; Høiby, N

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Typing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from Norwegian cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with chronic Pseudomonas lung infection in order to see whether cross-infection might have occurred. METHODS: Isolates from 60 patients were collected during the years 1994-98, and typed by pulsed...

  1. Possible Concepts for Waterproofing of Norwegian TBM Railway Tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammyr, Øyvind; Nilsen, Bjørn; Thuro, Kurosch; Grøndal, Jørn

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate and compare the durability, life expectancy and maintenance needs of traditional Norwegian waterproofing concepts to the generally more rigid waterproofing concepts seen in other European countries. The focus will be on solutions for future Norwegian tunnel boring machine railway tunnels. Experiences from operation of newer and older tunnels with different waterproofing concepts have been gathered and analyzed. In the light of functional requirements for Norwegian rail tunnels, some preliminary conclusions about suitable concepts are drawn. Norwegian concepts such as polyethylene panels and lightweight concrete segments with membrane are ruled out. European concepts involving double shell draining systems (inner shell of cast concrete with membrane) and single shell undrained systems (waterproof concrete segments) are generally evaluated as favorable. Sprayable membranes and waterproof/insulating shotcrete are welcomed innovations, but more research is needed to verify their reliability and cost effectiveness compared to the typical European concepts. Increasing traffic and reliance on public transport systems in Norway result in high demand for durable and cost effective solutions.

  2. Possibilities for rutile extraction from Norwegian eclogite by flotation

    OpenAIRE

    Gaydardzhiev, Stoyan; Sandvik, Knut

    1993-01-01

    Preliminary flotations tests towards rutile extraction from Norwegian eclogites (Verving deposit) have been carried out. Various sulfonate type flotation reagents (produced by Hoechts) have been tested. Selectivity between rutile/pyroxene has been targeted. Rutile separation from pyrite and garnet has been further identified as principal problem.

  3. Jens Glad Balchen: A Norwegian Pioneer in Engineering Cybernetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Breivik

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper tells the story of Jens Glad Balchen (1926-2009, a Norwegian research scientist and engineer who is widely regarded as the father of Engineering Cybernetics in Norway. In 1954, he founded what would later become the Department of Automatic Control at the Norwegian Institute of Technology in Trondheim. This name was changed to the Department of Engineering Cybernetics in 1972 to reflect the broader efforts being made, not only within the purely technical disciplines, but also within biology, oceanography and medicine. Balchen established an advanced research community in cybernetics in postwar Norway, whose applications span everything from the process industry and positioning of ships to control of fish and lobster farming. He was a chief among the tribe of Norwegian cybernetics engineers and made a strong impact on his colleagues worldwide. He planted the seeds of a whole generation of Norwegian industrial companies through his efforts of seeking applications for every scientific breakthrough. His strength and his wisdom in combination with his remarkable stubbornness gave extraordinary results.

  4. No indication of Coxiella burnetii infection in Norwegian farmed ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kampen Annette H

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with Coxiella burnetii, the cause of Q-fever, has never been detected in Norwegian animals. Recognising the increasing prevalence of the infection in neighbouring countries, the aim of the study was to perform a survey of Norwegian farmed ruminants for the prevalence of C. burnetii infection. Results Milk and blood samples from more than 3450 Norwegian dairy cattle herds, 55 beef cattle herds, 348 dairy goat herds and 118 sheep flocks were serologically examined for antibodies against C. burnetii. All samples were negative for antibodies against C. burnetii. The estimated prevalences of infected herds were 0 (95% confidence interval: 0% - 0.12%, 0 (0% - 12%, 0 (0% - 1.2% and 0 (0% - 10% for dairy cattle herds, beef cattle herds, goat herds and sheep flocks, respectively. Conclusions The study indicates that the prevalence of C. burnetii infection in farmed Norwegian ruminants is low, and it cannot be excluded that Norway is free of the infection. It would be beneficial if Norway was able to maintain the current situation. Therefore, preventive measures should be continued.

  5. Distressed Relationships : Lessons from the Norwegian Banking Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongena, S.; Smith, D.C.; Michalsen, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper measures the economy-wide impact of bank distress on the loss of relationship benefits. We use the near-collapse of the Norwegian banking system during the period 1988 to 1991 to measure the impact of bank distress announcements on the stock prices of firms maintaining a relationship with

  6. Syllable reduction and articulation rates in Danish, Norwegian and Swedish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilton, N.H.; Schüppert, Anja; Gooskens, C.S.

    2011-01-01

    This investigation compares articulation rates of phonological and phonetic syllables in Norwegian, Swedish and Danish to investigate differences in degrees of syllable deletion (reduction) among these three languages. For the investigation two sets of data are used: one consisting of recorded

  7. Health and equity in all policies in local government: processes and outcomes in two Norwegian municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Heimburg, Dina; Hakkebo, Berit

    2017-08-01

    To identify key factors in implementing Health and Equity in All Policies (HEiAP) at the local level in two Norwegian municipalities in order to accelerate the progress of promoting health, well-being and equity in other local governments. This case study is presented as a narrative from policy-making processes in two Norwegian municipalities. The story is told from an insider perspective, with a focus on HEiAP policy makers in these two municipalities. The narrative identified key learning from implementing HEiAP at the local level, i.e. the importance of strengthening system and human capacities. System capacity is strengthened by governing HEiAP according to national legislation and a holistic governance system at the local level. Municipal plans are based on theory, evidence and local data. A 'main story' is developed to support the vision, defining joint societal goals and co-creation strategies. Policies are anchored by measuring and monitoring outcomes, sharing accountability and continuous dialogue to ensure political commitment. Human capacity is strengthened through participatory leadership, soft skills and health promotion competences across sectors. Health promotion competence at a strategic level in the organization, participation in professional networks, crowd sourcing toward common goals, and commitment through winning hearts and minds of politicians and other stakeholders are vital aspects. Our experience pinpoints the importance of strengthening system and human capacity in local governments. Further, we found it important to focus on the two strategic objectives in the European strategy 'Health 2020': (1) Improving health for all and reducing health inequalities; (2) improving leadership and participatory governance for health.

  8. Incidence of hospital referred head injuries in Norway: a population based survey from the Stavanger region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heskestad, Ben; Baardsen, Roald; Helseth, Eirik

    2009-01-01

    it with previous Norwegian studies. METHODS: All head injured patients referred to Stavanger University Hospital during a one-year period (2003) were registered in a partly prospective and partly retrospective study. The catchment area for the hospital is strictly defined to a local population of 283...

  9. Public Sector Expatriate Managers:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenner, Charles, R., Jr.; Selmer, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Although public sector expatriates are becoming increasingly common, research on them is very limited. There is reason to believe that the situation for expatriates from the public sector may be different than for those from the private sector. This study investigated U.S. Department of Defense a...

  10. Developing scenarios for the Norwegian travel industry 2025

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anniken Enger

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The Norwegian travel industry faces decline in important international tourism segments and needs an industry wide and future‐oriented strategy to face these challenges. Accordingly, a common understanding of future drivers and different scenarios for the industry is needed. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – Using the process of scenario analysis and drawing upon the involvement of the tourism industry, this paper describes the method, drivers, scenarios, and implications. Findings – The research identified six important drivers with predictable outcomes: uneven global economic development, digitalization, climate change, consumer demand – return on time, centralization, and demography. The Norwegian economy and Norwegian politics were the two drivers that stood out as the most significant for the tourism industry, with a very uncertain outcome, and constituted the two axes of the scenarios. This resulted in four scenarios: Money Rules, The Urban Diamond, Opportunities for All, and Master Plan. Practical implications – The four scenarios represent different economic value of international tourism in Norway. The Opportunities for All and Master Plan scenarios represent the greatest economic value for Norwegian tourism. They indicate great opportunities for tourism to become the “new oil” in Norway if the oil economy declines. The two scenarios differ with respect to the degree of governance control vs market liberalization. The scenarios will be used to identify implications and risks for different parts of the tourism industry, and to further explore how governance control and market liberalization may be combined. Originality/value – The research identified six drivers which are significant for the Norwegian tourism industry. This resulted in four scenarios which are used to identify implications and risks for different parts of the industry.

  11. Norwegian focus on new energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bull-Hansen, Eivind

    2001-01-01

    Norsk Hydro Technology Ventures, a venture capital fund recently set up by Norsk Hydro, will raise equity capital to companies that are developing promising new projects on new energy technology or to investment funds promoting such projects. Norsk Hydro will withdraw from the investments when the projects have reached commercialization or are listed on the stock exchange. There is a well-developed market for venture capital in the energy sector and a strong international competition for investments in good projects. The sharp environmental focus on fossil fuels and climate gases has boosted the research on new energy technologies. Another and more important factor is the fact that modern society with its heavy dependence on the computer is vulnerable to power failure

  12. Sectoral Innovation Watch Biotechnology Sector. Final sector report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enzing, C.

    2011-01-01

    Biotechnology has evolved from a single set of technologies in the mid 1970s into a full grown technological field that is the driving force in innovation processes in many industrial sectors (pharmaceutical, medical, agriculture, food, chemical, environment, instruments). Nowadays, biotechnology is

  13. Sectoral Innovation Watch Food and Drinks Sector. Final Sector Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leis, M.; Gijsbers, G.; Zee, F. van der

    2011-01-01

    The food and drinks manufacturing industry is a diverse and complex sector. There are ample possibilities for performance improvement and innovation in the food and drinks industry as well as a variety of challenges ranging from a lack of financial and human resources, fragmented consumer interests

  14. "Almost at War". The Mohammed Cartoon Crisis in Norwegian Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solveig Steien

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In January and February 2006, Norwegians witnessed the burning of their national flag in Palestine, the burning of Norwegian embassies and consulates in Syria, Lebanon and Iran; all simply because twelve Danish Mohammed cartoons from Jyllands-Posten had been reprinted in Norway; the cartoons were published in a marginal Christian conservative weekly newspaper, Magazinet, three months after their original appearance in Denmark. In February 2006 the Norwegian ISAF-forces in Afghanistan were attacked. This conflict had a surprising impact on domestic and foreign policy, and the Norwegian publication of the cartoons triggered a global escalation of the controversy; Norwegian newspapers wrote that the country was "almost at war". I have focused on how some leading Norwegian newspapers (Aften, Aftenposten, Dagbladet, Dagens Næringsliv, Dagsavisen and VG covered this unexpected crisis and studied the different discourses that became a substantial part of the media coverage. In my analysis I have used an overall approach of War versus Peace journalism. War and Peace journalism was not created as a concept for analysing media texts or photographs, but to provide practical tools for journalists in the field of conflict and war situations. Nevertheless, this approach gives an opportunity to examine the results of journalistic work and compare them with the press'es ideals and ethical codes. At the same time, the occurrence of discourses like "clash of civilisations", freedom of speech, "us" versus "them", i.e., "us" versus the Muslims, and the newspapers' choice of sources for their stories, seem to fit with a model of War and Peace journalism. The focus is on opinion materials like editorials and comments, as well as on domestic reports and reportage by correspondents. By analysing samples of articles I have tried to outline some areas where the concept of Peace versus War journalism still needs to be developed, in order to become a comprehensive or more

  15. Second sector cool down

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    At the beginning of July, cool-down is starting in the second LHC sector, sector 4-5. The cool down of sector 4-5 may occasionally generate mist at Point 4, like that produced last January (photo) during the cool-down of sector 7-8.Things are getting colder in the LHC. Sector 7-8 has been kept at 1.9 K for three weeks with excellent stability (see Bulletin No. 16-17 of 16 April 2007). The electrical tests in this sector have got opt to a successful start. At the beginning of July the cryogenic teams started to cool a second sector, sector 4-5. At Point 4 in Echenevex, where one of the LHC’s cryogenic plants is located, preparations for the first phase of the cool-down are underway. During this phase, the sector will first be cooled to 80 K (-193°C), the temperature of liquid nitrogen. As for the first sector, 1200 tonnes of liquid nitrogen will be used for the cool-down. In fact, the nitrogen circulates only at the surface in the ...

  16. FRAM-2012: Norwegians return to the High Arctic with a Hovercraft for Marine Geophysical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. K.; Kristoffersen, Y.; Brekke, H.; Hope, G.

    2012-12-01

    After four years of testing methods, craft reliability, and innovative equipment, the R/H SABVABAA has embarked on its first FRAM-201x expedition to the highest Arctic. Named after the Inupiaq word for 'flows swiftly over it', the 12m by 6m hovercraft has been home-based in Longyearbyen, Svalbard since June 2008. In this, its fifth summer of work on the ice pack north of 81N, the craft is supported by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD) via the Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center (NERSC) in Bergen, and the Norwegian Scientific Academy for Polar Research. FRAM-2012 represents renewed Norwegian interest in returning to the highest Arctic some 116 years after the 1893-96 drift of Fridtjof Nansen's ship FRAM, the first serious scientific investigation of the Arctic. When replenished by air or icebreaker, the hovercraft Sabvabaa offers a hospitable scientific platform with crew of two, capable of marine geophysical, geological and oceanographic observations over long periods with relative mobility on the ice pack. FRAM-2012 is the first step towards this goal, accompanying the Swedish icebreaker ODEN to the Lomonosov Ridge, north of Greenland, as part of the LOMROG III expedition. The science plan called for an initial drive from the ice edge to Gakkel Ridge at 85N where micro-earthquakes would be monitored, and then to continue north to a geological sampling area on the Lomonosov Ridge at about 88N, 65W. The micro-earthquake monitoring is part of Gaute Hope's MSc thesis and entails five hydrophones in a WiFi-connected hydrophone array deployed over the Gakkel Rift Valley, drifting with the ice at up to 0.4 knots. On August 3 the hovercraft was refueled from icebreaker ODEN at 84-21'N and both vessels proceeded north. The progress of the hovercraft was hampered by insufficient visibility for safe driving and time consuming maneuvering in and around larger fields of rubble ice impassable by the hovercraft, but of little concern to the icebreaker. It

  17. AIDS-related primary central nervous system lymphoma: a Norwegian national survey 1989–2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haldorsen, Ingfrid S; Kråkenes, Jostein; Goplen, Anne K; Dunlop, Oona; Mella, Olav; Espeland, Ansgar

    2008-01-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a frequent complication in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The objective of this survey was to investigate incidence, clinical features, radiological findings, histologic diagnosis, treatment and outcome for all patients with histologically verified AIDS-related PCNSL diagnosed in Norway in 1989–2003. We identified the patients by chart review of all cases recorded as PCNSL in The Norwegian Cancer Registry (by law recording all cases of cancer in Norway) and all cases recorded as AIDS-related PCNSL in the autopsy registry at a hospital having 67% autopsy rate and treating 59% of AIDS patients in Norway, from 1989 to 2003. Histologic material and radiological images were reviewed. We used person-time techniques to calculate incidence rates of PCNSL among AIDS patients based on recordings on AIDS at the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases (by law recording all cases of AIDS in Norway). Twenty-nine patients had histologically confirmed, newly diagnosed AIDS-related PCNSL in Norway from 1989–2003. Only 2 patients had this diagnosis established while alive. AIDS patients had 5.5% lifetime risk of PCNSL. Their absolute incidence rate of PCNSL per 100 person-years was 1.7 (95%CI: 1.1–2.4) and decreased during the consecutive 5-year periods from 3.6, to 2.5, and to 0.4 (p < 0.001). Median survival from initial symptom of PCNSL was 2.3 months, but one patient was still alive 4 years after completed radiotherapy. This is the first national survey to confirm decreasing incidence of AIDS-related PCNSL. Despite dismal survival in most patients, the possibility of long term survival should prompt more aggressive diagnostics in suspected PCNSL

  18. Norwegian program of quality assurance in radiotherapy (KVIST) - Organisation, benefits and experience feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merete Olerud, H.; Levernes, S.; Hellebust, T.P.; Heikkela, I.E.; Bjerke, H.; Sundqvist, E.; Frykholm, G.

    2009-01-01

    In 2000, the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (N.R.P.A.) initiated work to develop a national quality assurance programme in radiotherapy. The program was named K.V.I.S.T.: i.e. Norwegian abbreviation of Quality Assurance in Radiotherapy (KValitetSikring STraleterapi). The programme is performed by the multidisciplinary K.V.I.S.T. Group and aims to stimulate collaboration by focussing on clinical, technical and administrative problems that can be addressed and solved on a national level. An important objective is to establish a positive attitude towards quality assurance and better communication between centres and the various professions and professionals involved in radiotherapy, i.e. the oncologists, medical physicists and radiation therapy technologists. Information is also provided to other stake holders such as health authorities, hospital administrators and patients. In 2007 radiotherapy in Norway represent 10 departments and forty accelerators. Since radiotherapy is given high priority in cancer care good quality assurance is required. The member of the K.V.I.S.T.-group are part time at N.R.P.A. and part time in different radiotherapy departments. Professionals with competencies within radiotherapy (R.T.) have permanent positions in a national public entity. The K.V.I.S.T.-group is multidisciplinary. The K.V.I.S.T.-group acts as a coordinating group for all type of national Q.A. projects. The recommendations/guidelines are developed by national consensus. The work is performed by the radiotherapy community it self, thus creating an atmosphere of ownership. (N.C.)

  19. Temporal Variation of Mycotoxin Producing Fungi in Norwegian Cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Sundheim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Spring barley is grown on about half of the Norwegian cereal area. The rest of the area is equally divided between wheat and oats. Most years the domestic production provides 70%–80% of the domestic market for bread wheat. Barley and oats are mainly grown for animal feed. During the years 2008–2012, severe epidemics of Fusarium head blight have led to increased mycotoxin contamination of cereals. During that period, precipitation was above normal during anthesis and grain maturation. The most important mycotoxin producers have been F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. graminearum and F. langsethiae. Increased deoxynivalenol contamination of Norwegian cereals during recent years is due to severe F. graminearum epidemics.

  20. The petroleum resources on the Norwegian continental shelf. 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The petroleum resources will not last for ever. It is therefore important for Norway to look ahead so as to be prepared for the changes that will come. In this report, the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate presents the current status of the petroleum resources on the Norwegian continental shelf. This is the basis on which the authorities can lay plans for the future. Since no-one can predict the future with certainty, on this occasion the Directorate is presenting four alternative scenarios for the future of Norwegian petroleum activities if the basic scenario proves incorrect. This will enable us to prepare ourselves for changes that may come, and to view the consequences of the various choices we can make. In this report, the Directorate also describes the various plays on the continental shelf, and explains the techniques used and the evaluations made when it estimates the undiscovered resources. This information is important for exploration work, particularly for new companies which need to get acquainted with the geology and the possibilities for finding oil and gas in Norway. Significant volumes remain to be produced and found on the Norwegian continental shelf. Only a third of the total resources have so far been produced, and a quarter of them have still not been discovered. Oil and gas prices are high at the moment, giving the industry and society in general good incentives to produce at a maximum rate. Oil production reached its peak a couple of years ago, but gas production is still increasing. However, the industry is finding less than it produces, which places demands on both it and the authorities. The industry must actively explore the acreage it has been allocated. The Petroleum Directorate believes that substantial resources can still be discovered in areas where production licences have been awarded. At the same time, the industry must gain access to new areas for exploration. The authorities must find an appropriate balance between concern for the

  1. Organising Ethics: The Case of the Norwegian Army

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen-Marie Forsberg

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article shows how institutionalism, a theory in organisational social science, provides a model for diagnosing organisational challenges that influence the ethical practices and integration in the Norwegian Army. Institutionalism provides tools for analysing the differences between expressed values and actual practices and for understanding the organisational dynamics that unfold at the crossroads of the organisation's formal structure, informal culture and stakeholder relations. In this article we present and discuss such differences and dynamics in the Norwegian Army based on findings from a survey and a number of workshops. We also provide some suggestions for effective implementation of strategies for strengthening ethics in such an organisation. We argue that the perspective taken in this project is also relevant for other highly professionalised complex organisations and that such interdisciplinary research will strengthen practical ethics' potential for real impact.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v6i1.1779

  2. The emerging fourth sector

    OpenAIRE

    Friis, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    The Fourth Sector is a new phenomenon related to dual social and financial value creation, until now not clearly defined with crisp sectoral boundaries and an operationalized definition. The phenomenon is getting increased attention in media, conferences, business schools and by organizations all over the world, and this study intends to explain the macroenvironmental changes that led to the rise of the fourth sector, describe new trends of social value creation in the private ...

  3. Norwegian actors in the fields of energy and climate change in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buan, Inga Fritzen

    2008-02-15

    Written for and funded by the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and StatoilHydro, this report is a descriptive inventory of Norwegian involvement and Sino-Norwegian cooperation in the fields of energy and climate change-related issues in China. Part 1 is a brief, general introduction to the relevant topics, providing both typical and atypical examples of Norwegian involvement and cooperation and partnerships between actors from the two countries. Many valuable cooperative relationships in science and business have been established. The report also comments on areas in which Norwegian involvement is falling behind the other Nordic countries. Parts 2, 3 and 4 consist of lists of the relevant Norwegian governmental bodies, research institutions and private businesses including descriptions of their partnerships, projects and expertise. (author). 57 refs

  4. Highly variable Pliocene sea surface conditions in the Norwegian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Bachem

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Pliocene was a time of global warmth with small sporadic glaciations, which transitioned towards the larger-scale Pleistocene glacial–interglacial variability. Here, we present high-resolution records of sea surface temperature (SST and ice-rafted debris (IRD in the Norwegian Sea from 5.32 to 3.14 Ma, providing evidence that the Pliocene surface conditions of the Norwegian Sea underwent a series of transitions in response to orbital forcing and gateway changes. Average SSTs are 2 °C above the regional Holocene mean, with notable variability on millennial to orbital timescales. Both gradual changes and threshold effects are proposed for the progression of regional climate towards the Late Pliocene intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Cooling from 4.5 to 4.3 Ma may be linked to the onset of poleward flow through the Bering Strait. This cooling was further intensified by a period of cool summers due to weak obliquity forcing. A 7 °C warming of the Norwegian Sea at 4.0 Ma suggests a major increase in northward heat transport from the North Atlantic, leading to an enhanced zonal SST gradient in the Nordic Seas, which may be linked to the expansion of sea ice in the Arctic and Nordic Seas. A warm Norwegian Sea and enhanced zonal temperature gradient between 4.0 and 3.6 Ma may have been a priming factor for increased glaciation around the Nordic Seas due to enhanced evaporation and precipitation at high northern latitudes.

  5. Hearing status among Norwegian train drivers and train conductors

    OpenAIRE

    Lie, A.; Skogstad, M.; Johnsen, T. S.; Engdahl, B.; Tambs, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a general perception that train drivers and conductors may be at increased risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss. Aims To study job-related hearing loss among train drivers and train conductors. Methods Audiograms from train drivers and train conductors were obtained from the medical records of the occupational health service of the major Norwegian railway company. The results were compared with audiograms from an internal control group of railway workers and an ex...

  6. The Norwegian Plan of Action for nuclear safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    The Plan of Action underlies Norwegian activities in the field of international co-operation to enhance nuclear safety and prevent radioactive contamination from activities in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Geographically the highest priority has been given to support for safety measures in north-west Russia. This information brochure outlines the main content of the Plan of Action for nuclear safety issues and lists a number of associated measures and projects

  7. Norwegian Hydrological Reference Dataset for Climate Change Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnussen, Inger Helene; Killingland, Magnus; Spilde, Dag

    2012-07-01

    Based on the Norwegian hydrological measurement network, NVE has selected a Hydrological Reference Dataset for studies of hydrological change. The dataset meets international standards with high data quality. It is suitable for monitoring and studying the effects of climate change on the hydrosphere and cryosphere in Norway. The dataset includes streamflow, groundwater, snow, glacier mass balance and length change, lake ice and water temperature in rivers and lakes.(Author)

  8. The prospects of the Norwegian offshore gas scene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sael, E.

    1992-01-01

    It is not unlikely that Norway will become the major offshore gas producer in Europe in the latter part of this decade. This paper reviews the current estimates of the magnitude and geographical distribution of Norwegian gas resources, the prospects for gas supply and exports, the infrastructure such as pipelines and production facilities now in place and required for the future, and the environmental challenge which makes natural gas the most attractive of the fossil fuels for power generation. (UK)

  9. Knowledge for Sale: Norwegian Encyclopaedias in the Marketplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siv Frøydis Berg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Encyclopedias present and contain knowledge, but historically they have also been commercial commodities, produced for sale. In this article, we study the self-presentations of a selection of Norwegian encyclopedias, as these are expressed in the form of commercial images, advertising texts and slogans. We thus present a brief but detailed study of what might be called a number of paratextual matters associated with 20th-century Norwegian encyclopedias, with the aim of identifying the most significant or recurring topoi in the material. Our analysis shows that claims about speed and modernization are among the most conspicuous ingredients in these self-presentations, claims which, we argue, feed into a particular logic of a particular version of 20th-century modernity. The article begins with an analysis of the commercially successful Konversationslexicon, the first Norwegian encyclopedia, published in 1906 and for a long time market leader of the bourgeois tradition. The Konversationslexicon was produced with the explicit aim of providing a source of conversation for the educated classes, a new and expanding group of readers. We also show how the publisher Aschehoug went on to strengthen its own position in this market through a sophisticated process of differentiation. Seen as a contrast to these market leaders, we explore the Norwegian tradition of counter-encyclopaedias, with the radical PaxLeksikon as our main example. This encyclopaedia came into existence as a result of a strong ideological motivation and was run by left-wing idealists. Nevertheless, and perhaps inevitably, it ended up situating itself within the same market mechanisms and the same commercial logic as the bourgeois encyclopaedias. The article ends by a brief consideration of the change from commercial print encyclopaedias to internet-based encyclopaedias, and of the new challenges this poses in a small nation, rhetorically and in the struggle for funding.

  10. How should Norwegians prepare for doing business with Japan?

    OpenAIRE

    Hole, Anders

    2006-01-01

    This thesis examines the differences between Norwegian and Japanese culture, and how these differences might impact business relations between companies from the two countries. We also look at the language barrier as a possible source of difficulty, and see how this can be overcome through the use of interpreters, or by using a common language. We look at the usefulness and dangers of stereotyping, before analysing both Norway and Japan using Hofstede’s and Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner’s cult...

  11. The Norwegian Plan of Action for nuclear safety issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The Plan of Action underlies Norwegian activities in the field of international co-operation to enhance nuclear safety and prevent radioactive contamination from activities in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Geographically the highest priority has been given to support for safety measures in north-west Russia. This information brochure outlines the main content of the Plan of Action for nuclear safety issues and lists a number of associated measures and projects.

  12. [Intention] to buy organic food products among norwegian consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Muhammed Zabiullah

    2012-01-01

    Masteroppgave i økonomi og administrasjon - Universitetet i Agder 2012 The purpose of this thesis is to examine the buying intention of the Norwegian consumers towards ecological or eco-labeled food products. What are the factors that are leading people to buy organic food and which one are the most important factors among consumers. The thesis is divided into four sections, Phenomena, Theory, Reality, and conclusion. Each section is interrelated with each other. In this thesis, data w...

  13. Invisible Migrants : Norwegians in Brazil, 1820-1940

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Clarisse Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    The present study focuses on Norwegian migration to Brazil from a macro-level perspective: how many migrated, when, where, how and why. The present analysis is based on data from emigration and immigration records, passenger lists, as well as other “alternative” sources such as travelogues, personal and historical accounts and letters, collected both in Norway and Brazil. Official emigration and immigration statistics on this group are often incomplete, unreliable or simply inexistent, in par...

  14. Exhaust gas emission from ships in Norwegian coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meltzer, F.; Fiskaa, G.

    1991-02-01

    For the following vessel categories bunker consumption and emission of greenhouse gases and SO 2 has been calculated: Norwegian coastal trade, domestic ferries, fishing vessels (Norwegian), Norwegian military vessels, inter-coastal ferries, import and export, ships iron-ore from Narvik and Soviet vessels in transit. The carbon emission (CO 2 as carbon) within 12 nautical miles has been calculated to 0.621 MtC (Mega ton carbon) and to 1.0 MtC within the economic zone for these vessel categories. The calculated ''inland waterways'' bunker consumption in this study deviates from the Central Bureau of Statistics of Norway and OECD/IEA figures by up to 25%. This large deviation supports the need for a uniform method to calculate ''inland waterways'' bunker consumption. Scenarios for the emission outlook for the years 1995, 2000 and 2005 are discussed and calculated. With 1988 as present level it is possible, according to these scenarios, to reduce the emission of NO x by close to 40% and SO 2 by 85%. Reduction of greenhouse- and SO 2 components in the exhaust gases from ships is today technically possible, but the demand for further research and development is significant. Compared with land-based low-emission technologies, the offshore technologies are years behind. 21 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs

  15. Explaining the appeal of militant Salafism in a Norwegian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Nord Holmer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available By drawing upon existing literature on Islamic radicalisation, this article empirically explores why some Norwegian Muslims come to accept the use of violence in the name of Islam. Based on primary internet research and interviews with individuals who either call for violent jihad, or who have travelled to Syria to engage in armed struggle, this study identifies several complaints and grievances which may result in individuals adopting extreme positions. These grievances relate to Norwegian and Western foreign policies, feelings of being alienated and stigmatised in the public debate, a sense of not belonging, actual or perceived discrimination, and socio-economic deprivation. Interestingly, the findings in this study suggest that these factors are not significantly different in Norway than in other European countries facing the general trend of Islamic radicalisation. Rather, the ideological positions and statements identified in the data collection reflect the broader literature on the radicalisation of young Muslims living in Europe. In line with theories of Wiktorowicz (2005 and Roy (2004, this article therefore argues that Norwegian Muslims may become attracted to militant Salafism because it responds to their individual grievances, and provides an alternative worldview that offers meaning, community and justice based on shared religion and ideology. 

  16. Accident analyses performed for the Norwegian committee on nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.; Thomassen, D.; Kvaal, E.

    1979-02-01

    As part of the work performed for the Norwegian Government Committee on Nuclear Power, risk calculations were carried out for two examples of possible reactor sites in Norway. The calculations were performed with the computer program COMO (or CRACK), which was also used in the American reactor safety study (WASH-1400). In connection with the Norwegian calculations some modifications were made to the program, and relevant data for Norwegian conditions were introduced. The atmospheric dispersion model and meteorological data are discussed at some length. An analysi of the population distribution around both sites is presented and land usage is also discussed. Radiation dose calculations internal, and external, are summarised. Shielding factors from terrain and buildings are also given, and the effect of evacuation briefly discussed. Health effects, immediate mortalities, and delayed and genetic effects are discussed at some length. The economic consequences of an accident due to e.g. evacuation, condemnation of agricultural products, cost of decontamination, loss in property value and relocation costs are estimated. The results are presented graphically as a function of probability. (JIW)

  17. Norwegian Oncologists' Expectations of Intensity-modulated Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muren, Ludvig P.; Mella, Olav; Hafslund, Rune; Dahl, Olav

    2002-01-01

    Although intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) may increase the therapeutic ratio of radiotherapy for a range of malignancies, only a few IMRT treatments have yet been performed in the Nordic countries. The scores derived from a national survey to assess Norwegian oncologists' expectations of IMRT are presented. A questionnaire was distributed to all consultants in oncology at Norwegian radiotherapy clinics. Summary scores of daily general radiotherapy workload (DGRTW), acquaintance with IMRT (AI) and expectations of IMRT (EI) were derived. Thirty-nine questionnaires (67%) were returned from a total of 58 oncologists. The oncologists' scores on the AI scale (mean score: 7.5 out of 21) were rather low. Their AI scores were found to be positively correlated with their DGRTW. Higher scores on the EI scale were documented (mean score: 6.2 out of 14): 15 oncologists (39%) rated IMRT as one of the three major contributors to potentially increased cancer survival. Oncologists treating patients with prostate, head and neck, gastrointestinal and CNS tumours had higher EI scores than the other oncologists (7.7 vs. 5.1; p=0.01). The Norwegian radiation oncologists' expectations of IMRT are high in terms of both the potential clinical benefit and the rate of implementation. This should encourage the radiotherapy communities to continue (or rapidly initiate) their efforts in providing the routines required for safe implementation of IMRT

  18. Planning future care services: Analyses of investments in Norwegian municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Terje P; Tingvold, Laila

    2018-06-01

    To analyse whether the Norwegian Central Government's goal of subsidizing 12,000 places in nursing homes or sheltered housing using an earmarked grant was reached and to determine towards which group of users the planned investments were targeted. Data from the investment plans at municipal level were provided by the Norwegian Housing Bank and linked to variables describing the municipalities' financial situation as well as variables describing the local needs for services provided by Statistics Norway. Using regression analyses we estimated the associations between municipal characteristics and planned investments in total and by type of care place. The Norwegian Central Government reached its goal of giving subsidies to 12,000 new or rebuilt places in nursing homes and sheltered housing. A total of 54% of the subsidies (6878 places) were given to places in nursing homes. About 7500 places were available by the end of the planning period and the rest were under construction. About 50% of the places were planned for user groups aged Investments in nursing homes were correlated with the share of the population older than 80 years and investments in sheltered houses were correlated with the share of users with intellectual disabilities. Earmarked grants to municipalities can be adequate measures to affect local resource allocation and thereby stimulate investments in future care. With the current institutional setup the municipalities adapt investments to local needs.

  19. The Norwegian system for implementing the IAEA code of practice based on absorbed dose to water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerke, H.

    2002-01-01

    The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) SSDL recommended in 2000 the use of absorbed dose to water as the quality for calibration and code of practice in radiotherapy. The absorbed dose to water standard traceable to BIPM was established in Norway in 1995. The international code of practice, IAEA TRS 398 was under preparation. As a part of the implementation of the new dosimetry system the SSDL went to radiotherapy departments in Norway in 2001. The aim of the visit was to: Prepare and support the users in the implementation of TRS 398 by teaching, discussions and measurements on-site; Gain experience for NRPA in the practical implementation of TRS 398 and perform comparisons between TRS 277 and TRS 398 for different beam qualities; Report experience from implementation of TRS 398 to IAEA. The NRPA 30x30x30 cm 3 water phantom is equal to the BIPM calibration phantom. This was used for the photon measurements in 16 different beams. NRPA used three chambers: NE 2571, NE 2611 and PR06C for the photon measurements. As a quality control the set-up was compared with the Finnish site-visit equipment at University Hospital of Helsinki, and the measured absorbed dose to water agreed within 0.6%. The Finnish SSDL calibrated the Norwegian chambers and the absorbed dose to water calibration factors given by the two SSDLs for the three chambers agreed within 0.3%. The local clinical dosimetry in Norway was based on TRS 277. For the site-visit the absorbed dose to water was determined by NRPA using own equipment including the three chambers and the hospitals reference chamber. The hospital determined the dose the same evening using their local equipment. For the 16 photon beams the deviations between the two absorbed dose to water determinations for TRS 277 were in the range -1,7% to +4.0%. The uncertainty in the measurements was 1% (k=1). The deviation was explained in local implementation of TRS 277, the use of plastic phantoms, no resent calibration of

  20. Norwegian Salmon : a study of in-store promotions in China

    OpenAIRE

    Bang, Marius; Haeger, Jarling Mathias Kvam; Mikkelsen, Guro Johanne; Tomaszewski, Katrine

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses primarily on two in-store promotions currently used as a marketing strategy by Norwegian Seafood Council to spread the awareness of Norwegian salmon. Due to the uncertainty of the effects of these promotions on the average Chinese consumers’ purchase behavior and attention, the authors have decided to conduct a research to find out which of these are the most cost-efficient, and how Norwegian Seafood Council may improve their in-store promotions in order to ...

  1. Windmills or deepwater drills?: Normative Roles of Technology in Norwegian Resource Extraction Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Goins , Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    International audience; After discovering oil in the North and Norwegian Seas in the late 1960s, Norway is now one of the largest oil exporters and wealthiest nations in the world. Norwegians are some of the healthiest and happiest people on the planet, enjoying cradle-to-grave welfare and a national savings fund well into the billions. Yet despite its transformational power in this society, oil is a complex and highly debated topic among Norwegian policy makers and everyday citizens. In the ...

  2. White Paper No 21 (2011-2012). Norwegian Climate Policy; St.meld. nr. 21 (2011-2012). Norsk klimapolitikk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    The Norwegian Government intends to take a number of steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and promote technological advances. Some of the most important are: establishing a new climate and energy fund, raising the CO{sub 2} tax rate for the offshore industry, and improving public transport. The white paper keeps to the targets set out in the 2008 agreement on climate policy. Measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions will be implemented in most sectors in Norway. A climate and energy fund will be established for the development of emission reduction technology. The CO{sub 2} tax on emissions from Norway's offshore petroleum production will rise by Nok 200 per tonne, giving operating companies a stronger incentive to use electricity generated onshore. The Government will also focus on public transport, energy-efficient housing and forest-related measures to maintain and increase CO{sub 2} uptake.(Author)

  3. The Norwegian Electric Power System - System Description and Future Developments; Norsk kraftforsyning - dagens system og fremtidig utvikling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, Janne Merete; Nystuen, Kjell Olav; Fridheim, Haavard; Rutledal, Frode

    2000-09-01

    This report presents a description of the present Norwegian electric power system, as well as a discussion of emerging trends and future developments in this system. The report provides the basis for FFI's current vulnerability analysis of the electric power system. Norway's electric power system is getting increasingly complex, due to a large-scale implementation of electronic components and information systems. Workforce reductions and efficiency improvements dominate the development of the electric power sector. Norway is also becoming increasingly dependent on foreign power sources. These trends provide for an entirely different electric power system than just a few years ago. Also, these trends make it virtually impossible to present a ''static'' description of the system. Thus, the report also contains a scenario, describing possible future developments of the system until 2010. (author)

  4. The Norwegian preeclampsia family cohort study: a new resource for investigating genetic aspects and heritability of preeclampsia and related phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roten, Linda Tømmerdal; Thomsen, Liv Cecilie Vestrheim; Gundersen, Astrid Solberg; Fenstad, Mona Høysæter; Odland, Maria Lisa; Strand, Kristin Melheim; Solberg, Per; Tappert, Christian; Araya, Elisabeth; Bærheim, Gunhild; Lyslo, Ingvill; Tollaksen, Kjersti; Bjørge, Line; Austgulen, Rigmor

    2015-12-01

    Preeclampsia is a major pregnancy complication without curative treatment available. A Norwegian Preeclampsia Family Cohort was established to provide a new resource for genetic and molecular studies aiming to improve the understanding of the complex pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Participants were recruited from five Norwegian hospitals after diagnoses of preeclampsia registered in the Medical birth registry of Norway were verified according to the study's inclusion criteria. Detailed obstetric information and information on personal and family disease history focusing on cardiovascular health was collected. At attendance anthropometric measurements were registered and blood samples were drawn. The software package SPSS 19.0 for Windows was used to compute descriptive statistics such as mean and SD. P-values were computed based on t-test statistics for normally distributed variables. Nonparametrical methods (chi square) were used for categorical variables. A cohort consisting of 496 participants (355 females and 141 males) representing 137 families with increased occurrence of preeclampsia has been established, and blood samples are available for 477 participants. Descriptive analyses showed that about 60% of the index women's pregnancies with birth data registered were preeclamptic according to modern diagnosis criteria. We also found that about 41% of the index women experienced more than one preeclamptic pregnancy. In addition, the descriptive analyses confirmed that preeclamptic pregnancies are more often accompanied with delivery complications. The data and biological samples collected in this Norwegian Preeclampsia Family Cohort will provide an important basis for future research. Identification of preeclampsia susceptibility genes and new biomarkers may contribute to more efficient strategies to identify mothers "at risk" and contribute to development of novel preventative therapies.

  5. Chemical and Petrochemical Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This publication is a background document on the global chemical and petrochemical sector for the IEA publication Energy Technology Transitions in Industry (IEA, 2009). It provides further, more detailed information on the methodology and data issues for energy efficiency indicators for the sector. The indicators discussed offer insight regarding the energy efficiency improvement potential in the short- to medium-term (by proven technologies).

  6. Energy sector alliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuade, Owen

    1998-09-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: A changing energy sector; Rationale for the joint venture, merger or acquisition; Mergers, acquisitions and joint ventures by sector; The joint venture process; Key factors for success; Financing the venture; Case studies; The future outlook. (Author)

  7. A Norwegian study of seafarers' and rescuers' recommendations for maritime telemedicine services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norum, Jan; Moksness, Stein Gunnar; Larsen, Eli

    2002-01-01

    We studied maritime telemedicine and its potential for improvement. Twenty-four people representing 13 different shipping companies and maritime public authorities were interviewed. They covered all areas of the Norwegian maritime sector except for offshore installations. The morbidity pattern reported differed between the groups: on cruise liners and ferries the major problems were due to coronary heart disease, while on merchant ships, navy vessels and in the fishing fleet the major problems were accidents. Voice and fax systems were available in all cases. However, the Emergency Medical Dispatch Centres did not offer an email service and did not use faxes in the maritime setting. Radio Medico Norway was the only assistance provider offering two-way transfer of digital pictures. The interviewees suggested a number of areas for improvement; these included having a single emergency telephone number to call for help, email systems with the possibility of digital picture attachments, wireless communication systems on board and a standard CD-ROM reference work for medical guidance/education.

  8. Energy demand in the Norwegian building stock: Scenarios on potential reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, Igor; Wachenfeldt, Bjorn Jensen; Hestnes, Anne Grete

    2009-01-01

    A model has been developed for studying the effect of three hypothetical approaches in reducing electricity and energy demand in the Norwegian building stock: wide diffusion of thermal carriers, heat pumps and conservation measures, respectively. Combinations of these are also considered. The model has a demand side perspective, considers both residential and service sectors, and calculates energy flows from net to delivered energy. Energy demand is given by the product of activity and intensity matrices. The activity levels are defined for the stock and the new construction, renovation and demolition flows. The intensity properties are defined in archetypes, and are the result of different energy class and heating carriers share options. The scenarios are shaped by combining the activity flows with different archetypes. The results show that adopting conservation measures on a large scale does allow reducing both electricity and total energy demand from present day levels while the building stock keeps growing. The results also highlight the importance of making a clear distinction between the assumptions on intensity and activity levels.

  9. Energy demand in the Norwegian building stock. Scenarios on potential reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartori, Igor; Hestnes, Anne Grete [Department of Architectural Design, History and Technology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Wachenfeldt, Bjoern Jensen [SINTEF Building and Infrastructure, 7465 Trondheim (Norway)

    2009-05-15

    A model has been developed for studying the effect of three hypothetical approaches in reducing electricity and energy demand in the Norwegian building stock: wide diffusion of thermal carriers, heat pumps and conservation measures, respectively. Combinations of these are also considered. The model has a demand side perspective, considers both residential and service sectors, and calculates energy flows from net to delivered energy. Energy demand is given by the product of activity and intensity matrices. The activity levels are defined for the stock and the new construction, renovation and demolition flows. The intensity properties are defined in archetypes, and are the result of different energy class and heating carriers share options. The scenarios are shaped by combining the activity flows with different archetypes. The results show that adopting conservation measures on a large scale does allow reducing both electricity and total energy demand from present day levels while the building stock keeps growing. The results also highlight the importance of making a clear distinction between the assumptions on intensity and activity levels. (author)

  10. Energy demand in the Norwegian building stock: Scenarios on potential reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartori, Igor [Department of Architectural Design, History and Technology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), 7491 Trondheim (Norway)], E-mail: igor.sartori@sintef.no; Wachenfeldt, Bjorn Jensen [SINTEF Building and Infrastructure, 7465 Trondheim (Norway); Hestnes, Anne Grete [Department of Architectural Design, History and Technology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), 7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2009-05-15

    A model has been developed for studying the effect of three hypothetical approaches in reducing electricity and energy demand in the Norwegian building stock: wide diffusion of thermal carriers, heat pumps and conservation measures, respectively. Combinations of these are also considered. The model has a demand side perspective, considers both residential and service sectors, and calculates energy flows from net to delivered energy. Energy demand is given by the product of activity and intensity matrices. The activity levels are defined for the stock and the new construction, renovation and demolition flows. The intensity properties are defined in archetypes, and are the result of different energy class and heating carriers share options. The scenarios are shaped by combining the activity flows with different archetypes. The results show that adopting conservation measures on a large scale does allow reducing both electricity and total energy demand from present day levels while the building stock keeps growing. The results also highlight the importance of making a clear distinction between the assumptions on intensity and activity levels.

  11. Transport priorities, risk perception and worry associated with mode use and preferences among Norwegian commuters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordfjærn, Trond; Simşekoğlu, Özlem; Lind, Hans Brende; Jørgensen, Stig Halvard; Rundmo, Torbjørn

    2014-11-01

    There is currently scant research on the role of transport priorities, risk perception and worry for travel mode use and preferences. The present study aims to examine these factors in relation to mode use and preferences among Norwegian commuters. A web-based survey was conducted in a randomly obtained representative sample of daily commuters in the extended greater Oslo area (n=690). The results showed that those who prioritized efficiency and flexibility tended to commute by car, while those who prioritized safety and comfort used public (e.g. metro, tram, and train) or active (e.g. walking and cycling) transport. In a free choice scenario, the respondents who prioritized flexibility reported a preference for using a car, whereas those who prioritized safety and comfort preferred public and active transport for their commuter travels. Risk perception of high impact events, such as terrorism and major accidents, as well as risk perception related to personal impact risks (theft, violence etc.) were related to car use on commuter travels. Transport-related worry exerted weak influences on mode use and preferences. Increased speed on rail transport and more frequent departures may be effective in reducing car use on commuter travels. Risk communication should focus on highlighting the low risk of experiencing security and safety issues in the public transport sector, and this message should be complemented by efforts to reduce the probability of negative events affecting public transport. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fabricating Cultural Events: The Rise of International Programme Formats in Norwegian Television Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yngvar Kjus

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available International trade and cooperation are increasingly affecting what we experience in the national and local media. This development is rapidly evolving with live televised events, like Idols and Dancing with the Stars, and here I pursue why (and how this is so. I engage specifically with the ways in which licensed international programme formats intervene in existing programme traditions, and affect the repertoire and capacity of national television producers. I trace the practices of the two largest Norwegian broadcasters over the last two decades. The question is not only how licensed formats affect different industry sectors, in this case license-funded NRK and commercial TV 2, but also how different units within the broadcasters are impacted. The article calls for heightened sensitivity to new forms of control and collaboration in creative processes, and new routines for premeditating live events. It suggests that format exchange should be evaluated along a continuum from open to closed; a continuum that can bring nuance to discussions of cultural colonisation.

  13. Fabricating Cultural Events: The Rise of International Programme Formats in Norwegian Television Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yngvar Kjus

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available International trade and cooperation are increasingly affecting what we experience in the national and local media. This development is rapidly evolving with live televised events, like Idols and Dancing with the Stars, and here I pursue why (and how this is so. I engage specifically with the ways in which licensed international programme formats intervene in existing programme traditions, and affect the repertoire and capacity of national television producers. I trace the practices of the two largest Norwegian broadcasters over the last two decades. The question is not only how licensed formats affect different industry sectors, in this case license-funded NRK and commercial TV 2, but also how different units within the broadcasters are impacted. The article calls for heightened sensitivity to new forms of control and collaboration in creative processes, and new routines for premeditating live events. It suggests that format exchange should be evaluated along a continuum from open to closed; a continuum that can bring nuance to discussions of cultural colonisation.

  14. Use of a national hospitalization register to identify industrial sectors carrying high risk of severe injuries: a three-year cohort study of more than 900,000 Danish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baarts, C; Mikkelsen, K L; Hannerz, H; Tüchsen, F

    2000-12-01

    Data indicates that Denmark has relatively high risks of occupational injuries. We evaluated all injuries resulting in hospitalization by occupation. All gainfully employed men younger than 60 in 1990 were divided into 47 industrial groups and followed using the National Inpatient Registry, for hospitalized injuries 1991-1993. Following ICD-8, injuries were grouped into six categories: head, upper extremities, back, trunk, lower extremities and ruptures, sprains and strains. Standardized industrial hospitalization ratios (SHRs) were calculated and Pearson's independence test was performed for each category. Industrial differences were ascertained for each injury category. The highest associated injury category was upper extremity injuries ranging from SHR = 43 (fire services and salvage corps) to SHR = 209 (slaughterhouse industry). Carpentry, joinery, bricklaying and construction work had significantly high SHRs for all injury categories, whereas administrative work was significantly low throughout. Occupational surveillance systems based on hospitalized injuries can be used to identify high-risk industries, and thereby suggest where to direct prevention efforts. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Lessons learned from infertility investigations in the public sector ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To determine the main factors causing infertility in an urban, tertiary hospital population. To establish if any such major causal factor could be used to rationalise and improve the service for infertile couples in the public sector. Design. A retrospective analysis of the hospital records of 206 women who had a tubal ...

  16. The European Economic Area (EEA) agreement and the Norwegian energy policy; EOES-avtalen og norsk energipolitikk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar; Claes, Dag Harald

    2011-07-01

    The Norwegian energy policy has a long tradition of strong public management. Already in the early 1900s the state ensured the right of first refusal to any new power stations and ensured that the privately owned power plant should go without charge back to the state after 60 years. The development of the petroleum sector Since 1970 the number of the corresponding manner largely been controlled by the state through public companies and stronger regulations, which (in conjunction with Norwegian and foreign private companies) to ensure employment, skills and added value would get 'the whole nation as a whole.' The goals were national and the funding were interventionistic from the public side. EU internal market represents in turn a far more liberal ideology, and promotes neutral nation competition for the benefit of the whole of the European Economic cooperation area (EEA). In the internal market the state's role is largely limited to being regulator of economic activities undertaken by private actors. Here are the goal European and the the funds are regulatory. The two models are met through the EEA agreement, both in terms of who the policy is going to work for and how it should be exercised. On the energy policy area these two major challenges creates for Norway: firstly, as a producer and exporter of oil and gas, economic and political interests are not always in line with the EU's interests as a consumer and importer of energy, for the second we have a tradition of a stronger governance of the energy sector than the EU internal market calls for. While not exist EEA Agreement in a vacuum.The changes in the petroleum regime in 2001-2002 through partial privatization of Statoil, the first gas directive and the case against the Gas Negotiating Committee (GFU) must be seen in context. Change is due to the mature of the petroleum sector, market development,development of the infrastructure and general international liberal economic trends that EEA

  17. ¿Cómo potenciar el uso de las redes sociales como estrategia de marketing en empresas del sector hostelero? El re-descubrimiento de “Pinterest” (How to promote the use of social networks as a marketing strategy in companies in the hospitality industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Vanesa Grandi Bustillos

    2014-12-01

    nidades que ofrecen. El objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar el empleo de las redes sociales como parte de la estrategia de marketing a tra- vés de una revisión del estado de la cuestión. Las conclusiones indican que la red social Pinterest encaja perfectamente en el sector hostelero y se recomienda su uso en aquellas empresas que deseen la exposición y publicidad de la marca, y que posean gran calidad de contenido visual.   Abstract  The traditional service marketing actions have undergone a revolution with the introduction of new technologies and especially with the widespread use of social networks. Users are influenced by the opinions that are presented on these networks when purchasing services online. The hospitality industry has also been influenced by social networks, but many hospitality companies have not detected the opportunities yet. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the use of social media as a component of the firms´ marketing strategy through a review of the state of the art. Results show that the social network Pinterest fits perfectly in the hospitality industry and its use is recommended for companies who want exposure and brand advertising with high quality visual content

  18. Torus sector handling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisham, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    A remote handling system is proposed for moving a torus sector of the accelerator from under the cryostat to a point where it can be handled by a crane and for the reverse process for a new sector. Equipment recommendations are presented, as well as possible alignment schemes. Some general comments about future remote-handling methods and the present capabilities of existing systems will also be included. The specific task to be addressed is the removal and replacement of a 425 to 450 ton torus sector. This requires a horizontal movement of approx. 10 m from a normal operating position to a point where its further transport can be accomplished by more conventional means (crane or floor transporter). The same horizontal movement is required for reinstallation, but a positional tolerance of 2 cm is required to allow reasonable fit-up for the vacuum seal from the radial frames to the torus sector. Since the sectors are not only heavy but rather tall and narrow, the transport system must provide a safe, stable, and repeatable method fo sector movement. This limited study indicates that the LAMPF-based method of transporting torus sectors offers a proven method of moving heavy items. In addition, the present state of the art in remote equipment is adequate for FED maintenance

  19. Self-reported competency--validation of the Norwegian version of the patient competency rating scale for traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveen, Unni; Andelic, Nada; Bautz-Holter, Erik; Røe, Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Norwegian version of the Patient Competency Rating Scale (PCRS) in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) at 12 months post-injury. Demographic and injury-related data were registered upon admission to the hospital in 148 TBI patients with mild, moderate, or severe TBI. At 12 months post-injury, competency in activities and global functioning were measured using the PCRS patient version and the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE). Descriptive reliability statistics, factor analysis and Rasch modeling were applied to explore the psychometric properties of the PCRS. External validity was evaluated using the GOSE. The PCRS can be divided into three subscales that reflect interpersonal/emotional, cognitive, and activities of daily living competency. The three-factor solution explained 56.6% of the variance in functioning. The internal consistency was very good, with a Cronbach's α of 0.95. Item 30, "controlling my laughter", did not load above 0.40 on any factors and did not fit the Rasch model. The external validity of the subscales was acceptable, with correlations between 0.50 and 0.52 with the GOSE. The Norwegian version of the PCRS is reliable, has an acceptable construct and external validity, and can be recommended for use during the later phases of TBI.

  20. Aid and sectoral growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Thiele, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    This article examines empirically the proposition that aid to poor countries is detrimental for external competitiveness, giving rise to Dutch disease type effects. At the aggregate level, aid is found to have a positive effect on growth. A sectoral decomposition shows that the effect is (i......) significant and positive in the tradable and the nontradable sectors, and (ii) equally strong in both sectors. The article thus provides no empirical support for the hypothesis that aid reduces external competitiveness in developing countries. A possible reason for this finding is the existence of large idle...

  1. Sector Economic Outlook. Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    The energy sector is a key driver of the economic pillar of Vision 2030. As the economy grows, urbanization intensifies and incomes increase, corporate and household demand for energy also rises. To meet this growth in demand for energy, the sector needs to increase investments and diversify into more sources of energy such as geothermal and wind power. It is therefore critical that focus is directed towards development and sustainability of the energy sector to ensure delivery of least cost power that will improve Kenya's competitiveness and achieve the Vision 2030 objective of 10% average annual economic growth.

  2. Canada's hydrogen energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, T.B.

    2009-01-01

    Canada produces the most hydrogen per capita of any Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) country. The majority of this hydrogen is produced by steam methane reforming for industrial use (predominantly oil upgrading and fertilizer production). Canada also has a world leading hydrogen and fuel cell sector. This sector is seeking new methods for making hydrogen for its future energy needs. The paper will discuss Canada's hydrogen and fuel cell sector in the context of its capabilities, its demonstration and commercialization activities and its stature on the world stage. (author)

  3. El sector productivo The productive sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Encarna Santolaria

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available El crecimiento del sector servicios en detrimento del sector primario, la flexibilidad del mercado laboral y la progresiva incorporación de la mujer a dicho mercado son los cambios más destacados del sector productivo español en los últimos 25 años. Las mujeres en España presentan tasas de desempleo, trabajo temporal y a tiempo parcial mucho mayores que los hombres. Además, las condiciones de acceso al mercado de trabajo y las condiciones en las que éste se desempeña están también muy relacionadas con la clase social. Las mujeres cubren la escasez de servicios públicos destinados al cuidado de las criaturas pequeñas y de las personas mayores o dependientes, y realizan una labor de cuidadoras informales sin reconocimiento social, lo cual les impide el acceso a un puesto de trabajo o su mantenimiento y limita de forma decisiva las posibilidades de desarrollo y progreso profesional. Todo ello indica una clara diferencia con respecto a los hombres en cuanto a la frecuencia de contratos temporales y de tiempo parcial, así como en la segregación laboral, tanto horizontal como vertical. Estos aspectos de segregación son más evidentes en las mujeres de clases sociales menos privilegiadas, en las que se concentran las peores condiciones de acceso al mercado laboral y de trabajo. En España es imprescindible llevar a cabo políticas que ofrezcan servicios que permitan compatibilizar la vida laboral y familiar en condiciones de mayor equidad, tanto en razón de género como de clase social.In the last 25 years, the production sector in Spain has undergone important changes. Among these changes, the important growth of the services sector at the expense of the primary sector, the increasing flexibility of the labour market, and the rise in the female workforce could be considered as the most relevant ones. Spanish women have higher rates of unemployment, temporary jobs and part time contracts than Spanish men. Moreover, job access and work

  4. Working in the Public Sector. Introduction to the Thematic Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Kamp

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Work in the public sector has been changing dramatically in recent decades. Reforms aimed at increasing the efficiency of public services have been extensive in the Nordic countries and elsewhere since the 1980s. The reforms and changes have to a large extent been associated with so-called New Public Management (NPM principles, emphasizing the market as a central coordination mechanism. Consequently, public institutions have been restructured, their services are standardized and commodified, and market-like relationships between them have been created. In order to create markets and transform citizens into customers on a market, outsourcing and privatization have been stimulated (Blomqvist & Rothstein 2000, Busch et al 2005, Christensen & Lægreid 2007, Greve 2003. At the same time, traditional Weberian bureaucratic principles are still viable and even enhanced within the sector, for instance, as a consequence of the use of contracts as a means of managing public organizations (Greve 2008. Lately, large reforms aimed at centralized coordination of different service providers, such as the integration of the Norwegian welfare administration, have been labeled post-NPM reforms by some researchers. The implication of all these parallel tendencies is that the institutional and organizational landscape surrounding the work situations of employees in the public sector have become increasingly complex, some call them hybrid,  putting a variety of conflicting pressures on the performance of work within the sector (Christensen & Lægreid 2011, Hasselbladh et al. 2008. In this special issue, we explore some of the consequences of these structural and normative changes on the work of public sector employees in different sectors and contexts (...

  5. Sectoral Innovation Watch electrical and Optical Equipment Sector. Final sector report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T. van den; Giessen, A.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    The electrical and optical equipment sector is a high-tech manufacturing sector. It is one of the most innovative sectors in Europe with investments and advances in fundamental research, applied R&D and innovation in the actual use of equipment. This sector is also one of the most global sectors

  6. Talent Development as an Ecology of Games: A Case Study of Norwegian Handball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørndal, Christian Thue; Ronglan, Lars Tore; Andersen, Svein S.

    2017-01-01

    Structured talent identification and development, it has been argued, is one of the foundations of international sporting success and many modern elite sport systems have applied normative talent development (TD) models. The success of Norwegian handball, however, is based on an alternative approach to TD. Norwegian handball is characterized by a…

  7. Work-Plan Heroes: Student Strategies in Lower-Secondary Norwegian Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalland, Cecilie P.; Klette, Kirsti

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how individualized teaching methods, such as the use of work plans, create new student strategies in Norwegian lower secondary classrooms. Work plans, which are frequently set up as instructional tools in Norwegian classrooms, outline different types of tasks and requirements that the students are supposed to do during a…

  8. Norwegian authorities have respect for the Three Gorges; Har respekt for Tre Kloefter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensvold, Tore

    2003-07-01

    Norwegian authorities have been sceptical to the development of the world's largest dam and hydropower project in China. But now the Norwegian Government has some respect for the giant project after the Parliamentary Secretary of the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy visited the site.

  9. Self-rated health among Greenlandic Inuit and Norwegian Sami adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spein, Anna Rita; Pedersen, Cecilia Petrine; Silviken, Anne Cathrine

    2013-01-01

    Self-rated health (SRH) and associated risk and protective correlates were investigated among two indigenous adolescent populations, Greenlandic Inuit and Norwegian Sami.......Self-rated health (SRH) and associated risk and protective correlates were investigated among two indigenous adolescent populations, Greenlandic Inuit and Norwegian Sami....

  10. The Italian energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The energy sector in Italy, as in Europe and in many other areas of the world, is undergoing rapid and profound changes. The 1986 ratification of the European Single Act was intended to create a European internal market, where circulation of people, capital, goods, and services would reach the highest possible liberalization. In 1988, in the document The Energy Internal Market, the European Union (EU) commission stressed the need for creation of an internal energy market--free of obstacles--to increase security of supply, to reduce costs, and to strengthen the competitiveness of the European economic system. In 1990, the Community Council adopted directives to implement the EU energy sector. This article describes Italy's role as part of the EU energy sector. It covers the following topics: the Italian energy sector; electricity vs gas transportation; project finance; recent developments advance Italian power industry; specifying powerplant components -- Italian stype; buyers' guide to Italian equipment, services

  11. Cross-sector Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz Jessen, Søren; Linnet, Andreas; Tscherning, Rasmus Wiinstedt

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this handbook is to help improve your opportunities for getting started on innovative and business development projects that reach beyond your own sector, commonly known as ’Cross-sector innovation’, or ’Cross innovation’ for short. We believe that there is a need for an easily read...... innovation handbook that can reach out to all sectors and potential partners whose point of departure, language use and understanding of customers is often very different to that of businesses. These differences constitute a resource for business development. If exploited they can lead to new ways of doing...... things and help us breakaway from the lull of the modes of expression and methods ‘customarily’ employed in business development. The handbook focuses on the interaction of “traditional’ businesses and sectors that belong to those known as the creative and the experience industries, i.e. designers...

  12. and the Energy Sector

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria's harsh economic situation in 2016 has led major industries to look inwards to resolve supply deficits occasioned ... In the electricity sector, however, the influx of imported electrical .... Engineering Infrastructure in a 2014 address.

  13. Construction Sector (NAICS 23)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find environmental regulatory information for the construction sector, including the construction of buildings or engineering projects. This includes RCRA information for hazardous waste, refrigeration compliance, asbestos, effluent guidelines & lead laws

  14. Hospitals; hospitals13

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — Hospital Facilities information was compiled from several various sources. Main source was the RI Department of Health Facilities Regulation database, License 2000....

  15. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among Norwegian female biathlon athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østerås H

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Håvard Østerås,1 Kirsti Krohn Garnæs,2 Liv Berit Augestad3 1Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Health Education and Social Work, Sør-Trøndelag University College, Trondheim, Norway; 2Department of Human Movement Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 3Department of Human Movement Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway Abstract: The purpose was to examine musculoskeletal disorders in Norwegian female biathlon athletes (age ≥ 16, both juniors and seniors. The design was a retrospective cross-sectional study. In all, 148 athletes (79.1% responded; of these, 118 athletes were 16–21 years (juniors (77.6%, and 30 athletes were 22 years or older (seniors (20.3%, and mean age was 19.1. A validated questionnaire was used to collect the data. The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders was 57.8%. The most affected parts were the knee (23.0% of the total injuries, calf (12.2%, ankle/foot (10.8%, lower back (10.8%, and thigh (10.1%. The disorders resulted in training/competition cessation for 73.5% of athletes, in alternative training for 87.8%. Fifty percent of the athletes had one or several musculoskeletal disorders. Most of the problems occurred preseason, and the duration of symptoms was often prolonged. Few differences between the juniors and seniors were found. This study showed the prevalence of musculoskeletal problems among female biathlon athletes. The results indicate that prevention of lower limb problems must be prioritized, especially during the preseason. Keywords: injuries, cross-country skiing, skating

  16. Ownership relations and cooperation in the Norwegian power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Balbir; Skjeret, Frode

    2006-01-01

    The Norwegian Competition Authority (KT) under a grant from The Ministry for Government Administration and Reform (FAD) commissioned a study in December 2005 to outline the extent and nature of cooperation among the power production companies in the Norwegian Power market. The main objective of the study was to establish an updated data set that documents the status with respect to distribution of ownership of generation capacity, and to identify the main forms of cooperation and information exchange among the power generation companies in Norway. Both secondary and primary sources have been used in the study. Data related to the distribution of generation capacity is mainly based on secondary sources and covers the total population consisting of 622 power plants and 183 companies in the Norwegian power market. In addition, requests for information were sent to a sample of power companies to collect primary information that could shed light on the status, trend, motivations, behavioral constraints, and exchange of information associated with different forms of cooperation between the power producers. The complete data set and results are modeled in a spread sheet based database (OPS) that accompanies this report. This report summarizes the main findings of the study. The primary data collected from the power companies during the sample survey is not included in this report. Only the main conclusions drawn on the basis of the analysis of the information provided by the respondents are presented in this report. It is important to emphasize that this publication reports data and information as collected from the primary and secondary sources in this project. The material presented in this publication reports a summary of the collected information and is not meant to draw any conclusions about the existence or otherwise of any form of collusion among the responding companies (author) (ml)

  17. Morphological and immunohistochemical characterisation of seminomas in Norwegian dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorvaldsen Tor

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seminomas in the dog have traditionally been assumed to resemble human spermatocytic seminomas, based on their low malignancy and high occurrence in old individuals. However, recently published studies indicate that canine seminomas can be classified as classical and spermatocytic seminomas in a similar way as in man, and that classical seminomas comprise a substantial proportion of seminomas in the dog. These two factors both contribute to increasing the potential of canine seminoma as a relevant model for human testicular cancer. The aim of the present study was to characterise seminoma in Norwegian dogs using morphology and immunohistochemistry, and determine whether these tumours are comparable with human classical seminoma. Methods By applying diagnostic criteria from human pathology, 45 seminomas from the Norwegian Canine Cancer Register were examined histologically with hematoxylin and eosin (HE and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS stains. All sections were stained immunohistochemically with antibodies against human placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP and the transmembrane receptor c-KIT. Results Although two of the seminomas showed immunohistochemical staining characteristics indicative of classical seminoma (PLAP+/c-KIT+, all 45 examined seminomas were morphologically consistent with spermatocytic seminoma. Conclusions The value of canine seminoma as a model for SE in man remains unclear. Among the 45 investigated tumours from Norwegian dogs, none were classified as classical seminoma based on morphological criteria consistent with human seminomas. Regional or breed differences in the occurrence of classical seminoma in the dog, as well as the lack of uniform diagnostic criteria, might explain the discrepancy between the findings in the current study and the results presented by other authors.

  18. The Norwegian translations of Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows : a comparative study of the book and films

    OpenAIRE

    Selle, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    A comparative study of the Norwegian translations of Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, both book and films. Focusing on the relationship between the Norwegian literary translation and the Norwegian subtitles, in relation to names, spells and invented words. It discusses the similarities and differences between them and ethical issues relating to the similarities.

  19. Public Sector Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Renate; Leixnering, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    New public management-inspired reforms created numerous autonomous units with many different faces and labels. This variety of organizations and organizational forms precludes a straightforward definition of what constitutes a public sector organization and blurs the boundaries between the public...... and private sectors as well as the boundaries of single organizations. In addition, the complexity of the interlocking arrangements and relationships in this public organizational landscape has resulted in considerable governance problems with serious implications for coordination and policy coherence....

  20. India's Downstream Petroleum Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This study provides a holistic examination of pricing and investment dynamics in India's downstream petroleum sector. It analyses the current pricing practices, highlights the tremendous fiscal cost of current pricing and regulatory arrangements, and examines the sectoral investment dynamics. It also looks at potential paths towards market-based reform along which the Indian government may move, while at the same time protecting energy market access for India's large poor population.

  1. The performance of immigrants in the Norwegian labor market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayfron, J E

    1998-01-01

    "This paper tests the assimilation hypothesis with Norwegian data. Using both cross-section and cohort analyses, the results show that the 1970-1979 immigrant cohort experienced an earnings growth of about 11% between 1980 and 1990, when their earnings profile was compared to that of natives. This is lower than the 19% assimilation rate predicted by the cross-section method. On the contrary, the results reveal a rapid earnings divergence across cohorts, and between the 1960-1969 cohort and natives." excerpt

  2. Improvement of fish habitat in a Norwegian river channelization scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brittain, J.E.; Brabrand, A.; Saltveit, S.J.; Heggenes, J.

    1993-01-01

    Techniques for reducing adverse effects of river and lake regulation are being developed and tested within the framework of the Norwegian Biotope Adjustment Programme. The programme is illustrated by studies of a river flowing through the wetland area, Lesjaleirene, which has been drained and channelized to provide additional agricultural land. The channelized river has a homogeneous sand substrate. Experimental placement of rocks and stones increased brown trout densities, especially in areas in contact with the river banks. The new areas of rocks and stones provide cover for fish as well as a greater variation in depth and flow conditions. (Author)

  3. Does elite sport develop mass sport? : a Norwegian case study

    OpenAIRE

    Skille, Eivind Å.; Hanstad, Dag Vidar

    2010-01-01

    The original publication is available at: http://www.sportstudies.org/content/vol_1_2010/051-068_vol_1_2010_hanstad-skille.pdf The notion that elite sport generates mass sport,seems to be a social fact among many and influential members of the society. The issue is, however, under-researched, and the little research which actually exists does not confirm a causal link. In this article, we take as a point of departure the case of Norwegian biathlon, and its development, both as elite sp...

  4. Digital Necrobacillosis in Norwegian Wild Tundra Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handeland, K.; Boye, Mette; Bergsjø, B.

    2010-01-01

    Outbreaks of digital necrobacillosis in Norwegian wild tundra reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) are described. The outbreaks occurred in late summer and autumn 2007 and 2008, subsequent to periods with an unusually high number of days with precipitation and high air temperature. Lesions were....... necrophorum was cultured from the foot lesions of six animals. Five of these isolates were examined by 16S rRNA sequencing. The sequences were identical and differed from all other strains listed in GenBank. These results are consistent with circulation of a reindeer-adapted pathogenic strain of F....... necrophorum in the wild reindeer population, causing outbreaks of digital necrobacillosis following warm and humid summers....

  5. Non-audit services and auditor independence: Norwegian evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yu (Elli); Hay, David; Holm, Claus

    2016-01-01

    We examine the effect on auditor independence of auditors providing non-audit services in the Norwegian audit market. We report the results of three tests of independence of mind and one test of independence in appearance. These tests find that there is a positive relationship between audit fees......-audit services and the frequency with which auditors issue modified audit opinions. There is no association between non-audit services and audit tenure. Finally, we examine the relationship between unexpected or excess non-audit fees and cost of capital. There is no relationship. Our findings fail to find any...

  6. Requirements to a Norwegian national automatic gamma monitoring system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, B.; Jensen, Per Hedemann; Nielsen, F.

    2005-01-01

    increments above the natural background levels. The study is based upon simplified deterministic calculations of the radiological consequences of generic nuclear accident scenarios. The density of gammamonitoring stations has been estimated from an analysis of the dispersion of radioactive materials over......An assessment of the overall requirements to a Norwegian gamma-monitoring network is undertaken with special emphasis on the geographical distribution of automatic gamma monitoring stations, type of detectors in such stations and the sensitivity of thesystem in terms of ambient dose equivalent rate...

  7. Stock structure of Atlantic herring Clupea harengus in the Norwegian Sea and adjacent waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pampoulie, Christophe; Slotte, Aril; Oskarsson, Guomundur J.

    2015-01-01

    The genetic structure of Atlantic herring Clupea harengus L. was investigated in its north-easterly distribution in the Norwegian Sea and adjacent waters, using 23 neutral and one non-neutral (Cpa111) microsatellite loci. Fish from the suspected 2 main populations-the Norwegian spring......-spawning herring (NSSH) and the Icelandic summer-spawning herring (ISSH)-were collected at spawning locations in their respective spawning seasons from 2009 to 2012. Samples were also collected from Norwegian autumn spawning locations, from different local Norwegian fjords such as the inner part...... of Trondheimsfjorden, Lindas pollene, Landvikvannet and Lusterfjorden, as well as from suspected Faroese spawning components. The observed level of genetic differentiation was significant but low (F-ST = 0.007) and mostly attributable to the differentiation of the local Norwegian fjord populations. The locus Cpa111...

  8. Inequalities in health within the health sector.

    OpenAIRE

    Balarajan, R.

    1989-01-01

    Mortality among men employed in the health sector was examined using data surrounding the 1971 (1970-2) and 1981 (1979-83) censuses to assess the differences between social classes in the health service and to study changes over a decade. Relative to men in England and Wales, mortality in the 1980s was significantly lower among dentists (standardised mortality ratio 66), doctors (69), opticians (72), and physiotherapists (79) and significantly higher among hospital porters (151), male nurses ...

  9. O programa de qualidade no setor hospitalar e as atividades reais da enfermagem: o caso da medicação The quality program in the hospital sector and the nursing activities: the medication case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Maria de Aguiar Guedes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é analisar a política de qualidade implementada pela gestão hospitalar na farmácia central e as características da atividade de medicar realizada pelo auxiliar de enfermagem (AE. Adotou-se a abordagem proposta pela escola francesa de ergonomia. Avaliou-se o funcionamento do hospital e estudou-se a atividade do trabalho do AE em tempo real, possibilitando compreender as dificuldades enfrentadas no cotidiano e as estratégias implementadas. Viu-se que a atividade de trabalho está inserida num paradoxo organizacional em que a qualidade exigida para o cumprimento da missão de medicar dificulta o cumprimento da própria tarefa, comprometendo, em última análise, a assistência ao paciente.The aim of this study is to analyze the quality policy implemented by the hospital management in the central chemistry and the characteristics of the medication activities performed by the nursing assistants (NA.The approach of the French School of Ergonomics was adopted. It was assessed the Hospital working situation and the activity performed by the nursing assistant in real time which have allowed to understand the difficulties faced by the workers and the strategies adopted to overcome them. It was observed that the working activity is part of an organizational paradox where the expected quality to fulfil the medication mission has been difficult to achieve, endangering, ultimately the assistance to the patients.

  10. Hospital 360°.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo Valencia, Juan Carlos; Delgado, Liliana Claudia

    2015-01-01

    There are forces that are greater than the individual performance of each hospital institution and of the health system structural of each country. The world is changing and to face up to the future in the best possible way, we need to understand how contexts and emerging trends link up and how they affect the hospital sector. The Columbian Association of Hospitals and Clinics, ACHC, has thus come up with the Hospital 360° concept which uses hospitals capable of anticipating changing contexts by means of the transition between present and future and takes on board the experience of global, socio-economic, demographic, political, environmental and technological fields as its model. Hospital 360° is an invitation to reinvent processes and institution themselves allowing them to adapt and incorporate a high degree of functional flexibility. Hospital 360° purses goals of efficiency, effectiveness and relevance, but also of impact and sustainability, and is coherent with the internal needs of hospital institutions and society for long-term benefits.

  11. Hospitality, Tourism, and Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen W. Litvin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Government policy has a significant impact on the hospitality and tourism industry, but it is unclear if political leaders fully understand this economic sector when crafting policies. This article offers new research about the direct involvement of industry practitioners in the political process, by analyzing the backgrounds of legislators in the six New England states. The data indicate that only 3% of these legislators have current or former careers related to hospitality and tourism. The author suggests that practitioners should seek election to political office, to better influence government policy.

  12. Anticausatives are semantically reflexive in Norwegian, but not in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Lundquist

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will discuss cross-linguistic variation in semantic entailment patterns in causative alternations. Previous work has probed this issue with data from elicited semantic judgements on paired linguistic forms, often involving linguistic negation and contradiction. We contribute to the debate in the form of a related psycholinguistic experiment that taps into direct judgements of truth conditions based on visualized scenarios. The stimulus consisted of video sequences of agents causing events, and the task involved answering a Yes-No question based on the anticausative/inchoative alternant. We were therefore able to test two languages, Norwegian and English, with the very same stimuli and directly compare the judgements. Based on our results, we will argue that the causative alternation is qualitatively different in the two languages. More specifically, the results support an entailment relation between the causative and its anticausative counterpart in English, as predicted by the whole class of “causer-less” analyses (Levin & Rappaport Hovav 1995; Ramchand 2008; Reinhart & Siloni 2005 in the literature. In contrast to this, our results support a reflexive analysis of anticausatives in Norwegian (Chierchia 2004; Koontz-Garboden 2009, where no such entailment holds.

  13. Have Norwegian producers of hydroelectric power wasted the water?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Norwegian producers of hydroelectric power have been criticized for having exported power to Sweden during the autumn and winter 2003/2004. As this analysis shows, although the reservoir level in Norway was below normal in October already, the negative deviation from the normal reservoir level was even greater in Sweden till the end of the year. Also when the magnitude of the reserve is measured relative to the number of weeks with normal winter production for which it lasts, the situation was worse in Sweden than in Norway. After New Year the deviation from the normal reservoir level has been much the same in the two countries and has changed in parallel. During this period the exchange between the two countries has approximately balanced and the power flow from Sweden to Norway has grown gradually. With this as a background, there is no basis for asserting that the Norwegian producers have managed the water resources in an irresponsible way. In general, the power flow and the water resource management in the two countries appear reasonable considering the water influx and the prices. Different market imperfections may nevertheless have rendered the water resource management socially less then optimal.

  14. Visits to CERN by Norwegian and Portuguese officials

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    During his visit to CERN on 30 April 2003, Mr Bjørn Haugstad, State Secretary, Ministry of Education and Research, Norway, toured the LHC magnet test hall and the installations of ATLAS and the European Computing Grid project. Seen here, at a luncheon given in his honour, from left to right: Bjørn Haugstad, State Secretary, Ministry of Education and Research, Norway, Cecilia Jarlskog, CERN Adviser on Member State Relations, Morten Knutsen, CERN Purchasing Service, Jens Vigen, CERN Library, Steinar Stapnes, physicist at the ATLAS experiment and Professor at the University of Oslo, Carlo Wyss, CERN's Director for Accelerators (standing) and Leif Westgaard, Norwegian delegate to the CERN Council and member of the Norwegian Research Council. His visit was followed a few days later, on 6 May, by that of the Portuguese Minister for Science and Higher Education, H. E. Mr Pedro Augusto Lynce de Faria, who was also given a tour of various ATLAS and LHC installations. The Minister also had the opportunity to meet me...

  15. Hearing status among Norwegian train drivers and train conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, A; Skogstad, M; Johnsen, T S; Engdahl, B; Tambs, K

    2013-12-01

    There is a general perception that train drivers and conductors may be at increased risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss. To study job-related hearing loss among train drivers and train conductors. Audiograms from train drivers and train conductors were obtained from the medical records of the occupational health service of the major Norwegian railway company. The results were compared with audiograms from an internal control group of railway workers and an external reference group of people not occupationally exposed to noise. The monaural hearing threshold level at 4kHz, the mean binaural value at 3, 4 and 6kHz and the prevalence of audiometric notches (≥25 dB at 4kHz) were used for comparison. Audiograms were available for 1567 drivers, 1565 conductors, 4029 railway worker controls and 15 012 people not occupationally exposed to noise. No difference in hearing level or prevalence of audiometric notches was found between study groups after adjusting for age and gender. Norwegian train drivers and conductors have normal hearing threshold levels comparable with those in non-exposed groups.

  16. Measurement of 50 Hz magnetic fields in some Norwegian households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsen, J.; Johnsson, A.

    1987-01-01

    An examination of 50 Hz magnetic fields has been made in ten different Norwegian dwellings. The aim was to measure the general background level of the 50 Hz magnetic fields. The investigation followed a protocol also used in Swedish measurements, and direct comparisons are therefore possible. A portable, commercial coil instrument was used. In september 1986 and January 1987 the magnetic fields in living rooms, sleeping rooms, and kitchens were measured according to the standardized procedure. Current consumption and temperature at the time of the measurements were also recorded. A clear correlation was noted between the magnetic field values and the current consumption. The mean values of the magnetic fields in the living rooms, sleeping rooms and kitchens, were 12 nT, 11 nT and 160 nT, respectively. The living and sleeping room values can be regarded as very low, and they are much lower than corresponding Swedish values. The kitchen values in the two countries seem, however, to be of the same order of magnitude. The report discusses the need for additional measurements in Norwegian houses

  17. Specification of merger gains in the Norwegian electricity distribution industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saastamoinen, Antti; Bjørndal, Endre; Bjørndal, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Electricity distribution often exhibits economies of scale. In Norway, a number of smaller distribution system operators exist and thus there is potential to restructure the industry, possibly through mergers. However, the revenue cap regulatory model in Norway does not incentivize firms to merge as merging leads to a stricter revenue cap for the merged company. Thus the regulator compensates the firms in order to create such incentives. The amount of compensation is based on the potential gains of the merger estimated using a data envelopment analysis (DEA) based frontier approach introduced by Bogetoft and Wang (2005). DEA is however only one of many possible frontier estimators that can be used in estimation. Furthermore, the returns to scale assumption, the operating environment of firms and the presence of stochastic noise and outlier observations are all known to affect to the estimation of production technology. In this paper we explore how varying assumptions under two alternative frontier estimators shape the distribution of merger gains within the Norwegian distribution industry. Our results reveal that the restructuring policies of the industry may be significantly altered depending how potential gains from the mergers are estimated. - Highlights: • The merger gains of Norwegian electricity distribution firm are investigated. • Different estimators and model specifications are applied. • Results show that the gains are significantly affected by the model choice. • Incentives to merge may be shaped through the estimation of gains.

  18. Risk of suboptimal iodine intake in pregnant Norwegian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Abel, Marianne Hope; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2013-02-06

    Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 μg/day and 150 μg/day) in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The median iodine intake was 141 μg/day from food and 166 μg/day from food and supplements. Use of iodine-containing supplements was reported by 31.6%. The main source of iodine from food was dairy products, contributing 67% and 43% in non-supplement and iodine-supplement users, respectively. Of 61,904 women, 16.1% had iodine intake below 100 μg/day, 42.0% had iodine intake below 150 μg/day and only 21.7% reached the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation of 250 μg/day. Dietary behaviors associated with increased risk of low and suboptimal iodine intake were: no use of iodine-containing supplements and low intake of milk/yogurt, seafood and eggs. The median urinary iodine concentration measured in 119 participants (69 μg/L) confirmed insufficient iodine intake. Public health strategies are needed to improve and secure the iodine status of pregnant women in Norway.

  19. Perceptions of Norwegian physiotherapy students: cultural diversity in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fougner, Marit; Horntvedt, And Tone

    2012-01-01

    At the Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo University College there is a growing recognition of the need for cultural competency training among students at the bachelor programmes. At the Mensendieck-physiotherapy bachelor programme the students are engaged in leading physical activity groups for Muslim women. This qualitative study describes ethnically Norwegian students experiencing cultural diversity in practice. Twenty-two female physiotherapy students participated in the interviews; 6 students were interviewed individually by telephone, and 16 students were interviewed in person in 8 pairs. The students' framework for dealing with diversity is based on preconceived notions about Muslim women and is reflected in two particular ways. One is how the values and norms of Norwegian "ideology of sameness" are pursued by the students. The other is how the students constructed images of the women as "the others." The interview responses indicate difficulties in uniting the reality of diversity and the "need" for integration. The curriculum requires additional attention on cultural competency for health care professionals in a multicultural society.

  20. Carbon stocks in Norwegian forested systems. Preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyen BH.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 1990 and 2010 the projected emissions of greenhouse gases in Norway is assumed to increase 24%. As a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol, Norway is supposed to limit the greenhouse gas emissions in the period 2008–2012 to 1% above the 1990 level. Potentially, forestry activities may contribute as a means to achieve the set target of emission reductions. The initial Norwegian views and proposals for definitions and accounting framework for activities under Articles 3.3 and 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol was reported to the UNFCCC August 1 2000 by the Norwegian Ministry of Environment. There was also an annex to the submission with preliminary data and information on Articles 3.3 and 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol. This paper is based on this annex, and focuses mainly on data for forests and other woodlands. Preliminary data indicate that approximately 85% of the carbon (C pool of forested systems is found in the soil. The major part of the annual C sequestration takes place in living biomass and soil, while sequestration in wood products and landfills etc. has been found to be of minor importance. It must be noted that the reported data are preliminary and contain large uncertainties.

  1. The impact of methicillin-resistant S. aureus on length of stay, readmissions and costs: a register based case-control study of patients hospitalized in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Elizabeth S. Andreassen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA are thought to incur additional costs for hospitals due to longer stay and contact isolation. The aim of this study was to assess the costs associated with MRSA in Norwegian hospitals. Methods Analyses were based on data fromSouth-Eastern Norway for the year 2012 as registered in the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases and the Norwegian Patient Registry. We used a matched case-control method to compare MRSA diagnosed inpatients with non-MRSA inpatients in terms of length of stay, readmissions within 30 days from discharge, as well as the Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG based costs. Results Norwegian patients with MRSA stayed on average 8 days longer in hospital than controls, corresponding to a ratio of mean duration of 2.08 (CI 95%, 1.75–2.47 times longer.A total of 14% of MRSA positive inpatients were readmitted compared to 10% among controls. However, the risk of readmission was not significantly higher for patients with MRSA. DRG based hospital costs were 0.37 (95% CI, 0.19–0.54 times higher among cases than controls, with a mean cost of EUR13,233(SD 26,899 and EUR7198(SD 18,159 respectively. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that Norwegian patients with MRSA have longer hospital stays, and higher costs than those without MRSA.

  2. Food production and service in UK hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed; Jones, Eleri; Redmond, Elizabeth; Hewedi, Mahmoud; Wingert, Andreas; Gad El Rab, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to apply value stream mapping holistically to hospital food production/service systems focused on high-quality food. Multiple embedded case study of three (two private-sector and one public-sector) hospitals in the UK. The results indicated various issues affecting hospital food production including: the menu and nutritional considerations; food procurement; food production; foodservice; patient perceptions/expectations. Value stream mapping is a new approach for food production systems in UK hospitals whether private or public hospitals. The paper identifies opportunities for enhancing hospital food production systems. The paper provides a theoretical basis for process enhancement of hospital food production and the provision of high-quality hospital food.

  3. Private Sector in Indian Healthcare Delivery: Consumer Perspective and Government Policies to promote private Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkarsh Shah, Ragini Mohanty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper attempts to collate literature from various sources, in an attempt to answer three pertinent questions related to healthcare in India. Firstly, what is it meant by ‘private sector’ in healthcare delivery system of India, secondly how has the private sector evolved over the decades and what has been the role of the government in propelling the growth. Finally, the paper tries to highlight some of the factors that have promoted the growth of private sector in India with specific reference to quality of medical care. The paper explicitly indicates that the deficiencies in the public health delivery system of India, was the key to growth of private infrastructure in healthcare.The shift of hospital industry for ‘welfare orientation’ to ‘business orientation’ was marked by the advent of corporate hospitals, supported by various policy level initiatives made by the government. Today, there are over 20 international healthcare brands in India with several corporate hospitals.However, a large section of the ‘private healthcare delivery segment’ is scattered and quality of medical care continues to remain a matter of concern. This paper tracks the various government initiatives to promote private investment in healthcare and attempts to explore the reasons for preference of the private sector. Surprisingly, in contrast to contemporary belief, quality of medical care doesn’t seem to be the leading cause for preference of the private sector. Except for a few select corporate and trust hospitals, quality of medical care in private sector seems to be poor and at times compromised.

  4. Norwegian Arctic climate. Climate influencing emissions, scenarios and mitigation options at Svalbard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vestreng, Vigdis; Kallenborn, Roland; Oekstad, Elin

    2010-07-01

    The goal of this study was to establish an emission inventory and emission scenarios for climate influencing compounds at Svalbard, as a basis to develop strategies for emission reduction measures and policies. Emissions for the years 2000-2007 have been estimated for the Svalbard Zone. This area, covering about 173 000 km{sub 2}, ranges from 10 E to 35 E longitude and 74 N to 81 N latitude (Figure 1). In addition, air and ship transport between Tromsoe at the Norwegian mainland and Svalbard has been included. Pollutants considered in our inventory are carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), Sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), Nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} as NO{sub 2}), and for the first time also estimates of black carbon (BC, soot) and organic carbon (OC) have been included. Our results show that emissions of all pollutants have increased over the time span 2000-2007 (Figure 2), and are expected to increase also in the future if additional measures are not implemented (Figure 12). The emissions from Svalbard are minuscule compared to emission released from the Norwegian mainland and waters (1% in the case of CO{sub 2}). Even so, local releases of climate influencing compounds in the vulnerable Arctic may turn out to make a difference both with respect to adverse environmental effects and to climate change. Emissions have been estimated for all activities of any significance taking place at and around Svalbard. Combustion sources as well as fugitive emissions of methane are included. The main sectors are coal mining, energy production and transportation. Pollution from 28 sub sectors related to these activities has been estimated. The scope of this work differs from that covered by national inventories since emission estimates are based on the fuel consumed and include emissions from international shipping and aviation. Fuel consumption data were collected from local authorities, institutions and industry. Emission factors have been selected from relevant

  5. Waste management. Sector 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The waste management section of this report deals with two sectors: land disposal of solid waste and wastewater treatment. It provides background information on the type of emissions that contribute to the greenhouse gases from these two sectors, presents both sector current status in Lebanon, describes the methodology followed to estimate the corresponding emissions, and presents the results obtained regarding greenhouse emissions. The total methane emissions from solid waste disposal on land are 42.804 Gg approximately. There are no emissions from wastewater and industrial handling systems because, for the target year 1994, there was no treatment facilities in Lebanon. The wastewater (municipal, commercial and industrial) was directly discharged into the sea, rivers, ravines or septic tanks which indicate that methane or nitrous oxide emissions are significant if not nonexistent. Note that this situation will change in the future as treatment plants are being constructed around the country and are expected to come into operation by the year 2000

  6. Characteristics of the Norwegian Coastal Current during Years with High Recruitment of Norwegian Spring Spawning Herring (Clupea harengus L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øystein Skagseth

    Full Text Available Norwegian Spring Spawning herring (NSSH Clupea harengus L. spawn on coastal banks along the west coast of Norway. The larvae are generally transported northward in the Norwegian Coastal Current (NCC with many individuals utilizing nursery grounds in the Barents Sea. The recruitment to this stock is highly variable with a few years having exceptionally good recruitment. The principal causes of recruitment variability of this herring population have been elusive. Here we undertake an event analysis using data between 1948 and 2010 to gain insight into the physical conditions in the NCC that coincide with years of high recruitment. In contrast to a typical year when northerly upwelling winds are prominent during spring, the years with high recruitment coincide with predominantly southwesterly winds and weak upwelling in spring and summer, which lead to an enhanced northward coastal current during the larval drift period. Also in most peak recruitment years, low-salinity anomalies are observed to propagate northward during the spring and summer. It is suggested that consistent southwesterly (downwelling winds and propagating low-salinity anomalies, both leading to an enhanced northward transport of larvae, are important factors for elevated recruitment. At the same time, these conditions stabilize the coastal waters, possibly leading to enhanced production and improved feeding potential along the drift route to Barents Sea. Further studies on the drivers of early life history mortality can now be undertaken with a better understanding of the physical conditions that prevail during years when elevated recruitment occurs in this herring stock.

  7. Trade and Sectoral Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Fadinger, Harald; Fleiss, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    Even though differences in sectoral total factor productivity are at the heart of Ricardian trade theory and many models of growth and development, very little is known about their size and their form. In this paper we try to fill this gap by using a Hybrid-Ricardo-Heckscher-Ohlin trade model and bilateral sectoral trade data to overcome the data problem that has limited previous studies, which have used input and output data to back out productivities, to a small number of OECD economies. We...

  8. Sectoral Market Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This paper first reviews proposals for the design of sectoral and related market mechanisms currently debated, both in the UNFCCC negotiations, and in different domestic legislative contexts. Secondly, it addresses the possible principles and technical requirements that Parties may wish to consider as the foundations for further elaboration of the mechanisms. The third issue explored herein is domestic implementation of sectoral market mechanisms by host countries, incentives to move to new market mechanisms, as well as how the transition between current and future mechanisms could be managed.

  9. Globalization of the energy sector - a U.S. regulator`s perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallaur, Carolita [Offshore Minerals Management, U.S. Department of the Interior (United States)

    1998-12-01

    This publication relates to globalization of the energy sector addressing issues of significant importance to the United States. The author touches upon a number of activities MMS (Mineral Management Service) is involved in with a focus on a joint project being engaged in with NPD (Norwegian Petroleum Directorate) to help the Russian Federation develop a safety and environment regime for its offshore. The aim of the project are national standards that set requirements for local and regional governments, safety and environment requirements that conform to international standards, apply to both Russian and foreign firms, and sharing of best practices between NPD, MMS and Russian authorities

  10. Hospital Compare

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Hospital Compare has information about the quality of care at over 4,000 Medicare-certified hospitals across the country. You can use Hospital Compare to find...

  11. HCAHPS - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of hospital ratings for the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS). HCAHPS is a national, standardized survey of hospital...

  12. Clinical learning environment and supervision: experiences of Norwegian nursing students - a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaalvik, Mari Wolff; Normann, Hans Ketil; Henriksen, Nils

    2011-08-01

    To measure nursing students' experiences and satisfaction with their clinical learning environments. The primary interest was to compare the results between students with respect to clinical practice in nursing homes and hospital wards. Clinical learning environments are important for the learning processes of nursing students and for preferences for future workplaces. Working with older people is the least preferred area of practice among nursing students in Norway. A cross-sectional design. A validated questionnaire was distributed to all nursing students from five non-randomly selected university colleges in Norway. A total of 511 nursing students completed a Norwegian version of the questionnaire, Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and Nurse Teacher (CLES+T) evaluation scale in 2009. Data including descriptive statistics were analysed using the Statistical Program for the Social Sciences. Factor structure was analysed by principal component analysis. Differences across sub-groups were tested with chi-square tests and Mann-Whitney U test for categorical variables and t-tests for continuous variables. Ordinal logistic regression analysis of perceptions of the ward as a good learning environment was performed with supervisory relationships and institutional contexts as independent variables, controlling for age, sex and study year. The participating nursing students with clinical placements in nursing homes assessed their clinical learning environment significantly more negatively than those with hospital placements on nearby all sub-dimensions. The evidence found in this study indicates that measures should be taken to strengthen nursing homes as learning environments for nursing students. To recruit more graduated nurses to work in nursing homes, actions to improve the learning environment are needed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Prevalence and etiology of epilepsy in a Norwegian county-A population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvertsen, Marte; Nakken, Karl Otto; Edland, Astrid; Hansen, Gunnar; Hellum, Morten Kristoffer; Koht, Jeanette

    2015-05-01

    Epilepsy represents a substantial personal and social burden worldwide. When addressing the multifaceted issues of epilepsy care, updated epidemiologic studies using recent guidelines are essential. The aim of this study was to find the prevalence and causes of epilepsy in a representative Norwegian county, implementing the new guidelines and terminology suggested by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). Included in the study were all patients from Buskerud County in Norway with a diagnosis of epilepsy at Drammen Hospital and the National Center for Epilepsy at Oslo University Hospital. The study period was 1999-2014. Patients with active epilepsy were identified through a systematic review of medical records, containing information about case history, electroencephalography (EEG), cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), genetic tests, blood samples, treatment, and other investigations. Epilepsies were classified according to the revised terminology suggested by the ILAE in 2010. In a population of 272,228 inhabitants, 1,771 persons had active epilepsy. Point prevalence on January 1, 2014 was 0.65%. Of the subjects registered with a diagnostic code of epilepsy, 20% did not fulfill the ILAE criteria of the diagnosis. Epilepsy etiology was structural-metabolic in 43%, genetic/presumed genetic in 20%, and unknown in 32%. Due to lack of information, etiology could not be determined in 4%. Epilepsy is a common disorder, affecting 0.65% of the subjects in this cohort. Every fifth subject registered with a diagnosis of epilepsy was misdiagnosed. In those with a reliable epilepsy diagnosis, every third patient had an unknown etiology. Future advances in genetic research will probably lead to an increased identification of genetic and hopefully treatable causes of epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  14. Attractiveness of employment sectors for physical therapists in Ontario, Canada (1999-2007: implication for the long term care sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landry Michel D

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recruiting and retaining health professions remains a high priority for health system planners. Different employment sectors may vary in their appeal to providers. We used the concepts of inflow and stickiness to assess the relative attractiveness of sectors for physical therapists (PTs in Ontario, Canada. Inflow was defined as the percentage of PTs working in a sector who were not there the previous year. Stickiness was defined as the transition probability that a physical therapist will remain in a given employment sector year-to-year. Methods A longitudinal dataset of registered PTs in Ontario (1999-2007 was created, and primary employment sector was categorized as ‘hospital’, ‘community’, ‘long term care’ (LTC or ‘other.’ Inflow and stickiness values were then calculated for each sector, and trends were analyzed. Results There were 5003 PTs in 1999, which grew to 6064 by 2007, representing a 21.2% absolute growth. Inflow grew across all sectors, but the LTC sector had the highest inflow of 32.0%. PTs practicing in hospitals had the highest stickiness, with 87.4% of those who worked in this sector remaining year-to-year. The community and other employment sectors had stickiness values of 78.2% and 86.8% respectively, while the LTC sector had the lowest stickiness of 73.4%. Conclusion Among all employment sectors, LTC had highest inflow but lowest stickiness. Given expected increases in demand for services, understanding provider transitional probabilities and employment preferences may provide a useful policy and planning tool in developing a sustainable health human resource base across all employment sectors.

  15. Attractiveness of employment sectors for physical therapists in Ontario, Canada (1999-2007): implication for the long term care sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Recruiting and retaining health professions remains a high priority for health system planners. Different employment sectors may vary in their appeal to providers. We used the concepts of inflow and stickiness to assess the relative attractiveness of sectors for physical therapists (PTs) in Ontario, Canada. Inflow was defined as the percentage of PTs working in a sector who were not there the previous year. Stickiness was defined as the transition probability that a physical therapist will remain in a given employment sector year-to-year. Methods A longitudinal dataset of registered PTs in Ontario (1999-2007) was created, and primary employment sector was categorized as ‘hospital’, ‘community’, ‘long term care’ (LTC) or ‘other.’ Inflow and stickiness values were then calculated for each sector, and trends were analyzed. Results There were 5003 PTs in 1999, which grew to 6064 by 2007, representing a 21.2% absolute growth. Inflow grew across all sectors, but the LTC sector had the highest inflow of 32.0%. PTs practicing in hospitals had the highest stickiness, with 87.4% of those who worked in this sector remaining year-to-year. The community and other employment sectors had stickiness values of 78.2% and 86.8% respectively, while the LTC sector had the lowest stickiness of 73.4%. Conclusion Among all employment sectors, LTC had highest inflow but lowest stickiness. Given expected increases in demand for services, understanding provider transitional probabilities and employment preferences may provide a useful policy and planning tool in developing a sustainable health human resource base across all employment sectors. PMID:22643111

  16. Method for estimating road salt contamination of Norwegian lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitterød, Nils-Otto; Wike Kronvall, Kjersti; Turtumøygaard, Stein; Haaland, Ståle

    2013-04-01

    Consumption of road salt in Norway, used to improve winter road conditions, has been tripled during the last two decades, and there is a need to quantify limits for optimal use of road salt to avoid further environmental harm. The purpose of this study was to implement methodology to estimate chloride concentration in any given water body in Norway. This goal is feasible to achieve if the complexity of solute transport in the landscape is simplified. The idea was to keep computations as simple as possible to be able to increase spatial resolution of input functions. The first simplification we made was to treat all roads exposed to regular salt application as steady state sources of sodium chloride. This is valid if new road salt is applied before previous contamination is removed through precipitation. The main reasons for this assumption are the significant retention capacity of vegetation; organic matter; and soil. The second simplification we made was that the groundwater table is close to the surface. This assumption is valid for major part of Norway, which means that topography is sufficient to delineate catchment area at any location in the landscape. Given these two assumptions, we applied spatial functions of mass load (mass NaCl pr. time unit) and conditional estimates of normal water balance (volume of water pr. time unit) to calculate steady state chloride concentration along the lake perimeter. Spatial resolution of mass load and estimated concentration along the lake perimeter was 25 m x 25 m while water balance had 1 km x 1 km resolution. The method was validated for a limited number of Norwegian lakes and estimation results have been compared to observations. Initial results indicate significant overlap between measurements and estimations, but only for lakes where the road salt is the major contribution for chloride contamination. For lakes in catchments with high subsurface transmissivity, the groundwater table is not necessarily following the

  17. Teaching Norwegian to Beginners: Six Principles to Guide Lesson Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Krulatz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Teaching a foreign language is no simple task. There are several factors to consider, from curriculum design, to material selection and lesson implementation, to assessment. The challenge, however, is even greater, if you are teaching a less commonly taught language such as Norwegian – a language spoken by fewer than six million native speakers, used almost exclusively in one country, and with a limited number of available pedagogical materials. Under such circumstances, the task of preparing high quality communicative lessons is immense, even for an experienced language instructor. The goal of this article is to present how a successful language lesson can be developed even if one is using a textbook that does not foster communicative competence. As an example, I am using a unit from a Norwegian textbook for beginners: På vei, often used in Norwegian as a second language course for adults in Norway. The lesson focuses on routines and times of the day, and it concludes with the students comparing and contrasting their daily routines with a partner. Prior to this lesson, students have learned to provide basic information about themselves (where they come from, what languages they speak, what they do for work, expressions for greetings and goodbyes, basic verbs relating to daily activities such as ‘snakker’ (to speak, ‘kjører’ (to drive, ‘kjøpper’ (to buy, ‘jobber’ (to work, ‘leser’ (to read, ‘scriver’ (to write, ordinal numerals, meals, some food items, some basic prepositions and locations, words for family members, and subject and object pronouns for all persons. If you were to closely follow the textbook in teaching this unit, you would begin by teaching the students how to tell time, then briefly go over some verbs to express daily routines, listen to and read a text titled ‘Jeg står opp klokka seks,’ a narrative about Monica’s day (Monica is one of the characters in the book, and finally ask the students

  18. Diet and behavioral problems at school in Norwegian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Høigaard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Discussion about dietary factors in relation to behavioral problems in children and adolescents has been going on for a long time. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional relation between diet and self-reported behavioral problems at school in adolescents in the southern part of Norway. Design: In total, 475 ninth- and tenth-grade students (236 boys and 239 girls out of 625 eligible students from four different secondary schools in three different communities in Vest-Agder County, Norway, participated, giving a participation rate of 77%. The students filled in a questionnaire with food frequency questions of selected healthy (e.g. fruits, vegetables, and fish and unhealthy (e.g. sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages, and crisps food items, questions of meal frequency, and four questions regarding behavioral problems at school. Results: Having breakfast regularly was significantly associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems (OR: 0.29 (0.15 − 0.55, p≤0.001. A high intake of unhealthy foods, such as sugar-sweetened soft drinks (OR: 2.8 (1.06 − 7.42, p=0.03 and sweets (OR: 2.63 (1.39 − 4.98, p=0.003, was significantly associated with increased odds of behavioral problems. At the same time, a high intake of fruits was associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems in Norwegian adolescents (OR: 0.30 (0.10 − 0.87, p=0.03. All ORs are adjusted for sex and BMI. Conclusions: This study shows that having an optimal diet and not skipping meals are associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems at school in Norwegian adolescents. Hence, it is important to improve the dietary intake and meal pattern of Norwegian adolescents. The cross-sectional design of this study limits any causal interpretations of the results of the study.

  19. Norwegian gas sale in an international perspective - future-directed organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saga, B.P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with future organization of the Norwegian gas sale. The author gives at first a brief review of the Norwegian gas sale, and then a discussion on which type of criteria being based on by evaluation of models for the Norwegian gas sale. A comparison on which type of criteria used in other gas supplying countries is discussed. The author discusses tendencies of development in the international market including Europe, and is questioning if the existing system of gas sale is prepared to meet future challenges. Several types of proposals are presented to solve these challenges. 5 figs

  20. Sector ring accelerator ''RESATRON''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwabe, E.

    1980-01-01

    Project of sector ring accelerator RESATRON is described. The curiosity of this accelerator is the second cycle of acceleration of the beam after stripping it on the foil. In such an accelerator heavy ions with a different ratio Z to A can be accelerated. (S.B.)

  1. [The productive sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaria, Encarna; Fernández, Alberto; Daponte, Antonio; Aguilera, I

    2004-05-01

    In the last 25 years, the production sector in Spain has undergone important changes. Among these changes, the important growth of the services sector at the expense of the primary sector, the increasing flexibility of the labour market, and the rise in the female workforce could be considered as the most relevant ones. Spanish women have higher rates of unemployment, temporary jobs and part time contracts than Spanish men. Moreover, job access and work conditions are highly related to gender and social class. Because women are forced to compensate for the scarcity of social services for caring for young children and for dependent elderly, they become informal and socially unrecognised caregivers, preventing them from getting or holding a job, and significantly limiting their opportunities for professional development. These social conditions are closely related with the fact that work conditions for women involve higher temporality rates and shorter contracts than those of men, given the sectors and jobs in which they tend to work (due to segregation). Similarly, workers of the less privileged social classes have poorer work conditions. Thus, women of the lower income class are mainly suffering the worst job contracts and the poorest work conditions. More social services are needed to make it possible to attend to family needs and still be able to access and maintain a job contract. Policies tending to conciliate labour and family life are indispensable and should incorporate measures to equally distribute the house keeping activities between women and men.

  2. Ingerop - Nuclear sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    As regards the nuclear sector, Ingerop has acquired along the decades extensive experience in designing and calculating complex structures for nuclear facilities. Since 2002, Ingerop focused on more system- and process-oriented projects in this field. Nowadays, Ingerop offers integrated services based on its sound know-how, top-notch expertise and insight into the management of nuclear projects, for both revamping and new build activities. Ingerop has made the development of the energy sector one of its top priorities in particular for the nuclear sector along with NucAdvisor, the first French engineering practice specialising in civil nuclear power. NucAdvisor's main mission is to assist governments or their representatives in developing their nuclear programs offering expertise and consulting services on specific topics like siting, licensing and operation of nuclear power plants, as well as decommissioning and dismantling and radioactive waste management. In January 2016, a new subsidiary has been created - INGEROP Contracting - which provides a global EPC/turnkey offer covering all fields of energy and industry. Its goal is to deliver projects from the design up to the commissioning, while taking a clear commitment on the overall cost and schedule. This brochure presents the Ingerop Company, its offer of services and main fields of intervention, its IT tools for 3D modeling and design, its activities and main references in the nuclear sector

  3. Energy. Sector 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this article is to report the results of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission inventory for the year 1994. The following GHG are of interest in the energy sector: Carbon dioxide CO 2 , methane CH 4 , nitrous oxide N 2 O, oxides of nitrogen NO x , carbon monoxide CO, sulphur dioxide SO 2 and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs). The inventory has focused on the following GHG related sources: -Electricity generation through the electric utility. -Private generation of electricity -Manufacturing industries and construction -Transport: road, domestic aviation and national navigation -Energy use in the residential sector -Energy use in the commercial/institutional sector -Energy use in the agriculture/forestry/fishing sector The fuel types taken into consideration are:Gasoline, jet Kerosene, Kerosene for household use, gas oil, diesel oil, fuel oil, LPG, lubricating oil, coal, wood and charcoal (solid biomass). Care has been taken to eliminate the fuel used by international marine and aviation bunkers from the national inventory. The amount of GHG released to the atmosphere has been estimated using the IPCC methodology and emission factors .Where national emission factors differed from those of IPCC, the factors are discussed. Complete documentation of compiled information and data sources are attached to this article.Finally both the reference approach and analysis by source categories have been carried out and are reported in this inventory

  4. Financial Sector Assessment : Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This Financial Sector Assessment (FSA) provides a summary of the policy priorities, and main findings intended to assist the Moroccan authorities in evaluating the country's financial system. It reviews the uneasy trade-off between concerns for stability, and development, suggesting Morocco's macroeconomic policies and practices as a whole tend to err more on the side of the concerns of pr...

  5. Financial Sector Assessment : Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Monetary Fund

    2017-01-01

    A joint International Monetary Fund (IMF)-World Bank mission visited Rabat and Casablanca in 2015, to assess the soundness and resilience of the banking system, the state of play in financial inclusion and infrastructure, the oversight frameworks for banking, capital markets and financial market infrastructures, crisis preparedness, and update the findings of the Financial Sector Assessme...

  6. Financial Sector Assessment : Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    A joint International Monetary Fund-World Bank team conducted an assessment of Turkey's financial system in connection with the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) through missions in April, August-September 2006 and March, 2007. This report provides a summary of the main findings of the assessment and the policy priorities identified. The main objective of the FSAP is to assist the...

  7. A systems engineering approach to implementation of safety management systems in the Norwegian fishing fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuinness, Edgar; Utne, Ingrid B.

    2014-01-01

    The fishing industry is plagued by a long history of fatality and injury occurrence. Commercial fishing is hence recognized as the most dangerous and difficult of professional callings, in all jurisdictions. Fishing vessels have their own unique set of hazards, a myriad collection of complex occupational accident potentials, barely controlled, co-existing in a perilous work environment. The work in this article is directed by the Norwegian Systematic Health, Environmental and Safety Activities in Enterprises (1997) (Internal Control Regulations [1]), the ISM Code [2] for vessels and their recent applicability to the fishing fleet of Norway. Both safety management works place requirements on the vessel operators and crew to actively manage safety as an on-going concern. The application of these safety management system (SMS) control documents to fishing vessels is just the latest instalment in a continual drive to improve safety in this sector. The difficulty is that there has been no previous systematic approach to safety within the fishing fleet. This article uses the tenants of systems engineering to determine the requirements for such a SMS, detailing the limiting factors and restrictive issues of this complex operating environment. - Highlights: • Systems engineer is applied as a tool for determining requirements for design and construction of a safety management system (SMS). • Outlining a simplistic format, identifying, designingand facilitating improvement opportunities in the conduction and application of SMS’s on fishing vessels. • Knowledge provision is a key requirement of management systems, through provision of understanding, detail orientation and applicable skills for realization. • Outlining, what is to be done and how it is to be completed to accomplish compliance with pertinent legislative requirements. • Promoting a combination of documentation and communication arrangements by which the actionsnecessary for management can be

  8. [Managment in nursing and the administration of third sector organizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthes, Rosa Maria; Cunha, Isabel Cristina Kowal Olm

    2006-01-01

    In this article of bibliographical revision it was aimed at verifying the evolution of the third sector and the relations between nursing management in that organizations. It is observed a growing of this sector in health area, bringing a market anplification in the work of the nurse. Thus, it is considered the need for warning the nurses to be prepared for the management in these organizations, seeking for development in hospital management. Third sector is being valued as a form of social promotion in the health, education, social assistance and others segments, congregating individuals and institutions in a participative form.

  9. Trust-development in Danish and Norwegian Integration Programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone Larsen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the aim has been to challenge ‘integration’ as a concept and to explore integration practices in Denmark and Norway. The purpose is to analyse how trust can develop within integration practice. The article is based on a comparison between theories about inclusion/exclusion, assimilation, integration and trust/distrust, and between the Danish and Norwegian integration practices. These two countries provide an introduction programme, which has been developed as a means to integrate immigrants into the labour market and society. In accordance with these programmes language training, social studies and work practice are provided for mainly non-Western immigrants. However, the comparison between Denmark and Norway shows that the introduction programmes are both similar and different, and in this article the discussion focuses on how these two practices in many ways can be more than simply integrating.

  10. The Petroleum resources on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This resource report provides a survey of petroleum resources on the NCS. Content: Resource account; Unconventional oil and gas resources; Future oil and gas production; Challenges for producing fields; Discoveries; Undiscovered resources; Curbing greenhouse gas emissions; Technology and talent; Exploration and new areas; How undiscovered resources are calculated; The NPD's project database; Play analysis; Changes to and reductions in estimated undiscovered resources; Unconventional petroleum resources; Many wells, Increased exploration, Every little helps; Varied discovery success; Sub-basalt in the Norwegian Sea; High exploration costs; Profitable exploration; Unopened areas - mostly in the far north; Resource base; Small discoveries; Location; Development solutions, Profitability of discoveries; Things may take time; Area perspective; Development of production; Remaining reserves and resources in fields; Target for reserve growth; Existing technology; Water and gas injection; Drilling and wells; Infrastructure challenges; New methods and technology; Challenges for pilot projects; Long-term thinking and creativity. (eb)

  11. The petroleum resources on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    Exploration activity has reached record-breaking levels in the last couple of years, which has led to many, but small, discoveries. The NPD believes that large discoveries can still be made in areas of the shelf that have not been extensively explored. Content: Challenges on the Norwegian continental shelf; Value creation in fields; 40 years of oil and gas production; Resource management; Still many possibilities; Energy consumption and the environment; Exploration; Access to acreage; Awards of new licenses; Exploration in frontier areas; Exploration history and statistics; Resources and forecasts; Undiscovered resources; Proven recoverable resources; Forecasts; Short-term petroleum production forecast (2009-2013); Investments- and operating costs forecasts; Long-term forecast for the petroleum production; Emissions from the petroleum activity. (AG)

  12. Norwegian Institute for Air Research Annual Report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The foundation Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU) conducts research and assessment of technical, economic, hygienic and other environmental issues related to air pollution and cleaning of polluted air. NILU serves the national market for research and development within the field of air pollution. The main purpose of the subsidiary company NILU Products Ltd., established in 1996, is to manage the strategic owner interests of the parent company as well as market products and systems developed by NILU. Among the projects in which NILU participated in 2001 are a number of EU projects under the fifth framework programme. The main topics with NILU participation are related to ozone layer- and ultraviolet changes, pollution and climate change, satellite validation, changes in atmospheric chemistry, particulate matter in air, discharges from aircraft, regional and global dispersion of environmental toxins, standardization and monitoring methods, electronic distribution of environmental data and environmental influence on building materials.

  13. Impact of integrating wind power in the Norwegian power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tande, John Olav

    2006-04-01

    Wind power may in the future constitute a significant part of the Norwegian electricity supply. 20 TWh annual wind generation is a realistic goal for 2020 assuming wind farms on-land and offshore. The development of grid codes for wind farms is sound. It is recognising that large wind farms are basically power plants and may participate in securing efficient and stable power system operation. Modern wind farms may control the reactive power or voltage as any other power plant, and may also control active power or frequency as long as wind conditions permits. Grid code requirements must however be carefully assessed and possibly adjusted over time aiming for overall least cost solutions. Development of wind farms are today to some degree hindered by conservative assumptions being made on operation of wind farms in areas with limited power transfer capacity. By accepting temporary grid congestions, however, a large increase installed wind power is viable. For grid congestion that appears a few hours per year only, the cost of lost generation will be modest and may be economic over the alternatives of limiting wind farm capacities or increasing the grid transfer capacity. Wind generation impact on power system operation and adequacy will be overall positive. Combining wind and hydro provides for a more stable annual energy supply than hydro alone, and wind generation will generally be higher in the winter period than in the summer. Wind will replace the generation with the highest operating cost, and reduce the average Nord Pool spot market price. 20 TWh wind will reduce price with about 3 oere/kWh and CO 2 emissions by 12-14 million tons for the case of replacing coal, and about 6 million tons for replacing natural gas. Wind impact on need for balancing power is small, i.e. the extra balancing cost is about 0,8 oere per kWh wind, and about half if investment in new reserve capacity is not needed. In summary this report demonstrates options for large scale integration

  14. Hearing loss in the Royal Norwegian Navy: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irgens-Hansen, Kaja; Baste, Valborg; Bråtveit, Magne; Lind, Ola; Koefoed, Vilhelm F; Moen, Bente E

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this longitudinal study were to investigate a significant threshold shift (STS) among personnel working on board the Royal Norwegian Navy's (RNoN) vessels between 2012 and 2014 and to identify possible determinants of STS. Hearing thresholds were measured by pure tone audiometry in two consecutive examinations (n = 226). STS was defined as an average change in hearing thresholds ≥ + 10 dB at 2,000 Hz, 3,000 Hz, and 4,000 Hz in either ear. Determinants of STS were assessed through a questionnaire. The incidence of STS was 23.0%. Significant determinants of STS were the number of episodes of temporary threshold shifts (TTS) in the Navy, exposure to continuous loud noise during work on board, and the number of gun shots (in the Navy, hunting, and sports). This study indicated a significant association between noise exposure on board Navy vessels and development of STS.

  15. Hearing loss in the Royal Norwegian Navy: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Irgens-Hansen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this longitudinal study were to investigate a significant threshold shift (STS among personnel working on board the Royal Norwegian Navy′s (RNoN vessels between 2012 and 2014 and to identify possible determinants of STS. Hearing thresholds were measured by pure tone audiometry in two consecutive examinations (n = 226. STS was defined as an average change in hearing thresholds ≥ + 10 dB at 2,000 Hz, 3,000 Hz, and 4,000 Hz in either ear. Determinants of STS were assessed through a questionnaire. The incidence of STS was 23.0%. Significant determinants of STS were the number of episodes of temporary threshold shifts (TTS in the Navy, exposure to continuous loud noise during work on board, and the number of gun shots (in the Navy, hunting, and sports. This study indicated a significant association between noise exposure on board Navy vessels and development of STS.

  16. Enterobius vermicularis and allergic conditions in Norwegian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøås, H; Tapia, G; Rasmussen, T; Rønningen, K S

    2014-10-01

    Studies investigating the association between Enterobius vermicularis and allergic conditions have shown conflicting results. This study was conducted to test for any such associations in Norwegian children. Parents were asked to answer questionnaires concerning their children's history of allergies, wheezing or eczema and pinworm infections. Current pinworm infections were diagnosed by microscopic examination of anal scotch tape samples. The data were analysed using logistic regression. Atopic eczema, allergy or wheezing was reported to be confirmed by a physician in 23% of the children (84/364). A possible association between current pinworm infections and food allergy was found, with 17·5% of children without food allergy testing positive for pinworms, compared to 36·8% of children with food allergy (odds ratio 2·9, 95% confidence interval 1·1-8·0). No association was found between past pinworm treatments and present atopic conditions. The association between current E. vermicularis infections and food allergy warrants further study.

  17. Perceived barriers to consumption of fish among Norwegian women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondsen, Torbjørn; Scholderer, Joachim; Lund, Eiliv

    2003-01-01

    with consumption levels among those who would like to eat more fish. Higher education and income were associated with increased dissatisfaction about fish consumption, but also with reduced perception of most barriers. It is concluded that improvements in the supply of high-quality fresh and processed fish......This study aimed to characterize constraints on consumption of fish perceived by consumers in Norway. A random sample of Norwegian women aged 45-69 years answered a self-administered mail questionnaire in 1996 about eating habits, perceived barriers to fish consumption, socioeconomic status...... weight are dissatisfied with the range of products offered in the marketplace. Satisfaction with quality and availability of wild lean codfish, especially in inland regions, is lower than for aqua-cultured fat salmon. Neither income nor education or health factors were significantly associated...

  18. Evaluation of the Norwegian R&D Tax Credit Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ådne Cappelen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We find that the Norwegian R&D tax credit scheme introduced in 2002 mainly works as intended. The scheme is cost-effective and it is used by a large number of firms. It stimulates these firms to invest more in R&D, and, in particular, the effect is positive for small firms with little R&D experience. The returns on the R&D investments supported by the scheme are positive and generally not different from the returns to other R&D investments. We have found examples of what can be interpreted as tax motivated adjustments to the scheme, but to some extent this must be accepted as a cost to subsidy and support schemes intended for use by a large number of economic agents. This is particularly so when attempts are made to keep administrative expenditures and control routines at a low level.

  19. [Effects of hospital mergers on health economy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebrigtsen, Tor

    2010-05-06

    Norwegian hospitals have been characterised by increasing activity, expansion of services and increasing costs for a long time. Differences in quality and accessibility have been documented between hospitals in various geographic locations. Transferral of hospital ownership to the state (from 2002) aimed at increasing capacities and improving quality of services, but also at restricting the increase of costs. These goals have only been partly met. The structure of hospital trusts and organisation of services are therefore continuously debated. This literature review aims at examining whether hospital mergers can reduce costs and at the same time increase the quality of services offered. Literature was identified through a Medline search using the terms "hospital", "merger" and "cost saving". The results are summarized and discussed. Seven original studies of totally 476 hospital mergers (in the USA, Great Britain and Norway) were identified in the period 1982 - 2000. The literature indicates that hospital mergers have a potential to reduce costs by about 10 % if the process achieves complete fusion of previously independent organisations, with a more optimal dimensioning of services and development of a common organizational culture. Collaboration between top management and the professional bureaucracy are prerequisites for success. Mergers are associated with a significant risk of unexpected problems and temporary reduced quality of the services.

  20. Norwegian patients and retail chicken meat share cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli and IncK/blaCMY-2 resistance plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, E S; Wester, A L; Ahrenfeldt, J; Mo, S S; Slettemeås, J S; Steinbakk, M; Samuelsen, Ø; Grude, N; Simonsen, G S; Løhr, I H; Jørgensen, S B; Tofteland, S; Lund, O; Dahle, U R; Sunde, M

    2017-06-01

    In 2012 and 2014 the Norwegian monitoring programme for antimicrobial resistance in the veterinary and food production sectors (NORM-VET) showed that 124 of a total of 406 samples (31%) of Norwegian retail chicken meat were contaminated with extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to compare selected cephalosporin-resistant E. coli from humans and poultry to determine their genetic relatedness based on whole genome sequencing (WGS). Escherichia coli representing three prevalent cephalosporin-resistant multi-locus sequence types (STs) isolated from poultry (n=17) were selected from the NORM-VET strain collections. All strains carried an IncK plasmid with a bla CMY-2 gene. Clinical E. coli isolates (n=284) with AmpC-mediated resistance were collected at Norwegian microbiology laboratories from 2010 to 2014. PCR screening showed that 29 of the clinical isolates harboured both IncK and bla CMY-2 . All IncK/bla CMY-2 -positive isolates were analysed with WGS-based bioinformatics tools. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 2.5 Mbp of shared genome sequences showed close relationship, with fewer than 15 SNP differences between five clinical isolates from urinary tract infections (UTIs) and the ST38 isolates from poultry. Furthermore, all of the 29 clinical isolates harboured IncK/bla CMY-2 plasmid variants highly similar to the IncK/bla CMY-2 plasmid present in the poultry isolates. Our results provide support for the hypothesis that clonal transfer of cephalosporin-resistant E. coli from chicken meat to humans may occur, and may cause difficult-to-treat infections. Furthermore, these E. coli can be a source of AmpC-resistance plasmids for opportunistic pathogens in the human microbiota. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.