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Sample records for northern tien shan

  1. Empirical Relationship between particulate matter and Aerosol Optical Depth over Northern Tien-Shan, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements were obtained at two sites in northern Tien-Shan in Central Asia during a 1-year period beginning July 2008 to examine the statistical relationship between aerosol optical depth (AOD) and of fine [PM2.5, particles less than 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter (AD)] and coars...

  2. Crustal block structure by GPS data using neural network in the Northern Tien Shan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostuk, A.; Carmenate, D.

    2010-05-01

    For over ten years regular GPS measurements have been carried out by Research Station RAS in the Central Asia. The results of these measurements have not only proved the conclusion that the Earth's crust meridional compression equals in total about 17 mm/year from the Tarim massif to the Kazakh shield, but have also allowed estimating deformation behavior in the region. As is known, deformation behavior of continental crust is an actively discussed issue. On the one hand, the Earth's crust is presented as a set of microplates (blocks) and deformation here is a result of shifting along the blocks boundaries, on the other hand, lithospheric deformation is distributed by volume and meets the rheological model of nonlinear viscous fluid. This work represents an attempt to detect the block structure of the surface of the Northern Tien Shan using GPS velocity fields. As a significant difference from analogous works, appears the vector field clustering with the help of neural network used as a classifier by many criteria that allows dividing input space into areas and using of all three components of GPS velocity. In this case, we use such a feature of neural networks as self-organization. Among the mechanisms of self-organization there are two main classes: self-organization based on the Hebb associative rule and the mechanism of neuronal competition based on the generalized Kohonen rule. In this case, we use an approach of self-organizing networks in which we take neuronal competition as an algorithm for their training. As a rule, these are single-layer networks where each neuron is connected to all components of m-dimensional input vector. GPS vectors of the Central Asian velocity field located within the territory of the Northern Tien Shan were used as input patterns. Measurements at GPS sites were fulfilled in 36 hour-long sessions by double-frequency receivers Trimble and Topcon. In so doing, measurement discreteness equaled 30 seconds; the data were processed by

  3. Seismic triggering of landslides, Part A: Field evidence from the Northern Tien Shan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havenith, H.-B.; Strom, A.; Jongmans, D.; Abdrakhmatov, A.; Delvaux, D.; Tréfois, P.

    Landslides triggered by strong earthquakes often caused most of the global damage and most of all casualties related to the events, such as shown by the M = 7.7 Peru earthquake in 1970, by the M = 7.6 El Salvador earthquake in 2001 or by the M = 7.4 Khait (Tajikistan) earthquake in 1949. The obvious impact of a landslide on the population is directly related to its movement. Yet, prediction of future failure potential and hence future risk to population is necessary in order to avoid further catastrophes and involves the analyses of the origin of seismic instability. The seismic landslide potential is mainly determined by the interaction between the regional seismic hazard and local geological conditions. At a local scale, seismic factors interfering with geological conditions can produce site-specific ground motions. The influence of such Site Effects on instability is the principal topic of this paper, which is divided into two parts, A and B. The present Part A is concerned with the correlation of field data with observed instability phenomena. Field data were obtained on mainly three landslide sites in the Northern Tien Shan Mountains in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia. Geophysical prospecting, earthquake recordings, geological observation, trenching and geotechnical tests were the main investigation tools. The collected information gives an insight in the geological background of the slope failure and allows us to roughly infer failure mechanisms from field evidence. A detailed analysis of the susceptibility of a mechanism to specific geological conditions will be shown in Part B.

  4. Seismic triggering of landslides, Part A: Field evidence from the Northern Tien Shan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-B. Havenith

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Landslides triggered by strong earthquakes often caused most of the global damage and most of all casualties related to the events, such as shown by the M = 7.7 Peru earthquake in 1970, by the M = 7.6 El Salvador earthquake in 2001 or by the M = 7.4 Khait (Tajikistan earthquake in 1949. The obvious impact of a landslide on the population is directly related to its movement. Yet, prediction of future failure potential and hence future risk to population is necessary in order to avoid further catastrophes and involves the analyses of the origin of seismic instability. The seismic landslide potential is mainly determined by the interaction between the regional seismic hazard and local geological conditions. At a local scale, seismic factors interfering with geological conditions can produce site-specific ground motions. The influence of such Site Effects on instability is the principal topic of this paper, which is divided into two parts, A and B. The present Part A is concerned with the correlation of field data with observed instability phenomena. Field data were obtained on mainly three landslide sites in the Northern Tien Shan Mountains in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia. Geophysical prospecting, earthquake recordings, geological observation, trenching and geotechnical tests were the main investigation tools. The collected information gives an insight in the geological background of the slope failure and allows us to roughly infer failure mechanisms from field evidence. A detailed analysis of the susceptibility of a mechanism to specific geological conditions will be shown in Part B.

  5. Tectonically controlled relief evolution in the Northern Tien Shan and Junggar Alatau from the Eocene to the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seib, N.; Kley, J.; Voigt, T.; Kober, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Cenozoic Tien Shan and Junggar Alatau mountains developed on the southern part of the Paleozoic Altaid orogen as a far-field effect of the collision of the Indian and Eurasian plates. Highland terrain, active seismicity, and fast GPS-derived motions are evidence of rapid ongoing mountain growth today. Variations in relief energy, hight-to-width ratio of ranges and apatite fission track (AFT) exhumation ages suggest they rose at different times. The strong dissection of the higher ridges (heights of up to 2km), indicates an earlier onset and higher rates of uplift. At the other end of the spectrum are low, little dissected ridges. According to AFT ages, exhumation in the Junggar Range began at 9 Ma (Jolivet et al., 2010), circa 11 Ma in the central Kyrgyz Range (Sobel et al., 2006) and 10 Ma in the Terskey Alatau. An AFT age of the low Sogety range is 77 Ma, suggesting that the Cenozic exhumation of the ridge was insufficient to expose rocks from below c.3 km depth. The synclinal lows between the basement highs preserve Cenozoic strata of Eocene to Quaternary age, probably deposited in a once continuous basin (the Ili Basin) and recording the entire history of Tien Shan uplift. Facies pattern of proximal alluvial fans are strictly related to the recent higher mountain areas in the north and in the south. During Middle Miocene, a large lake developed in the basin center. Up to the Middle Miocene sedimentation was accompanied by normal faulting of small magnitude. The main Cenozoic folding and thrusting occurred after that time and before deposition of the Chorgos formation. Shortening was accommodated by reactivation of inherited basement structures, by a switch to reverse or strike-slip motion on normal faults, and the nucleation of new thrusts. The majority of faults which emplace basement rocks over upper Cenozoic sediments dip steeply at angles of 60-70˚, and some have throws of more than 200 m. They are marked by topographic steps and contrasting morphology

  6. Inventory and state of activity of rockglaciers in the Ile and Kungöy Ranges of Northern Tien Shan from satellite SAR interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strozzi, Tazio; Caduff, Rafael; Kääb, Andreas; Bolch, Tobias

    2017-04-01

    The best visual expression of mountain permafrost are rockglaciers, which, in contrast to the permafrost itself, can be mapped and monitored directly using remotely sensed data. Studies carried out in various parts of the European Alps have shown surface acceleration of rockglaciers and even destabilization of several such landforms over the two last decades, potentially related to the changing permafrost creep conditions. Changes in rockglacier motion are therefore believed to be the most indicative short- to medium-term response of rockglaciers to environmental changes and thus an indicator of mountain permafrost conditions in general. The ESA DUE GlobPermafrost project develops, validates and implements EO products to support research communities and international organizations in their work on better understanding permafrost characteristics and dynamics. Within this project we are building up a worldwide long-term monitoring network of active rockglacier motion investigated using remote sensing techniques. All sites are analysed through a uniform set of data and methods, and results are thus comparable. In order to quantify the rate of movement and the relative changes over time we consider two remote sensing methods: (i) matching of repeat optical data and (ii) satellite radar interferometry. In this contribution, we focus on the potential of recent high spatial resolution SAR data for the analysis of periglacial processes in mountain environments with special attention to the Ile and Kungöy Ranges of Northern Tien Shan at the border between Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, an area which contains a high number of large and comparably fast (> 1m/yr) rockglaciers and is of interest as dry-season water resource and source of natural hazards. As demonstrated in the past with investigations conducted in the Swiss Alps, the visual analysis of differential SAR interferograms can be employed for the rough estimation of the surface deformation rates of rockglaciers and

  7. Reciever Function Transect Across Tibet, Tarim and Tien Shan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, B.; Levin, V. L.; Huang, G.; Roecker, S. W.; Wang, H.

    2010-12-01

    We investigate the region of the ongoing collision between the India and Eurasia tectonic plates that results in widespread deformation of the continental lithosphere. Over the past decade, numerous regional studies were conducted between the Himalaya and the Tien Shan mountains, each illuminating a small part of the area. We combine the data from a number of portable and permanent networks to construct a ~1800 km long profile of lithospheric properties that cross three very different tectonic domains: the Tibetan plateau, the Tarim basin, and the Tien Shan mountains. We use data from 60 stations operated in the region by US, Chinese and French researchers. We use records of distant earthquakes to construct receiver function gathers for each station. The uniformity of processing ensures that our results are comparable along the transect. We examine receiver function gathers at each site, and rank their quality on the basis of number of records, noise levels, and directional stability of the wavefield. We select 27 sites with high-quality data. For these we construct average receiver function traces using data in the 60-85 degree range, and use them as a guide to the lithospheric layering beneath the region. On most receiver functions we constructed the most prominent feature is a positive phase likely associated with the crust-mantle transition. The timing of this phase varies significantly over the length of the profile. Beneath the Tibetan plateau delay times ~7-8 s are seen close to the Himalayas, and nearly 10 s delays are found further north. Delays of 6 to 8 s are seen beneath sites in the Tarim basin and the Tien Shan mountains, and nearly 10 s delays are seen at the border between them. In addition to the pulse associated with the crust-mantle transition we see other locally-consistent features, for example a negative phase with delay values between 3 and 5 s beneath much of the Tibetan plateau.

  8. Exhumation history of the western Kyrgyz Tien Shan: Implications for intramontane basin formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bande, Alejandro; Sobel, Edward R.; Mikolaichuk, Alexander; Schmidt, Alexander; Stockli, Daniel F.

    2017-01-01

    The dextral Talas-Fergana Fault separates the western from the central Tien Shan. Recent work has shed light on the Cenozoic evolution of the eastern and central Tien Shan; much less attention has been paid to the western Tien Shan. In this contribution we present new thermochronological ages for the Fergana and Alai ranges that, combined with the available data set, constrain the Cenozoic exhumation history of the western Tien Shan. Following a tectonically quiet early Cenozoic period, we suggest an onset of exhumation at 25 Ma. This early onset was followed by a period of slower exhumation and in some areas minor reheating. A final, strong late Miocene rapid cooling event is well represented in the western Tien Shan as in other sectors of the range. The early onset of uplift of the western Tien Shan dissected the previously continuous westernmost Parathethyan Sea, progressively isolating basins (e.g., Fergana, Tarim, and Alai basins) in the central Asian hinterland. Moreover, the coeval timing of late Miocene uplift along the length of entire Tien Shan implies that neither the Pamir nor Tarim can be the sole driver for exhumation of the entire range.

  9. DUST LOADING OF THE ATMOSPHERE AND GLACIERS IN THE KUMTOR MINING AREA (AKSHYYRAK, TIEN SHAN)

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Kuzmichenok

    2012-01-01

    Industrial development of the Kumtor Gold Mine in the nival-glacial zone of Tien Shan (altitude ranging from 4000 to 4500 m a.s.l.) is inevitably accompanied by the release of some additional amounts of dust in atmosphere. Sampling in 7 points and an analysis of the quantity (weight) of dust in the seasonal snow (September–April) on glaciers show that the dust pollution does not substantially exceed the natural level of dust in Tien Shan. An analysis of almost 3 000 daily measurements of dust...

  10. Glaciers and hydrological changes in the Tien Shan: simulation and prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizen, V B; Aizen, E M; Kuzmichonok, V A

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we estimated the current glacier state and forecast the potential impact of global and regional climate change on the glaciers and glacier runoff in the Tien Shan. General (G) and detailed (D) simulations were developed based on assessment of the Tien Shan glacier recession between 1943 and 2003 using an iterative stepwise increase in the equilibrium line altitude of 20 m. The G simulation was developed for 2777 grids each of which covered over 1000 km 2 of glacier surface and D for the 15 953 Tien Shan glaciers. Both simulations employed glacier morphometric characteristics derived from Digital Elevation Model based on remote sensing data, high resolution maps and in situ GPS validation. Simulated changes in glacier area demonstrated that a possible increase in air temperature of 1 deg. C at E-barLA must be compensated by a 100 mm increase in precipitation at the same altitude if Tien Shan glaciers are to be maintained in their current state. An increase in mean air temperature of 4 deg. C and precipitation of 1.1 times the current level could increase E-barLA by 570 m during the 21st century. Under these conditions, the number of glaciers, glacier covered area, glacier volume, and glacier runoff are predicted to be 94%, 69%, 75%, and 75% of current values. The maximum glacier runoff may reach as much as 1.25 times current levels while the minimum will likely equal zero

  11. The origin and evolution of Iskanderkul Lake in the western Tien Shan and related geomorphic hazards

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Emmer, Adam; Kalvoda, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 2 (2017), s. 139-154 ISSN 0435-3676 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : iskanderkul lake * rockslide dam * outburst flood * tien shan Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 1.302, year: 2016

  12. Source processes of strong earthquakes in the North Tien-Shan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, G.; Krueger, F.

    2013-12-01

    Tien-Shan region attracts attention of scientists worldwide due to its complexity and tectonic uniqueness. A series of very strong destructive earthquakes occurred in Tien-Shan at the turn of XIX and XX centuries. Such large intraplate earthquakes are rare in seismology, which increases the interest in the Tien-Shan region. The presented study focuses on the source processes of large earthquakes in Tien-Shan. The amount of seismic data is limited for those early times. In 1889, when a major earthquake has occurred in Tien-Shan, seismic instruments were installed in very few locations in the world and these analog records did not survive till nowadays. Although around a hundred seismic stations were operating at the beginning of XIX century worldwide, it is not always possible to get high quality analog seismograms. Digitizing seismograms is a very important step in the work with analog seismic records. While working with historical seismic records one has to take into account all the aspects and uncertainties of manual digitizing and the lack of accurate timing and instrument characteristics. In this study, we develop an easy-to-handle and fast digitization program on the basis of already existing software which allows to speed up digitizing process and to account for all the recoding system uncertainties. Owing to the lack of absolute timing for the historical earthquakes (due to the absence of a universal clock at that time), we used time differences between P and S phases to relocate the earthquakes in North Tien-Shan and the body-wave amplitudes to estimate their magnitudes. Combining our results with geological data, five earthquakes in North Tien-Shan were precisely relocated. The digitizing of records can introduce steps into the seismograms which makes restitution (removal of instrument response) undesirable. To avoid the restitution, we simulated historic seismograph recordings with given values for damping and free period of the respective instrument and

  13. DUST LOADING OF THE ATMOSPHERE AND GLACIERS IN THE KUMTOR MINING AREA (AKSHYYRAK, TIEN SHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Kuzmichenok

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial development of the Kumtor Gold Mine in the nival-glacial zone of Tien Shan (altitude ranging from 4000 to 4500 m a.s.l. is inevitably accompanied by the release of some additional amounts of dust in atmosphere. Sampling in 7 points and an analysis of the quantity (weight of dust in the seasonal snow (September–April on glaciers show that the dust pollution does not substantially exceed the natural level of dust in Tien Shan. An analysis of almost 3 000 daily measurements of dust in the surface layer of air at 4 points around the gold mine has also shown that the economic activity has no significant impact on dust production. It is likely that the manmade component of overall dust in the immediate vicinity of the deposit and the gob pile does not exceed 20%. No increase in the content of dust and in its anthropogenic component with time has been found. Thus, we suggest that the principal amount of dust in the area is brought during the cold season from snow-free areas of Central Asia.

  14. Heterogeneities of the shear wave attenuation field in the lithosphere of East Tien Shan and their relationship with seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopnichev, Yu. F.; Sokolova, I. N.

    2012-02-01

    The shear wave attenuation field in the lithosphere of Eastern Tien Shan has been mapped. The method based on analysis of the ratio between amplitudes of Sn and Pn waves was used. On aggregate, about 120 seismograms made at the Makanchi station (MKAR), mainly in the period of 2003-2009, at epicentral distances of about 350-1200 km were analyzed. It was found that shear wave attenuation in the lithosphere of Eastern Tien Shan is weaker than that in the region of Central Tien Shan. This agrees with the fact that the rate of deformation of the Earth's crust in Eastern Tien Shan is lower (based on GPS data), as is the seismicity level, in comparison to Central Tien Shan. The zones of high attenuation, where strong earthquakes with M > 7.0 have not occurred for the last 200 years, have been identified: first of all, these are the area west of Urumqi and that of the Lop Nur test site. It is suggested that in the first zone, where an annular seismicity structure has formed over the last 30 years, a strong earthquake may be being prepared. The second zone is most probably related to the uplift of mantle fluids resulting from a long-term intensive technogenic effect, analogous to what has occurred in areas of other nuclear test sites (Nevada and Semipalatinsk).

  15. Autonomous geodynamics of the Pamir-Tien Shan junction zone from seismology data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukk, A. A.; Shevchenko, V. I.; Leonova, V. G.

    2015-11-01

    The geodynamics of the Tajik Depression, the junction zone of the Pamirs and Tien Shan, is typically considered in the context of plate tectonic concept, which implies intense subhorizontal compression of the zone resulting from the subduction of the Indian and Eurasian lithospheric plates. This convergence has been reliably confirmed by the GPS measurements. However, the joint analysis of the geological structure, seismicity, and geodimeter measurements conducted during a few years at the Garm geodynamical testing site of the Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences, demonstrates a widening of the Tajik Depression instead of its shortening, as should be expected from the subhorizontal compression predominant in the present-day stress-state of this region. This conclusion, together with the data from the other regions, suggests that, along with the plate tectonic mechanisms, there are also other, local, autonomous drivers that contribute to the tectogenesis of this region. Besides, the probable existence of these autonomous sources within the Tajik Depression directly follows from the seismology data. Among them is the crustal spreading within the depression suggested by the seismotectonic displacements in the focal mechanisms of the earthquakes. These displacements are directed in different azimuths off the axial's most subsided part of the depression at a depth of 20-30 km. Above this region the distribution of seismotectonic deformations (STD) is chaotic. This pattern of deformation is barely accounted for by a simple model of subhorizontal compression of the Earth's crust in the region. In our opinion, these features of the seismotectonic deformation in the crust within the studied part of the Tajik Depression is probably associated with the gain in the volume of the rocks due to the inflow of the additional material, which is supplied from the bottom crust or upper mantle by the deep fluids. This increase in the rock volume

  16. Development of Petrov glacial-lake system (Tien Shan and outburst risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Torgoev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Global climate warming causes an intensive melting and retreat of glaciers in the Tien Shan mountains. Melting water of glaciers causes overfilling of high mountain lakes. The increase of the surface and volume of the Petrov Lake accompanied with the decrease of stability of the dam represents an extremely dangerous situation that can produce a natural disaster. Failure can happen due to erosion, a buildup of water pressure, an earthquake or if a large enough portion of a glacier breaks off and massively displaces the waters in a glacial lake at its base. In case of the lake dam rupture, flooding of a disposal site of highly toxic tailing from the gold mine Kumtor is a threat. If this happens, the toxic waste containing cyanides would contaminate a large area in the Naryn (Syrdarya river basin. Even if the flooding of the disposal site does not occur, the damage after lake dam fracture will be immense due to the glacial lake outburst flood may be a devastating mudslide. In order to prevent or reduce the risk of this event we recommend performing engineering surveys for the development and implementation of the project for the controlled reduction of water level in the Blue Bay of the Petrov Lake to a safe volume.

  17. Analysis of meteorological data and the surface energy balance of Keqicar Glacier, Tien Shan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Liu, S.; Fujita, K.; Han, H.; Li, J.

    2009-04-01

    Northwestern China currently experiences a climate change with fundamental consequences for the hydrological cycle. In the strongly arid region where water resources are essential for agriculture and food production, glaciers represent important water resources, contributing significantly to streamflow. The debris is an important glaciological feature of the region and has major impact on melt rates. It is essential to understand and quantify the interaction of climate and sub-debris melt in order to assess the current situation and to predict future water yield. Note that the surface energy balance determines glacier melt. However, little is known about the variability characteristics of the surface energy fluxes in this region. For this reason, we set up two automatic weather stuation (AWSs) in the ablation area of Keqicar Glacier. Keqicar Glacier is located in the Tarim River basin (largest inland river basin in China), southwestern Tien Shan, China. It is a representative debris-covered glacier with a length of 26.0 km and a total surface area of 83.6 km2. The thickness of the debris layer varies from 0.0 to 2.50 m in general. In some places large rocks are piled up to several meters. In this study, we report on analysis of meteorological data for the period 1 July-13 September 2003, from two automatic weather stations, aimed at studying the relationship between climate and ablation. One station is located on the lower part of the ablation area where the glacier is covered by debris layer, and the other near the equilibrium line altitude (ELA). All sensors were sampled every 10 seconds, and data were stored as hourly averages. The stations were visited regularly for maintenance at two weeks intervals depending on the weather conditions and location of the AWS. A total of 17 ablation stakes were drilled into the glacier at different elevations to monitor glacier melt during the study period. Readings were taken regularly in connection with AWS maintenance. The

  18. Buddhism on the Border: Shan Buddhism and Transborder Migration in Northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Murakami, Tadayoshi

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the transformation of Shan Buddhism in the border area of Northern Thailand. Shan and other ethnic groups have a long history of migration between Northern Thailand and the Shan State of Myanmar; the migration continued even after the border was demarcated at the end of the nineteenth century. Recently, the migration has become unidirectional--from Myanmar to Thailand-- and the number of migrants is growing steadily. An anomalous situation exists in this area: a fluid bord...

  19. Permian charnockites in the Pobeda area: Implications for Tarim mantle plume activity and HT metamorphism in the South Tien Shan range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loury, Chloé; Rolland, Yann; Lanari, Pierre; Guillot, Stéphane; Bosch, Delphine; Ganino, Clément; Jourdon, Anthony; Petit, Carole; Gallet, Sylvain; Monié, Patrick; Riel, Nicolas

    2018-04-01

    The Permian history of the Central Asian Orogenic belt is marked by large-scale strike-slip faults that reactivate former Paleozoic structures, delineated by widespread alkaline magmatism. The genetic link between the syn-kinematic granitoids emplaced in the Tien Shan range and magmas emplaced within the Tarim Large Igneous Province, and the interaction between this plume and transcurrent tectonics, are still unsolved issues. We investigated the Pobeda massif, in the eastern Kyrgyz Tien Shan, located at the boundary between the Tien Shan range and the Tarim Craton, which exhibits a high-temperature unit. In this unit, Permian magmatism resulted in the emplacement of alkaline charnockites at mid-crustal levels. The primary mineralogical assemblage is nominally anhydrous and made of ortho- and clino-pyroxenes, fayalite, K-feldspar, plagioclase and quartz. These charnockites are associated with partially-molten paragneisses and marbles. Thermobarometry on these rocks indicates that the charnockites emplaced following the intrusion of a melt at a temperature > 1000 °C and pressure of around 6 kbar, corresponding to depth of 20 km. The resulting thermal anomaly triggered the partial melting of paragneisses. Bulk geochemistry including Sr, Nd, Pb and Hf isotopes suggests that charnockites fit into the Tarim Large Igneous Province magmatic series, with minor crustal assimilation. U-Pb ages on zircons of charnockites and surrounding paragneisses indicate that charnockites intruded and triggered partial melting of the gneisses at c. 287, 275 and 265 Ma. 40Ar/39Ar dating on amphibole gives a similar age as the U-Pb age at 276.2 ± 2.0 Ma. 40Ar/39Ar dating on biotite from the Charnockite unit marbles gives ages at ca. 256-265 Ma, which shows that exhumation onset directly follows the HT history, and is tentatively correlated to top-to-the-North thrusting of the Charnockite unit in a transpressive context. Additional 40Ar/39Ar dating on syn-kinematic white micas from an

  20. Organic geochemical characterization of terrestrial source rocks of the Triassic Madygen formation (Southern Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, U.; Scheeder, G.; Kus, J. [Section Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, BGR, Hannover (Germany); Voigt, S.; Schneider, J.W. [Geological Inst., TU Bergakademic Freiberg (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    Along the northern foothills of the Turkestan-Alai Range (SW Kyrgyzstan), a 1000 to 1500m thick succession of Mesozoic deposits is exposed recording regional changes of the paleo-landscape during Triassic to Cretaceous times. Detailed litho- and biofacies analyses, conducted by the TU Bergakademie Freiberg since 2006, provided for the first time a nearly complete columnar section of the continental Triassic Madygen Formation of Kyrgyzstan. Organic petrographical and organic geochemical methods (including RockEval pyrolyses, and biomarker analyses) have been applied to a suite of terrestrial sedimentary rocks of Triassic age with the intention to identify the depositional environment. Our investigations suggest that the potential source rocks of the terrestrial pluvial Madygen Formation might generate predominantly gaseous hydrocarbons at higher maturities. (orig.)

  1. Devonian paleomagnetism of the North Tien Shan: Implications for the middle-Late Paleozoic paleogeography of Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levashova, Natalia M.; Mikolaichuk, Alexander V.; McCausland, Philip J. A.; Bazhenov, Mikhail L.; Van der Voo, Rob

    2007-05-01

    The Ural-Mongol belt (UMB), between Siberia, Baltica and Tarim, is widely recognized as the locus of Asia's main growth during the Paleozoic, but its evolution remains highly controversial, as illustrated by the disparate paleogeographic models published in the last decade. One of the largest tectonic units of the UMB is the Kokchetav-North Tien Shan Domain (KNTD) that stretches from Tarim in the south nearly to the West Siberian Basin. The KNTD comprises several Precambrian microcontinents and numerous remnants of Early Paleozoic island arcs, marginal basins and accretionary complexes. In Late Ordovician time, all these structures had amalgamated into a single contiguous domain. Its paleogeographic position is of crucial importance for elucidating the Paleozoic evolution of the UMB in general and of the Urals in particular. The Aral Formation, located in Kyrgyzstan in the southern part of the KNTD, consists of a thick Upper Devonian (Frasnian) basalt-andesite sequence. Paleomagnetic data show a dual-polarity characteristic component (Dec/Inc = 286° / + 56°, α95 = 9°, k = 21, N = 15 sites). The primary origin of this magnetization is confirmed by a positive test on intraformational conglomerates. We combine this result with other Paleozoic data from the KNTD and show its latitudinal motion from the Late Ordovician to the end of the Paleozoic. The observed paleolatitudes are found to agree well with the values extrapolated from Baltica to a common reference point (42.5°N, 73°E) in our sampling area for the entire interval; hence coherent motion of the KNTD and Baltica is strongly indicated for most of the Paleozoic. This finding contradicts most published models of the UMB evolution, where the KNTD is separated from Baltica by a rather wide Ural Ocean containing one or more major plate boundaries. An exception is the model of Şengör and Natal'in [A.M.C. Şengör, B.A. Natal'in, Paleotectonics of Asia: fragments of a synthesis, in: A. Yin and M. Harrison (eds

  2. Paleo-Climate and Glaciological Reconstruction in Central Asia through the Collection and Analysis of Ice Cores and Instrumental Data from the Tien Shan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimir Aizen; Donald Bren; Karl Kreutz; Cameron Wake

    2001-01-01

    While the majority of ice core investigations have been undertaken in the polar regions, a few ice cores recovered from carefully selected high altitude/mid-to-low latitude glaciers have also provided valuable records of climate variability in these regions. A regional array of high resolution, multi-parameter ice core records developed from temperate and tropical regions of the globe can be used to document regional climate and environmental change in the latitudes which are home to the vase majority of the Earth's human population. In addition, these records can be directly compared with ice core records available from the polar regions and can therefore expand our understanding of inter-hemispheric dynamics of past climate changes. The main objectives of our paleoclimate research in the Tien Shan mountains of middle Asia combine the development of detailed paleoenvironmental records via the physical and chemical analysis of ice cores with the analysis of modern meteorological and hydrological data. The first step in this research was the collection of ice cores from the accumulation zone of the Inylchek Glacier and the collection of meteorological data from a variety of stations throughout the Tien Shan. The research effort described in this report was part of a collaborative effort with the United State Geological Survey's (USGS) Global Environmental Research Program which began studying radionuclide deposition in mid-latitude glaciers in 1995

  3. Paleo-Climate and Glaciological Reconstruction in Central Asia through the Collection and Analysis of Ice Cores and Instrumental Data from the Tien Shan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimir Aizen; Donald Bren; Karl Kreutz; Cameron Wake

    2001-05-30

    While the majority of ice core investigations have been undertaken in the polar regions, a few ice cores recovered from carefully selected high altitude/mid-to-low latitude glaciers have also provided valuable records of climate variability in these regions. A regional array of high resolution, multi-parameter ice core records developed from temperate and tropical regions of the globe can be used to document regional climate and environmental change in the latitudes which are home to the vase majority of the Earth's human population. In addition, these records can be directly compared with ice core records available from the polar regions and can therefore expand our understanding of inter-hemispheric dynamics of past climate changes. The main objectives of our paleoclimate research in the Tien Shan mountains of middle Asia combine the development of detailed paleoenvironmental records via the physical and chemical analysis of ice cores with the analysis of modern meteorological and hydrological data. The first step in this research was the collection of ice cores from the accumulation zone of the Inylchek Glacier and the collection of meteorological data from a variety of stations throughout the Tien Shan. The research effort described in this report was part of a collaborative effort with the United State Geological Survey's (USGS) Global Environmental Research Program which began studying radionuclide deposition in mid-latitude glaciers in 1995.

  4. Fluxes of 10-2000 GeV hadrons in EAS produced by 1-100 PeV PCR according to Tien Shan data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterova, N.M.; Pavlyuchenko, V.P.; Chubenko, A.P.; Shchepetov, A.L.; Mukhamedshin, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    The experimental data on the hadrons spectra with the energy of 10-2000 GeV in the extensive air showers with the electrons number N e =3 x 10 5 -10 8 at the distances of 3-60 m from the axis are obtained at the Tien-Shan mountainous facility (690 g/cm 2 ) by means of the 18NM64 neutron monitor and ionization calorimeter. The obtained results are compared with the calculations by the MS0-model. The comparison shows that the singular hadrons experimental number significantly exceeds the calculational value. This may be brought by the change in the PCR character and its interaction with the air atoms nuclei by the energies above several PeV [ru

  5. Registration of intensive hard X-rays and soft gamma-rays from the thunderstorm clouds at Tien-Shan installation Adron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonova, V.P.; Kryukov, S.V.; Vil'danova, L.I.; Gurevich, A.V.; Zybin, K.P.; Kokobaev, M.M.; Nesterova, N.M.; Piskal', V.V.; Ptitsyn, M.O.; Chubenko, A.P.; Shchepetov, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    The Adron installation mounted at the Tien-Shan station is intended for studying the extensive air showers. The Adron installation consists of a neutron supermonitor charged particles detector, muon detector and detector for registering the hard X-ray and soft gamma-radiation from the thunderstorm clouds accomplished on the basis of the Geiger-Mueller counters with sensitivity area of 16-17 m 2 . The intensive fluxes of the hard X-ray and soft gamma-radiation from the thunderstorm clouds passing over the Adron installation at the height below 1 km are registered using this installation. The short-time radiation flares of 1-5 min duration are separated at the background of the intensity slow change. This testifies to the benefit of existence of the runaway electron effect in the thunderstorm clouds [ru

  6. Effect of the muon component of cosmic rays on the results of hadron experiments with the big ionization calorimeter (BIC) of the Tien Shan station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanov, A. G., E-mail: AGBogdanov@mephi.ru; Kokoulin, R. P.; Petrukhin, A. A.; Shalabaeva, A. V. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (State University) (Russian Federation); Yakovlev, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Institute of Physics (Russian Federation)

    2008-01-15

    A full-scale simulation of the response of the big ionization calorimeter (BIC) at the Tien Shan station to the passage of single protons and muons was performed on the basis of the GEANT4 package in order to estimate the contribution of the muon cosmic-ray component to the generation of unusual events (such as Anti-Centauros), which were recorded by this facility, and to the imitation of the long-flying component, which changes the shape of the average cascade curve. A comparison of the results of this simulation with experimental data reveals that the appearance of Anti-Centauros may be reasonably explained by the contribution of multiple interactions of single muons, but that muon events are insufficient for explaining the change in the shape of the cascade curve (in particular, the emergence of a second maximum).

  7. Search for EAS radio-emission at the Tien-Shan shower installation at a height of 3340 m above sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisenova, A.; Boos, E.; Haungs, A.; Sadykov, T.; Salihov, N.; Shepetov, A.; Tautayev, Y.; Vildanova, L.; Zhukov, V.

    2017-06-01

    The complex EAS installation of the Tien Shan mountain cosmic ray station which is situated at a height of 3340 m above sea level includes the scintillation and Cherenkov detectors of charged shower particles, an ionization calorimeter and a set of neutron detectors for registering the hadronic component of the shower, and a number of underground detectors of the penetrative EAS component. Now it is intended to expand this installation with a promising method for detecting the radio-emission generated by the particles of the developing shower. The facility for radio-emission detection consists of a three crossed dipole antennae, one being set vertically, and another two - mutually perpendicularly in a horizontal plane, all of them being connected to a three-channel radio-frequency amplifier of German production. By the passage of an extensive air shower, which is defined by a scintillation shower detector system, the output signal of antenna amplifier is digitized by a fast multichannel DT5720 ADC of Italian production, and kept within computer memory. The further analysis of the detected signal anticipates its operation according to a special algorithm and a search for the pulse of radio-emission from the shower. A functional test of the radio-installation is made with artificial signals which imitate those of the shower, and with the use of a N1996A type wave analyzer of Agilent Technologies production. We present preliminary results on the registration of extensive air shower emission at the Tien Shan installation which were collected during test measurements held in Summer 2016.

  8. Population genetic diversity and structure analysis of wild apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) revealed by ssr markers in the Tien-Shan mountains of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, X.; Ni, B.; Zheng, P.; Li, M.

    2018-01-01

    The simple sequence repeat markers were used to investigate the population genetic diversity and structure of 212 germplasm samples from 14 apricot (Prunus armeniaca) populations in the western of Tien-Shan Mountains, Sinkiang, China. The relatively high expected heterozygosity and Shannon's diversity index indicated the apricot populations maintained a high level of genetic diversity (He = 0.6109, I = 1.2208), with the population in Tuergen ditch of Xinyuan County having the highest genetic diversity index. A high level of intra-population genetic differentiation (91.51%) and a lower level of inter-population genetic differentiation were occurred, as well as a moderate but steady inter-population gene flow (Nm = 2.3735). The self-incompatible pattern, wide distribution, and long-distance pollen transmission via insects and gale are the main factors underlying the genetic variation structure. The UPGMA cluster analysis and genetic structure analysis showed that apricot germplasm could be divided into two or four groups, which was basically consistent with the geographic distribution pattern. The inter-population genetic distance and geographic distance showed a significant correlation (r = 0.2658, p<0.05). (author)

  9. Holocene River Dynamics, Climate Change and Floodwater Farming in the Watersheds of the Pamir and Tien Shan Mountains of Inner Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklin, M. G.; Panyushkina, I. P.; Toonen, W. H. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Ili, Syr Dayra and Amu Dayra rivers of Inner Asia are emerging as critical areas for the development of irrigation-based agriculture in the ancient world. Following research by Russian archaeologists in the 1970s it is evident that these watersheds had flourishing riverine civilizations comparable to those in Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley. But unlike these areas where the relationship between Holocene river dynamics, climate change and floodwater farming is increasingly underpinned by radiometric dating, the alluvial archaeology of Inner Asia is significantly under researched. To address this, a major multi-disciplinary research program was begun in 2011 centred on the Talgar catchment, a south-bank tributary of the Ili river, southeast Kazakhstan. Building on archaeological excavations and surveys conducted over the past 20 years, we have undertaken one of the most detailed investigations of Holocene people-river environment interactions in Inner Asia. River development has been reconstructed over the last 20,000 years and human settlement histories from the Eneolithic to the Medieval period documented. Periods of Holocene river aggradation and high water levels in Lake Balkhash and Aral Sea correspond with cooler and wetter neoglacial episodes while river entrenchment and floodplain soil development are associated with warmer and drier conditions. Floodwater farming in the Talgar river reached its acme in the late Iron Age (400-200 cal. BC) with more than 60 settlement sites and 550 burial mounds. This corresponds to a period of reduced flood flows, river stability and glacier retreat in the Tien Shan headwaters. A new hydroclimatic-based model for the spatial and temporal dynamics of floodwater farming in the Ili, Syr Dayra and Amu Dayra watersheds is proposed, which explains the large scale expansion (down-river) and contraction (up-river) of settlements since the first use of irrigation in the Neolithic through to the late Medieval period.

  10. Geology, mineralization, and fluid inclusion study of the Kuru-Tegerek Au-Cu-Mo skarn deposit in the Middle Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, Serguei G.; Kryazhev, Sergey; Dvurechenskaya, Svetlana

    2018-02-01

    The Kuru-Tegerek Cu-Au-Mo deposit is situated in a system of Late Carboniferous subduction-related magmatic arcs of the Middle Tien Shan, which together constitute a metallogenic belt of Cu-Au-Mo (±W) porphyry, with local skarns, deposits. The deposit is related to magnetite-series gabbro-diorite to tonalite intrusion. It contains prograde magnesian and calcic skarns with abundant magnetite, associated with gabbro-diorite, and retrograde skarn with Cu mineralization, formed after intrusion of tonalite. Subsequent propylitic alteration introduced abundant chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite, and native Au culminating in zones overprinting magnetite and garnet skarn. Later quartz-muscovite-carbonate veins, formed after intrusion of late mafic quartz monzogabbro dikes, contain chalcopyrite, pyrite, arsenopyrite and other sulfides and sulfosalts, tellurides, and native Au. The earliest retrograde skarn garnet contains gaseous low-salinity (1.7-3.4 wt.% NaCl eq.) fluid inclusions homogenizing at 460-500 °C into vapor, indicating that the early fluid released from crystallizing magma was a low-density vapor. It was followed by more saline (4.0-5.0 wt.% NaCl eq.), high-temperature (400-440 °C) aqueous fluid, as fluid release from the magma progressed. Boiling of this fluid at temperatures of 420 to 370 °C and a pressure of 350-300 bar produced a low-salinity (0.6-1.2 wt.% NaCl eq.), essentially gaseous, and high-salinity (from 39 to 31 wt.% NaCl eq.) brine, with possible metal (including Cu) partitioning into both gaseous and aqueous-saline phases. Boiling was coeval with sulfide deposition in the retrograde skarn. The latest episode of the retrograde skarn stage included direct separation of saline ( 40-42 wt.% NaCl eq.) fluid from crystallizing magma. The separation of saline ( 40 to 14 wt.% NaCl eq.) fluids from a crystallizing magmatic melt continued during the propylitic stage, when fluid cooling from 370 to 320 °C, together with decreasing fO2, caused Cu and especially

  11. Early Permian intrusions of the Alai range: Understanding tectonic settings of Hercynian post-collisional magmatism in the South Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopelko, D.; Wilde, S. A.; Seltmann, R.; Romer, R. L.; Biske, Yu. S.

    2018-03-01

    We present geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope data as well as the results of single grain U-Pb zircon dating for ten granitoid and alkaline intrusions of the Alai segment of Kyrgyz South Tien Shan (STS). The intrusions comprise four geochemically contrasting series or suites, including (1) I-type and (2) shoshonitic granitoids, (3) peraluminous granitoids including S-type leucogranites and (4) alkaline rocks and carbonatites, closely associated in space. New geochronological data indicate that these diverse magmatic series of the Alai segment formed in a post-collisional setting. Five single grain U-Pb zircon ages in the range 287-281 Ma, in combination with published ages, define the main post-collisional magmatic pulse at 290-280 Ma, which is similar to ages of post-collisional intrusions elsewhere in the STS. An age of 287 ± 4 Ma, obtained for peraluminous graniodiorite of the Liayliak massif, emplaced in amphibolite-facies metamorphic rocks of the Zeravshan-Alai block, is indistinguishable from ca. 290 Ma age of peraluminous granitoids emplaced coevally with Barrovian-type metamorphism in the Garm block, located ca. 40 km south-west of the research area. The Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic compositions of the studied intrusions are consistent with the reworking of crustal material with 1.6-1.1 Ga average crustal residence times, indicating the formation of the Alai segment on a continental basement with Mesoproterozoic or older crust. The pattern of post-collisional magmatism in the Alai segment, characterized by emplacement of I-type and shoshoninitic granitoids in combination with coeval Barrovian-type metamorphism, is markedly different from the pattern of post-collisional magmatism in the adjacent Kokshaal segment of the STS with predominant A-type granitoids that formed on a former passive margin of the Tarim Craton. We suggest that during the middle-late Carboniferous the Alai segment probably comprised a microcontinent with Precambrian basement located between

  12. Mineralogy and geochemistry of triassic carbonatites in the Matcha alkaline intrusive complex (Turkestan-Alai Ridge, Kyrgyz Southern Tien Shan), SW Central Asian orogenic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrublevskii, V. V.; Morova, A. A.; Bukharova, O. V.; Konovalenko, S. I.

    2018-03-01

    Postorogenic intrusions of essexites and alkaline and nepheline syenites in the Turkestan-Alai segment of the Kyrgyz Southern Tien Shan coexist with dikes and veins of carbonatites dated at ∼220 Ma by the Ar-Ar and Rb-Sr age methods. They are mainly composed of calcite and dolomite (60-85%), as well as sodic amphibole, phlogopite, clinopyroxene, microcline, albite, apatite, and magnetite, with accessory niobate, ilmenite, Nb-rutile, titanite, zircon, baddeleyite, monazite-(Ce), barite, and sulfides. The rocks share mineralogical and geochemical similarity with carbonatites that originated by liquid immiscibility at high temperatures above 500 °C. Alkaline silicate and salt-carbonate melts are derived from sources with mainly negative bulk εNd(t) ∼ from -11 to 0 and high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (∼0.7061-0.7095) which may be due to mixing of PREMA and EM-type mantle material. Pb isotopic ratios in accessory pyrrhotite (206Pb/204Pb = 18.38; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.64; 208Pb/204Pb = 38.41) exhibit an EM2 trend. The intrusions bear signatures of significant crustal contamination as a result of magma genesis by syntexis and hybridism. Concordant isotope composition changes of δ13C (-6.5 to -1.9‰), δ18O (9.2-23‰), δD (-58 to -41‰), and δ34S (12.6-12.8‰) in minerals and rocks indicate inputs of crustal material at the stage of melting and effect of hot fluids released during dehydration of metamorphosed oceanic basalts or sediments. The observed HFSE patterns of the oldest alkaline gabbro may be due to interaction of the primary mafic magma with IAB-type material. The isotope similarity of alkaline rocks with spatially proximal basalts of the Tarim large igneous province does not contradict the evolution of the Turkestan-Alai Triassic magmatism as the "last echo" of the Tarim mantle plume.

  13. PCR nuclear composition at 1-20 PeV according to lateral distributions of all EAS and EAS accompanied high-energy-gamma rays and hadrons in EC at Tien-Shan level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterova, N.M.; Pavlyuchenko, V.P.; Chubenko, A.P.; Shaulov, S.B.

    2003-01-01

    The Tien-Shan array Adron data are presented on electron-photon component lateral distributions (age parameter S) of extensive air showers of cosmic rays. The data are given as a dependence on the electron size N e for all showers and for showers accompanied by high-energy gamma rays and hadrons in X-ray films. N e characterizes the energy of primary-cosmic-ray nuclei E 0 . Later events are generated by primary photons chiefly. That allows judging on the proton role with E 0 change. S distributions point to the considerable part of light nuclei, protons mainly, at the region above knee of the spectrum at N e > 10 6 up to N e = 5 x 10 6 (E 0 ∼ 10 PeV) at least [ru

  14. New insights into Late Quaternary slip rate of the thrust fault zone, northern margin of the Qilian Shan, NE Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai-bo, Y.; Yang, X., Sr.; LI, A.; Huang, X.; Huang, W.

    2017-12-01

    The India-Eurasian plate collision caused widespread Cenozoic crustal deformation within the Tibetan Plateau and on its margins. Ongoing post-collisional convergence formed multi-row NWW-trending folded mountain ranges and basins pattern in the northeastern Tibet. Late Quaternary tectonic deformation and quantitative slip rate estimates around the Qilian Shan and the Hexi corridor foreland basin are critical to understanding crustal deformation process of the Tibetan plateau and assessing regional seismic hazards. The Fodongmo-Hongyazi fault (FHF) is a major thrust at the Northeastern Tibet, bounding the Qilian Shan. It is accommodating the crustal shortening across this region and has produced strong historical earthquake. Until now the slip rate has been poorly constrained limiting our understanding of its role in the accommodation of deformation across this region. In this work, faulted terraces at the Hongshuiba River and Fengle River sites on the western and middle segments of the FHF were mapped with satellite imagery and field observations. Chronological constraints are placed on the ages of displaced river terraces at these sites using terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) exposure dating. These ages combined with offsets measured from SPOT 6 DEM's yield average vertical slip rates of 1.3±0.1mm/yr for the western segment since 207 ka and 0.9±0.1 mm/yr since 46 ka for the middle segment. These data suggest that the FHF accommodates 15-20% of the total shortening across the Qilian Shan (5.5-7 mm/yr). In addition, comparisons of our data with published slip rates along the Northern Qilian Thrust Fault Zone show that the fastest tectonic uplift occurs along the western portion of the Northern Qilian Shan. This is consistent with estimates deduced from geomorphology. The western portion of the Qilian Shan is mainly controlled by compressional deformation produced by the northward movement of the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau, while the eastern Qilian Shan is

  15. Regional Geomorphological Conditions Related to Recent Changes of Glacial Lakes in the Issyk-Kul Basin, Northern Tien Shan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirlan Daiyrov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To assess the current state of glacial lakes, we examine the seasonal lake-area changes of 339 glacial lakes in the Teskey and Kungoy Ranges of the Issyk-Kul Basin, Kyrgyzstan, during 2013–2016 based on optical satellite images (Landsat7/ETM+ and 8/OLI. The glacial lakes are classified into six types based on their seasonal variations in area: stable, increasing, decreasing, appearing, vanishing, and short-lived. We then track the number of each type in a given year and examine how each number changes from one year to the next. We find that many appearing, vanishing, and short-lived types occurred in both mountain ranges, having a large variability in number that is not directly related to the local short-term summer temperature anomaly, nor to precipitation or glacier recession. However, those in the Teskey Range vary significantly more than those in the Kungoy Range. To determine if the changing number and distribution of the various lake types may be due to changes in ground ice, we apply differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR analysis using ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 for the debris landforms behind which glacial lakes appear. In the Teskey Range, ground ice occurs in 413 out of a total of 930 debris landforms, whereas in the Kungoy Range, ground ice occurs in 71 out of 180. In zones with predominant glacier-retreat during 1971–2010 (from Corona KH-4B and ALOS/PRISM, the Teskey Range had 180 new lake depressions as potential lake-basins, whereas the Kungoy Range had just 22. Existing depressions also expanded when melting ice produced subsidence. Such subsidence, together with debris landforms containing ground ice and ice tunnels, appear to cause the observed large number variability. In particular, the deposition of ice and debris by tunnel collapse or the freezing of storage water in a debris landform may close-off an ice tunnel, causing a lake to appear. Subsequent re-opening via melting of such blockage would produce either a vanishing or a short-lived type. In this way, the large variability in the number of each lake type and the distribution of types over this four-year period arises from regional geomorphological conditions and not directly from the local short-term summer temperature anomaly and precipitation or glacier recession.

  16. Geology, mineralization, and fluid inclusion characteristics of the Kashkasu W-Mo-Cu skarn deposit associated with a high-potassic to shoshonitic igneous suite in Kyrgyzstan, Tien Shan: Toward a diversity of W mineralization in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, Serguei G.; Kryazhev, Sergey G.

    2018-03-01

    The Kashkasu deposit is part of the subduction-related Late Paleozoic (Late Carboniferous) metallogenic belt of Tien Shan. It is associated with a multiphase monzodiorite-monzonite-granodiorite-granite pluton of the magnetite-series high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic igneous suite. The deposit contains zones of W-Mo-Cu oxidized prograde and retrograde skarns, with abundant andraditic garnet, magnetite, locally scapolite and K-feldspar, as well as scheelite, chalcopyrite, and molybdenite. Skarns are overprinted by quartz-carbonate-sericite (phyllic alteration) zones with scheelite and sulfides. Prograde calcic skarn and initial retrograde skarns were formed from a high temperature (650 °C to 450-550 °C), high pressure (2000 bars to 600-900 bars) magmatic-hydrothermal low- to high-salinity aqueous chloride fluid. The gradual fluid evolution was interrupted by the intrusion of granodiorite and likely associated release of low-salinity (∼7-8 wt% NaCl equiv.) fluid. Ascent of this fluid to shallower levels and/or its cooling to 400-500 °C has resulted in phase separation into low-salinity (2.1-3.1 wt% NaCl equiv.) vapor and coexisting brine (35-40 wt% NaCl equiv.). The boiling was coincident with most intense scheelite deposition in retrograde skarn. Later retrograde skarn assemblages were formed from a gaseous, low- to moderate-salinity (3.4-8.1 wt% NaCl equiv.) fluid and then from high salinity (37-42 wt% NaCl equiv.) aqueous chloride fluids, the latter being enriched in Ca (17-20 wt% CaCl2) that could also affect scheelite deposition. Another cycle of fluid exsolution from crystallizing magma corresponded to quartz-carbonate-sericite-scheelite-sulfide (phyllic) alteration stage, with the early low-salinity (5.3-8.4 wt% NaCl-equiv.) fluid followed by later high-salinity (33.5-38.2 wt% NaCl-equiv.) fluid. The sulfur isotope data (δ34S = +5.1 to +9.0) suggest significant sulfur sourcing from sedimentary rocks enriched in seawater sulfate, possibly evaporites.

  17. Anticipating Central Asian Water Stress: Variation in River Flow Dependency on Melt Waters from Alpine to Plains in the Remote Tien Shan Range, Kyrgyzstan Using a Rapid Hydro Assessment Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, A. F.; Wilson, A. M.; Williams, M. W.

    2016-12-01

    The future of mountain water resources in High Asia is of high interest to water managers, development organizations and policy makers given large populations downstream reliant on snow and ice sourced river flow. Together with historical and cultural divides among ex-Soviet republics, a lack of central water management following the Soviet break-up has led to water stress as trans-boundary waters weave through and along borders. New upstream hydropower development, a thirsty downstream agricultural sector and a shrinking Aral Sea has led to increasing tension in the region. Despite these pressures and in contrast to eastern High Asia's Himalayan basins (Ganges, Brahmaputra), little attention has been given to western High Asia draining the Pamir and Tien Shan ranges (Syr Darya and Amu Darya basins) to better understand the hydrology of this vast and remote area. Difficult access and challenging terrain exacerbate challenges to working in this remote mountain region. As part of the Contributions to High Asia Runoff from Ice and Snow (CHARIS) project, we asked how does river flow source water composition change over an alpine-to-plains domain of Kyrgyzstan's Naryn River in the Syr Darya basin? In addition, what may the future hold for river flow in Central Asia given the differing responses of snow and ice to climate changes? Utilizing a Rapid Hydrologic Assessment methodology including a suite of pre-field mapping techniques we collected in situ water chemistry data at targeted, remote mountain sites over 450km of the Naryn River over an elevation gradient from glacial headwaters to the lower lying areas - places where people, hydropower and agriculture utilize water. Chemical and isotope tracers were used to separate stream flow to understand relative dependency on melt waters as the river moves downstream from glaciers and snow covered areas. This case study demonstrates a technique to acquire field data over large scales in remote regions that facilitates

  18. New constraints on slip rates of the Fodongmiao-Hongyazi fault in the Northern Qilian Shan, NE Tibet, from the 10Be exposure dating of offset terraces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haibo; Yang, Xiaoping; Huang, Xiongnan; Li, An; Huang, Weiliang; Zhang, Ling

    2018-01-01

    The Fodongmo-Hongyazi fault (FHF) is a major thrust of Northeastern Tibet, bounding the Qilian Shan. It accommodates crustal shortening across this region and has produced a strong historical earthquake. Until now the slip rate has been poorly constrained, limiting our understanding of its role in the accommodation of deformation across this region. In this paper, faulted terraces at two sites on the western and middle segments of the FHF were mapped with satellite imagery and field observations. Chronological constraints are placed on the ages of displaced river terraces at these sites using terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) exposure dating. These ages combined with offsets measured from SPOT 6 DEM's yield average vertical slip rates of 1.3 ± 0.1 mm/yr for the western segment since ∼207 ka and 0.9 ± 0.1 mm/yr since ∼46 ka for the middle segment. These data suggest that the FHF accommodates ∼15-20% of the total shortening across the Qilian Shan (5.5-7 mm/yr). In addition, comparisons of our data with published slip rates along the Northern Qilian Thrust Fault Zone show that the fastest tectonic uplift occurs along the western portion of the Northern Qilian Shan. This is consistent with estimates deduced from geomorphology. The western portion of the Qilian Shan is mainly controlled by compressional deformation produced by the northward movement of the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau, while the eastern Qilian Shan is mainly controlled by the eastward extrusion of material along the left-lateral Haiyuan strike-slip Fault.

  19. Gender difference in early initiation of methamphetamine use among current methamphetamine users in Muse, Northern Shan State, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Yu Mon; Saw, Thu Nandar; Yasuoka, Junko; Chan, Nyein; Kham, Nang Pann Ei; Khine, Wint; Cho, Su Myat; Jimba, Masamine

    2017-05-08

    Globally, methamphetamine (MA) use is a significant public health concern due to unprecedented health effects of its use. However, gender similarities and differences in early age of MA initiation and its risk factors among current MA users have been understudied in a developing country setting. A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted using a computer assisted self-interviewing program from January to March 2013 in Muse, Northern Shan State, Myanmar. A total of 1362 (775 male and 587 female) self-reported current MA users aged between 18 and 35 years were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Two gender-stratified multiple logistic regression models (models I and II) were done for analysis. For similarities, 73.0% of males and 60.5% of females initiated MA before their 18th birthday. The early age of MA initiation was positively associated with the reasons and places of the first time MA use among both genders. For differences, males [hazard ratio 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-1.54] had a significantly higher risk than females to initiate MA at earlier age. Among male users, participants who had bisexual/homosexual preferences were more likely to initiate MA use earlier. In contrast, female users who exchanged sex for money and/or drugs were more likely to initiate MA in earlier age. More than 60.0% of male and female participants initiated MA use early; however, males initiated use earlier than females. Although similarities were found among both genders, differences found in key risk factors for early age MA initiation suggest that gender-specific, MA prevention programs are urgently needed in Myanmar.

  20. Mid-miocene cooling in the northern Qilian Shan, northeastern margin of the Tibetan plateau, revealed by apatite fission-track and VR analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, A.D.; Wyrwoll, K.-H.; Jie, C.; Yanchou, L.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Growth of the Tibetan Plateau along its northeastern margin by crustal shortening and thickening is linked to the Altyn Tagh Fault, a ∼1500 km long sinistral strike-slip fault which has played a significant role in accommodating the convergence of India and Eurasia. The NW-trending Qilian Shan (mountains) that mark the northeastern edge of the plateau rise nearly 5000 m above the adjacent Juice Basin of the Hexi Corridor. The Qilian Shan is a mid-Paleozoic orogenic suture belt composed of numerous thrust slices of deformed Lower Paleozoic (Cambrian-Silurian) metasedimentary and metavolcanic strata. The older Precambrian basement is also exposed in some thrust sheets, as are remnants of Upper Paleozoic-Jurassic strata. Cretaceous fluvial sandstones and conglomerates are locally preserved. The neighbouring Juice Basin contains a thick succession of Neogene-Quaternary fluvial strata (∼3.5 km thick) which unconformably overlies Lower Cretaceous rocks. Adjacent to the Qilian Shan, the oldest Neogene strata in the Juice Basin are Miocene in age overlain by more extensive Pliocene and Quaternary sediments, whereas basal Oligocene strata are exposed on the northern side of the basin. Neogene and Quaternary strata are being actively deformed by thrust-related folding along the margins and within the Jiuxi Basin. Apatite fission-track and vitrinite reflectance data were obtained from Precambrian to Tertiary outcrop samples from the northern Qilian Shan and Juice Basin to provide constraints on timing of exhumation and cooling. All the samples record multiple cooling episodes. Tertiary cooling from peak paleotemperatures (40-120 deg C) beginning sometime between 20 and 10 Ma (mid-Miocene) is common to all samples. This age is significantly older than previous models which proposed initiation of uplift in the Pliocene-Pleistocene, i.e., no older than 5-6 Ma. For any reasonable paleo-geothermal gradient, the degree of mid-Miocene cooling requires km

  1. Geochronologic Constraints on the Location of the Sino-Korean/Yangtze Suture and Evolution of the Northern Dabie Shan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, D. L.; Ayers, J. C.; Gao, S.; Miller, C. F.; Zhang, H.

    2002-05-01

    The Northern Dabie Complex (NDC) has been proposed to be either a Paleozoic magmatic arc, an exhumed piece of subducted continental crust, or young crust produced almost entirely by Cretaceous extensional magmatism. Ion microprobe zircon 238U-206Pb ages of separates from NDC gneisses center around 689Ma (+/- 31(95%CL)), consistent with the characteristic zircon dates of the Yangtze Craton [1]. Field observations also show that these gneisses, ranging from granitic to dioritic composition, make up a sizeable area ( ~30%) of the NDC. Zircon separates from the Baimajian granitoid, the largest of the widespread Cretaceous intrusions in the NDC, have yielded ages clustered around 677Ma (+/- 79), and 120Ma (+/- 3.4), the latter of which agrees with ion probe Th-Pb monazite ages. The ~700Ma age indicates that this intrusion may be linked with partial melting of underlying Yangtze crust, while the 120Ma age is the age of its crystallization. Granitic intrusions from Sanzushi and Yerenshai in the Dabie ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) region also show clusters of ages at 714Ma (+/- 55) from zircon cores, as well as rims around 250Ma (+/- 38), which is interpreted as the time of collision of the two continental blocks. These age data support the hypothesis set forth by Zhang et al. [2] using Sm-Nd and Pb isotopic data, that the Yangtze block lies beneath the exhumed UHP belt and outcrops as the NDC, which lies between the UHP belt and the Sino-Korean/Yangtze suture. The Baimajian granitoid, however, also shows a range of older zircon core ages from 1.4-2.0Ga, which may represent the early stages of formation of the Yangtze craton. Zhang et al. [2] suggested craton formation at 1.6-2.4Ga but few such ages have been reported for rocks of the Yangtze or Sino-Korean cratons. 1. Hacker, et al. (2000) Journal of Geophysical Research. Vol. 105. p. 13,339. 2. Zhang, et al. (In press) Chemical Geology.

  2. TIEN VAN DO

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana. TIEN VAN DO. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 41 Issue 8 August 2016 pp 817-823. A closed-form solution for a two-server heterogeneous retrial queue with threshold policy · TIEN VAN DO DENES PAPP RAM CHAKKA JINTING WANG JANOS SZTRIK · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  3. THE SYSTEM AND CONSPECTUS OF THE GENUS PEDICULARIS (OROBANCHACEAE OF ALTAY MOUNTAINS AND TIAN SHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Kosachev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The system and conspectus of the genus Pedicularis L. (Orobanchaceae of Altai and Tien Shan is presented. The system is based of molecular genetic studies of the genus (Ree, 2005; Tkach et al., 2014; own data and is represented by series that are grouped into sections. The building of the higher taxonomic categories is not possible at the moment due to the para- or polyphyletic origin genus of weak support for clads in the phylogenetic tree. Conspectus includes 61 species of the 32 series and 7 sections. 16 species and 1 subspecies of endemic for the territory of the Altai and Tien Shan. For the first time described in one section and 10 series. Three sections published of the lectotypes: Schizocalyx Li, Botryantha Li, Rhizophyllum Li. Clarified the amount and distribution of species, series, sections. Displaying Altai and Tien Shan origin some series (ser. Abrotanifoliae, Amoenae, Achilleifolia, Uliginosae, Physocalyces, Macrochilae, Platyrhynchae, the Tien-Shan (Semenowianae, Pycnanthae, Maximowiczianae, Pubiflorae, Altai (Brachystaches, Elatae.

  4. Quantitative Biostratigraphic Analysis of Central Asia with Implications for the Tien Shan of Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, W. N.; Hopkins, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    Central Asia lies at a nexus both in terms of geology and evolutionary biogeography. With the convergence of the Indian and Asian plates creating high rates of deformation over broad regions, shortening of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic basement rocks has created a rich history of late Cenozoic sedimentary basins. In fact, Kyrgyzstan is the most seismically active country in the world. Additionally, Central Asia is a biogeographic crossroads, facilitating the intercontinental migrations of distant faunas from North American, Europe, Africa, and Southern Asia. With such an active geologic and biological evolution, the usefulness of temporal constraints is apparent. However, the continental collision environment has provided few volcanic rocks suitable for radiometric dating. Therefore, while less precise, the biostratigraphic analysis of Central Asia I present is an ideal method for both establishing ages and correlating between disparate basins. The last several decades provided great advancements in quantitative biostratigraphic methods applied to marine microfossils from drill cores. While these newer methods such as RASC (ranking and scaling), its sister program CASC, and CONOP (constrained optimization) provide a clear improvement over older methods such as graphic correlation, they have yet to be applied to terrestrial vertebrate faunas. Graphic correlation only allows comparison between two stratigraphic columns at a time and is heavily weighted by the initial selection of a type section. Both RASC and CONOP compare all stratigraphic sections simultaneously, eliminating type section bias. Previous vertebrate biostratigraphy methods attempted to predict FADs and LADs with the assumption they are generally minimum estimates. RASC instead establishes average stratigraphic ranges for each taxon and with CASC actually provides confidence intervals for each prediction, reducing the potential error resulting from reworking. CONOP generates maximum stratigraphic ranges observed in all sections, yet also includes error bars for the estimates of each biological event such as an extinction or origination. Used in conjunction, RASC, CASC, and CONOP provide both a solid evaluation of land mammal ages or zones for Central Asia and a predictive composite column for new late Cenozoic fossil localities. With a high degree of endemicity and migration, Central Asia cannot rely on the European Neogene Mammal Zones. This study aims to support and evaluate the emerging Asian biostratigraphic and geochronologic framework. With little fossil material currently collected from Kyrgyzstan, this study also sets a temporal framework for future paleontological work. Material is included from countries with much better constrained biostratigraphic records, preferably associated with existing radiometric dates. Specifically included were sites from Asiatic Russia, Mongolia, Western China, India, and Nepal. This geographic range is selected both to preserve the signal of faunas endemic to the Himalayan and Tibetan highlands, but also to provide a large enough sample to account for the well-known problems with the terrestrial fossil record such as high sampling errors and diachrony.

  5. Rock waste dumps on the Davydov Glacier (Akshyirak Range, Tien Shan

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    V. A. Kuzmichenok

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1995, a barren rock has been formed at the Davydov Glacier, due to the works at the Kumtor Gold Mine. By the end of 2010, total amount of the rock, stockpiled on the glacier, apparently exceeded 200 million tons, the height of dumps of rock sometimes exceeded 50 meters. The most noticeable effects of this are provoking local surges of the Davydov Glacier and squeezing glacier ice out of the dumps of rock. For a detailed analysis of both processes, we also used the results of periodic geodetic measurements (over 8000 of monitoring rods (about 800 rods of the gold mining company. A number of local surges of the glacier has been found, the first of which began in March–April 2002. To analyze glacier squeezing out of the dumps of rock, mathematical modeling of that process has been done. It was established that in most cases, the glacier is almost completely squeezed out of for 1–2 years.

  6. U-Pb dating, geochemistry, and tectonic implications of the Songpan-Ganzi block and the Longmen Shan, Chiba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.L.; Li, D.P.; Zhou, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Songpan-Ganzi triangular tectonic block is surrounded by the East Kunlun-Qaidam block in the north, the Qiangtang block in the southwest, and the Longmen Shan in the southeast. The Longmen Shan is the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia. The tectonic affinity and relationship of these regions with the Yangtze and North China blocks have been rigorously debated. In this paper, we present our recent studies on the geochemistry of the Precambrian to Triassic classic sedimentary rocks from this area. Detrital zircons were extracted from the sedimentary rocks for U-Pb dating by SHRIMP and LA-ICP-MS. Nd depleted mantle model ages indicate that these provenances have an affinity to the Yangtze craton and Qinling Shan, in contrast to those of the North China craton. All strata, from Cambrian to late Triassic, contain detrital zircon U-Pb ages of 1400 to 600 Ma, with most falling between 900-720 Ma. The Songpan-Ganzi block was the most important part of the Northern Tethys in the Triassic period, in addition to being the largest flysch basin in the world. The Longmen Shan thrust belt comprises both the telescoped, unmetamorphosed, shallow water carbonate-dominated passive margin of the Yangtze craton and its crystalline basement. The western and northern margins of the Yangtze craton, as well as the Qinling Shan, were the sources of sediments in the Songpan-Ganzi block and the Longmen Shan. The oldest dated detrital zircons indicate that the Yangtze craton started forming during the period 2800-2200 Ma. Because the basement of the Yangtze craton experienced multi-episodic intracrustal processes, the oldest basement components account for only a small portion of the provenance components. The detrital zircon ages of 2200-1400 Ma indicate a major contribution of the Qinling Shan and/or the northwestern margin of the Yangtze craton to the clastic sediments in the Songpan-Ganzi block. The presence of detrital zircon of Neoproterozoic to Triassic ages

  7. Large drainages from short-lived glacial lakes in the Teskey Range, Tien Shan Mountains, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narama, Chiyuki; Daiyrov, Mirlan; Duishonakunov, Murataly; Tadono, Takeo; Sato, Hayato; Kääb, Andreas; Ukita, Jinro; Abdrakhmatov, Kanatbek

    2018-04-01

    Four large drainages from glacial lakes occurred during 2006-2014 in the western Teskey Range, Kyrgyzstan. These floods caused extensive damage, killing people and livestock as well as destroying property and crops. Using satellite data analysis and field surveys of this area, we find that the water volume that drained at Kashkasuu glacial lake in 2006 was 194 000 m3, at western Zyndan lake in 2008 was 437 000 m3, at Jeruy lake in 2013 was 182 000 m3, and at Karateke lake in 2014 was 123 000 m3. Due to their subsurface outlet, we refer to these short-lived glacial lakes as the tunnel-type, a type that drastically grows and drains over a few months. From spring to early summer, these lakes either appear, or in some cases, significantly expand from an existing lake (but non-stationary), and then drain during summer. Our field surveys show that the short-lived lakes form when an ice tunnel through a debris landform gets blocked. The blocking is caused either by the freezing of stored water inside the tunnel during winter or by the collapse of ice and debris around the ice tunnel. The draining then occurs through an opened ice tunnel during summer. The growth-drain cycle can repeat when the ice-tunnel closure behaves like that of typical supraglacial lakes on debris-covered glaciers. We argue here that the geomorphological characteristics under which such short-lived glacial lakes appear are (i) a debris landform containing ice (ice-cored moraine complex), (ii) a depression with water supply on a debris landform as a potential lake basin, and (iii) no visible surface outflow channel from the depression, indicating the existence of an ice tunnel. Applying these characteristics, we examine 60 depressions (> 0.01 km2) in the study region and identify here 53 of them that may become short-lived glacial lakes, with 34 of these having a potential drainage exceeding 10 m3 s-1 at peak discharge.

  8. Large drainages from short-lived glacial lakes in the Teskey Range, Tien Shan Mountains, Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Narama

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Four large drainages from glacial lakes occurred during 2006–2014 in the western Teskey Range, Kyrgyzstan. These floods caused extensive damage, killing people and livestock as well as destroying property and crops. Using satellite data analysis and field surveys of this area, we find that the water volume that drained at Kashkasuu glacial lake in 2006 was 194 000  m3, at western Zyndan lake in 2008 was 437 000 m3, at Jeruy lake in 2013 was 182 000 m3, and at Karateke lake in 2014 was 123 000 m3. Due to their subsurface outlet, we refer to these short-lived glacial lakes as the tunnel-type, a type that drastically grows and drains over a few months. From spring to early summer, these lakes either appear, or in some cases, significantly expand from an existing lake (but non-stationary, and then drain during summer. Our field surveys show that the short-lived lakes form when an ice tunnel through a debris landform gets blocked. The blocking is caused either by the freezing of stored water inside the tunnel during winter or by the collapse of ice and debris around the ice tunnel. The draining then occurs through an opened ice tunnel during summer. The growth–drain cycle can repeat when the ice-tunnel closure behaves like that of typical supraglacial lakes on debris-covered glaciers. We argue here that the geomorphological characteristics under which such short-lived glacial lakes appear are (i a debris landform containing ice (ice-cored moraine complex, (ii a depression with water supply on a debris landform as a potential lake basin, and (iii no visible surface outflow channel from the depression, indicating the existence of an ice tunnel. Applying these characteristics, we examine 60 depressions (> 0.01 km2 in the study region and identify here 53 of them that may become short-lived glacial lakes, with 34 of these having a potential drainage exceeding 10 m3 s−1 at peak discharge.

  9. Shan State parliamentarians strengthen their research skills | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-12-18

    Dec 18, 2017 ... ... conducted research on topics related to their ongoing work, analyzed results, ... a performance measurement tool to track the progress of sub-national parliaments ... 4.3 % of all MPs in the Shan State parliament are women.

  10. Cualquier tiempo futuro tiene que ser mejor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paquita Armas Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cuba tiene un importante movimiento caricaturista, conocido y laureado en los diversos lugares del mundo. No es el caso de la historieta que, a pesar de contar con muy buenos dibujantes, el desarrollo dramatúrgico no está a la altura de la imagen por lo que se ha visto limitada en su desarrollo. El guión es el talón de Aquiles del cómic cubano que no ha evolucionado como se hermana la caricatura. Es con la animación que el cómic cubano ha trascendido sus fronteras. Se trata de un movimiento vivo que ha saltado los más increíbles obstáculos.

  11. Glacier area changes in Northern Eurasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khromova, Tatiana; Nosenko, Gennady; Kutuzov, Stanislav; Muraviev, Anton; Chernova, Ludmila

    2014-01-01

    Glaciers are widely recognized as key indicators of climate change. Recent evidence suggests an acceleration of glacier mass loss in several key mountain regions. Glacier recession implies landscape changes in the glacial zone, the origin of new lakes and activation of natural disaster processes, catastrophic mudflows, ice avalanches, outburst floods, etc. The absence or inadequacy of such information results in financial and human losses. A more comprehensive evaluation of glacier changes is imperative to assess ice contributions to global sea level rise and the future of water resources from glacial basins. One of the urgent steps is a full inventory of all ice bodies and their changes. The first estimation of glacier state and glacier distribution on the territory of the former Soviet Union has been done in the USSR Glacier Inventory (UGI) published in 1965–1982. The UGI is based on topographic maps and air photos and reflects the status of the glaciers in the 1940s–1970s. There is information about 28 884 glaciers with an area of 7830.75 km 2 in the inventory. It covers 25 glacier systems in Northern Eurasia. In the 1980s the UGI has been transformed into digital form as a part of the World Glacier Inventory (WGI). Recent satellite data provide a unique opportunity to look again at these glaciers and to evaluate changes in glacier extent for the second part of the 20th century. About 15 000 glacier outlines for the Caucasus, Polar Urals, Pamir Alay, Tien Shan, Altai, Kamchatka and Russian Arctic have been derived from ASTER and Landsat imagery and can be used for glacier change evaluation. Results of the analysis indicate the steady trend in glacier shrinkage in all mountain regions for the second part of the 20th century. Glacier area loss for the studied regions varies from 13% (Tien Shan) to 22.3% (Polar Urals). The common driver, most likely, is an increase in summer air temperature. There is also a very large variability in the degree of

  12. Paleomagnetic results from the upper silurian of the Shan-Thai-Malay Block, southwest Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haihong; Zhong, Dalai; Heller, Friedrich; Dobson, Jon P.

    77 paleomagnetic samples from the Upper Silurian reddish limestone and marlstone of the Shan-Thai-Malay block near Baoshan ( 99.1°E, 24.8°N ), western Yunnan, China, reveal a pre-folding remnant magnetization, with a mean direction of D=49.6°, I= -3.2°, k=9.7, a95=5.5°, corresponding a paleopole at 207.0°E, 36.8°N. These results, unlike the upper Paleozoic data with steeper inclinations published earlier, suggest that the block was located at equatorial latitude during late Silurian time, probably adjacent to the northern margin of Gondwanaland.

  13. Late Quaternary strike-slip along the Taohuala Shan-Ayouqi fault zone and its tectonic implications in the Hexi Corridor and the southern Gobi Alashan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing-xing; Zheng, Wen-jun; Zhang, Pei-zhen; Lei, Qi-yun; Wang, Xu-long; Wang, Wei-tao; Li, Xin-nan; Zhang, Ning

    2017-11-01

    The Hexi Corridor and the southern Gobi Alashan are composed of discontinuous a set of active faults with various strikes and slip motions that are located to the north of the northern Tibetan Plateau. Despite growing understanding of the geometry and kinematics of these active faults, the late Quaternary deformation pattern in the Hexi Corridor and the southern Gobi Alashan remains controversial. The active E-W trending Taohuala Shan-Ayouqi fault zone is located in the southern Gobi Alashan. Study of the geometry and nature of slip along this fault zone holds crucial value for better understanding the regional deformation pattern. Field investigations combined with high-resolution imagery show that the Taohuala Shan fault and the E-W trending faults within the Ayouqi fault zone (F2 and F5) are left-lateral strike-slip faults, whereas the NW or WNW-trending faults within the Ayouqi fault zone (F1 and F3) are reverse faults. We collected Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) and cosmogenic exposure age dating samples from offset alluvial fan surfaces, and estimated a vertical slip rate of 0.1-0.3 mm/yr, and a strike-slip rate of 0.14-0.93 mm/yr for the Taohuala Shan fault. Strata revealed in a trench excavated across the major fault (F5) in the Ayouqi fault zone and OSL dating results indicate that the most recent earthquake occurred between ca. 11.05 ± 0.52 ka and ca. 4.06 ± 0.29 ka. The geometry and kinematics of the Taohuala Shan-Ayouqi fault zone enable us to build a deformation pattern for the entire Hexi Corridor and the southern Gobi Alashan, which suggest that this region experiences northeastward oblique extrusion of the northern Tibetan Plateau. These left-lateral strike-slip faults in the region are driven by oblique compression but not associated with the northeastward extension of the Altyn Tagh fault.

  14. Effects of Land Use Change on Sediment and Water Yields in Yang Ming Shan National Park, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C. C. Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT is a watershed-based, semi-distributed hydrologic model for simulating hydrological processes at different spatial scales. The SWAT hydrology and erosion/sediment components are first validated after the hydrologic components calibration. The SWAT model also utilizes geographic information system (GIS and digital elevation model (DEM to delineate watersheds and extract the stream network. This study applies SWAT model to assess the impacts of land use change on soil and water losses from Yang Ming Shan National Park Watershed in northern Taiwan. Although the government has formulated regulations to limit the development, however, intense human activities, such as farming and building construction, still continue to exist. This study utilized two land-use data periods, one in 1996 and another in 2007, along with the SWAT model to simulate soil and water losses in Yang Ming Shan National Park. Based on the baseline scenario, the SWAT model was also successful in simulating the future scenario. Study results for scenario 2007, as compared to 1996 baseline period indicate that land use change shows forest land decreases about 6.9%, agricultural land increases about 9.5%, and causes sediment yield increase of 0.25 t/ha. Human activities deserve more attention when assessing soil and water losses because of their inevitable impacts. Government needs to modify land development policies and plans for land use change detection using satellite imagery to avoid illegal development activities.

  15. Stress state of rock mass under open pit mining in the influence zone of tectonic disturbances (in terms of the Oktorkoi Fault, North Tien Shan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhogulov, KCh; Nikolskaya, OV; Rybin, AK; Kuzikov, SI

    2018-03-01

    The qualitative connection between the crack growth direction and the orientation of the main axes of horizontal deformations in rocks mass in the area of the Boordin gold ore province is revealed. The effect of the rock mass quality (RQD) and contact conditions of crack surfaces on the stability index of pit wall rock mass is evaluated, and the influence of the rock mass quality index on the pit wall stability is determined.

  16. Intra-Continental Deformation by Mid-Crustal Shearing and Doming in a Cenozoic Compressive Setting Along the Ailao Shan-Red River Shear Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.

    2016-12-01

    Large-scale lateral strike-slip shear zones have been a key point in the debate about the deformation mechanisms of Asia in response to the India-Asia collision. The exhumed gneiss has been attributed to lateral strike-slip shear zone. This hypothesis has been challenged by recent discoveries indicating that a contractional doming deformation prior to the initiation of lateral strike-slip shearing. The Cenozoic Xuelong Shan antiformal dome is located at the northern segment of the Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone. Subhorizontal foliation in the gneiss core are recognized, representing a broad top-to-NE shear initiated under amphibolite facies conditions and propagated into greenschist facies in the mantling schist and strike-slip shear zone. Quartz CPOs and opening angles of crossed girdle fabrics in quartz suggest that the deformation temperatures increased with increasing structural depth from 300-500 °C in the mantling schist to ≥650 °C in the gneissic core. This trend is mirrored by variations in the metamorphic grade of the syn-kinematic mineral assemblages and microstructures, which ranges from garnet + amphibole + biotite + sillimanite + rutite + feldspar in the core to garnet + staurolite + biotite + epidote + muscovite within the limb units. Five-stage deformation is identified: (1) a broad top-to-NE shear in the subhorizontal level (D1); (2) opposing reverse-sense shear along the two schist limbs of the dome during contraction-related doming (D2-D3); (3) sinistral strike-slip shearing within the eastern limb (D4); and (4) extensional deformation (D5). The antiformal dome formation had been roughly coeval with top-to-NE ductile shearing in the mid-crust at 32 Ma or earlier. The geometries of the antiformal dome in the Xuelong Shan dome are similar to those associated with the antiform in the Dai Nui Con Voi, Diancang Shan and Ailao Shan zones. It is likely that the complex massifs, which define a regional linear gneiss dome zone in Cenozoic intra

  17. Displacement and disease: The Shan exodus and infectious disease implications for Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwanvanichkij Voravit

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Decades of neglect and abuses by the Burmese government have decimated the health of the peoples of Burma, particularly along her eastern frontiers, overwhelmingly populated by ethnic minorities such as the Shan. Vast areas of traditional Shan homelands have been systematically depopulated by the Burmese military regime as part of its counter-insurgency policy, which also employs widespread abuses of civilians by Burmese soldiers, including rape, torture, and extrajudicial executions. These abuses, coupled with Burmese government economic mismanagement which has further entrenched already pervasive poverty in rural Burma, have spawned a humanitarian catastrophe, forcing hundreds of thousands of ethnic Shan villagers to flee their homes for Thailand. In Thailand, they are denied refugee status and its legal protections, living at constant risk for arrest and deportation. Classified as "economic migrants," many are forced to work in exploitative conditions, including in the Thai sex industry, and Shan migrants often lack access to basic health services in Thailand. Available health data on Shan migrants in Thailand already indicates that this population bears a disproportionately high burden of infectious diseases, particularly HIV, tuberculosis, lymphatic filariasis, and some vaccine-preventable illnesses, undermining progress made by Thailand's public health system in controlling such entities. The ongoing failure to address the root political causes of migration and poor health in eastern Burma, coupled with the many barriers to accessing health programs in Thailand by undocumented migrants, particularly the Shan, virtually guarantees Thailand's inability to sustainably control many infectious disease entities, especially along her borders with Burma.

  18. Paleoseismology of Sinistral-Slip Fault System, Focusing on the Mae Chan Fault, on the Shan Plateau, SE Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtiss, E. R.; Weldon, R. J.; Wiwegwin, W.; Weldon, E. M.

    2017-12-01

    The Shan Plateau, which includes portions of Myanmar, China, Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam lies between the dextral NS-trending Sagaing and SE-trending Red River faults and contains 14 active E-W sinistral-slip faults, including the Mae Chan Fault (MCF) in northern Thailand. The last ground-rupturing earthquake to occur on the broader sinistral fault system was the M6.8 Tarlay earthquake in Myanmar in March 2011 on the Nam Ma fault immediately north of the MCF the last earthquake to occur on the MCF was a M4.0 in the 5th century that destroyed the entire city of Wiang Yonok (Morley et al., 2011). We report on a trenching study of the MCF, which is part of a broader study to create a regional seismic hazard map of the entire Shan Plateau. By studying the MCF, which appears to be representative of the sinistral faults, and easy to work on, we hope to characterize both it and the other unstudied faults in the system. As part of a paleoseismology training course we dug two trenches at the Pa Tueng site on the MCF, within an offset river channel and the trenches exposed young sediment with abundant charcoal (in process of dating), cultural artifacts, and evidence for the last two (or three) ground-rupturing earthquakes on the fault. We hope to use the data from this site to narrow the recurrence interval, which is currently to be 2,000-4,000 years and the slip rate of 1-2 mm/year, being developed at other sites on the fault. By extrapolating the data of the MCF to the other faults we will have a better understanding of the whole fault system. Once we have characterized the MCF, we plan to use geomorphic offsets and strain rates from regional GPS to relatively estimate the activity of the other faults in this sinistral system.

  19. Shan women traders and their survival strategies on the Myanmar-Thailand borderland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lertchavalitsakul, B.

    2015-01-01

    Between the 1970s and the mid-1990s, the Burma-Thailand borderland witnessed an expansion of long-distance trade conducted by Shan women. This expansion occurred despite an escalation of ethnic rebellions and insurgencies on the Burmese side of the frontier, and in particular the relocation of the

  20. Quaternary tectonic evolution of the Pamir-Tian Shan convergence zone, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson Jobe, Jessica Ann; Li, Tao; Chen, Jie; Burbank, Douglas W.; Bufe, Aaron

    2017-12-01

    The Pamir-Tian Shan collision zone in the western Tarim Basin, northwest China, formed from rapid and ongoing convergence in response to the Indo-Eurasian collision. The arid landscape preserves suites of fluvial terraces crossing structures active since the late Neogene that create fault and fold scarps recording Quaternary deformation. Using geologic and geomorphic mapping, differential GPS surveys of deformed terraces, and optically stimulated luminescence dating, we create a synthesis of the active structures that delineate the timing, rate, and migration of Quaternary deformation during ongoing convergence. New deformation rates on eight faults and folds, when combined with previous studies, highlight the spatial and temporal patterns of deformation within the Pamir-Tian Shan convergence zone during the Quaternary. Terraces spanning 130 to 8 ka record deformation rates between 0.1 and 5.6 mm/yr on individual structures. In the westernmost Tarim Basin, where the Pamir and Tian Shan are already juxtaposed, the fastest rates occur on actively deforming structures at the interface of the Pamir-Tian Shan orogens. Farther east, as the separation between the Pamir-Tian Shan orogens increases, the deformation has not been concentrated on a single structure, but rather has been concurrently distributed across a zone of faults and folds in the Kashi-Atushi fold-and-thrust belt and along the NE Pamir margin, where shortening rates vary on individual structures during the Quaternary. Although numerous structures accommodate the shortening and the locus of deformation shifts during the Quaternary, the total shortening across the western Tarim Basin has remained steady and approximately matches the current geodetic rate of 6-9 mm/yr.

  1. Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda of Cat Tien National Park, South Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Y. Sinev

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cladocera of Cat Tien National Park, South Vietnam, and the surrounding agricultural area, were surveyed during the spring of 2009 (onset of the wet season and autumn 2010 (end of the wet season. The studied water bodies included two large lakes (Bau Sau and Bau Chim, small lakes and ponds, temporary pools, rivers and streams, as well as rice fields and ponds in an agricultural area beyond the boundaries of the National Park. Fifty three species of Cladocera were found, 18 of them new for Vietnam. Distribution and taxonomical status of the species are discussed. Of the recorded species, 58.5% (31 were found only in the National Park, 34% (18 both in the National Park and the agricultural area, and only 7.5% (4 exclusively in the agricultural area. Of the 20 species new for Vietnam, only one was found both in the National Park and the agricultural area, all others were found in the National Park only. Such a difference can be directly attributed to the loss of natural habitats (forest ponds and streams in agricultural areas and to the pollution by pesticides. Our study shows the importance of surveys in pristine and protected areas, for the full evaluation of regional microcrustacean richness.

  2. ¿CUÁNTOS SIGNIFICADOS TIENE UN PRODUCTO?

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    Jose Antonio Paris

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El marketing esencial se basa en la determinación de los significados en la mente del consumidor y de los códigos en la mente del mercado. Para poder sustentar esto se han creado metodologías como las técnicas de afloramiento de significado y las técnicas proyectivas entre otras. Pero, el nuevo problema que surge de esta conceptualización teórica es si vamos a poner al significado en la base del plan de marketing, la pregunta es ¿cuántos significados se deben determinar? Por lo que sabemos cada cultura tiene sus propias significaciones y los significados también cambian con el tiempo incluso lo hacen contextualmente. Lo cual hace aún más complejo el dilema presentado como título de este artículo. En se presentan los argumentos teóricos que sustentan uno de los descubrimientos más importantes del marketing esencial que sostenemos: en general para cada producto o servicio hay cuatro significados dominantes.

  3. Central Asia Temperature and Precipitation Data, 1879-2003, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides temperature and precipitation data from 298 meteorological stations in the Northern Tien Shan and Pamir Mountain Ranges of Central Asia,...

  4. Rock glaciers, Zailiysiky Range, Kungei Ranges, Tienshan, Kazakhstan, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Zailiyskiy Alatau is the northernmost parallel latitudinal ranges of the Northern Tien Shan. The highest point of this range is the Talgar peak (4973 m a.s.l.)....

  5. Central Asia Temperature and Precipitation Data, 1879-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set updates and expands the NOAA Global Historical Climate Network (GHCN) of quality controlled meteorological records, focusing on the Northern Tien Shan...

  6. Early Cretaceous overprinting of the Mesozoic Daqing Shan fold-and-thrust belt by the Hohhot metamorphic core complex, Inner Mongolia, China

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    Gregory A. Davis

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Early Cretaceous Hohhot metamorphic core complex (mcc of the Daqing Shan (Mtns. of central Inner Mongolia is among the best exposed and most spectacular of the spatially isolated mcc’s that developed within the northern edge of the North China “craton”. All of these mcc’s were formed within the basement of a Late Paleozoic Andean-style arc and across older Mesozoic fold-and-thrust belts of variable age and tectonic vergence. The master Hohhot detachment fault roots southwards within the southern margin of the Daqing Shan for an along-strike distance of at least 120 km. Its geometry in the range to the north is complicated by interference patterns between (1 primary, large-scale NW-SE-trending convex and concave fault corrugations and (2 secondary ENE-WSW-trending antiforms and synforms that folded the detachment in its late kinematic history. As in the Whipple Mtns. of California, the Hohhot master detachment is not of the Wernicke (1981 simple rooted type; instead, it was spawned from a mid-crustal shear zone, the top of which is preserved as a mylonitic front within Carboniferous metasedimentary rocks in its exhumed lower plate. 40Ar–39Ar dating of siliceous volcanic rocks in basal sections of now isolated supradetachment basins suggest that crustal extension began at ca. 127 Ma, although lower-plate mylonitic rocks were not exposed to erosion until after ca. 119 Ma. Essentially synchronous cooling of hornblende, biotite, and muscovite in footwall mylonitic gneisses indicates very rapid exhumation and at ca. 122–120 Ma. Contrary to several recent reports, the master detachment clearly cuts across and dismembers older, north-directed thrust sheets of the Daqing Shan foreland fold-and-thrust belt. Folded and thrust-faulted basalts within its foredeep strata are as young as 132.6 ± 2.4 Ma, thus defining within 5–6 Ma the regional tectonic transition between crustal contraction and profound crustal extension.

  7. The Taili-Yiwulüshan metamorphic core complex corridor: Diachronous exhumation and relationships to the adjacent basins based on new 40Ar/39Ar and (U-Th-Sm)/He mineral ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chenyue; Neubauer, Franz; Liu, Yongjiang; Genser, Johann; Dunkl, István; Heberer, Bianca; Jin, Wei; Zeng, Zuoxun; Li, Weimin; Wen, Quanbo; Li, Jing

    2015-04-01

    The Xingcheng-Taili ductile shear zone (western Liaoning Province in China) formed during latest Jurassic to Early Cretaceous crustal extension of the eastern North China craton, and exhumed low to medium metamorphic grade Archean, Upper Triassic and Upper Jurassic granitic rocks. The Mesozoic Yiwulüshan metamorphic core complex (Yiwulüshan MCC) is dominated by a NNE-SSW elongated dome with a left-lateral shear zone, which is located in the northeastern part of Xingcheng-Taili ductile shear zone, and combine as Taili-Yiwulüshan metamorphic core complex corridor. To the east, it is bounded by the NNE-trending Cretaceous to Eocene Liaohe basin (the northern extension of the Bohai Bay basin), and to the west by the Cretaceous-aged Fuxin-Yixian basin, which could potentially interpreted as supra-detachment basins. Here, we present results from a multi-method thermochronological study and coupled with structural investigations and sections of adjacent supra-detachment basins, which constrain the timing of regional deformation as well as the cooling history and exhumation processes of the low- to middle-grade metamorphic complex in the Taili-Yiwulüshan MCC corridor, in order to understand the mode of lithospheric scale reactivation, extension and thinning of the North China craton. The new40Ar/39Ar muscovite, biotite, K-feldspar and (U-Th)/He apatite ages from granitic rocks help constrain the thermal evolution during its exhumation. The thermochronologic studies have shown at least three stages of exhumation and cooling from late Jurassic to Eocene in Xingcheng-Taili shear zone should be distinguished, e.g., ~ 150-130 Ma, 130-115 Ma and 115-52 Ma, respectively. Diachronous onset and subsequent parallel cooling and exhumation characterize the early thermal history. The Yiwulüshan MCC has a similar exhumation history from 135 to 97 Ma with a similar cooling history. The development of Taili-Yiwulüshan MCC corridor is associated with synkinematic emplacement

  8. Changes in the Surface Area of Glaciers in Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khromova, T.; Nosenko, G.

    2012-12-01

    Glaciers are widely recognized as key indicators of climate change. Recent evidence suggests an acceleration of glacier mass loss in several key mountain regions. Glacier recession implies the landscape changes in the glacial zone, origin of new lakes and activation of natural disaster processes, catastrophic mudflows, ice avalanches, outburst floods, and etc. The presence of glaciers in itself threats to human life, economic activity and growing infrastructure. Economical and recreational human activity in mountain regions requires relevant information on snow and ice objects. Absence or inadequacy of such information results in financial and human losses. A more comprehensive evaluation of glacier changes is imperative to assess ice contributions to global sea level rise and the future of water resources from glacial basins. One of the urgent steps is a full inventory of all ice bodies, their volume and changes The first estimation of glaciers state and glaciers distribution in the big part of Northern Eurasia has been done in the USSR Glacier Inventory published in 1966 -1980 as a part of IHD activity. The Inventory is based on topographic maps and air photos and reflects the status of the glaciers in 1957-1970y. There is information about 23796 glaciers with area of 78222.3 km2 in the Inventory. It covers 23 glacier systems on Northern Eurasia. In the 80th the USSR Glacier Inventory has been transformed in the digital form as a part of the World Glacier Inventory. Recent satellite data provide a unique opportunity to look again at these glaciers and to evaluate changes in glacier extent for the second part of XX century. In the paper we report about 15 000 glaciers outlines for Caucasus, Pamir, Tien-Shan, Altai, Syntar-Khayata, Cherskogo Range, Kamchatka and Russian Arctic which have been derived from ASTER and Landsat imagery and could be used for glacier changes evaluation. The results show that glaciers are retreating in all these regions. There is, however

  9. Constraining the Distribution of Vertical Slip on the South Heli Shan Fault (Northeastern Tibet) From High-Resolution Topographic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Haiyun; Zheng, Wenjun; Ge, Weipeng; Zhang, Peizhen; Zeng, Jiangyuan; Yu, Jingxing

    2018-03-01

    Reconstruction of the along-fault slip distribution provides an insight into the long-term rupture patterns of a fault, thereby enabling more accurate assessment of its future behavior. The increasing wealth of high-resolution topographic data, such as Light Detection and Ranging and photogrammetric digital elevation models, allows us to better constrain the slip distribution, thus greatly improving our understanding of fault behavior. The South Heli Shan Fault is a major active fault on the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we built a 2 m resolution digital elevation model of the South Heli Shan Fault based on high-resolution GeoEye-1 stereo satellite imagery and then measured 302 vertical displacements along the fault, which increased the measurement density of previous field surveys by a factor of nearly 5. The cumulative displacements show an asymmetric distribution along the fault, comprising three major segments. An increasing trend from west to east indicates that the fault has likely propagated westward over its lifetime. The topographic relief of Heli Shan shows an asymmetry similar to the measured cumulative slip distribution, suggesting that the uplift of Heli Shan may result mainly from the long-term activity of the South Heli Shan Fault. Furthermore, the cumulative displacements divide into discrete clusters along the fault, indicating that the fault has ruptured in several large earthquakes. By constraining the slip-length distribution of each rupture, we found that the events do not support a characteristic recurrence model for the fault.

  10. The Climate Effect of the Topographies at the Northern Margin of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Y.; Shi, Z.; Liu, X.

    2017-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau play a crucial role in the formation and evolution of the Asian monsoon-interior aridity climate system. However, the climate effect of other relatively smaller topographies receives less attention. Based on high-resolved general circulation models, we conducted a series of sensitive experiments as with/without mountains, which include the Mongolian Plateau and the Tian Shan Mountains. The numerical simulations reveal the important impacts of the mountain ranges at the northern margins of the Tibetan Plateau. Compared to the main body of the Tibetan Plateau, the uplift of the Mongolian Plateau is essential for the establishment of the strong Siberian High. The East Asian winter monsoon and the westerly jet over the North Pacific Ocean are also significantly strengthened. At present, the Tian Shan Mountains geographically separate the arid interior Asia to the west and east sub-regions. However, the arid west sub-region (Central Asia) and the east sub-region (arid northwestern China) was connected as one large arid region before the uplift of the Tian Shan Mountains. The large arid interior land shares the same precipitation seasonality, with most rains fall in spring and winter while lowest precipitation in summer. After the uplift of the Tian Shan, the large arid region is divided into the west and east sub-regions by the wetter uplifted mountain ranges. More importantly, the precipitation seasonality in the east of the Tian Shan is reversed to be the summer-peak type, which is opposite to that in the Central Asia. The precipitation alteration corresponds well with the change of vertical motion. By the conservation of potential vorticity, the atmosphere stationary waves are modulated. Thus, the remote East Asian monsoon is also modulated. Though enhanced southerly wind blows over East Asia, the monsoon precipitation over the east coast of China and subtropical western Pacific Ocean is significantly reduced as an anticyclonic circulation appears

  11. Lead Levels in the Bones of Small Rodents from Alpine and Subalpine Habitats in the Tian-Shan Mountains, Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Ballová

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High mountain areas are an appropriate indicator of anthropogenic lead (Pb, which can reach remote mountain ranges through long distance atmospheric transport. We compared the content of Pb in ecologically equivalent rodent species from Tian-Shan with European mountain ranges including the Tatra, Vitosha and Rila mountains. We used bone tissues from terminal tail vertebrae of small rodents for detection of Pb levels through electro-thermal atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS. The tailbones of Tian-Shan rodents had significantly lower Pb levels than snow voles from the Tatra Mountains, but there was no significant difference in comparison with the Vitosha and Rila mountains. We can conclude that Tian-Shan shows lower pollution by Pb than the Tatras, which may be a result of prolonged industrialization of north-western Europe and strongly prevailing west winds in this region.

  12. Gardens and Gateways: Journeys within the Vision of Han-shan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Beidler

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Although rooted in the work of the T’ang poet Han-shan, this paper is ultimately about the ways in which writers and artists engage with what they experience in the world. The work of filmmaker Trin T Minh-Ha, poems by W.S. Merwin, Burtin Watson’s translations, and the thoughts on the creative process of translation by Tony Barnstone and Gary Snyder have all informed my work as an artist and the images I present here.

  13. Dark energy from cosmological fluids obeying a Shan-Chen non-ideal equation of state

    OpenAIRE

    Bini, Donato; Geralico, Andrea; Gregoris, Daniele; Succi, Sauro

    2014-01-01

    We consider a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe with a fluid source obeying a nonideal equation of state with ‘‘asymptotic freedom,’’ namely ideal gas behavior (pressure changes directly proportional to density changes) both at low and high density regimes, following a fluid dynamical model due to Shan and Chen. It is shown that, starting from an ordinary energy density component, such fluids naturally evolve towards a universe with a substantial ‘‘dark energy’’ component at the present tim...

  14. Structural evolution of the Ural-Tian Shan junction: A view from Karatau ridge, South Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeiev, D.V.; Cook, H.E.; Buvtyshkin, V.M.; Golub, L.Y.

    2009-01-01

    The deformation history of the Late Palaeozoic Ural-Tian Shan junction is discussed for the example of the Karatau ridge in southern Kazakhstan. Three deformation events are recognized. The Late Carboniferous D1 event is characterized by Laramide-style thrust-and-fold structures on the southern margin of Kazakhstan with shortening in a NE-SW direction. The Latest Permian and Triassic D2 event is controlled by compression in an east-west direction, which reflects collisional deformation in the Urals. The main structures are submeridional folds and north-west-striking sinistral strike-slip faults. The Triassic D3 event with shortening in a north-south direction reflects collision of the Turan microcontinent against the southern margin of Kazakhstan. The main structures are north-west-striking dextral strike-slip faults. Our new data provides important clues for the reconstruction of pre-Cretaceous structures between the Urals and the Tian Shan. ?? 2008 Acad??mie des sciences.

  15. A distribution list of the butterflies (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera of Tian-Shan within the boundaries of the former Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Korb

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A distributive list of butterflies of Tian-Shan in borders of former Soviet Union is compiled, it contains 289 species: Hesperiidae – 21 species, Papilionidae – 21 species; Pieridae – 38 species, Satyridae – 67 species, Lybitheidae – 1 species, Danaidae – 1 species, Nymphalidae – 42 species, Riodinidae – 2 species, Lycaenidae – 96 species. New synonyms are established.

  16. Petrology, isotopic and fluid inclusion studies of eclogites from Sujiahe, NW Dabie Shan (China), July 1 2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, B.; Zheng, Y.-F.; Touret, J.L.R.

    2002-01-01

    In addition to the Triassic Hong'an low-T-high-P eclogite and the Xinxian coesite-bearing kyanite-glaucophane eclogite, Silurian coesite-free amphibole eclogites occur in the Sujiahe region, NW Dabie Shan of central China. A comprehensive study of petrology, Nd-Sr, O-H isotopes and fluid inclusions

  17. Geomorphic response of an active metamorphic core-complex in a collisional orogen: Example from the Lunggar Shan, Southern Tibet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, M H; Stockli, D F; Kapp, P A

    2008-01-01

    We present structural and neotectonic mapping from the Lunggar Shan rift in southern Tibet. The Lunggar Shan is a N-trending mountain range ∼70 km long N-S and up to 40 km wide E-W. The Lunggar Shan is bounded on its east side by a low-angle ( 0 ) east-dipping detachment fault that juxtaposes mylonitic gneiss and variably deformed granites in its footwall against alluvial fans and Neogene gravels in its hangingwall. Foliations in the mylonitic footwall dip 40 m of throw on individual scarps. An intriguing observation is that an intrabasinal topographic high is actively developing near areas of inferred maximum extension, with lacustrine sediments being uplifted and eroded. This observation indicates that the rift basin initially developed as a typical half-graben system that underwent a transition from deposition, to uplift and erosion perhaps as a result of isostatic rebound of the footwall at depth, warping the overlying hangingwall basin. If correct, the Lunggar Shan may represent a modern analogue to the supradetachment basin model

  18. The 24 July 2008 outburst flood at the western Zyndan glacier lake and recent regional changes in glacier lakes of the Teskey Ala-Too range, Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Narama

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available On 24 July 2008, a glacier lake outburst flood (GLOF occurred at the western (w- Zyndan glacier lake in the Tong District of Ysyk-Köl Oblast, Kyrgyzstan. The flood killed three people and numerous livestock, destroyed infrastructure, and devastated potato and barley crops as well as pastures. Tuurasuu village and a downstream reservoir on the Zyndan river escaped heavy damage because the main flood was diverted toward the Tong river. RTK-GPS and satellite data (Landsat 7 ETM+, ALOS/PRISM, and ALOS/AVNIR-2 reveal that the flood reduced the lake area from 0.0422 km2 to 0.0083 km2, discharging 437 000 m3 of water. This glacier lake was not present in a Landsat 7 ETM+ image taken on 26 April 2008. It formed rapidly over just two and half months from early May to the late July, when large amounts of snow and glacier melt water became trapped in a basin in the glacier terminus area, blocked by temporary closure of the drainage channel through the terminal moraine that included much dead-ice. In the same mountain region, most other glacier-lake expansions were not particularly large during the period from 1999–2008. Although events like the w-Zyndan glacier lake outburst occur infrequently in the high Central Asian mountains, such fast developing, short-lived lakes are particularly dangerous and not easy to monitor using satellite data. Appropriate measures to protect against such lake outburst hazards in this region include educating residents on glacier hazards and monitoring techniques, providing frequently updated maps of glacier lakes, and planning and monitoring land-use, including house locations.

  19. Fault Slip and GPS Velocities Across the Shan Plateau Define a Curved Southwestward Crustal Motion Around the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xuhua; Wang, Yu; Sieh, Kerry; Weldon, Ray; Feng, Lujia; Chan, Chung-Han; Liu-Zeng, Jing

    2018-03-01

    Characterizing the 700 km wide system of active faults on the Shan Plateau, southeast of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis, is critical to understanding the geodynamics and seismic hazard of the large region that straddles neighboring China, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam. Here we evaluate the fault styles and slip rates over multi-timescales, reanalyze previously published short-term Global Positioning System (GPS) velocities, and evaluate slip-rate gradients to interpret the regional kinematics and geodynamics that drive the crustal motion. Relative to the Sunda plate, GPS velocities across the Shan Plateau define a broad arcuate tongue-like crustal motion with a progressively northwestward increase in sinistral shear over a distance of 700 km followed by a decrease over the final 100 km to the syntaxis. The cumulative GPS slip rate across the entire sinistral-slip fault system on the Shan Plateau is 12 mm/year. Our observations of the fault geometry, slip rates, and arcuate southwesterly directed tongue-like patterns of GPS velocities across the region suggest that the fault kinematics is characterized by a regional southwestward distributed shear across the Shan Plateau, compared to more block-like rotation and indentation north of the Red River fault. The fault geometry, kinematics, and regional GPS velocities are difficult to reconcile with regional bookshelf faulting between the Red River and Sagaing faults or localized lower crustal channel flows beneath this region. The crustal motion and fault kinematics can be driven by a combination of basal traction of a clockwise, southwestward asthenospheric flow around the eastern Himalayan syntaxis and gravitation or shear-driven indentation from north of the Shan Plateau.

  20. The Work of Inscription: Antenatal Care, Birth Documents, and Shan Migrant Women in Chiang Mai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Bo Kyeong

    2017-12-01

    For transnational migrant populations, securing birth documents of newly born children has crucial importance in avoiding statelessness for new generations. Drawing on discussions of sovereignty and political subjectivization, I ask how the fact of birth is constituted in the context of transnational migration. Based on ethnographic data collected from an antenatal clinic in Thailand, this article describes how Shan migrant women from Myanmar (also known as Burma) utilize reproductive health services as a way of assuring a safe birth while acquiring identification documents. Paying close attention to technologies of inscription adopted for maternal care and birth registration, I argue that enacting bureaucratic documents offers a chance for migrant women to bridge the interstice between human and citizen. Birth certificates for migrant children, while embodying legal ambiguity and uncertainty, epitomize non-citizen subjects' assertion of their political relationship with the state. © 2016 by the American Anthropological Association.

  1. N isotopes and N cycle in the TieShanPing subtropical forest ecosystem, Southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chun-lai; Zhang, Xiao-Shan

    2009-07-01

    Nitrogen is essential for forest growth and forest stand development. It is commonly a limited factor for forest productivity. We examined delta (15)N values in soils and plants by studying the sources of N used by vegetation and cycles of N in a 43-year-old plantation of the TieShanPing forest ecosystem in southwestern China, dominated by massone pine (Pinus massoniana). The N concentration of plant materials ranges from 1.1% to 2.2%. The nitrogen concentration of P. massoniana was 1.3% while soils showed the concentration of 0.04-0.15%. Regarding natural abundance of (15)N, large significant variation (-6.0 per thousand to -3.8 per thousand) in delta (15)N values was observed among shrub and tree leaves. delta (15)N values were also significantly varied from -4.7 per thousand to -3.8 per thousand among the pioneer species in the plantation. Soil delta (15)N values (3.1-6.3 per thousand) were significantly enriched compared to those values in plant samples. Despite the negative delta (15)N values of the vegetation cover, the high delta (15)N values in the topsoil indicate that return of N to soils by litter-fall is minimal on TieShanPing and the present forests do not change very much the soil (15)N signals at the surface layer. The positive delta (15)N values may also indicate large N losses from the soil system vial leaching, volatilization and plant uptake.

  2. Association between Social Integration and Health among Internal Migrants in ZhongShan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwei Lin

    Full Text Available Internal migrants are the individuals who migrate between regions in one country. The number of internal migrants were estimated at 245 million in China in 2013. Results were inconsistent in the literature about the relationship between their health statuses and social integration. The main difference exists on how to measure the social integration and whether health statuses of internal migrants improve with years of residence. To complement the existing literature, this study measured social integration more comprehensively and estimated the internal migrants' health statuses with varying years of residence, and explored the associations between the migrants' social integration and health. We used the data from 2014 Internal Migrant Dynamic Monitoring Survey of Health and Family Planning in ZhongShan, China. Health status was measured from four aspects: self-reported health, subjective well-being, perception of stress, mental health. We measured social integration through four dimensions: economy, social communication, acculturation, and self-identity. The analyses used multiple linear regressions to examine the associations between self-reported health, subjective well-being, and perception of stress, mental health and social integration. The analytical sample included 1,999 households of the internal migrants and 1,997 local registered households, who were permanent residents in ZhongShan. Among the internal migrants, Adults in the labor force, who were aged 25 to 44 years old, accounted for 91.2% of the internal migrant population, while 74.6% of the registered population were in that age group. Median residential time among migrants was 2.8 (1.3-6.2 years, and 20.2% of them were migrating in the same Guangdong province. Except for mental health, other health statuses among migrants had significant differences compared with local registered population, e.g. self-reported health was better, but subjective well-being was worse. However, these

  3. ¿Qué tienes en la cara, eso se quita?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Arévalo Romero

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente texto es un ensayo preparado por estudiantes de Medicina que tiene origen en su experiencia personal, ya que trata del padecimiento del acné en lo adolescencia, en él quieren concienciar a lo comunidad en general sobre las consecuencias psicológicas que genera el padecimiento del acné en el adolescente, y estimular a las personas a contribuir al desarrollo de estos jóvenes en la sociedad.

  4. Wormholes supported by phantom energy from Shan-Chen cosmological fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Deng [Nankai University, Theoretical Physics Division, Chern Institute of Mathematics, Tianjin (China); Meng, Xin-He [Nankai University, Department of Physics, Tianjin (China); Institute of Theoretical Physics, CAS, State key Lab of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China)

    2016-03-15

    In the present paper, the exact solutions of spherically symmetrical Einstein field equations describing wormholes supported by phantom energy that violates the null energy condition from Shan-Chen background fluid are obtained. We have considered the important case of the model parameter ψ ∼ 1, which corresponds to the ''saturation effect'', and this regime corresponds to an effective form of ''asymptotic freedom'' for the fluids, but occurring at cosmological rather than subnuclear scales. Then we investigate the allowed range for the values of the model parameters g and ω when the spacetime metrics describe wormholes and discuss the possible singularities of the solutions, finding that the obtained spacetimes are geodesically complete. Furthermore, we construct two traversable wormholes through matching our obtained interior solutions to the exterior Schwarzschild solutions and analyze the traversabilities of the wormholes. Finally, we consider the case of anisotropic pressure and discover that the transverse pressure also crosses the phantom divide -1 with the growth of the wormhole dimension, and it tends to be the same as the radial pressure with the growth of the wormhole radius. (orig.)

  5. Chin Shan analyses show advantages of whole pool multi-rack approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K.P.; Soler, A.I.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear fuel storage racks are essentially thin-walled, cellular structures of prismatic cross-section. Although the details of design vary from one supplier to another, certain key physical attributes are common to all designs. For example, all racks feature square cells of sufficient opening size and height to enable insertion and withdrawal of the fuel assembly. The array of cells is positioned in a vertical orientation and is supported off the pool slab surface by four or more support legs. The spent fuel pool is filled with the individual fuel racks. The plenum created by the support legs is essential for proper cooling of the fuel assemblies stored in the rack, which relies on natural convective cooling to extract the heat emitted by the spent fuel. However, it has the insalutary effect of making it kinematically less stable. Regulatory authorities require careful and comprehensive analysis of the response of the racks under the seismic motions postulated for the pool slab. Results from whole pool multi-rack (WPMR) analyses at the Chin Shan and Oyster Creek nuclear plants point up the potential inadequacies of single rack 3D analyses, and show just how important it is to carry out WPMR simulations, despite their abstruseness and high cost. (author)

  6. Influence of surface-normal ground acceleration on the initiation of the Jih-Feng-Erh-Shan landslide during the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.-C.; Lee, Y.-H.; Liu, Huaibao P.; Keefer, D.K.; Jibson, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    The 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake triggered numerous landslides throughout a large area in the Central Range, to the east, southeast, and south of the fault rupture. Among them are two large rock avalanches, at Tsaoling and at Jih-Feng-Erh-Shan. At Jih-Feng-Erh-Shan, the entire thickness (30-50 m) of the Miocene Changhukeng Shale over an area of 1 km2 slid down its bedding plane for a distance of about 1 km. Initial movement of the landslide was nearly purely translational. We investigate the effect of surface-normal acceleration on the initiation of the Jih-Feng-Erh-Shan landslide using a block slide model. We show that this acceleration, currently not considered by dynamic slope-stability analysis methods, significantly influences the initiation of the landslide.

  7. Salud Tiene Sabor: a model for healthier restaurants in a Latino community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevarez, Carmen R; Lafleur, Mariah S; Schwarte, Liz U; Rodin, Beth; de Silva, Pri; Samuels, Sarah E

    2013-03-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children has risen nationally in recent decades, and is exceptionally high in low-income communities of color such as South Los Angeles CA. Independently owned restaurants participating in the Salud Tiene Sabor program at ethnic foods marketplace Mercado La Paloma in South Los Angeles are responding to the childhood obesity crisis by posting calories for menu items and providing nutrition information to patrons. To evaluate whether menu labeling and nutrition information at point of purchase have an influence on availability of healthy food options, patron awareness of calorie information, and restaurant owners' support of the program. A case-study design using mixed methods included restaurant owner and stakeholder interviews, patron surveys, and environmental assessments. Data were collected using originally designed tools, and analyzed in 2009-2011. Healthy eating options were available at the Mercado La Paloma; restaurant owners and the larger community supported the Salud Tiene Sabor program; 33% of patrons reported calorie information-influenced purchase decisions. Owners of independent restaurants have an important role in improving access to healthy foods in low-income, Latino communities. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 3D Crust and Uppermost Mantle Structure beneath Tian Shan Region from ambient noise and earthquake surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, X.; Wen, L.

    2017-12-01

    As a typical active intracontinental mountain range in Central Asia, Tian Shan Mt serves as the prototype in studying geodynamic processes and mechanism of intracontinental mountain building. We study 3D crust and the uppermost mantle structure beneath Tian Shan region using ambient noise and earthquake surface waves. Our dataset includes vertical component records of 62 permanent broadband seismic stations operated by the Earthquake Administration of China. Firstly, we calculate two-year stacked Cross-Correlation Functions (CCFs) of ambient noise records between the stations. The CCFs are treated as the Empirical Green's Functions (EGFs) of each station pair, from which we measured phase velocities of fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave in the period of 3-40 s using a frequency-time analysis method. Secondly, we collect surface wave data from tele-seismic events with Mw > 5.5 and depth shallower than 200 km and measure phase velocities of the fundamental-mode of Rayleigh wave in the period of 30-150 s using a two-station method. Finally, we combine the phase velocity measurements from ambient noise and earthquake surface waves, obtain lateral isotropic phase velocity maps at different periods based on tomography and invert a 3D Vsv model of crust and uppermost mantle down to about 150 km using a Monte Carlo Inversion method. We will discuss our inversion results in detail, as well as their implications to the tectonics in the region.

  9. Two New Monoterpene Glycosides from Qing Shan Lu Shui Tea with Inhibitory Effects on Leukocyte-Type 12-Lipoxygenase Activity

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    Ding Zhi Fang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the inhibitory effect of 12 Chinese teas on leukocyte-type 12-lipoxygenase (LOX activity. Tea catechins such as epigallocatechin gallate have been known to exhibit leukocyte-type 12-LOX inhibition. Qing Shan Lu Shui, which contains lower catechin levels than the other tested teas, suppressed leukocyte-type 12-LOX activity. To characterize the bioactive components of Qing Shan Lu Shui, leukocyte-type 12-LOX inhibitory activity–guided fractionation of the aqueous ethanol extract of the tea was performed, resulting in the isolation of two new monoterpene glycosides: liguroside A (1 and B (2. The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were characterized as (2E,5E-7-hydroperoxy-3,7-dimethyl-2,5-octadienyl-O-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1″→3′-(4′″-O-trans-p-coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranoside and (2E,5E-7-hydroperoxy-3,7-dimethyl-2,5-octa-dienyl- O-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1″→3′-(4′″-O-cis-p-coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, respectively, based on spectral and chemical evidence. Ligurosides A (1 and B (2 showed inhibitory effects on leukocyte-type 12-LOX activity, with IC50 values of 1.7 and 0.7 μM, respectively.

  10. La alucinación verbal tiene la estructura de la holofrase

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    Arturo de la Pava Ossa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available ¿En qué sentido la alucinaciónauditiva tiene la estructura dela holofrase? La holofrase es lainterjección, dice Lacan en 1958.En 1964, plantea que cuando enel primer par significante no hayintervalo, se solidifica, “se holofrasea”;a lo que añade que algo delmismo orden ocurre en la psicosis.Esta afirmación aporta elementospara pensar que la alucinación esuna holofrase y cómo a partir deella el psicótico construye su delirioparanoico.Palabras clave: holofrase, interjección,alucinación, discurso, funciónfálica.

  11. Miseria y violencia en El Coronel no tiene quien le escriba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Escobar Soriano

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo describe la marginación y la pobreza de un sector de la sociedad colombiana en El Coronel no tiene quien le escriba, la célebre novela de Gabriel García Márquez. Mientras el Coronel espera la llegada de la carta, su hijo Agustín, ha muerto por sus actividades revolucionarias. El y su mujer enferma viven en una casa hipotecada y comen de las migajas que le sobran al gallo. El grado de injusticia y violencia política que se respira en el ambiente aumentan la crisis económica del Coronel y generan en él una resistencia pasiva que recobra cuando se niega a vender el gallo y decide esperar la fecha de la pelea.

  12. Estimation of recurrence interval of large earthquakes on the central Longmen Shan fault zone based on seismic moment accumulation/release model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Junjie; Zhang, Shimin

    2013-01-01

    Recurrence interval of large earthquake on an active fault zone is an important parameter in assessing seismic hazard. The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9) occurred on the central Longmen Shan fault zone and ruptured the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (YBF) and the Guanxian-Jiangyou fault (GJF). However, there is a considerable discrepancy among recurrence intervals of large earthquake in preseismic and postseismic estimates based on slip rate and paleoseismologic results. Post-seismic trenches showed that the central Longmen Shan fault zone probably undertakes an event similar to the 2008 quake, suggesting a characteristic earthquake model. In this paper, we use the published seismogenic model of the 2008 earthquake based on Global Positioning System (GPS) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data and construct a characteristic seismic moment accumulation/release model to estimate recurrence interval of large earthquakes on the central Longmen Shan fault zone. Our results show that the seismogenic zone accommodates a moment rate of (2.7 ± 0.3) × 10¹⁷ N m/yr, and a recurrence interval of 3900 ± 400 yrs is necessary for accumulation of strain energy equivalent to the 2008 earthquake. This study provides a preferred interval estimation of large earthquakes for seismic hazard analysis in the Longmen Shan region.

  13. Estimation of Recurrence Interval of Large Earthquakes on the Central Longmen Shan Fault Zone Based on Seismic Moment Accumulation/Release Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Ren

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recurrence interval of large earthquake on an active fault zone is an important parameter in assessing seismic hazard. The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9 occurred on the central Longmen Shan fault zone and ruptured the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (YBF and the Guanxian-Jiangyou fault (GJF. However, there is a considerable discrepancy among recurrence intervals of large earthquake in preseismic and postseismic estimates based on slip rate and paleoseismologic results. Post-seismic trenches showed that the central Longmen Shan fault zone probably undertakes an event similar to the 2008 quake, suggesting a characteristic earthquake model. In this paper, we use the published seismogenic model of the 2008 earthquake based on Global Positioning System (GPS and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR data and construct a characteristic seismic moment accumulation/release model to estimate recurrence interval of large earthquakes on the central Longmen Shan fault zone. Our results show that the seismogenic zone accommodates a moment rate of (2.7 ± 0.3 × 1017 N m/yr, and a recurrence interval of 3900 ± 400 yrs is necessary for accumulation of strain energy equivalent to the 2008 earthquake. This study provides a preferred interval estimation of large earthquakes for seismic hazard analysis in the Longmen Shan region.

  14. Using slope-area and apatite fission track analysis to decipher the rock uplift pattern of the Yumu Shan: New insights into the growth of the NE Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yizhou; Zheng, Dewen; Pang, Jianzhang; Zhang, Huiping; Wang, Weitao; Yu, Jingxing; Zhang, Zhuqi; Zheng, Wenjun; Zhang, Peizhen; Li, Youjuan

    2018-05-01

    Studies have shown that the growth of the Qilian Shan, the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, started 10 Ma ago. However, when and how it expanded northwards is still under debate. Here we focus on the rock uplift pattern of the Yumu Shan, an active fault-related fold in the Hexi Corridor north to the Qilian Shan. Normalized channel steepness achieved from the analysis of river longitudinal profiles shows a spatially variant rock uplift pattern, with higher rates in the middle part and lower rates towards the west and east tips. The compression of the mountain is typically accommodated by fault-fold related shortening and vertical thickening. Apatite fission track thermochronology reveals that the growth of the Yumu Shan started 4 Ma ago, similar to the work on active tectonics. Combining the onset ages of the growth of the Qilian Shan (10 Ma), Laojunmiao anticline (3-4 Ma), Baiyanghe anticline (3-4 Ma), Wenshu Shan (4.5 Ma) and Heli Shan (2 Ma), we draw an conclusion that the NE margin of the Tibetan Plateau initiated growth in the mid-Miocene and expanded to the Hexi Corridor and to the south of the Alxa block in the early Pleistocene.

  15. Seismic properties of the Longmen Shan complex: Implications for the moment magnitude of the great 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shengsi; Ji, Shaocheng; Wang, Qian; Wang, Hongcai; Long, Changxing; Salisbury, Matthew

    2012-09-01

    The 12 May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake is the largest active tectonic event reported to date in Sichuan (China). We have experimentally calibrated, up to 800 MPa, seismic and elastic properties of 12 representative samples from the Longmen Shan complex in which this great earthquake took place and its coseismic ruptures nucleated and propagated. Most of the samples show little Vp or Vs anisotropy at pressures above the microcrack-closure pressure (Pc = 200-300 MPa), and so the variation of anisotropy with pressure provides important hints for the preferred orientation of microcracks in the nonlinear poroelastic regime below Pc. Geothermal and rheological profiles indicate that the focal depth (~ 19 km) corresponds to the base of the schizosphere, below which the Longmen Shan complex switches from the brittle to ductile behavior. The investigation reveals that the crust of the Longmen Shan range consists of 4 layers from the surface to the Moho: Layer 1: Vp < 4.88 km/s (0-3 km thick, sedimentary rocks such as limestone, sandstone, conglomerate, and mudstone); Layer 2: Vp = 5.95-6.25 km/s (25-28 km thick, felsic rocks); Layer 3: Vp = 6.55 km/s (10 km thick, 67.5% felsic and 32.5% mafic rocks); and Layer 4: Vp = 6.90 km/s (8 km thick, 20.0% felsic and 80.0% mafic rocks). The average Vp/Vs ratio of 1.71 or Poisson's ratio of 0.24 calculated for the whole crust is consistent with the results measured using teleseismic receiver function techniques. This study also offers necessary information for broadband simulations of strong ground motions in the assessment and forecast of earthquake hazards in the region. Furthermore, the study, which yields a moment magnitude of 7.9-8.0 given the variation in the dip of the coseismic ruptures and the uncertainty in the depth to which the coseismic rupture may propagate downwards below the depth of the mainshock hypocenter, presents the first accurate quantification of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake's size.

  16. Siberia, the wandering northern terrane, and its changing geography through the Palaeozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocks, L. Robin M.; Torsvik, Trond H.

    2007-05-01

    -Siberia, the North China Terrane, the Manchurides terranes (including the Khingan-Bureya Massif area), the Gurvanshayan Terrane, the Ala Shan Terrane, the Qaidam-Qilian Terrane, the Tarim Terrane, the Junggar Terrane, the Tien Shan terranes and the various Kazakh terranes, did not become part of the Siberian Terrane assemblage until they accreted to it in the Upper Palaeozoic or later during the formation of Pangea. The Farewell Terrane of Alaska includes typical Lower and Middle Palaeozoic Siberian endemic faunas, but its Palaeozoic position is unknown. Cambrian to Early Silurian palaeomagnetic poles from the southern and northern parts of the Siberian Craton differ, but can be matched with an Euler pole of 60°N, 120°E and a rotation angle of 13°. We link this observation with Devonian rifting in the Viljuy Basin near the centre of the craton and also postulate that this rifting rejuvenated an older Precambrian rift zone, since 1-1.1 Ga poles from southern and northern Siberia differ as much as 23° around the same Euler pole. A revised Palaeozoic apparent polar wander (APW) path is presented for the Siberian Craton in which pre-Devonian poles are corrected for Viljuy Basin rifting. There is also much Late Devonian tectonic activity in the Altai-Sayan area, which may be linked. The APW path implies that Siberia was located at low southerly latitudes at the dawn of the Palaeozoic and slowly drifted northward (different APW path alternatives that result in two very different convergence scenarios between Siberia and Baltica/Kazakh terranes. There are a newly-constructed succession of palaeogeographic maps of Siberia and its nearby areas at various times from the Cambrian to the Permian as, firstly, the peri-Siberian terranes and, secondly, the remainder of the Central Asian terranes accreted to it. Prior to the Early Ordovician, Siberia was in the southern hemisphere, but after that it drifted northwards and for most of the Phanerozoic it has been one of the few larger

  17. Detection of Schistosoma Antibodies and exploration of associated factors among local residents around Inlay Lake, Southern Shan State, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soe, Htin Zaw; Oo, Cho Cho; Myat, Tin Ohn; Maung, Nay Soe

    2017-03-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic parasitic disease caused by blood flukes (trematode worms) of the genus Schistosoma. Its transmission has been reported in 78 countries affecting at least 258 million people world-wide. It was documented that S. japonicum species was prevalent in Shan State, Myanmar, but the serological study was not conducted yet. General objective of the present study was to detect schistosoma antibodies and explore associated factors among local residents living around Inlay Lake, Nyaung Shwe Township, and Southern Shan State, Myanmar. An exploratory and cross-sectional analytic study was conducted among local residents (n = 315) in selected rural health center (RHC) areas from December 2012 through June 2013. The participants were interviewed with pretested semi-structured questionnaires and their blood samples (serum) were tested using Schistosomiasis Serology Microwell ELISA test kits (sensitivity 100% and specificity 85%) which detected IgG antibodies but could not distinguish between a new and past infection. Data collected were analysed by SPSS software 16.0 and associations of variables were determined by Chi-squared test with a significant level set at 0.05. Schistosoma seroprevalence (IgG) in study area was found to be 23.8% (95% CI: 18.8-28.8%). The present study is the first and foremost study producing serological evidence of schistosoma infection-one of the neglected tropical diseases-in local people of Myanmar. The factors significantly associated with seropositivity were being male [OR = 2.6 (95% CI: 1.5-4.49), P Myanmar, and this should be further confirmed parasitologically and kept under surveillance. Proper trainings on diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of schistosomiasis should be provided to the healthcare providers. ISRCTN ISRCTN73824458 . Registered 28 September 2014, retrospectively registered.

  18. Northern employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavitz, J.

    1997-01-01

    Hiring practices and policies and employment opportunities that were available in the Beaufort Sea and MacKenzie Delta project for local residents and for people from southern Canada were dealt with in this chapter. Depending on the source, Northern hiring was a mere token, or a genuine and successful effort on the part of the companies to involve the native population and to share with them the benefits of the project. The fact remains that opening up job opportunities for Northerners was not easily attained, and would never have been realized without the involvement of government and community organizations. Government also played a major role in developing policies and training regimes. By the end of exploration operations, the hiring of Northern residents in the oil and gas industry had become a requirement of drilling applications. Training programs were also created to ensure that Northern residents received the means necessary to take advantage of Northern employment opportunities

  19. Inhibition of metastasis, angiogenesis, and tumor growth by Chinese herbal cocktail Tien-Hsien Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Andy

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advanced cancer is a multifactorial disease that demands treatments targeting multiple cellular pathways. Chinese herbal cocktail which contains various phytochemicals may target multiple dys-regulated pathways in cancer cells and thus may provide an alternative/complementary way to treat cancers. Previously we reported that the Chinese herbal cocktail Tien-Hsien Liguid (THL can specifically induce apoptosis in various cancer cells and have immuno-modulating activity. In this study, we further evaluated the anti-metastatic, anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor activities of THL with a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments. Methods The migration and invasion of cancer cells and endothelial cells was determined by Boyden chamber transwell assays. The effect of THL on pulmonary metastasis was done by injecting CT-26 colon cancer cells intravenously to syngenic mice. The in vitro and in vivo microvessel formation was determined by the tube formation assay and the Matrigel plug assay, respectively. The in vivo anti-tumor effect of THL was determined by a human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenograft model. The expression of metalloproteinase (MMP-2, MMP-9, and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA was measured by gelatin zymography. The expression of HIF-1α and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 were determined by Western blot. Results THL inhibited the migration and invasion ability of various cancer cells in vitro, decreased the secretion of MMP-2, MMP-9, and uPA and the activity of ERK1/2 in cancer cells, and suppressed pulmonary metastasis of CT-26 cancer cells in syngenic mice. Moreover, THL inhibited the migration, invasion, and tube formation of endothelial cells in vitro, decreased the secretion of MMP-2 and uPA in endothelial cells, and suppressed neovascularization in Matrigel plugs in mice. Besides its inhibitory effect on endothelial cells, THL inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor-A expression

  20. Inhibition of metastasis, angiogenesis, and tumor growth by Chinese herbal cocktail Tien-Hsien Liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia, Jean-San; Du, Jia-Ling; Hsu, Wei-Bin; Sun, Andy; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Wang, Won-Bo

    2010-01-01

    Advanced cancer is a multifactorial disease that demands treatments targeting multiple cellular pathways. Chinese herbal cocktail which contains various phytochemicals may target multiple dys-regulated pathways in cancer cells and thus may provide an alternative/complementary way to treat cancers. Previously we reported that the Chinese herbal cocktail Tien-Hsien Liguid (THL) can specifically induce apoptosis in various cancer cells and have immuno-modulating activity. In this study, we further evaluated the anti-metastatic, anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor activities of THL with a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments. The migration and invasion of cancer cells and endothelial cells was determined by Boyden chamber transwell assays. The effect of THL on pulmonary metastasis was done by injecting CT-26 colon cancer cells intravenously to syngenic mice. The in vitro and in vivo microvessel formation was determined by the tube formation assay and the Matrigel plug assay, respectively. The in vivo anti-tumor effect of THL was determined by a human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenograft model. The expression of metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) was measured by gelatin zymography. The expression of HIF-1α and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 were determined by Western blot. THL inhibited the migration and invasion ability of various cancer cells in vitro, decreased the secretion of MMP-2, MMP-9, and uPA and the activity of ERK1/2 in cancer cells, and suppressed pulmonary metastasis of CT-26 cancer cells in syngenic mice. Moreover, THL inhibited the migration, invasion, and tube formation of endothelial cells in vitro, decreased the secretion of MMP-2 and uPA in endothelial cells, and suppressed neovascularization in Matrigel plugs in mice. Besides its inhibitory effect on endothelial cells, THL inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor-A expression in cancer cells. Finally, our results show that THL

  1. Ductile bookshelf faulting: A new kinematic model for Cenozoic deformation in northern Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuza, A. V.; Yin, A.

    2013-12-01

    It has been long recognized that the most dominant features on the northern Tibetan Plateau are the >1000 km left-slip strike-slip faults (e.g., the Atyn Tagh, Kunlun, and Haiyuan faults). Early workers used the presence of these faults, especially the Kunlun and Haiyuan faults, as evidence for eastward lateral extrusion of the plateau, but their low documented offsets--100s of km or less--can not account for the 2500 km of convergence between India and Asia. Instead, these faults may result from north-south right-lateral simple shear due to the northward indentation of India, which leads to the clockwise rotation of the strike-slip faults and left-lateral slip (i.e., bookshelf faulting). With this idea, deformation is still localized on discrete fault planes, and 'microplates' or blocks rotate and/or translate with little internal deformation. As significant internal deformation occurs across northern Tibet within strike-slip-bounded domains, there is need for a coherent model to describe all of the deformational features. We also note the following: (1) geologic offsets and Quaternary slip rates of both the Kunlun and Haiyuan faults vary along strike and appear to diminish to the east, (2) the faults appear to kinematically link with thrust belts (e.g., Qilian Shan, Liupan Shan, Longmen Shan, and Qimen Tagh) and extensional zones (e.g., Shanxi, Yinchuan, and Qinling grabens), and (3) temporal relationships between the major deformation zones and the strike-slip faults (e.g., simultaneous enhanced deformation and offset in the Qilian Shan and Liupan Shan, and the Haiyuan fault, at 8 Ma). We propose a new kinematic model to describe the active deformation in northern Tibet: a ductile-bookshelf-faulting model. With this model, right-lateral simple shear leads to clockwise vertical axis rotation of the Qaidam and Qilian blocks, and left-slip faulting. This motion creates regions of compression and extension, dependent on the local boundary conditions (e.g., rigid

  2. The Long-term deformation of the Longmen Shan (Sichuan, China), a key to understand the present structure of the eastern Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airaghi, Laura; de Sigoyer, Julia; Guillot, Stéphane; Lanari, Pierre; Warren, Clare J.; Robert, Alexandra

    2017-04-01

    The Longmen Shan thrust belt, at the eastern border of Tibetan plateau, is a tectonically active region as demonstrated by the Mw 7.9 Wenchuan (2008) and Mw 6.6 Lushan (2013) earthquakes. The Moho discontinuity deepens across the Longmen Shan (below the along-strike Wenchuan fault) from ˜40 km beneath the Sichuan basin to more than 60 km beneath the Songpan-Ganze block. Such a thickness is not compatible with the only ˜35 km of shortening estimated at the front of the belt during the Cenozoic-Quaternary compressive reactivation. The geological inheritance may thus play a key role in the present structure of the Longmen Shan. However the long-term history of the belt is still poorly documented. The major Wenchuan fault separates medium-grade metamorphic rocks to the West (internal domain of the Longmen Shan) to the greenschist metamorphic rocks to the East (external domain). In the hanging and footwall of the fault the South China basement also crops out. Metamorphic rocks, exhumed from depth, offer the opportunity to investigate the deep processes occurred in the Longmen Shan. We have characterized and dated the metamorphism in the central part of the belt by combining structural and microstructural observations with high-resolution X-ray mapping and chemical analyses of metamorphic minerals related to the different stages of deformation. In situ 40Ar/39Ar dating on mica and in situ U-Pb/Th dating on allanite (REE-rich epidote) allowed the different phases of metamorphism and deformation to be dated. Our results show that the Longmen Shan underwent a complex Mesozoic tectono-metamorphic history, articulated in a succession of pulses of deformation (burial or uplifting) and periods of quiescence. A first phase of rapid thin-skinned deformation occurred about 200 Ma ago. Internal sedimentary units were strongly deformed and buried down to 11±1 kbar, 550±30˚ C. This phase was followed by a period of slow exhumation between 200 and 170 Ma. A second pulse of

  3. Late Quaternary cooling rate constrained by multiple IRSL thermochronometers of potassium feldspars for granites from Kongur Shan, Chinese Pamir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jintang; Chen, Jie; Valla, Pierre; Herman, Frédéric

    2015-04-01

    The Kongur Shan (East Pamir), located at the northwestern Tibetan Plateau, is one of the most active orogens on Earth, where both tectonic processes along major active faults and climatic forcing (extensive glaciers coverage) are contributing to the regional landscape evolution. The exhumation rates since late Miocene was constrained to be ~6.5 - 4.2 mm/yr. However, it is still debated whether the exhumation rate accelerated since the Quaternary, of which the climate was featured by the cyclic glaciations with periods of 100 ka and 40 ka. In this study, we tried to employ luminescence thermochronology, which is a still in developing method, to resolve the impact of glacial cycles on exhumation rate. Our study site is located ~10 km to the east of the active Kongur normal fault, along the major valley of Gez river. We sampled three granite rocks from a sub-horizontal tunnel across the granite massif; one was from the entrance of the tunnel, and other two samples were from inside of the tunnel, where the measured ambient temperature is as high as 60-70 ° C. The distances of these samples are within 2 km. Four types of IRSL signals extracted from potassium feldspars (K-feldspars) were measured for each individual sample, and the results of isothermal decay experiments indicated these signals were of different thermal stabilities. Therefore, they may serve as four thermochronometers with different closure temperature. We employ these multiple thermochronometers together for each single sample to constrain their cooling rates. Our preliminary results, which are based on the simplified luminescence model of K-feldspars, suggest that the averaged cooling rate of the last 200 ka is as high as 1.4 oC/ka, which corresponds to an exhumation rate of ~ 2.3 to 0.9 cm/yr with the geothermal gradient assumed to be 60 to 150 oC/km. It seems to imply that the glacial cycles during the Quaternary substantially accelerated the exhumation rate of granite massif of Kongur Shan.

  4. Erosion Associated with Seismically-Induced Landslides in the Middle Longmen Shan Region, Eastern Tibetan Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhikun Ren

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake and associated co-seismic landslide was the most recent expression of the rapid deformation and erosion occurring in the eastern Tibetan Plateau. The erosion associated with co-seismic landslides balances the long-term tectonic uplift in the topographic evolution of the region; however, the quantitative relationship between earthquakes, uplift, and erosion is still unknown. In order to quantitatively distinguish the seismically-induced erosion in the total erosion, here, we quantify the Wenchuan earthquake-induced erosion using the digital elevation model (DEM differential method and previously-reported landslide volumes. Our results show that the seismically-induced erosion is comparable with the pre-earthquake short-term erosion. The seismically-induced erosion rate contributes ~50% of the total erosion rate, which suggests that the local topographic evolution of the middle Longmen Shan region may be closely related to tectonic events, such as the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. We propose that seismically-induced erosion is a very important component of the total erosion, particularly in active orogenic regions. Our results demonstrate that the remote sensing technique of differential DEM provides a powerful tool for evaluating the volume of co-seismic landslides produced in intermountain regions by strong earthquakes.

  5. De l’utopie socialiste au réalisme chrétien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Richet

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Le New Deal est le premier mouvement réformiste d’ampleur dans l’histoire des Etats‑Unis qui n’ait pas été inspiré, ni soutenu, par les forces du protestantisme. Si une majorité des protestants et de leur clergé se sont opposés au New Deal à partir de positions conservatrices, le théologien Reinhold Niebuhr en a développé au départ une virulente critique de gauche avant de finalement rallier le président démocrate à la fin des années trente. Nourrie par le rejet de l’idéalisme du Social Gospel, incapable à ses yeux de comprendre les rapports sociaux en terme de classe et de pouvoir, la critique de Niebuhr emprunte les outils d’analyse marxistes pour développer une approche réaliste, tant du point de vue des fins que des moyens de la lutte politique. Le New Deal lui apparaît avant tout comme un programme visant à sauver le capitalisme, alors que la société fondée sur la justice qu’il envisage passe par la socialisation des moyens de production qui ne pourra émerger qu’à travers des conflits sociaux au cours desquels les moyens de lutte même violents sont justifiés. Mais sous l’influence des évènements en Europe au lendemain de la victoire d’Hitler, Reinhold Niebuhr se tourne au milieu des années trente vers une réflexion théologique inspirée de l’orthodoxie de Karl Barth et de son frère Richard Niebuhr, qui l’amène à réintroduire le péché comme la limite absolue de toute l’expérience humaine, interdisant d’envisager la création d’une société de paix et de justice. Ce nouvel absolutisme théologique nourrit un relativisme politique, le réalisme chrétien consistant désormais à choisir la moins mauvaise des options en présence. De ce point de vue, le président démocrate qui appelle à la préparation militaire s’impose désormais comme le choix le plus réaliste face à la montée du fascisme en Europe.The New Deal was the first major reformist experiment in the

  6. 3D Modeling of Glacial Erratic Boulders in the Haizi Shan Region, Eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheriff, M.; Stevens, J.; Radue, M. J.; Strand, P.; Zhou, W.; Putnam, A. E.

    2017-12-01

    The focus of our team's research is to study patterns of glacier retreat in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres at the end of the last ice age. Our purpose is to search for what caused this great global warming. Such information will improve understanding of how the climate system may respond to the human-induced buildup of fossil carbon dioxide. To reconstruct past glacier behavior, we sample boulders deposited by glaciers to find the rate of ancient recession. Each sample is tested to determine the age of the boulder using 10Be cosmogenic-nuclide dating. My portion of this research focuses on creating 3D models of the sampled boulders. Such high-resolution 3D models afford visual inspection and analysis of each boulder in a virtual reality environment after fieldwork is complete. Such detailed virtual reconstructions will aid post-fieldwork evaluation of sampled boulders. This will help our team interpret 10Be dating results. For example, a high-resolution model can aid post-fieldwork observations, and allow scientists to determine whether the rock has been previously covered, eroded, or moved since it was deposited by the glacier, but before the sample was collected. Also a model can be useful for recognizing patterns between age and boulder morphology. Lastly, the models can be used for those who wish to review the data after publication. To create the 3D models, I will use Hero4 GoPro and Canon PowerShot digital cameras to collect photographs of each boulder from different angles. I will then process the digital imagery using `structure-from-motion' techniques and Agisoft Photoscan software. All boulder photographs will be synthesized to 3D and based on a standardized scale. We will then import these models into an environment that can be accessed using cutting-edge virtual reality technology. By producing a virtual archive of 3D glacial boulder reconstructions, I hope to provide deeper insight into geological processes influencing these boulders during and

  7. The numerical simulation study of the dynamic evolutionary processes in an earthquake cycle on the Longmen Shan Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wei; Shen, Zheng-Kang; Zhang, Yong

    2016-04-01

    The Longmen Shan, located in the conjunction of the eastern margin the Tibet plateau and Sichuan basin, is a typical area for studying the deformation pattern of the Tibet plateau. Following the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake (WE) rupturing the Longmen Shan Fault (LSF), a great deal of observations and studies on geology, geophysics, and geodesy have been carried out for this region, with results published successively in recent years. Using the 2D viscoelastic finite element model, introducing the rate-state friction law to the fault, this thesis makes modeling of the earthquake recurrence process and the dynamic evolutionary processes in an earthquake cycle of 10 thousand years. By analyzing the displacement, velocity, stresses, strain energy and strain energy increment fields, this work obtains the following conclusions: (1) The maximum coseismic displacement on the fault is on the surface, and the damage on the hanging wall is much more serious than that on the foot wall of the fault. If the detachment layer is absent, the coseismic displacement would be smaller and the relative displacement between the hanging wall and foot wall would also be smaller. (2) In every stage of the earthquake cycle, the velocities (especially the vertical velocities) on the hanging wall of the fault are larger than that on the food wall, and the values and the distribution patterns of the velocity fields are similar. While in the locking stage prior to the earthquake, the velocities in crust and the relative velocities between hanging wall and foot wall decrease. For the model without the detachment layer, the velocities in crust in the post-seismic stage is much larger than those in other stages. (3) The maximum principle stress and the maximum shear stress concentrate around the joint of the fault and detachment layer, therefore the earthquake would nucleate and start here. (4) The strain density distribution patterns in stages of the earthquake cycle are similar. There are two

  8. Paleomagnetic constraints on the Cenozoic kinematic evolution of the Pamir plateau from the Western Kunlun Shan foreland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenyu; Ding, Lin; Lippert, Peter C.; Wei, Honghong

    2013-09-01

    Thick Cenozoic marine and terrestrial sediments are widely distributed along the perimeter of the Pamir plateau and provide valuable information on the kinematic evolution of the region. Here, we report new biostratigraphic and paleomagnetic results from the piedmont of the Western Kunlun Shan to constrain the magnitude and timing of vertical-axis rotations along the eastern margin of the Pamir. Sampling sites were selected by rock formations and ages, which are based on previous field mapping and on litholostratigraphic and biostratigraphic work presented here. Thermomagnetic analysis, step-wise thermal demagnetization behavior, and positive field tests all suggest that the characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) directions most probably have a primary detrital and chemical origin. Our results indicate variable, minor, but in some intervals significant vertical axis rotations with respect to a stable Asian reference frame. This pattern of rotations is similar to paleomagnetic data reported in previously published studies from the Eastern Pamir foreland. In contrast, published paleomagnetic data from the Western Pamir foreland consistently indicate significant CCW rotations within that region. Collectively, these results challenge simple oroclinal bending models for the origin of the Pamir salient, and instead are more consistent with an asymmetric "half-orocline" kinematic model in which the curvature of the Western Pamir is the product of a combination of lithospheric bending of an originally quasi-linear mountain belt and radial thrusting, and the subdued curvature of the eastern edge of the plateau is the result of lateral translation of the Pamir plateau northward past Tibet and Tarim along the Kashgar-Yecheng transfer system. Our results are consistent with activity on the Kashgar-Yecheng transfer system in the Early Miocene.

  9. The association between exposure and psychological health in earthquake survivors from the Longmen Shan Fault area: the mediating effect of risk perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuping Xu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, exposure refers to survivors who suffered from life-changing situations, such as personal injuries, the deaths or injury of family members, relatives or friends or the loss of or damage to personal or family property, as a result of the earthquake. The mediating effect of risk perception on the exposure and psychological health in survivors from the Longmen Shan Fault area and the moderating effect of social support on the relationship between risk perception and psychological health were both examined. Method A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a local Longmen Shan Fault area near the epicenter of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV, the standard Chinese 12-item Short Form (SF-12v2, and the Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS were used to interview 2,080 earthquake survivors in the period one-year after the earthquake. Based on the environment and the characteristics of the Longmen Shan Fault area, a risk perception questionnaire was developed to evaluate survivor risk perception. Factor and regression analyses were conducted to determine the hypothetical relations. Results The analyses provided effective support for the hypothesized model. Survivor risk perception was classified into direct risk perception and indirect risk perception. Survivor direct risk perception was found to play a partial mediating role in the relationship between exposure and the two domains (Physical component summary (PCS and the Mental component summary (MCS of psychological health. Survivor indirect risk perception was found to have a only partial mediating effect on the association between exposure and MCS. Social support was found to moderate the influence of risk perception on psychological health. Conclusion Risk communication should be considered in future post-earthquake psychological assistance programs and social support strategies could also be

  10. La falta de financiacion publica hipoteca el futuro del acelerador de protones valenciano. La Universidad de Valencia tiene avanzado el diseno de este dispositivo de alta tecnologia

    CERN Multimedia

    Jatvia, J M

    2002-01-01

    "La Universidad de Valencia tiene avanzado el diseno de un acelerador lineal de protones, cuya culminacion depende del compromiso del Consell en sufragar la plantilla que necesitaria el centro para estar operativo" (1 page).

  11. Du neuf dans les relations de l'Église orthodoxe avec les autres chrétiens

    OpenAIRE

    Famerée, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Cette note évoque quatre réunions scientifiques (Athènes, Chambésy, Thessalonique, Iasi) qui, coup sur coup, de mai 2013 à mai 2014, ont permis à des Orthodoxes d’échanger avec d’autres chrétiens, catholiques notamment, sur des sujets théologiques et œcuméniques importants pour l’évolution des différentes Églises. Une nouvelle génération de théologiens orthodoxes se lève, osant parler librement à propos de leur Église et montrer l’écart entre l’Orthodoxie idéale et l’Orthodoxie réelle, spécia...

  12. The shallow sedimentary and structural deformation in the southern Longmen Shan: constraints on the seismotectonics of the 2013 Lushan Mw6.7 Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, R.; Xu, X.; He, D.; Suppe, J.

    2017-12-01

    On April 20, 2013, an unexpected Mw 6.7 earthquake occurred in Lushan County at the southern Longmen Shan, the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. After this Lushan earthquake, whether the seismogenic fault is a high-angle or low-angle fault? The structural characteristics, attribution, and the seismotectonic model of this earthquake have many debates and problems. In this study, a high-resolution seismic reflection profile was combined with near-surface geological data, earthquake relocation and geodetic measurements, and a recent deep artificial seismic reflection profile to identify the active fault and seismotectonics of this earthquake. Three-dimensional imaging of the aftershocks was used to identify two planar faults that together form a y-shape (f1 and f2). Seismic interpretations suggest that the seismogenic fault f1 is a typical basement blind fault that did not penetrate into the overlying Mesozoic and Cenozoic units, and it is not a Shuangshi-Dachuan fault (F4) or the frontal Dayi buried fault (F6). Geodetic measurements suggest that the coseismic deformation is consistent with the geometry and kinematics of shear fault-bend folding (FBF). The history of tectonic evolution since the Paleozoic in Longmen Shan area also referred. There are three major detachments control the structural deformation of the upper crust in the Longmen Shan and Western Sichuan Basin, resulting in multiple superimposed deformation events. Deep seismic data indicate the syndepositional nature of fault f1 a preexisting normal fault older than the Triassic, which underwent positive inversion tectonics during the Late Cenozoic. A thrust fault f3 converges with f1 at a depth of approximately12 km with an accumulated slip 3.6 km. This 2013 Lushan earthquake triggered by blind faults is a hidden earthquake. Since the Late Cenozoic, with the strong and on-going compression of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau to the Sichuan Basin, the early-period normal faults were activated after

  13. Une catastrophe glorieuse : le martyre des premiers chrétiens du Japon, Nagasaki, 1597

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clotilde Jacquelard

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Le naufrage du galion San Felipe dans le port de Urado (Shikoku, Japon en octobre 1596 fut le déclencheur d’un désastre missionnaire : le martyre de vingt-six chrétiens, franciscains espagnols et chrétiens japonais, à Nagasaki, le 5 février 1597. Cet article s’attache à examiner la relation dialectique entre les deux événements par l’étude de deux discours missionnaires franciscains hagiographiques. Il s’agit tout d’abord de rappeler la lecture providentialiste du temps à travers la perception de présages matériels et spirituels de la part des acteurs, puis de montrer que ces évènements paroxystiques révèlent en même temps qu’ils résolvent – temporairement – des tensions et des crises latentes, résultat de la confrontation entre plusieurs communautés culturelles comme la japonaise, l’espagnole et la portugaise, autour de prétentions géopolitiques, commerciales et religieuses dans cette zone de frontière de l’antiméridien du Pacifique nord.El naufragio del galeón San Felipe en el puerto de Urado (Shikoku, Japón en octubre de 1596 desembocó en un desastre misionero : el martirio de veintiséis cristianos, franciscanos españoles y cristianos japoneses, en Nagasaki, el 5 de febrero de 1597. Este artículo quiere examinar la relación dialéctica entre ambos acontecimientos, mediante el estudio de dos discursos misioneros franciscanos hagiográficos. Se trata de recordar primero la lectura providencialista de la época a través de la percepción de presagios tanto materiales como espirituales por parte de los actores, y mostrar luego que estos acontecimientos paroxísticos revelan, al mismo tiempo que resuelven –temporalmente– tensiones y crisis latentes, resultados de la confrontación de varias comunidades culturales como la japonesa, la española y la portuguesa, en torno a pretensiones geopolíticas, comerciales y religiosas en la zona fronteriza del antimeridiano del Pacífico norte.

  14. Reply to comment by Tan et al. on "Sandbox modeling of evolving thrust wedges with different preexisting topographic relief: Implications for the Longmen Shan thrust belt, eastern Tibet"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chuang; Jia, Dong; Yin, Hongwei; Chen, Zhuxin; Li, Zhigang; Li, Shen; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Yiquan; Yan, Bin; Wang, Maomao; Fang, Shaozhi; Cui, Jian

    2017-02-01

    Tan et al. comment that the preexisting topographic relief in our sandbox is opposed to its prototype in the central Longmen Shan. Therefore, the comparison between our sandbox modeling and the natural topography is questionable and does not agree with our conclusion that the Xiaoyudong fault is a tear fault. First, we are grateful to the authors for their approval of our sandbox modeling and its contribution to understanding fault behavior within thrust wedges. However, after reading the comment carefully, we found that they misunderstood the meaning of topographic relief we conveyed. In response, we would like to address the differences between the topography in their comment and the orogen-scale topography we investigated in our modeling to defend our conclusion.

  15. Asian Cross-border Marriage Migration. Demographic Patterns and Social Issues, Wen-Shan Yang & Melody Chia-Wen Lu (éds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre de Saint-Aubert

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet ouvrage collectif, qui est le résultat d’une collaboration entre l’International Institute for Asian Studies (IIAS, des Pays-Bas, et la National Science Council (NSC, de Taïwan, est le fruit d’une conférence qui s’est tenue en septembre2006 sur le thème des « mariages transfrontaliers en Asie et en Europe ». Les coordinateurs de l’ouvrage sont Wen-Shan Yang, chercheur à l’Institut of Sociology, Academia Sinica de Taïwan, et Melody Chia-Wen Lu, chercheur à l’International Institute for A...

  16. Monitoring shallow resistivity changes prior to the 12 May 2008 M 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake on the Longmen Shan tectonic zone, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Xie, Tao; Li, Mei; Wang, Yali; Ren, Yuexia; Gao, Shude; Wang, Lanwei; Zhao, Jialiu

    2016-04-01

    An active source measurement of shallow resistivity using fixed-electrode quasi-Schlumberger arrays has been conducted at Pixian, Jiangyou and Wudu stations on the Longmen Shan tectonic zone in western China, with the hope of detecting earthquake-associated changes. For the duration of the monitoring experiment, a gradual decrease of apparent resistivity of up to 6.7% several years prior to the 12 May 2008 M 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake had been recorded clearly at Pixian station, approximately 35 km from the epicenter. The change of apparent resistivity was monitored with a fixed Schlumberger array of AB/MN spacings of 736 m/226 m in the direction of N57.5°E, giving precisions in measured daily averages of 0.16% or less. A coseismic resistivity drop of up to 5.3% was observed at Jiangyou station, using a Schlumberger array of AB/MN spacings of 710 m/90 m in the direction of N10°E. No fluctuation of resistivity was detected at Wudu station at the time of the Wenchuan mainshock. While the focus of this paper is on monitoring or tracking resistivity variations prior to, during, and after the Wenchuan earthquake, we also aim to compare resistivity records of the Wenchuan earthquake to those of the M 7.8 Tangshan and M 7.2 Songpan earthquakes of 1976. Attempts to explain the observed resistivity variations have been made. The results show that the resistivity variations observed at all three stations are in approximate agreement with resistivity-stress behavior deduced from in situ experiments, focal mechanisms, a simplified dynamical model, static stress analyses, and field investigations from along the Longmen Shan fault zone.

  17. Los orígenes del grial en la literatura medieval: de Chrétien de Troyes a Robert de Boron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Martín Botero

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo muestra el origen literario del tema del Grial en la literatura medieval francesa, abordando dos textos esenciales para el surgimiento y consolidación de la “literatura del Grial”: Le Conte du Graal de Chrétien de Troyes y Le Roman de l’Estoire dou Graal de Robert de Boron. Los autores de estas obras establecen las bases para el desarrollo de toda una temática que gira alrededor del Grial a partir del siglo XII hasta nuestros días. El artículo muestra cómo de un objeto apenas sagrado en el texto de Chrétien de Troyes se pasa a una reliquia de la sangre de Cristo en la versión de Robert de Boron.This paper studies the literary origin of the Grail legend in medieval French literature, taking into account two important romances: Le Conte du Graal by Chrétien de Troyes and Le Roman de l’Estoire dou Graal by Robert de Boron. In these two texts the authors established the basis for the development of a new subject matter around the mysterious object called “Grail” from the Middle Ages to the present times. It will also be shown how an object, not totally sacred in Chrétien de Troyes, becomes a relic related with Jesus’s blood in Robert de Boron.

  18. Glacier retreat of the Tian Shan and its impact on the urban growth and environment evaluated from satellite remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, B. H.; Guo, Q.; Yan, F.; Zhang, J.; Shi, P. L.; Ayinuer, M.; Xue, G. L.

    2017-07-01

    The retreat of mountain glaciers, notably in high Asia, provides evidence for the rise of global temperature. The mass balance is vital for the health of a glacier. If the amount of frozen precipitation in the accumulation zone exceeds the quantity of glacial ice loss due to melting or lies in the ablation zone, the glacier will advance. Conversely, if the accumulation is less than the ablation, the glacier will retreat. Glaciers in retreat will have negative mass balances, and if they do not reach an equilibrium between accumulation and ablation, will eventually disappear. Long-term changes of the mountain glaciers in the Tian Shan, Central Asia, are not well constrained. Analyses of satellite remote sensing data combined with the ground observations reveal a 37.5% decline of glaciered area from 1989 to 2014 in No.1 Glacier, the headwaters of the Urumqi River basin, Chinese Tian Shan, which could be linked to increased summer melting. The results show that the area of glaciers was reduced from 31.55 km2 in 18 August 1989 to 28.66 km2 in 24 August 1994 and 19.74 km2 in 31 August 2014. The glacier area was reduced by 0.47 km2/per year in recent 25 years since 1989, and the annual reduction was 1.5%. Meanwhile, the urban area of Urumqi, the biggest city of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, increased from 156 km2 in 1989 to 555 km2 in 2014. Correspondingly, the population of permanent residents increased from 1.06 million in 1989 to 3.53 million in 2014. We suggest that the decline of glacier area is driven primarily by summer melting and, possibly, linked to the combined effects of the global rise in temperatures and black carbon/CO2 emission from coal-fired power plants, cement plants and petroleum chemical plants from the nearby Urumqi and surrounding regions. The continuing retreat of glaciers will have a number of different quantitative impacts. Populations in the arid Central Asia regions are heavily dependent on snow and glacier melt for their irrigation and

  19. Jeux et enjeux d’écriture chez Chrétien de Troyes: l’exemple de «Cligès»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Lucia Machado

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, nos propomos descrever a estética da trama irônica presente na escritura de Chrétien de Troyes, tomando por base seu romance Cligès. A destacar algumas estratégias passíveis de criar o fenômeno irônico, estaremos também mostrando o poder de sedução que emana desta escritura.Nous nous proposons, dans cet artible, de décrire l’esthétique du jeu ironique chez Chrétien de Troyes, em puisant dans son roman Cligès. Enn dégageant qulques unes dês stratégies susceptibles de créer le phénomène ironique, nous montrerons, à la fois, le pouvoir de séduction qui emane de cette écriture.

  20. ESTUDIO COMPARATIVO DEL EFECTO DE ZHONGJI (RM3) MOXADO MAS PUNTOS REGULARES VS PUNTOS REGULARES EN PACIENTES CON NEUROPATIA DIABETICA -NO TIENE CARATULA-

    OpenAIRE

    LERMA GARCIA, HECTOR ALFONSO

    2010-01-01

    ANTECEDENTES: DESDE LA ANTIGUEDAD SE HA COMPROBADO LA EFECTIVIDAD DE LA ACUPUNTURA PARA EL TRATAMIENTO DEL DOLOR Y PARA LA DIABETES EN EL SER HUMANO. OBJETIVO: EL PRESENTE ESTUDIO TIENE COMO OBJETIVO ANALIZAR EL EFECTO DEL TRATAMIENTO DEL DOLOR Y ALTERACIONES SENSITIVAS EN PACIENTES CON NEUROPATIA DIABETICA. METODO: SE ESTUDIARON TREINTA PACIENTES CON UN DIAGNOSTICO DE NEUROPATIA DIABETICA LOS CUALES SE DIVIDIERON EN TRES GRUPOS A LOS CUALES SE LES APLICO EN EL GRUPO 1 ZHONG...

  1. Investigation and control of a Plasmodium falciparum malaria outbreak in Shan Special Region II of Myanmar along the China-Myanmar Border from June to December 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Xu, Jian-Wei; Yang, Heng-Lin; Li, Mei; Sun, Cheng-De; Yin, Yi-Jie; Zheng, Zhi-Liang; Zhang, Guang-Yun; Yu, Ai-Shui; Yang, Yong-Hui; Li, Chun-Hui; Ai, Shui

    2016-04-25

    From 2007 to 2013, intensive control measures reduced malaria burden by 90 % along the China-Myanmar border. However, despite these measures a P. falciparum malaria outbreak was reported in the Shan Special Region II of Myanmar in June of 2014. Epidemiological, parasitological and entomological investigations were performed. Dihydroartemisinin piperaquine (DAPQ) was immediately administered to treat parasite positive individuals. Long lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN), indoor residual spraying (IRS) with insecticides and behavior change communication (BCC) were also provided for outbreak control. An embedded efficacy study was conducted evaluating DP. Molecular genotyping via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on the Kelch gene on chromosome 13. All infections were identified as Plasmodium falciparum by RDT and microscopy. Two fatalities resulted from the outbreak. The attack rate was 72.8 % (67/92) and the incidence density rate was 14.2 per 100 person-weeks. The positive rate of rapid diagnostic test (RDT) was 72.2 % (65/90) and microscopically-determine parasite rate 42.2 % (38/90). Adjusted odds ratio (OR) of multivariate logistic regression analysis for aged Myanmar border, especially among special populations, needs further collaboration between China, Myanmar and international societies.

  2. Sexual violence and the risk of HIV transmission in sexual partners of male injecting drug users in Tien Du district, Bac Ninh province of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Vinh Thi; Ho, Hien Thi; Nguyen, Tri Manh; Do, Huynh Khac

    2018-04-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study among 148 women who were regular sexual partners of male injecting drug users in Tien Du, Bac Ninh province, Vietnam to identify the rate of HIV infection and factors associated with HIV transmission among them. HIV infection rate among sexual partners was high, 11.5%. Sexual violence was prevalent, 63.5% among sexual partners; 94.1% (16/17) among those with HIV. We discovered an association between sexual violence and HIV infection. Sexual partners suffering from sexual violence caused by their regular sexual partners faced 9.24 times higher HIV risk than those who did not have sexual violence.

  3. Los enigmas del Grial. En torno a la polémica sobre la unidad de El Cuento del Grial de Chrétien de Troyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Cirlot

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Relectura de la polémica acerca de la unidad del último roman de Chrétien de Troyes, Li Contes del Graal que tuvo lugar a finales de los años cincuenta entre Martín de Riquer, Jean Frappier y Erich Köhler. Más de cincuenta años después se trata de valorar las aportaciones que dicha polémica supuso para la filología románica y, en concreto, para la valoración de la última obra del escritor de la Champaña.

  4. Orelhas de elefante, olhos de coruja, dentes de javali: maravilhoso e descritivo em Yvain ou le chevalier au lion, de Chrétien de Troyes

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Claudio Kinker Caliendo

    2009-01-01

    No final do século XII, Chrétien de Troyes considerado por muitos críticos o maior poeta francês da chamada Idade Média compõe um poema narrativo Yvain ou le Chevalier au Lion no qual se percebem elementos tidos como característicos do gênero maravilhoso, tais quais objetos mágicos e seres extraordinários, como monstros e gigantes. Esses elementos entre outros fatores levaram boa parte da crítica a enxergar na poesia medieval, durante muito tempo, uma certa ingenuidade, típica de uma in...

  5. «Si una mujer tiene la cabeza grande»: fisionomía y carácter femenino en un texto asiriobabilónico

    OpenAIRE

    Couto Ferreira, Érica

    2008-01-01

    El cuerpo humano en Mesopotamia era entendido como objeto adivinatorio: un sistema de signos, portador de mensajes sobre el propio individuo, cuyo significado debía decodificarse mediante la observación y la interpretación. Tomando como fuente principal de mi trabajo la serie fisionómica Šumma sinništu qaqqada rabât («Si una mujer tiene la cabeza grande»), analizo, por una parte, los mecanismos por los que se promueve una determinada visión de las mujeres en la adivinación fisionómica a parti...

  6. Late Cenozoic thrusting of major faults along the central segment of Longmen Shan, eastern Tibet: Evidence from low-temperature thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xi-Bin; Xu, Xi-Wei; Lee, Yuan-Hsi; Lu, Ren-Qi; Liu, Yiduo; Xu, Chong; Li, Kang; Yu, Gui-Hua; Kang, Wen-Jun

    2017-08-01

    The Cenozoic orogenic process of the Longmen Shan (LMS) and the kinematics of major faults along the LMS are crucial for understanding the growth history and mechanism of the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Three major faults, from west to east, are present in the central segment of the LMS: the Wenchuan-Maoxian Fault (WMF), the Beichuan-Yingxiu Fault (BYF), and the Jiangyou-Guanxian Fault (JGF). Previous researchers have placed great impetus on the Pengguan Massif, between the WMF and BYF. However, limited low-temperature thermochronology data coverage in other areas prevents us from fully delineating the tectonic history of the LMS. In this study, we collect 22 samples from vertical profiles in the Xuelongbao Massif and the range frontal area located at the hanging walls of the WMF and JGF respectively, and conduct apatite and zircon fission track analyses. New fission track data reveal that the Xuelongbao Massif has been undergoing rapid exhumation with an average rate of 0.7-0.9 mm/yr since 11 Ma, and the range frontal area began rapid exhumation at 7.5 Ma with total exhumation of 2.5-4.5 km. The exhumation histories indicate that the three major faults (WMF, BYF and JGF) in the central LMS are all reverse faults, and show a basinward in-sequence propagation from middle Miocene to present-day. Such a pattern further implies that upper crustal shortening is the primary driver for the LMS' uplift during the Late Cenozoic. Nevertheless, middle-lower crustal deformation is difficult to be constrained by the exhumation histories, and its contribution to LMS' uplift cannot be ruled out.

  7. Holocene moisture variations over the arid central Asia revealed by a comprehensive sand-dune record from the central Tian Shan, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Hao; Shen, Ji; Chen, Jianhui; Tsukamoto, Sumiko; Yang, Linhai; Cheng, Hongyi; Frechen, Manfred

    2017-10-01

    Arid central Asia (ACA) is one of the largest arid (desert) areas in the world, and its climate is dominated by the westerlies. In this study, we examined sand dune evolution from the Bayanbulak Basin in the Tian Shan (Xinjiang, NW China), aiming to infer the Holocene moisture history of the ACA. Combined with stratigraphic observation and environmental proxies analysis (grain size, magnetic susceptibility and total organic content), large numbers of luminescence ages from multiple sites (eight sections, 79 samples) were applied to reconstruct the evolution of the sand dune accumulation in the study basin. The overall results imply very dry conditions characterized by sand dune accumulation at ∼12-6.5 ka, a wet interval between ∼6.5 and 0.8 ka when soil formation occurred, and decreased moisture during the last 0.8 ka. This moisture variation pattern is generally consistent with that inferred from many lacustrine records in the core zone of ACA, suggesting a widespread dry period in the early-to-middle Holocene and relatively wet middle-to-late Holocene. Thus, the moisture history derived from the current sand dune system contrasts with that in Asian monsoon areas, which are characterized by a strong monsoon (high precipitation) in the early and mid-Holocene and a weak monsoon (low precipitation and dry climate) during the late Holocene. Our results strongly suggest that the winter solar insolation and the external boundary conditions such as atmospheric CO2 concentration, ice sheets, and meltwater fluxes, have been major influential factors triggering the Holocene moisture evolution in the core zone of ACA.

  8. Estimating the terrestrial N processes in subtropical mountainous forestry catchment through INCA-N: A case study in FuShan catchment, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meng-Chang; Huang, -Chuan, Jr.; Chang, Chung-Te; Shih, Yu-Ting; Lin, Teng-Chiu

    2016-04-01

    The riverine DIN is a crucial indicator for eutrophication in river network. The riverine DIN export in Taiwan is featured by the extremely high yield, ~3800 kg-N km-2yr-1, nearly 20-fold than the global average, showing the interesting terrestrial N process yet rarely documented. In this study we collected the DIN samples in rainwater, soil water, and stream water in a mountainous forest watershed, FuShan experimental forest watershed 1 (WS1) which is a natural broadleaf forest without human activities. Based on the intensive observations, we applied the INCA-N to simulate the riverine DIN response and thus estimate the terrestrial N processes in a global synthesis. The result showed that both discharge and DIN yield were simulated well with the average Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient of 0.83 and 0.76 , respectively. Among all N processes, N uptake, mineralization, nitrification, denitrfication, and immobilization are significantly positive correlated with soil moisture (R2>0.99), which indicates that soil moisture greatly influences N cycle processes. The average rate of mineralization and nitrification in wet years are consistent with documented values, whereas the rates in dry years are lower than the observations. Despite the high nitrification rate, the secondary forest may uptake abundant N indicating the plant uptake, which responds for removing considerable nitrate, is a controlling factor in forest ecosystem. Our simulated denitrification rate falls between the documented rates of temperate forest and agricultural area, and that may be affected by the high N-deposition in Taiwan. Simulated in-stream denitrification rate is less than 10% of the rate in soil, and is a little lower than that in temperate forest. This preliminary simulation provides an insightful guide to establish the monitoring programme and improve the understanding of N cycle in subtropical.

  9. Da Chrétien de Troyes a Shakespeare («The tragedy of King Richard the Third», a. I, sc. 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso D'Agostino

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo si propone di considerare le somiglianze fra alcune vicende antico-francesi (l’Yvain di Chrétien de Troyes e il fabliau anonimo De celle que se fist foutre sur la fosse son mari con una scena del Riccardo III di Shakespeare. Anche se non si può dire che il dramma inglese dipenda dai testi narrativi oitanici, esso sviluppa lo stesso motivo della vedova consolata e una serie di motivi secondarî, di immagini (il sangue, il diavolo, la seduzione e di espressioni letterarie in modo sintomaticamente affine. The paper aims to evaluate similarities between some Old-French narratives (Chrétien de Troyes’ Yvain and the anonymous fabliau De celle que se fist foutre sur la fosse son mari and a scene from Shakespeare’s Richard III. Although we cannot affirm that Shakespeare’s play derives from the French narratives, it develops the same theme of “comforted widow” along with a series of secondary themes, of images (the blood, the devil, the seduction and literary expressions in a symptomatically, very similar way.

  10. Northern Dimension: Participant Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busygina Irina

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the “Northern Dimension” initiative of the EU which also includes North-West Russia, Norway and Iceland. It is noted that the “Northern Dimension” in the theoretical perspective can be considered as part of strategic multi-level interactions between member-states of the EU and Russia. On this basis, the authors analyze implications and effects of the strategic interdependence of all the EU-Russia relation levels.

  11. Northern Dimension: Participant Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busygina I.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available his article is devoted to the “Northern Dimension” initiative of the EU which also includes North-West Russia, Norway and Iceland. It is noted that the “Northern Dimension” in the theoretical perspective can be considered as part of strategic multi-level interactions between member-states of the EU and Russia. On this basis, the authors analyze implications and effects of the strategic interdependence of all the EU-Russia relation levels.

  12. Borehole permafrost data, Kumtor and Taragai Valleys, Tienshan, Kazakhstan, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset includes observations of the permafrost temperatures in the Inner Tien Shan were started in 1986 by Kazakhstan Alpine Permafrost Laboratory....

  13. Holocene climate variability in arid Central Asia as revealed from high-resolution sedimentological and geochemical analyses of laminated sediments from Lake Chatyr Kol (Central Tian Shan, Kyrgyzstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, S.; Plessen, B.; Dulski, P.; Mingram, J.; Prasad, S.

    2013-12-01

    A pronounced trend from a predominantly wet climate during the early Holocene towards significantly drier conditions since the mid-Holocene, mainly attributed to the weakening of the Asian summer monsoon (ASM), is documented in numerous palaeoclimate records from the monsoon-influenced parts of Asia, e.g. the Tibetan Plateau and north- and southeastern China. In contrast, climate in the adjacent regions of mid-latitude arid Central Asia, located north and northwest of the Tibetan Plateau, is supposed to have been characterized by pronounced dry conditions during the early Holocene, wet conditions during the mid-Holocene and a rather moderate drying during the late Holocene, which is mainly attributed to the complex interplay between the mid-latitude Westerlies and the ASM. However, although mid-latitude Central Asia thus might represent a key region for the understanding of teleconnections between the ASM system and the Westerlies, knowledge about past climate development in this region is still ambiguous due to the limited number of high-resolution palaeoclimate records. Hence, new well-dated and highly resolved palaeoclimate records from this region are expected to provide important information about spatio-temporal changes in the regional interplay between Westerlies and ASM and thus aid the understanding of global climate teleconnections. As a part of the project CADY (Central Asian Climate Dynamics), aiming at reconstructing past climatic and hydrological variability in Central Asia, a sediment core of about 6.25 m length has been recovered from alpine Lake Chatyr Kol (40°36' N, 75°14' E, 3530 m a. s. l., surface area ~170 km2, maximum depth ~20 m), located in the Central Tian Shan of Kyrgyzstan. Sediment microfacies analysis on large-scale petrographic thin sections reveals continuously sub-mm scale laminated sediments throughout the record except for the uppermost ca. 60 cm. Microsedimentological characterization of these laminae, which are most probably

  14. A 'college of astrology and medicine'? Charles V, Gervais Chrétien, and the scientific manuscripts of Maître Gervais's College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudet, Jean-Patrice

    2010-06-01

    Considered an institution mainly devoted to astrology and medicine by Simon de Phares and by some historians who believe that he was reliable, the college founded in 1371 by Charles V's first physician, Gervais Chrétien, was in fact primarily dedicated to theological students. It was not before 1377 that there were created there two bursaries for scholares regis, specialising in 'licit mathematical sciences', and two medical fellowships. Yet the influence of the activity of these fellows seems to have been rather moderate and-as far as we can learn from the material still extant, notably from manuscripts that belonged to Maître Gervais' College and to some of its members-this institution was devoted much more to theological studies than to medicine and the quadrivium.

  15. Northern Ireland gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R S [Belfast City Council Gas Dept.; Asquith, R S; Brown, J M; McKay, G

    1977-07-01

    Throughout Northern Ireland the production of town gas is derived from hydrocarbon feedstocks. In the larger undertakings in Northern Ireland the feedstock is light distillate; a light petroleum feedstock which is a crude gasoline comprised mainly of pentanes, reformed in catalytic plants. The remaining gas undertakings produce a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)/air mixture using a mixture of either butane or propane and air. The individual gas units and the type of reforming feedstock are shown. A review of the oil-dependence of town gas and electricity production in Northern Ireland has been considered and is mainly responsible for the high fuel prices experienced in the community. A detailed description of the reforming process has been described, and considerable efforts have been made to optimize the process. In spite of substantial economic savings being made on the processing unit, the gas industry is very susceptible to the changes in oil prices which have escalated rapidly in recent years. The difference in gas prices between the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland indicates that North Sea gas would offer major economic benefits to the gas industry in Northern Ireland, which is operating at a substantial loss at the moment. The industrial concerns, which are dependent on gas and therefore paying high fuel costs, suffer in competition with outside companies. The injection of a moderately cheap natural gas supply to the community may encourage industrial expansion and provide work in a high unemployment area. Although substantial costs must be incurred in distribution pipelines and burner conversions if Northern Ireland changes to natural gas, there appears to be a strong case to introduce North Sea gas in the near future.

  16. Northern blotting analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Northern blotting analysis is a classical method for analysis of the size and steady-state level of a specific RNA in a complex sample. In short, the RNA is size-fractionated by gel electrophoresis and transferred by blotting onto a membrane to which the RNA is covalently bound. Then, the membrane...... is analysed by hybridization to one or more specific probes that are labelled for subsequent detection. Northern blotting is relatively simple to perform, inexpensive, and not plagued by artefacts. Recent developments of hybridization membranes and buffers have resulted in increased sensitivity closing...

  17. Continental deformation accommodated by non-rigid passive bookshelf faulting: An example from the Cenozoic tectonic development of northern Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuza, Andrew V.; Yin, An

    2016-05-01

    Collision-induced continental deformation commonly involves complex interactions between strike-slip faulting and off-fault deformation, yet this relationship has rarely been quantified. In northern Tibet, Cenozoic deformation is expressed by the development of the > 1000-km-long east-striking left-slip Kunlun, Qinling, and Haiyuan faults. Each have a maximum slip in the central fault segment exceeding 10s to ~ 100 km but a much smaller slip magnitude (~bookshelf-fault model for the Cenozoic tectonic development of northern Tibet. Our model, quantitatively relating discrete left-slip faulting to distributed off-fault deformation during regional clockwise rotation, explains several puzzling features, including the: (1) clockwise rotation of east-striking left-slip faults against the northeast-striking left-slip Altyn Tagh fault along the northwestern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, (2) alternating fault-parallel extension and shortening in the off-fault regions, and (3) eastward-tapering map-view geometries of the Qimen Tagh, Qaidam, and Qilian Shan thrust belts that link with the three major left-slip faults in northern Tibet. We refer to this specific non-rigid bookshelf-fault system as a passive bookshelf-fault system because the rotating bookshelf panels are detached from the rigid bounding domains. As a consequence, the wallrock of the strike-slip faults deforms to accommodate both the clockwise rotation of the left-slip faults and off-fault strain that arises at the fault ends. An important implication of our model is that the style and magnitude of Cenozoic deformation in northern Tibet vary considerably in the east-west direction. Thus, any single north-south cross section and its kinematic reconstruction through the region do not properly quantify the complex deformational processes of plateau formation.

  18. Late-Miocene thrust fault-related folding in the northern Tibetan Plateau: Insight from paleomagnetic and structural analyses of the Kumkol basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haijian; Fu, Bihong; Shi, Pilong; Xue, Guoliang; Li, Haibing

    2018-05-01

    Constraints on the timing and style of the Tibetan Plateau growth help spur new understanding of the tectonic evolution of the northern Tibetan Plateau and its relation to the India-Asia continental collision. In this regard, records of tectonic deformation with accurate ages are urgently needed, especially in regions without relevant studies. The Kumkol basin, located between two major intermontane basins (the Hoh Xil and Qaidam basins), may hold clues to how these major basins evolve during the Cenozoic. However, little has been known about the exact ages of the strata and tectonic deformation of the basin. Herein, detailed paleomagnetic and structural studies are conducted on the southern Baiquanhe section in the central Kumkol basin, northern Tibetan Plateau. The magnetostratigraphic study indicates that the southern Baiquanhe section spans a time interval of 8.2-4.2 Ma. Well-preserved growth strata date to 7.5 Ma, providing evidence for a significant thrust fault-related folding. This thrust-related folding has also been identified in the Tian Shan foreland and in the northern Tibetan Plateau, most likely implying a pulsed basinward deformation during the late Miocene.

  19. Northern blotting analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    is analysed by hybridization to one or more specific probes that are labelled for subsequent detection. Northern blotting is relatively simple to perform, inexpensive, and not plagued by artefacts. Recent developments of hybridization membranes and buffers have resulted in increased sensitivity closing...

  20. insurgencies in northern Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Criminal Court (ICC) investigations into the LRA activities. ... and the rebel movements in northern Uganda, see Human Rights Watch 2003, and ... the ICC, Luis Moreno Ocampo, met at Hotel Intercontinental, Hyde Park, London, ..... expunge criminal liability for war crimes and crimes against humanity, appear.

  1. Elimination of Cancer Stem-Like “Side Population” Cells in Hepatoma Cell Lines by Chinese Herbal Mixture “Tien-Hsien Liquid”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Jung Yao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are increasing pieces of evidence suggesting that the recurrence of cancer may result from a small subpopulation of cancer stem cells, which are resistant to the conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We investigated the effects of Chinese herbal mixture Tien-Hsien Liquid (THL on the cancer stem-like side population (SP cells isolated from human hepatoma cells. After sorting and subsequent culture, the SP cells from Huh7 hepatoma cells appear to have higher clonogenicity and mRNA expressions of stemness genes such as SMO, ABCG2, CD133, β-catenin, and Oct-4 than those of non-SP cells. At dose of 2 mg/mL, THL reduced the proportion of SP cells in HepG2, Hep3B, and Huh7 cells from 1.33% to 0.49%, 1.55% to 0.43%, and 1.69% to 0.27%, respectively. The viability and colony formation of Huh7 SP cells were effectively suppressed by THL dose-dependently, accompanied with the inhibition of stemness genes, e.g., ABCG2, CD133, and SMO. The tumorigenicity of THL-treated Huh7 SP cells in NOD/SCID mice was also diminished. Moreover, combination with THL could synergize the effect of doxorubicin against Huh7 SP cells. Our data indicate that THL may act as a cancer stem cell targeting therapeutics and be regarded as complementary and integrative medicine in the treatment of hepatoma.

  2. La Fábula Ovidiana de Filomela revisada por la Edad Media: de Chrétien de Troyes a Alfonso x

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Martín Botero García

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se expone el contraste entre las dos traducciones al francés y al castellano de Filomela, una de las fábulas de las Metamorfosis de Ovidio, realizadas en los siglos xii y xiii por Chrétien de Troyes y Alfonso X. Por medio del análisis y cotejo de tres momentos narrativos, veremos la forma en que la materia antigua es tratada según el contexto determinado en el que se producen las traducciones. La versión francesa hace énfasis en una dimensión cortés en donde el personaje femenino es altamente valorado; por su parte, la versión castellana reivindica una racionalización de la fábula ovidiana, supeditada a una visión política e histórica. Se puede constatar así que las traducciones medievales no son serviles con respecto a la fuente latina sino que demuestran una gran libertad en la selección y combinación de elementos.

  3. Northern pipelines : backgrounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    Most analysts agree that demand for natural gas in North America will continue to grow. Favourable market conditions created by rising demand and declining production have sparked renewed interest in northern natural gas development. The 2002 Annual Energy Outlook forecasted U.S. consumption to increase at an annual average rate of 2 per cent from 22.8 trillion cubic feet to 33.8 TCF by 2020, mostly due to rapid growth in demand for electric power generation. Natural gas prices are also expected to increase at an annual average rate of 1.6 per cent, reaching $3.26 per thousand cubic feet in 2020. There are currently 3 proposals for pipelines to move northern gas to US markets. They include a stand-alone Mackenzie Delta Project, the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project, and an offshore route that would combine Alaskan and Canadian gas in a pipeline across the floor of the Beaufort Sea. Current market conditions and demand suggest that the projects are not mutually exclusive, but complimentary. The factors that differentiate northern pipeline proposals are reserves, preparedness for market, costs, engineering, and environmental differences. Canada has affirmed its role to provide the regulatory and fiscal certainty needed by industry to make investment decisions. The Government of the Yukon does not believe that the Alaska Highway Project will shut in Mackenzie Delta gas, but will instead pave the way for development of a new northern natural gas industry. The Alaska Highway Pipeline Project will bring significant benefits for the Yukon, the Northwest Territories and the rest of Canada. Unresolved land claims are one of the challenges that has to be addressed for both Yukon and the Northwest Territories, as the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline will travel through traditional territories of several Yukon first Nations. 1 tab., 4 figs

  4. ¿El sentido del humor, tiene sentido en el aula? / Does Sense of the Humor Make Sense in the Classroom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Antonio González Ynfante

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Recibido 09 de junio de 2011 • Aceptado 24 de octubre de 2011 • Corregido 27 de setiembre de 2011 Resumen. El presente ensayo tiene como finalidad reflexionar sobre la importancia del humor pedagógico como estrategia de enseñanza aprendizaje en el aula; esto, tomando en cuenta la problemática de desmotivación y aburrimiento que sucede normalmente en la clase. Para plantear si “el enseñar contento y el aprender con alegría” pueden aumentar la eficacia en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje, se abordará cómo, a pesar de las múltiples ventajas que puede aportar el humor en las aulas, se omite su empleo por la existencia de ciertos prejuicios y temores. La idea no es que los docentes hagan el papel de comediantes o payasos, sino la de mediar y acercar la clase de manera pedagógica y didáctica a través del uso del humor, y sobre esto reflexionaba Platón (1992, cuando planteaba que muchas veces ayudaba una broma, en donde la seriedad oponía resistencia. Abstract. This paper studies the importance of humor as a teaching strategy in the classroom, considering the usual lack of motivation and boredom. To analyze whether the “happy teaching and happy learning” may increase effectiveness in the teaching-learning process, the author will discuss how, despite the many benefits it may bring, humor is not used in the classroom due to prejudices and fears. The idea is not for teachers to play the role of a comedian or a clown, but to intervene and get closer to the group with a teaching, didactic purpose through humor. Plato (1992 thought about this; he used to say that sometimes a joke may help, where seriousness put up resistance.

  5. Ora et labora. Paradigmes du modèle monacal médiéval chez Chrétien de Troyes / Ora et labora. Paradigms of the Medieval Monastic Model in Chrétien de Troyes’s Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Gradu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The medieval monachal model is marked out by the faith, by the power, by the morality. It is also shared between confidence and fear with regard to the power on the earth, but, certainly, all the clerks and the monks of the Middle Age know and assume the rule Redde Caesari quae sunt Cesaris and quae sunt Dei Deo. The medieval literature, the unfaithful mirror, is reflected in an incomplete and sometimes idealized way, the example of the hermit, but it constitutes in the essential source of its paradigm. I shall stop to Chrétien of Troyes and to its novels, they are the most glorious proof of the Renaissance of the 12th century.

  6. Profilaxis con antibióticos en fracturas de base de cráneo: ¿tiene justificación esa conducta?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justo Luis González González

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de 380 pacientes con fractura de la base del cráneo y a 71 de ellos (18,7 % se les administraron antibióticos como profilaxis de la meningoencefalitis y a 309 (81,3 % no se les suministraron estos agentes. Se evaluó la relación entre uso profiláctico o terapéutico de antimicrobianos, localización de la fractura, lesiones asociadas, complicaciones sépticas, edad y sexo, con la aparición de meningoencefalitis. Desarrollaron infección del sistema nervioso central 7 pacientes (1,8 %, 3 de ellos (4,2 % entre los que recibieron profilaxis y 4 (1,3 % entre los que no la recibieron. Se probó que la presencia de meningoencefalitis estaba asociada con el tipo de complicaciones sépticas que además pudieron tener los pacientes, así como al uso de antibióticos como terapéutica de éstas en análisis bivariado, lo que no se corroboró en el multivariado. Se concluye que el empleo de antibióticos profilácticos en estos pacientes no tiene justificación, lo que convierte a esta conducta en una práctica negativa desde el punto de vista médico y económicoA study of 380 patients with basilar skull fracture was performed. 71 (18.7 % of these patients were given antibiotic prophylaxis for meningoencephalitis and 309 (81.3 % were not. The relation of prophylactic or therapeutical use of antimicrobial agents, fracture location, associated injures, septic complications, age and sex to the meningoencephalitis coming out was evaluated. 7 patients (1.8 % developed infections of the central nervous system, 3 (4.2 % had been treated with antibiotics and 4 (1.3 % had not. The bivariate analysis proved that the meningoencephalitis was linked to the type of septic complications that might affect patients as well as the therapeutical use of antibiotics to eliminate them but the multivariate analysis did not demonstrate so. It is concluded that the use of the antibiotic prophylaxis in these patients is not substantiated which turns

  7. Northern Pintail Telemetry [ds231

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Using radio-telemetry, female northern pintail (Anas acuta) survival, distribution, and movements during late August-March in Central California were determined...

  8. Geochronology and petrogenesis of the Early Cretaceous A-type granite from the Feie'shan W-Sn deposit in the eastern Guangdong Province, SE China: Implications for W-Sn mineralization and geodynamic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Mao, Jingwen; Santosh, M.; Bao, Zhian; Zeng, Xiaojian; Jia, Lihui

    2018-02-01

    The Feie'shan greisen-type W-Sn deposit in the eastern Guangdong Province forms part of the Southeastern Coastal Metallogenic Belt (SCMB) in South China. Here we present zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb geochronology of the biotite granite which shows a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 134.7 ± 2.0 Ma, consistent with the zircon U-Pb, biotite 40Ar-39Ar and molybdenite Re-Os ages in the previous study. The biotite granite is peraluminous and belongs to high-K calc-alkaline type. It is characterized by high SiO2, K2O, F, K2O + Na2O and FeOt/(FeOt + MgO), and low CaO, MgO, TiO2 and P2O5 contents, enrichment in Rb, Cs, Th and U, and depletion in Ba, Sr, Zr, Ti and P, with flat REE patterns and distinctly negative Eu anomalies, showing an A2-type affinity. The rocks also display extremely low Ba, Sr and Ti concentrations and high Rb/Sr, Rb/Ba and low CaO/(Na2O + K2O) ratios, indicating high degree of fractionation. Zircon grains from the granite have low Eu/Eu* and Ce4 +/Ce3 + ratios, suggesting low oxygen fugacity. The highly fractionated and reduced features imply that the Feie'shan mineralization is genetically related to the biotite granite. The εNd(t) values and zircon εHf(t) values of the biotite granite range from - 2.96 to - 1.95 and - 5.69 to 0.62, with two-stage Nd and Hf model ages (TDM2) of 1083 to 1164 Ma and 1150 to 1552 Ma, indicating that they were derived from magma hybridization between anatectic granitic and mantle-derived mafic magmas. In combination with previous studies, we propose a geodynamic model for the 145―135 Ma W-Sn mineral system and related magmatism in the southwestern domain of the SCMB. After ca. 145 Ma, the subduction orientation of the Izanagi plate changed from oblique to parallel with respect to the continental margin resulting in large-scale lithosphere extension and thinning, which led to the upwelling of asthenosphere. The ascending mantle-derived mafic magmas provided not only supplied the heat for crustal remelting but also added

  9. Northern Eurasia Future Initiative (NEFI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groisman, Pavel; Shugart, Herman; Kicklighter, David

    2017-01-01

    . The Northern Eurasia Future Initiative (NEFI) has been designed as an essential continuation of the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), which was launched in 2004. NEESPI sought to elucidate all aspects of ongoing environmental change, to inform societies and, thus, to better...

  10. The enigmas of The grail. on The ConTroversy over The UniTy of Li Contes deL GraaL of ChréTien de Troyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Cirlot

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the controversy about the unity of the last roman of Chrétien de Troyes, Li Contes del Graal which took place in the late fifties between Martí de Riquer, Jean Frappier and Erich Köhler. More than fifty years later, this paper will appraise the contributions that this controversy made to Romance philology, and, in particular, to the assessment of the last work of the Champenian writer.

  11. Quick Release of Internal Water Storage in a Glacier Leads to Underestimation of the Hazard Potential of Glacial Lake Outburst Floods From Lake Merzbacher in Central Tian Shan Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Donghui; Ding, Yongjian; Liu, Shiyin; Xie, Zunyi; Pieczonka, Tino; Xu, Junli; Moldobekov, Bolot

    2017-10-01

    Glacial meltwater and ice calving contribute to the flood volume of glacial lakes such as Lake Merzbacher in the Tian Shan Mountains of central Asia. In this study, we simulated the lake's volume by constructing an empirical relationship between the area of Lake Merzbacher, determined from satellite images, and the lake's water storage, derived from digital elevation models. Results showed that the lake water supply rate before Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) generally agreed well with those during the GLOFs from 2009 to 2012 but not in 2008 and 2015. Furthermore, we found that the combination of glacial meltwater and ice calving is not enough to fully explain the supply rate during GLOFs in 1996 and 1999, suggesting other factors affect the supply rate during GLOFs as well. To examine this further, we compared the water supply rate before and during GLOF events in 1999 and 2008. We inferred that quickly released short-term and intermediate-term water storage by glaciers have likely contributed to both flood events in those years. This study highlights the need to improve our understanding of the supply component of outburst floods, such as irregularly released stored water may lead to GLOF events with generally three different types: case I (singular event-triggered englacial water release), case II (glacier melt due to temperature changes), and case III (englacial water release mixed with glacier melt).

  12. Earthquake-induced soft-sediment deformation structures in Late Pleistocene lacustrine deposits of Issyk-Kul lake (Kyrgyzstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladkov, A. S.; Lobova, E. U.; Deev, E. V.; Korzhenkov, A. M.; Mazeika, J. V.; Abdieva, S. V.; Rogozhin, E. A.; Rodkin, M. V.; Fortuna, A. B.; Charimov, T. A.; Yudakhin, A. S.

    2016-10-01

    This paper discusses the composition and distribution of soft-sediment deformation structures induced by liquefaction in Late Pleistocene lacustrine terrace deposits on the southern shore of Issyk-Kul Lake in the northern Tien Shan mountains of Kyrgyzstan. The section contains seven deformed beds grouped in two intervals. Five deformed beds in the upper interval contain load structures (load casts and flame structures), convolute lamination, ball-and-pillow structures, folds and slumps. Deformation patterns indicate that a seismic trigger generated a multiple slump on a gentle slope. The dating of overlying subaerial deposits suggests correlation between the deformation features and strong earthquakes in the Late Pleistocene.

  13. Water in northern Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This report contains background information, including historical aspects, roles of government agencies, and relevant technical information, for use as a resource document at a conference on water resources in northern Alberta. An overview is presented of the three river basins which are the geographic focus of this report (Peace River, Athabasca, and Beaver River), describing their characteristics, the types of human activity occurring in them, and the relevant issues pertaining to water. The roles and responsibilities of government departments and agencies in water management are then introduced. A section on water resource issues defines ten topic areas, and for each issue, a summary of the issue, background of the issue, and key concerns and suggested actions are given. These issue areas concern groundwater management (including protection from contamination by oil field produced water), community water supply, farmland drainage and erosion, protection of surface water quality, watershed and wetlands management, farm and rural water supply, tourism/recreation and fisheries, industrial water use (particularly by the oil sand, forestry, and hydroelectric power industries), native peoples' concerns, and water diversion. The final section discusses a number of common themes which arose from the public consultation process, including integrated planning and program coordination, monitoring and enforcement, public information, and research requirements. 22 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Northern Fur Seal Food Habits

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains food habits samples, usually scats, collected opportunistically on northern fur seal rookeries and haulouts in Alaska from 1987 to present....

  15. Radiological monitoring of northern slopes of Mogoltau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murtazaev, Kh.; Boboev, B.D.; Bolibekov, Sh.; Akhmedov, M.Z.

    2010-01-01

    Present article is devoted to radiological monitoring of northern slopes of Mogoltau. The physicochemical properties of water of northern slopes of Mogoltau were studied. The radiation monitoring of northern slopes of Mogoltau was carried out during several years under various weather conditions. The exposure rate of human settlements of northern part of Mogoltau was defined.

  16. Tornadoes Strike Northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    A series of tornadoes ripped through the Upper Midwest region of the United States in the evening of June 7, 2007. At least five different tornadoes touched down in Wisconsin, according to the Associated Press, one of which tore through the Bear Paw Resort in northern Wisconsin. Despite dropping as much as fifteen centimeters (six inches) of rain in some places and baseball-size hail in others, authorities were reporting no deaths attributable to the storm system, and only a smattering of injuries, but considerable property damage in some areas. When the MODIS instrument on NASA's Terra satellite observed the area on June 9, 2007, the track torn through the woods by one of the tornadoes stands out quite clearly. This photo-like image uses data collected by MODIS in the normal human vision range to give a familiar natural-looking appearance. The landscape is largely a checkerboard of farms, towns, roads, and cities. The pale land is predominantly farmland where crops have not fully grown in yet. Dark blue shows the winding path of rivers and lakes dotting the landscape. The large blue lake on the east (right) side of the image is Lake Michigan. Towns and cities, including the city of Green Bay, are gray. To the north side, farmland gives way to dark green as land use shifts from agriculture to the Menominee Indian Reservation and Nicolet National Forest. The diagonal slash through the dark green forested land shows the tornado track. Bare land was revealed where the tornado tore down trees or stripped vegetation off the branches. The high-resolution image provided above is at MODIS' full spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response System provides this image at additional resolutions.

  17. Mid- to late Holocene climate-driven regime shifts inferred from diatom, ostracod and stable isotope records from Lake Son Kol (Central Tian Shan, Kyrgyzstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Anja; Turner, Falko; Lauterbach, Stefan; Plessen, Birgit; Krahn, Kim J.; Glodniok, Sven; Mischke, Steffen; Stebich, Martina; Witt, Roman; Mingram, Jens; Schwalb, Antje

    2017-12-01

    Arid Central Asia represents a key region for understanding climate variability and interactions in the Northern Hemisphere. Patterns and mechanisms of Holocene climate change in arid Central Asia are, however, only partially understood. Multi-proxy data combining diatom, ostracod, sedimentological, geochemical and stable isotope analyses from a ca. 6000-year-old lake sediment core from Son Kol (Central Kyrgyzstan) show distinct and repeated changes in species assemblages. Diatom- and ostracod-inferred conductivity shifts between meso-euhaline and freshwater conditions suggest water balance and regime shifts. Organism-derived data are corroborated by stable isotope, mineralogical and geochemical records, underlining that Son Kol was affected by strong lake level fluctuations of several meters. The δ13Ccarb/δ18Ocarb correlation shows repeated switchovers from a closed to an open lake system. From 6000 to 3800 and 3250 to 1950 cal. yr BP, Son Kol was a closed basin lake with higher conductivities, increased nutrient availability and a water level located below the modern outflow. Son Kol became again a hydrologically open lake at 3800 and 1950 cal. yr BP. Comparisons to other local and regional paleoclimate records indicate that these regime shifts were largely controlled by changing intensity and position of the Westerlies and the Siberian Anticyclone that triggered changes in the amount of winter precipitation. A strong influence of the Westerlies ca. 5000-4400, 3800-3250 and since 1950 cal. yr BP enhanced the amount of precipitation during spring, autumn and winter, whereas cold and dry winters prevailed during phases with a strong Siberian Anticyclone and southward shifted Westerlies at ca. 6000-5000, 4400-3800 and 3250-1950 cal. yr BP. Similarities between variations in winter precipitation at Son Kol and records of the predominant NAO-mode further suggest a teleconnection between wet (dry) winter climate in Central Asia and a positive (negative) NAO

  18. “Et qui or me vaurra entendre, cuer et oreilles me doit rendre”: espacios de lectura y público de los roman courtois de Chrétien de Troyes (siglos XII-XIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo Améndolla Spinola

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Basado en los planteamientos de la lógica social del texto, este artículo presenta un estudio del público que escuchaba los romances corteses entre los siglo XII y XIII, específicamente los realizados por Chrétien de Troyes –clérigo lector de la Corte de Leonor de Aquitania y de Enrique II Plantagenet–, además de establecer y analizar las diversas salas de los castillos donde estas obras literarias eran narradas.

  19. An investigation of the thermomechanical features of Laohugou Glacier No. 12 on Qilian Shan, western China, using a two-dimensional first-order flow-band ice flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuzhe; Zhang, Tong; Ren, Jiawen; Qin, Xiang; Liu, Yushuo; Sun, Weijun; Chen, Jizu; Ding, Minghu; Du, Wentao; Qin, Dahe

    2018-03-01

    By combining in situ measurements and a two-dimensional thermomechanically coupled ice flow model, we investigate the thermomechanical features of the largest valley glacier (Laohugou Glacier No. 12; LHG12) on Qilian Shan located in the arid region of western China. Our model results suggest that LHG12, previously considered as fully cold, is probably polythermal, with a lower temperate ice layer overlain by an upper layer of cold ice over a large region of the ablation area. Modelled ice surface velocities match well with the in situ observations in the east branch (main branch) but clearly underestimate those near the glacier terminus, possibly because the convergent flow is ignored and the basal sliding beneath the confluence area is underestimated. The modelled ice temperatures are in very good agreement with the in situ measurements from a deep borehole (110 m deep) in the upper ablation area. The model results are sensitive to surface thermal boundary conditions, for example surface air temperature and near-surface ice temperature. In this study, we use a Dirichlet surface thermal condition constrained by 20 m borehole temperatures and annual surface air temperatures. Like many other alpine glaciers, strain heating is important in controlling the englacial thermal structure of LHG12. Our transient simulations indicate that the accumulation zone becomes colder during the last two decades as a response to the elevated equilibrium line altitude and the rising summer air temperatures. We suggest that the extent of accumulation basin (the amount of refreezing latent heat from meltwater) of LHG12 has a considerable impact on the englacial thermal status.

  20. Vers une “écriture métisse”: le roman des immigrants haïtiens du Québec Writing the cultural cross-currents: the Haitian immigrants’ novel in Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Kwaterko

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available mémoriel et langagier dans les romans des immigrants haïtiens au Québec.Après quelques considérations sociologiques sur l’écriture migrante(diasporique, on observera les enjeux esthétiques du métissage sur un axediachronique : les années 1970 où l’espace-temps du pays d’origine dominela représentation, les années 1980 où le travail du deuil apporte des effetsd’hybridation, et à partir du milieu des années 1980 à nos jours lorsque lesromanciers haïtiens assument l’exil et se réapproprient à distance leur paysdélaissé.The aim of this paper is to recognize the manifestations of the culturalhybridization (métissage among Haitian novelists who immigrated to Quebec. After some sociological characteristics of the migrant writing, the mainaesthetics features will be observed on diachronic level: during the 1970s,when the place of the country of origin dominate the representation, duringthe 1980s when the feeling of split identity increase the effects of hybridity,and since the middle of 1980s when the Haitian writers assume their exileby entering into an intercultural, dialogic relationship with their abandonedcountry.

  1. Northern micro-grid project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, David; Singh, Bob

    2010-09-15

    The electrical distribution system for the Kasabonika Lake First Nation in northern Ontario (Canada) consumed 1.2 million liters of diesel fuel in 2008, amounting to 3,434 tones of CO2 emissions. The Northern Micro-Grid Project, supported by seven partners, involves integrating renewable generation & storage into the Kasabonika Lake distribution system. Through R&D and demonstration, the objectives are to reduce the amount of diesel consumed, support the distribution system exclusively on renewable resources during light loads, engage and impart knowledge/training to better position the community for future opportunities. The paper will discuss challenges, opportunities and future plans associated with the project.

  2. Titan's Stratospheric Condensibles at High Northern Latitudes During Northern Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carrie; Samuelson, R.; Achterberg, R.

    2012-01-01

    The Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) instrument on board Voyager 1 caught the first glimpse of an unidentified particulate feature in Titan's stratosphere that spectrally peaks at 221 per centimeter. Until recently, this feature that we have termed 'the haystack,' has been seen persistently at high northern latitudes with the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument onboard Cassini, The strength of the haystack emission feature diminishes rapidly with season, becoming drastically reduced at high northern latitudes, as Titan transitions from northern winter into spring, In contrast to IRIS whose shortest wavenumber was 200 per centimeter, CIRS extends down to 10 per centimeter, thus revealing an entirely unexplored spectral region in which nitrile ices have numerous broad lattice vibration features, Unlike the haystack, which is only found at high northern latitudes during northern winter/early northern spring, this geometrically thin nitrile cloud pervades Titan's lower stratosphere, spectrally peaking at 160 per centimeter, and is almost global in extent spanning latitudes 85 N to 600 S, The inference of nitrile ices are consistent with the highly restricted altitude ranges over which these features are observed, and appear to be dominated by a mixture of HCN and HC3N, The narrow range in altitude over which the nitrile ices extend is unlike the haystack, whose vertical distribution is significantly broader, spanning roughly 70 kilometers in altitude in Titan's lower stratosphere, The nitrile clouds that CIRS observes are located in a dynamically stable region of Titan's atmosphere, whereas CH4 clouds, which ordinarily form in the troposphere, form in a more dynamically unstable region, where convective cloud systems tend to occur. In the unusual situation where Titan's tropopause cools significantly from the HASI 70.5K temperature minimum, CH4 should condense in Titan's lower stratosphere, just like the aforementioned nitrile clouds, although

  3. June 1990 Northern, Iran Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A magnitude 7.7 earthquake occurred in the Gilan Province between the towns of Rudbar and Manjil in northern Iran on Thursday, June 21, 1990 (June 20 at 21:00 GMT)....

  4. Odd Bed-fellows: British Christians and Communists in the Struggle for Peace D’étranges compagnons : chrétiens et communistes britanniques dans la lutte pour la paix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Tranmer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Au début des années 1950, le doyen de l’archevêché de Cantorbéry œuvra au sein du mouvement pour la paix et participa à des activités organisées par le parti communiste britannique. En 1983, le prêtre catholique Bruce Kent, leader de la Campagne pour le Désarmement Nucléaire, loua l’engagement des communistes britanniques en faveur de la paix. Cet article cherche à examiner pourquoi et comment chrétiens et communistes surmontèrent leurs différences et coopérèrent dans la lutte contre l’arme nucléaire.

  5. Evaluación del nivel del conocimiento que tiene el personal de enfermería sobre la guía de manejo de Trastorno Afectivo Bipolar (TAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lady Lizcano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El Trastorno Afectivo Bipolar (TAB ocupa el primer lugar de las quince primeras causas por consulta externa en el año 2009 con 1.423 casos sobre un total de 7.177 consultas. La investigación realizada tiene como objetivo determinar el nivel de conocimiento del personal de enfermería que labora en una Empresa Social del Estado especializado en psiquiatría. La prevalencia de esta patología hace relevante la evaluación de la guía del Trastorno Afectivo Bipolar (TAB. El instrumento utilizado fue aplicado a 52 trabajadores de la institución, arrojando como resultado un bajo nivel de conocimiento con relación a la aplicación guía de atención de enfermería de manejo para el paciente con Trastorno Afectivo Bipolar (TAB.

  6. Field evaluation of spatial repellency of metofluthrin-impregnated latticework plastic strips against Aedes aegypti (L.) and analysis of environmental factors affecting its efficacy in My Tho City, Tien Giang, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Hitoshi; Iwasaki, Tomonori; LE Loan, Luu; Tien, Tran Khanh; Mai, Nguyen Thi Nhu; Shono, Yoshinori; Katayama, Yasuyuki; Takagi, Masahiro

    2006-12-01

    Spatial repellency of metofluthrin-impregnated polyethylene latticework plastic strips against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes was evaluated. Analysis of environmental factors affecting the efficacy of these strips, such as room temperature, humidity, and house structure, was performed in a residential area in My Tho City, Tien Giang Province, Vietnam. Treatment with the strips at the rate of 1 strip per 2.6-5.52 m(2) (approximately 600 mg per 2.6-5.52 m(2)) reduced the collection of Ae. aegypti resting inside the houses for at least eight weeks. Multiple regression analysis indicated that both increase in the average room temperature and decrease in the area of openings in the rooms that were treated with the strips positively affected the spatial repellency of metofluthrin.

  7. Zigzag et « carré plastique » haïtiens en Amérique du nord à travers l’Autobiographie américaine de Dany Laferrière

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier-Messonnier, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    L’ « Autobiographie américaine » de Dany Laferrière et le « carré plastique » de Léonel Jules, artistes et amis haïtiens émigrés au Québec, déconstruisent la ville américaine par l’éclatement textuel et la plasticité picturale. Mythifient-ils pour autant le berceau natal ? L’écriture plastique et poétique efface les frontières. The « American Autobiography » by Dany Laferrière and the « Carré Plastique » by Léonel Jules, Haitian artists and friends who emigrated to Quebec, deconstruct the ...

  8. De la chair imbibée de foi : la viande comme marqueur de la frontière entre chrétiens et musulmans en Éthiopie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éloi Ficquet

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Jamais en Éthiopie un chrétien et un musulman ne mangent de viande ensemble. Consommer de la viande qui n’a pas été consacrée à sa propre foi est appréhendé comme un acte hautement sacrilège équivalent à une apostasie. Cet interdit doit être compris dans une perspective comparative large sur les pratiques et les débats qui restreignent la commensalité de la viande entre les chrétiens et les musulmans. Les usages éthiopiens ont accentué cette question pour en faire un interdit puissant, marqueur d’une frontière interreligieuse. Comme toute frontière, cette « frontière carnée » a été le lieu de confrontations, d’aménagements et de transgressions dont les effets ont contribué à la construction de l’espace national éthiopien contemporain.Christians and Muslims in Ethiopia never eat meat together. Consuming meat that was not consecrated to one’s faith is seen as a highly sacrilegious act equal to apostasy. This interdict must be understood in comparative perspective that looks at the restrictions regarding the sharing of meat between Christians and Muslims. Ethiopian customs have emphasized this issue to turn it into a powerful interdict, tracing an inter-religious boundary. Like any boundary, this “dietary boundary” has been the site of confrontations, readjustments and transgressions whose effects have contributed to the building of a contemporary Ethiopian national space.

  9. Offshore northern Europe, the challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergseth, S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper relates to challenges of the offshore activity in the North Sea. It is appropriate to address these challenges in the context of generating values through efficient management of resources, markets, safety and technology, as the challenges lie therein. The petroleum industry is built to turn natural resources into market value, assuring broad benefits to stake holders and shareholders. In the following, the challenges facing the industry the industry offshore Northern Europe is examined on this background

  10. Edible insects of Northern Angola

    OpenAIRE

    Lautenschläger,Thea; Neinhuis,Christoph; Monizi,Mawunu; Mandombe,José Lau; Förster,Anke; Henle,Thomas; Nuss,Matthias

    2017-01-01

    From 2013–2017, we accompanied and interviewed local people harvesting edible insects in the Northern Angolan province of Uíge. Insect and host plant samples were collected for species identification and nutritive analyses. Additionally, live caterpillars were taken to feed and keep until pupation and eclosion of the imago, necessary for morphological species identification. Altogether, 18 insect species eaten by humans were recorded. Twenty four edible insect species were formerly known from...

  11. MENSWAARDIGHEID NA TIEN JAAR VAN REGSTAATLIKHEID IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    rasionele mens daarvoor moet hê. Outonomie is gevolglik die grondslag van die waardigheid van die menslike natuur en van iedere rasionele skepsel. 11. Bekende Angelsaksiese regsfilosowe onderskryf 'n soortgelyke benadering. Volgens Ronald. Dworkin, wat deels vir John Rawls aanhaal, is die gelyke respek wat aan ...

  12. Een speld in tien miljoen hooibergen

    CERN Multimedia

    Minkema, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Deeply under the ground in Geneva, thousands of scientists work with a giant particle accelerator. A discovery machine which will brew particles as from this summer and perhaps even create mini black holes.

  13. Pharmacovigilance: Tiens Slimming Tea Causes Increased Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... possible link between the constituents of the slimming tea and increased blood pressure and also provide evidence of other possible harmful effects that may occur with the use of the slimming tea. Keywords: Pharmacovigilance, hypertension, slimming tea. West African Journal of Pharmacology and Drug Research Vol.

  14. Exfoliation syndrome in Northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idakwo U

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ugbede Idakwo,1 Olusola Olawoye,2 Benedictus GK Ajayi,1 Robert Ritch3 1Eleta Eye Institute, Ibadan, Nigeria; 2Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; 3Einhorn Clinical Research Center, Department of Ophthalmology, New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA Purpose: To estimate the frequency of exfoliation syndrome (XFS and its association with ocular diseases in Northern Nigeria.Materials and methods: Consecutive patients who presented to the outpatient department of ECWA Eye Hospital Kano from February 2015 to May 2015 were included in the study. Each patient had a complete ophthalmic examination. The anterior segment examination included tonometry, gonioscopy, and detailed slit-lamp examination to assess for the presence or absence of exfoliation material, inflammatory cells, and other abnormal findings. Patients with exfoliation material on the anterior lens surface and/or pupillary margin in either or both eyes were considered to have XFS. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0.Results: A total of 620 patients living in Northern Nigeria from the 6 geopolitical zones were examined. The majority of them (34.5% were indigenous Hausas. There was a male preponderance of 56.6%, while the mean age at presentation for examination in all age groups was 55.7±13.7 years. There were 9 patients with XFS; the frequency was 1.5%, with most of the patients being 70–80 years old. In patients who were ≥50 years, the frequency was 2.5%. Patients with XFS had a higher mean age of 68±4.9 years. The frequency of XFS among glaucoma patients was 4.4%, while among cataract patients it was 3.7%. No other associated ocular disease was found in the patients with XFS.Conclusion: This study shows that XFS does exist in Northern Nigeria, as was found in the South. The prevalence of XFS was, however, not reported in the Nigerian

  15. Pteridophyta collected in Northern Nigeria and Northern Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan kornaś

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 25 species of Pteridophyta were collected in Northern Nigeria (mainly the Lake Chad Basin and the Mandara Mts. and in the neighbouring parts of Cameroon. 11 of them have not been recorded previously from this area: Isoetes schweinfurthii A. Br. in Bak., Selaginella tenerrima A. Br. ex Kuhn, Ophioglossum gomenzianum Welw. ex A. Br., Marsilea coromandeliana Willd., M. distorta A. Br., M. nubica A. Br., M. subterranea Lepr. ex A. Br., Azolla africana Desv., Ceratopteris richardii Brogn., Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn., and Actiniopleris semiflabellata Pic. Ser.

  16. The Northern Manitoba Mining Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Paul

    2017-04-01

    The Northern Manitoba Mining Academy (NMMA, miningacademy.ca) is a new educational institution located in Flin Flon, Manitoba. It is associated with the University College of the North and is specifically intended to serve the needs of the Northern Manitoban communities with regards to job creation by providing training in a variety of mining, construction, and exploration related areas. NMMA's mission is to provide innovative and responsible solutions for the creation of a knowledgeable, skilled, and sustainable workforce within a vibrant, mineral-rich resource industry. It facilitates strategic training initiatives and research activities in order to strengthen the social, economic, and environmental benefits of a robust mining and resources sector. In terms of education, NMMA offers its own programs, mostly short courses in health and safety, courses organized by the University College of the North (wilderness safety, prospecting, and exploration), and courses organized in association with provincial Industries-Based Safety Programs and Associations (a variety of construction-related trades). However, the programming is not limited to those courses already on the syllabus: the Academy operates on open-doors policy and welcomes people with their unique and diverse needs; it prides itself in its ability to tailor or create specific on-demand courses and deliver them locally in the North. The Northern Manitoba Mining Academy also provides access to its world-class facilities for field-based undergraduate courses, as well as graduate students and researchers doing field work. Full sample preparation facilities are offered to students and scientists in all natural and environmental sciences.

  17. Northern communities sustainable energy initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oltman, Ursula; Widmeyer, Scott; Moen, Harlan

    2010-09-15

    The Circumpolar North may provide the solution to the world's most urgent problems. Combining new technologies with the resources, opportunities and needs of the north, the Arctic region may become instrumental in promoting nature's ability to sequester natural carbons while supplying future energy demands to the world. With the technologies for efficiencies and CCS, the abundant supply of natural gas exists for an efficient northern network of electrical generating facilities in the circumpolar region. A symbiotic relationship between facilities can ensure dependable clean electricity and support East-West distribution of power across international time zones strategically connected to southern grids.

  18. Nature: a colour comparison between Northern South Africa and Northern Australia

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Baumbach, J

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available During 1983 DSTO in Australia measured the reflectances of grass, trees and soil in northern Australia, using a custom-build spectroradiometer. During 2002 CSIR in South Africa performed similar measurements in northern South Africa, using a...

  19. Giant Reed Distribution - Northern California [ds333

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Arundo Distribution layer is a compilation of Arundo donax observations in northern and central California, obtained from several sources, including Arundo...

  20. Herpetofauna Surveys, Northern California - 2010 [ds694

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — We recorded all incidental herpetofauna encountered during visual encounter and dipnet surveys in northern California. Surveys took place from April 2, 2010 to...

  1. Choices Outlined 2013-2017. An analysis of ten election programmes for accessibility effects. PBL-CPB background document; Keuzes in kaart 2013-2017. Een analyse van tien verkiezingsprogramma's op bereikbaarheidseffecten. PBL-CPB Achtergronddocument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwaneveld, P.; Verrips, A. [CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis, The Hague (Netherlands); Hilbers, H.; Zondag, B.; Van Meerkerk, J. [Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands); Weijschede-van der Straaten, W. [CBS Statistics Netherlands, The Hague (Netherlands)

    2012-11-15

    In their report 'Keuzes in Kaart 2013-2017' (Choices outlined 2013-2017) the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (CPB) and the Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) made calculations for thirteen themes of the election programs of ten Dutch political parties. Accessibility is one of these thirteen themes. Analyses on this theme were conducted jointly by PBL and CPB. This paper addresses which different political choices the Dutch parties have made for the theme of accessibility, how PBL and CPB conducted analyses and which results were yielded. The effect of the party program is compared to a basic path, the expected image for 2020 based on implementation of the Budget Agreement 2013 ('Spring Agreement'). [Dutch] Het Centraal Planbureau (CPB) en het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (PBL) hebben in het rapport 'Keuzes in Kaart 2013-2017' de verkiezingsprogramma's van tien politieke partijen doorgerekend op dertien thema's. Bereikbaarheid is één van de dertien thema's. De analyses rond dit thema zijn gezamenlijk uitgevoerd door PBL en CPB. Dit paper gaat in op welke verschillende politieke keuzes de partijen ten aanzien van bereikbaarheid hebben gemaakt, op welke wijze de planbureaus dit hebben geanalyseerd en tot welke resultaten dit heeft geleid. Het effect van het partijprogramma wordt vergeleken met het 'basispad', het verwachte beeld voor 2020 uitgaande van uitvoering van het Begrotingsakkoord 2013 (het 'Lenteakkoord')

  2. Northern pipelines : challenges and needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, D.; Brownie, D. [ProLog Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Fafara, R. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Working Group 10 presented experiences acquired from the operation of pipeline systems in a northern environment. There are currently 3 pipelines operating north of 60, notably the Shiha gas pipeline near Fort Liard, the Ikhil gas pipeline in Inuvik and the Norman Wells oil pipeline. Each has its unique commissioning, operating and maintenance challenges, as well as specific training and logistical support requirements for the use of in-line inspection tools and other forms of integrity assessment. The effectiveness of cathodic protection systems in a permafrost northern environment was also discussed. It was noted that the delay of the Mackenzie Gas Pipeline Project by two to three years due to joint regulatory review may lead to resource constraints for the project as well as competition for already scarce human resources. The issue of a potential timing conflict with the Alaskan Pipeline Project was also addressed as well as land use issues for routing of supply roads. Integrity monitoring and assessment issues were outlined with reference to pipe soil interaction monitoring in discontinuous permafrost; south facing denuded slope stability; base lining projects; and reclamation issues. It was noted that automatic welding and inspection will increase productivity, while reducing the need for manual labour. In response to anticipated training needs, companies are planning to involve and train Aboriginal labour and will provide camp living conditions that will attract labour. tabs., figs.

  3. Groundwater management in northern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanovic, Zoran; Iurkiewicz, Adrian

    2009-03-01

    Groundwater is vital and the sole resource in most of the studied region of northern Iraq. It has a significant role in agriculture, water supply and health, and the elimination of poverty in rural areas. Although Iraq is currently dramatically disturbed by complex political and socio-economic problems, in its northern part, i.e. the Kurdish-inhabited region, fast urbanization and economic expansion are visible everywhere. Monitoring and water management schemes are necessary to prevent aquifer over-exploitation in the region. Artificial recharge with temporary runoff water, construction of subsurface dams and several other aquifer management and regulation measures have been designed, and some implemented, in order to improve the water situation. Recommendations, presented to the local professionals and decision-makers in water management, include creation of Water Master Plans and Water User Associations, synchronization of drilling programmes, rehabilitation of the existing well fields, opening of new well fields, and the incorporation of new spring intakes in some areas with large groundwater reserves, as well as construction of numerous small-scale schemes for initial in situ water treatment where saline groundwater is present.

  4. Cult sites in northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Brink

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The pagan cult in northern Sweden, i.e, Norrland, has for some decades been a neglected chapter in our history, a situation which unfortunately applies to Sweden as a whole, at least where onomastics are concerned. The aim is thus to deliver an overview of the evidence that we have of pre-Christian religious activities in these northern parts — in this aspect, onomastic material is nearly almost all we have got — and some general remarks about the conversion to the new Christian religion. The area of investigation is what in the (Swedish medieval period was known as Norrland. In other words, the part of Sweden considered here is modern Central Norrland. With our state of knowledge of today it is not so easy to pick out the place-names that have denoted some kind of pagan cult activity. The place-name material can be divided into: 1. Theoforic place-names 2. place-names denoting the site of a pagan cult, which do not however contain theoforic elements 3. place-names with a possible pagan cultic element.

  5. Geothermal conditions in Northern Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybach, L.; Eugster, W.; Griesser, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The geothermal field in northern Switzerland, derived from a great number of borehole temperature measurements, is characterized by a strongly positive temperature gradient and heat flow anomaly (>150 mW/m 2 ) in the lower Aare valley. The anomaly is centered above the recently discovered Permocarboniferous trough. Several possibilities to explain the anomaly (thermal disturbance in the mantle, cooling shallow intrusion, locally strong uplift/erosion, local contrasts in petrophysical properties) can be ruled out on the basis of model calculations. Uprising deep groundwater is favoured as the mechanism creating the observed anomaly. Deep groundwater circulation was investigated in detail, especially to clarify the hydraulic role of the Permocarboniferous trough, by coupled thermo-hydraulic modelling, using the integrated finite difference technique. The model was carefully validated by field data. The results reveal the draining effect of the Permocarboniferous trough and indicate that vertical permeability is present in the vicinity of the trough even at depths of several kilometers. They further imply that large parts of the crystalline basement in northern Switzerland have average hydraulic conductivities >10 -9 m/sec and that Darcy velocities in the order of 10 mm/year must be expected. (author) 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  6. The Alcoholism Situation in a Northern City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynov, M. Iu.; Martynova, D. Iu.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol abuse in Russia has been increasing in recent years, especially in northern regions, as has the incidence of alcohol-related disease rates. A survey was conducted in Surgut (the Khanty-Mansi autonomous okrug) that determined the factors lending to the prevalence of alcohol abuse among the population of the northern city and assessed the…

  7. African Journals Online: Northern Mariana Islands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Northern Mariana Islands. Home > African Journals Online: Northern Mariana Islands. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This ...

  8. Sowing pregerminated northern red oak acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. Godman; Gilbert A. Mattson

    1992-01-01

    Northern red oak is extremely difficult to regenerate, although it has produced good acorn crops nearly half of the last 32 years in northern Wisconsin. Field trials have shown that for successful seeding, you must protect acorns from predation by wildlife and sow them when temperatures are most favorable for germination.

  9. Environmental overview of geothermal development: northern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slemmons, D.B.; Stroh, J.M.; Whitney, R.A. (eds.)

    1980-08-01

    Regional environmental problems and issues associated with geothermal development in northern Nevada are studied to facilitate environmental assessment of potential geothermal resources. The various issues discussed are: environmental geology, seismicity of northern Nevada, hydrology and water quality, air quality, Nevada ecosystems, noise effects, socio-economic impacts, and cultural resources and archeological values. (MHR)

  10. Harvesting systems for the northern forest hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux

    2011-01-01

    This monograph is a summary of research results and environmental compliance measures for timber harvesting operations. Data are presented from the Northern Research Station's forest inventory and analysis of 20 states in the northern forest hardwoods. Harvesting systems available in the region today are summarized. Equations for estimating harvesting costs are...

  11. Northern Security and Global Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book takes a comprehensive approach to security in the Nordic-Baltic region, studying how this region is affected by developments in the international system. The advent of the new millennium coincided with the return of the High North to the world stage. A number of factors have contributed......-unipolar", indicating a period of flux and of declining US unipolar hegemony. Drawing together contributions from key thinkers in the field, Northern Security and Global Politics explores how this situation has affected the Nordic-Baltic area by addressing two broad sets of questions. First, it examines what impact...... declining unipolarity - with a geopolitical shift to Asia, a reduced role for Europe in United States policy, and a more assertive Russia - will have on regional Nordic-Baltic security. Second, it takes a closer look at how the regional actors respond to these changes in their strategic environment...

  12. TSUNAMI HAZARD IN NORTHERN VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Theilen-Willige

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on LANDSAT ETM and Digital Elevation Model (DEM data derived by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, 2000 of the coastal areas of Northern Venezuela were investigated in order to detect traces of earlier tsunami events. Digital image processing methods used to enhance LANDSAT ETM imageries and to produce morphometric maps (such as hillshade, slope, minimum and maximum curvature maps based on the SRTM DEM data contribute to the detection of morphologic traces that might be related to catastrophic tsunami events. These maps combined with various geodata such as seismotectonic data in a GIS environment allow the delineation of coastal regions with potential tsunami risk. The LANDSAT ETM imageries merged with digitally processed and enhanced SRTM data clearly indicate areas that might be prone by flooding in case of catastrophic tsunami events.

  13. Increasing Northern Hemisphere water deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Gregory J.; Wolock, David M.

    2015-01-01

    A monthly water-balance model is used with CRUTS3.1 gridded monthly precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET) data to examine changes in global water deficit (PET minus actual evapotranspiration) for the Northern Hemisphere (NH) for the years 1905 through 2009. Results show that NH deficit increased dramatically near the year 2000 during both the cool (October through March) and warm (April through September) seasons. The increase in water deficit near 2000 coincides with a substantial increase in NH temperature and PET. The most pronounced increases in deficit occurred for the latitudinal band from 0 to 40°N. These results indicate that global warming has increased the water deficit in the NH and that the increase since 2000 is unprecedented for the 1905 through 2009 period. Additionally, coincident with the increase in deficit near 2000, mean NH runoff also increased due to increases in P. We explain the apparent contradiction of concurrent increases in deficit and increases in runoff.

  14. Ultraviolet resources over Northern Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubarova, Natalia; Zhdanova, Yekaterina

    2013-10-05

    We propose a new climatology of UV resources over Northern Eurasia, which includes the assessments of both detrimental (erythema) and positive (vitamin D synthesis) effects of ultraviolet radiation on human health. The UV resources are defined by using several classes and subclasses - UV deficiency, UV optimum, and UV excess - for 6 different skin types. To better quantifying the vitamin D irradiance threshold we accounted for an open body fraction S as a function of effective air temperature. The spatial and temporal distribution of UV resources was estimated by radiative transfer (RT) modeling (8 stream DISORT RT code) with 1×1° grid and monthly resolution. For this purpose special datasets of main input geophysical parameters (total ozone content, aerosol characteristics, surface UV albedo, UV cloud modification factor) have been created over the territory of Northern Eurasia. The new approaches were used to retrieve aerosol parameters and cloud modification factor in the UV spectral region. As a result, the UV resources were obtained for clear-sky and mean cloudy conditions for different skin types. We show that the distribution of UV deficiency, UV optimum and UV excess is regulated by various geophysical parameters (mainly, total ozone, cloudiness and open body fraction) and can significantly deviate from latitudinal dependence. We also show that the UV optimum conditions can be simultaneously observed for people with different skin types (for example, for 4-5 skin types at the same time in spring over Western Europe). These UV optimum conditions for different skin types occupy a much larger territory over Europe than that over Asia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Charted Choices 2013-2017. An analysis of ten election programmes. Effects on the economy and the environment; Keuzes in Kaart 2013-2017. Een analyse van tien verkiezingsprogramma's. Effecten op economie en milieu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    At the request of ten political parties, the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (CPB) and PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency have mapped out the effects of the respective election platforms on the economy and the environment. The analysis shows that each of the proposed policy measures included in the platforms has both advantages and disadvantages. The platforms thus reflect the diverse choices that have been made by the parties. The publication presents the impact of party programs on public finances, purchasing power and employment. Also included in the publication are analyses in the field of mobility, energy and climate, nature, education, housing and healthcare [Dutch] De verkiezingsprogramma's 2012 laten zien welke keuzes politieke partijen maken voor de jaren 2013-2017. De programma's tonen aan dat er echt iets te kiezen valt voor de komende kabinetsperiode. Hoe gaan we na de economische crisis de overheidsfinancien weer op orde brengen en hoe snel? Verhogen we de AOW-leeftijd en beperken we de aftrek van de hypotheekrente, of juist niet? Hoe verminderen we de filedruk? Willen we klimaatverandering aanpakken en zo ja, hoe dan? Is het de moeite waarde om meer geld uit te geven aan onderwijs of innovatie? Hoeveel trekken we uit voor natuur? Hoe kunnen we de woningmarkt beter laten functioneren? Hoe gaan we om met de stijging van de kosten van de zorg? In de aanloop naar de verkiezingen van 12 september 2012 hebben tien politieke partijen - VVD, PvdA, PVV, CDA, SP, D66, GroenLinks, ChristenUnie, SGP, DPK - gevraagd om een analyse van hun verkiezingsprogramma's. Het CPB heeft de economische effecten geanalyseerd, het PBL de effecten op milieu.

  16. Charted Choices 2013-2017. An analysis of ten election programmes. Effects on the economy and the environment; Keuzes in Kaart 2013-2017. Een analyse van tien verkiezingsprogramma's. Effecten op economie en milieu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    At the request of ten political parties, the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (CPB) and PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency have mapped out the effects of the respective election platforms on the economy and the environment. The analysis shows that each of the proposed policy measures included in the platforms has both advantages and disadvantages. The platforms thus reflect the diverse choices that have been made by the parties. The publication presents the impact of party programs on public finances, purchasing power and employment. Also included in the publication are analyses in the field of mobility, energy and climate, nature, education, housing and healthcare [Dutch] De verkiezingsprogramma's 2012 laten zien welke keuzes politieke partijen maken voor de jaren 2013-2017. De programma's tonen aan dat er echt iets te kiezen valt voor de komende kabinetsperiode. Hoe gaan we na de economische crisis de overheidsfinancien weer op orde brengen en hoe snel? Verhogen we de AOW-leeftijd en beperken we de aftrek van de hypotheekrente, of juist niet? Hoe verminderen we de filedruk? Willen we klimaatverandering aanpakken en zo ja, hoe dan? Is het de moeite waarde om meer geld uit te geven aan onderwijs of innovatie? Hoeveel trekken we uit voor natuur? Hoe kunnen we de woningmarkt beter laten functioneren? Hoe gaan we om met de stijging van de kosten van de zorg? In de aanloop naar de verkiezingen van 12 september 2012 hebben tien politieke partijen - VVD, PvdA, PVV, CDA, SP, D66, GroenLinks, ChristenUnie, SGP, DPK - gevraagd om een analyse van hun verkiezingsprogramma's. Het CPB heeft de economische effecten geanalyseerd, het PBL de effecten op milieu.

  17. Iron content and solubility in dust from high-alpine snow along a north-south transect of High Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Guangjian; Zhang, Chenglong; Li, Zhongqin; Zhang, Xuelei; Gao, Shaopeng

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the dissolved and insoluble iron fraction of dust (mineral aerosol) in high-alpine snow samples collected along a north-south transect across High Asia (Eastern Tien Shan, Qilian Shan, and Southern Tibetan Plateau). This dust provides the basic chemical properties of mid- and high-level tropospheric Asian dust that can supply the limiting iron nutrient for phytoplankton growth in the North Pacific. The iron content in Asian dust averages 4.95% in Eastern Tien Shan, 3.38–5...

  18. Case studies: Northern Saskatchewan, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Northern Saskatchewan comprises an area of about 350 000 km 2 . In 1951 the population was 11 000 people but by 2003 it was approaching 40 000, of whom about 87% are aboriginal, consisting of either First Nations or Metis people. The first uranium mining area developed in northern Saskatchewan was Uranium City, north of Lake Athabasca. These first mines started production in the early 1950s. Of the 10 producing mines, only Eldorado Nuclear remained in operation after 1965. The development of Uranium City, including better services such as a hospital, drew some aboriginals into the area. There was some aboriginal employment in the early mines but, with few exceptions, these employees only stayed a short time. The mining companies developed training programmes to prepare aboriginals for regular, wage earning jobs. This included lifestyle training such as how to manage personal finances. Further extensive training programmes were required on the job to help these employees become fully contributing members of the workforce, who could advance in their jobs, expand their job opportunities and earnings, and in order to reduce turnover. The question of accommodating mine staff is a complex one, including several options. The first option, a company town, can be developed adjacent to the mine site. It is owned by the company and accommodates everyone who works at the mine and in its service industries. This can result in lower cost accommodation for mine staff with the benefit of no personal capital investment that cannot be recouped after mine closure. The capital cost to the mining company is higher; there is an administrative cost to managing and maintaining many houses, apartments and bunkhouses, and the decommissioning problem at the end of mine life is bigger. Initial developments in northern Saskatchewan were based on the company town concept. At the time there were 25 or more advanced exploration projects in the Uranium City area, 10 of which developed into

  19. Roman whetstone production in northern Gaul (Belgium and northern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Thiébaux

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the latest research on the production of Roman whetstones in northern Gaul. To date, little has been written about this specialised industry. However, three workshops producing whetstones were discovered recently in the north of Gaul in Buizingen (Province of Flemish Brabant, Belgium, Nereth (Province of Liège, Belgium and Le Châtelet-sur-Sormonne (Department of Ardennes, France. Production debris and rough-outs recovered at these sites allowed us to reconstruct the operational sequence of manufacture, from the choice of raw material to the finished product. Technological studies enabled us to determine the production stages and highlight the similarities and differences between the three study areas. Analyses of the materials reveal the use of fine-grained sedimentary and low-grade metamorphic rocks outcropping near the workshops. All these rocks are linked to the Caledonian inliers of Brabant-London, Stavelot-Venn, and Rocroi. The large amount of waste found at Le Châtelet-sur-Sormonne, far more than that recovered at Buizingen and Nereth, is indicative of the economic importance of this whetstone workshop. This importance is reflected in the fact that whetstones from Le Châtelet-sur-Sormonne are distributed over a large area throughout Belgium, France (Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Picardie and Champagne-Ardenne regions, Germany, and the Netherlands. This paper presents the waste and rough-outs from the three production sites. It also defines rock types and their origins and offers insights into whetstone manufacturing processes and techniques.

  20. De la dédiasporisation des jeunes Haïtiens à New-York On De-diasporization of Second-generation Haitians in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Melyon-Reinette

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Les facteurs répulsifs de l’émigration haïtienne ont complètement changé depuis les années 1950 qui marquèrent le début de ce mouvement avec le régime duvaliériste. Les entités géopolitiques et sociopolitiques qui en résultent évoluent, elles aussi, proportionnellement et rationnellement aux motivations des individus en partance. Ainsi, les exilés forcés rêvaient de retrouver leur chère Haïti, les nouveaux primo-arrivants sont des individus qui cherchent à se ré-enraciner dans un terreau aux airs d’ailleurs. Le diasporique est-il un individu dont l’identité est figée ? Dans cet article, une étude statistique simple cherche à démontrer l’évolution des mentalités des jeunes Haïtiens à travers un questionnement des identités et des orientations culturelles. Des dynamiques se font jour montrant que la diaspora est fluctuante comme les identités et les cultures qui la composent.The Push factors of Haitian emigration have completely changed since the late 1950s which marked the beginning of this movement with the Duvalier regime. The geopolitical and sociopolitical entities which result from it are changing as well, in proportion and accordance with the motivations of the people who leave. Thus, the forced exiles dreamt of going back to their dearest Haiti, the latest newly-arrived immigrants are individuals who desire to re-root into a land that sounds like “elsewhere”. Must the diasporic individual’s identity be stable? In this article, a simple survey seeks to shed light on the changing mentalities of young Haitians, examining their identities and cultural choices.  Emerging trends show that diaspora is a flow, not unlike the identities and the cultures of which it is composed.

  1. El fin de la situación de transitoriedad: la Ley Orgánica 15/1999, de 13 de diciembre, de Protección de Datos de Carácter Personal ya tiene desarrollo reglamentario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mònica Vilasau

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available El 19 de abril del 2008 entró en vigor el Reglamento 1720/2007, de 21 de diciembre, que desarrolla la Ley Orgánica de Protección de Datos (LOPD. Este texto había sido muy esperado por los aplicadores del derecho, por las empresas de consultoría y de seguridad, por sectores del marketing y publicidad, por empresas dedicadas a la solvencia patrimonial y crédito y, en un grado menor, por los consumidores y usuarios. La norma responde a la necesidad de dotar la Ley Orgánica sobre la materia del correspondiente desarrollo reglamentario y dar respuesta a las nuevas necesidades de la sociedad de la información constantemente en evolución. En el Reglamento de la LOPD se regula el otorgamiento del consentimiento por silencio positivo, el otorgamiento del consentimiento de los menores, se sistematiza el ejercicio de los derechos por parte del afectado, se regulan detalladamente los ficheros de marketing y publicidad, los de solvencia patrimonial y crédito, se dota la figura del encargado de un estatuto jurídico, se proporciona un nuevo marco a las medidas de seguridad y se sistematizan los procedimientos tramitados por la Agencia Española de Protección de Datos. El texto aprobado, evidentemente, no complacerá a todo el mundo, la existencia de múltiples instancias involucradas (estatales y autonómicas y de múltiples agentes con diferentes perspectivas hace que las soluciones proporcionadas no se ajusten a los ideales de todos los implicados.Sin embargo, el nuevo reglamento es un paso adelante en la consolidación del derecho a la protección de datos de carácter personal, aporta mayor seguridad jurídica y flexibilización y se tiene que ver como una oportunidad de crear una nueva cultura de protección de datos integrada en el tratamiento de la información de una forma global.

  2. Northern star J.S. Plaskett

    CERN Document Server

    Broughton, R Peter

    2018-01-01

    Northern Star explores Plaskett's unorthodox and fascinating life from his rural roots near Woodstock through his days as a technician at the University of Toronto to his initiation in astronomy at the Dominion Observatory in Ottawa.

  3. Northern Pintail - Flight Path Telemetry [ds117

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — North-south flight paths of radio-tagged female northern pintails were monitored in a section of Highway 152 near Los Banos, California during 4 and 11 November and...

  4. Northern California 6 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 6-second Northern California Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 6-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  5. Northern California 36 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 36-second Northern California Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 36-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  6. Child malnutrition in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulugeta, A.; Hagos, F.; Kruseman, G.; Linderhof, V.G.M.; Stroecker, B.; Abraha, Z.; Yohannes, M.; Samuel, G.G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Estimate levels of and identify factors contributing to child malnutrition in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Rural communities from four zones of Tigray. Subjects: Three hundred and eighteen under five children representing 587 randomly selected

  7. War and reconstruction in northern Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Tilman Bruck

    2006-01-01

    The article discusses some of the economic effects of war in northern Mozambique. It indicates how the historical and structural features of the economy of northern Mozambique restricted post-war reconstruction and post-war poverty alleviation. These features include the dominance of only a few cash crops for export, the absence of much rural trading, poor communication infrastructure, and weak political and state institutions. The specific nature of the internal war further weakened the stat...

  8. Biodegradability of northern crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, F D; Westlake, D W.S.

    1976-01-01

    Field studies on the microbiological degradation of crude oils encompassed the placing of oil-soaked plots in two areas in the Northwest Territories and Alberta. Replicate plots received amendments of fertilizer, oil-utilizing bacteria, fertilizer plus bacteria or were untreated except for the oil. Changes in microbial numbers and chemical composition of recovered oil were determined periodically. The initial stimulatory effect on bacterial numbers brought about by the addition of fertilizers to oil-soaked plots diminished two years after the application to a point where the differences were no longer significant. Experiments carried out in the Norman Wells area to determine the effect of the amount of fertilizer applied on oil degradation have yielded inconclusive results. The data suggest that at least 2.7 kg of urea-phosphate fertilizer per kl of oil is required to maintain a reasonable oil degradation rate. Preliminary studies on the use of fertilizer coated with chemicals to increase its hydrophobic character indicate that they could be useful in treating wet-land oil spills. Soils from the McKenzie River drainage basin indicate that bacteria are present which can use oil under mesophilic conditions. However, the ability to use the same oil under psychrophilic conditions is more restricted. At least one bacterial species from each mixed population studied was capable of bringing about chemical changes in oil similar to those observed for the original mixed culture. The potential hazards and uses of the seeding of oil spills is discussed relative to the environmental conditions found in the northern part of Canada. 35 refs., 2 figs., 15 tabs.

  9. Adaptability of black walnut, black cherry, and Northern red oak to Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald

    1987-01-01

    When planted in sheltered sites in northern California, only 49% of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) and 58% of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) survived for 15 years, and 20% of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) survived for 10 years. The black walnut trees averaged 0.6 inches diameter at breast...

  10. Viral diseases of northern ungulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Frölich

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes viral diseases reported in northern ungulates and those that are a potential threat to these species. The following diseases are discussed: bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD, alphaherpesvirus infections, malignant catarrhal fever (MCF, poxvirus infections, parainfluenza type 3 virus infection, Alvsborg disease, foot-and-mouth disease, epizootic haemorrhage disease of deer and bluetongue disease, rabies, respiratory syncytial virus infection, adenovirus infection, hog-cholera, Aujeszky's disease and equine herpesvirus infections. There are no significant differences in antibody prevalence to BVDV among deer in habitats with high, intermediate and low density of cattle. In addition, sequence analysis from the BVDV isolated from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus showed that this strain was unique within BVDV group I. Distinct BVDV strains might circulate in free-ranging roe deer populations in Germany and virus transmission may be independent of domestic livestock. Similar results have been obtained in a serological survey of alpha-herpesviruses in deer in Germany. Malignant catarrhal fever was studied in fallow deer (Cervus dama in Germany: the seroprevalence and positive PCR results detected in sheep originating from the same area as the antibody-positive deer might indicate that sheep are the main reservoir animals. Contagious ecthyma (CE is a common disease in domestic sheep and goats caused by the orf virus. CE has been diagnosed in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus, Dall sheep (Ovis dalli, chamois (Rupkapra rupi-capra, muskox {Ovibos moschatus and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus. Most parainfluenza type 3 virus infections are mild or clinically undetectable. Serological surveys in wildlife have been successfully conducted in many species. In 1985, a new disease was identified in Swedish moose (Alces alces, designated as Alvsborg disease. This wasting syndrome probably

  11. Proposed purchasing, employment and training policies for northern projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    Manitoba Hydro is about to embark on a major construction project in the northern part of the province. Important considerations involved in this project include purchasing the necessary materials, products, and services, and employing a suitable work force. An outline is presented of draft policies being considered by Manitoba Hydro to enhance northern-aboriginal and northern participation in its future development projects in northern Manitoba. The policies are presented in four sections: purchasing for northern construction and operation activities; training and employment for construction of a generation station and expansion of a converter station; training and employment for construction of a major north-south transmission line; and training and employment for northern operations and maintenance work at existing facilities. Aspects of these policies include giving preference in purchasing to northern and aboriginal businesses, training initiatives and employee counselling for aboriginal employees, and hiring preferences directed toward northern aboriginals and northern residents

  12. Reseña de: Caselli, Elisa, Antijudaïsme, pouvoir politique et administration de la justice. Juifs, chrétiens et converts dans l’ espace jurisdictionnel de la Chancillería de Valladolid (XVe-XVIe siècles.Villeneuve d’Ascq...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Cantera Montenegro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Caselli, Elisa, Antijudaïsme, pouvoir politique et administration de la justice. Juifs, chrétiens et converts dans l’ espace jurisdictionnel de la Chancillería de Valladolid (XVe-XVIe siècles. Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex. Atelier National de Reproduction des Thèses, 2016. 396 págs. isbn: 978-2-7295-8891-5.

  13. The Maritime Cultural Landscape of Northern Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Nicolás

    2017-12-01

    This article is a contribution to the study of the indigenous navigation and its boats in the region of northern Patagonia. This article also aims to contribute to the understanding of indigenous navigation practices and technologies and their origins from prehistoric times to the mid-twentieth century. It presents and discusses the concept of Westerdahl's Maritime Cultural Landscape in relation to other landscape concepts. This model is applied to northern Patagonia in order to discuss if it is possible to speak of a true maritime culture in the region. For this purpose, archaeological, historical and ethnographic data are presented in an integrative and innovative methodology for the discipline. Finally, the Maritime Cultural Landscape model will allow the integration of aquatic and terrestrial landscapes as routes traveled by native inhabitants of northern Patagonia and southern Chile, and propose an important and diversified maritime, river and lake tradition.

  14. Accessing northern California earthquake data via Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowicz, Barbara; Neuhauser, Douglas; Bogaert, Barbara; Oppenheimer, David

    The Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC) provides easy access to central and northern California digital earthquake data. It is located at the University of California, Berkeley, and is operated jointly with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Menlo Park, Calif., and funded by the University of California and the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program. It has been accessible to users in the scientific community through Internet since mid-1992.The data center provides an on-line archive for parametric and waveform data from two regional networks: the Northern California Seismic Network (NCSN) operated by the USGS and the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network (BDSN) operated by the Seismographic Station at the University of California, Berkeley.

  15. Stratigraphy of the Martian northern plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.

    1993-01-01

    The northern plains of Mars are roughly defined as the large continuous region of lowlands that lies below Martian datum, plus higher areas within the region that were built up by volcanism, sedimentation, tectonism, and impacts. These northern lowlands span about 50 x 10(exp 6) km(sup 2) or 35 percent of the planet's surface. The age and origin of the lowlands continue to be debated by proponents of impact and tectonic explanations. Geologic mapping and topical studies indicate that volcanic, fluvial, and eolian deposition have played major roles in the infilling of this vast depression. Periglacial, glacial, fluvial, eolian, tectonic, and impact processes have locally modified the surface. Because of the northern plains' complex history of sedimentation and modification, much of their stratigraphy was obscured. Thus the stratigraphy developed is necessarily vague and provisional: it is based on various clues from within the lowlands as well as from highland areas within and bordering the plains. The results are summarized.

  16. Building Healthy Northern Communities Through Strengthening Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Schmidt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines and evaluates the effects of one-time funding on capacity building of health and social welfare organizations in a remote and northern section of British Columbia Canada. The Province of British Columbia awarded a two million dollar grant (Canadian to the University of Northern British Columbia (UNBC. Organizations applied for funds through a competitive process that was managed by the School of Social Work at UNBC. Twenty-five different community organizations and agencies received funding for a period of eighteen months. The organizations and agencies delivered a range of services and activities located in remote First Nations communities as well as the natural resource-based single industry towns of northern BC.

  17. Climate Impacts on Northern Canada: Regional Background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowse, Terry D.; Peters, Daniel L. (Water and Climate Impacts Research Centre, Environment Canada, Dept. of Geography, Univ. of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada)). e-mail: terry.prowse@ec.gc.caa; Furgal, Chris (Indigenous Environmental Studies Program, Trent Univ., Peterborough, ON (Canada)); Bonsal, Barrie R. (National Water Research Inst., National Hydrology Research Centre, Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada))

    2009-07-15

    Understanding the implications of climate change on northern Canada requires a background about the size and diversity of its human and biogeophysical systems. Occupying an area of almost 40% of Canada, with one-third of this contained in Arctic islands, Canada's northern territories consist of a diversity of physical environments unrivaled around the circumpolar north. Major ecozones composed of a range of landforms, climate, vegetation, and wildlife include: Arctic, boreal and taiga cordillera; boreal and taiga plains; taiga shield; and northern and southern Arctic. Although generally characterized by a cold climate, there is an enormous range in air temperature with mean annual values being as high as -5 deg C in the south to as low as -20 deg C in the high Arctic islands. A similar contrast characterizes precipitation, which can be >700 mm y-1 in some southern alpine regions to as low as 50 mm y-1 over islands of the high Arctic. Major freshwater resources are found within most northern ecozones, varying from large glaciers or ice caps and lakes to extensive wetlands and peat lands. Most of the North's renewable water, however, is found within its major river networks and originates in more southerly headwaters. Ice covers characterize the freshwater systems for multiple months of the year while permafrost prevails in various forms, dominating the terrestrial landscape. The marine environment, which envelops the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is dominated by seasonal to multiyear sea ice often several meters thick that plays a key role in the regional climate. Almost two-thirds of northern Canadian communities are located along coastlines with the entire population being just over 100 000. Most recent population growth has been dominated by an expansion of nonaboriginals, primarily the result of resource development and the growth of public administration. The economies of northern communities, however, remain quite mixed with traditional land

  18. Northern Land Council v. the Commonwealth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The Ranger Project Area in the Northern Territory contains deposits of uranium. By section 5 of the Atomic Energy Amendment Act (No. 2) 1980 the assignment of an agreement between the Commonwealth and joint venturers for the conduct of uranium mining was authorised. The Northern Land Council, representing Aboriginal interests, challenged the validity of the section. It was held that the section was valid. The Council also submitted that, although it had entered into an agreement with the Commonwealth in 1978, the agreement was void or voidable

  19. Rural telemedicine project in northern New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zink, S.; Hahn, H.; Rudnick, J.; Snell, J.; Forslund, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Martinez, P. [Northern New Mexico Community Coll., Espanola, NM (United States)

    1998-12-31

    A virtual electronic medical record system is being deployed over the Internet with security in northern New Mexico using TeleMed, a multimedia medical records management system that uses CORBA-based client-server technology and distributed database architecture. The goal of the NNM Rural Telemedicine Project is to implement TeleMed into fifteen rural clinics and two hospitals within a 25,000 square mile area of northern New Mexico. Evaluation of the project consists of three components: job task analysis, audit of immunized children, and time motion studies. Preliminary results of the evaluation components are presented.

  20. Coastal geomorphology of the Martian northern plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Timothy J.; Gorsline, Donn S.; Saunders, Stephen R.; Pieri, David C.; Schneeberger, Dale M.

    1993-01-01

    The paper considers the question of the formation of the outflow channels and valley networks discovered on the Martian northern plains during the Mariner 9 mission. Parker and Saunders (1987) and Parker et al. (1987, 1989) data are used to describe key features common both in the lower reaches of the outflow channels and within and along the margins of the entire northern plains. It is suggested, that of the geological processes capable of producing similar morphologies on earth, lacustrine or marine deposition and subsequent periglacial modification offer the simplest and most consistent explanation for the suit of features found on Mars.

  1. Winter cooling in the northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Prasad, T.G.

    forcing that leads to the observed high productivity during winter in the northern Arabian Sea. The weak northerly winds and increased solar insolation during the inter-monsoon period, led to the development of a highly stratified upper layer with warm sea...

  2. The visual arts in Northern Ireland hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromie, H

    1995-10-01

    Since 1989 there has been a burgeoning of the visual arts in Northern Ireland hospitals. This paper compares the three organisational models for hospital arts currently operating within the Province and in an overview discusses ways to coordinate working practice for future development of the visual arts in local hospitals.

  3. The visual arts in Northern Ireland hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromie, H.

    1995-01-01

    Since 1989 there has been a burgeoning of the visual arts in Northern Ireland hospitals. This paper compares the three organisational models for hospital arts currently operating within the Province and in an overview discusses ways to coordinate working practice for future development of the visual arts in local hospitals. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 PMID:8533183

  4. Potato pathogens in Northern and Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, H.T.A.M.; Cooke, L.R.

    2015-01-01

    The climatic conditions in Northern and Western (NW) Europe, which are very suitable for the cultivation of potatoes, are also very favourable for a range of diseases of which late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is by far the most important with the potential to cause total crop loss. It

  5. The Times and the Northern Ireland Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouhaïr Abassi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In societies in conflict the role of the media is supposed to be neutral and to report conflicts fairly and with balanced analyses. By their public debates on conflicts they are also supposed to take part in pacifying societies and in helping to bring peace. Cottle (1997, for instance, explained that even though some findings related to the British media and its reporting of the Northern Ireland conflict were relevant, he argued that they needed revision. Consequently, he proposed new paradigms of media studies. Elliott (1977 and Curtis(1996 showed that the British media concentrated on violence in general and on republican violence in particular. Moreover, they argued that the British media neglected social and political contexts in their reporting of the conflict. The aim of this paper is then to examine some aspects of how the British media cover the Northern Ireland conflict. We studied the coverage of the Northern Ireland conflict by The (London Times (1990-1995. We used a discourse analysis method to study the paper’s discourse structure in its representation of the Northern Ireland conflict.

  6. Placing our northern hardwood woodlots under management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell J. Hutnik

    1956-01-01

    Do you own a woodlot? Does it contain mostly northern hardwoods - that is, beech, birch, maple, and ash, with some hemlock and spruce? If the answers to these two questions are "yes," then you may be interested in the work that is carried on at the Bartlett Experimental Forest in New Hampshire. This is one of the field laboratories established by the U. S....

  7. Seismic activity of northern and central Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deichmann, N.; Ballarin Dolfin, D.; Kastrup, U.

    2000-12-01

    The present report is part of an ongoing study by the Swiss Seismological Service, that was initiated by Nagra almost 20 years ago. It is devoted to the detailed monitoring of the earthquake activity in northern and central Switzerland. The main objective of this study is to provide information about the locations of active deformation and the state of stress in the Earth's crust and to relate these to the geological features visible at the surface. Originally, this seismotectonic investigation was restricted to the northern part of Switzerland; later it was extended also to the central part. Concerning the seismotectonics of northern Switzerland, this report constitutes a continuation of earlier publications. Here we review the seismic activity and earthquake focal mechanisms of the last 10 years and subsequently derive a comprehensive picture of the deformation and stress in the Earth's crust of northern Switzerland, based on all data available up to the end of 1999. Concerning the seismotectonics of central Switzerland, this publication constitutes the first publicly available report. (author) [de

  8. Survival of adult martens in Northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas P. McCann; Patrick A. Zollner; Jonathan H. Gilbert

    2010-01-01

    Low adult marten (Martes americana) survival may be one factor limiting their population growth >30 yr after their reintroduction in Wisconsin, USA. We estimated annual adult marten survival at 0.81 in northern Wisconsin, with lower survival during winter (0.87) than summer-fall (1.00). Fisher (Martes pennanti) and raptor kills...

  9. From Poetry to Music: "Northern Lullaby"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2011-01-01

    Nancy White Carlstrom's children's book, "Northern Lullaby," conjures through poetry the beauty of the Alaskan landscape in the evening. The book provides an opportunity for music teachers to help their students transform text and visual images to music. The author describes connections for reading comprehension in the general music…

  10. Nursing care after death in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Lynne

    2017-06-30

    Essential facts According to the Registrar General Annual Report published in August 2016 there were 15,548 deaths in Northern Ireland in 2015, with almost two thirds being of people aged 75 or more. Almost half (48%) occurred in NHS hospitals, with a further 20% in other hospitals or nursing homes.

  11. Trypanosomes of Bufo americanus from northern Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, J K; Davis, J S; Slaght, K S

    1988-10-01

    Two hundred one American toads (Bufo americanus) from northern Michigan were examined for blood trypanosomes. Three species, Trypanosoma bufophlebotomi, T. schmidti-like sp. and T. pseudopodia, had prevalences of 27, 16 and 1%, respectively. Cross experimental inoculations showed that T. bufophlebotomi from toads is not the same as T. ranarum found in frogs of the family Ranidae of this region.

  12. Mining and energy in the Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Included in this book is a section on each of the major minerals of present or future importance to the Northern Territory. Brief details of the uranium mining projects at Nabarlek, Ranger, Koongarra and Jabiluka in the Alligator Rivers regions are given. Subjects such as environmental protection, Aboriginal land rights and the geology of the area are also considered

  13. Deprivation, HIV and AIDS in Northern Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-09-28

    physical aggression, deprivation, hunger and family separation, among others, for over twenty years. ... by various types of sexual crimes of rape (including marital rape), defilement and child .... insecurity and civil strife raged in northern Uganda mainly between the government ...... The Daily Monitor of September 28, 2007.

  14. Otological emergencies among the northern Nigerian children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Acute suppurative otitis media, acute otitis media and foreign body insertion into the ear still constitute the common otological emergencies in Northern Nigeria. These are all preventable emergencies through community health education, training of community health worker to recognize the symptom and signs ...

  15. Ecological units of the Northern Region: Subsections

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Nesser; Gary L. Ford; C. Lee Maynard; Debbie Dumroese

    1997-01-01

    Ecological units are described at the subsection level of the Forest Service National Hierarchical Framework of Ecological Units. A total of 91 subsections are delineated on the 1996 map "Ecological Units of the Northern Region: Subsections," based on physical and biological criteria. This document consists of descriptions of the climate, geomorphology,...

  16. Reducing vulnerability among pastoralists in Northern Kenya

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CCAA

    vulnerability among pastoralist communities in Mandera and Turkana in Northern Kenya, led by the Kenyan NGO ... to understand how people have experienced droughts and other ... norms and gender roles may make them more or less vulnerable, ... and see direct impacts on the resources they depend on for their.

  17. Forest carbon sinks in the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine L. Goodale; Michael J. Apps; Richard A. Birdsey; Christopher B. Field; Linda S. Heath; Richard A. Houghton; Jennifer C. Jenkins; Gundolf H. Kohlmaier; Werner Kurz; Shirong Liu; Gert-Jan Nabuurs; Sten Nilsson; Anatoly Z. Shvidenko

    2002-01-01

    There is general agreement that terrestrial systems in the Northern Hemisphere provide a significant sink for atmospheric CO2; however, estimates of the magnitude and distribution of this sink vary greatly. National forest inventories provide strong, measurement-based constraints on the magnitude of net forest carbon uptake. We brought together...

  18. Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Heinemeier, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Kayhude at the river Alster and Schlamersdorf at the river Trave, both in Schleswig-Holstein, Northern Germany. Measurements on modern materials from these rivers may not give a single reservoir age correction that can be applied to archaeological samples, but they will show the order of magnitude...

  19. The Lemmatisation of Adverbs in Northern Sotho*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Technology

    A dictionary should not primarily reflect the attitude of the lexicographer; it should ... ditional focus on the word as representative of the lexicon should be shifted to .... 25. Thirdly, a single glance at the treatment of adverbs in Northern Sotho dic-.

  20. Nitrite maxima in the Northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; DeSousa, S.N.; Fondekar, S.P.

    There are 2 nitrite maxima in the Northern Arabian Sea, one at the thermocline depth and the other at depths between 300 and 500 m. The 2nd maximum is more prominent in the northeastern part of the Arabian Sea. The 1st maximum is associated...

  1. Historic Hydroclimatic Variability in Northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Villanueva-Diaz; J. Cerano-Paredes; D.W. Stahle; B. H. Luckman; M.D. Therrell; M.K. Cleaveland; G. Gutierrez-Garcia

    2006-01-01

    The understanding of historic hydroclimatic variability is basic to plan for a proper management of limited water resources in northern Mexico. The objective of this study was to develop a network of tree-ring chronologies for climate reconstruction and to analyze the influence of circulatory patterns, such as ENSO. Climatic sensitive treering chronologies were...

  2. Mobile rural youth in northern Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gough, Katherine; Birch-Thomsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    , followed by structural adjustment programmes and neoliberalism, have all contributed to increasing the inequality between the north and the south. Although Ghana has now joined the ranks of lower middle-income countries, its northern part lags behind, with 22.2% of the population living below the poverty...

  3. Demographic change in the northern forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth M. Johnson; Susan I. Stewart; Miranda H. Mockrin

    2012-01-01

    The Northern Forest spans more than 26 million acres across Maine, New Hampshire, New York, and Vermont. With densely settled urban cores, sprawling suburbs, struggling industrial and forest products towns, fast growing recreational areas, and isolated rural villages, the region includes many of the diverse strands that together compose the demographic fabric of the...

  4. The Lemmatization of Copulatives in Northern Sotho*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    The indicative series The present tense Principal Identifying pos. lst and 2nd .... na 'man' and morutiši 'teacher' or bohlale 'wisdom' or mpša 'dog' in Table 1, A–C ... (and the compiler of a basic Northern Sotho grammar) to use the user's pre-.

  5. The Enigma of Mercury's Northern Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, P. B.

    2018-05-01

    Various aspects of the "northern rise" make it hard to explain: Its composition and chronology don't stand out from its surroundings, it seems to have uplifted late, and it has a huge gravity anomaly. We'll discuss the possible formation mechanisms.

  6. Seasonally asymmetric enhancement of northern vegetation productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, T.; Myneni, R.

    2017-12-01

    Multiple evidences of widespread greening and increasing terrestrial carbon uptake have been documented. In particular, enhanced gross productivity of northern vegetation has been a critical role leading to observed carbon uptake trend. However, seasonal photosynthetic activity and its contribution to observed annual carbon uptake trend and interannual variability are not well understood. Here, we introduce a multiple-source of datasets including ground, atmospheric and satellite observations, and multiple process-based global vegetation models to understand how seasonal variation of land surface vegetation controls a large-scale carbon exchange. Our analysis clearly shows a seasonally asymmetric enhancement of northern vegetation productivity in growing season during last decades. Particularly, increasing gross productivity in late spring and early summer is obvious and dominant driver explaining observed trend and variability. We observe more asymmetric productivity enhancement in warmer region and this spatially varying asymmetricity in northern vegetation are likely explained by canopy development rate, thermal and light availability. These results imply that continued warming may facilitate amplifying asymmetric vegetation activity and cause these trends to become more pervasive, in turn warming induced regime shift in northern land.

  7. Controlling human oesophagostomiasis in northern Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziem, Juventus Benogle

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes aspects of the epidemiology and attempts to control infection and pathology due to the nematode parasite Oesophagostomum bifurcum . In northern Ghana and Togo O. bifurcum is an important parasite of humans; elsewhere it is predominantly seen as a parasite of non-human primates.

  8. Discussion on several geological problems and uranium metallogeny on northern border of northern China block (platform)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hong.

    1987-01-01

    According to the informations from the satellite image and the field investigation the following geological events on the northern border of the Northern China Block are recognized and confirmed, duch as suture zones between blocks, folding-reversed fault zones, back-arc collision zones (faulted zones), transitional zone between platform and geosyncline, magmatic are and the double sturcture composed of NNE trend magmatic active belt and fault-depression belts (basins) of Yenshan-Ximalaya age. On thsee bases the following problems, such as the unique structural environment of uranium mineralization related to abyssal magmatic rocks and Yenshan magmatic active zone (including volcanic belt) on the northern border of the Northern China Block, the metallogenetic modes for urnaium deposits of 'magmatic type' and 'neutralized surface type' in fault-depression zone and the classification of uranium metallogenetic belts and the criteria for such classification are studied and discussed. Several uranium deposits are given for illustrations

  9. 7 CFR 457.142 - Northern potato crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance provisions. 457.142... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.142 Northern potato crop insurance provisions. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2008 and succeeding...

  10. Executive Summary: Forests of the Northern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen R. Shifley; Francisco X. Aguilar; Nianfu Song; Susan I. Stewart; David J. Nowak; Dale D. Gormanson; W. Keith Moser; Sherri Wormstead; Eric J. Greenfield

    2012-01-01

    This executive summary provides an overview of the 200-page report, Forests of the Northern United States, which covers in detail current forest conditions, recent trends, issues, threats and opportunities in the forests in the 20 Northern States. It provides a context for subsequent Northern Forest Futures Project analyses that will forecast alternative future...

  11. Isotope hydrology and geochemistry of northern Chile groundwaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available HYDROLOGIE ISOTOPIQUE ET GEOCHIMIE DES EAUX SOUTERRAINES DU NORD CHILI. Cet article est un résumé des études de caractérisation d’aquifères situés dans la Pampa del Tamarugal et du Salar de Atacama au nord du Chili à l’aide d’isotopes. Les objectifs principaux de ces études étaient d’obtenir de l’information sur l’origine et le temps de résidence des eaux souterraines, la qualité des eaux, les taux d’évaporation des salars et la relation entre les inondations et la recharge des aquifères. Les principales conclusions de ces études sont les suivantes: a la majorité de l’eau souterraine est de bonne qualité à l’exception des zones situées près des salars b un système multi-aquifère a été identifié dans le bassin de la Pampa del Tamaragual en relation avec des zones de recharges situées à différentes altitudes et c une importante portion des eaux souterraines dans les aquifères de la Pampa devraient êtres considérées comme une ressource non renouvelable. HIDROLOGÍA ISOTÓPICA Y GEOQUÍMICA DE LAS AGUAS SUBTERRÁNEAS DEL NORTE DE CHILE. En este trabajo se presenta un resumen de estudios que se han realizado en el Norte de Chile, en acuíferos localizados en la Pampa del Tamarugal y en el Salar de Atacama. Los principales objetivos de esos estudios fueron obtener información sobre el origen y el tiempo de residencia del agua subterránea, calidad química del agua, tasas de evaporación desde los salares y evaluar la relación entre inundaciones y recarga a los acuíferos. Las principales conclusiones de estos estudios fueron las siguientes: a la mayoría del agua subterránea es de buena calidad, con la excepción de las áreas cercanas a los salares b se identificó en la cuenca de la Pampa del Tamarugal un sistema de multiacuífero relacionado a áreas de recargas localizadas en diferentes altitudes c una parte importante del agua subterránea en la Pampa del Tamarugal tiene que ser tratada como un recurso

  12. Geographical variations in Sr and Nd isotopic ratios of cryoconite on Asian glaciers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatsuka, Naoko; Takeuchi, Nozomu; Nakano, Takanori; Shin, Kicheol; Kokado, Emi

    2014-01-01

    Cryoconite is a dark-coloured surface dust deposited on glaciers that consists of wind-blown mineral particles, as well as organic matter derived from microbes living on glaciers. In this paper, we analyse the Sr and Nd isotopic ratios of four mineral fractions (i.e., the saline, carbonate, phosphate, and silicate mineral fractions), as well as the organic fraction, of cryoconite samples obtained from six Asian glaciers (the Altai, Pamir, Tien Shan, Qillian Shan, and Himalayan regions), and discuss their geographical variations in terms of the geological origins of the mineral particles and the biogeochemical processes on the glaciers. The silicate mineral fraction showed lower Sr and higher Nd ratios for the glaciers located to the north (Altai, 87 Sr/ 86 Sr: 0.713 490–0.715 284, εNd(0): −6.4 to −5.6), while higher Sr and lower Nd ratios for the glaciers located to the south (Himalayas, 87 Sr/ 86 Sr: 0.740 121–0.742 088, εNd(0): −16.4 to −15.7); the ratios were similar to those of desert sand, loess, and river sediments in the respective regions of the glaciers. This result suggests that the silicate minerals within the cryoconites were derived from different sources depending on the geographical locations of the glaciers. The isotopic ratios of the saline, carbonate, and phosphate mineral fractions were distinct from those of the silicate fraction, and were similar to those of evaporites and apatite deposits from the Asian deserts, but also varied geographically, indicating that they are likely to reflect their geological origin. The Sr isotopic ratios of the organic fraction were similar to those of the saline and carbonate fractions from glaciers in the central area (Tien Shan and Qillian Shan), but were higher than those of the saline and carbonate fractions, and lower than the phosphate mineral fraction, in the northern and southern areas. The ratios of organic fraction may be determined from the mixing ratio of calcium sources

  13. Amphibians of the northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Diane L.; Euliss, Ned H.; Lannoo, Michael J.; Mushet, David M.; Mac, M.J.; Opler, P.A.; Puckett Haecker, C. E.; Doran, P.D.

    1998-01-01

    No cry of alarm has been sounded over the fate of amphibian populations in the northern grasslands of North America, yet huge percentages of prairie wetland habitat have been lost, and the destruction continues. Scarcely 30% of the original mixedgrass prairie remains in Nebraska, South Dakota, and North Dakota (See Table 1 in this chapter). If amphibian populations haven’t declined, why haven’t they? Or, have we simply failed to notice? Amphibians in the northern grasslands evolved in a boom-or-bust environment: species that were unable to survive droughts lasting for years died out long before humans were around to count them. Species we find today are expert at seizing the rare, wet moment to rebuild their populations in preparation for the next dry season. When numbers can change so rapidly, who can say if a species is rare or common? A lot depends on when you look.

  14. Trace gas fluxes from northern peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, T [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada). Geography Dept.

    1997-12-31

    Peatlands cover large areas in northern environments: 1.1, 0.1 and 1.7 x 10{sup 4} km{sup 2} in Canada, Finland and the former Soviet Union, respectively. Interest has been generated into the role these extensive areas of peatlands play in controlling the chemistry of the atmosphere. In particular, it has become established that peatlands can be a source of methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), and a sink of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), the latter through the rates of plant production exceeding the rate of decomposition of plant material and peat. In this presentation the recent advances in trace gas flux measurements in northern peatlands are presented. (16 refs.)

  15. Aisle-truss houses of Northern Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eybye, Birgitte Tanderup

    2014-01-01

    The aisle-truss houses of Northern Jutland were built under hard conditions, such as harsh climate and scarce resources. Hence, the aisle-truss houses display a number of resource-saving and sustainable building principles, including the arcade construction and the use of passive energy strategies......, which make them relevant to research. This paper investigates resource-saving and sustainable principles in the aisle-truss houses of Thy, Northern Jutland. General features as well as three cases of the one-wing dwelling aisle-truss houses are studied. The aim is to improve the understanding of aisle......-truss houses. Another aim is to suggest strategies for modern sustainable building on the basis of the identified principles in aisle-truss houses....

  16. Uranium and thorium deposits of Northern Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.; Gould, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    This, the second edition of the uranium-thorium deposit inventory, describes briefly the deposits of uranium and/or thorium in northern Ontario, which for the purposes of this circular is defined as that part of Ontario lying north and west of the Grenville Front. The most significant of the deposits described are fossil placers lying at or near the base of the Middle Precambrian Huronian Supergroup. These include the producing and past-producing mines of the Elliot Lake - Agnew Lake area. Also included are the pitchblende veins spatially associated with Late Precambrian (Keweenawan) diabase dikes of the Theano Point - Montreal River area. Miscellaneous Early Precambrian pegmatite, pitchblende-coffinite-sulphide occurrences near the Middle-Early Precambrian unconformity fringing the Lake Superior basin, and disseminations in diabase, granitic rocks, alkalic complexes and breccias scattered throughout northern Ontario make up the rest of the occurrences

  17. Trace gas fluxes from northern peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, T. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada). Geography Dept.

    1996-12-31

    Peatlands cover large areas in northern environments: 1.1, 0.1 and 1.7 x 10{sup 4} km{sup 2} in Canada, Finland and the former Soviet Union, respectively. Interest has been generated into the role these extensive areas of peatlands play in controlling the chemistry of the atmosphere. In particular, it has become established that peatlands can be a source of methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), and a sink of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), the latter through the rates of plant production exceeding the rate of decomposition of plant material and peat. In this presentation the recent advances in trace gas flux measurements in northern peatlands are presented. (16 refs.)

  18. A chronological framework connecting the early Upper Palaeolithic across the Central Asian piedmont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Kathryn E; Iovita, Radu; Sprafke, Tobias; Glantz, Michelle; Talamo, Sahra; Horton, Katharine; Beeton, Tyler; Alipova, Saya; Bekseitov, Galymzhan; Ospanov, Yerbolat; Deom, Jean-Marc; Sala, Renato; Taimagambetov, Zhaken

    2017-12-01

    Central Asia has delivered significant paleoanthropological discoveries in the past few years. New genetic data indicate that at least two archaic human species met and interbred with anatomically modern humans as they arrived into northern Central Asia. However, data are limited: known archaeological sites with lithic assemblages generally lack human fossils, and consequently identifying the archaeological signatures of different human groups, and the timing of their occupation, remains elusive. Reliable chronologic data from sites in the region, crucial to our understanding of the timing and duration of interactions between different human species, are rare. Here we present chronologies for two open air Middle to Upper Palaeolithic (UP) sequences from the Tien Shan piedmont in southeast Kazakhstan, Maibulak and Valikhanova, which bridge southern and northern Central Asia. The chronologies, based on both quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and polymineral post-infrared infrared luminescence (pIR-IRSL) protocols, demonstrate that technological developments at the two sites differ substantially over the ∼47-19 ka time span. Some of the innovations typically associated with the earliest UP in the Altai or other parts of northeast Asia are also present in the Tien Shan piedmont. We caution against making assumptions about the directionality of spread of these technologies until a larger, better defined database of transitional sites in the region is available. Connections between the timing of occupation of regions, living area setting and paleoenvironmental conditions, while providing hypotheses worth exploring, remain inconclusive. We cautiously suggest a trend towards increasing occupation of open air sites across the Central Asian piedmont after ∼40 ka, corresponding to more humid climatic conditions which nevertheless included pulses of dust deposition. Human occupation persisted into the Last Glacial Maximum, despite cooler, and possibly drier

  19. Incidencia que tiene la participación de los jóvenes en los grupos juveniles respecto a su formación integral, calidad de vida y compromiso social, en la Universidad Nacional, Universidad de Medellín, Universidad de Antioquia tres instituciones de educación superior, de Medellín.

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Arroyave, Olga Luz; Ocampo Mejía, Martha Cecilia; Arango Ríos, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    En la Universidad de Medellín, se planteó por parte de un grupo interdisciplinario de investigadores, la posibilidad de mirar la Incidencia que tiene la participación de los jóvenes, en los grupos juveniles, respecto a la Formación Integral, Calidad de Vida y Compromiso Social. El estudio fue realizado en tres Instituciones de Educación Superior de Medellín, escogiéndose: la Universidad Nacional, la Universidad de Medellín, y la Universidad de Antioquia. El grupo de investigadores ident...

  20. Biomass utilization at Northern States Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.P.

    1994-01-01

    Northern States Power Company (open-quotes NSPclose quotes) generates, transmits and distributes electricity and distributes natural gas to customers in Minnesota, Wisconsin, North Dakota, South Dakota and Michigan. An important and growing component of the fuel needed to generate steam for electrical production is biomass. This paper describes NSP's historical use of biomass, current biomass resources and an overview of how NSP plans to expand its use of biomass in the future

  1. Ethno-botanical studies from northern Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, S.; Afzal, N.

    2009-01-01

    In this research paper efforts have been made to document the ethno-botanical knowledge of important plant species found in Northern Pakistan. It includes Thandiani, Galiat, Kaghan, Swat, Buner, Dir, Chitral and Northern Areas of Pakistan. The area has many climatic and vegetation zones or biomes. Locals residing in mountainous areas belonging to various ethnic groups are traditionally utilizing plants over many generations; these ethnic groups have their distinct life style, belief, traditions and cultural heritage. Plant collection and data regarding traditional uses in various areas of Northern Pakistan has been done periodically in different flowering /fruiting seasons. Locals of old age belonging to various ethnic groups were personally interviewed for establishing uses of plants. Photography is done for easy identification and habitat recognition. Collected plant specimens and seeds were preserved. Plant species were dried, mounted, identified and authenticated. Seventy six species were known to have traditional and ethno botanical uses. Plants have been utilized for many generations. Ethnic groups have distinct life style and have different economic uses for these plants. Due to unsustainable exploitation of natural habitats scarcity of drug plants has occurred. As consequence some species are depleting and may become extinct in near future, e. g. Morchella esculenta, Colchicum lueteum and Viola serpens are just a few of these. Although some sporadic information is available about the flora of this region but very little documented record of the ethno-botanically important plants has been established. It is expected that this research paper will be beneficial for students, researchers, farmers, foresters and general public. On the basis of data obtained it is concluded that ethno-botanical Flora of Northern Pakistan is quite rich and is diverse, due to the difference in altitude, climate and other topographic conditions. (author)

  2. Food irradiation - a Northern Ireland dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurray, C.H.; Stevenson, M.H.

    1988-01-01

    Irradiation is a technology which has been exploited in a wide variety of industries ranging from sterilization of medical products and polymer modification to applications with respect to food. Whilst food irradiation has recently become a controversial subject, the process has been studied for many years. Many products could be irradiated to advantage and these need to be thoroughly investigated before final recommendations can be made as to the commercial feasibility and suitability of the processing technology in the Northern Ireland context

  3. Making 3D movies of Northern Lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hivon, Eric; Mouette, Jean; Legault, Thierry

    2017-10-01

    We describe the steps necessary to create three-dimensional (3D) movies of Northern Lights or Aurorae Borealis out of real-time images taken with two distant high-resolution fish-eye cameras. Astrometric reconstruction of the visible stars is used to model the optical mapping of each camera and correct for it in order to properly align the two sets of images. Examples of the resulting movies can be seen at http://www.iap.fr/aurora3d

  4. Recent climate changes in the northern hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trenberth, K.E.

    1990-01-01

    The consistency of analyzed changes in surface wind stress, sea level pressures and surface temperatures between 1980-86 and previous periods indicates the reality of statistically significant and substantial climate changes in the Northern Hemisphere, especially over the North Pacific, on decadal time scales. Cooling in North Pacific sea surface temperatures and warming along the west coast of North America and Alaska are ascribed mainly to the changes in thermal advection associated with a deeper and more extensive Aleutian Low

  5. Wildfires in northern Siberian larch dominated communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I; Dvinskaya, Maria L; Im, Sergey T; Ranson, Kenneth J

    2011-01-01

    The fire history of the northern larch forests within the permafrost zone in a portion of northern Siberia (∼66°N, 100°E) was studied. Since there is little to no human activity in this area, fires within the study area were mostly caused by lightning. Fire return intervals (FRI) were estimated on the basis of burn marks on tree stems and dates of tree natality. FRI values varied from 130 to 350 yr with a 200 ± 50 yr mean. For southerly larch dominated communities, FRI was found to be shorter (77 ± 20 yr at ∼ 61°N, and 82 ± 7 at 64°N), and it was longer at the northern boundary (∼71°) of larch stands (320 ± 50 yr). During the Little Ice Age period in the 16th–18th centuries, FRI was approximately twice as long those as recorded in this study. Fire caused changes in the soil including increases in soil drainage and permafrost thawing depth, and a radial growth increase to about twice the background value (with more than six times observed in extreme cases). This effect may simulate the predicted warming impact on the larch growth in the permafrost zone.

  6. Pacific Northern Gas Ltd. annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Pacific Northern Gas Ltd. operates in west-central and northeast British Columbia. The company delivers natural gas to customers through a transmission pipeline connected to Duke Energy system near Summit Lake, British Columbia. This report states that in 2002 financial results were disappointing. The company's net income in 2002 was lower than it was in 2001 ($4.6 million versus $5.7 million). In December 2002, Pacific Northern Gas Ltd. completed $15 million in financing. Additions to property, plant and equipment reached a total of $6 million in 2002. A new, seven-year contract with Methanex Corporation was successfully negotiated. Pacific Northern Gas Ltd. filed revenue requirements applications with the British Columbia Utilities Commission, seeking the Commission's approval of rates for 2003 and requesting approval of a new deferral account in all divisions. A settlement of the western system 2003 revenue requirements application was negotiated with its customers. The annual report presented a highlight of all activities, including corporate governance and management discussions and analysis. Consolidated financial statements were also provided. tabs

  7. Detailed radon emanation mapping in Northern Latium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumento, F.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed radon surveys over 5,000 km 2 of Northern Latium, covering the northern part of the volcanic province of Central Italy, commenced in the mid eighties as part of a geothermal exploration programme; the surveys have subsequently been continued and amplified with environmental protection in mind. The area is now covered by ground emission maps, radon levels in water supplies, emissions from the different lithologies and concentrations in houses. The high uraniferous content of the volcanics, the porous nature of the ubiquitous pyroclastics, and active geothermal systems in the area combine to convey to ground level high concentrations of radon. The emissions show strong lateral variations which are geologically and tectonically controlled, such that only detailed surveys reveal the extent and locations of anomalous radon emanations. Unfortunately, long ago towns often developed in strategic locations. For Northern Latium this means on volcanic highs formed by faulted tuff blocks, two geological features associated with particularly high radon emissions. As a result, in contrast to the low average indoor radon concentrations for the greater part of Italy, in some of these town the average values exceed 450 Bq/m 3 . (author). 1 fig

  8. Analisi spaziale in archeologia dei paesaggi: il progetto N.D.S.S. (Northern Daunian Subappennino Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felice Stoico

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available El proyecto Northern Daunian Subappennino Survey, realizado en el ámbito de la investigación científica relacionada al Doctorado de investigación en "Arqueología y didáctica de Bienes Culturales", tiene la intención de presentar un estudio metodológico de los castillos para reconstruir el paisaje medieval a través del conocimiento y de la interpretación de los asentamientos. Partiendo de los resultados acabados en las investigaciones pasadas y de las muchas ideas que el análisis de los paisajes medievales realizado por la Universidad de Foggia ofrece, el proyecto ha sido estructurado como un análisis global, con el intento de redefinir todos los aspectos implicados en el proceso de la documentación arqueologíca y de la excavación, con la ayuda de la arquelogía informática, poniendo el acento en el uso del software libre y de código abierto.

  9. From the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative to the Northern Eurasia Future Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streletskiy, D. A.; Groisman, P. Y.; Shugart, H. H., Jr.; Gulev, S.; Maksyutov, S. S.; Qi, J.

    2017-12-01

    Since 2004, the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) - an interdisciplinary program of internationally-supported Earth systems and science research - has addressed large-scale and long-term manifestations of climate and environmental changes over Northern Eurasia and their impact on the Global Earth system. With 40 books and more than 1500 peer-reviewed journal publications to its credit, NEESPI's output can now be used to directly support decision-making for societal needs. Specifically, it was decided to shift gradually the foci of regional studies in Northern Eurasia towards applications with the following major Science Question: "What dynamic and interactive change(s) will affect societal well-being, activities, and health, and what might be the mitigation and adaptation strategies that could support sustainable development and decision-making activities in Northern Eurasia?" To answer this question requires a stronger socio-economic component in the ongoing and future regional studies focused on sustainable societal development under changing climatic and environmental conditions. The NEESPI Research Team has reorganized itself into "Northern Eurasia Future Initiative" (NEFI) and developed a new Science Plan released in June 2016. The Plan underwent a 6-month-long public review and was finalized at the end of 2016. Its description was thereafter split between two review papers: Groisman et al. (2017) and Monier et al. (2017). The first paper describes the Plan rationale and a new set of topical questions. The second paper describes a major modeling approach that will be employed in addressing the "what to do" questions of the NEFI Research (cf., presentation by Monier et al. at this Session). In the current presentation, we outline the new NEFI research foci and present latest NEFI findings including international projects in the Eurasian Arctic, boreal zone, and the Dry Land Belt of Northern Eurasia (cf., also presentations at sister

  10. Iron content and solubility in dust from high-alpine snow along a north-south transect of High Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjian Wu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the dissolved and insoluble iron fraction of dust (mineral aerosol in high-alpine snow samples collected along a north-south transect across High Asia (Eastern Tien Shan, Qilian Shan, and Southern Tibetan Plateau. This dust provides the basic chemical properties of mid- and high-level tropospheric Asian dust that can supply the limiting iron nutrient for phytoplankton growth in the North Pacific. The iron content in Asian dust averages 4.95% in Eastern Tien Shan, 3.38–5.41% along Qilian Shan and 3.85% in the Southern Tibetan Plateau. The iron fractional solubility averages about 0.25% in Eastern Tien Shan, 0.05–2% along Qilian Shan and 1.5% in the Southern Tibetan Plateau. Among the controlling factors that can affect iron solubility in Asian dust, such as dust composition and particle grain size, acidity seems to be the most significant and can increase the iron solubility by one or two orders of magnitude with acidification of pH=0.66. Our results reveal that iron solubility of dust in the remote downwind sites is higher than that in high-alpine snow, confirming the strong pH-dependence of iron solubility, and indicating that Asian dust shows a large variation in iron solubility on a regional scale.

  11. Principles for poverty alleviation among the youth in Northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wilson

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the statistical data and analysis con-cerning poverty among the young people in Uganda. The poverty is continuously ascending, with the most affected region being Northern Uganda. The major cause of poverty in Uganda has been the “South-North divide” fuelled by poor political leadership, that divides people along the lines of politics and ethnicity. Poverty has caused many young people of Northern Uganda to resort to rebellion against the government currently in power. This has led to unending political instability and civil strife most especially in Northern Uganda. In this article atten-tion is given to the conflict in Northern Uganda and attempts are made to propose some amicable resolutions. The discussion includes the current poverty scenario in Northern Uganda and possible strategies for reducing the poverty rate that has caused much damage in Northern Uganda.

  12. Seroprevalence of bovine theileriosis in northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqiong Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine theileriosis is a common disease transmitted by ticks, and can cause loss of beef and dairy cattle worldwide. Here, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA based on Theileria luwenshuni surface protein (TlSP was developed and used to carry out a seroepidemiological survey of bovine theileriosis in northern China. Methods We used the BugBuster Ni-NTA His•Bind Purification Kit to purify recombinant TlSP (rTlSP, which was subsequently analyzed by Western Blotting to evaluate cross-reactivity with other pathogen-positive sera. The iELISA method based on rTlSP was successfully developed. Sera from 2005 blood samples were tested with the rTlSP-iELISA method, and blood smears from these samples were observed by microscopy. Results The specificity of iELISA was 98.9%, the sensitivity was 98.5%, and the cut-off was selected as 24.6%. Western Blot analysis of rTlSP confirmed that there were cross-reactions with Theileria luwenshuni, Theileria uilenbergi, Theileria ovis, Theileria annulata, Theileria orientalis and Theileria sinensis. The epidemiological survey showed that the highest positive rate of bovine theileriosis was 98.3%, the lowest rate was 84.1%, and the average positive rate was 95.4% by iELISA. With microscopy, the highest positive rate was 38.9%, the lowest rate was 5.1%, and the relative average positive rate was 13.7%. Conclusions An rTlSP-iELISA was developed to detect circulating antibodies against bovine Theileria in northern China. This is the first report on the seroprevalence of bovine theileriosis in northern China, and it also provides seroepidemiological data on bovine theileriosis in China.

  13. Accumulation of carbon in northern mire ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolonen, K.; Turunen, J.; Alm, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Korhola, A. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Lab. of Physical Geography; Jungner, H. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dating Lab.; Vasander, H. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    The basic feature in the functional ecology of any mire ecosystem is retardation of the effective decay of organic material resulting in a conspicuous accumulation of plant debris as peat overtime. The carbon accumulation process is slow, and climatic change may have an impact on the carbon cycle of peatlands, therefore, it has been of interest to study the rate of carbon accumulation by geological methods from dated peat strata. The approach is hampered by several facts. First, the mires vary enormously as to their vegetation and hydrology and hence their production and decay properties. It follows that a great number of study sites are needed. Second, the peat in mires expands both vertically and laterally, and this requires a spatial reconstruction of carbon accumulation within a mire basin. Third, simple geological methods cannot account for the actual rate of carbon accumulation in peat, and finally, an additional carbon sink in the mire ecosystems can be the mineral subsoil beneath peat. The proposed warming will perhaps shift northwards the existing climatic mire regimes and, thus, the northern aapa fens will change to Sphagnum bogs that are more effective in sequestering carbon, but distinctly less effective in their CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emanation. The role of mire fires in more remote northern areas may then become another important factor. The answer to the important question of future total sequestration of carbon to peatlands depends on the precipitation and its seasonal distribution pattern. Most climatic scenarios predict a decrease in the evaporation surplus during the summer at northern regions. Presumably, the consequent lowering of the water table would improve growth of forest on mires and simultaneously decrease the methane fluxes from peat. The combined net effect could be a clear restraining of the radiative forcing

  14. Accumulation of carbon in northern mire ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolonen, K; Turunen, J; Alm, J [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Korhola, A [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Lab. of Physical Geography; Jungner, H [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dating Lab.; Vasander, H [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1997-12-31

    The basic feature in the functional ecology of any mire ecosystem is retardation of the effective decay of organic material resulting in a conspicuous accumulation of plant debris as peat overtime. The carbon accumulation process is slow, and climatic change may have an impact on the carbon cycle of peatlands, therefore, it has been of interest to study the rate of carbon accumulation by geological methods from dated peat strata. The approach is hampered by several facts. First, the mires vary enormously as to their vegetation and hydrology and hence their production and decay properties. It follows that a great number of study sites are needed. Second, the peat in mires expands both vertically and laterally, and this requires a spatial reconstruction of carbon accumulation within a mire basin. Third, simple geological methods cannot account for the actual rate of carbon accumulation in peat, and finally, an additional carbon sink in the mire ecosystems can be the mineral subsoil beneath peat. The proposed warming will perhaps shift northwards the existing climatic mire regimes and, thus, the northern aapa fens will change to Sphagnum bogs that are more effective in sequestering carbon, but distinctly less effective in their CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emanation. The role of mire fires in more remote northern areas may then become another important factor. The answer to the important question of future total sequestration of carbon to peatlands depends on the precipitation and its seasonal distribution pattern. Most climatic scenarios predict a decrease in the evaporation surplus during the summer at northern regions. Presumably, the consequent lowering of the water table would improve growth of forest on mires and simultaneously decrease the methane fluxes from peat. The combined net effect could be a clear restraining of the radiative forcing

  15. Evaporite karst of northern lower Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Michigan has three main zones of evaporite karst: collapse breccia in Late Silurian deposits of the Mackinac Straits region; breccia, collapse sinks, and mega-block collapse in Middle Devonian deposits of Northern Lower Michigan, which overlaps the preceding area; and areas of soil swallows in sinks of Mississippian deposits between Turner and Alabaster in Arenac and Iosco counties, and near Grand Rapids in Kent County. The author has focused his study on evaporite karst of the Middle Devonian deposits. The Middle Devonian depos its are the Detroit River Group: a series consisting of limestone, dolomite, shale, salt, gypsum, and anhydrite. The group occurs from subcrop, near the surface, to nearly 1400 feet deep from the northern tip of the Southern Peninsula to the south edge of the "solution front" Glacial drift is from zero to 350 feet thick. Oil and gas exploration has encountered some significant lost-circulation zones throughout the area. Drilling without fluid returns, casing-seal failures, and lost holes are strong risks in some parts of the region. Lost fluid returns near the top of the group in nearby areas indicate some karst development shortly after deposition. Large and irregular lost-circulation zones, linear and patch trends of large sink holes, and 0.25 mile wide blocks of down-dropped land in the northern Lower Peninsula of Michigan were caused by surface- and ground-water movement along faults into the Detroit River Group. Glaciation has removed some evidence of the karst area at the surface. Sinkhole development, collapse valleys, and swallows developed since retreat of the glacier reveal an active solution front in the Detroit River Group.

  16. Dreyfusia nordmannianae in Northern and Central Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Hans Peter; Havill, N.P.; Akbulut, S.

    2013-01-01

    The silver fir woolly adelgid, Dreyfusia nordmannianae, is the most severe pest occurring on Abies nordmanniana in Central and Northern Europe. The adelgid is particularly damaging to trees in Christmas tree plantations. Dreyfusia nordmannianae is native to the Caucasus region and alien to Europe...... were examined for phylogenetic structure. There was no evidence of differentiation, suggesting that these Dreyfusia species have recently diverged or require taxonomic revision. All existing published and unpublished reports on natural enemies of D. nordmannianae in its place of origin were reviewed...

  17. Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, B.; Heinemeier, J.

    2013-01-01

    The freshwater reservoir effect is a potential problem when radiocarbon dating fish bones, shells, human bones, or food crusts on pottery from sites near rivers or lakes. The reservoir age in hardwater rivers can be up to several thousand years and may be highly variable. Accurate 14C dating of f...... that can also be expected for the past. This knowledge will be applied to the dating of food crusts on pottery from the Mesolithic sites Kayhude at the Alster River and Schlamersdorf at the Trave River, both in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany....

  18. The Criminal justice system in Northern Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    As with any country, crime and justice and the contours of criminal justice have to be situated within the particular historical, social, and political context. Nowhere is this truer than in Northern Ireland, where the criminal justice system that has emerged has been shaped by a violent political conflict which spanned over three decades (from the late 1960s to the late 1990s). In the transition to peace, the reform of criminal justice agencies has been central—to a wider project of state le...

  19. Deep seismic sounding in northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, H.M.; Unger, J.D.; Leith, W.S.; Mooney, W.D.; Solodilov, L.; Egorkin, A.V.; Ryaboy, V.Z.

    1992-01-01

    For nearly 40 years, the former Soviet Union has carried out an extensive program of seismic studies of the Earth's crust and upper mantle, known as “Deep Seismic Sounding” or DSS [Piwinskii, 1979; Zverev and Kosminskaya, 1980; Egorkin and Pavlenkova, 1981; Egorkin and Chernyshov, 1983; Scheimer and Borg, 1985]. Beginning in 1939–1940 with a series of small-scale seismic experiments near Moscow, DSS profiling has broadened into a national multiinstitutional exploration effort that has completed almost 150,000 km of profiles covering all major geological provinces of northern Eurasia [Ryaboy, 1989].

  20. Biogeochemical processes in the northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaye-Haake, B.; Guptha, M.V.S.; Murty, V.S.N.; Ittekkot, V.

    in the northern Indian Ocean’’, and from national research programs of India and Germany con- ducted as a contribution to the international JGOFS Process Study in the Arabian Sea. Addi- tional contributions cover research carried out within India’s Polymetallic... of coccolithophorids in addition to organic carbon and carbonate con- centrations and accumulation rates for a 200ka record Prabhu and Shankar show that glacial stages 2,4 and 6 have had higher productivities in the eastern Arabian Sea at about 151N. They, moreover...

  1. The Evolution of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J. D.

    2001-05-01

    For much of the last 50 million years, high-latitude regions remained too warm to allow snow to accumulate and form ice sheets. Shackleton et al. (1984) published a landmark paper correlating the first occurrence of ice-rafted detritus (IRD) observed at Rockall Plateau with a prominent increase in benthic foraminiferal d18O values during the late Pliocene. These late Pliocene to Pleistocene ice sheets were modulated on an orbital frequency and have characterized the global climate over the past 2.6 myr (Shackleton and Opdyke, 1973; Shackleton et al., 1984; Ruddiman, et al., 1986). During the early Pliocene, northern hemisphere glaciation (NHG) variations were less significant (Jansen et al., 1993). Our understanding of the Plio-Pleistocene ice sheet cycles can be viewed from two different perspectives. When viewed from the late Pleistocene, the fundamental question is what changed near the early/late Pliocene boundary to produce the large-scale, glacial-interglacial cycles of the past 2.6 Ma. In contrast, the view from the middle to late Miocene is quite different. Since the pioneering work of Shackleton et al. (1984), the record of NHG has been extended further back in time with drilling in the Norwegian Sea (ODP Leg 104). At Sites 642 and 644, IRD was found throughout the late Miocene and back to ~12 Ma. More recent drilling in the high northern latitudes occurred on ODP Leg 151. Site 909 recovered a middle Miocene section from the Fram Straits with rounded quartz grains that were interpreted as IRD (Wolf-Welling et al., 1996). Age estimates for those sediments place the first northern hemisphere ice sheets at least as old as 14 Ma. The occurrence of sand-sized particles (>1000 μm) and coal below this level indicates the possibility of glacial activity in the Northern Hemisphere as early as 16 Ma. Thus, the late Pliocene to Pleistocene cycles appear to be the resumption of the glacial-interglacial pattern that began during the Miocene. While the Miocene ice

  2. Lignite boost for North. [Northern Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerkin, H.

    1986-01-01

    Reserves of lignite, estimated at around 500 million tonnes, have been discovered on the shores of Lough Neagh, Northern Ireland. The Government has granted a mining licence and planning permission to Burnett and Hallamshire Holdings to start work on the deposit. It is proposed to mine the lignite using opencast methods. Much of this deposit will be consumed in a purpose-built mine mouth power station with further reserves being dried in the approved processing plant to produce a range of industrial and domestic fuels. Carbonising the lignite may eliminate pollution. However, large scale investment will be required before Ireland's economy can switch to lignite.

  3. Offshore wind market outlook in Northern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenta de Miranda, Wilfried; Trulsson, Ola; Ekloef, Eva-Britt; Niemenen, Karel

    2010-08-15

    After more than 10 years of slow developments, the offshore wind market is now accelerating. Thanks to a sustained political drive from UK and Germany, the rest of Northern Europe is now following the path as offshore wind is being recognized as one of the key resources available to the EU to meet its renewable energy ambitions. Exposed to increasing technical issues, rising costs and the financial crisis, lessons learned are now being shared and integrated throughout Europe and appropriate regulatory and planning reforms are now being deployed to speed the deployment of offshore wind. (Author)

  4. Natural regeneration of northern hardwoods in the northern Great Lakes Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Tubbs

    1977-01-01

    Reviews silvical and silvicultural information about natural regeneration pertinent to forestry practices in Lake State northern hardwood types. Seed production; effects of light, moisture, temperature and competition on establishment and growth; and how damage affects mortality rates and form are covered. Clearcutting, selection, and shelterwood experiments are...

  5. Sonoma Ecology Center Northern California Arundo Distribution Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Arundo Distribution layer is a compilation of Arundo donax observations in northern and central California, obtained from numerous sources, including Arundo...

  6. Northern New Mexico regional airport market feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, R.H.; Williams, D.S.

    1998-06-01

    This report is about the market for airline travel in northern New Mexico. Interest in developing a northern New Mexico regional airport has periodically surfaced for a number of years. The New Mexico State Legislature passed a memorial during the 1998 Second Session calling for the conduct of a study to determine the feasibility of building a new regional airport in NNM. This report is a study of the passenger market feasibility of such an airport. In addition to commercial passenger market feasibility, there are other feasibility issues dealing with siting, environmental impact, noise, economic impact, intermodal transportation integration, region-wide transportation services, airport engineering requirements, and others. These other feasibility issues are not analyzed in any depth in this report although none were discovered to be show-stoppers as a by-product of the authors doing research on the passenger market itself. Preceding the need for a detailed study of these other issues is the determination of the basic market need for an airport with regular commercial airline service in the first place. This report is restricted to an in-depth look at the market for commercial passenger air service in NNM. 20 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Radioactivity in Northern Ireland soils - December 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, D.W.K.

    1989-01-01

    The main objective of the survey was to establish the radionuclide content of permanent pasture soils. The extent of contamination from the Chernobyl accident was also studied with the use of Cs-134 as an indicator of Chernobyl fallout. A preliminary radiological assessment was performed by referring to the generalised derived limits. Results of the grassland grid survey show that Chernobyl-derived radiocaesium was widely spread throughout Northern Ireland with the exception of the East Coast where the deposition was more localised reflecting the showery-rainfall pattern on the 3rd May 1986. Accumulation of Chernobyl material showed a high correlation with rainfall on that day, which resulted in a substantial increase in Cs-137 levels compared to estimated pre-Chernobyl concentrations in many areas. The main areas affected lay in a band across the country from the North East to the South with a smaller incursion to the North. The plutonium content in soils from Northern Ireland arising from nuclear weapons fallout was similar to levels found in other surveys completed in Great Britain before Chernobyl. (author)

  8. Child Abuse in Northern Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiadas, M G; Mayoorathy, S; Varuni, K; Ranganathan, Shalini Sri

    2017-02-01

    To identify areas of deficiencies and gaps in child protection services in Northern Sri Lanka. Also, to help in recommending strategies, programmes of interventions for addressing issues of child abuse and advice the legal system. A retrospective study was done to determine the socio-demographic details, type of abuse, clinical profile, relationship of the perpetrator and nature of abuse among children admitted to a tertiary care centre from 2009 through 2014, a period after cessation of a 60-y conflict. Data were obtained from hospital based records and records maintained at the district probation office. Seven hundred twenty cases were referred to the tertiary care centre with abuse. Majority of the children were from the Jaffna district, the northern city of the war affected area and mean age of the children affected was 14.5 ± 2.6 y. Females were affected more than the males and 352 children were seen following sexual abuse. The clinical examination showed penetrative injury in 15 %. The perpetrator was known in 70 % of the situations and the victim was coerced into a relationship for abuse. Attempted suicide was seen in significant numbers during the immediate post war period and school dropout and delinquent behaviour was seen in later years. The problem of child abuse is considerable in this region and there is an urgent need to strengthen the services offered to the victims. Urgent steps are needed to safeguard these children, especially in the war affected areas.

  9. Proposed artificial recharge studies in northern Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimrey, J.O.

    1985-01-01

    The aquifer system in northern Qatar comprises a water-table aquifer in the Rus Formation which is separated by an aquitard from a partially confined aquifer in the top of the overlying Umm er Radhuma Formation. These two aquifers are composed of limestone and dolomite of Eocene and Paleocene age and contain a fragile lens of freshwater which is heavily exploited as a source of water for agricultural irrigation. Net withdrawals are greatly in excess of total recharge, and quality of ground water is declining. Use of desalinated seawater for artificial recharge has been proposed for the area. Artificial recharge, on a large scale, could stabilize the decline in ground-water quality while allowing increased withdrawals for irrigation. The proposal appears technically feasible. Recharge should be by injection to the Umm er Radhuma aquifer whose average transmissivity is about 2,000 meters squared per day (as compared to an average of about 200 meters squared per day for the Rus aquifer). Implementation of artificial recharge should be preceded by a hydrogeologic appraisal. These studies should include test drilling, conventional aquifer tests, and recharge-recovery tests at four sites in northern Qatar. (USGS)

  10. Pharmaceutical ethnobotany in Northern Navarra (Iberian Peninsula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavero, R Y; Akerreta, S; Calvo, M I

    2011-01-07

    This paper provides significant ethnobotanical information on pharmaceutical plant uses in Northern Navarra from an area known both for its high biological diversity and its cultural significance, suggesting the survival of uses lost elsewhere. Collect, analyze and evaluate the ethnobotanical knowledge about medicinal plants in Northern Navarra (Iberian Peninsula) with 4243 km(2) and 71,069 inhabitants. We performed semi-structured interviews with 253 informants (mean age 69; 61% women, 39% men) in 120 locations, identified the plant reported and analyzed the results, comparing them with those from other territories. The informants reported data on 174 medicinal plants belonging to 63 botanical families. This work is focused on human medicinal plant uses, which represent 98% of the pharmaceutical uses (1725 use reports). The species with the highest number of cites are Chamaemelum nobile, Sambucus nigra and Verbena officinalis, with a long tradition of use in The Mountain (Navarra). All different plant parts are used; aerial part is exploited more frequently than other plant parts. Most of the listed remedies use a single ingredient, typically soaked in water. Usually, the administration is primarily oral followed by topical applications. The main ailments treated are digestive troubles, wounds and dermatological problems, and respiratory affections. Informants reported 24 new or scarcely cited uses for 23 medicinal plants. For 35% of the species (8) we have not found bibliographical references in the scientific literature and 48% (11) have only one to three references. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Trophic ecology of largemouth bass and northern pike in allopatric and sympatric assemblages in northern boreal lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soupir, Craig A.; Brown, Michael L.; Kallemeyn, Larry W.

    2000-01-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and northern pike (Esox lucius) are top predators in the food chain in most aquatic environments that they occupy; however, limited information exists on species interactions in the northern reaches of largemouth bass distribution. We investigated the seasonal food habits of allopatric and sympatric assemblages of largemouth bass and northern pike in six interior lakes within Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. Percentages of empty stomachs were variable for largemouth bass (38-54%) and northern pike (34.7-66.7%). Fishes (mainly yellow perch, Perca flavescens) comprised greater than 60% (mean percent mass, MPM) of the northern pike diet during all seasons in both allopatric and sympatric assemblages. Aquatic insects (primarily Odonata and Hemiptera) were important in the diets of largemouth bass in all communities (0.0-79.7 MPM). Although largemouth bass were observed in the diet of northern pike, largemouth bass apparently did not prey on northern pike. Seasonal differences were observed in the proportion of aquatic insects (P = 0.010) and fishes (P = 0.023) in the diets of northern pike and largemouth bass. Based on three food categories, jackknifed classifications correctly classified 77 and 92% of northern pike and largemouth bass values, respectively. Percent resource overlap values were biologically significant (greater than 60%) during at least one season in each sympatric assemblage, suggesting some diet overlap.

  12. Concepto y aplicación práctica que dan los profesores de química a la evaluación final, análisis de falencias y potencialidades que tiene en el proceso de enseñanza y de aprendizaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Martínez

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de analizar qué imagen, concepto y aplicación práctica respecto a la evaluación final tienen los profesores de nivel universitario, se realiza una pequeña indagación en la UPN, con docentes del departamento de química. Se busca entonces evidenciar algunas de las falencias y potencialidades que tiene la evaluación final en el proceso de enseñanza y de aprendizaje, con relación a tal visión, cuando finalmente esta, es el resultado de la planeación previa del profesor.

  13. Uranium Stakeholder Engagement in Northern Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waggitt, P., E-mail: p.waggitt@iaea.org [Darwin, NT (Australia)

    2014-05-15

    Uranium has been mined in the Northern Territory of Australia more or less continuously since 1949. Most of these mines have been located on Aboriginal land, although in many cases Native Title has only been recently established and the rights of the Traditional Owners finally acknowledged. In earlier days consultation with the Traditional Owners was generally unheard of and few sites were rehabilitated when mining ceased. However, leading practice in modern mining, including uranium mining, requires that these two issues are paid particular attention, whether it be for development and operation of current mines or the remediation of legacy sites. The paper presents two brief case studies in relation to stakeholder engagement developed in the Alligator Rivers Region uranium field of Australia’s Northern Territory. The subject of the first case study, the South Alligator valley, was subject to intensive prospecting and exploration which resulted in the development of 13 small uranium mines between 1955 and 1964. The operations were abandoned and the area returned to being a cattle ranch. In 1987 the valley lay within an area that was incorporated into the World Heritage-listed Kakadu National Park. In 1996 the Gunlom Land Trust, an association of traditional owners, was granted native title to the area under the Commonwealth’s Northern Territory Land Rights Act (1976). The new owners immediately leased the land back to the Commonwealth Government for continued use as a National Park. A condition of that lease was that all former mine sites and associated workings would be rehabilitated by 2015. The paper describes the comprehensive consultation process involving all stakeholders that was developed for this programme; and goes on to describe the programme of remediation works to date and the situation as of 2009. The second case history deals with the consultation process developed by one Government agency as it works with Traditional Owners and other

  14. The Lemmatization of Copulatives in Northern Sotho *

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Prinsloo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: For learners of Northern Sotho as a second or even foreign language, the copulative system is probably the most complicated grammatical system to master. The encoding needs of such learners, i.e. to find enough information in dictionaries in order to actively use copulatives in speech and writing, are poorly served in currently available dictionaries. The aim of this article is to offer solutions to the lemmatization problems regarding copulatives in Northern Sotho and to propose guiding entries for paper and electronic dictionaries which could serve as models for future dictionaries. It will be illustrated that the maximum utilisation of macrostructural and microstructural strategies as well as the mediostructure is called for in order to reach this objective. Prerequisites will be to reconstruct the entire copulative system in a user-friendly way, to abstract the rules governing the use of copulatives and to isolate the appropriate lemmas. The treatment of copulatives in Northern Sotho dictionaries will also be critically evaluated, especially in terms of frequency of use and target users' needs.

    Keywords: LEXICOGRAPHY, LEMMATIZATION, COPULATIVES, INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, ACCESS STRUCTURE, ELECTRONIC DICTIONARY, MACROSTRUCTURE, MICROSTRUCTURE, CROSS-REFERENCING, MEDIOSTRUCTURE, DICTIONARY, AFRICAN LANGUAGES

    Opsomming: Die lemmatisering van kopulatiewe in Noord-Sotho. Vir aanleerders van Noord-Sotho as tweede of vreemde taal is die kopulatief waarskynlik die mees komplekse grammatiese sisteem om te bemeester. Die enkoderende behoeftes van sulke aanleerders, dit is om genoegsame inligting in woordeboeke te verkry ten einde kopulatiewe in spraak en skrif aktief te kan gebruik, word nie bevredig in beskikbare woordeboeke nie. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om oplossings aan die hand te doen vir die lemmatiseringsprobleme ten opsigte van kopulatiewe in Noord-Sotho en om gidsinskrywings voor te hou wat as modelle kan dien vir

  15. Economic burden of motorcycle accidents in Northern Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Motorcycles are the most popular means of transportation in northern Ghana, and their accidents are major causes of out-patient attendance and admis-sions in the Bolgatanga Municipality. Objective: This paper estimates the economic burden of motorcycle accidents in the Bolgatanga Municipality in Northern ...

  16. Conflicts in Northern Ghana: Search for Solutions, Stakeholders and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in Northern Ghana that have drawn national attention, most of which were/are violent. It ... analysis of four case studies on the northern Ghana conflicts. ...... It will also be necessary to consider sponsorship of research and studies in ... more important to keep communications flows and avoid the creation of suspicion and.

  17. ACHP | Heritage Tourism and the Federal Government: Northern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Publications Search skip specific nav links Home arrow Publications arrow Intro: Heritage Tourism and the Federal Government: Northern New Mexico Perspectives Heritage Tourism and the Federal Government: Northern information Heritage tourism offers a triple benefit to communities—it promotes the preservation of their

  18. Biological Correlates of Northern-Southern Italy Differences in IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templer, Donald I.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was intended to provide perspective, albeit less than unequivocal, on the research of Lynn (2010) who reported higher IQs in the northern than southern Italian regions. He attributes this to northern Italians having a greater genetic similarity to middle Europeans and southern Italians to Mediterranean people. Higher regional IQ…

  19. Silvicultural guide for northern hardwoods in the northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak; Mariko Yamasaki; Robbo. Holleran

    2014-01-01

    This revision of the 1987 silvicultural guide includes updated and expanded silvicultural information on northern hardwoods as well as additional information on wildlife habitat and the management of mixed-wood and northern hardwood-oak stands. The prescription methodology is simpler and more field-oriented. This guide also includes an appendix of familiar tables and...

  20. Contaminants in northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) exposed to plastic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ask, A.; Anker-Nilssen, T.; Herzke, D.; Trevail, Alice; Franeker, van J.A.; Gabrielsen, G.W.

    2016-01-01

    Northern fulmars are seabirds which feed exclusively at sea, and as such, they are useful indicators of ocean health. Marine plastic pollution is an ever-increasing and global issue that affects the northern fulmar as they are frequently found to have ingested plastic. In this report we investigate

  1. Plastic ingestion by the northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) in Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuehn, S.; Franeker, van J.A.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) from Iceland were used to test the hypothesis that plastic debris decreases at northern latitudes in the Atlantic when moving away from major human centres of coastal and marine activities. Stomach analyses of Icelandic fulmars confirm that plastic

  2. An Analysis of the Oxford Bilingual School Dictionary: Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    "extra" as the learner's active vocabulary is reinforced during look-up activities. As pointed out by Potgieter (2012: ... become part and parcel of the Northern Sotho vocabulary. Through this the dictionary is ..... ising the acquisition and fostering of a deeper knowledge of Northern Sotho in the future. In the words of Landau ...

  3. Northern Sotho grammatical descriptions: the design of a tokeniser ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since Northern Sotho uses the disjunctive method of writing, it creates difficulties for the morphological analyser to correctly analyse Northern Sotho verbs. In order to overcome this obstacle a tokeniser, which could isolate verbs from raw texts, needs to be created. The verbal element a ka be a se a re šadišetša 'he had not ...

  4. Adverbial descriptions in Northern Sotho | Pretorius | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Important language strategies, such as the use of auxiliary word groups and ideophones in expressing adverbial meanings are, to a great extent, neglected in most popular Northern Sotho grammars. Owing to the fact that in most cases, no one-to-one lexical equivalence exists between Northern Sotho and for instance ...

  5. Food habits of Northern Goshawks nesting in south central Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Squires

    2000-01-01

    Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentiles) nesting in south central Wyoming consumed at least 33 species of prey; 14 were mammals and 19 were birds. Based on percent occurrence in regurgitated pellets, dominant (>10% frequency) prey species included: red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus; present in 50% of pellets), Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus; 34...

  6. Traditional medicine trade in vulture parts in northern Nigeria | Saidu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report findings on the vulture trade in northern Nigeria, where it is commonly practised especially to supply the traditional medicine industry. We administered an open-ended questionnaire to 113 traditional, predominantly Hausa medicinal traders in 39 markets within eight states in northern Nigeria. Of the interviewed ...

  7. The Lemmatisation of adverbs in northern Sotho | Prinsloo | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this article is to offer solutions to the lemmatisation problems regarding adverbs in Northern Sotho and to propose guiding entries for paper and electronic dictionaries which could serve as models for future dictionaries. The treatment of adverbs in Northern Sotho dictionaries will also be criti-cally evaluated, ...

  8. Investigation of Breast Cancer Risk Factors in northern states of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancers and leading cause of death among women worldwide. In Sudan breast cancer is the most common type of cancer and its incidence has been rising for the past two decades. Objective: To investigate whether the breast risk factors of northern states (Northern ...

  9. Cryptosporidium and Cryptosporidiosis in Calves at Jos, Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cryptosporidium and Cryptosporidiosis in Calves at Jos, Northern Nigeria. VA Pam, DA Dakul, COE Onwuliri. Abstract. This study investigated the occurrence of cryptosporidium and cryptosporidiosis in calves from Jos, Northern Nigeria. Two hundred fecal samples were collected from the calves, recruited for an all year ...

  10. An Analysis of the Oxford Bilingual School Dictionary: Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Oxford Bilingual School Dictionary: Northern Sotho and English (De Schryver 2007) is a welcome addition to dictionaries that have been compiled for school use in particular. Its novelty and appeal lie in the fact that the lemmas and Northern Sotho mini-grammar are based on a corpus of general language usage and ...

  11. APPLE MANGO VALUE CHAIN IN NORTHERN ETHIOPIA: CASE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-03

    Sep 3, 2015 ... This study, conducted in Mereb-Leke district of Tigray, Northern ... development agencies, donors and NGOs are ... Apple Mango Value Chain in Northern Ethiopia: Case Study of Mereb-Leke District. 17 ... of the districts in the Tigray Regional State of ... city, Axum and Rama town, respectively and 5 and.

  12. 77 FR 2286 - Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 12717-002] Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Meeting a. Date and Time of Meeting: Thursday, January 26, 2012 from 11... Meeting: Commission staff will meet with Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC to discuss potentially moving...

  13. Perceptions of and Attitudes towards Male Infertility in Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the perceptions of male infertility in northern Botswana and their implications for efficacious family planning and AIDS prevention programmes in the country. HIV rates are rapidly increasing in northern Botswana and it is estimated that nearly 30% of the population are infected. A significant factor in ...

  14. Ground use by northern muriquis (Brachyteles hypoxanthus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourthé, Italo M C; Guedes, Danusa; Fidelis, Janaína; Boubli, Jean P; Mendes, Sérgio L; Strier, Karen B

    2007-06-01

    Many arboreal primates descend to the ground, a custom that may occur more frequently in disturbed habitats, and in the presence of researchers to whom the primates are habituated. In this paper, we describe opportunistic observations of ground use in two groups of northern muriquis (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) at the RPPN Feliciano Miguel Abdala, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Members of both groups were observed drinking, resting, feeding, playing, and traveling on the ground to different degrees, and variation in the levels of habituation of the two groups may be responsible for the differences in the distribution of their terrestrial activities. The potential increase in vulnerability to predation or disease owing to ground use has implications for the conservation of this critically endangered species. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Distribution of TPM in Northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wängberg, Ingvar; Munthe, John; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Gårdfeldt, Katarina; Iverfeldt, Ake; Sommar, Jonas

    2003-03-20

    Total particulate mercury (TPM) in air has been measured during five 2-week campaigns at five measurement sites in Northern Europe. The measurements covered four seasons and the result constitutes a unique TPM data set from this region. Evidence for transport of TPM on a regional scale is reported as well as the historical trend of TPM in south of Sweden. All TPM measurements were made using a new mini particulate sampler. The device consists of a quartz fibre filter contained in a quarts glass filter holder and is a modified version of the MiniSamplr. This approach proves to be reliable and more cost efficient in comparison to alternative methods. Tests made to evaluate the performance of the sampler in terms of precision and comparability with sampling on Teflon membrane filters are also reported.

  16. Land use in the northern Coachella Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, J. B.; Bowden, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    Satellite imagery has proved to have great utility for monitoring land use change and as a data source for regional planning. In California, open space desert resources are under severe pressure to serve as a source for recreational gratification to individuals living in the heavily populated southern coastal plain. Concern for these sensitive arid environments has been expressed by both federal and state agencies. The northern half of the Coachella Valley has historically served as a focal point for weekend recreational activity and second homes. Since demand in this area has remained high, land use change from rural to urban residential has been occurring continuously since 1968. This area of rapid change is an ideal site to illustrate the utility of satellite imagery as a data source for planning information, and has served as the areal focus of this investigation.

  17. Distributed generation in small remote Northern communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolm, D.G.

    2012-01-01

    The presentation discusses the physical and social challenges of reliable and environmentally sound electricity generation in remote northern communities in Canada. There are several hundred remote communities in the boreal region of Canada and throughout the Arctic. Electrical energy requirements are usually a few megawatts. Access to some Arctic remote communities is by air and small water craft only, except when winters are cold enough for winter roads to be constructed for a few weeks each year. These communities, as well as new mining operations and their camp communities, provide a market segment for small reactors. However, there are social acceptance hurdles to be addressed. Trust-building is a must when working with First Nations, Metis, and Inuit communities, and this requires community presence long before proposals for new generation facilities are presented.

  18. Sporotrichosis from the Northern Territory of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Shradha; Kidd, Sarah E.; Baird, Robert W.; Coatsworth, Nicholas; Ralph, Anna P.

    2014-01-01

    We report three cases of lymphocutaneous infection caused by the thermally dimorphic fungus, Sporothrix schenckii from Australia's tropical Northern Territory. Two cases were acquired locally, making them the first to be reported from this region. All three cases presented with ulceration in the limb; however, the classical sporotrichoid spread was present only in the first two cases. Their occurrence within several weeks of each other was suggestive of a common source of environmental contamination such as hay used as garden mulch. Diagnoses were delayed in each case, with each patient having substantial exposure to ineffective antibiotics before the correct diagnosis was made. These cases bring the total number of reported sporotrichosis cases in Australia since 1951 to 199. Lessons from these cases are to consider the diagnosis of sporotrichosis in lesions of typical appearance, even in geographical settings from where this pathogen has not previously been reported. PMID:25200259

  19. Seismic echo character northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCreery, C.J.; Laine, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    Latest efforts in echo-character mapping of the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain have discerned variations in thickness in a near-surface sedimentary sequence which has been designated seismic unit A. This unit probably represents the last episode of progradation of the Hatteras Deep Sea Fan in the southern part of the study area, and has infilled probable paleochannels from the Wilmington Canyon and Sohm Gap in the north. Unit A thins to a minimum in the central part of the plain, where older sediments come within 1 meter of the surface. Variations in the character of the surface reflector probably represent differing degrees of microtopography developed on a Late Pleistocene surface overlain by Holocene sediments. With the exception of one area identified as a relict surface outcropping in the western plain, this microtopography seems related to present-day thalweg locations on the abyssal plain. 11 references, 13 figures

  20. {sup 137}Cs in northern Adriatic sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barisic, D; Lulic, S; Vdovic, N; Vertacnik, A [Center for Marine Research - Department Zagreb, ' Ruder Boskovic' Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Juracic, M [Department of Geology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Zagreb, Zagreb (Croatia)

    1996-01-01

    The activity of {sup 137}Cs in shallow northern Adriatic sediments was obtained on the basis of measurement results from 25 sediment box cores, sampled during the Adriatic Scientific COoperation Program (ASCOP) 16 cruise in the summer 1990. {sup 137}Cs was determined in surface sediments (0-3 cm) and 12-15 cm-deep sediment. It was found that the lowest caesium concentrations correspond to sands, which are spread along the Croatian coast. Parallel to the Italian coast, {sup 137}Cs concentrations in pelites are the highest. It seems that the influence of Po River is significant for {sup 137}Cs activities in recent marine sediments along Italian coast south of Po River delta. Significantly higher {sup 137}Cs activities in 0-3 cm sediment layer can be attributed to the deposition caused by Chernobyl accident. (author)

  1. 137Cs in northern Adriatic sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barisic, D.; Lulic, S.; Vdovic, N.; Vertacnik, A.; Juracic, M.

    1996-01-01

    The activity of 137 Cs in shallow northern Adriatic sediments was obtained on the basis of measurement results from 25 sediment box cores, sampled during the Adriatic Scientific COoperation Program (ASCOP) 16 cruise in the summer 1990. 137 Cs was determined in surface sediments (0-3 cm) and 12-15 cm-deep sediment. It was found that the lowest caesium concentrations correspond to sands, which are spread along the Croatian coast. Parallel to the Italian coast, 137 Cs concentrations in pelites are the highest. It seems that the influence of Po River is significant for 137 Cs activities in recent marine sediments along Italian coast south of Po River delta. Significantly higher 137 Cs activities in 0-3 cm sediment layer can be attributed to the deposition caused by Chernobyl accident. (author)

  2. Coping with Rainfall Variability in Northern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores a potential relationship between rainfall data and household self-reported harvest shocks and local (spatial) variability of harvest shocks and coping strategies based on a survey of 2700 rural households in the Kagera region of northern Tanzania. In addition, correlations...... of household reported harvest shocks differs significantly between districts and correspond to the observed variability in local climate patterns. Coping strategies are focused on spreading risks and include reduced consumption, casual employment, new crops, external support and the selling of assets....... There are no large differences in applied coping strategies across the region, but district-level data demonstrate how local strategies differ between localities within the districts. The results emphasize that in order to target rural policies and make them efficient, it is important to take into account the local...

  3. Carbon monoxide budget in the northern hemisphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakwin, P.S.; Tans, P.P. (Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Lab., Boulder, CO (United States)); Novelli, P.C. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States))

    1994-03-15

    To improve urban air quality the major industrialized nations of the West took steps during the 1970s and 1980s to reduce carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from automobiles and other industrial sources. Overall, CO/CO[sub 2] emission ratios from the mix of fossil fuel combustion sources have been reduced by about half during 1976-1990. Also, the tropospheric abundance of hydroxyl radical (OH), which is the main sink for CO, is proposed to have increased globally by about 1.0 [+-] 0.8% yr[sup [minus]1]. The authors use a simple two-box model to examine the impact of shrinking emissions and increasing OH on the global abundance of CO. They find that these factors contribute about equally in reducing CO levels in the Northern Hemisphere troposphere by about 1.8 [+-] 0.8 ppb yr[sup [minus]1] on average. 19 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Distributed generation in small remote Northern communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malcolm, D.G. [Yellowknife, North West Territories (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    The presentation discusses the physical and social challenges of reliable and environmentally sound electricity generation in remote northern communities in Canada. There are several hundred remote communities in the boreal region of Canada and throughout the Arctic. Electrical energy requirements are usually a few megawatts. Access to some Arctic remote communities is by air and small water craft only, except when winters are cold enough for winter roads to be constructed for a few weeks each year. These communities, as well as new mining operations and their camp communities, provide a market segment for small reactors. However, there are social acceptance hurdles to be addressed. Trust-building is a must when working with First Nations, Metis, and Inuit communities, and this requires community presence long before proposals for new generation facilities are presented.

  5. Subduction zone guided waves in Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garth, Thomas; Rietbrock, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Guided wave dispersion is observed in subduction zones as high frequency energy is retained and delayed by low velocity structure in the subducting slab, while lower frequency energy is able to travel at the faster velocities associated with the surrounding mantle material. As subduction zone guided waves spend longer interacting with the low velocity structure of the slab than any other seismic phase, they have a unique capability to resolve these low velocity structures. In Northern Chile, guided wave arrivals are clearly observed on two stations in the Chilean fore-arc on permanent stations of the IPOC network. High frequency (> 5 Hz) P-wave arrivals are delayed by approximately 2 seconds compared to the low frequency (young subducting lithosphere also has the potential to carry much larger amounts of water to the mantle than has previously been appreciated.

  6. Atmospheric nitrogen dioxide and northern plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurela, A; Punkkinen, R

    1981-01-01

    Convincing quantitative data have recently been published about the uptake of atmospheric NO/sub 2/ by certain plants. Several qualitative pieces of evidence were found suggesting similar ability in northern plants. The volume fraction of NO/sub 2/ in the air, Phi, was measured at Kevo (70/sup 0/N, 27/sup 0/E). The Saltzman method was used, with a continuously recording detector, especially developed for measurements below the usual analytical limit of this method (0.005 ppm). The systematic error of Phi was estimated to be less than 50%. In general, Phi did not vary much with time. However, when the recorder of the atmospheric electric field at the adjacent Meteorological Station of Kevo once rose up to 4 times the normal value, the Phi-curve simultaneously rose momentarily. By using the measured value of anti-Phi, the annual uptake of NO/sub 2/-nitrogen by plants in the region of Kevo was estimated to be about 0.1 g(N)m/sup -2/ for a canopy of pines and lichens, and about 0.001 g(N)m/sup -2/ for plants at the tops of low mountains. In terms of dry weight of lichens, the uptake rate would be of the order of 0.1 ..mu..g(N)h/sup -1/ (g dry weight)/sup -1/, based on independent measurements. These amount are of the same order of magnitude as the yields of biological nitrogen fixation by lichens in corresponding conditions. A direct experimental study of the uptake of atmospheric NO/sub 2/ by northern plants seems very desirable and readily feasible.

  7. Northern peatlands in global climatic change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laiho, R.; Laine, J.; Vasander, H. [eds.] [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    Northern peatlands are important in regulating the global climate. While sequestering carbon dioxide, these peatlands release ca. 24-39 Tg methane annually to the atmosphere. This is 5-20 % of the annual anthropogenic methane emissions to the atmosphere. The greenhouse gas balance of peatlands may change as a consequence of water level draw-down after land-use change, or if summers become warmer and drier, as has been predicted for high latitudes after climatic warming. Subsequent emissions of methane would decrease, whereas emissions of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide would increase. Within the Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU), the research project `Carbon Balance of Peatlands and Climate Change` (SUOSILMU) has been under progress since 1990. It is a co-operative research project, with research groups from the Universities of Helsinki and Joensuu, the Finnish Forest Research Institute, the National Public Health Institute and the Finnish Environment Agency. The research consortium of this project organised a workshop entitled `Northern Peatlands in Global Climatic Change - Hyytiaelae Revisited` October 8-12, 1995. The main objective of the workshop was to review the state of the art of the carbon cycling research in natural and managed peatlands. The role of peatlands in the greenhouse effect, their response and feedback to the predicted climate change, and the consequences of land-use changes were assessed, and the future research needs were evaluated. The latest information on the role of peatlands in the atmospheric change was given in 50 posters and 4 key lectures. Results of SUOSILMU projects were demonstrated during a 1-day field excursion to one of the intensive study sites, Lakkasuo near Hyytiaelae

  8. Aerosol pollution over Northern India and Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The skies over Northern India are filled with a thick soup of aerosol particles all along the southern edge of the Himalayan Mountains, and streaming southward over Bangladesh and the Bay of Bengal. Notice that the air over the Tibetan Plateau to the north of the Himalayas is very clear, whereas the view of the land surface south of the mountains is obstructed by the brownish haze. Most of this air pollution comes from human activities. The aerosol over this region is notoriously rich in sulfates, nitrates, organic and black carbon, and fly ash. These particles not only represent a health hazard to those people living in the region, but scientists have also recently found that they can have a significant impact on the region's hydrological cycle and climate (click to read the relevant NASA press release). This true-color image was acquired on December 4, 2001, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. It is interesting to compare the image above with this earlier MODIS image over the region, acquired on October 23, 2001. Notice the difference in the clarity of the air over the region in the earlier image. Under the thick plume of aerosol, the Brahmaputra (upper right) and Ganges Rivers are still visible. The many mouths of the Ganges have turned the northern waters of the Bay of Bengal a murky brown as they empty their sediment-laden waters into the bay. Toward the upper lefthand corner of the image, there appears to be a fresh swath of snow on the ground just south of the Himalayas.

  9. Tien procent minder emissies (interview met Chris Karman)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolkers, H.; Karman, C.C.

    2012-01-01

    De nieuwe havensleepboot E3-Tug bespaart brandstof en vermindert emissies. IMARES Wageningen UR ontwikkelde de software die een optimale combinatie berekent van de elektrische en de dieselvoortstuwing.

  10. Tien jaar Duurzaam Veilig : verkeersveiligheidsbalans 1998-2007.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, W.A.M. & Schagen, I.N.L.G. van (red.)

    2009-01-01

    Ten years of Sustainable Safety; Road safety assessment 1998-2007. The road safety vision Sustainable Safety was introduced at the beginning of the Nineties. The concrete implementation of Sustainable Safety began in 1998 after the Covenant for the Start-up Programme had been signed. This road

  11. Tien jaar Knolcyperus (Cyperus esculentus L.) in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotteveel, A.J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Yellow nutsedge ( Cyperus esculentus L.) was first recorded in 1981 as an agricultural pest. A considerable number of fields was found to be infested. Because the species is very damaging to agriculture legal measures were taken to restrict the dispersion and promote the control of the weed. During

  12. Moroccorp: tien miljoen woorden uit twee Marokkaans- Nederlandse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    beperkt tot Genk en ook straattaal (Appel 1999) is regiogebonden. Maar een goed begrip van deze variëteiten kan .... werd het eerste chatkanaal gelogd, en van juli tot en met september werd het tweede chatkanaal gelogd. Onze logactiviteiten .... is marked by certain contact phenomena". Die definities zien er op het eerste.

  13. Strategische marketing : De tien geboden van het gezonden verstand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moenaert, R.K.; Robben, M.

    2007-01-01

    Door de jaren heen is de klassieke strategische doctrine nogal eens ter discussie gesteld. En het boek ‘Blue Ocean Strategy’ versterkt die trend alleen maar. In het boek staat waarde-innovatie centraal en het biedt, in tegenstelling tot eerdere werken zoals het pamflettistisch-kritische betoog van

  14. De refranes y cantares tiene el pueblo mil millares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Alfonso Soler

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Esta experiencia trata de acercarnos a la palabra para mejorar las competencias comunicativas orales y escritas de los nuevos hablantes de nuestro idioma. El uso de los refranes se incluye en el ámbito del nivel popular; en él abunda la subjetividad, se economizan considerablemente los medios lingüísticos y aparecen numerosas apelaciones al oyente. Relativo a esto podemos señalar que los proverbios y refranes son expresiones de contenido moral y didáctico que se transmiten de manera oral.

  15. El contrabando de armas no tiene fronteras (Internacional)

    OpenAIRE

    López, Noemí

    2011-01-01

    El tráfico de armas transfronterizo se ha convertido en una situación a combatir para los gobiernos locales. En el año 2004 la violencia en México se incrementó, al tiempo que el crecía el tráfico ilegal de armas desde los Estados Unidos. Esto aumentó los casos de violencia en el país y las bandas dedicadas al contrabando de armamento. En el año 2008 las autoridades de Estados Unidos y México crearon el plan "Armas Cruzadas" para combatir el contrabando de armas a través de su frontera común....

  16. Dominio informativo, ¿quién tiene el poder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Mauricio Velásquez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A través de la historia, las relaciones entre los gobiernos y la prensa han sido definitivas en el éxito o fracaso de quienes ostentan el poder. No es extraño que algunos jefes de Estado se sientan incómodos con la manera de informar de algunos medios o, por el contrario, decidan aliarse para estructurar determinadas agendas que se manejan de manera unánime para orientar el temario que decida el ejecutivo. El Observatorio de Medios de la Facultad de Comunicación Social y Periodismo realizó un estudio para conocer el estado de la relación entre el presidente Álvaro Uribe Vélez y la prensa. La investigación reveló presiones directas e indirectas que el gobierno ejerce sobre los periodistas.

  17. In memory of Professor Tianqin Cao(Tien-chin Tsao)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youshang Zhang

    2010-01-01

    @@ In December this year,the 4th Tianqin Cao Memorial Symposium on Protein Research will be held in Xiamen(Amoy).On this occasion,it is my pleasure to write a recollection in memory of Professor Tianqin Cao.It was rather late when Ⅰ was able to study in Prof.Cao's laboratory as a graduate student in the Institute of Biochemistry.After graduating from the Department of Chemical Engineering of Zhejiang University in 1948,Ⅰ could not find a job in a chemical engineering factory; therefore,Ⅰ changed my profession to biochemistry and worked as an assistant in the Department of Biochemistry of Hunan Yale Medical College.

  18. La construction relative dans Chrétien de Troyes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabriek, Pieter

    1924-01-01

    1. On peut reléguer à la syntaxe figée la construction relative avec la pronom neutre que dans feire que sages, que je sache, (au) plus tost qu'il pot, je n'ai que feire; avec le pronom adjectif qui dans il n'i a celui (nul, un seul) qui, com cil qui; en outre qui vive dans riens (om) qui vive

  19. Menswaardigheid na tien jaar van regstaatlikheid in Suid-Afrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LWH Ackermann

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available HUMAN DIGNITY AFTER TEN YEARS OF TEH CONSTITUTIONAL STATE IN SOUTH AFRICASpeech delivered on 16 March 2004 on the Potchefstroom campus of the North-West UniversityHuman dignity has been the marrow of our Constitution and our constitutional state since 1994. The inherent dignity of man is also a key principle of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948. The Kantian categorical imperatives continue to provide guidance regarding the meaning of human dignity. At the very least, people are entitled to be regarded as moral subjects and not as objects: as subjects with absolute and inherent worth and therefore also as moral subjects of equal worth.The juridical core of the pathology of apartheid was the extensive and sustained attempt to deprive the majority of South Africans of the right to self-identification and self-determination. It amounted to an inversion of the Kantian imperatives. A reversal of this inversion has been attempted over the past ten years. The Constitution not only elevates human dignity to a specially entrenched value, but also affords it special protection in the context of fundamental rights. It is furthermore a specific consideration in the limitation of rights and in the development of the common law. It applies not only to the state/subject relationship, but also to "horizontal" relationships and it must be taken into account in the interpretation of the Constitution.Constitutional jurisprudence has established that the Constitution is more than a formal document, but that it also represents an objective, normative value system. Thus the foundational norm of human dignity radiates into all areas of the law. The role of human dignity in the interpretation and application of norms applicable to remedial or restitutionary equality, as well as in the achievement of constitutional equilibrium in the "horizontal" operation of the Bill of Rights, has also been established.The realization of human dignity is but in its initial stages: civil society, including educational institutions, are called upon to make their contribution to the process.

  20. De refranes y cantares tiene el pueblo mil millares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Alfonso Soler

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta experiencia trata de acercarnos a la palabra para mejorar las competencias comunicativas orales y escritas de los nuevos hablantes de nuestro idioma. El uso de los refranes se incluye en el ámbito del nivel popular; en él abunda la subjetividad, se economizan considerablemente los medios lingüísticos y aparecen numerosas apelaciones al oyente. Relativo a esto podemos señalar que los proverbios y refranes son expresiones de contenido moral y didáctico que se transmiten de manera oral.

  1. Imaging Lithospheric-scale Structure Beneath Northern Altiplano in Southern Peru and Northern Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Wagner, L. S.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Long, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    The northern Altiplano plateau of southern Peru and northern Bolivia is one of the highest topographic features on the Earth, flanked by Western and Eastern Cordillera along its margin. It has strongly influenced the local and far field lithospheric deformation since the early Miocene (Masek et al., 1994). Previous studies have emphasized the importance of both the crust and upper mantle in the evolution of Altiplano plateau (McQuarrie et al., 2005). Early tomographic and receiver function studies, south of 16° S, show significant variations in the crust and upper mantle properties in both perpendicular and along strike direction of the Altiplano plateau (Dorbath et. al., 1993; Myers et al., 1998; Beck and Zandt, 2002). In order to investigate the nature of subsurface lithospheric structure below the northern Altiplano, between 15-18° S, we have determined three-dimensional seismic tomography models for Vp and Vs using P and S-wave travel time data from two recently deployed local seismic networks of CAUGHT and PULSE. We also used data from 8 stations from the PERUSE network (PERU Subduction Experiment). Our preliminary tomographic models show a complex variation in the upper mantle velocity structure with depth, northwest and southeast of lake Titicaca. We see the following trend, at ~85 km depth, northwest of lake Titicaca: low Vp and Vs beneath the Western Cordillera, high Vs beneath the Altiplano and low Vp and Vs beneath the Eastern Cordillera. This low velocity anomaly, beneath Eastern Cordillera, seems to coincide with Kimsachata, a Holocene volcano in southern Peru. At depth greater than ~85 km: we find high velocity anomaly beneath the Western Cordillera and low Vs beneath the Altiplano. This high velocity anomaly, beneath Western Cordillera, coincides with the well-located Wadati-Benioff zone seismicity and perhaps represents the subducting Nazca slab. On the southeast of lake Titicaca, in northern Bolivia, we see a consistently high velocity anomaly

  2. Background document for climate change policy options in Northern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an initial compilation of background material in support of the development of climate change policy options for the jurisdictions of Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut in Northern Canada. While Northern Canada contributes only a small fraction of the world's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, scientists forecast changes in average annual temperatures to be among the highest in the world. The Northern Climate Exchange at Yukon College was created in March 2001 to address this issue and to help guide northerners in what they can do now and in the future. This paper includes an annotated bibliography of a total of 75 international, national, and territorial policy documents and major reference documents relevant to climate change issues. It is meant to be a resource for researchers, policy analysts and government officials developing policy options and implementing programs for Northern Canada. While each of the three northern territories are at a different stage in the evolution of their climate change activities, they are all striving to develop strategies and action plans and to initiate the implementation of those plans. It is recognized that many long-standing programs and initiatives, particularly in the areas of energy efficiency and alternate energy, will help northern jurisdictions address their climate change objectives. The three territories are cooperating to deliver their message to the federal government. 75 refs., 4 figs

  3. Building parliamentary research capacity: The case of Shan state's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    To sustain democratization in Myanmar, IDRC and Global Affairs Canada are launching a new initiative, Knowledge for Democracy Myanmar (K4DM), to nurture meaningful dialogue and engagement in the transition process and to promote economic growth that benefits all. Working with other development partners, the ...

  4. U russkoi molodjozhi jest shans / Urve Palo ; interv. Ilja Gromov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Palo, Urve, 1972-

    2008-01-01

    Rahvastikuminister Urve Palo selgitab Avatud Ühiskonna Instituudi vene keelt kõnelevate noorte seas läbi viidud uuringu tulemusi. Lisa: Küsitlus: Kas vene keelt kõnelevatel noortel on Eestis hea elada

  5. Marine reptiles from the Late Cretaceous of northern Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Z.; Casadio, S.; Fernández, M.; Salgado, L.

    2001-04-01

    During the Campanian-Maastrichtian, Patagonia was flooded by the Atlantic and reduced to an archipelago. Several localities of northern Patagonia have yielded marine reptiles. Analysis of several assemblages suggests that the diversity and abundance of pelagic marine reptiles in northern Patagonia was higher by the end of the Cretaceous than previously thought. Several plesiosaurids, including Aristonectes parvidens and the polycotylid Sulcusuchus, and the first remains of mosasaurinae have been found. The Cretaceous marine reptile record from South America is scanty. Nevertheless, materials described here suggest that Tethyan and Weddelian forms converged in northern Patagonia, as seen with invertebrates.

  6. Radon in dwellings in Northern Ireland. 1993 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B.; Lomas, P.; O'Riordan, M.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of radon made in some 1500 dwellings throughout Northern Ireland by the autumn of 1993 show that the average concentration is 19 Bq m -3 with some values up to fifty times higher. Around 30 of these dwellings are above the Action Level of 200 Bq m -3 adopted by the Government. Data are presented in considerable detail and various forms. Several hundred dwellings in Northern Ireland are estimated to exceed the Action Level, most of which are in a separately designated Affected Area in the southeast. Recommendations are made to promote the discovery and remedy of dwellings above the Action Level throughout Northern Ireland. (author)

  7. Gunnar uranium mine environmental remediation - Northern Saskatchewan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muldoon, Joe; Yankovich, Tamara; Schramm, Laurier L. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The Gunnar Mine and mill site was the largest of some 38 now-abandoned uranium mines that were developed and operated in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada, during the Cold War years. During their operating lifetimes these mines produced large quantities of ore and tailings. The Gunnar mine (open pit and underground) produced over 5 million tonnes of uranium ore and nearly 4.4 million tonnes of mine tailings during its operations from 1955 through 1963. An estimated 2.2 to 2.7 million m{sup 3} of waste rock that was generated during the processing of the ore abuts the shores of Lake Athabasca, the 22. largest lake in the world. After closure in the 1960's, the Gunnar site was abandoned with little to no decommissioning being done. The Saskatchewan Research Council has been contracted to manage the clean-up of these abandoned northern uranium mine and mill sites. The Gunnar Mine, because of the magnitude of tailings and waste rock, is subject to an environmental site assessment process regulated by both provincial and federal governments. This process requires a detailed study of the environmental impacts that have resulted from the mining activities and an analysis of projected impacts from remediation efforts. The environmental assessment process, specific site studies, and public involvement initiatives are all now well underway. Due to the many uncertainties associated with an abandoned site, an adaptive remediation approach, utilizing a decision tree, presented within the environmental assessment documents will be used as part of the site regulatory licensing. A critical early task was dealing with major public safety hazards on the site. The site originally included many buildings that were remnants of a community of approximately 800 people who once occupied the site. These buildings, many of which contained high levels of asbestos, had to be appropriately abated and demolished. Similarly, the original mine head frame and mill site buildings, many of which

  8. WIND SPEED Monitoring in Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulygina, O.; Korshunova, N. N.; Razuvaev, V. N.; Groisman, P. Y.

    2016-12-01

    The wind regime of Russia varies a great deal due to the large size of the country's territory and variety of climate and terrain conditions. Changes in the regime of surface wind are of great practical importance. They can affect heat and water balance. Strong wind is one of the most hazardous meteorological event for various sectors of economy and for infrastructure. The main objective of this research is to monitoring wind speed change in Northern Eurasia At meteorological stations wind speed and wind direction are measured at the height of 10-12 meters over the land surface with the help of wind meters or wind wanes. Calculations were made on the basis of data for the period of 1980-2015. It allowed the massive scale disruption of homogeneity to be eliminated and sufficient period needed to obtain sustainable statistic characteristics to be retained. Data on average and maximum wind speed measured at 1457 stations of Russia were used. The analysis of changes in wind characteristics was made on the basis of point data and series of average characteristics obtained for 18 quasi-homogeneous climatic regions. Statistical characteristics (average and maximum values of wind speed, prevailing wind direction, values of the boundary of the 90%, 95% and 99%-confidence interval in the distribution of maximum wind speed) were obtained for all seasons and for the year as a whole. Values of boundaries of the 95% and 99%-confidence interval in the distribution of maximum wind speed were considered as indicators of extremeness of the wind regime. The trend of changes in average and maximum wind speed was assessed with a linear trend coefficient. A special attention was paid to wind changes in the Arctic where dramatic changes in surface air temperature and sea ice extent and density have been observed during the past decade. The analysis of the results allowed seasonal and regional features of changes in the wind regime on the territory of the northern part of Eurasia to be

  9. Solar energy in the Northern Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djuikom, M.; Ndjomaha, Ch.; Vandenbergh, M.

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, the Cameroon Ministry of the Environment and Forestry has initiated a research project for studying the promotion of renewable energies and their impact on rural development. This work has been realized jointly with the department of Economy and Rural Development of the Agronomic University of Gembloux (Belgium), the Centre Des Etudes de L'Environnement et de Developpement du Cameroun (CEDC, Maroua) and the Institut fur Solare Energieversorgungstechnik (ISET, Germany). This initiative comes when the electricity sector in Cameroon has been facing important changes (Privatization of the national company of electricity, creation of a rural electrification agency, multiplication of the dialogues and seminars around the strategies of promotion for renewable energies, frequent black-outs during the dry season). The first objective of the project is to contribute to a better knowledge of the situation of the use of renewable energies in Cameroon. Therefore, Mrs Marthe Djuikom undertook from July to September 2003 a socio-economic survey on the use of solar energy in the northern Cameroon. The next step will be the creation of an energy program at the CEDC with the following tasks: promotion of photovoltaic technology, support of local and international synergies on the organisational aspects, training, information and coordination of reflexions at the local level for the promotion of rural electrification projects. (authors)

  10. Cryptostroma corticale in the northern Apennines (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Maria OLIVEIRA LONGA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cryptostroma corticale was observed on declining trees of Acer pseudoplatanus L. at Montovolo, a mountain site located in the northern Apennines, Italy. Morphological and biomolecular analyses confirmed the presence of the fungus in affected trees, which has not yet been officially described as occurring in Italy. No damage by the pathogen was observed on other species of Acer in the affected area, while drought–related decline symptoms were present on Quercus pubescens and Ostrya carpinifolia near the affected site, confirming the possible role of climate and especially repeated drought periods in the appearance of the problem. st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;}

  11. Environmental factors along the Northern Sea Route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fjeld, P.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Northern Sea Route runs ca 5,600 nautical miles across the top of Russia from Murmansk to Vladivostok, and includes half of the Arctic basin. An environmental impact assessment is needed for this route because of the potential for commercial shipping to disturb the vulnerable Arctic environment along the route. For example, Russian development of oil and gas resources in the area served by the route is expected to rise dramatically in the near future. Drilling in the route area offshore has already begun, and potential blowouts or tanker spills are of concern. A pilot study on the environment along this route was conducted in 1990/91, focusing on a study of the literature and communications with Russian scientists working on Arctic ecology. Existing data seem to be insufficient and generally only cover the westernmost and easternmost parts of the route. A five-year research plan is proposed to provide an inventory of Arctic species in the route area and levels of contaminants present, to assess the environmental sensitivity of the area, and analyze impacts that increased shipping might have on the environment. Protection measures will also be suggested. 1 fig

  12. Space education in Kiruna, Northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sandahl

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The town of Kiruna in the north of Sweden has a concentration of space activities and space research with, for example, the Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Esrange, the ESA Salmijärvi satellite station, and EISCAT (European Incoherent Scatter Radar Scientific Association. The Department of Space Science is a joint department between the two most northern universities in Sweden, Luleå University of Technology and Umeå University in collaboration with the Swedish Institute of Space Physics. It offers a range of education programmes in the space field. There are bachelor and master programmes in space engineering, and a bridging programme for students without a science background from secondary school. The Department also contributes to courses for teachers, Ph.D. courses and secondary school level courses. One master´s program and a three week summer course are given entirely in English and welcome international students. Thanks to good cooperation with Esrange students can build and fly experiments on high altitude balloons and sounding rockets and also take a large responsibility for the management of the projects. Close interaction with research and industry is an important part of the education.

  13. Nurse teacher stress in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, P; Houghton, D M

    1993-08-01

    Occupational stress among a 60% sample of all nurse tutors in Northern Ireland was investigated by means of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), Maslach Burnout Inventory and a stress questionnaire. Seventy per cent of tutors judged themselves to be worse or much worse than usual on 45% of GHQ items. Significant levels of moderate and high burnout were discovered on the sub-scales of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, with an almost unanimous (95%) report of high burnout arising out of feelings of lack of personal accomplishment. Male nurse tutors reported more frequent and more intense signs of burnout than their female counterparts at a statistically significant level of difference in emotional exhaustion (P = 0.028 and P = 0.003 respectively) and in depersonalization (P work stressor most commonly identified by tutors (72%) was that of experiencing too little time to perform their duties to their satisfaction. The most common request for help to alleviate workplace stress (61%) was for more support and appreciation from their seniors.

  14. Virtual Northern analysis of the human genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan H Hurowitz

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available We applied the Virtual Northern technique to human brain mRNA to systematically measure human mRNA transcript lengths on a genome-wide scale.We used separation by gel electrophoresis followed by hybridization to cDNA microarrays to measure 8,774 mRNA transcript lengths representing at least 6,238 genes at high (>90% confidence. By comparing these transcript lengths to the Refseq and H-Invitational full-length cDNA databases, we found that nearly half of our measurements appeared to represent novel transcript variants. Comparison of length measurements determined by hybridization to different cDNAs derived from the same gene identified clones that potentially correspond to alternative transcript variants. We observed a close linear relationship between ORF and mRNA lengths in human mRNAs, identical in form to the relationship we had previously identified in yeast. Some functional classes of protein are encoded by mRNAs whose untranslated regions (UTRs tend to be longer or shorter than average; these functional classes were similar in both human and yeast.Human transcript diversity is extensive and largely unannotated. Our length dataset can be used as a new criterion for judging the completeness of cDNAs and annotating mRNA sequences. Similar relationships between the lengths of the UTRs in human and yeast mRNAs and the functions of the proteins they encode suggest that UTR sequences serve an important regulatory role among eukaryotes.

  15. Virtual Northern analysis of the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurowitz, Evan H; Drori, Iddo; Stodden, Victoria C; Donoho, David L; Brown, Patrick O

    2007-05-23

    We applied the Virtual Northern technique to human brain mRNA to systematically measure human mRNA transcript lengths on a genome-wide scale. We used separation by gel electrophoresis followed by hybridization to cDNA microarrays to measure 8,774 mRNA transcript lengths representing at least 6,238 genes at high (>90%) confidence. By comparing these transcript lengths to the Refseq and H-Invitational full-length cDNA databases, we found that nearly half of our measurements appeared to represent novel transcript variants. Comparison of length measurements determined by hybridization to different cDNAs derived from the same gene identified clones that potentially correspond to alternative transcript variants. We observed a close linear relationship between ORF and mRNA lengths in human mRNAs, identical in form to the relationship we had previously identified in yeast. Some functional classes of protein are encoded by mRNAs whose untranslated regions (UTRs) tend to be longer or shorter than average; these functional classes were similar in both human and yeast. Human transcript diversity is extensive and largely unannotated. Our length dataset can be used as a new criterion for judging the completeness of cDNAs and annotating mRNA sequences. Similar relationships between the lengths of the UTRs in human and yeast mRNAs and the functions of the proteins they encode suggest that UTR sequences serve an important regulatory role among eukaryotes.

  16. Atmospheric mercury in Sweden, Northern Finland and Northern Europe. Results from national monitoring and European research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waengberg, Ingvar; Munthe, John

    2001-01-01

    Atmospheric mercury concentrations and mercury fluxes measured during the period 1995 to 1999 at the AMAP master station of Pallas, a remote station in Northern Finland, and at Roervik an EMEP station located on the west coast of Sweden are reported. The results are discussed and compared with atmospheric mercury data generated within the EU-project, Mercury over Europe (MOE). Total particulate mercury exhibit a strong south to north gradient with the highest concentrations in the south, near source areas in Central Europe. Mercury in precipitation also exhibits a south to north gradient.

  17. Northern tropical Atlantic climate since late Medieval times from Northern Caribbean coral geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, K. H.; Xu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Paleoclimate reconstructions of different global climate modes over the last 1000 years provide the basis for testing the relative roles of forced and unforced variability climate system, which can help us improve projections of future climate change. The Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) has been characterized by a combination of persistent La Niña-like conditions, a positive North Atlantic Oscillation (+NAO), and increased Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). The northern tropical Atlantic is sensitive to each of these climate patterns, but not all of them have the same regional fingerprint in the modern northern tropical Atlantic. The relative influence of different processes related to these climate patterns can help us better understand regional responses to climate change. The regional response of the northern tropical Atlantic is important because the tropical Atlantic Ocean is a large source of heat and moisture to the global climate system that can feedback onto global climate patterns. This study presents new coral Sr/Ca and δ18O data from the northern tropical Atlantic (Anegada, British Virgin Islands). Comparison of the sub-fossil corals that grew during the 13th and 14th Centuries with modern coral geochemical data from this site indicates relatively cooler mean conditions with a decrease in the oxygen isotopic composition of the water consistent with lower salinities. Similar average annual cycles between modern and sub-fossil Sr/Ca indicate no change in seasonal temperature range, but a difference in the relative phasing of the δ18O seasonal cycles indicates that the fresher mean conditions may be due to a more northerly position of the regional salinity front. This localized response is consistent with some, but not all of the expected regional responses to a La Niña-like state, a +NAO state, and increased AMOC. Understanding these differences can provide insight into the relative importance of advection versus surface fluxes for

  18. Northern Edge Navajo Casino, Fruitland, NM: NN0030343

    Science.gov (United States)

    NPDES Permit and Fact Sheet explaining EPA's action under the Clean Water Act to issue NPDES Permit No. NN0030343) to the Navajo Tribal Utility Authority Northern Edge Navajo Casino Wastewater Treatment Facility, 2752 Indian Service Road 36, Fruitland, NM.

  19. Can IVF save the northern white rhino from extinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-31

    As the last male northern white rhino is euthanased, leaving just two females - his daughter and granddaughter - what is the future for this subspecies? Sophie Ingledew explains. British Veterinary Association.

  20. Changes in abundance of the northern Benguela sardine stock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in abundance of the northern Benguela sardine stock during the decade ... with comments on the relative importance of fishing and the environment. ... Survey-based recruitment indices suggest that the changes in the 1990s were ...

  1. BOKO HARAM IN NORTHERN NIGERIA: A MAUDUDIAN LEGACY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dean SPGS NAU

    The title is Religious Fundamentalism in Northern. Nigeria: An ... intellectual awareness characterized by preaching, teaching, and writing of .... theory of modern jahiliyya. When he ..... thesis on mainstream Muslim opinion” (1991, 3). The Boko ...

  2. Northern Mariana Islands Marine Monitoring Team Reef Flat Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands' (CNMI) interagency marine monitoring team conducts surveys on reef flat areas on the islands of Saipan, Tinian and...

  3. A management guide for northern hardwoods in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian M. Gilbert; Victor S. Jensen

    1958-01-01

    Northern hardwood forests occupy about 9 million acres of land in New England. In recent years, these hardwood forests have made increasing contributions to the economy of this region. Their future management should be even more rewarding.

  4. Climate of the northern Indian Ocean and associated productivity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sastry, J.S.; Gopinathan, C.K.

    The climatic factors likely to influence the phytoplankton production in the northern Indian Ocean are examined. The major cause for the high productivity of the Arabian Sea is the nutrient enrichment of the euphotic zone by upwelling especially off...

  5. Prediction Center (CPC) Tropical/ Northern Hemisphere Teleconnection Pattern Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly tabulated index of the Tropical/ Northern Hemisphere teleconnection pattern. The data spans the period 1950 to present. The index is derived from a rotated...

  6. How second-growth northern hardwoods develop after thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert W., Jr. Wilson

    1953-01-01

    In the northern hardwood region, second-growth stands occupy thousands of acres. These stands are of all ages, in all conditions. They were brought about by fire, charcoal and fuelwood cuttings, land abandonment, or a combination of these causes.

  7. Northern fur seal pup weights, Pribilof Islands, Alaska, 1957-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains northern fur seal pup mass and length data by date, island, rookery and sex on the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, collected between 1957-2012. Mass...

  8. Northern Fur Seal Captures and Tag Sightings Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains information regarding the capture, tagging and re-sighting of northern fur seals on the Pribilof Islands and Bogoslof Island, Alaska, from 1986...

  9. Inland Aquaculture and Adaptation to Climate Change in Northern ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... as an important source of employment and food security for rural residents. ... Researchers will explore past impacts and future risks of floods and droughts on farms ... Survey of climate-related risks to tilapia pond farms in Northern Thailand.

  10. Northern North Pacific Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0156768)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northern North Pacific (NNP) plays a significant role in long-term earth and ocean climate change. It is also a region of high importance for regional marine...

  11. Spawning and development of Lesueurigobius sanzoi ofT northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Instituto de Ciencias del Mar, Paseo Nacional sin 08003, Barcelona Spain. Received 22 August 1988; ... The presence of Lesueurigobius sanzoi (de Buen, 1918) on the continental shelf off northern ..... Perfiles de temperatura del Sudoeste de.

  12. Squaring the Circle: Attempting Peace in Northern Ireland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marchi, Gina

    1997-01-01

    Finding a political framework for self-government in Northern Ireland that will be supported by both nationalists and unionists is referred to as a modern day attempt to do the impossible-to 'square the circle...

  13. Northern Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Unusual Mortality Event Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissues and samples collected from marine mammals during investigation of the Northern Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Unusual Mortality Event are tracked within this...

  14. Colonic microbiota signatures across five northern European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lay, C.; Rigottier-Gois, L.; Holmstrom, K.; Rajilic-Stojanovic, M.; Vaughan, E.E.; Vos, de W.M.; Collins, M.D.; Thiel, R.; Namsolleck, P.; Blaut, M.; Dore, J.

    2005-01-01

    The composition of the colonic microbiota of 91 northern Europeans was characterized by fluorescent in situ hybridization using 18 phylogenetic probes. On average 75% of the bacteria were identified, and large interindividual variations were observed. Clostridium coccoides and Clostridium leptum

  15. VT Green Mountain National Forest Map - Northern Section

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The BasemapOther_GMNFMAPN is a cartographic map product depicting the northern half of the Green Mountain National Forest (GMNF). The paper map...

  16. Modelling the Main Ionospheric Trough Across the Northern Hemisphere

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitchell, Cathryn

    2004-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking University of Bath as follows: The contractor will investigate disturbances in the Northern Hemisphere ionosphere using a Multi-instrument data analysis (MIDAS) imaging algorithm...

  17. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for intertidal-, reef-, and mangrove-associated invertebrate species in Guam and the Northern Mariana...

  18. Local habitat drivers of macrobenthos in the northern, central and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local habitat drivers of macrobenthos in the northern, central and southern KwaZulu-Natal Bight, South Africa. ... African Journal of Marine Science ... and bottom water physico-chemistry were determined at a significantly larger spatial scale.

  19. Organochlorine pesticide residues in the northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shailaja, M.S.; Sarkar, A.

    periodic monitoring of the levels of the major pollutants. One on-going exercise has been to evaluate, qualitatively and quantitatively, the persistent organochlorine pesticide residues in the Northern Indian Ocean. The baseline levels of some...

  20. Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent - Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH) products provide measurements of daily sea ice extent and sea ice edge boundary for the...

  1. girl child education: what is the future in northern nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. SOLOMON AVIDIME

    Northern Nigeria‟s high gender inequity in education places the majority of young girls at a severe ... to boost female enrolment in junior secondary schools, create girl-friendly school ..... Mortality, Fertility and Gender Bias in India: A District.

  2. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, pelagic, benthic, and estuarine fish species in Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Vector...

  3. Key Lake human resources and northern business initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudar, R.; McIntyre, J.; McInnes, B.P.

    1994-01-01

    The Key Lake Operation is committed to a policy of maximizing Saskatchewan, and particularly northern Saskatchewan, employment and business opportunities. The participation rate of northern people in the Key Lake operation's workforce has risen from 23.8% in 1983, to 42% today. Cameco's objective is to achieve 50% representation of residents of Saskatchewan's north in the Key Lake workforce by 1995. The company also extends this strategic objective to contractors. All contractors are required to maximize employment opportunities for residents of Saskatchewan's north, and report employment levels to the company as a condition of the contract. Today, contractors at the Key Lake site have achieved a northern participation rate of 47%. This paper highlights strategies for increasing northern/aboriginal participation and provides several examples of successes from these initiatives. (author)

  4. The Coastal Observing System for Northern and Arctic Seas (COSYNA)

    OpenAIRE

    Baschek, Burkard; Schroeder, Friedhelm; Brix, Holger; Riethmüller, Rolf; Badewien, Thomas H.; Breitbach, Gisbert; Brügge, Bernd; Colijn, Franciscus; Doerffer, Roland; Eschenbach, Christiane; Friedrich, Jana; Fischer, Philipp; Garthe, Stefan; Horstmann, Jochen; Krasemann, Hajo

    2017-01-01

    The Coastal Observing System for Northern and Arctic Seas (COSYNA) was established in order to better understand the complex interdisciplinary processes of northern seas and the Arctic coasts in a changing environment. Particular focus is given to the German Bight in the North Sea as a prime example of a heavily used coastal area, and Svalbard as an example of an Arctic coast that is under strong pressure due to global change. The COSYNA automated observing and modelling system is designed...

  5. Adapting online learning for Canada's Northern public health workforce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnie Bell

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . Canada's North is a diverse, sparsely populated land, where inequalities and public health issues are evident, particularly for Aboriginal people. The Northern public health workforce is a unique mix of professional and paraprofessional workers. Few have formal public health education. From 2009 to 2012, the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC collaborated with a Northern Advisory Group to develop and implement a strategy to strengthen public health capacity in Canada's 3 northern territories. Access to relevant, effective continuing education was identified as a key issue. Challenges include diverse educational and cultural backgrounds of public health workers, geographical isolation and variable technological infrastructure across the north. Methods . PHAC's Skills Online program offers Internet-based continuing education modules for public health professionals. In partnership with the Northern Advisory Group, PHAC conducted 3 pilots between 2008 and 2012 to assess the appropriateness of the Skills Online program for Northern/Aboriginal public health workers. Module content and delivery modalities were adapted for the pilots. Adaptations included adding Inuit and Northern public health examples and using video and teleconference discussions to augment the online self-study component. Results . Findings from the pilots were informative and similar to those from previous Skills Online pilots with learners in developing countries. Online learning is effective in bridging the geographical barriers in remote locations. Incorporating content on Northern and Aboriginal health issues facilitates engagement in learning. Employer support facilitates the recruitment and retention of learners in an online program. Facilitator assets included experience as a public health professional from the north, and flexibility to use modified approaches to support and measure knowledge acquisition and application, especially for First Nations, Inuit and

  6. Export marketing strategies for the Northern Ireland seed potato industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lamont, Jeffrey

    1989-01-01

    This thesis is concerned primarily with the export marketing performance of the Northern Ireland seed potato industry. The Industry has shown a dramatic decline in exports over the past twenty years, and this thesis proposes strategies aimed at regaining, and maintaining, a competitive advantage for the industry in world markets. A comparative analysis is conducted of the strategic and organisational export capabilities of the Northern Ireland industry and its main compet...

  7. Measurement of background gamma radiation in the northern Marshall Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Bordner, Autumn S.; Crosswell, Danielle A.; Katz, Ainsley O.; Shah, Jill T.; Zhang, Catherine R.; Nikolic-Hughes, Ivana; Hughes, Emlyn W.; Ruderman, Malvin A.

    2016-01-01

    Sixty-seven nuclear tests were conducted on two atolls in the northern Marshall Islands between 1946 and 1958. These tests produced radioactive fallout, which even today gives rise to radiation measurable above naturally occurring background levels. Rather than obtain new data, recent estimates of contamination levels in the northern Marshall Islands use measurements made decades ago to calculate present radiation levels. In contrast, we report on timely measurements on three different atolls...

  8. Atmospheric circulation in northern hemisphere and north atlantic oscillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Вадимович Холопцев

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Conditions under which statistical connections of interannual changes of repitition duration periods in Northern hemisphere of elementary circulation mechanisms associated to meridional northern and meridional southern groups with variations of North Atlantic oscillation are significant were revealed. It is shown, that the characteristics changes of these connections taking place in modern period can be caused by distribution changes of distribution of sea surface temperatures

  9. Contaminants in northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) exposed to plastic

    OpenAIRE

    Ask, Amalie V.; Anker-Nilssen, Tycho; Herzke, Dorte; Trevail, Alice; Franeker, Jan Andries van; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing

    2016-01-01

    Northern fulmars are seabirds which feed exclusively at sea, and as such, they are useful indicators of ocean health. Marine plastic pollution is an ever-increasing and global issue that affects the northern fulmar as they are frequently found to have ingested plastic. In this report we investigate whether the amount of ingested plastic affects the concentration of certain plastic-adsorbed toxicants in their tissues. Marine plastic pollution is a field of utmost importance. It is our hope tha...

  10. Diplomacy and the polio immunization boycott in Northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Judith R; Feldbaum, Harley

    2009-01-01

    The boycott of polio vaccination in three Northern Nigerian states in 2003 created a global health crisis that was political in origin. This paper traces the diplomatic actions that were taken by the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, the United Nations, and the U.S. government, to restart polio vaccination and resolve the crisis. The polio vaccination boycott in Northern Nigeria provides a useful case study of the practice of global health diplomacy.

  11. The carbon holdings of northern Ecuador's mangrove forests

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Stuart E.; Lovette, John; Borbor, Mercy; Millones, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Within a GIS environment, we combine field measures of mangrove diameter, mangrove species distribution, and mangrove density with remotely sensed measures of mangrove location and mangrove canopy cover to estimate the mangrove carbon holdings of northern Ecuador. We find that the four northern estuaries of Ecuador contain approximately 7,742,999 t (plus or minus 15.47 percent) of standing carbon. Of particular high carbon holdings are the Rhizophora mangle dominated mangrove stands found in-...

  12. Adapting online learning for Canada's Northern public health workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Marnie; MacDougall, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Canada's North is a diverse, sparsely populated land, where inequalities and public health issues are evident, particularly for Aboriginal people. The Northern public health workforce is a unique mix of professional and paraprofessional workers. Few have formal public health education. From 2009 to 2012, the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) collaborated with a Northern Advisory Group to develop and implement a strategy to strengthen public health capacity in Canada's 3 northern territories. Access to relevant, effective continuing education was identified as a key issue. Challenges include diverse educational and cultural backgrounds of public health workers, geographical isolation and variable technological infrastructure across the north. PHAC's Skills Online program offers Internet-based continuing education modules for public health professionals. In partnership with the Northern Advisory Group, PHAC conducted 3 pilots between 2008 and 2012 to assess the appropriateness of the Skills Online program for Northern/Aboriginal public health workers. Module content and delivery modalities were adapted for the pilots. Adaptations included adding Inuit and Northern public health examples and using video and teleconference discussions to augment the online self-study component. Findings from the pilots were informative and similar to those from previous Skills Online pilots with learners in developing countries. Online learning is effective in bridging the geographical barriers in remote locations. Incorporating content on Northern and Aboriginal health issues facilitates engagement in learning. Employer support facilitates the recruitment and retention of learners in an online program. Facilitator assets included experience as a public health professional from the north, and flexibility to use modified approaches to support and measure knowledge acquisition and application, especially for First Nations, Inuit and Metis learners. Results demonstrate that

  13. Vegetative substrates used by larval northern pike in Rainy and Kabetogama Lakes, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne L. Timm; Rodney B. Pierce

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to identify characteristics of aquatic vegetative communities used as larval northern pike nursery habitat in Rainy and Kabetogama lakes, glacial shield reservoirs in northern Minnesota. Quatrefoil light traps fished at night were used to sample larval northern pike in 11 potential nursery areas. Larval northern pike were most commonly sampled among...

  14. 7 CFR 457.143 - Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement... Northern potato crop insurance—quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement...) Both FCIC and reinsured policies: Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement 1. Definitions...

  15. 7 CFR 457.146 - Northern potato crop insurance-storage coverage endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-storage coverage... Northern potato crop insurance—storage coverage endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Storage... for insurance provider) Both FCIC and reinsured policies: Northern Potato Crop Insurance Storage...

  16. Atmosphere aerosol/dust composition over central Asia and western Siberia derived from snow/ice core records and calibrated with NASA remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizen, V. B.; Aizen, E. M.; Joswiak, D. R.; Surazakov, A. B.; Takeuchi, N.

    2007-12-01

    The vast arid and semi-arid regions of central Asia, Mongolia, and Northern China are the world's second largest source of atmospheric mineral dust. In recent years, severe dust storms in Asia have intensified in frequency, duration, and areal coverage. However, limited spatial and temporal extent of aerosol measurements precludes definitive statements to be made regarding relationship between the Asian aerosol generation and climate. It has been well known that glaciers are the natural archives of environmental records related to past climate and aerosol generation. In our research, we utilized central Asian and western Siberia shallow ice-core records recovered from Altai, Tien Shan and Pamir mountain glaciers. Despite the fact that ice-core data may extend climate/aerosol records back in time, their sparse coverage is inadequate to document aerosol spatial distribution. The NASA products from Aura, Terra and Aqua satellite missions address this gap identifying aerosol sources, transport pathways, and area of deposition. The main objective of our research is to evaluate an affect of climate variability on dynamics of Asian aerosol loading to atmosphere and changes in aerosol transport pathways. Dust particle, major and rare earth element analysis from dust aerosols deposited and accumulated in Altai, Tien Shan and Pamir glaciers suggests that loess from Tajikistan, Afghanistan and north-western China are main sources of aerosol loading into the upper troposphere over the central Asia and western Siberia. At the same time, the soluble ionic component of the ice-cores, related to aerosol generated from evaporate deposits, demonstrated both anthropogenic and natural impacts on atmospheric chemistry over these regions. Large perturbations of Ca2+ derived from CaCO3- rich dust transported from Goby Desert to Altai and Tien Shan. Origin and pathway of the ice-core aerosol depositions for the last 10-years were identified through calibrating ice-core records with dust

  17. Climate change impacts in Northern Canada: Assessing our current knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, M.J.; Eamer, J. [Environment Canada, Environmental Conservation Branch, Whitehorse, YT (Canada); Munier, A.; Ogden, A. [Yukon College, Northern Climate ExChange, Whitehorse, YT (Canada); Duerden, F. [Ryerson University, School of Applied Geography, Toronto, ON (Canada); Hik, D. [Alberta Univ., Dept. of Biological Sciences, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Fox, S.; Riedlinger, D.; Thorpe, N. [GeoNorth Limited, Whitehorse, YT (Canada); Johnson, I.; Jensen, M. [Legend Seekers Anthropological Research, Whitehorse, YT (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    A research project by the Northern Climate ExChange at Yukon College, undertaken to bring together into one document all relevant information that will help facilitate the identification of priorities for climate change research, monitoring, technological development and policy development in Canada's North, is described. In addition to the report, project deliverables also include a database of climate change information sources and a database of northern climate change contacts. The review includes scientific, local and Traditional Knowledge sources relating to climate change about each of seventeen natural and human systems (e.g. boreal forests, community health, mining, etc.), synthesized into a table for each system, with projected environmental changes crossed in matrix format with system components. Each cross-relationship was given a ranking; supporting information was included, based on the current state of knowledge of that relationship. In general, current information concerning northern systems, predicted climate changes and the impacts of those changes on northern systems is poor. However, much information does exist and the gap analysis revealed a number of general patterns relating to this information. Clearly, more research is required throughout northern Canada, but in particular, in the eastern Arctic, to provide a greater understanding of the implications of climate changes across the North, and to aid in the development of finer-scale, regional circulation models resulting in better predictive capacity of climate change and its impacts on northern areas.

  18. Comparative ability of northern pintails, gadwalls, and northern shovelers to metabolize foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    Feeding trials were used to compare the ability of northern pintails (Anas acuta), gadwalls (A. strepera), and northern shovelers (A. clypeata) to metabolize energy from a turkey starter ration, alfalfa pellets, and common barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crusgalli) seeds. No differences (P > 0.05) were detected among the three species for any of the three foods (kg body weight/day basis), for dry matter intake (DMI), body weight gain (BWG), apparent metabolizable energy (AME), or metabolized energy (MEE) on any given diet consumed in quantities large enough to promote body weight gain. The AME content of alfalfa was 57% less than the value for turkey starter and 50% less than for barnyardgrass seeds. All three species metabolized more energy and gained weight faster when fed turkey starter. Energy modeling may be facilitated if additional research verifies that all species of dabbling ducks have equal ability to obtain energy from foods available to them in the wild. Behavioral and morphological factors may be more important in defining feeding niches than digestive physiology, at least for the three duck species tested, at the time of year of the experiments, and within the limits of the quality of foods used.

  19. Seismic risk assessment of Navarre (Northern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; Rivas-Medina, A.; García Rodríguez, M. J.; Benito, B.; Tsige, M.; Martínez-Díaz, J. J.; Murphy, P.

    2009-04-01

    The RISNA project, financed by the Emergency Agency of Navarre (Northern Spain), aims at assessing the seismic risk of the entire region. The final goal of the project is the definition of emergency plans for future earthquakes. With this purpose, four main topics are covered: seismic hazard characterization, geotechnical classification, vulnerability assessment and damage estimation to structures and exposed population. A geographic information system is used to integrate, analyze and represent all information colleted in the different phases of the study. Expected ground motions on rock conditions with a 90% probability of non-exceedance in an exposure time of 50 years are determined following a Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) methodology that includes a logic tree with different ground motion and source zoning models. As the region under study is located in the boundary between Spain and France, an effort is required to collect and homogenise seismological data from different national and regional agencies. A new homogenised seismic catalogue, merging data from Spanish, French, Catalonian and international agencies and establishing correlations between different magnitude scales, is developed. In addition, a new seismic zoning model focused on the study area is proposed. Results show that the highest ground motions on rock conditions are expected in the northeastern part of the region, decreasing southwards. Seismic hazard can be expressed as low-to-moderate. A geotechnical classification of the entire region is developed based on surface geology, available borehole data and morphotectonic constraints. Frequency-dependent amplification factors, consistent with code values, are proposed. The northern and southern parts of the region are characterized by stiff and soft soils respectively, being the softest soils located along river valleys. Seismic hazard maps including soil effects are obtained by applying these factors to the seismic hazard maps

  20. Gender and livelihoods in northern Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joekes, S

    1995-01-01

    This article reports on findings from a study in 1993-94 on women and sustainable development in Hunza and Nagar districts in the Karakorum mountains of northern Pakistan. The study aims to explore the impact of development on women's work burden and sustainable use of natural resources. Local natural resource management has been a complex system of agro-pastoralist use, with poor yields. Modernization resulted in construction of the Karakorum Highway in 1978 and the Aga Khan Support Program, which mobilized the community in irrigation and agricultural projects. Village organizations were formed as a forum for community decision making and information exchange. These changes resulted in the doubling of household income during 1983-92. Agricultural productivity increased without compromising soil fertility. Livestock herds doubled during 1976-86. The road created the opportunity for new strategies for improving income. Wholesale markets became accessible. Tourism increased, the economy diversified in ways that increased women's income and control of income, and demand for education increased. Women reported that the increased demands on workload were worth the improved standard of living. Gendered work was reallocated, and division of labor changed among women of various ages. Village councils began protecting depleted forest reserves. Men collected wood on the higher slopes, according to anthropomorphic and spiritual beliefs. Women's knowledge of the environment was greater with age and specific to the tasks performed. Men and women did not have permanently fixed gender roles. Women were not exclusive managers of the environment. Women benefited the most from technology that was in their interest and not controlled by men.

  1. Uranium deposits: northern Denver Julesburg basin, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reade, H.L.

    1978-01-01

    The Fox Hills Sandstone and the Laramie Formation (Upper Cretaceous) are the host rocks for uranium deposits in Weld County, northern Denver Julesburg basin, Colorado. The uranium deposits discovered in the Grover and Sand Creek areas occur in well-defined north--south trending channel sandstones of the Laramie Formation whereas the sandstone channel in the upper part of the Fox Hills Sandstone trends east--west. Mineralization was localized where the lithology was favorable for uranium accumulation. Exploration was guided by log interpretation methods similar to those proposed by Bruce Rubin for the Powder River basin, Wyoming, because alteration could not be readily identified in drilling samples. The uranium host rocks consist of medium- to fine-grained carbonaceous, feldspathic fluvial channel sandstones. The uranium deposits consist of simple to stacked roll fronts. Reserve estimates for the deposits are: (1) Grover 1,007,000 lbs with an average grade of 0.14 percent eU 3 O 8 ,2) Sand Creek 154,000 lbs with an average grade of 0.08 percent eU 3 O 8 , and 3) The Pawnee deposit 1,060,000 lbs with an average grade of 0.07 percent eU 3 O 8 . The configuration of the geochemical cells in the Grover and Sand Creek sandstones indicate that uraniferous fluids moved northward whereas in the Pawnee sandstone of the Fox Hills uraniferous fluids moved southward. Precipitation of uranium in the frontal zone probably was caused by downdip migration of oxygcnated groundwater high in uranium content moving through a favorable highly carbonaceous and pyritic host sandstone

  2. Internal corrosion control of northern pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papavinasam, S.

    2005-02-01

    The general causes of internal corrosion in pipelines were discussed along with the methods to control them. Efficient methods are needed to determine chemical efficiency for mitigating internal corrosion in transmission pipelines, particularly those used in environmentally sensitive regions in the Arctic where harsh environmental conditions prevail. According to the Office of Pipeline Safety, 15 per cent of pipeline failures in the United States from 1994 to 2000 were caused by internal corrosion. Since pipelines in the United States are slightly older than Canadian pipelines, internal corrosion is a significant issue from a Canadian perspective. There are 306,618 km of energy-related pipelines in western Canada. Between April 2001 and March 2002 there were 808 failures, of which 425 failures resulted from internal corrosion. The approach to control internal corrosion comprises of dehydrating the gases at production facilities; controlling the quality of corrosive gases such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide; and, using internal coatings. The approaches to control internal corrosion are appropriate, when supplemented by adequate integrity management program to ensure that corrosive liquids do not collect, over the operational lifetime of the pipelines, at localized areas. It was suggested that modeling of pipeline operations may need improvement. This paper described the causes, prediction and control of internal pitting corrosion. It was concluded that carbon steel equipment can continue to be used reliably and safely as pipeline materials for northern pipelines if the causes that lead to internal corrosion are scientifically and accurately predicted, and if corrosion inhibitors are properly evaluated and applied. 5 figs.

  3. Radioactivity in the northern seas of europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.; Madruga, Maria Jose; Oliveira, Joao M.; Gouveia, Jorge M.; Silva, Lidia

    2004-01-01

    The recent accidents with nuclear powered Russian submarines, such as the Kursk and the K-159, that took place in the Arctic Seas, give rise to high concerns of the public and the media about the radioactive contamination of marine ecosystems and radiological safety of the European population. Those accidents were preceded by decades of discharges of radioactive liquid effluents into coastal seas of Europe and the dumping of packed radioactive waste into the North Atlantic. Being Portugal one country with high consumption rate of seafood caught in its own coastal waters as well as in far seas including the Ar tic seas, the investigation of the radioactive contamination of fish was investigated. Analysis of fish from the Sea of Labrador, Sea of Iceland and Barents Sea, has shown that gamma-emitting radionuclides of artificial origin are in general not detected. The only gamma emitting radionuclide present is Cs-137, in concentrations not higher than 0.3 Bq/kg. This radionuclide originates in the deposition of radioactive fallout following nuclear weapon tests performed in the fifties and sixties. Radionuclides in fish from northern regions and in fish from the Portuguese coast generally are present in concentrations lower than those currently reported for fish from the Irish Sea and the Baltic Sea, impacted with the discharges of radioactive waste from Sellafield and the deposition of fallout from Chernobyl, respectively. Nevertheless, the potential for future accidents and the radioactive waste dumped into the North Atlantic may in the future modify this scenario and potentially increase the currently very low radionuclide concentration in fish included in the Portuguese diet. Therefore, the research and radiological surveillance must be maintained in order to monitor the radiological risk and to ensure the quality of food available to consumers. (author)

  4. Systematic skin cancer screening in Northern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitbart, Eckhard W; Waldmann, Annika; Nolte, Sandra; Capellaro, Marcus; Greinert, Ruediger; Volkmer, Beate; Katalinic, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    The incidence of skin cancer is increasing worldwide. For decades, opportunistic melanoma screening has been carried out to respond to this burden. However, despite potential positive effects such as reduced morbidity and mortality, there is still a lack of evidence for feasibility and effectiveness of organized skin cancer screening. The main aim of the project was to evaluate the feasibility of systematic skin cancer screening. In 2003, the Association of Dermatological Prevention was contracted to implement the population-based SCREEN project (Skin Cancer Research to Provide Evidence for Effectiveness of Screening in Northern Germany) in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein. A two-step program addressing malignant melanoma and nonmelanocytic skin cancer was implemented. Citizens (aged ≥ 20 years) with statutory health insurance were eligible for a standardized whole-body examination during the 12-month study period. Cancer registry and mortality data were used to assess first effects. Of 1.88 million eligible citizens, 360,288 participated in SCREEN. The overall population-based participation rate was 19%. A total of 3103 malignant skin tumors were found. On the population level, invasive melanoma incidence increased by 34% during SCREEN. Five years after SCREEN a substantial decrease in melanoma mortality was seen (men: observed 0.79/100,000 and expected 2.00/100,000; women: observed 0.66/100,000 and expected 1.30/100,000). Because of political reasons (resistance as well as lack of support from major German health care stakeholders), it was not possible to conduct a randomized controlled trial. The project showed that large-scale systematic skin cancer screening is feasible and has the potential to reduce skin cancer burden, including mortality. Based on the results of SCREEN, a national statutory skin cancer early detection program was implemented in Germany in 2008. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All

  5. Atmospheric mercury cycles in northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watras, C. J.; Morrison, K. A.; Rubsam, J. L.; Rodger, B.

    Total gaseous mercury (TGM) in the lower atmosphere of northern Wisconsin exhibits strong annual and diurnal cycles similar to those previously reported for other rural monitoring sites across mid-latitude North America. Annually, TGM was highest in late winter and then gradually declined until late summer. During 2002-04, the average TGM concentration was 1.4 ± 0.2 (SD) ng m -3, and the amplitude of the annual cycle was 0.4 ng m -3 (˜30% of the long-term mean). The diurnal cycle was characterized by increasing TGM concentrations during the morning followed by decreases during the afternoon and night. The diurnal amplitude was variable but it was largest in spring and summer, when daily TGM oscillations of 20-40% were not uncommon. Notably, we also observed a diurnal cycle for TGM indoors in a room ventilated through an open window. Even though TGM concentrations were an order of magnitude higher indoors, (presumably due to historical practices within the building: e.g. latex paint, fluorescent lamps, thermometers), the diurnal cycle was remarkably similar to that observed outdoors. The indoor cycle was not directly attributable to human activity, the metabolic activity of vegetation or diurnal atmospheric dynamics; but it was related to changes in temperature and oxidants in outdoor air that infiltrated the room. Although there was an obvious difference in the proximal source of indoor and outdoor TGM, similarities in behavior suggest that common TGM cycles may be driven largely by adsorption/desorption reactions involving solid surfaces, such as leaves, snow, dust and walls. Such behavior would imply a short residence time for Hg in the lower atmosphere and intense recycling - consistent with the "ping-pong ball" or "multi-hop" conceptual models proposed by others.

  6. Northern gas : Arctic Canada and Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses supply challenges in relation to Northern gas availability in Arctic Canada and Alaska. A background of BP Canada Energy Company was provided. It was suggested that gas from traditional North American basins would not meet demand, and that incremental sources of supply would be needed. A map of traditional and non-tradition supply sources was presented along with details of supply and infrastructure investment requirements from 2003-2025. The roles of producers, local distribution companies, pipelines and policy makers in infrastructure development were examined. Potential resources in Alaska and the Mackenzie Delta were discussed, along with details of the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline project and exploration activities. Alaska's North Slope gas resource was reviewed. Several large projects devolving from the Alaska Gas Pipeline represent an anticipated total investment of $20 billion. Various regulatory and economic conditions necessary for the successful completion of the project include the Alaska Fiscal Contract; Alaska gas provisions in the Federal Energy Bill; details of the Canadian regulatory process; and cost reductions and market outlooks. It was concluded that the Alaska Gas Pipeline would provide thousands of jobs and provide stability of long-term gas prices as well as meeting North America's energy needs. In addition, the pipeline would provide $16 billion in Canadian government revenues and $40 billion in US government revenues. The pipeline would provide 4.5 billion cubic feet per day of clean energy, with half the carbon dioxide emissions of coal. It would also provide hundreds of billions of dollars in consumer savings. tabs, figs

  7. Child malnutrition in Tigray, northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulugeta, A; Hagos, F; Kruseman, G; Linderhof, V; Stoecker, B; Abraha, Z; Yohannes, M; Samuel, G G

    2010-06-01

    Estimate levels of and identify factors contributing to child malnutrition in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Cross-sectional survey. Rural communities from four zones of Tigray. Three hundred and eighteen under five children representing 587 randomly selected households were included. Among the children surveyed, 46.9%, 33.0% and 11.6% were stunted,underweight and wasted, respectively. Older children were more likely to be undernourished. Stunting increases from 16% in the second half of the first year to 53% in children 24 months and older. Similarly, underweight increases from 10% in the first six months to 36.5% in children aged 24 months and older. A very high proportion of the mothers (80%) initiated feeding of newborns with pre-lacteal feeds primarily butter or water. Family foods and cereal-based porridge were the main complementary foods after six months. Child age, maternal anthropometric characteristics, inadequate complementary foods, the use of prelacteal feeds and area of residence were the main contributing factors to child undernutrition. Undernutrition gets worse as the children grow older. The energy and nutrient density of the complementary foods are low as the foods were prepared from a limited number of local staple cereals without the addition of sugar, fat/oil or animal products. More importantly, these foods are diluted with water to reduce their viscosity. This makes the quality and quantity of the foods insufficient to prevent stunting and underweight. Promotion of traditional household technologies such as germination and fermentation may be affordable measures to improve the quality of the complementary foods. Thus, sustained nutrition education programmes focusing on appropriate complementary feeding practices are recommended.

  8. A visão da família sobre a experiência de ter uma criança gastrostomizada La visión de la familia sobre la experiencia de tener un niño que tiene gastrostomía The views of the family about the experience of having a child with gastrostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Cascaes Cruz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A gastrostomia é cada vez mais usada para tratar de problemas nutricionais e de crescimento em crianças com doenças crónicas ou deficientes. Embora seja um procedimento simples para a equipa de saúde, a criação de estomas na criança pode gerar consequências emocionais e sociais na vida familiar. Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar as evidências científicas acerca da experiência da família que possui uma criança gastrostomizada. Elaborou-se uma revisão integrativa da literatura no período de 2005 a 2011 e busca de artigos em diferentes bases de dados, sendo selecionados 10 artigos sobre o tema. A análise dos textos permitiu organizar os resultados em quatro temas: o significado da alimentação para os pais; o desempenho do papel parental; a experiência da família na interação com a equipa de saúde; a vida após a gastrostomia. Os resultados demonstram que a família que tem uma criança gastrostomizada experiencia uma grande sobrecarga emocional, sobretudo no período anterior ao procedimento, em virtude do significado sociocultural que a alimentação tem para ela. A família necessita de receber informações e apoio da equipa de saúde que acompanha a criança.La gastrostomía se utiliza cada vez más para tratar problemas nutricionales y de crecimiento en niños con enfermedades crónicas o incapacidades. A pesar de que el equipo sanitario considera que es un procedimiento simple, la realización de un estoma en el niño puede tener consecuencias emocionales y sociales en la vida familiar. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar las evidencias científicas relacionadas con la experiencia de la familia que tiene un niño con gastrostomía. Se realizó una revisión integrativa de la literatura en el periodo comprendido entre 2005 y 2011 y se buscaron artículos en diferentes bases de datos, de los cuales se seleccionaron 10 sobre el tema. El análisis de los textos permitió organizar los resultados en cuatro

  9. Continental margin evolution of the northern Arabian platform in Syria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, J.A.; Barazangi, M. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)); Al-Saad, D.; Sawaf, T.; Gebran, A. (Syrian Petroleum Company, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic))

    1993-02-01

    Synthesis of available geological and geophysical data in the Syrian Arab Republic permits a descriptive account of the pre-Cenozoic geologic history of the northern Arabian platform. The northern Arabian platform appears to be a composite plate similar up to that interpreted in the rocks of the Arabian shield. The structural and stratigraphic relationships of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary sections in Syria record the transformation of an eastward-facing Gondwana passive margin in the early Paleozoic into a westward-facing Levantine margin in the Mesozoic, at which time the northern platform was closely associated with the creation of the eastern Mediterranean basin. Timing of the margin transformation is inferred from the orientation and thickness variations of Lower Triassic rocks, but the transformation may have initiated as early as the Permian. The diversity and timing of geological features in Syria suggest that the northern Arabian platform did not behave as a rigid plate throughout its geological history. The present-day Palmyride mountain belt, located within the northern Arabian platform in Syria and initiated in the early Mesozoic as a northeast-trending rift nearly perpendicular to the Levantine margin, subsequently was inverted in the Cenozoic by transpression. The location of the rift may be associated with the reactivation of a zone of crustal weakness, i.e., a Proterozoic suture zone previously proposed from modeling of Bouguer gravity data. Thus, the northern and southern parts of the Arabian platform are similar in their respective geologic histories during the Proterozoic and Paleozoic; however, the northern Arabian platform was greatly affected by Mesozoic rifting and the creation of the eastern Mediterranean basin during the Mesozoic. 13 figs.

  10. Euroscepticism in Italy: Evolution of Northern League Political Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg N. Barabanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article examines the key stages of the establishment of Italy’s Northern League as a rightwing hard eurosceptic party. Being initially a continual supporter of European integration and considering the transition to common currency as an opportunity available only to northern regions, which could secede and form an independent state, Northern League after losing the main point of its political agenda when the whole Italy joined the Economic and Monetary Union in 1998, became a eurosceptically-oriented party, which it is up to now. The authors dwell on the focal points of the party’s anti-EU program: Italy’s exit from the eurozone, the formation of Europe of macroregions, the reformation of supranational institutes and decision-making procedures. However, while confronting the Northern League policy with that of National Front in France and UKIP in the United Kingdom, the authors come to the conclusion that Euroscepticism for the former is just a sign of the shift in priorities rather than a strategy as for the latter. This can be explained by the fact that National Front and UKIP are still to fight for the place in the national mainstream, while Northern League has become its integral part long before. Nevertheless, under the new leadership of M.Salvini Northern League managed to become the fourth party on the national level according to the results of European parliament elections in 2014 and established itself as a significant power opponent to EU policy on a number of important issues, such as anti-Russian sanctions. Moreover, frequent visits of party members to Moscow and the party’s outspoken support of Russia on Crimea’s entrance into the Russian Federation provide an opportunity to consider Northern League a potential conductor of Russian interests in the European Union.

  11. All Christians? Experiences of science educators in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Colette; Hickey, Ivor; Beggs, Jim

    2010-03-01

    In this paper we respond to Staver's article (this issue) on an attempt to resolve the discord between science and religion. Most specifically, we comment on Staver's downplaying of difference between Catholics and Protestants in order to focus on the religion-science question. It is our experience that to be born into one or other of these traditions in some parts of the world (especially Northern Ireland) resulted in starkly contrasting opportunities, identities and practices in becoming and being science educators. The paper starts with a short contextual background to the impact of religion on schooling and higher education in Northern Ireland. We then explore the lives and careers of three science/religious educators in Northern Ireland: Catholic (Jim) and Protestant (Ivor) males who are contemporaries and whose experience spans pre-Troubles to post-conflict and a Catholic female (Colette) who moved to Northern Ireland during the Troubles as a teenager. Finally, we discuss the situation regarding the teaching of creationism and evolution in Northern Ireland—an issue has recently generated high public interest. The Chair of the Education Committee of the Northern Ireland Assembly recently stated that "creationism is not for the RE class because I believe that it can stand scientific scrutiny and that is a debate which I am quite happy to encourage and be part of…" (News Letter 2008). It could be the case that the evolution debate is being fuelled as a deliberate attempt to undermine some of the post-conflict collaboration projects between schools and communities in Northern Ireland.

  12. Northern European long term climate archives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohl, Veronica [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is responsible for the management and disposal of Sweden's radioactive waste. It is intended to deposit the spent nuclear fuel in a deep geological repository. This repository shall keep the radiotoxic material separated from humans and the environment for extended periods, from decades to millennia and possibly to geological timescales. During this time perspective climate induced changes such as shore-level displacement and evolution of permafrost and ice sheets are expected to occur which may affect the repository. The possible occurrence, extent and duration of these long-term changes, are therefore of interest when considering the assessment of repository performance and safety. The main climate parameters determining both surface and subsurface conditions are temperature and precipitation. As a result of the last advance of the Weichselian ice sheet only few geological archives exist, which contain information on past climatic conditions in Sweden before c 16,000 years BP. The purpose of this literature review is to compile and evaluate available information from Scandinavian, Northern and Central European geological archives, which record climatic conditions during the Weichselian time period. The compilation provides paleotemperature data sets, which may be used to explore the possible evolution of periglacial permafrost in Sweden. This report is a synopsis of 22 publications detailing climatic and environmental changes during the Weichselian time period in Northwestern Europe based on quantified paleotemperature records. Some of the data is presented as temperature curves which were digitised specifically for this report. The time range covered by the different publications varies considerably. Only few authors dealt with the whole Weichselian period and the majority cover only a few thousand years. This however is not considered to influence the reliability of the archives. The reason for the

  13. Northern European long term climate archives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohl, Veronica

    2005-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is responsible for the management and disposal of Sweden's radioactive waste. It is intended to deposit the spent nuclear fuel in a deep geological repository. This repository shall keep the radiotoxic material separated from humans and the environment for extended periods, from decades to millennia and possibly to geological timescales. During this time perspective climate induced changes such as shore-level displacement and evolution of permafrost and ice sheets are expected to occur which may affect the repository. The possible occurrence, extent and duration of these long-term changes, are therefore of interest when considering the assessment of repository performance and safety. The main climate parameters determining both surface and subsurface conditions are temperature and precipitation. As a result of the last advance of the Weichselian ice sheet only few geological archives exist, which contain information on past climatic conditions in Sweden before c 16,000 years BP. The purpose of this literature review is to compile and evaluate available information from Scandinavian, Northern and Central European geological archives, which record climatic conditions during the Weichselian time period. The compilation provides paleotemperature data sets, which may be used to explore the possible evolution of periglacial permafrost in Sweden. This report is a synopsis of 22 publications detailing climatic and environmental changes during the Weichselian time period in Northwestern Europe based on quantified paleotemperature records. Some of the data is presented as temperature curves which were digitised specifically for this report. The time range covered by the different publications varies considerably. Only few authors dealt with the whole Weichselian period and the majority cover only a few thousand years. This however is not considered to influence the reliability of the archives. The reason for the varying

  14. Women and development in Northern Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, C T

    1985-07-01

    Northern Belize, composed of Orange Walk and Corozal districts, is the sugar-producing region of Belize, a newly independent country on the Caribbean coast of Central America, and because of the extensive involvement in the modern sugar industry, existing status differentials in Orange Walk have increased. Town farmers have increased their sugarcane license sizes more than villagers and also are much more likely to meet or exceed their delivery quotas than villagers. There has been the differentiation of a new middle socioeconomic stratum in Orange Walk, with a much higher proportion of villagers remaining in the lower stratum than townspeople. With greater involvement in the market economy, there has been a decline in the social integration of groups in the district as well as less symbiosis between husband and wife and among related male age mates. Some people now consistently work for others; there was an egalitarian labor exchange before. With the decline in subsistence production, the extensive reciprocity in food among related women diminishes. Women have participated in the overall changes in Orange Walk, yet their position vis-a-vis men has become weaker. Women are most likely to hold licenses in the communities that participated earliest in the sugar industry and that are the most traditional. With greater market involvement, women become less likely to hold licenses. Women's licenses have not increased to the same degree as those of men. And, with the income from sugar and wage labor, the family income is more and more viewed as belonging to men, rather than being the result of a joint family enterprise. Women become dependent on what men give them, with less control and security. With declining subsistence production, women have a reduced basis of involvement in traditional reciprocal food exchanges with other households. They lose some independent sources of money income with the result of increasing undernutrition for young children. The economic

  15. Hydrocarbon Induced Seismicity in Northern Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dost, B.; Spetzler, J.; Kraaijpoel, D.; Caccavale, M.

    2015-12-01

    The northern Netherlands has been regarded aseismic until the first earthquakes started in 1986, after more than 25 years of gas production from the one of the largest on-shore gas-fields in the World, the Groningen field, and accompanying smaller gas fields. Due to the shallow sources, at approximately 3 km depth, even small magnitude events cause considerable damage to buildings in the region. Since the largest recorded event in the Groningen field in 2012 with ML= 3,6, more than 30.000 damage claims were received by the mining company. Since 1995 a seismic monitoring network is operational in the region, consisting of 8 200m deep boreholes with 4 levels of 3C 4,5 Hz geophones. The network was designed for a location threshold of ML=1,5 over a 40x 80 km region. Average station separation was 20 km. At the end of 2014, 245 events have been recorded with ML ≥ 1,5, out of a total of 1100. Since 2003 a new mining law is in place in the Netherlands, which requires for each gas field in production a seismic risk analysis. Initially, due to the small number of events for specific fields, a general hazard (PSHA) was calculated for all gas-fields and a maximum magnitude was estimated at ML = 3,9. Since 2003 an increase in the activity rate is observed for the Groningen field, leading to the development of new models and a re-assessment of parameters like the maximum magnitude. More recently these models are extended to seismic risk, where also the fragility of the regional buildings is taken into account. Understanding the earthquake process is essential in taking mitigation measures. Continued research is focused on reducing the uncertainties in the hazard and risk models and is accompanied by an upgrade of the monitoring network. In 2014 a new dense network was designed to monitor the Groningen gas field in this region (30*40 km) with an average separation of 4 km. This allows an improved location threshold (M>0,5) and location accuracy (50-100m). A detailed P- and S

  16. Community-based study on intracerebral hemorrhage in northern Hokkaido. Northern Hokkaido Stroke Study (NOHSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sako, Kazuhiro; Shirai, Wakako; Tokumitu, Naoki; Aizawa, Shizuka

    2008-01-01

    A survey on stroke was conducted to evaluate the incidence of intracerebral hemorrhage and the prevalence of risk factors. The subjects, comprising those patients who suffesed a stroke, were registered on the Northern Hokkaido Stroke Study between July 2002 and June 2006. The severity of their illness was rated by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at hospital admission, while their outcome was determined by the mortality within 3 months and the mRS (modified Rankin Scale score). Of the 1,046 registered stroke patients, 271 (25.9%) were found to suffer from cerebral hemorrhage. Their mean age was 70.3±11.7 years; male-to-female ratio, 154/117; mean NIHSS at admission, 11.8±8.1; mortality within 3 months, 19.2%; and percentage who regained independence within 3 months (mRS: ≤2), 32.5%. A history of hypertension was found in 72.6%, and 13.7% had no treatment. MRI (T2*) revealed micro-hemorrhage outside the lesions in 67.5%. Forty-seven patients (17.3%) were taking anti-platelet agents at the onset of intracerebral hemorrhage. There was no significant difference between the mortalities of the anti-platelet-agent-users and non-users but the percentage of those regaining independence within 3 months was 19.1% for the users against 37.3% for the non-users (p=0.0177), with a significantly poor outcome in the user group. In northern Hokkaido, the incidence of cerebral hemorrhage remains high, and the percentage of those with poorly controlled or uncontrolled hypertension was 30%. These findings suggest a need to educate not only the inhabitants themselves but also the physicians engaged in their care. (author)

  17. Geomorphology and landscape organization of a northern peatland complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    The geomorphic evolution of northern peatlands is governed by complex ecohydrological feedback mechanisms and associated hydro-climatic drivers. For example, prevailing models of bog development (i.e. Ingram's groundwater mounding hypothesis and variants) attempt to explicitly link bog dome characteristics to the regional climate based on analytical and numerical models of lateral groundwater flow and the first-order control of water table position on rates of peat accumulation. In this talk I will present new results from quantitative geomorphic analyses of a northern peatland complex at the De Beers Victor diamond mine site in the Hudson Bay Lowlands of northern Ontario. This work capitalizes on spatially-extensive, high-resolution topographic (LiDAR) data to rigorously test analytical and numerical models of bog dome development in this landscape. The analysis and discussion are then expanded beyond individual bog formations to more broadly consider ecohydrological drivers of landscape organization, with implications for understanding and modeling catchment-scale runoff response. Results show that in this landscape, drainage patterns exhibit relatively well-organized characteristics consistent with observed runoff responses in six gauged research catchments. Interpreted together, the results of these geomorphic and hydrologic analyses help refine our understanding of water balance partitioning among different landcover types within northern peatland complexes. These findings can be used to help guide the development of appropriate numerical model structures for hydrologic prediction in ungauged peatland basins of northern Canada.

  18. Paludification and forest retreat in northern oceanic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, R M M; Jeffree, C E; Rees, W G

    2003-01-01

    Examination of temperature variations over the past century for Europe and the Arctic from northern Norway to Siberia suggests that variations in the North Atlantic Oscillation are associated with an increase in oceanicity in certain maritime regions. A southward depression of the tree line in favour of wet heaths, bogs and wetland tundra communities is also observed in northern oceanic environments. The physiological basis for this change in ecological succession from forest to bog is discussed in relation to the long-term effects of flooding on tree survival. The heightened values currently detected in the North Atlantic Oscillation Index, together with rising winter temperatures, and increased rainfall in many areas in northern Europe, presents an increasing risk of paludification with adverse consequences for forest regeneration, particularly in areas with oceanic climates. Climatic warming in oceanic areas may increase the area covered by bogs and, contrary to general expectations, lead to a retreat rather than an advance in the northern limit of the boreal forest. High water-table levels are not automatically detrimental to forest survival as can be seen in swamp, bottom land and mangrove forests. Consequently, the inhibitory effects of flooding on tree survival and regeneration in northern regions should not be uncritically accepted as merely due to high water levels. Evidence is discussed which suggests that physiological and ecological factors may interact to inhibit forest regeneration in habitats where there is a risk of prolonged winter-flooding combined with warmer winters and cool moist summers.

  19. Northern perspectives on medical elective tourism: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coke, Sarah; Kuper, Ayelet; Richardson, Lisa; Cameron, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada recognizes education to be necessary for doctors to provide culturally safe care. Communities in northern Canada have large populations of Aboriginal people and other marginalized groups. Our goal was to identify the elements of appropriate predeparture curricula for these medical trainees. Methods: We conducted our study in Kenora, Ontario. With the help of a core collaborative group and the support of the local Aboriginal Health Access Centre, we interviewed a purposive sample of community members about their interactions with trainees from southern Canada. Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal researchers with roots in northern and southern Canada brought perspectives to the inductive analysis. Results: We conducted 17 semistructured interviews between February and March 2014. Participants felt that southern trainees were inadequately educated in northern politics, society and history. They identified 2 more themes: determinants of health affecting the local Aboriginal population, and provider and patient factors affecting delivery of culturally competent care. Participants also shared ideas on how best to implement this content into curricula. Interpretation: Providing culturally competent care to northern communities is a complex process requiring education. Using a collaborative method, we were able to delineate the experiences of members of a northern community and identify knowledge gaps of southern trainees travelling there. Our results provide a foundation for the content and structure of formal predeparture curricula to enable such trainees to provide culturally safe care. PMID:27398374

  20. Northern perspectives on medical elective tourism: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coke, Sarah; Kuper, Ayelet; Richardson, Lisa; Cameron, Anita

    2016-01-01

    The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada recognizes education to be necessary for doctors to provide culturally safe care. Communities in northern Canada have large populations of Aboriginal people and other marginalized groups. Our goal was to identify the elements of appropriate predeparture curricula for these medical trainees. We conducted our study in Kenora, Ontario. With the help of a core collaborative group and the support of the local Aboriginal Health Access Centre, we interviewed a purposive sample of community members about their interactions with trainees from southern Canada. Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal researchers with roots in northern and southern Canada brought perspectives to the inductive analysis. We conducted 17 semistructured interviews between February and March 2014. Participants felt that southern trainees were inadequately educated in northern politics, society and history. They identified 2 more themes: determinants of health affecting the local Aboriginal population, and provider and patient factors affecting delivery of culturally competent care. Participants also shared ideas on how best to implement this content into curricula. Providing culturally competent care to northern communities is a complex process requiring education. Using a collaborative method, we were able to delineate the experiences of members of a northern community and identify knowledge gaps of southern trainees travelling there. Our results provide a foundation for the content and structure of formal predeparture curricula to enable such trainees to provide culturally safe care.

  1. Hydrocarbon potential of Altiplano and northern Subandean, Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edman, J.D.; Kirkpatrick, J.R.; Lindsey, D.D.; Lowell, J.D.; Cirbian, M.; Lopez, M.

    1989-03-01

    Seismic, stratigraphic, structural, and geochemical data from the Altiplano, northern Subandean, and northern plains of Bolivia were interpreted in order to evaluate the exploration potential of each province. Identification of three possible source rock intervals, primarily the Devonian and secondarily the Permian and Cretaceous, was used as the basis for recognizing active hydrocarbon systems. For those areas containing source intervals, their analysis revealed that possible reservoir and seal units range in age from Paleozoic to Tertiary; the majority of structures, however, are Eocene or younger. With these general concepts in mind, traps were identified in all three sedimentary provinces. In the northern Altiplano, the most prospective area is along the eastern margin near a southwest and west-vergent thrust belt where hanging-wall anticlines and a warped Eocene-Oligocene(.) unconformity surface form the most likely potential traps. In the central and southern Altiplano, both thrust-related and wrench-related structures present possible exploration targets. In the northern Subandean and Beni plains north of the Isiboro-Chapare area, traps can be classified into two broad groups. First, there are a wide variety of structural traps within the northern Subandean thrust belt, the most attractive of which are footwall structures that have been shielded from surface flushing by hanging-wall strata. Second, in the plains just northeast of the thrust belt, hydrocarbons sourced from the remnant Paleozoic basin may have migrated onto the Isarsama and Madidi highs.

  2. FACTOR IN ENSURING A BALANCED BUDGET NORTHERN TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Anatol’evna Naidenova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The main tools of sustainable development of the country as a whole and its individual regions are federal and regional budgets. At the same time a prerequisite for the use of this tool is its equilibrium. It is the basic principle of a responsible fiscal policy. The article describes the factors to equilibrium. on the budgets of the northern regions of the Russian Federation. The measures to ensure budgetary equilibrium in the northern regions of the Russian Federation are offered.The purpose of the article. Substantiating the measures to balance the budgets of the northern Russian Federation subjects on the basis of analysis of the factors that directly affect the mobilization of potential tax revenues to regional budgets.Method and methodology of work. Theoretical and empirical methods, analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction.Results of the study. To ensure factors unbalanced budgets northern territories. The proposals the balance of revenues and expenditures of the regional budgets of the northern regions of the Russian Federation are submitted.Application area. Finance authorities of subjects of the Russian Federation.

  3. Study of the pollution exchange between Bulgaria and Northern Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerefos, C.; Vasaras, A.; Syrakov, D.; Ganev, K.

    2000-01-01

    The present work aims at a detailed study and explanation of the pollution transport in the air basin over South-Western Bulgaria and Northern Greece and assessment of the air pollution exchange between Bulgaria and Greece. Some well known specific climatic air pollution effects were studied and explained. Calculations were made of the S0 2 pollution of the Balkan peninsula from both Greek and Bulgarian sources for 1995 and the country to country pollution budget diagrams were build. Days with extreme mean concentration for Bulgaria and Northern Greece were picked out and some further specification of the contribution of the different sources in both the countries to these cases of extreme pollution was made. Some preliminary studies of possible mesoscale effects on the pollution exchange between Bulgaria and northern Greece were carried out. A three-layer pollution transport model with more complex chemistry block was introduced and some preliminary simulations of Sulfur and Nitrogen compounds transport were performed. (author)

  4. An alternative method for processing northern blots after capillary transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Timothy W

    2015-03-02

    Different laboratories use different methods for the prehybridization, hybridization, and washing steps of the northern blotting procedure. In this protocol, a northern blot is pretreated with Church and Gilbert hybridization buffer to block nonspecific probe-binding sites. The immobilized RNA is then hybridized to a DNA probe specific for the RNA of interest. Finally, the membrane is washed and subjected to autoradiography or phosphorimaging. The solutions and conditions described here may be ideal for those who prefer to use fewer ingredients in their solutions. This protocol is designed to achieve the same goals as other northern blotting approaches. It minimizes background (nonspecific adherence of probe to membrane and nonspecific hybridization) and maximizes specific hybridization to RNAs immobilized on a membrane. © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  5. Northern part, Ten Mile and Taunton River basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John R.; Willey, Richard E.

    1967-01-01

    The northern part of the Ten Mile and Taunton River basins is an area of about 195 square miles within Norfolk, Plymouth, and Bristol Counties in southeastern Massachusetts. The northern boundary of the area (plate 1) is the drainage divide separating these basins from that of the Charles, Neponset, and Weymouth River basins. The western boundary is, for the most part, the divide separating the basins from the Blackstone River basin. The eastern boundary is at the edge of the Brockton-Pembroke area (Petersen, 1962; Petersen and Shaw, 1961). The southern boundary in Seekonk is the northern limit of the East Providence quadrangle, for which a ground-water map was prepared by Allen and Gorman (1959); eastward, the southern boundaries of the city of Attleboro and the towns of Norton, Easton, and West Bridgewater form the southern boundary of the area.

  6. Trends in Northern Hemisphere surface cyclone frequency and intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, G.J.; Clark, M.P.; Serreze, Mark C.

    2001-01-01

    One of the hypothesized effects of global warming from increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases is a change in the frequency and/or intensity of extratropical cyclones. In this study, winter frequencies and intensities of extratropical cyclones in the Northern Hemisphere for the period 1959-97 are examined to determine if identifiable trends are occurring. Results indicate a statistically significant decrease in midlatitude cyclone frequency and a significant increase in high-latitude cyclone frequency. In addition, storm intensity has increased in both the high and midlatitudes. The changes in storm frequency correlate with changes in winter Northern Hemisphere temperature and support hypotheses that global warming may result in a northward shift of storm tracks in the Northern Hemisphere.

  7. Extreme river flow dependence in Northern Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villoria, M. Franco; Scott, M.; Hoey, T.; Fischbacher-Smith, D.

    2012-04-01

    Various methods for the spatial analysis of hydrologic data have been developed recently. Here we present results using the conditional probability approach proposed by Keef et al. [Appl. Stat. (2009): 58,601-18] to investigate spatial interdependence in extreme river flows in Scotland. This approach does not require the specification of a correlation function, being mostly suitable for relatively small geographical areas. The work is motivated by the Flood Risk Management Act (Scotland (2009)) which requires maps of flood risk that take account of spatial dependence in extreme river flow. The method is based on two conditional measures of spatial flood risk: firstly the conditional probability PC(p) that a set of sites Y = (Y 1,...,Y d) within a region C of interest exceed a flow threshold Qp at time t (or any lag of t), given that in the specified conditioning site X > Qp; and, secondly the expected number of sites within C that will exceed a flow Qp on average (given that X > Qp). The conditional probabilities are estimated using the conditional distribution of Y |X = x (for large x), which can be modeled using a semi-parametric approach (Heffernan and Tawn [Roy. Statist. Soc. Ser. B (2004): 66,497-546]). Once the model is fitted, pseudo-samples can be generated to estimate functionals of the joint tails of the distribution of (Y,X). Conditional return level plots were directly compared to traditional return level plots thus improving our understanding of the dependence structure of extreme river flow events. Confidence intervals were calculated using block bootstrapping methods (100 replicates). We report results from applying this approach to a set of four rivers (Dulnain, Lossie, Ewe and Ness) in Northern Scotland. These sites were chosen based on data quality, spatial location and catchment characteristics. The river Ness, being the largest (catchment size 1839.1km2) was chosen as the conditioning river. Both the Ewe (441.1km2) and Ness catchments have

  8. Sea otters in the northern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, James L.; Jameson, Ronald J.; Estes, James A.; LaRoe, Edward T.; Farris, Gaye S.; Puckett, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.; Mac, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    About 250 years ago sea otters (Enhydra lutris) were distributed continuously from central Baja California, north and west along the Pacific Rim to Machatka Peninsula in Russia, and south along the Kuril Island to northern Japan (Kenyon 1969; Fig. 1a). Several hundred thousand sea otters may have occurred in the north Pacific region when commercial hunting began in the 18th century (Riedman and Estes 1990).At least two attributes of the sea otter have influenced humans, likely for as long as they have resided together along the coast of the north Pacific Ocean. First, sea otters rely on a dense fur, among the finest in the world, for insulation in the cold waters of the Pacific Ocean. The demand for sea otter fur led to their near extinction in the 19th century. The fur harvest, begun about 1740 and halted by international treaty in 1911, left surviving colonies, each likely numbering less than a few hundred animals, in California, south-central Alaska, and the Aleutian, Medney, and Kuril Islands (Fig. 1a). These individuals provided the nucleus for the recovery of the species. Today more than 100,000 sea otters occur throughout about 75% of their original range (fig. 1b). Immigration has resulted in near-complete occupation of the Aleutian and Kuril archipelagos and the Alaska peninsula. Successful translocations have resulted in viable populations in southeast Alaska, Washington, and British Columbia. Large amounts of unoccupied habitat remain along the coasts of Russia, Canada, the United States, and Mexico.The second potential source of conflict between sea otters and humans is that sea otters prey on and often limit some benthic invertebrate populations. Because some of these invertebrates are aso used by humans (Estes and VanBlaricom 1985), human perceptions about the effects of sea otter foraging on invertebrates sometimes differ. By limiting populations of herbivorous invertebrates (e.g., sea urchins [Echinoidea]) otters help maintain the integrity of kelp

  9. Ground ice conditions in Salluit, Northern Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, M.; Fortier, R.; Calmels, F.; Gagnon, O.; L'Hérault, E.

    2011-12-01

    Salluit in Northern Québec (ca. 1300 inhabitants) faces difficult ground ice conditions for its development. The village is located in a U-shaped valley, along a fjord that was deglaciated around 8000 cal BP. The post-glacial marine limit is at the current elevation of 150 m ASL. Among the mapped surficial geology units, three contain particularly ice-rich permafrost: marine clays, till and silty colluviums. A diamond drill was used to extract 10 permafrost cores down to 23 m deep. In addition, 18 shallow cores (to 5 m deep) were extracted with a portable drill. All the frozen cores were shipped to Québec city where ground ice contents were measured and cryostructures were imaged by CT-Scanning. Water contents, grain-size and pore water salinity were measured. Refraction seismic profiles were run to measure the depth to bedrock. GPR and electrical resistivity surveys helped to map ice-rich areas. Three cone penetration tests (CPT) were run in the frozen clays to depths ranging from 8 to 21 m. Maximum clay thickness is ca. 50 m deep near the shoreline. The cone penetration tests and all the cores in clays revealed large amounts of both segregated and aggradational ice (volumetric contents up to 93% over thicknesses of one meter) to depths varying between 2.5 and 4 m, below which the ice content decreases and the salinity increases (values measured up to 42 gr/L between 4.5 and 6 m deep). Chunks of organic matter buried below the actual active layer base indicate past cryoturbations under a somewhat warmer climate, most probably associated with intense frost boil action, as widely observed today. The stony till has developed large quantities of segregation ice which can be seen in larger concentrations and as thicker lenses under boulders and in matrix rich (≥ 50% sand and silt) parts of the glacial sediment. As digging for a sewage pond was undertaken in winter 2008 by blasting, the clast-influenced cryostructure of the till could be observed in cuts and in

  10. Responses of northern forest plants to atmospheric changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, K.; Huttunen, S.; Kauppi, M.; Ohtonen, R.; Laehdesmaeki, P. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology

    1996-12-31

    This research programme has been under way since 1990 to study the long-term synergistic effects of air pollutants and changing climatic conditions on the northern forest ecosystem and to increase the knowledge of climatic change and its consequences for the fragile northern nature. Ecological, physiological, morphological and biochemical methods have been used to study the responses of forest trees, dwarf shrubs, lichens and soil biology to environmental changes. The research programme is divided into four subprojects concentrating on different ecosystem levels. The subprojects are: (1) life, growth and survival strategies of northern dwarf shrubs under the pressure of a changing environment, (2) forest trees under the impact of air pollutants, increasing CO{sub 2} and UV-B, (3) susceptibility of lichens to air pollution and climatic change and (4) impact of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} on soil biology with special reference to carbon allocation and N fixation in symbiotic systems. This report summarizes the results of short-term experiments which showed many ecological and physiological changes in almost all elements of the northern boreal forests. These species-level measurements focused on the key species of the northern boreal forest, which have been thought to be useful in large-scale ecosystem experiments and modelling. The results will also facilitate the further studies on the patterns of plant species distribution and northern ecosystem function with respect to the environmental parameters that are expected to change along with global change (e.g. temperature, airchemistry, UV-B, snow condition)

  11. Responses of northern forest plants to atmospheric changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, K; Huttunen, S; Kauppi, M; Ohtonen, R; Laehdesmaeki, P [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology

    1997-12-31

    This research programme has been under way since 1990 to study the long-term synergistic effects of air pollutants and changing climatic conditions on the northern forest ecosystem and to increase the knowledge of climatic change and its consequences for the fragile northern nature. Ecological, physiological, morphological and biochemical methods have been used to study the responses of forest trees, dwarf shrubs, lichens and soil biology to environmental changes. The research programme is divided into four subprojects concentrating on different ecosystem levels. The subprojects are: (1) life, growth and survival strategies of northern dwarf shrubs under the pressure of a changing environment, (2) forest trees under the impact of air pollutants, increasing CO{sub 2} and UV-B, (3) susceptibility of lichens to air pollution and climatic change and (4) impact of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} on soil biology with special reference to carbon allocation and N fixation in symbiotic systems. This report summarizes the results of short-term experiments which showed many ecological and physiological changes in almost all elements of the northern boreal forests. These species-level measurements focused on the key species of the northern boreal forest, which have been thought to be useful in large-scale ecosystem experiments and modelling. The results will also facilitate the further studies on the patterns of plant species distribution and northern ecosystem function with respect to the environmental parameters that are expected to change along with global change (e.g. temperature, airchemistry, UV-B, snow condition)

  12. The Hei River Basin in northwestern China - tectonics, sedimentary processes and pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudersdorf, Andreas; Nottebaum, Veit; Schimpf, Stefan; Yu, Kaifeng; Hartmann, Kai; Stauch, Georg; Wünnemann, Bernd; Reicherter, Klaus; Diekmann, Bernhard; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2014-05-01

    The Hei River Basin (catchment area of c. 130,000 km²) is situated at the transition between the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau and the southern slopes of Gobi-Tien-Shan. As part of the northwestern Chinese deserts, the Ejina Basin (Gaxun Nur Basin) constitutes the endorheic erosion base of the drainage system. The basin - hosting the second largest continental alluvial fans in the world, is tectonically strongly shaped by the Gobi belt of left-lateral transpression. The tectonic setting in combination with competing climatic driving forces (Westerlies and summer/winter monsoon currents) has supported the formation of a valuable long-time sediment archive comprises at least the last 250,000 yrs. of deposition. It is composed by the interplay of eolian, fluvial and lacustrine sedimentation cycles and today is dominated by widespread (gravel) gobi surfaces, insular dune fields and shallow evaporitic playa areas. Thus, it provides excellent conditions to investigate tectonic evolution and Quaternary environmental changes. Recently, geomorphological, geophysical, neotectonic and mineralogical studies have enhanced the understanding of the environmental history and the modern depositional environment. Moreover, the role of the Hei River Basin as an important source area of silt particles which were later deposited on the Chinese Loess Plateau is evaluated. Therefore, a 230 m long drill core, sediment sections and ca. 700 surface samples throughout the whole catchment and basin were analyzed. Instrumental and historical seismicity are very low, but the proximity to active fault zones and dating irregularities in earlier publications indicate evidence for deformation in the study area. Despite flat topography, indications of active tectonics such as fault-related large-scale lineations can be observed. Seismically deformed unconsolidated lacustrine deposits (seismites), presumably of Holocene age, are evident and must be related to the nearby faults. The upper

  13. Energy spectrum of lightning gamma emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubenko, A.P. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Karashtin, A.N. [Research Radiophysics Institute, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Ryabov, V.A., E-mail: ryabov@x4u.lebedev.r [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shepetov, A.L. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Antonova, V.P.; Kryukov, S.V. [Ionosphere Institute, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Mitko, G.G.; Naumov, A.S.; Pavljuchenko, L.V. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ptitsyn, M.O., E-mail: ptitsyn@lpi.r [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shalamova, S.Ya. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shlyugaev, Yu.V. [Research Radiophysics Institute, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Vildanova, L.I. [Tien-Shan Mountain Cosmic Ray Station, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Zybin, K.P. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gurevich, A.V., E-mail: alex@lpi.r [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-08-10

    The results of gamma emission observations obtained during thunderstorms at Tien-Shan Mountain Cosmic Ray Station are presented. The energy spectrum radiation of the stepped leader gamma radiation is measured. The total energy of stepped leader emitted in gamma rays is estimated as 10{sup -3}-10{sup -2} J. The experimental results are in an agreement with the runaway breakdown mechanism.

  14. Energy spectrum of lightning gamma emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubenko, A.P.; Karashtin, A.N.; Ryabov, V.A.; Shepetov, A.L.; Antonova, V.P.; Kryukov, S.V.; Mitko, G.G.; Naumov, A.S.; Pavljuchenko, L.V.; Ptitsyn, M.O.; Shalamova, S.Ya.; Shlyugaev, Yu.V.; Vildanova, L.I.; Zybin, K.P.; Gurevich, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    The results of gamma emission observations obtained during thunderstorms at Tien-Shan Mountain Cosmic Ray Station are presented. The energy spectrum radiation of the stepped leader gamma radiation is measured. The total energy of stepped leader emitted in gamma rays is estimated as 10 -3 -10 -2 J. The experimental results are in an agreement with the runaway breakdown mechanism.

  15. The cataclasis in the crystalline basement of Northern Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.

    1987-01-01

    In the crystalline basement of Northern Switzerland two main phases of cataclastic deformation can be distinguished: a 'cataclasis 1' in a higher temperature hydrothermal regime, as a consequence of tectonic and magmatic-hydrothermal events in Upper Carboniferous time and a lower temperature 'cataclasis 2', which can be related to Permian tectonics at the northern margin of the Paleozoic Konstanz-Frick trough. These cataclases are interpreted as a result of longlasting and complex tectonic processes at shallow crustal levels. (author) 30 refs., 4 figs

  16. Endeavor cruise 071 navigation and bathymetry, northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine, E.P.; Friedrich, N.E.; McCreery, C.; Dickson, S.; Baker, M.

    1985-01-01

    Sub-bottom seismic profiling was carried out by R/V Endeavor during the summers of 1980 and 1981. Data collection was concentrated in LLWODP study area E-N3, which encompasses the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain and the adjacent lower continental rise. Time, position, and depth were logged and marked on the seismic record at 15-minute intervals. These navigational and bathymetric data have been used to produce a time/position/depth listing, and a detailed bathymetric map of the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain and surrounding physiographic provinces. 6 figures, 1 table

  17. Late quaternary faulting and paleoseismicity in northern Fennoscandia, with particular reference to the Lansjaerv area, northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagerbaeck, R.

    1990-01-01

    Many fault scarps, interpreted as post- or late-glacial in age, occur in northern Sweden and adjacent parts of Finland and Norway. In the Lansjaerv area in northern Sweden attempts have been made to date fault displacement relative to the glacial and postglacial stratigraphy by trenching across some of these fault scarps. It is shown that the faulting occurred soon after the local deglaciation some 9000 years ago. There are no signs of movements since that time. The faulting was obviously associated with violent earthquakes because seismically induced phenomena, dating from the same period as the faulting, are frequently found in the vicinity. Numerous landslides, developed in glacial till, occur in the same region as the faults and different types of seismites (seismically-induced sediment deformation) were found when actively sought for. It is concluded that several earthquakes of high magnitudes occurred in northern Fennoscandia during the vanishing of the inland ice sheet. (author)

  18. ABCGheritage project - promoting geotourism in northern Finland, northern Norway and the Kola Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlaja, Jouni; Johansson, Peter; Lauri, Laura S.

    2014-05-01

    Nature tourism has been a growing business sector in the Barents area during the recent decades. With the purpose to develop nature tourism in a sustainable way, a cooperation project ABCGheritage - Arctic Biological, Cultural and Geological Heritage has been carried out. Project has received partial funding from the EU Kolarctic ENPI program. In the geoheritage part of the project the main activities were aimed to develop pro-environmental ways of geotourism in the area. The three main participants in the geoheritage part of the project are the Geological Survey of Finland, Northern Finland Office, the Geological Institute of the Kola Science Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Bioforsk Soil and Environment from northeastern Norway. The duration of the project is 2012-2014 and most of the work has already been completed even if most of the results are not published yet. Totally ten different tasks have been implemented in the geological part of the project. The largest task has been the preparation of a geological outdoor map and guide book of the Khibiny Tundra locating in the central part of the Kola Peninsula. In Finland already 11 such maps have been published, and the experiences gained during their production have been used in this project, too. Geological heritage trails to the Khibiny Tundra have also been created and they will be drawn on the map. The second concrete result is the Barents Tour for Geotourist -guide, which will be published as a guide book, web pages and an exhibition. The route comprises ca 35 best geological demonstration sites along the circle route from northern Finland to northeastern Norway, from there to Kola Peninsula and then back to Finland. Information of the route will be available for all interested travelers. In addition to the geological outdoor map of the Khibiny Tundra and "Barents Tour for Geotourists"-guide, the primary outputs of the project are the geological nature trails on the field, geological

  19. Agrosilvopastoral Systems in Northern Thailand and Northern Laos: Minority Peoples’ Knowledge versus Government Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalathon Choocharoen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional agrosilvopastoral systems have been an important component of the farming systems and livelihoods of thousands of ethnic minority people in the uplands of Mainland Southeast Asia. Drawing on a combination of qualitative and participatory inquiries in nine ethnic minority communities, this study emphasizes the complex articulation of local farmers’ knowledge which has been so far excluded from governmental development and conservation policies in the northern uplands of Thailand and Laos. Qualitative analysis of local knowledge systems is performed using the Agroecological Knowledge Toolkit (AKT5 software. Results show that ethnic minorities in the two countries perceive large ruminants to be a highly positive component of local forest agro-ecosystems due to their contribution to nutrient cycling, forest fire control, water retention, and leaf-litter dispersal. The knowledge and perceptions of agrosilvopastoral farmers are then contrasted with the remarkably different forestry policy frameworks of the two countries. We find that the knowledge and diversity of practices exercised by ethnic minority groups contrasts with the current simplified and negative image that government officials tend to construct of agrosilvopastoral systems. We conclude that local knowledge of forest-livestock systems can offer alternative or complementary explanations on ecological cause-and-effect relationships which may need further scientific investigation and validation.

  20. Plasma insulin pattern in a Hausa-Fulani ethnic group in northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plasma insulin pattern in a Hausa-Fulani ethnic group in northern Nigeria. ... Results: Although there were marked individual variations with 16.7% of individuals demonstrating fasting ... Key Words: Plasma Insulin, northern Nigeria Annals of ...

  1. LBA-ECO LC-01 Topographic Data for Intensive Study Areas, Northern Ecuadorian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains topographic/geomorphological data associated with the four Intensive Study Areas (ISAs) in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon (northern...

  2. LBA-ECO LC-01 Topographic Data for Intensive Study Areas, Northern Ecuadorian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains topographic/geomorphological data associated with the four Intensive Study Areas (ISAs) in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon (northern Oriente)...

  3. 76 FR 44535 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD), Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

  4. 76 FR 44493 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve revisions to the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD), Sacramento Metropolitan...

  5. Impact of maize storage on rural household food security in Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seugnet

    security in Northern Kwazulu-Natal1 ... incidence of hunger is high among rural South African .... FARMERS IN THREE STUDY DISTRICTS OF NORTHERN KWAZULU-NATAL, 1999 (N = 134) ... Three goats equaled one head of cattle. Calves ...

  6. Compression and Processing of Space Image Sequences of Northern Lights and Sprites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Martins, Bo; Jensen, Ole Riis

    1999-01-01

    Compression of image sequences of auroral activity as northern lights and thunderstorms with sprites is investigated.......Compression of image sequences of auroral activity as northern lights and thunderstorms with sprites is investigated....

  7. Landslide inventory and susceptibility modelling using geospatial tools, in Hunza-Nagar valley, northern Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bacha, Alam Sher; Shafique, Muhammad; van der Werff, H.M.A.

    2018-01-01

    A comprehensive landslide inventory and susceptibility maps are prerequisite for developing and implementing landslide mitigation strategies. Landslide susceptibility maps for the landslides prone regions in northern Pakistan are rarely available. The Hunza-Nagar valley in northern Pakistan is known

  8. Territory Boundary Polygons, Northern Marianas Islands (CNMI), 1999, US Census Bureau

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Boundaries of the northern most islands of the Northern Marianas Islands (CNMI). Siapan, Rota and Tinian are not included in these data set. TIGER, TIGER/Line, and...

  9. MAXIMUM RUNOFF OF THE FLOOD ON WADIS OF NORTHERN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lanez

    The technique of account the maximal runoff of flood for the rivers of northern part of Algeria based on the theory of ... north to south: 1) coastal Tel – fertile, high cultivated and sown zone; 2) territory of Atlas. Mountains ... In the first case the empiric dependence between maximum intensity of precipitation for some calculation ...

  10. The Current State of Reproductive Health in Rural Northern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world, and most deaths occur in the northern part of the country. Concerns about the persistence of the problem prompted some Nigerian academics to partner with their American colleagues to establish a postgraduate fellowship programme that builds the ...

  11. Field Simulation of Global Change: Transplanting Northern Bog Mesocosms Southward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeuwer, A.J.G.; Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Robroek, B.J.M.; Berendse, F.

    2010-01-01

    A large proportion of northern peatlands consists of Sphagnum-dominated ombrotrophic bogs. In these bogs, peat mosses (Sphagnum) and vascular plants occur in an apparent stable equilibrium, thereby sustaining the carbon sink function of the bog ecosystem. How global warming and increased nitrogen

  12. Islamic criminal law in northern Nigeria: politics, religion, judicial practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weimann, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    In 2000 and 2001, twelve northern states of the Federal Republic of Nigeria introduced Islamic criminal law as one of a number of measures aiming at "reintroducing the shari'a." Immediately after its adoption, defendants were sentenced to death by stoning or to amputation of the hand. Apart from a

  13. SITUATION OF THE SPANISH AMERICANS OF NORTHERN NEW MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KNOWLTON, CLARK S.

    THE SPANISH AMERICANS OF NORTHERN NEW MEXICO HAVE CONSTITUTED ONE OF THE UNRECOGNIZED DISADVANTAGED GROUPS. PER CAPITA INCOME IS LOW AND THE RATES OF UNEMPLOYMENT AND WELFARE ARE HIGH. THE CAUSES OF THE PRESENT SITUATION ARE--(1) LOSS OF LAND, (2) CULTURAL AND LINGUISTIC DISCRIMINATORY ATTITUDES, (3) NON-PROVISION OF ADEQUATE PROGRAMS TO…

  14. Language of power: Pidgin in the colonial governance of Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Notably, British colonial authorities adopted pidgin as a language of government in Northern Nigeria, as they lacked a wider medium for inter-ethnic communication. African political agents were employed as intermediaries, based on their knowledge of pidgin and other local languages, enabling them bridge communication ...

  15. Transverse lie in labor: A study from Kaduna, Northern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: During the period there were 16633 deliveries and 30 women with transversely lying fetuses, giving an incidence of 1 in 554 deliveries. Forty percent of the cases were neglected transverse lies. The para 4 and above group had the highest incidence of 2.69/1000. Northern minorities ethnic group had the highest ...

  16. Ecological studies on rain forest in Northern Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz, J.P.

    1960-01-01

    During the years 1955-1957 ecological data were collected in various types of mesophytic forest occurring in the northern half of central Suriname (fig. 1). Physiognomically as well as floristically these forests correspond with the type of vegetation which in the other parts of tropical America

  17. The link between BMI and waist circumference in northern Iranian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objectives: Waist circumference and not body mass index explains a greater variance in obesity-related health risk. The present study assesses the link between BMI and WC in Iranian adults. Methods: In a population based cross- sectional study on 3600 adults, northern Iran, we investigated the link ...

  18. Northern goshawk broadcast surveys: Hawk response variables and survey cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzanne M. Joy; Richard T. Reynolds; Douglas G. Leslie

    1994-01-01

    We examined responses of Northern Goshawks (Accipter gentilis) to taped broadcast calls of conspecifics in tree-harvest areas and around alternate goshawk nests on Kaibab National Forest, Arizona, in 1991 and 1992. Forest areas totaling 476 km2 were systematically surveyed for goshawks. Ninety responses by adult and juvenile goshawks were elicited...

  19. Nest trees of northern flying squirrels in the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc D. Meyer; Douglas A. Kelt; Malcolm P. North

    2005-01-01

    We examined the nest-tree preferences of northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) in an old-growth, mixed-conifer and red fir (Abies magnifica) forest of the southern Sierra Nevada of California. We tracked 27 individuals to 122 nest trees during 3 summers. Flying squirrels selected nest trees that were larger in diameter and...

  20. Hunting and fishing settlements in Upernavik district of Northern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Kåre; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    Inuit in the Upernavik district of Northern Greenland has in generations used the winter sea ice as the basis for the essential hunting of seals, white- and narwhales. Since the late 1980’ies hunting has been combined with increasing fishery of Greenland halibut during summer from dinghies and in...

  1. Domestic violence in Gulu, Northern Uganda | Kitara | East and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: When guns fell silent in the post conflict northern Uganda, another form of physical injuries has come in place, Domestic Violence also commonly referred to as Gender based violence. This injury from violence leading to physical trauma is one of the leading public health problems in this region. We describe ...

  2. Insecticide use and practices among cotton farmers in northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is an important cash crop in Uganda. Insecticide application practices among cotton growers in northern Uganda were examined to determine the pests targeted and the compliance of control measures with the standards recommended by the Uganda's Cotton Development Organization ...

  3. Beryllium-10 concentrations in water samples of high northern latitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strobl, C.; Eisenhauer, A.; Schulz, V.; Baumann, S.; Mangini, A. [Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Heildelberg (Germany); Kubik, P.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    {sup 10}Be concentrations in the water column of high northern latitudes were not available so far. We present different {sup 10}Be profiles from the Norwegian-Greenland Sea, the Arctic Ocean, and the Laptev Sea. (author) 3 fig., 3 refs.

  4. Guide to wildlife tree management in New England northern hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Tubbs; Richard M. DeGraaf; Mariko Yamasaki; William M. Healy

    1987-01-01

    Presents information on the culture and management of trees that have value as components of wildlife habitat in the northern hardwood and associated types in New England. Background information is provided for choosing the most suitable trees for wildlife habitats and for estimat ing the impact of timber production. Suggestions are made for choosing the numbers of...

  5. Sagebrush-ungulate relationships on the Northern Yellowstone Winter Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl L. Wambolt

    2005-01-01

    Sagebrush (Artemisia) taxa have historically been the landscape dominants over much of the Northern Yellowstone Winter Range (NYWR). Their importance to the unnaturally large ungulate populations on the NYWR throughout the twentieth century has been recognized since the 1920s. Sagebrush-herbivore ecology has been the focus of research on the NYWR for...

  6. The use of the Arabic script in northern Mozambique | Bonate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Northern Mozambican Muslim population has been using the Arabic script for writing in KiSwahili and local African languages for centuries. Even today, many people continue using this script in private correspondence. Despite the abundance of the documents in this script that are housed at the Mozambique Historical ...

  7. Genetic diversity in Cucurbita pepo landraces from northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dendrogram mainly grouped the populations according to their mature fruit colour, and then according to their geographical origin. All genetic parameters indicated that there was plentiful genetic diversity in C. pepo landraces of northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Key words: Cucurbita pepo landraces, genetic ...

  8. Radiocarbon dating of Mesolithic pottery from Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    The earliest pottery in Schleswig-Holstein, Northern Germany, was produced by the Final Mesolithic Ertebølle culture. Radiocarbon dating of food crusts on Ertebølle pottery indicated that ceramics from inland sites were substantially older than those from the coast. Therefore, a freshwater...

  9. It's Not an Exact Science: Teaching Entrepreneurship in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, Cecilia

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the approach to embedding entrepreneurship within third level education in Northern Ireland by assessing the perceptions of lecturers and learners and monitoring the effectiveness of teaching methods. Design/methodology/approach: Surveys and focus groups were conducted with lecturers and learners…

  10. NEW RECORD OF DOLICHOPODA FROM NORTHERN IRAN (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Di Russo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The record of a new sample of Dolichopoda from Northern Iran is reported. The morphological study of this material allowed the authors to attribute the studied specimens to D. Hyrcana Bey-Bienko, 1969, whose geographic distribution now extends eastwards to the Alborz Mountains in North Iran.

  11. Northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.): an annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip V. Hofmeyer; Laura S. Kenefic; Robert S. Seymour

    2007-01-01

    Northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.) is arguably one of the least studied commercial tree species in United States and Canada. It is an important source of wildlife habitat and forage, as well as commodities such as fence posts, shingles and siding. Much of the research on this species comes from the Lake States and Canada; few studies have...

  12. At Northern Illinois U., Leaders Grapple with a Tragedy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Libby

    2008-01-01

    At even the best-prepared universities, there is no playbook for handling the crush of tough decisions that comes after a mass shooting rocks an otherwise quiet campus. While colleges and universities have always had tragedies, recent occurences like the shootings at Northern Illinois University and Virginia Tech have fundamentally changed the way…

  13. Heating and dehumidification in production greenhouses at northern latitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempkes, F.; Zwart, De H.F.; Munoz, P.; Montero, J.I.; Baptista, F.J.; Giuffrida, F.; Gilli, Celine; Stepowska, Agnieszka; Stanghellini, C.

    2017-01-01

    The majority of greenhouses in northern latitudes are heated, in the winter mainly for temperature control and year round to control humidity. Heating is accepted by most organic regulations in different countries; if heating efficiently and the energy source is predominantly renewable energy,

  14. Chlorine activation and ozone destruction in the northern lowermost stratosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelieveld, J; Bregman, A; Scheeren, HA; Strom, J; Carslaw, KS; Fischer, H; Siegmund, PC; Arnold, F

    1999-01-01

    We report aircraft measurements from the Stratosphere-Troposphere Experiments by Aircraft Measurements (STREAM) II campaign, performed during February 1995 from Kiruna, northern Sweden, near 67 degrees N latitude. We have measured trace species, e.g., O-3, nitrogen compounds, HCl, hydrocarbons, CO,

  15. Gender and age disparities in adult undernutrition in northern Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Stine; Kaducu, Felix Ocaka; Aas Smedemark, Siri

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of adult malnutrition and associated risk factors in a post-conflict area of northern Uganda. METHODS: A cross-sectional community survey was performed from September 2011 to June 2013. All registered residents in Gulu Health and Demographic Surveillance...

  16. Tectonic Geomorphology of the northern Upper Rhine Graben, Germany.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, G; van Balen, R.T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the northern Upper Rhine Graben (URG), which experienced low tectonic deformation and multiple climate changes during Quaternary times. Recently, human modifications have been high. The paper presents the results of a study into the effects of fault activity on the landscape

  17. Internal Migration Determinants: Evidence from Northern Region of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-01

    May 1, 2016 ... University for Development Studies, Department of Mathematics, Navrongo, UER ... Keywords: Internal Migration, Determinants, Migrant, Northern Region, Network. Introduction ... origin's income on rural-urban migration (Beals et al., 1976), but a positive effect of a ..... 3 In the case of economic migrants.

  18. Identifying water mass depletion in northern Iraq observed by GRACE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, G.; Olsthoorn, T.N.; Al-manmi, D.A.M.A.; Schrama, E.J.O.; Smidt, E.H.

    2015-01-01

    Observations acquired by Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission indicate a mass loss of 146 ± 6 mm equivalent water height (EWH) in northern Iraq between 2007 and 2009. These data are used as an independent validation of lake mass variations and a rainfall-runoff model, which is

  19. Deprivation, HIV and AIDS in Northern Uganda | Atekyereza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significantly, with resettlement after the war, most people are still deprived of basic source of livelihood, which still continues as a factor in the spread of HIV infection. Key Words: HIV & AIDS, Deprivation, Susceptibility, Vulnerability, Deaths, IDP camps, Northern Uganda, Paimol, Pader. Résumé. Cette étude se concentre ...

  20. In vitro propagation of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Vengadesan; Paula M. Pijut

    2009-01-01

    In vitro propagation of northern red oak (Quercus rubra) shoots was successful from cotyledonary node explants excised from 8-wk-old in vitro grown seedlings. Initially, four shoots per explant were obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 4.4 µM 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), 0.45 ...

  1. Progress towards a lightning ignition model for the Northern Rockies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Sopko; Don Latham

    2010-01-01

    We are in the process of constructing a lightning ignition model specific to the Northern Rockies using fire occurrence, lightning strike, ecoregion, and historical weather, NFDRS (National Fire Danger Rating System), lightning efficiency and lightning "possibility" data. Daily grids for each of these categories were reconstructed for the 2003 fire season (...

  2. Moral Reasoning among Nigerian Northern Irish Children: A Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The moral reasoning of 10-11 year old Nigerian children (n=37) was compared to children of the same age (n=48) from Northern Ireland. The research employed the Socio moral Reflection Measure-Short Form (SRM-SF; Gibbs, Basinger & Fuller, 1992) and assessed the measure's usefulness for cross-cultural research.

  3. Adolescent Street Boy Urchins and Vocational Training in Northern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Lantana M.

    2009-01-01

    In northern Nigeria, over 80% of the unskilled and uneducated adolescent street boys, or "Almajiris", are from the ethnic Hausa-Fulani tribes. They depend on street begging and menial jobs for daily survival. In dealing with the situation, state vocational centers were established as the Millennium Hope Project (MHP) to provide the boys…

  4. Indications of neotectonic crust motion in Northern Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haldimann, P.

    1987-01-01

    Indications of possible Pleistocene and Holocene tectonic activity in northern Switzerland have been found by an analysis of irregular erosional forms in the subcrop, abnormal gradients of accumulative gravel terraces and particular developments of the river course. (author) 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  5. The print media and conflict resolution in Northern Uganda | Acayo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reviews the role of the print media in conflict resolution. Using Northern Uganda as a case study, the article seeks to demonstrate that the press can effectively be used either to fuel conflict in a region or to reduce conflict in a region. The article seeks to demonstrate the role played by the print media in conflict and ...

  6. Quantification of micropollutants in some water sources in northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    their waste assimilative capacity is a threat to both ecology of the ecosystems and health of the ... pesticide residues in river water and sediments from northern Tanzania. .... Pangani River Basin Water Board (PBWB). ..... release of Ni in the environment are forest fires and .... Atlantic Ocean: natural and human influences.

  7. Surgical reconstruction of Northern Uganda war victims. | Kalanzi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Aid groups estimate that since 1086 when the war conflicts in Northern Uganda started, over 30,000 people have died in the insurgency and over 20,000 people have remained maimed. Arising from the conflict, innocent civilians have had their limbs, lips, eyes, ears, noses, breasts, fingers and toes cut off.

  8. Ethical challenge of desertification in Northern Nigeria | Ikeke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If desertification is not stopped it impedes development and sustainability. This paper uses a critical analytic method, to examine the ethical challenges that desertification poses. It makes a conceptual analysis of the main concepts such as ethics, desertification and Northern Nigeria. It looks at how desertification is an ethical ...

  9. Haematology outreach clinics in the Free State and Northern Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patients' domicile, how they were referred, types of diagnoses and ... The intention was to offer a more accessible and affordable service to more patients in the Free State and Northern Cape, in accordance with provincial policy.' The Departments of ... The cost would have been higher if consultants had had to stay over.

  10. Survival of northern red oak acorns after fall burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.R. Auchmoody; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1993-01-01

    Survival of recently fallen northern red oak acorns after exposure to a cool fall burn was evaluated in northwestern Pennsylvania. Although no acorns were consumed by the fire, some were charred. Between 40 and 49 percent of the acorns in the litter were destroyed. The fire was not hot enough to kill Curculio larvae within the acorns. Burned acorns infested with...

  11. An ecological and phytogeographic study of northern Surinam savannas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donselaar, van J.

    1965-01-01

    Geology and soils in general Surinam is situated at the northern edge of the very old and stable Guiana shield. Six-sevenths of the country’s surface are occupied by formations belonging to the shield and designated together as the basal complex. However, the Roraima formation does not belong to the

  12. Opinion: Autopsy practice in northern Nigeria | Malami | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Surgical Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 3 (2002) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Opinion: Autopsy practice in northern Nigeria.

  13. Effects of extreme global warming in Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drews, Martin; Christensen, Jens Hesselbjerg

    2015-01-01

    In this Climate Research (CR) Special, the Centre for Regional Change in the Earth System (CRES) brings together scientific expertise (ranging from climate to social sciences) with practitioners and stakeholders to present thematic research addressing gaps in (1) our understanding of climate-syst...... in this CR Special highlight potential effects of extreme global warming with a focus on Denmark and northern Europe....

  14. Genetic analysis of 55 northern Vietnamese patients with Wilson ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We used Sanger sequencing to identify mutation hot spots in 55 northern Vietnamese with a clinical diagnosis of WD. Mutations were screened and detected by direct DNA sequencing. A total of 26 different ATP7B gene mutations were identified, including seven novel mutations (five nonsense and two missense mutations).

  15. The carbon budget of the northern cryosphere region

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. David McGuire; Robie W. Macdonald; Edward A.G. Schuur; Jennifer W. Harden; Peter Kuhry; Daniel J. Hayes; Torben R. Christensen; Martin Heimann

    2010-01-01

    The northem cryosphere is undergoing substantial warming of permafrost and loss of sea ice. Release of stored carbon to the atmosphere in response to this change has the potential to affect the global climate system. Studies indicate that the northern cryosphere has been not only a substantial sink for atmospheric CO2 in recent decades, but also...

  16. Terrestrial ecological responses of climate change in the Northern hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forchhammer, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    Focusing on the single most important atmospheric phenomenon in the Northern hemisphere, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the author reviews the recent studies coupling the NAO with the ecology of a wide range of terrestrial organisms. In particular, the author focuses on low variations in the NAO affect phenotypic variation in life history Traits and, ultimately, dynamics of populations and of interacting species. (LN)

  17. Vernacular Architecture of Northern Nigeria in the Light of Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danja, Isa Ibrahim; Li, Xue; Dalibi, S. G.

    2017-05-01

    Nigeria, a country located in the Western part of Africa has been the site of numerous kingdoms and tribal states over the millennia and is divided in to Northern and Southern parts with the Hausa-Fulani’s, a diverse but culturally homogeneous people living in the northern part of Nigeria. The vernacular architecture of the Northern Nigeria (VANN) is perhaps one of the least known but most beautiful of the medieval age, over the centuries a tradition of fine architecture has flourished in the area, the variety and quality of buildings are bound to generate much delight and enthusiasm in anyone who is interested in buildings. Many of their early buildings such as mosques and palaces are bright and colorful. This architectural style is known as Tubali which means the traditional architecture in the Hausa language and globally known as Vernacular Architecture (VA). VANN has many unique features which distinguish it from any other architecture. All buildings, be it modern or old has an impact on the environment; hence the need for sustainable measures and practices regarding such buildings. The aim of this research paper is to examine the features of VANN in the light of sustainability. Reviewed literatures were used to identify the various features of the Vernacular Architecture in the Northern Nigeria which were critically examined in the light of sustainability and its concept. The result showcased the various features of VANN in the light of sustainability and also discussed the factors hindering the sustainable endeavors of VANN with respect to such features.

  18. Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in northern region of Senegal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an emerging worldwide epidemic but few data are available in African populations. We aimed to assess prevalence of CKD in adult populations of Saint-Louis (northern Senegal). Methods: In a population-based survey between January and May 2012, we included 1,037 adults ...

  19. Millipede damage to germinating acorns of northern red oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimmy R. Galford; L. R. Auchmoody; Russell S. Walters; H. Clay. Smith; H. Clay. Smith

    1992-01-01

    Millipedes have not been reported as pests of germinating acorns. Studies in Pennsylvania on the impact of insects on northern red (Quercus rubra L. seedling establishment revealed that the millipede Ptyoiulus impressus (Say) damaged the radicles of germinating acorns. Up to 17 percent of the acorn radicles in areas with heavy acorn crops were damaged in 1'991....

  20. A survey of cardinalfish (Apogonidae) of Antsiranana Bay, northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cardinalfish of Antsiranana Bay, northern Madagascar, were surveyed over an 11 month period by underwater census employing a simple search pattern using self-contained underwater breathing apparatus. Over this period 15 species were observed including one species not previously recorded in Madagascar, ...