WorldWideScience

Sample records for northern prairie region

  1. Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2009-01-01

    The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) conducts integrated research to fulfill the Department of the Interior's responsibilities to the Nation's natural resources. Located on 600 acres along the James River Valley near Jamestown, North Dakota, the NPWRC develops and disseminates scientific information needed to understand, conserve, and wisely manage the Nation's biological resources. Research emphasis is primarily on midcontinental plant and animal species and ecosystems of the United States. During the center's 40-year history, its scientists have earned an international reputation for leadership and expertise on the biology of waterfowl and grassland birds, wetland ecology and classification, mammalian behavior and ecology, grassland ecosystems, and application of statistics and geographic information systems. To address current science challenges, NPWRC scientists collaborate with researchers from other U.S. Geological Survey centers and disciplines (Biology, Geography, Geology, and Water) and with biologists and managers in the Department of the Interior (DOI), other Federal agencies, State agencies, universities, and nongovernmental organizations. Expanding upon its scientific expertise and leadership, the NPWRC is moving in new directions, including invasive plant species, restoration of native habitats, carbon sequestration and marketing, and ungulate management on DOI lands.

  2. Land use and climate affect Black Tern, Northern Harrier, and Marsh Wren abundance in the Prairie Pothole Region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcey, Greg M.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Linz, George M.; McKann, Patrick C.

    2014-01-01

    Bird populations are influenced by many environmental factors at both large and small scales. Our study evaluated the influences of regional climate and land-use variables on the Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus), Black Tern (Childonias niger), and Marsh Wren (Cistothorus palustris) in the prairie potholes of the upper Midwest of the United States. These species were chosen because their diverse habitat preference represent the spectrum of habitat conditions present in the Prairie Potholes, ranging from open prairies to dense cattail marshes. We evaluated land-use covariates at three logarithmic spatial scales (1,000 ha, 10,000 ha, and 100,000 ha) and constructed models a priori using information from published habitat associations and climatic influences. The strongest influences on the abundance of each of the three species were the percentage of wetland area across all three spatial scales and precipitation in the year preceding that when bird surveys were conducted. Even among scales ranging over three orders of magnitude the influence of spatial scale was small, as models with the same variables expressed at different scales were often in the best model subset. Examination of the effects of large-scale environmental variables on wetland birds elucidated relationships overlooked in many smaller-scale studies, such as the influences of climate and habitat variables at landscape scales. Given the spatial variation in the abundance of our focal species within the prairie potholes, our model predictions are especially useful for targeting locations, such as northeastern South Dakota and central North Dakota, where management and conservation efforts would be optimally beneficial. This modeling approach can also be applied to other species and geographic areas to focus landscape conservation efforts and subsequent small-scale studies, especially in constrained economic climates.

  3. Tornado Mitigation in the Canadian Prairie Region

    OpenAIRE

    Durage, Samanthi, Prof.

    2014-01-01

    Tornadoes are a destructive form of the extreme weather associated with thunderstorms. Canada gets more tornadoes than any other country with the exception of the US. This paper presents some results of a study on tornado mitigation in the Canadian Prairie region. Initially, a regression-based analysis of the Prairie tornado database was conducted, and the trend for the number of tornadoes reported in each year is discussed in this paper. The detection, warning, communication, and evacuation ...

  4. Effects of climate on numbers of northern prairie wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Diane L.

    1995-01-01

    The amount of water held in individual wetland basins depends not only on local climate patterns but also on groundwater flow regime, soil permeability, and basin size. Most wetland basins in the northern prairies hold water in some years and are dry in others. To assess the potential effect of climate change on the number of wetland basins holding water in a given year, one must first determine how much of the variability in number of wet basins is accounted for by climatic variables. I used multiple linear regression to examine the relationship between climate variables and percentage of wet basins throughout the Prairie Pothole Region of Canada and the United States. The region was divided into three areas: parkland, Canadian grassland, and United States grassland (i.e., North Dakota and South Dakota). The models - which included variables for spring and fall temperature, yearly precipitation, the previous year's count of wet basins, and for grassland areas, the previous fall precipitation - accounted for 63 to 65% of the variation in the number of wet basins. I then explored the sensitivities of the models to changes in temperature and precipitation, as might be associated with increased greenhouse gas concentrations. Parkland wetlands are shown to be much more vulnerable to increased temperatures than are wetlands in either Canadian or United States grasslands. Sensitivity to increased precipitation did not vary geographically. These results have implications for waterfowl and other wildlife populations that depend on availability of wetlands in the parklands for breeding or during periods of drought in the southern grasslands.

  5. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing Wetland Functions of Prairie Potholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    Soybeans 0 Glycyrrhiza lepidota AmericanLicorice 2 Graminae Grass UK Gratiola neglecta Hedge Hyssop 0 Grindelia sp. Gumweed 1...dominant (northern) and areas where row crops (corn, soybeans ) are grown (southern). The southern PPR is in Land Resource Region M and the northern...Calamagrostis stricta Slimstem Reedgrass 5 Calamovilfa longifolia Prairie Sandreed 5 Calystegia sepium Hedge Bindweed 0 Capsella bursa-pastoris

  6. Understanding the prairie-forest transitional zone in northern Minnesota through variations in soil chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmerchak, C. S.; Mason, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Boundaries between soil types are not discrete, but instead there are transitional zones that exhibit characteristics of soil types that they border. The prairie-forest transitional zone is seen throughout North America and Eurasia. Prairie soils (Mollisols) and deciduous forest soils (Alfisols) demonstrate interesting contrasts in morphology. Understanding variations in chemical properties is key to understanding nutrient cycling and retention, ecosystem development, and furthering the field of soil geography. Research sites are located in northern Minnesota's eastern forest, western prairie, and the transitional forested zone between. Evidence of clay translocation is a key indicator of Alfisol development. The double layer theory suggests chemical factors allowing clays to be dispersed/flocculated are ionic strength of the solution, relative abundance of Na+ and di- or trivalent cations, and pH (Sposito, 1984; van Olphen, 1977). In initial stages of soil formation exchangeable bases (Na+, K+, Ca++, and Mg++) occupy 100% of clay exchange sites, but as soil develops are these replaced by acidity ions (H+ and Al3+) and base saturation decreases. The relationship between exchangeable cations and clay dispersion is understood in lower horizons where Ca++ and Mg++ are abundant, and clay is flocculated, but this is not well understood in upper horizons. However it is suggested that clay dispersion can occur in upper horizons of pH values between 7 and 5 (van Breeman and Buurman, 2002). CEC values are expected to be much higher in soils where clay is flocculated and base ion concentration is high. Preliminary analyses supports that differences in these chemical factors are key indicators of varying rates of soil development, and explain geographic distribution of soils in this region. Through further lab work and data analysis, the relative importance of these chemical properties will come to light and the drivers prairie-forest soil transition will be better understood.

  7. NORTHERN REGION OF GHANA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-12-02

    Dec 2, 2004 ... It is recommended that deforestation and bush burning that will reduce vegetation cover and enhance evaporation from the soils should be checked through education of the citizens. Northern Region has vast areas of arable land which prospective farmers take advantage off. Such people cultivate the land ...

  8. Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center—Celebrating 50 years of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Jane E.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Igl, Lawrence D.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Krapu, Gary L.; Larson, Diane L.; Mech, L. David; Mushet, David M.; Sovada, Marsha A.

    2017-10-30

    The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) celebrated its 50-year anniversary in 2015. This report is written in support of that observance. We document why and how the NPWRC came to be and describe some of its many accomplishments and the influence the Center’s research program has had on natural resource management. The history is organized by major research themes, proceeds somewhat chronologically within each theme, and covers the Center’s first 50 years of research. During that period, Center scientists authored more than 1,700 publications and reports. More than 1,000 seasonal or temporary field personnel, and more than 100 graduate students, contributed to the Center’s success; many went on to have exemplary careers in natural resource management, conservation, and education. The mission of the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center today remains true to the original vision: to provide the knowledge needed to understand, conserve, and manage the Nation’s natural resources for current and future generations, with an emphasis on species and ecosystems of the northern Great Plains. The Center’s first 50 years of applied biological research provides a deep scientific foundation on which to address emerging issues for the natural resources in the northern Great Plains and beyond.

  9. Using stable isotopes to understand hydrochemical processes in and around a Prairie Pothole wetland in the Northern Great Plains, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Christopher T.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Stricker, Craig A.; Holloway, JoAnn M.; Morrison, Jean M.; Ellefsen, Karl J.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Thurston, Roland S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A stable isotope study of the hydrochemistry of a Prairie Pothole wetland system. → δ 18 O H2O and δ 2 H H2O values show salt concentration by transpiration at wetland edge. → A range of δ 34 S SO4 values indicate SO 4 source and reduction processes. → Isotopic mixing lines show interaction of surface and groundwater at wetland edge. - Abstract: Millions of internally drained wetland systems in the Prairie Potholes region of the northern Great Plains (USA and Canada) provide indispensable habitat for waterfowl and a host of other ecosystem services. The hydrochemistry of these systems is complex and a crucial control on wetland function, flora and fauna. Wetland waters can have high concentrations of SO 4 2- due to the oxidation of large amounts of pyrite in glacial till that is in part derived from the Pierre shale. Water chemistry including δ 18 O H2O , δ 2 H H2O , and δ 34 S SO4 values, was determined for groundwater, soil pore water, and wetland surface water in and around a discharge wetland in North Dakota. The isotopic data for the first time trace the interaction of processes that affect wetland chemistry, including open water evaporation, plant transpiration, and microbial SO 4 reduction.

  10. Using stable isotopes to understand hydrochemical processes in and around a Prairie Pothole wetland in the Northern Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Christopher T.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Stricker, Craig A.; Holloway, JoAnn M.; Morrison, Jean M.; Ellefsen, Karl J.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Thurston, Roland S.

    2011-01-01

    Millions of internally drained wetland systems in the Prairie Potholes region of the northern Great Plains (USA and Canada) provide indispensable habitat for waterfowl and a host of other ecosystem services. The hydrochemistry of these systems is complex and a crucial control on wetland function, flora and fauna. Wetland waters can have high concentrations of SO2-4 due to the oxidation of large amounts of pyrite in glacial till that is in part derived from the Pierre shale. Water chemistry including δ18OH2O, δ2HH2O, and δ34SSO4 values, was determined for groundwater, soil pore water, and wetland surface water in and around a discharge wetland in North Dakota. The isotopic data for the first time trace the interaction of processes that affect wetland chemistry, including open water evaporation, plant transpiration, and microbial SO4 reduction.

  11. Model estimation of land-use effects on water levels of northern Prairie wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voldseth, R.A.; Johnson, W.C.; Gilmanov, T.; Guntenspergen, G.R.; Millett, B.V.

    2007-01-01

    Wetlands of the Prairie Pothole Region exist in a matrix of grassland dominated by intensive pastoral and cultivation agriculture. Recent conservation management has emphasized the conversion of cultivated farmland and degraded pastures to intact grassland to improve upland nesting habitat. The consequences of changes in land-use cover that alter watershed processes have not been evaluated relative to their effect on the water budgets and vegetation dynamics of associated wetlands. We simulated the effect of upland agricultural practices on the water budget and vegetation of a semipermanent prairie wetland by modifying a previously published mathematical model (WETSIM). Watershed cover/land-use practices were categorized as unmanaged grassland (native grass, smooth brome), managed grassland (moderately heavily grazed, prescribed burned), cultivated crops (row crop, small grain), and alfalfa hayland. Model simulations showed that differing rates of evapotranspiration and runoff associated with different upland plant-cover categories in the surrounding catchment produced differences in wetland water budgets and linked ecological dynamics. Wetland water levels were highest and vegetation the most dynamic under the managed-grassland simulations, while water levels were the lowest and vegetation the least dynamic under the unmanaged-grassland simulations. The modeling results suggest that unmanaged grassland, often planted for waterfowl nesting, may produce the least favorable wetland conditions for birds, especially in drier regions of the Prairie Pothole Region. These results stand as hypotheses that urgently need to be verified with empirical data.

  12. Effects of weather and plague-induced die-offs of prairie dogs on the fleas of northern grasshopper mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkeld, Daniel J; Stapp, Paul

    2009-05-01

    Plague, the disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, can have devastating impacts on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus Ord). Other mammal hosts living on prairie dog colonies may be important in the transmission and maintenance of plague. We examined the flea populations of northern grasshopper mice (Onychomys leucogaster Wied) before, during, and after plague epizootics in northern Colorado and studied the influence of host and environmental factors on flea abundance patterns. Grasshopper mice were frequently infested with high numbers of fleas, most commonly Pleochaetis exilis Jordan and Thrassis fotus Jordan. Flea loads changed in response to both environmental temperature and rainfall. After plague-induced prairie dog die-offs, flea loads and likelihood of infestation were unchanged for P. exilis, but T. fotus loads declined.

  13. Diffuse geographic distribution of herbicides in northern prairie wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, D B; Gurprasad, N P; Quinnett-Abbott, L; Cash, K

    2001-02-01

    The concentrations of herbicides in water from wetlands on landscapes where herbicides are not used should be less than on farms with moderate (conventional farms) and intense (minimum-till farms) herbicide use. In general, this hypothesis was not supported for wetlands situated in the Boreal Plains Ecozone of central Saskatchewan, Canada. The overall detection frequency of 10 commonly used herbicides was not significantly different among wildlife habitat with no pesticide use (44.4%), farms with no pesticide use (51.6%), conventional farms (54.9%), and minimum-till farms (56.5%, chi 2 = 5.64, p = 0.13). The herbicides (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy) acetic acid (MCPA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), bromoxynil, dicamba, mecoprop, and diclorprop accounted for 87% of all detections. In general, detection frequencies and concentrations of individual herbicides were similar on all land-use types. For example, the mean concentration of 2,4-D in water on the four land types ranged from 0.12 +/- 0.104 to 0.26 +/- 0.465 microgram/L, and MCPA ranged from 0.08 +/- 0.078 to 0.19 +/- 0.166 microgram/L. However, in the year of application, mean concentrations of MCPA and bromoxynil, but not 2,4-D, were significantly higher by about twofold in wetlands situated in fields where these herbicides were applied compared with all other wetlands. We propose that many agricultural pesticides are rapidly lost to the atmosphere at the time of application by processes such as volatilization from soil and plant evapotranspiration. Then, the herbicides used throughout the region may be directly absorbed to the surface of wetlands from the atmosphere, or they become entrained in local convective clouds, and are redistributed by rainfall in a relatively homogenous mixture over the agricultural landscape. The low levels of individual herbicides we found in most of the wetland waters would not cause chronic effects to aquatic biota.

  14. An emerging crisis across northern prairie refuges: Prevalence of invasive plants and a plan for adaptive management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, T.A.; Flanders-Wanner, B.; Shaffer, T.L.; Murphy, R.K.; Knutsen, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    In the northern Great Plains, native prairies managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) can be pivotal in conservation of North America's biological diversity. From 2002 to 2006, we surveyed 7,338 belt transects to assess the general composition of mixed-grass and tallgrass prairie vegetation across five "complexes" (i.e., administrative groupings) of national wildlife refuges managed by the Service in North Dakota and South Dakota. Native grasses and forbs were common (mean frequency of occurrence 47%-54%) on two complexes but uncommon (4%-13%) on two others. Conversely, an introduced species of grass, smooth brome (Bromus inermis), accounted for 45% to 49% of vegetation on two complexes and another species, Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) accounted for 27% to 36% of the vegetation on three of the complexes. Our data confirm prior suspicions of widespread invasion by introduced species of plants on Service-owned tracts of native prairie, changes that likely stem in part from a common management history of little or no disturbance (e.g., defoliation by grazing or fire). However, variability in the degree and type of invasion among prairie tracts suggests that knowledge of underlying causes (e.g., edaphic or climatic factors, management histories) could help managers more effectively restore prairies. We describe an adaptive management approach to acquire such knowledge while progressing with restoration. More specifically, we propose to use data from inventories of plant communities on Service-owned prairies to design and implement, as experiments, optimal restoration strategies. We will then monitor these experiments and use the results to refine future strategies. This comprehensive, process-oriented approach should yield reliable and robust recommendations for restoration and maintenance of native prairies in the northern Great Plains. 2009 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System.

  15. 75 FR 44292 - Northern States Power Company; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... and DPR-60] Northern States Power Company; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2... assessment, and behavioral observation) of the unescorted access authorization program when making the... under consideration to determine whether it met the criteria established in NRC Management Directive (MD...

  16. Cover Image Identification of Plant Species for Crop Pollinator Habitat Enhancement in the Northern Prairies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bizecki Robson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Wild pollinators have a positive impact on the productivity of insect-pollinated crops. Consequently, landowners are being encouraged to maintain and grow wildflower patches to provide habitat for important pollinators. Research on plant-pollinator interaction matrices indicates that a small number of “core” plants provide a disproportionately high amount of pollen and nectar to insects. This matrix data can be used to help design wildflower plantings that provide optimal resources for desirable pollinators. Existing interaction matrices from three tall grass prairie preserves in the northern prairies were used to identify core plant species that are visited by wild pollinators of a common insect-pollinated crop, namely canola (Brassica napus L.. The wildflower preferences of each insect taxon were determined using quantitative insect visitation and floral abundance data. Phenology data were used to calculate the degree of floral synchrony between the wildflowers and canola. Using this information I ranked the 41 wildflowers that share insect visitors with canola according to how useful they are for providing pollinators with forage before and after canola flowers. The top five species were smooth blue aster (Symphyotrichum laeve (L. A. & D. Löve, stiff goldenrod (Solidago rigida L., wild bergamot (Monarda fistulosa L., purple prairie-clover (Dalea purpurea Vent. and Lindley’s aster (Symphyotrichum ciliolatum (Lindl. A. & D. Löve. By identifying the most important wild insects for crop pollination, and determining when there will be “pollen and nectar gaps”, appropriate plant species can be selected for companion plantings to increase pollinator populations and crop production.

  17. Interannual variability in the extent of wetland-stream connectivity within the Prairie Pothole Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanie Vanderhoof; Laurie Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The degree of hydrological connectivity between wetland systems and downstream receiving waters can be expected to influence the volume and variability of stream discharge. The Prairie Pothole Region contains a high density of depressional wetland features, a consequence of glacial retreat. Spatial variability in wetland density, drainage evolution, and precipitation...

  18. An experimental analysis of grasshopper community responses to fire and livestock grazing in a northern mixed-grass prairie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, David H; Sword, Gregory A

    2010-10-01

    The outcomes of grasshopper responses to both vertebrate grazing and fire vary across grassland ecosystems, and are strongly influenced by local climactic factors. Thus, the possible application of grazing and fire as components of an ecologically based grasshopper management strategy must be investigated in regional studies. In this study, we examined the effects of grazing and fire on grasshopper population density and community composition in a northern Great Plains mixed-grass prairie. We employed a large-scale, replicated, and fully-factorial manipulative experimental design across 4 yr to examine the separate and interactive effects of three grazing systems in burned and unburned habitats. Grasshopper densities were low throughout the 4-yr study and 1 yr of pretreatment sampling. There was a significant fire by grazing interaction effect on cumulative density and community composition, resulting from burned season long grazing pastures having higher densities than unburned pastures. Shannon diversity and grasshopper species richness were significantly higher with twice-over rotational livestock grazing. The ability to draw strong conclusions regarding the nature of species composition shifts and population changes in the presence of fire and grazing is complicated by the large site differences and low grasshopper densities. The results reinforce the importance of long-term research to examine the effects of habitat manipulation on grasshopper population dynamics.

  19. Native Prairie Adaptive Management: a multi region adaptive approach to invasive plant management on Fish and Wildlife Service owned native prairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Jill J.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Moore, Clinton T.

    2013-01-01

    Much of the native prairie managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of the northern Great Plains is extensively invaded by the introduced cool-season grasses, smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis). Management to suppress these invasive plants has had poor to inconsistent success. The central challenge to managers is selecting appropriate management actions in the face of biological and environmental uncertainties. In partnership with the FWS, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed an adaptive decision support framework to assist managers in selecting management actions under uncertainty and maximizing learning from management outcomes. This joint partnership is known as the Native Prairie Adaptive Management (NPAM) initiative. The NPAM decision framework is built around practical constraints faced by FWS refuge managers and includes identification of the management objective and strategies, analysis of uncertainty and construction of competing decision models, monitoring, and mechanisms for model feedback and decision selection. Nineteen FWS field stations, spanning four states of the PPR, have participated in the initiative. These FWS cooperators share a common management objective, available management strategies, and biological uncertainties. Though the scope is broad, the initiative interfaces with individual land managers who provide site-specific information and receive updated decision guidance that incorporates understanding gained from the collective experience of all cooperators. We describe the technical components of this approach, how the components integrate and inform each other, how data feedback from individual cooperators serves to reduce uncertainty across the whole region, and how a successful adaptive management project is coordinated and maintained on a large scale. During an initial scoping workshop, FWS cooperators developed a consensus management objective

  20. Preserving prairies: Understanding temporal and spatial patterns of invasive annual bromes in the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Isabel; Symstad, Amy J.; Davis, Christopher; Swanson, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Two Eurasian invasive annual brome grasses, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and Japanese brome (Bromus japonicus), are well known for their impact in steppe ecosystems of the western United States where these grasses have altered fire regimes, reduced native plant diversity and abundance, and degraded wildlife habitat. Annual bromes are also abundant in the grasslands of the Northern Great Plains (NGP), but their impact and ecology are not as well studied. It is unclear whether the lessons learned from the steppe will translate to the mixed-grass prairie where native plant species are adapted to frequent fires and grazing. Developing a successful annual brome management strategy for National Park Service units and other NGP grasslands requires better understanding of (1) the impact of annual bromes on grassland condition; (2) the dynamics of these species through space and time; and (3) the relative importance of environmental factors within and outside managers' control for these spatiotemporal dynamics. Here, we use vegetation monitoring data collected from 1998 to 2015 in 295 sites to relate spatiotemporal variability of annual brome grasses to grassland composition, weather, physical environmental characteristics, and ecological processes (grazing and fire). Concern about the impact of these species in NGP grasslands is warranted, as we found a decline in native species richness with increasing annual brome cover. Annual brome cover generally increased over the time of monitoring but also displayed a 3- to 5-yr cycle of reduction and resurgence. Relative cover of annual bromes in the monitored areas was best predicted by park unit, weather, extant plant community, slope grade, soil composition, and fire history. We found no evidence that grazing reduced annual brome cover, but this may be due to the relatively low grazing pressure in our study. By understanding the consequences and patterns of annual brome invasion, we will be better able to preserve and restore

  1. Long-term spatial heterogeneity in mallard distribution in the Prairie pothole region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Adam K.; Anteau, Michael J.; Stafford, Joshua D.

    2017-01-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of north-central United States and south-central Canada supports greater than half of all breeding mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) annually counted in North America and is the focus of widespread conservation and research efforts. Allocation of conservation resources for this socioeconomically important population would benefit from an understanding of the nature of spatiotemporal variation in distribution of breeding mallards throughout the 850,000 km2 landscape. We used mallard counts from the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey to test for spatial heterogeneity and identify high- and low-abundance regions of breeding mallards over a 50-year time series. We found strong annual spatial heterogeneity in all years: 90% of mallards counted annually were on an average of only 15% of surveyed segments. Using a local indicator of spatial autocorrelation, we found a relatively static distribution of low-count clusters in northern Montana, USA, and southern Alberta, Canada, and a dynamic distribution of high-count clusters throughout the study period. Distribution of high-count clusters shifted southeast from northwestern portions of the PPR in Alberta and western Saskatchewan, Canada, to North and South Dakota, USA, during the latter half of the study period. This spatial redistribution of core mallard breeding populations was likely driven by interactions between environmental variation that created favorable hydrological conditions for wetlands in the eastern PPR and dynamic land-use patterns related to upland cropping practices and government land-retirement programs. Our results highlight an opportunity for prioritizing relatively small regions within the PPR for allocation of wetland and grassland conservation for mallard populations. However, the extensive spatial heterogeneity in core distributions over our study period suggests such spatial prioritization will have to overcome challenges presented by dynamic land

  2. Persistence of black-tailed prairie-dog populations affected by plague in northern Colorado, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Dylan B; Webb, Colleen T; Pepin, Kim M; Savage, Lisa T; Antolini, Michael F

    2013-07-01

    The spatial distribution of prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies in North America has changed from large, contiguous populations to small, isolated colonies in metapopulations. One factor responsible for this drastic change in prairie-dog population structure is plague (caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis). We fit stochastic patch occupancy models to 20 years of prairie-dog colony occupancy data from two discrete metapopulations (west and east) in the Pawnee National Grassland in Colorado, USA, that differ in connectivity among suitable habitat patches. We conducted model selection between two hypothesized modes of plague movement: independent of prairie-dog dispersal (colony-area) vs. plague movement consistent with prairie-dog dispersal (connectivity to extinct colonies). The best model, which fit the data well (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.94 west area; 0.79 east area), revealed that over time the proportion of extant colonies was better explained by colony size than by connectivity to extinct (plagued) colonies. The idea that prairie dogs are not likely to be the main vector that spreads Y. pestis across the landscape is supported by the observation that colony extinctions are primarily caused by plague, prairie-dog dispersal is short range, and connectivity to extinct colonies was not selected as a factor in the models. We also conducted simulations with the best model to examine long-term patterns of colony occupancy and persistence of prairie-dog metapopulations. In the case where the metapopulations persist, our model predicted that the western metapopulation would have a colony occupancy rate approximately 2.5 times higher than that of the eastern metapopulation (-50% occupied colonies vs. 20%) in 50 years, but that the western metapopulation has -80% chance of extinction in 100 years while the eastern metapopulation has a less than 25% chance. Extinction probability of individual colonies depended on the frequency with which colonies of the

  3. Sparrow nest survival in relation to prescribed fire and woody plant invasion in a northern mixed-grass prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Robert K.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Grant, Todd A.; Derrig, James L.; Rubin, Cory S.; Kerns, Courtney K.

    2017-01-01

    Prescribed fire is used to reverse invasion by woody vegetation on grasslands, but managers often are uncertain whether influences of shrub and tree reduction outweigh potential effects of fire on nest survival of grassland birds. During the 2001–2003 breeding seasons, we examined relationships of prescribed fire and woody vegetation to nest survival of clay-colored sparrow (Spizella pallida) and Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) in mixed-grass prairie at Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge in northwestern North Dakota, USA. We assessed relationships of nest survival to 1) recent fire history, in terms of number of breeding seasons (2, 3, or 4–5) since the last prescribed fire, and 2) prevalence of trees and tall (>1.5 m) shrubs in the landscape and of low (≤1.5 m) shrubs within 5 m of nests. Nest survival of both species exhibited distinct patterns related to age of the nest and day of year, but bore no relationship to fire history. Survival of clay-colored sparrow nests declined as the amount of trees and tall shrubs within 100 m increased, but we found no relationship to suggest nest parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) as an underlying mechanism. We found little evidence linking nest survival of Savannah sparrow to woody vegetation. Our results suggest that fire can be used to restore northern mixed-grass prairies without adversely affecting nest survival of ≥2 widespread passerine species. Survival of nests of clay-colored sparrow may increase when tall woody cover is reduced by fire. Our data lend support to the use of fire for reducing scattered patches of tall woody cover to enhance survival of nests of ≥1 grassland bird species in northern mixed-grass prairies, but further study is needed that incorporates experimental approaches and assessments of shorter term effects of fire on survival of nests of grassland passerines.

  4. Potential impact of selected agricultural chemical contaminants on a northern prairie wetland: A microcosm evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B Thomas

    1986-05-01

    An aquatic, multicomponent microcosm simulating a northern prairie wetland was used to assess the potential effects of six extensively used agricultural pesticides on this important wildlife habitat. Using a nested experimental design, 16 4-liter aquatic microcosms were treated with three concentrations of each of the pesticides carbofuran, fonofos, phorate, atrazine, treflan and trial-late. The microcosm units were incubated for 30 d in an environmental chamber, with a 16-h light:8-h dark cycle, maintained at 20°C. Specific limnological, biological and toxicological parameters were monitored over time by observing the interactions of water, animals, sediment and plants with the pesticides. The laboratory protocol was designed as an initial, rapid, economical screening test to determine the effect, but not the fate, of chemical contaminants in terms of toxicity, impaired productivity and community biochemical functions. Static acute toxicity tests with Daphnia magna and Chironomus riparius suggested that carbofuran, fonofos, phorate and triallate were very toxic to aquatic invertebrates. For D. magna the 48-h EC50 values were 48, 15, 19 and 57 μg/L, respectively. Invertebrate viability tests indicated rapid changes in the toxicological persistence of these pesticides after microcosm interaction. Populations of D. magna were established in the 10 μg/L test concentration of carbofuran, phorate, triallate and fonofos at 1, 1, 14 and 28 d, respectively. Preexposure of the wetland sediments to either triallate or fonofos did not appear to change the relative toxicological persistence of each compound in the water column. Changes in pH, alkalinity, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were also observed with different pesticide treatments. Atrazine significantly reduced gross primary productivity and inhibited algal and macrophytic growth. In general, there was no evidence of significant inhibition of microbial functions in the water or

  5. Lesser prairie-chicken fence collision risk across its northern distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Samantha G.; Haukos, David A.; Plumb, Reid T.; Hagen, Christian A.; Pitman, James C.; Lautenbach, Joseph M.; Sullins, Daniel S.; Kraft, John D.; Lautenbach, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Livestock fences have been hypothesized to significantly contribute to mortality of lesser prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus); however, quantification of mortality due to fence collisions is lacking across their current distribution. Variation in fence density, landscape composition and configuration, and land use could influence collision risk of lesser prairie-chickens. We monitored fences within 3 km of known leks during spring and fall and surveyed for signs of collision occurrence within 20 m of fences in 6 study sites in Kansas and Colorado, USA during 2013 and 2014. We assessed mortality locations of radio-tagged birds (n = 286) for evidence of fence collisions and compared distance to fence relative to random points. Additionally, we quantified locations, propensity, and frequency of fences crossed by lesser prairie-chickens. We tested for landscape and vegetative characteristics that influenced fence-cross propensity and frequency of global positioning system (GPS)-marked birds. A minimum of 12,706 fence crossings occurred by GPS-marked lesser prairie-chickens. We found 3 carcasses and 12 additional possible instances of evidence of collision during >2,800 km of surveyed fences. We found evidence for a single suspected collision based on carcass evidence for 148 mortalities of transmittered birds. Mortality locations of transmittered birds were located at distances from fences 15% farther than expected at random. Our data suggested minimal biological significance and indicated that propensity and frequency of fence crossings were random processes. Lesser prairie-chickens do not appear to be experiencing significant mortality risk due to fence collisions in Kansas and Colorado. Focusing resources on other limiting factors (i.e., habitat quality) has greater potential for impact on population demography than fence marking and removal.

  6. Land-use change, economics, and rural well-being in the Prairie Pothole Region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoigne, William R.; Hoag, Dana L.K.; Johnson, Rex R.; Koontz, Lynne M.; Thomas, Catherine Cullinane

    2013-01-01

    This fact sheet highlights findings included in a comprehensive new report (see USGS Professional Paper 1800) which investigated land-use change, economic characteristics, and rural community well-being in the Prairie Pothole Region of the United States. Once one of the largest grassland-wetlands ecosystems on earth, the North American prairie has experienced extensive conversion to cultivated agriculture, with farming becoming the dominant land use in the region over the last century. Both perennial habitat lands and agricultural croplands retain importance economically, socially, and culturally. Greatly increased oil and gas development in recent years brought rises in employment and income but also stressed infrastructure, cost of living, and crime rates. Research described in these reports focuses on land-use dynamics and illuminates how economic variables and rural development in the Prairie Pothole Region might be influenced as land uses change.

  7. Groundwater connectivity of upland-embedded wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Brian; Rosenberry, Donald O.

    2018-01-01

    Groundwater connections from upland-embedded wetlands to downstream waterbodies remain poorly understood. In principle, water from upland-embedded wetlands situated high in a landscape should flow via groundwater to waterbodies situated lower in the landscape. However, the degree of groundwater connectivity varies across systems due to factors such as geologic setting, hydrologic conditions, and topography. We use numerical models to evaluate the conditions suitable for groundwater connectivity between upland-embedded wetlands and downstream waterbodies in the prairie pothole region of North Dakota (USA). Results show groundwater connectivity between upland-embedded wetlands and other waterbodies is restricted when these wetlands are surrounded by a mounding water table. However, connectivity exists among adjacent upland-embedded wetlands where water–table mounds do not form. In addition, the presence of sand layers greatly facilitates groundwater connectivity of upland-embedded wetlands. Anisotropy can facilitate connectivity via groundwater flow, but only if it becomes unrealistically large. These findings help consolidate previously divergent views on the significance of local and regional groundwater flow in the prairie pothole region.

  8. Decline of Hesperia ottoe (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae in Northern Tallgrass Prairie Preserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann B. Swengel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We counted butterflies on transect surveys during Hesperia ottoe flight period in 1988–2011 at tallgrass prairie preserves in four states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin, divided into units cross-referenced to vegetation type and management history. H. ottoe occurred only in dry and sand prairie types, and was significantly more abundant in undegraded than semi-degraded prairie, and in discontinuous sod (with numerous unvegetated areas due to bare sand and/or rock outcrops than in continuous sod. This skipper was significantly more abundant in small sites compared to medium and large sites, even when the analysis was limited to undegraded prairie analyzed separately by sod type. H. ottoe was significantly under-represented in year-burn 0 (the first growing season after fire compared to an expected distribution proportional to survey effort. However, H. ottoe was also over-represented in fire-managed units compared to non-fire-managed units. However, by far most units and sites were in fire management and most populations declined to subdetection during this study. Peak abundance post-fire occurred in a later year-burn in discontinuous sod and was much higher than in continuous sod. We also analyze H. ottoe status and trend in midwestern prairie preserves by compiling a dataset of our and others’ butterfly surveys from 1974 to 2011. Only 1/9 sites with continuous sod had detectable H. ottoe in recent year(s. In discontinuous sod, 2/6 did, with two sites lacking data for the last few years. The number of years H. ottoe was still detectable after preservation and the number of years to consistent non-detection were both significantly higher in discontinuous than continuous sod. Both measures of population persistence averaged over twice as long in discontinuous than continuous sod, and correlated negatively with prairie size. The year when consistent non-detection began varied over several decades among sites. Despite the currently urgent

  9. Decline of Hesperia ottoe (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) in Northern Tallgrass Prairie Preserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swengel, Ann B; Swengel, Scott R

    2013-11-20

    We counted butterflies on transect surveys during Hesperia ottoe flight period in 1988-2011 at tallgrass prairie preserves in four states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin), divided into units cross-referenced to vegetation type and management history. H. ottoe occurred only in dry and sand prairie types, and was significantly more abundant in undegraded than semi-degraded prairie, and in discontinuous sod (with numerous unvegetated areas due to bare sand and/or rock outcrops) than in continuous sod. This skipper was significantly more abundant in small sites compared to medium and large sites, even when the analysis was limited to undegraded prairie analyzed separately by sod type. H. ottoe was significantly under-represented in year-burn 0 (the first growing season after fire) compared to an expected distribution proportional to survey effort. However, H. ottoe was also over-represented in fire-managed units compared to non-fire-managed units. However, by far most units and sites were in fire management and most populations declined to subdetection during this study. Peak abundance post-fire occurred in a later year-burn in discontinuous sod and was much higher than in continuous sod. We also analyze H. ottoe status and trend in midwestern prairie preserves by compiling a dataset of our and others' butterfly surveys from 1974 to 2011. Only 1/9 sites with continuous sod had detectable H. ottoe in recent year(s). In discontinuous sod, 2/6 did, with two sites lacking data for the last few years. The number of years H. ottoe was still detectable after preservation and the number of years to consistent non-detection were both significantly higher in discontinuous than continuous sod. Both measures of population persistence averaged over twice as long in discontinuous than continuous sod, and correlated negatively with prairie size. The year when consistent non-detection began varied over several decades among sites. Despite the currently urgent need to identify

  10. Valuing ecosystem and economic services across land-use scenarios in the Prairie Pothole Regions of the Dakotas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoigne, William R.; Hoag, Dana; Koontz, Lynne; Tangen, Brian A.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Gleason, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses biophysical values derived for the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North and South Dakota, in conjunction with value transfer methods, to assess environmental and economic tradeoffs under different policy-relevant land-use scenarios over a 20-year period. The ecosystem service valuation is carried out by comparing the biophysical and economic values of three focal services (i.e. carbon sequestration, reduction in sedimentation, and waterfowl production) across three focal land uses in the region [i.e. native prairie grasslands, lands enrolled in the Conservation Reserve and Wetlands Reserve Programs (CRP/WRP), and cropland]. This study finds that CRP/WRP lands cannot mitigate (hectare for hectare) the loss of native prairie from a social welfare standpoint. Land use scenarios where native prairie loss was minimized, and CRP/WRP lands were increased, provided the most societal benefit. The scenario modeling projected native prairie conversion to cropland over the next 20 years would result in a social welfare loss valued at over $4 billion when considering the study's three ecosystem services, and a net loss of about $3.4 billion when reductions in commodity production are accounted for.

  11. Duration of plague (Yersinia pestis) outbreaks in black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies of northern Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Romain, Krista; Tripp, Daniel W; Salkeld, Daniel J; Antolin, Michael F

    2013-09-01

    Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, triggers die-offs in colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), but the time-frame of plague activity is not well understood. We document plague activity in fleas from prairie dogs and their burrows on three prairie dog colonies that suffered die-offs. We demonstrate that Y. pestis transmission occurs over periods from several months to over a year in prairie dog populations before observed die-offs.

  12. Implications of climate change for wetland-dependent birds in the Prairie Pothole Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Valerie; Skagen, Susan K.; Melcher, Cynthia P.

    2016-01-01

    The habitats and food resources required to support breeding and migrant birds dependent on North American prairie wetlands are threatened by impending climate change. The North American Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) hosts nearly 120 species of wetland-dependent birds representing 21 families. Strategic management requires knowledge of avian habitat requirements and assessment of species most vulnerable to future threats. We applied bioclimatic species distribution models (SDMs) to project range changes of 29 wetland-dependent bird species using ensemble modeling techniques, a large number of General Circulation Models (GCMs), and hydrological climate covariates. For the U.S. PPR, mean projected range change, expressed as a proportion of currently occupied range, was −0.31 (± 0.22 SD; range − 0.75 to 0.16), and all but two species were projected to lose habitat. Species associated with deeper water were expected to experience smaller negative impacts of climate change. The magnitude of climate change impacts was somewhat lower in this study than earlier efforts most likely due to use of different focal species, varying methodologies, different modeling decisions, or alternative GCMs. Quantification of the projected species-specific impacts of climate change using species distribution modeling offers valuable information for vulnerability assessments within the conservation planning process.

  13. Improving waterfowl production estimates: Results of a test in the prairie pothole region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, P.M.; Cowardin, L.M.

    1985-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in an effort to improve and standardize methods for estimating waterfowl production tested a new technique in the four-county Arrowwood Wetland Management District (WMD) for three years (1982-1984). On 14 randomly selected 10.36 km2 plots, upland and wetland habitat was mapped, classified, and digitized. Waterfowl breeding pairs were counted twice each year and the proportion of wetland basins containing water was determined. Pair numbers and habitat conditions were entered into a computer model developed by Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center. That model estimates production on small federally owned wildlife tracts, federal wetland easements, and private land. Results indicate that production estimates were most accurate for mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), the species for which the computer model and data base were originally designed. Predictions for the pintail (Anas acuta), gadwall (A. strepa), blue-winged teal (A. discors), and northern shoveler (A. clypeata) were believed to be less accurate. Modeling breeding period dynamics of a waterfowl species and making credible production estimates for a geographic area are possible if the data used in the model are adequate. The process of modeling the breeding period of a species aids in locating areas of insufficient biological knowledge. This process will help direct future research efforts and permit more efficient gathering of field data.

  14. Regional differences in mu and kappa opioid receptor G-protein activation in brain in male and female prairie voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T J; Sexton, T; Kim, S A; Severino, A L; Peters, C M; Young, L J; Childers, S R

    2015-12-17

    Prairie voles are unusual mammals in that, like humans, they are capable of forming socially monogamous pair bonds, display biparental care, and engage in alloparental behaviors. Both mu and kappa opioid receptors are involved in behaviors that either establish and maintain, or result from pair bond formation in these animals. Mu and kappa opioid receptors both utilize inhibitory G-proteins in signal transduction mechanisms, however the efficacy by which these receptor subtypes stimulate G-protein signaling across the prairie vole neuraxis is not known. Utilizing [(35)S]GTPγS autoradiography, we characterized the efficacy of G-protein stimulation in coronal sections throughout male and female prairie vole brains by [D-Ala2,NMe-Phe4,Gly-ol5]-enkephalin (DAMGO) and U50,488H, selective mu and kappa opioid agonists, respectively. DAMGO stimulation was highest in the forebrain, similar to that found with other rodent species. U-50,488H produced greater stimulation in prairie voles than is typically seen in mice and rats, particularly in select forebrain areas. DAMGO produced higher stimulation in the core versus the shell of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in females, while the distribution of U-50,488H stimulation was the opposite. There were no gender differences for U50,488H stimulation of G-protein activity across the regions examined, while DAMGO stimulation was greater in sections from females compared to those from males for NAc core, entopeduncular nucleus, and hippocampus. These data suggest that the kappa opioid system may be more sensitive to manipulation in prairie voles compared to mice and rats, and that female prairie voles may be more sensitive to mu agonists in select brain regions than males. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. No evidence of deer mouse involvement in plague (Yersinia pestis) epizootics in prairie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkeld, Daniel J; Stapp, Paul

    2008-06-01

    Plague, the disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, can have devastating impacts on black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies. One suggested mechanism behind sporadic prairie dog die-offs involves an alternative mammal host, such as the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), which often inhabits prairie dog colonies. We examined the flea populations of deer mice to investigate the potential of flea-borne transmission of plague between deer mice and prairie dogs in northern Colorado, where plague is active in prairie dog colonies. Deer mice were predominantly infested with the flea Aetheca wagneri, and were rarely infested with prairie dog fleas, Oropsylla hirsuta. Likelihood of flea infestation increased with average monthly temperature, and flea loads were higher in reproductive animals. These results suggest that the deer mouse is an unlikely maintenance host of plague in this region.

  16. An adaptive approach to invasive plant management on U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service-owned native prairies in the Prairie Pothole Region: decision support under uncertainity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Jill J.; Moore, Clinton T.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Flanders-Wanner, Bridgette

    2011-01-01

    Much of the native prairie managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) is extensively invaded by the introduced cool-season grasses smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis). The central challenge to managers is selecting appropriate management actions in the face of biological and environmental uncertainties. We describe the technical components of a USGS management project, and explain how the components integrate and inform each other, how data feedback from individual cooperators serves to reduce uncertainty across the whole region, and how a successful adaptive management project is coordinated and maintained on a large scale. In partnership with the Service, the U.S. Geological Survey is developing an adaptive decision support framework to assist managers in selecting management actions under uncertainty and maximizing learning from management outcomes. The framework is built around practical constraints faced by refuge managers and includes identification of the management objective and strategies, analysis of uncertainty and construction of competing decision models, monitoring, and mechanisms for model feedback and decision selection. Nineteen Service field stations, spanning four states of the PPR, are participating in the project. They share a common management objective, available management strategies, and biological uncertainties. While the scope is broad, the project interfaces with individual land managers who provide refuge-specific information and receive updated decision guidance that incorporates understanding gained from the collective experience of all cooperators.

  17. Vulnerability of breeding waterbirds to climate change in the Prairie Pothole Region, U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Steen

    Full Text Available The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR of the north-central U.S. and south-central Canada contains millions of small prairie wetlands that provide critical habitat to many migrating and breeding waterbirds. Due to their small size and the relatively dry climate of the region, these wetlands are considered at high risk for negative climate change effects as temperatures increase. To estimate the potential impacts of climate change on breeding waterbirds, we predicted current and future distributions of species common in the PPR using species distribution models (SDMs. We created regional-scale SDMs for the U.S. PPR using Breeding Bird Survey occurrence records for 1971-2011 and wetland, upland, and climate variables. For each species, we predicted current distribution based on climate records for 1981-2000 and projected future distributions to climate scenarios for 2040-2049. Species were projected to, on average, lose almost half their current habitat (-46%. However, individual species projections varied widely, from +8% (Upland Sandpiper to -100% (Wilson's Snipe. Variable importance ranks indicated that land cover (wetland and upland variables were generally more important than climate variables in predicting species distributions. However, climate variables were relatively more important during a drought period. Projected distributions of species responses to climate change contracted within current areas of distribution rather than shifting. Given the large variation in species-level impacts, we suggest that climate change mitigation efforts focus on species projected to be the most vulnerable by enacting targeted wetland management, easement acquisition, and restoration efforts.

  18. Modelling surface-water depression storage in a Prairie Pothole Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Lauren E.; Norton, Parker A.; Viger, Roland; Markstrom, Steven; Regan, R. Steven; Vanderhoof, Melanie

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the Precipitation-Runoff Modelling System (PRMS) was used to simulate changes in surface-water depression storage in the 1,126-km2 Upper Pipestem Creek basin located within the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota, USA. The Prairie Pothole Region is characterized by millions of small water bodies (or surface-water depressions) that provide numerous ecosystem services and are considered an important contribution to the hydrologic cycle. The Upper Pipestem PRMS model was extracted from the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Hydrologic Model (NHM), developed to support consistent hydrologic modelling across the conterminous United States. The Geospatial Fabric database, created for the USGS NHM, contains hydrologic model parameter values derived from datasets that characterize the physical features of the entire conterminous United States for 109,951 hydrologic response units. Each hydrologic response unit in the Geospatial Fabric was parameterized using aggregated surface-water depression area derived from the National Hydrography Dataset Plus, an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets. This paper presents a calibration strategy for the Upper Pipestem PRMS model that uses normalized lake elevation measurements to calibrate the parameters influencing simulated fractional surface-water depression storage. Results indicate that inclusion of measurements that give an indication of the change in surface-water depression storage in the calibration procedure resulted in accurate changes in surface-water depression storage in the water balance. Regionalized parameterization of the USGS NHM will require a proxy for change in surface-storage to accurately parameterize surface-water depression storage within the USGS NHM.

  19. Controls on the geochemical evolution of Prairie Pothole Region lakes and wetlands over decadal time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Martin B.; Mills, Christopher T.; Mushet, David M.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Rover, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    One hundred sixty-seven Prairie Pothole lakes, ponds and wetlands (largely lakes) previously analyzed chemically during the late 1960’s and early to mid-1970’s were resampled and reanalyzed in 2011–2012. The two sampling periods differed climatically. The earlier sampling took place during normal to slightly dry conditions, whereas the latter occurred during and immediately following exceptionally wet conditions. As reported previously in Mushet et al. (2015), the dominant effect was expansion of the area of these lakes and dilution of their major ions. However, within that context, there were significant differences in the evolutionary pathways of major ions. To establish these pathways, we employed the inverse modeling computer code NetpathXL. This code takes the initial and final lake composition and, using mass balance constrained by the composition of diluting waters, and input and output of phases, calculates plausible geochemical evolution pathways. Despite the fact that in most cases major ions decreased, a subset of the lakes had an increase in SO42−. This distinction is significant because SO42− is the dominant anion in a majority of Prairie Pothole Region wetlands and lakes. For lakes with decreasing SO42−, the proportion of original lake water required for mass balance was subordinate to rainwater and/or overland flow. In contrast, lakes with increasing SO42− between the two sampling episodes tended to be dominated by original lake water. This suite of lakes tended to be smaller and have lower initial SO42−concentrations such that inputs of sulfur from dissolution of the minerals gypsum or pyrite had a significant impact on the final sulfur concentration given the lower dilution factors. Thus, our study provides context for how Prairie Pothole Region water bodies evolve geochemically as climate changes. Because wetland geochemistry in turn controls the ecology of these water bodies, this research contributes to the prediction of the

  20. Feeding ecology of arctic-nesting sandpipers during spring migration through the prairie pothole region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, J.L.; Krapu, G.L.; Johnson, D.H.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated food habits of 4 species of spring-migrant calidrid sandpipers in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North Dakota. Sandpipers foraged in several wetland classes and fed primarily on aquatic dipterans, mostly larvae, and the midge family Chironomidae was the primary food eaten. Larger sandpiper species foraged in deeper water and took larger larvae than did smaller sandpipers. The diverse wetland habitats that migrant shorebirds use in the PPR suggest a landscape-level approach be applied to wetland conservation efforts. We recommend that managers use livestock grazing and other tools, where applicable, to keep shallow, freshwater wetlands from becoming choked with emergent vegetation limiting chironomid production and preventing shorebird use.

  1. Greenhouse gas flux from cropland and restored wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, R.A.; Tangen, B.A.; Browne, B.A.; Euliss, N.H.

    2009-01-01

    It has been well documented that restored wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America do store carbon. However, the net benefit of carbon sequestration in wetlands in terms of a reduction in global warming forcing has often been questioned because of potentially greater emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4). We compared gas emissions (N2O, CH4, carbon dioxide [CO2]) and soil moisture and temperature from eight cropland and eight restored grassland wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region from May to October, 2003, to better understand the atmospheric carbon mitigation potential of restored wetlands. Results show that carbon dioxide contributed the most (90%) to net-GHG flux, followed by CH4 (9%) and N2O (1%). Fluxes of N2O, CH4, CO2, and their combined global warming potential (CO2 equivalents) did not significantly differ between cropland and grassland wetlands. The seasonal pattern in flux was similar in cropland and grassland wetlands with peak emissions of N2O and CH4 occurring when soil water-filled pore space (WFPS) was 40-60% and >60%, respectively; negative CH4 fluxes were observed when WFPS approached 40%. Negative CH4 fluxes from grassland wetlands occurred earlier in the season and were more pronounced than those from cropland sites because WFPS declined more rapidly in grassland wetlands; this decline was likely due to higher infiltration and evapotranspiration rates associated with grasslands. Our results suggest that restoring cropland wetlands does not result in greater emissions of N2O and CH4, and therefore would not offset potential soil carbon sequestration. These findings, however, are limited to a small sample of seasonal wetlands with relatively short hydroperiods. A more comprehensive assessment of the GHG mitigation potential of restored wetlands should include a diversity of wetland types and land-use practices and consider the impact of variable climatic cycles that affect wetland

  2. Patterns and drivers for wetland connections in the Prairie Pothole Region, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoof, Melanie; Christensen, Jay R.; Alexander, Laurie C.

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystem function in rivers, lakes and coastal waters depends on the functioning of upstream aquatic ecosystems, necessitating an improved understanding of watershed-scale interactions including variable surface-water flows between wetlands and streams. As surface water in the Prairie Pothole Region expands in wet years, surface-water connections occur between many depressional wetlands and streams. Minimal research has explored the spatial patterns and drivers for the abundance of these connections, despite their potential to inform resource management and regulatory programs including the U.S. Clean Water Act. In this study, wetlands were identified that did not intersect the stream network, but were shown with Landsat images (1990–2011) to become merged with the stream network as surface water expanded. Wetlands were found to spill into or consolidate with other wetlands within both small (2–10 wetlands) and large (>100 wetlands) wetland clusters, eventually intersecting a stream channel, most often via a riparian wetland. These surface-water connections occurred over a wide range of wetland distances from streams (averaging 90–1400 m in different ecoregions). Differences in the spatial abundance of wetlands that show a variable surface-water connection to a stream were best explained by smaller wetland-to-wetland distances, greater wetland abundance, and maximum surface-water extent. This analysis demonstrated that wetland arrangement and surface water expansion are important mechanisms for depressional wetlands to connect to streams and provides a first step to understanding the frequency and abundance of these surface-water connections across the Prairie Pothole Region.

  3. Distribution and abundance of predators that affect duck production--prairie pothole region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, A.B.; Greenwood, R.J.; Sovada, M.A.; Shaffer, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    During 1983-88, the relative abundance of 18 species and species-groups of mammalian and avian predators affecting duck production in the prairie pothole region was determined in 33 widely scattered study areas ranging in size from 23-26 km2. Accounts of each studied species and species-group include habitat and history, population structure and reported densities, and information on distribution and abundance from the present study. Index values of undetected, scarce, uncommon, common, or numerous were used to rate abundance of nearly all species in each study area. Principal survey methods were livetrapping of striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) and Franklin's ground squirrels (Spermophilus franklinii), systematic searches for carnivore tracks in quarter sections (0.65 km2), daily records of sightings of individual predator species, and systematic searches for occupied nests of tree-nesting avian predators. Abundances of predators in individual areas were studied 1-3 years.The distribution and abundance of predator species throughout the prairie pothole region have undergone continual change since settlement of the region by Europeans in the late 1800's. Predator populations in areas we studied differed markedly from those of pristine times. The changes occurred from habitat alterations, human-inflicted mortality of predators, and interspecific relations among predator species. Indices from surveys of tracks revealed a decline in the abundance of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and an albeit less consistent decline in the abundance of raccoons (Procyon lotor) with an increase in the abundance of coyotes (Canis latrans). Records of locations of occupied nests revealed great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) and red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) tended to nest 0.5 km apart, and American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) tended to avoid nesting 0.5 km of nests of red-tailed hawks. Excluding large gulls, for which no measurements of abundance were obtained, the number of

  4. Soil respiration response to climate change in Pacific Northwest prairies is mediated by a regional Mediterranean climate gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Lorien L; Johnson, Bart R; Pfeifer-Meister, Laurel; Bridgham, Scott D

    2015-01-01

    Soil respiration is expected to increase with rising global temperatures but the degree of response may depend on soil moisture and other local factors. Experimental climate change studies from single sites cannot discern whether an observed response is site-dependent or generalizable. To deconvolve site-specific vs. regional climatic controls, we examined soil respiration for 18 months along a 520 km climate gradient in three Pacific Northwest, USA prairies that represents increasingly severe Mediterranean conditions from north to south. At each site we implemented a fully factorial combination of 2.5-3 °C warming and 20% added precipitation intensity. The response of soil respiration to warming was driven primarily by the latitudinal climate gradient and not site-specific factors. Warming increased respiration at all sites during months when soil moisture was not limiting. However, these gains were offset by reductions in respiration during seasonal transitions and summer drought due to lengthened periods of soil moisture limitation. The degree of this offset varied along the north-south climate gradient such that in 2011 warming increased cumulative annual soil respiration 28.6% in the northern site, 13.5% in the central site, and not at all in the southern site. Precipitation also stimulated soil respiration more frequently in the south, consistent with an increased duration of moisture limitation. The best predictors of soil respiration in nonlinear models were the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), antecedent soil moisture, and temperature but these models provided biased results at high and low soil respiration. NDVI was an effective integrator of climate and site differences in plant productivity in terms of their combined effects on soil respiration. Our results suggest that soil moisture limitation can offset the effect of warming on soil respiration, and that greater growing-season moisture limitation would constrain cumulative annual

  5. Evidence for 20th century climate warming and wetland drying in the North American Prairie Pothole Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, B.A.; Johnson, W. Carter; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.

    2013-01-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America is a globally important resource that provides abundant and valuable ecosystem goods and services in the form of biodiversity, groundwater recharge, water purification, flood attenuation, and water and forage for agriculture. Numerous studies have found these wetlands, which number in the millions, to be highly sensitive to climate variability. Here, we compare wetland conditions between two 30-year periods (1946–1975; 1976–2005) using a hindcast simulation approach to determine if recent climate warming in the region has already resulted in changes in wetland condition. Simulations using the WETLANDSCAPE model show that 20th century climate change may have been sufficient to have a significant impact on wetland cover cycling. Modeled wetlands in the PPR's western Canadian prairies show the most dramatic effects: a recent trend toward shorter hydroperiods and less dynamic vegetation cycles, which already may have reduced the productivity of hundreds of wetland-dependent species.

  6. Evidence for 20th century climate warming and wetland drying in the North American Prairie Pothole Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Brett A; Johnson, W Carter; Guntenspergen, Glenn R

    2013-09-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America is a globally important resource that provides abundant and valuable ecosystem goods and services in the form of biodiversity, groundwater recharge, water purification, flood attenuation, and water and forage for agriculture. Numerous studies have found these wetlands, which number in the millions, to be highly sensitive to climate variability. Here, we compare wetland conditions between two 30-year periods (1946-1975; 1976-2005) using a hindcast simulation approach to determine if recent climate warming in the region has already resulted in changes in wetland condition. Simulations using the WETLANDSCAPE model show that 20th century climate change may have been sufficient to have a significant impact on wetland cover cycling. Modeled wetlands in the PPR's western Canadian prairies show the most dramatic effects: a recent trend toward shorter hydroperiods and less dynamic vegetation cycles, which already may have reduced the productivity of hundreds of wetland-dependent species.

  7. Prescribed Grassland Burning Smoke Emission Measurements in the Northern Flint Hills Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, J. L.; Baker, K. R.; Landis, M.; Aurell, J.; Gullett, B.

    2017-12-01

    Historically, frequent wildfires were essential for the maintenance of native prairie fire adapted ecosystems. Today prescribed fires are used to control invasive woody species and potentially improve forage production in these same prairie ecosystems for the beef-cattle industry. The emission of primary particulate matter, secondary aerosol, ozone precursors, and air toxics from prescribed grassland burning operations has been implicated as drivers of downwind air quality problems across a multi-state area. A field study has been planned to quantify prescribed burn smoke emissions using both surface and aerial sampling platforms to better constrain emissions rates for organic and inorganic pollutants. Multiple prescribed burns on tallgrass prairie fields in the northern Flint Hills ecoregion are planned for March 2017 at the Konza Prairie Biological Station in Kansas. An array of measurement systems will be deployed to quantify a suite of continuous and integrated air pollution parameters, combustion conditions, meteorological parameters, and plume dynamics to calculate more accurate and condition-specific emission factors that will be used to better predict primary and secondary pollutants both locally and regionally. These emissions measurements will allow for evaluation and improvement of the U.S. Forest Service's Bluesky modeling framework which includes the Fire Emission Production Simulator (FEPS) and Fuel characterization classification system (FCCS). Elucidating grassland prescribed burning emission factors based on fuel type, loading, and environmental conditions is expected to provide an improved understanding of the impact of this land management practice on air quality in the greater Flint Hills region. It is also expected that measurements will be made to help constrain and develop better routines for fire plume rise, vertical allocation, and smoke optical properties.

  8. Hydrogeochemistry of prairie pothole region wetlands: Role of long-term critical zone processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Martin B.; Mills, Christopher T.; Morrison, Jean M.; Stricker, Craig A.; Mushet, David M.; LaBaugh, James W.

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the geologic and hydrogeochemical processes operating at a range of scales within the prairie pothole region (PPR). The PPR is a 750,000 km2portion of north central North America that hosts millions of small wetlands known to be critical habitat for waterfowl and other wildlife. At a local scale, we characterized the geochemical evolution of the 92-ha Cottonwood Lake study area (CWLSA), located in North Dakota, USA. Critical zone processes are the long-term determinant of wetland water and groundwater geochemistry via the interaction of oxygenated groundwater with pyrite in the underlying glacial till. Pyrite oxidation produced a brown, iron oxide-bearing surface layer locally over 13 m thick and an estimated minimum of 1.3 × 1010 g sulfate (SO42 −) at CWLSA. We show that the majority of this SO42− now resides in solid-phase gypsum (CaSO4•2H2O) and gypsum-saturated groundwater.

  9. Optimal portfolio design to reduce climate-related conservation uncertainty in the Prairie Pothole Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Amy W.; Mallory, Mindy L.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is likely to alter the spatial distributions of species and habitat types but the nature of such change is uncertain. Thus, climate change makes it difficult to implement standard conservation planning paradigms. Previous work has suggested some approaches to cope with such uncertainty but has not harnessed all of the benefits of risk diversification. We adapt Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT) to optimal spatial targeting of conservation activity, using wetland habitat conservation in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) as an example. This approach finds the allocations of conservation activity among subregions of the planning area that maximize the expected conservation returns for a given level of uncertainty or minimize uncertainty for a given expected level of returns. We find that using MPT instead of simple diversification in the PPR can achieve a value of the conservation objective per dollar spent that is 15% higher for the same level of risk. MPT-based portfolios can also have 21% less uncertainty over benefits or 6% greater expected benefits than the current portfolio of PPR conservation. Total benefits from conservation investment are higher if returns are defined in terms of benefit–cost ratios rather than benefits alone. MPT-guided diversification can work to reduce the climate-change–induced uncertainty of future ecosystem-service benefits from many land policy and investment initiatives, especially when outcomes are negatively correlated between subregions of a planning area. PMID:22451914

  10. Optimal portfolio design to reduce climate-related conservation uncertainty in the Prairie Pothole Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Amy W; Mallory, Mindy L

    2012-04-24

    Climate change is likely to alter the spatial distributions of species and habitat types but the nature of such change is uncertain. Thus, climate change makes it difficult to implement standard conservation planning paradigms. Previous work has suggested some approaches to cope with such uncertainty but has not harnessed all of the benefits of risk diversification. We adapt Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT) to optimal spatial targeting of conservation activity, using wetland habitat conservation in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) as an example. This approach finds the allocations of conservation activity among subregions of the planning area that maximize the expected conservation returns for a given level of uncertainty or minimize uncertainty for a given expected level of returns. We find that using MPT instead of simple diversification in the PPR can achieve a value of the conservation objective per dollar spent that is 15% higher for the same level of risk. MPT-based portfolios can also have 21% less uncertainty over benefits or 6% greater expected benefits than the current portfolio of PPR conservation. Total benefits from conservation investment are higher if returns are defined in terms of benefit-cost ratios rather than benefits alone. MPT-guided diversification can work to reduce the climate-change-induced uncertainty of future ecosystem-service benefits from many land policy and investment initiatives, especially when outcomes are negatively correlated between subregions of a planning area.

  11. Validation of the DNDC model in order to simulate future greenhouse gas emissions and soil carbon changes from the Prairie-Pothole region of North Dakota following prairie conversion to agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suddick, E.; Phillips, R. L.; Waldron, S. E.; Davidson, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) in North America is home to a diverse range of habitats that support large populations of water fowl and other bird species. Some of the habitats such as the native prairie grasslands of the PPR are under threat due to conversion to cropland. Despite the importance of the PPR, little research has been conducted in this region to understand the impact land-use changes will have on greenhouse gas emissions and soil organic carbon storage (SOC). Therefore, process based biogeochemical models such as the Denitrification Decomposition (DNDC) model can be used to simulate the potential effects that future land-use change will have upon the cycling of carbon and nitrogen in both agricultural and non-agricultural ecosystems. The objective of this study was to validate the DNDC model for two different ecosystems within the PPR region. We aimed to test the ability of the model to predict the flux of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) and SOC changes in both an agricultural cropping system and a natural prairie in order to understand future land use change scenarios and forecast the change in N2O and SOC following prairie conversion to agriculture. Using a baseline climate scenario from observed daily measurements at each site, the DNDC model was tested against observed static chamber field measurements of N2O measured from April 2009 to December 2011, as well as being tested against other ancillary soil measurements (e.g., soil moisture and temperature) from an alfalfa cropping system and a native prairie grassland in the PPR of North Dakota, USA. Soils from the native prairie were classified as a non hydric clay loam with a SOC content of 0.033 kg C kg-1, where the alfalfa cropping system was a non hydric silt loam with a SOC content of 0.019 kg C kg-1. Initial results indicate that simulated N2O emissions at both sites and the change in SOC with conversion of prairie to cropland were generally in agreement with observed field

  12. Ecological units of the Northern Region: Subsections

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Nesser; Gary L. Ford; C. Lee Maynard; Debbie Dumroese

    1997-01-01

    Ecological units are described at the subsection level of the Forest Service National Hierarchical Framework of Ecological Units. A total of 91 subsections are delineated on the 1996 map "Ecological Units of the Northern Region: Subsections," based on physical and biological criteria. This document consists of descriptions of the climate, geomorphology,...

  13. Spatially explicit modeling of blackbird abundance in the Prairie Pothole Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcey, Greg M.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Linz, George M.; McKann, Patrick C.; Crimmins, Shawn M.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of factors influencing animal abundance is important to wildlife biologists developing management plans. This is especially true for economically important species such as blackbirds (Icteridae), which cause more than $100 million in crop damages annually in the United States. Using data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey, the National Land Cover Dataset, and the National Climatic Data Center, we modeled effects of regional environmental variables on relative abundance of 3 blackbird species (red-winged blackbird,Agelaius phoeniceus; yellow-headed blackbird, Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus; common grackle, Quiscalus quiscula) in the Prairie Pothole Region of the central United States. We evaluated landscape covariates at 3 logarithmically related spatial scales (1,000 ha, 10,000 ha, and 100,000 ha) and modeled weather variables at the 100,000-ha scale. We constructed models a priori using information from published habitat associations. We fit models with WinBUGS using Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques. Both landscape and weather variables contributed strongly to predicting blackbird relative abundance (95% credibility interval did not overlap 0). Variables with the strongest associations with blackbird relative abundance were the percentage of wetland area and precipitation amount from the year before bird surveys were conducted. The influence of spatial scale appeared small—models with the same variables expressed at different scales were often in the best model subset. This large-scale study elucidated regional effects of weather and landscape variables, suggesting that management strategies aimed at reducing damages caused by these species should consider the broader landscape, including weather effects, because such factors may outweigh the influence of localized conditions or site-specific management actions. The regional species distributional models we developed for blackbirds provide a tool for understanding these broader

  14. Climate impacts on northern Canada: regional background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prowse, Terry D; Furgal, Chris; Bonsal, Barrie R; Peters, Daniel L

    2009-07-01

    Understanding the implications of climate change on northern Canada requires a background about the size and diversity of its human and biogeophysical systems. Occupying an area of almost 40% of Canada, with one-third of this contained in Arctic islands, Canada's northern territories consist of a diversity of physical environments unrivaled around the circumpolar north. Major ecozones composed of a range of landforms, climate, vegetation, and wildlife include: Arctic, boreal and taiga cordillera; boreal and taiga plains; taiga shield; and northern and southern Arctic. Although generally characterized by a cold climate, there is an enormous range in air temperature with mean annual values being as high as -5 degrees C in the south to as low as -20 degrees C in the high Arctic islands. A similar contrast characterizes precipitation, which can be > 700 mm y(-1) in some southern alpine regions to as low as 50 mm y(-1) over islands of the high Arctic. Major freshwater resources are found within most northern ecozones, varying from large glaciers or ice caps and lakes to extensive wetlands and peat lands. Most of the North's renewable water, however, is found within its major river networks and originates in more southerly headwaters. Ice covers characterize the freshwater systems for multiple months of the year while permafrost prevails in various forms, dominating the terrestrial landscape. The marine environment, which envelops the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is dominated by seasonal to multiyear sea ice often several meters thick that plays a key role in the regional climate. Almost two-thirds of northern Canadian communities are located along coastlines with the entire population being just over 100 000. Most recent population growth has been dominated by an expansion of nonaboriginals, primarily the result of resource development and the growth of public administration. The economies of northern communities, however, remain quite mixed with traditional land

  15. Records of wells, water levels, and chemical quality of ground water in the French Prairie-Mission Bottom area, northern Willamette Valley, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Don

    1961-01-01

    An investigation of the ground-water resources of the northern Willamette Valley was begun in 1960 as a cooperative program between the Ground Water Branch, U.S. Geological Survey, and the Oregon State Engineer. The northern Willamette Valley area is one of the fastest growing areas of ground-water use within the state. The purpose of the investigation is to obtain an understanding of the availability, movement, and chemical quality of the ground-water resources of the area. This information is needed to attain an optimum development of the ground-water resources of the area and to aid in the prevention of problems of overdevelopment and pollution. The first phase of the program was the collection of well records, water level records, and chemical quality data in the central part of this area, which is known as the French Prairie-Mission Bottom area. The records collected in this phase of the study are essential in the preparation of an interpretive report describing the occurrence and movement of ground-water in the French Prairie-Mission Bottom area. These records, which will not be included in the interpretive report that is being prepared at this time, are being made available in this publication to aid in the location and the development of the ground-water resources of the area, and to serve as a supplement to the forthcoming interpretive report.

  16. Asynchronous onset of eutrophication among shallow prairie lakes of the Northern Great Plains, Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheaux, Heather; Leavitt, Peter R; Jackson, Leland J

    2016-01-01

    Coherent timing of agricultural expansion, fertilizer application, atmospheric nutrient deposition, and accelerated global warming is expected to promote synchronous fertilization of regional surface waters and coherent development of algal blooms and lake eutrophication. While broad-scale cyanobacterial expansion is evident in global meta-analyses, little is known of whether lakes in discrete catchments within a common lake district also exhibit coherent water quality degradation through anthropogenic forcing. Consequently, the primary goal of this study was to determine whether agricultural development since ca. 1900, accelerated use of fertilizer since 1960, atmospheric deposition of reactive N, or regional climate warming has resulted in coherent patterns of eutrophication of surface waters in southern Alberta, Canada. Unexpectedly, analysis of sedimentary pigments as an index of changes in total algal abundance since ca. 1850 revealed that while total algal abundance (as β-carotene, pheophytin a) increased in nine of 10 lakes over 150 years, the onset of eutrophication varied by a century and was asynchronous across basins. Similarly, analysis of temporal sequences with least-squares regression revealed that the relative abundance of cyanobacteria (echinenone) either decreased or did not change significantly in eight of the lakes since ca. 1850, whereas purple sulfur bacteria (as okenone) increased significantly in seven study sites. These patterns are consistent with the catchment filter hypothesis, which posits that lakes exhibit unique responses to common forcing associated with the influx of mass as water, nutrients, or particles. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Widespread Use and Frequent Detection of Neonicotinoid Insecticides in Wetlands of Canada's Prairie Pothole Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Anson R.; Headley, John V.; Peru, Kerry M.; Michel, Nicole L.; Cessna, Allan J.; Morrissey, Christy A.

    2014-01-01

    Neonicotinoids currently dominate the insecticide market as seed treatments on Canada's major Prairie crops (e.g., canola). The potential impact to ecologically significant wetlands in this dominantly agro-environment has largely been overlooked while the distribution of use, incidence and level of contamination remains unreported. We modelled the spatial distribution of neonicotinoid use across the three Prairie Provinces in combination with temporal assessments of water and sediment concentrations in wetlands to measure four active ingredients (clothianidin, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid and acetamiprid). From 2009 to 2012, neonicotinoid use was increasing; by 2012, applications covered an estimated ∼11 million hectares (44% of Prairie cropland) with >216,000 kg of active ingredients. Thiamethoxam, followed by clothianidin, were the dominant seed treatments by mass and area. Areas of high neonicotinoid use were identified as high density canola or soybean production. Water sampled four times from 136 wetlands (spring, summer, fall 2012 and spring 2013) across four rural municipalities in Saskatchewan similarly revealed clothianidin and thiamethoxam in the majority of samples. In spring 2012 prior to seeding, 36% of wetlands contained at least one neonicotinoid. Detections increased to 62% in summer 2012, declined to 16% in fall, and increased to 91% the following spring 2013 after ice-off. Peak concentrations were recorded during summer 2012 for both thiamethoxam (range: neonicotinoid concentrations (which did not exceed 20 ng/L). Wetlands situated in barley, canola and oat fields consistently contained higher mean concentrations of neonicotinoids than in grasslands, but no individual crop singularly influenced overall detections or concentrations. Distribution maps indicate neonicotinoid use is increasing and becoming more widespread with concerns for environmental loading, while frequently detected neonicotinoid concentrations in Prairie wetlands suggest high

  18. Widespread use and frequent detection of neonicotinoid insecticides in wetlands of Canada's Prairie Pothole Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anson R Main

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoids currently dominate the insecticide market as seed treatments on Canada's major Prairie crops (e.g., canola. The potential impact to ecologically significant wetlands in this dominantly agro-environment has largely been overlooked while the distribution of use, incidence and level of contamination remains unreported. We modelled the spatial distribution of neonicotinoid use across the three Prairie Provinces in combination with temporal assessments of water and sediment concentrations in wetlands to measure four active ingredients (clothianidin, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid and acetamiprid. From 2009 to 2012, neonicotinoid use was increasing; by 2012, applications covered an estimated ∼11 million hectares (44% of Prairie cropland with >216,000 kg of active ingredients. Thiamethoxam, followed by clothianidin, were the dominant seed treatments by mass and area. Areas of high neonicotinoid use were identified as high density canola or soybean production. Water sampled four times from 136 wetlands (spring, summer, fall 2012 and spring 2013 across four rural municipalities in Saskatchewan similarly revealed clothianidin and thiamethoxam in the majority of samples. In spring 2012 prior to seeding, 36% of wetlands contained at least one neonicotinoid. Detections increased to 62% in summer 2012, declined to 16% in fall, and increased to 91% the following spring 2013 after ice-off. Peak concentrations were recorded during summer 2012 for both thiamethoxam (range:

  19. Northern New Mexico regional airport market feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, R.H.; Williams, D.S.

    1998-06-01

    This report is about the market for airline travel in northern New Mexico. Interest in developing a northern New Mexico regional airport has periodically surfaced for a number of years. The New Mexico State Legislature passed a memorial during the 1998 Second Session calling for the conduct of a study to determine the feasibility of building a new regional airport in NNM. This report is a study of the passenger market feasibility of such an airport. In addition to commercial passenger market feasibility, there are other feasibility issues dealing with siting, environmental impact, noise, economic impact, intermodal transportation integration, region-wide transportation services, airport engineering requirements, and others. These other feasibility issues are not analyzed in any depth in this report although none were discovered to be show-stoppers as a by-product of the authors doing research on the passenger market itself. Preceding the need for a detailed study of these other issues is the determination of the basic market need for an airport with regular commercial airline service in the first place. This report is restricted to an in-depth look at the market for commercial passenger air service in NNM. 20 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Development and application of a spatial IBM to forecast greater prairie-chicken population responses to land use in the Flint Hills region of Kansas - SCB meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greater prairie-chicken (Tympanachus cupido) populations have been on the decline for decades. Recent efforts to reverse this trend are focusing on two specific disturbance regimes, cattle grazing and field burning, both prevalent in the Flint Hill region of Kansas -- an area of...

  1. Development and application of a spatial IBM to forecast greater prairie-chicken population responses to land use in the Flint Hills region of Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greater prairie-chicken (Tympanachus cupido) populations have been on the decline for decades. Recent efforts to reverse this trend are focusing on two specific disturbance regimes, cattle grazing and field burning, both prevalent in the Flint Hill region of Kansas -- an area of...

  2. Regional Variation in mtDNA of the Lesser Prairie-Chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Christian A.; Pitman, James C.; Sandercock, Brett K.; Wolfe, Don H.; Robel, Robel J.; Applegate, Roger D.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.

    2010-01-01

    Cumulative loss of habitat and long-term decline in the populations of the Lesser Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) have led to concerns for the species' viability throughout its range in the southern Great Plains. For more efficient conservation past and present distributions of genetic variation need to be understood. We examined the distribution of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in the Lesser Prairie-Chicken across Kansas, Colorado, Oklahoma, and New Mexico. Throughout the range we found little genetic differentiation except for the population in New Mexico, which was significantly different from most other publications. We did, however, find significant isolation by distance at the rangewide scale (r=0.698). We found no relationship between haplotype phylogeny and geography, and our analyses provide evidence for a post-glacial population expansion within the species that is consistent with the idea that speciation within Tympanuchus is recent. Conservation actions that increase the likelihood of genetically viable populations in the future should be evaluated for implementation.

  3. Prairie Chicken

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — An outline of the general range occupied by greayter and lesser prairie chickens. The range was delineated by expert opinion, then varified by local wildlife...

  4. Temporal and spatial patterns of wetland extent influence variability of surface water connectivity in the Prairie Pothole Region, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoof, Melanie; Alexander, Laurie C.; Todd, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Context. Quantifying variability in landscape-scale surface water connectivity can help improve our understanding of the multiple effects of wetlands on downstream waterways. Objectives. We examined how wetland merging and the coalescence of wetlands with streams varied both spatially (among ecoregions) and interannually (from drought to deluge) across parts of the Prairie Pothole Region. Methods. Wetland extent was derived over a time series (1990-2011) using Landsat imagery. Changes in landscape-scale connectivity, generated by the physical coalescence of wetlands with other surface water features, were quantified by fusing static wetland and stream datasets with Landsat-derived wetland extent maps, and related to multiple wetness indices. The usage of Landsat allows for decadal-scale analysis, but limits the types of surface water connections that can be detected. Results. Wetland extent correlated positively with the merging of wetlands and wetlands with streams. Wetness conditions, as defined by drought indices and runoff, were positively correlated with wetland extent, but less consistently correlated with measures of surface water connectivity. The degree of wetland-wetland merging was found to depend less on total wetland area or density, and more on climate conditions, as well as the threshold for how wetland/upland was defined. In contrast, the merging of wetlands with streams was positively correlated with stream density, and inversely related to wetland density. Conclusions. Characterizing the degree of surface water connectivity within the Prairie Pothole Region in North America requires consideration of 1) climate-driven variation in wetness conditions and 2) within-region variation in wetland and stream spatial arrangements.

  5. Use of ecological sites in managing wildlife and livestock: An example with prairie dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prairie dogs are a native rodent found in the mixed grass prairie of the northern Great Plains. Prairie dogs can have an adverse impact on the amount of forages available for grazing livestock. In the Native American community, prairie dogs are often valued as a cultural resource and as an importan...

  6. The influence of local- and landscape-level factors on wetland breeding birds in the Prairie Pothole Region of North and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igl, Lawrence D.; Shaffer, Jill A.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Buhl, Deborah A.

    2017-08-17

    We examined the relationship between local- (wetland) and landscape-level factors and breeding bird abundances on 1,190 depressional wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of North and South Dakota during the breeding seasons in 1995–97. The surveyed wetlands were selected from five wetland classes (alkali, permanent, semipermanent, seasonal, or temporary), two wetland types (natural or restored), and two landowner groups (private or Federal). We recorded 133 species of birds in the surveyed wetlands during the 3 years. We analyzed the nine most common (or focal) species (that is, species that were present in 25 percent or more of the 1,190 wetlands): the Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors), Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), American Coot (Fulica americana), Gadwall (Anas strepera), Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), Yellow-headed Blackbird (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus), Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata), and Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis). Our results emphasize the ecological value of all wetland classes, natural and restored wetlands, and publicly and privately owned wetlands in this region, including wetlands that are generally smaller and shallower (that is, temporary and seasonal wetlands) and thus most vulnerable to drainage. Blue-winged Teal, Northern Shoveler, Gadwall, Common Yellowthroat, and Red-winged Blackbird had higher abundances on Federal than on private wetlands. Abundances differed among wetland classes for seven of the nine focal species: Blue-winged Teal, Northern Shoveler, Mallard, American Coot, Common Yellowthroat, Yellow-headed Blackbird, Red-winged Blackbird. American Coot had higher abundances on restored wetlands than on natural wetlands overall, and Gadwall and Common Yellowthroat had higher abundances on private restored wetlands than on private natural wetlands. The Common Yellowthroat was the only species that had higher abundances on restored private wetlands than on

  7. Interactions between ecological disturbances: burning and grazing and their effects on songbird communities in northern mixed-grass prairies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis N. Richardson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Historically, North American prairies were strongly influenced by two natural disturbances, fire and grazing, and their interaction. However, the frequency and size of fires has been greatly altered over time, while native ungulates have been replaced by livestock; this may have had strong ecological influences on modern prairies. The feedback hypothesis proposes that grazing by ungulates will increase the duration of fire effects because ungulates will be attracted to burned patches. We conducted point-count surveys in burned-grazed, burned-ungrazed, unburned-grazed, and unburned-ungrazed sites over a 5-year period following fires that occurred naturally in 2006 in southern Saskatchewan, Canada, to test predictions related to avian community composition related to the feedback hypothesis. Generalized linear mixed models were used to analyze interactions among burning, grazing, and time since burning. Six of the nine avian species we studied responded positively or negatively to burning or grazing, although there were few statistically significant effects on the vegetation structure variables we measured. We found mixed evidence that grazing increased the duration of effects of burning, cumulatively providing little evidence for the feedback hypothesis. Nonetheless, effects of burning and grazing differed from and interacted with one another; for example, short-term effects of burning on Sprague's Pipits (Anthus spragueii and Baird's Sparrows (Ammodramus bairdii were greater than effects of grazing, and effects of grazing and burning in combination were frequently greater than effects of a single disturbance. Therefore, both should be integrated into management for the conservation of grassland songbirds.

  8. Northern North Pacific Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0156768)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northern North Pacific (NNP) plays a significant role in long-term earth and ocean climate change. It is also a region of high importance for regional marine...

  9. Wetland selection by breeding and foraging black terns in the Prairie Pothole Region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Valerie A.; Powell, Abby N.

    2012-01-01

    We examined wetland selection by the Black Tern (Chlidonias niger), a species that breeds primarily in the prairie pothole region, has experienced population declines, and is difficult to manage because of low site fidelity. To characterize its selection of wetlands in this region, we surveyed 589 wetlands throughout North and South Dakota. We documented breeding at 5% and foraging at 17% of wetlands. We created predictive habitat models with a machine-learning algorithm, Random Forests, to explore the relative role of local wetland characteristics and those of the surrounding landscape and to evaluate which characteristics were important to predicting breeding versus foraging. We also examined area-dependent wetland selection while addressing the passive sampling bias by replacing occurrence of terns in the models with an index of density. Local wetland variables were more important than landscape variables in predictions of occurrence of breeding and foraging. Wetland size was more important to prediction of foraging than of breeding locations, while floating matted vegetation was more important to prediction of breeding than of foraging locations. The amount of seasonal wetland in the landscape was the only landscape variable important to prediction of both foraging and breeding. Models based on a density index indicated that wetland selection by foraging terns may be more area dependent than that by breeding terns. Our study provides some of the first evidence for differential breeding and foraging wetland selection by Black Terns and for a more limited role of landscape effects and area sensitivity than has been previously shown.

  10. Impacts of climate change on land-use and wetland productivity in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashford, Benjamin S.; Adams, Richard M.; Wu, Jun; Voldseth, Richard A.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Werner, Brett; Johnson, W. Carter

    2016-01-01

    Wetland productivity in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America is closely linked to climate. A warmer and drier climate, as predicted, will negatively affect the productivity of PPR wetlands and the services they provide. The effect of climate change on wetland productivity, however, will not only depend on natural processes (e.g., evapotranspiration), but also on human responses. Agricultural land use, the predominant use in the PPR, is unlikely to remain static as climate change affects crop yields and prices. Land use in uplands surrounding wetlands will further affect wetland water budgets and hence wetland productivity. The net impact of climate change on wetland productivity will therefore depend on both the direct effects of climate change on wetlands and the indirect effects on upland land use. We examine the effect of climate change and land-use response on semipermanent wetland productivity by combining an economic model of agricultural land-use change with an ecological model of wetland dynamics. Our results suggest that the climate change scenarios evaluated are likely to have profound effects on land use in the North and South Dakota PPR, with wheat displacing other crops and pasture. The combined pressure of land-use and climate change significantly reduces wetland productivity. In a climate scenario with a +4 °C increase in temperature, our model predicts that almost the entire region may lack the wetland productivity necessary to support wetland-dependent species.

  11. Effects of land use on greenhouse gas fluxes and soil properties of wetland catchments in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangen, Brian A.; Finocchiaro, Raymond G.; Gleason, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Wetland restoration has been suggested as policy goal with multiple environmental benefits including enhancement of atmospheric carbon sequestration. However, there are concerns that increased methane (CH4) emissions associated with restoration may outweigh potential benefits. A comprehensive, 4-year study of 119 wetland catchments was conducted in the Prairie Pothole Region of the north-central U.S. to assess the effects of land use on greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes and soil properties.

  12. Flea abundance, diversity, and plague in Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni) and their burrows in montane grasslands in northern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megan M. Friggens; Robert R. Parmenter; Michael Boyden; Paulette L. Ford; Kenneth Gage; Paul Keim

    2010-01-01

    Plague, a flea-transmitted infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is a primary threat to the persistence of prairie dog populations (Cynomys spp.). We conducted a 3-yr survey (2004-2006) of fleas from Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni) and their burrows in montane grasslands in Valles Caldera National Preserve in New Mexico. Our...

  13. Northern Pintail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robert G.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Guyn, Karla L.; Haukos, David A.; Austin, Jane E.; Miller, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    This medium-sized dabbling duck of slender, elegant lines and conservative plumage coloration is circumpolar in distribution and abundant in North America, with core nesting habitat in Alaska and the Prairie Pothole Region of southern Canada and the northern Great Plains. Breeders favor shallow wetlands interspersed throughout prairie grasslands or arctic tundra. An early fall migrant, the species arrives on wintering areas beginning in August, after wing molt, often forming large roosting and feeding flocks on open, shallow wetlands and flooded agricultural fields. The birds consume grains, marsh plant seeds, and aquatic invertebrates throughout fall and winter.Northern Pintails are among the earliest nesting ducks in North America, beginning shortly after ice-out in many northern areas. Individuals form new pair bonds each winter but are highly promiscuous during the nesting season, with mated and unmated males often involved in vigorous, acrobatic Pursuit Flights. Annual nest success and productivity vary with water conditions, predation, and weather. Females build nests on the ground, often far from water. Only the female incubates; her mate leaves shortly after incubation begins. Ducklings hatch together in one day, follow the female to water after a day in the nest, and fledge by July or August. Adults and ducklings consume mainly aquatic invertebrates during the breeding season.Predators and farming operations destroy many thousands of Northern Pintail nests annually; farming has also greatly reduced the amount of quality nesting cover available. Winter habitats are threatened by water shortages, agricultural development, contamination, and urbanization. Periods of extended drought in prairie nesting regions have caused dramatic population declines, usually followed by periods of recovery. Over the long term, however, the continental population of Northern Pintails has declined significantly from 6 million birds in the early 1970s to less than 3 million in

  14. The northern hardwood forests of the Anthracite Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. F. Burnham; M. J. Ferree; F. E. Cunningham

    1947-01-01

    The northern hardwood type forest is found only in the northern counties of the Anthracite Region. It dominates the highlands from Sullivan County on the west, to Monroe County on the east. The early lumbermen back in the 1860's, according to Illick and Frontz, "found (some) valleys, hillsides and mountains covered with a dense growth of enormous white pine...

  15. DIFFERENTIATION OF NORTHERN REGION ON THE LEVEL OF SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Akopov

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic changes in inter-regional differences in the social development of the regions of the North are traced. The increased value of social differentiation of northern regions as compared to the total of 88 and 72 (without northern regions of the Russian Federation and the process of their convergence was revealed on the basis of statistical characteristics. Four social types of the regions – highly-developed, developed, underdeveloped and problematic – were singled out by the method of the main components of the factorial analysis and hierarchical cluster Vord analysis. Each type needs development of goal-directed state regional policy aimed at smoothing and increasing of well-being of the population of northern regions.

  16. Enteric parasites of free-roaming, owned, and rural cats in prairie regions of Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Hoopes, Jessica; Hill, Janet E.; Polley, Lydden; Fernando, Champika; Wagner, Brent; Schurer, Janna; Jenkins, Emily

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine prevalence, intensity, and zoonotic potential of gastrointestinal parasites in free-roaming and pet cats in urban areas of Saskatchewan (SK) and a rural region in southwestern Alberta (AB). Fecal samples were analyzed using a modified double centrifugation sucrose flotation to detect helminth eggs and coccidian oocysts, and an immunofluorescence assay to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Endoparasite prevalence was higher in samples from rural AB...

  17. Job turnover and regional attrition among physiotherapists in northern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, S; Beggs, C E

    1993-01-01

    Results of an initial study indicated that the most significant factor affecting retention for Physiotherapists in Northern Ontario was perceived opportunity for career development. A follow-up study was completed two years later to determine: 1) actual job turnover and regional attrition among physiotherapists in Northern Ontario; and 2) the predictive validity of variables identified in the first study regarding job turnover and regional attrition. Job turnover occurred in 29.5% of those sampled and the regional attrition rate was 12%. Discriminant function analysis revealed factors affecting job turnover and regional attrition including professional experience, practice location, opportunity for career development and size of community of residence. Based on previous intention, indicated by participants, follow-up revealed that the initial study correctly predicted 77.5% of those who changed their jobs and 74.1% of those who left Northern Ontario. Identified factors provide direction for the development of strategies for recruitment and retention of physiotherapists.

  18. Pattern of psychoactive substance use in the northern region of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern of psychoactive substance use in the northern region of Nigeria. ... African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies ... The purpose of this study was to assess the pattern of psychoactive substance use among inmates at Kiru Rehabilitation Centre, Kano in the North Central Region of Nigeria, to determine the extent of ...

  19. Recovery of native prairie after pipeline construction in the Sand Hills region of Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.; Kremer, L.; Marshall, W.

    1996-01-01

    Land reclamation measures taken after construction of a large diameter natural gas pipeline in the Great Sand Hills region of southwestern Saskatchewan were detailed. Mitigation measures included modified construction procedures to minimize the size of the disturbance, worker educational programs to sensitize them to the prevailing fragile environment, dormant season construction, efforts to salvage topsoil seedbank, fertilizer application, straw bale wind barriers, brush mulch wind barriers, surface manipulation with the Hodder Gouger, fencing-out cattle, and the application of a seed mixture of agronomic legumes and native grasses. Vegetation and soil erosion were monitored over a period of four years. After four years the canopy cover was 88 per cent native species. On low-lying, protected sites vegetation was stable enough to support cattle grazing. Exposed sites will not reach this level of vegetation stability for some years to come due soil erosion by wind

  20. Triassic volcanic units in coastal region of Antofagasta, northern Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basso, M.; Cortes, J.A.; Marinovic, N

    2001-01-01

    U-Pb geochronological evidence of a Middle to Late Triassic volcanic event was found in the coastal region of Antofagasta, northern Chile (23 o -23 o 30 ). Two new ages were obtained from rhyolitic tuffs and an associated dome, which have classically been attributed to the Jurassic La Negra Formation (au)

  1. Caesarean Risk Factors in Northern Region of Bangladesh: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v11i5.17. Research Article. Caesarean Risk Factors in Northern Region of. Bangladesh: A Statistical Analysis. Mostafizur Rahman1, Asma Ahmad Shariff1* and Aziz Shafie2. 1Centre for Foundation Studies in Science, 2Department of Geography, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

  2. Evaluation of Adherence to Diabetic Treatment in Northern Region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine medication adherence and predictors of suboptimal adherence in patients with diabetes type 2, and to address the factors that are associated with treatment non-adherence in Northern Region of United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 200 type 2 diabetes mellitus ...

  3. (HQBF) technology in the Northern Region of Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on the level of adoption of high quality bambara flour (HQBF) processing technology and its impact on end-users. A random sample of 100 women, mainly bambara processors, was selected from Gushiegu/Karaga, Tolon Kumbungu, Savelugu-Nanton, and Tamale districts of the Northern Region of ...

  4. Dynamics of land-use change and conservation in the Prairie Pothole Region of the United States: environmental and economic implications with linkages to rural community well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoigne, William; Hoag, Dana; Johnson, Rex; Koontz, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Rural America has changed dramatically over the last century, from having over half the population living in rural settings to only 20 percent residing in a rural area today, and outmigration of younger populations from rural communities remains a constant issue for local governing officials. A declining tax base and concurrent rising costs for maintenance and repair of aging infrastructure add further challenges to policy decisions. Reduced enrollment has caused school closures or mergers. Farm consolidation and technical advances reduced the demand for local labor. On the positive side, however, record-high commodity prices have amplified farm income to new heights. The increased revenues can lead to farmers spending additional money within the local region, while at the same time increased transportation of products has impacted local infrastructure such as roads and bridges. Such dynamics present challenges for municipal leaders charged with promoting economic development and balanced spending, while at the same time maintaining the way of life and rural character that are so important to area residents. The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of the United States covers much of the Northern Great Plains, including parts of North and South Dakota, Minnesota, Iowa, and a small part of Montana, and extends across a broad swath of Alberta and Saskatchewan. The region is defined largely by its rural character but has experienced extensive land conversion over the last century, with agricultural areas replacing native prairie habitat. Additional pressures arise from oil and gas development, global markets for agricultural production, and increased demands for biofuel feedstocks. Record-high commodity prices increase pressure on the native prairie as farmers look for new cropland acres. The volatility of commodity prices has raised fears over the intensity of land conversion to row-crop agriculture, the economic health and resiliency of rural communities, and ultimately

  5. Genetic diversity of Phytophthora infestans in the Northern Andean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Martha; Grajales, Alejandro; Sierra, Roberto; Rojas, Alejandro; González-Almario, Adriana; Vargas, Angela; Marín, Mauricio; Fermín, Gustavo; Lagos, Luz E; Grünwald, Niklaus J; Bernal, Adriana; Salazar, Camilo; Restrepo, Silvia

    2011-02-09

    Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary, the causal agent of potato late blight, is responsible for tremendous crop losses worldwide. Countries in the northern part of the Andes dedicate a large proportion of the highlands to the production of potato, and more recently, solanaceous fruits such as cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) and tree tomato (Solanum betaceum), all of which are hosts of this oomycete. In the Andean region, P. infestans populations have been well characterized in Ecuador and Peru, but are poorly understood in Colombia and Venezuela. To understand the P. infestans population structure in the Northern part of the Andes, four nuclear regions (ITS, Ras, β-tubulin and Avr3a) and one mitochondrial (Cox1) region were analyzed in isolates of P. infestans sampled from different hosts in Colombia and Venezuela. Low genetic diversity was found within this sample of P. infestans isolates from crops within several regions of Colombia and Venezuela, revealing the presence of clonal populations of the pathogen in this region. We detected low frequency heterozygotes, and their distribution patterns might be a consequence of a high migration rate among populations with poor effective gene flow. Consistent genetic differentiation exists among isolates from different regions. The results here suggest that in the Northern Andean region P. infestans is a clonal population with some within-clone variation. P. infestans populations in Venezuela reflect historic isolation that is being reinforced by a recent self-sufficiency of potato seeds. In summary, the P. infestans population is mainly shaped by migration and probably by the appearance of variants of key effectors such as Avr3a.

  6. Genetic diversity of Phytophthora infestans in the Northern Andean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grünwald Niklaus J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary, the causal agent of potato late blight, is responsible for tremendous crop losses worldwide. Countries in the northern part of the Andes dedicate a large proportion of the highlands to the production of potato, and more recently, solanaceous fruits such as cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana and tree tomato (Solanum betaceum, all of which are hosts of this oomycete. In the Andean region, P. infestans populations have been well characterized in Ecuador and Peru, but are poorly understood in Colombia and Venezuela. To understand the P. infestans population structure in the Northern part of the Andes, four nuclear regions (ITS, Ras, β-tubulin and Avr3a and one mitochondrial (Cox1 region were analyzed in isolates of P. infestans sampled from different hosts in Colombia and Venezuela. Results Low genetic diversity was found within this sample of P. infestans isolates from crops within several regions of Colombia and Venezuela, revealing the presence of clonal populations of the pathogen in this region. We detected low frequency heterozygotes, and their distribution patterns might be a consequence of a high migration rate among populations with poor effective gene flow. Consistent genetic differentiation exists among isolates from different regions. Conclusions The results here suggest that in the Northern Andean region P. infestans is a clonal population with some within-clone variation. P. infestans populations in Venezuela reflect historic isolation that is being reinforced by a recent self-sufficiency of potato seeds. In summary, the P. infestans population is mainly shaped by migration and probably by the appearance of variants of key effectors such as Avr3a.

  7. Geological environments of the uranium occurrences of the northern region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Jagmer

    1997-01-01

    The areas covered under the northern region comprise parts of the three physiographic divisions, namely, the peninsular region, the Indo-Gangetic plains and the extra-peninsular regions. For exploring the concealed type of uranium mineralisation, more and more emphasis is being attached to geochemical and geophysical methods followed by exploratory drilling. These efforts are providing positive information which is being gradually tested by drilling. Likewise the occurrences the extra peninsular region have experienced multiphase deformation histories leading to truncation and breaking of the mineralised horizons. This is leading to problems of correlation and location of large sized mineralised bodies. The areas which have experienced comparatively lesser deformation are the basins which have been constricted by way of the basement configuration and concealment by the younger sediments are expected to be important target areas for large sized uranium deposits

  8. 40 CFR 81.116 - Northern Missouri Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.116 Section 81.116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.116 Northern Missouri Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northern Missouri Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the...

  9. The innate immune response may be important for surviving plague in wild Gunnison's prairie dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Joseph D.; Van Andel, Roger; Stone, Nathan E.; Cobble, Kacy R.; Nottingham, Roxanne; Lee, Judy; VerSteeg, Michael; Corcoran, Jeff; Cordova, Jennifer; Van Pelt, William E.; Shuey, Megan M.; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Schupp, James M.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen; Beckstrom-Sternberg, James; Keim, Paul; Smith, Susan; Rodriguez-Ramos, Julia; Williamson, Judy L.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Wagner, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) are highly susceptible to Yersinia pestis, with ≥99% mortality reported from multiple studies of plague epizootics. A colony of Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni) in the Aubrey Valley (AV) of northern Arizona appears to have survived several regional epizootics of plague, whereas nearby colonies have been severely affected by Y. pestis. To examine potential mechanisms accounting for survival in the AV colony, we conducted a laboratory Y. pestis challenge experiment on 60 wild-caught prairie dogs from AV and from a nearby, large colony with frequent past outbreaks of plague, Espee (n = 30 per colony). Test animals were challenged subcutaneously with the fully virulent Y. pestis strain CO92 at three doses: 50, 5,000, and 50,000 colony-forming units (cfu); this range is lethal in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). Contrary to our expectations, only 40% of the animals died. Although mortality trended higher in the Espee colony (50%) compared with AV (30%), the differences among infectious doses were not statistically significant. Only 39% of the survivors developed moderate to high antibody levels to Y. pestis, indicating that mechanisms other than humoral immunity are important in resistance to plague. The ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes was not correlated with plague survival in this study. However, several immune proteins with roles in innate immunity (VCAM-1, CXCL-1, and vWF) were upregulated during plague infection and warrant further inquiry into their role for protection against this disease. These results suggest plague resistance exists in wild populations of the Gunnison's prairie dog and provide important directions for future studies.

  10. The innate immune response may be important for surviving plague in wild Gunnison's prairie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Joseph D; Van Andel, Roger; Stone, Nathan E; Cobble, Kacy R; Nottingham, Roxanne; Lee, Judy; VerSteeg, Michael; Corcoran, Jeff; Cordova, Jennifer; Van Pelt, William; Shuey, Megan M; Foster, Jeffrey T; Schupp, James M; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen; Beckstrom-Sternberg, James; Keim, Paul; Smith, Susan; Rodriguez-Ramos, Julia; Williamson, Judy L; Rocke, Tonie E; Wagner, David M

    2013-10-01

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) are highly susceptible to Yersinia pestis, with ≥99% mortality reported from multiple studies of plague epizootics. A colony of Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni) in the Aubrey Valley (AV) of northern Arizona appears to have survived several regional epizootics of plague, whereas nearby colonies have been severely affected by Y. pestis. To examine potential mechanisms accounting for survival in the AV colony, we conducted a laboratory Y. pestis challenge experiment on 60 wild-caught prairie dogs from AV and from a nearby, large colony with frequent past outbreaks of plague, Espee (n = 30 per colony). Test animals were challenged subcutaneously with the fully virulent Y. pestis strain CO92 at three doses: 50, 5,000, and 50,000 colony-forming units (cfu); this range is lethal in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). Contrary to our expectations, only 40% of the animals died. Although mortality trended higher in the Espee colony (50%) compared with AV (30%), the differences among infectious doses were not statistically significant. Only 39% of the survivors developed moderate to high antibody levels to Y. pestis, indicating that mechanisms other than humoral immunity are important in resistance to plague. The ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes was not correlated with plague survival in this study. However, several immune proteins with roles in innate immunity (VCAM-1, CXCL-1, and vWF) were upregulated during plague infection and warrant further inquiry into their role for protection against this disease. These results suggest plague resistance exists in wild populations of the Gunnison's prairie dog and provide important directions for future studies.

  11. Regional Studies of the Potwar Plateau Area, Northern Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Peter D.; Wardlaw, Bruce R.

    2007-01-01

    The papers in this volume are products of a cooperative program between the Geological Survey of Pakistan (GSP) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), sponsored by the Government of Pakistan and the U.S. Agency for International Development. The focus of the program, the Coal Resources Exploration and Assessment Program (COALREAP), was to explore and assess Pakistan?s indigenous coal resources. As part of COALREAP, GSP and USGS geologists conducted regional geologic studies from 1988 to 1991 of the coal-bearing areas in the Potwar region of northern Pakistan. A reference section was selected from which to obtain faunal and floral analyses. The composite sections at Nammal Pass and Nammal Dam served as the basis for this regional reference. Although this Bulletin 2078 is being released in 2007, the writing and technical reviews were completed in 1993, and the chapters reflect the work done until that time. During the long production process for the Bulletin, which ultimately resulted in the oversize plates being digitized, the scientific content of the chapters was not changed, and most reports published since 1993 were not cited. A change in the age of the Patala Formation is discussed below [in the full preface], but the age discussions and illustrations in the chapters were not updated.

  12. The Northern Territory Teaching Schools Program: Exploring the Promise of Partnerships in Regional Professional Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckworth, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    One of the key challenges for education in Northern Australia is attracting and recruiting teachers who can respond to the challenges of the region at the start of their careers through professional experience in the region. For pre-service students in regional locations such as the Northern Territory these challenges include coping with the…

  13. Prescribed Grassland Burning Smoke Emission Measurements in the Northern Flint Hills Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historically, frequent wildfires were essential for the maintenance of native prairie fire adapted ecosystems. Today prescribed fires are used to control invasive woody species and potentially improve forage production in these same prairie ecosystems for the beef-cattle industry...

  14. 77 FR 75119 - Dakota Prairie Grasslands, North Dakota; Oil and Gas Development Supplemental Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Dakota Prairie Grasslands, North Dakota; Oil and Gas... to prepare a supplemental environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: In June of 2003, the Dakota... Dakota Prairie Grasslands Land and Resource Management Plan, based on the 2001 Northern Great Plains...

  15. Ecosystem engineering varies spatially: a test of the vegetation modification paradigm for prairie dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Bruce W.; Augustine, David J.; Sedgwick, James A.; Lubow, Bruce C.

    2013-01-01

    Colonial, burrowing herbivores can be engineers of grassland and shrubland ecosystems worldwide. Spatial variation in landscapes suggests caution when extrapolating single-place studies of single species, but lack of data and the need to generalize often leads to ‘model system’ thinking and application of results beyond appropriate statistical inference. Generalizations about the engineering effects of prairie dogs (Cynomys sp.) developed largely from intensive study at a single complex of black-tailed prairie dogs C. ludovicianus in northern mixed prairie, but have been extrapolated to other ecoregions and prairie dog species in North America, and other colonial, burrowing herbivores. We tested the paradigm that prairie dogs decrease vegetation volume and the cover of grasses and tall shrubs, and increase bare ground and forb cover. We sampled vegetation on and off 279 colonies at 13 complexes of 3 prairie dog species widely distributed across 5 ecoregions in North America. The paradigm was generally supported at 7 black-tailed prairie dog complexes in northern mixed prairie, where vegetation volume, grass cover, and tall shrub cover were lower, and bare ground and forb cover were higher, on colonies than at paired off-colony sites. Outside the northern mixed prairie, all 3 prairie dog species consistently reduced vegetation volume, but their effects on cover of plant functional groups varied with prairie dog species and the grazing tolerance of dominant perennial grasses. White-tailed prairie dogs C. leucurus in sagebrush steppe did not reduce shrub cover, whereas black-tailed prairie dogs suppressed shrub cover at all complexes with tall shrubs in the surrounding habitat matrix. Black-tailed prairie dogs in shortgrass steppe and Gunnison's prairie dogs C. gunnisoni in Colorado Plateau grassland both had relatively minor effects on grass cover, which may reflect the dominance of grazing-tolerant shortgrasses at both complexes. Variation in modification of

  16. Northern Pintail (Anas acuta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, J.E.; Miller, M.R.; Poole, A.; Gill, F.

    1995-01-01

    The Northern Pintail is a medium-sized dabbling duck of slender, elegant lines and conservative plumage coloration. It is circumpolar in distribution and abundant in North America, with core nesting habitat in Alaska and the Prairie Pothole Region of southern Canada and the northern Great Plains. Breeders favor shallow wetlands interspersed throughout prairie grasslands or arctic tundra. An early fall migrant, the species arrives on wintering areas beginning in August, after wing molt, often forming large roosting and feeding flocks on open, shallow wetlands and flooded agricultural fields. The birds consume grains, marsh plant seeds, and aquatic invertebrates throughout the fall and winter. Northern Pintails are among the earliest nesting ducks in North America, beginning shortly after ice-out in many northern areas. Individuals form new pair bonds each winter but are highly promiscuous during the nesting season, with mated and unmated males often involved in vigorous, acrobatic Pursuit Flights. Annual nest success and productivity vary with water conditions, predation, and weather. Females build nests on the ground, often long distances from water. Only the female incubates; her mate leaves shortly after incubation begins. Ducklings hatch together in one day, follow the female to water after a day in the nest, and fledge by July or August. Adults and ducklings consume mainly aquatic invertebrates during the breeding season. Predators and farming operations destroy many thousands of Northern Pintail nests annually; farming has also greatly reduced the amount of quality nesting cover available. Winter habitats are threatened by water shortages, agricultural development, contamination, and urbanization. Periods of extended drought in prairie nesting regions have caused dramatic population declines, usually followed by periods of recovery. Over the long term, however, the continental population of Northern Pintails has declined significantly from 6 million birds in

  17. Regional summer cooling from agricultural management practices that conserve soil carbon in the northern North American Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoy, Paul; Bromley, Gabriel; Gerken, Tobias; Tang, Angela; Morgan, Mallory; Wood, David; Ahmed, Selena; Bauer, Brad; Brookshire, Jack; Haggerty, Julia; Jarchow, Meghann; Miller, Perry; Peyton, Brent; Rashford, Ben; Spangler, Lee; Swanson, David; Taylor, Suzi; Poulter, Ben

    2017-04-01

    Conserving soil carbon resources while transitioning to a C negative economy is imperative for meeting global climate targets, and can also have critical but under-investigated regional effects. Parts of the North American northern Great Plains have experienced a remarkable 6 W m-2 decrease in summertime radiative forcing since the 1970s. Extreme temperature events now occur less frequently, maximum temperatures have decreased by some 2 ˚ C, and precipitation has increased by 10 mm per decade in some areas. This regional trend toward a cooler and wetter summer climate has coincided with changes in agricultural management. Namely, the practice of keeping fields fallow during summer (hereafter 'summerfallow') has declined by some 23 Mha from the 1970s until the present in the Canadian Prairie Provinces and across the U.S., an area of similar size to the United Kingdom. In addition to potential climate impacts, replacing summerfallow with no-till cropping systems results in lesser soil carbon losses - or even gains - and usually confers economic benefits. In other words, replacing summerfallow with no-till cropping may have resulted in a 'win-win-win' scenario for regional climate, soil carbon conservation, and farm-scale economics. The interaction between carbon, climate, and the economy in this region - and the precise domain that has experienced cooling - are still unknown, which limits our ability to forecast coupled carbon, climate, and human dynamics. Here, we use eddy covariance measurements to demonstrate that summerfallow results in carbon losses during the growing season of the same magnitude as carbon uptake by winter and spring wheat, on the order of 100 - 200 g C m-2 per growing season. We use eddy covariance energy flux measurements to model atmospheric boundary layer and lifted condensation level heights to demonstrate that observed regional changes in near-surface humidity (of up to 7%) are necessary to simulate observed increases in convective

  18. Resistance to plague among black-tailed prairie dog populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E; Williamson, Judy; Cobble, Kacy R; Busch, Joseph D; Antolin, Michael F; Wagner, David M

    2012-02-01

    In some rodent species frequently exposed to plague outbreaks caused by Yersinia pestis, resistance to the disease has evolved as a population trait. As a first step in determining if plague resistance has developed in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), animals captured from colonies in a plague-free region (South Dakota) and two plague-endemic regions (Colorado and Texas) were challenged with Y. pestis at one of three doses (2.5, 250, or 2500 mouse LD50s). South Dakota prairie dogs were far more susceptible to plague than Colorado and Texas prairie dogs (pplague resistance.

  19. Active and Healthy Ageing in EU and the regional approach in the Northern Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joost Degenaar

    2014-01-01

    In the Northern Netherlands a regional Healthy Ageing innovation network has been developed in which many partners in research and education, health and welfare, business, and regional authorities have been collaborating since 2009. The founding father of Healthy Ageing in the Northern Netherlands

  20. Effects of climate change on ecosystem services in the Northern Rockies Region [Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis Warziniack; Megan Lawson; S. Karen Dante-Wood

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter, we focus on the ecosystem services provided to people who visit, live adjacent to, or otherwise benefit from natural resources on public lands. Communities in the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USFS) Northern Region and the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA), hereafter called the Northern Rockies region, are highly dependent on ecosystem...

  1. Geothermal regimes of the Clearlake region, northern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amador, M. [ed.; Burns, K.L.; Potter, R.M.

    1998-06-01

    The first commercial production of power from geothermal energy, at The Geysers steamfield in northern California in June 1960, was a triumph for the geothermal exploration industry. Before and since, there has been a search for further sources of commercial geothermal power in The Geysers--Clear Lake geothermal area surrounding The Geysers. As with all exploration programs, these were driven by models. The models in this case were of geothermal regimes, that is, the geometric distribution of temperature and permeability at depth, and estimates of the physical conditions in subsurface fluids. Studies in microseismicity and heat flow, did yield geophysical information relevant to active geothermal systems. Studies in stable-element geochemistry found hiatuses or divides at the Stoney Creek Fault and at the Collayomi Fault. In the region between the two faults, early speculation as to the presence of steamfields was disproved from the geochemical data, and the potential existence of hot-water systems was predicted. Studies in isotope geochemistry found the region was characterized by an isotope mixing trend. The combined geochemical data have negative implications for the existence of extensive hydrothermal systems and imply that fluids of deep origin are confined to small, localized systems adjacent to faults that act as conduits. There are also shallow hot-water aquifers. Outside fault-localized systems and hot-water aquifers, the area is an expanse of impermeable rock. The extraction of energy from the impermeable rock will require the development and application of new methods of reservoir creation and heat extraction such as hot dry rock technology.

  2. Soil properties and soil nitrogen dynamics of prairie-like forest openings and surrounding forests in Kentucky's Knobs Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.C. Rhoades; S.P. Miller; M.M. Shea

    2004-01-01

    Herbaceous communities located within forest openings increase plant species diversity of forests in the Knobs Region of Kentucky. Although these grass-dominated communities are protected and managed for rare plant species conservation, it is unclear how soil conditions may delineate the grassland-forest boundary. We compared soil chemical and physical properties and...

  3. Effects of Prairie Reconstruction on Soil-Water and Groundwater Nutrient Concentrations, Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prairie reconstruction is increasingly viewed as a viable best management practice for reducing nutrient losses in agricultural regions. At the Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge in Prairie City, IA, we are monitoring the effects of prairie reconstruction on subsurface water quality at a single sit...

  4. Urban Rights-of-Way as Reservoirs for Tall-Grass Prairie Plants and Butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leston, Lionel; Koper, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    Urban rights-of-way may be potential reservoirs of tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies. To determine if this is true, in 2007-2008, we conducted vegetation surveys of species richness and cover, and butterfly surveys of species richness and abundance, along 52 transmission lines and four remnant prairies in Winnipeg, Manitoba. We detected many prairie plants and butterflies within transmission lines. Some unmowed and infrequently managed transmission lines had native plant species richness and total percent cover of native plants comparable to that of similar-sized remnant tall-grass prairies in the region. Although we did not find significant differences in overall native butterfly numbers or species richness between rights-of-way and remnant prairies, we found lower numbers of some prairie butterflies along frequently mowed rights-of-way than within remnant tall-grass prairies. We also observed higher butterfly species richness along sites with more native plant species. By reducing mowing and spraying and reintroducing tall-grass prairie plants, urban rights-of-way could serve as extensive reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies in urban landscapes. Eventually, managing urban rights-of-way as reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and animals could contribute to the restoration of tall-grass prairie in the North American Midwest.

  5. Potential of soil liquefaction at Perlis, northern region of Malalysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazaly, Zuhayr Md; Rahim, Mustaqqim Abdul; Nasir, Mohamad Amzar Bin Mhd; Isa, Nur Fitriah; Zaki, Mohd Faiz Mohammad; Hassan, Zulkarnain Bin; Ismail, Zul-Atfi Bin

    2017-09-01

    Soil liquefaction is earthquake's secondary effect which could cause fatal damages and structures instability. Despite Malaysia been located in stable zone of Pacific Ring of Fire, few significant surrounded quakes like Sumatra-Andaman earthquake had prompted Malaysian's public concern, especially in Perlis area, on local seismic resistant. Hence, this research presents the analysis result of liquefaction potential of the soils, as the secondary effect of earthquake, within Perlis, northern region of Malaysia; the next strong and sustainable metropolis by using semi-empirical procedures introduced by Seed and Idriss. The study consists of two stages which were determination of the local geological and geotechnical site conditions within Perlis and analysis of soil liquefaction susceptibility by using various methods and liquefaction potential by using Simplified Procedure developed by Seed and Idriss on stress approach. There were consist of four phases implemented in order to achieve the objectives targeted for the study after problem being identified. Firstly, a comprehensive review of literature on liquefaction at Perlis was carried out. Second phase was data collection process that includes collection of Site Investigation (SI) report. Thirdly, data analysis was carried out by utilizing suitable method. The final phase was to draw conclusion and recommendation for this study. It can be concluded that the overall Perlis due to earthquake moment magnitude below 7.5 has no potential to soil liquefaction. However, with the range of liquefaction potential of 1.60 to 5.64 in Kuala Perlis area, it is liquefiable. The development of liquefaction severity map of Perlis, Malaysia in this research, may be used by others as a reference for seismic design and standard safety measures as well as for further research work.

  6. Public knowledge and perceptions of black-tailed prairie dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, B.L.; Cline, K.

    2003-01-01

    Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) historically occupied an 11-state region of the United States. We surveyed 1,900 residents (response rate 56%) of this region to understand citizen knowledge and perceptions about prairie dogs and their management. Those who have direct experience - e.g., those who live very close to prairie dog colonies or know the location of the nearest colony - have higher levels of knowledge. A significantly higher level of knowledge was documented among those who were politically active when compared with the general public. Those who found environmental issues difficult to understand were associated with lower knowledge. People with direct experience were likely to hold negative views, whereas those holding environmentalist values were likely to express positive attitudes toward the species. Although those with higher education reported more knowledge, there was no link between a person's level of knowledge and perceptions of prairie dog management.

  7. Effects of Climate Change on Cultural Resources in the Northern Rockies Region [Chapter 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl M. Davis

    2018-01-01

    People have inhabited the Northern Rocky Mountains of the United States since the close of the last Pleistocene glacial period, some 14,000 years B.P. (Fagan 1990; Meltzer 2009). Evidence of this ancient and more recent human occupation is found throughout the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USFS) Northern Region and the Greater Yellowstone Area,...

  8. Effects of land use on greenhouse gas fluxes and soil properties of wetland catchments in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tangen, Brian A., E-mail: btangen@usgs.gov; Finocchiaro, Raymond G., E-mail: rfinocchiaro@usgs.gov; Gleason, Robert A., E-mail: rgleason@usgs.gov

    2015-11-15

    Wetland restoration has been suggested as policy goal with multiple environmental benefits including enhancement of atmospheric carbon sequestration. However, there are concerns that increased methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions associated with restoration may outweigh potential benefits. A comprehensive, 4-year study of 119 wetland catchments was conducted in the Prairie Pothole Region of the north-central U.S. to assess the effects of land use on greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes and soil properties. Results showed that the effects of land use on GHG fluxes and abiotic soil properties differed with respect to catchment zone (upland, wetland), wetland classification, geographic location, and year. Mean CH{sub 4} fluxes from the uplands were predictably low (< 0.02 g CH{sub 4} m{sup −2} day{sup −1}), while wetland zone CH{sub 4} fluxes were much greater (< 0.001–3.9 g CH{sub 4} m{sup −2} day{sup −1}). Mean cumulative seasonal CH{sub 4} fluxes ranged from roughly 0–650 g CH{sub 4} m{sup −2}, with an overall mean of approximately 160 g CH{sub 4} m{sup −2}. These maximum cumulative CH{sub 4} fluxes were nearly 3 times as high as previously reported in North America. The overall magnitude and variability of N{sub 2}O fluxes from this study (< 0.0001–0.0023 g N{sub 2}O m{sup −2} day{sup −1}) were comparable to previously reported values. Results suggest that soil organic carbon is lost when relatively undisturbed catchments are converted for agriculture, and that when non-drained cropland catchments are restored, CH{sub 4} fluxes generally are not different than the pre-restoration baseline. Conversely, when drained cropland catchments are restored, CH{sub 4} fluxes are noticeably higher. Consequently, it is important to consider the type of wetland restoration (drained, non-drained) when assessing restoration benefits. Results also suggest that elevated N{sub 2}O fluxes from cropland catchments likely would be reduced through restoration. The overall

  9. Land Surface Phenologies and Seasonalities of Croplands and Grasslands in the US Prairie Pothole Region Using Passive Microwave Data (2003-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, W. G.; Henebry, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    Grasslands and wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) have been converted to croplands in recent years. Crops cultivated in the PPR are also changing: spring wheat and alfalfa/hay are being switched to corn and soybean due to biofuel demand. According to the USDA Cropland Data Layer (CDL) from 2003 to 2015, spring wheat significantly decreased (r2 = 0.74), while corn and soybeans significantly increased (r2 = 0.86). We characterized land surface phenologies and land surface seasonalities across the PPR using the finer temporal (twice daily) but much lower spatial (25 km) resolution Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR: blended from AMSR-E and AMSR2) enhanced land surface parameters for 2003-2015 (DOY 91-330 annual cycles). We tracked the temporal development of these land surface parameters as a function of accumulated growing degree-days (AGDD) based on the AMSR retrieved air temperature data. Growing degree-days (GDD) revealed distinct seasonality typical to temperate grasslands and croplands. GDD peaks were 23°C and it peaks at 1700°C AGDD. Precipitable water vapor (V) displayed seasonality comparable to GDD. Vegetation optical depth (VOD) revealed distinct land surface phenologies for grasslands versus croplands. We explored the changing crop fractions within the 25 km AMSR pixels using the CDL. Crop-dominated sites VOD time series caught the early spring growth, ploughing, and crop growth dynamics. In contrast, the VOD time series at grass-dominated sites exhibited a lower but more extended amplitude throughout the non-frozen season. VODs peaked at 1.6 and 1.3 for croplands and grasslands, respectively. Croplands peaked about a month later than grasslands (2200 °C AGDD vs. 1600 °C AGDD). The other parameters available from the AMSR dataset—soil moisture (sm), and fractional open water (fw)—together with the AGDD time series constructed from the AMSR air temperature data revealed the passage of storm systems during the growing season. Soil

  10. Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in northern region of Senegal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an emerging worldwide epidemic but few data are available in African populations. We aimed to assess prevalence of CKD in adult populations of Saint-Louis (northern Senegal). Methods: In a population-based survey between January and May 2012, we included 1,037 adults ...

  11. Boda Boda Injuries in Gulu Regional Hospital, Northern Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Trauma is the commonest indication for surgical admission in Gulu Hospital in Northern Uganda. The situation was made worst by the conflict between the government of Uganda and the LRA. As and when the guns fell silent, the Boda-boda motocycles brought another form of trauma epidemic. These injuries ...

  12. Livelihood activities of migrants from Ghana's northern regions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of socioeconomic development between the northern and southern parts of the country. The findings of this paper have implications for population distribution, occupational mobility and patterns of socioeconomic development across Ghana. Keywords: Livelihood activities, north-south migration, occupational mobility, ...

  13. Natural regeneration of northern hardwoods in the northern Great Lakes Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Tubbs

    1977-01-01

    Reviews silvical and silvicultural information about natural regeneration pertinent to forestry practices in Lake State northern hardwood types. Seed production; effects of light, moisture, temperature and competition on establishment and growth; and how damage affects mortality rates and form are covered. Clearcutting, selection, and shelterwood experiments are...

  14. Regional characteristics of spring Asian dust and its impact on aerosol chemistry over northern China

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Y. L.; Zhuang, G. S.; Wang, Z. F.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, W. J.; Tang, A. H.; Zhao, X. J.; Jia, L.

    2006-01-01

    TSP and PM2.5 aerosol samples were synchronously collected at six sites along the transport pathway of dust storm from desert regions to coastal areas in the spring of 2004. The aerosol concentration and composition were measured to investigate the regional characteristics of spring Asian dust and its impact on aerosol chemistry over northern China. Based on the daily PM10 concentrations in 13 cities, the northern China could be divided into five ...

  15. Prevalence of abnormal birth weight and related factors in Northern region, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Abubakari, Abdulai; Kynast-Wolf, Gisela; Jahn, Albrecht

    2015-01-01

    Background: Birth weight is a crucial determinant of the development potential of the newborn. Abnormal newborn weights are associated with negative effects on the health and survival of the baby and the mother. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the prevalence of abnormal birth weight and related factors in Northern region, Ghana. Methods: The study was a facility-based cross-sectional survey in five hospitals in Northern region, Ghana. These hospitals were selected based on t...

  16. Spent fuel storage at Prairie Island: January 1995 status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Closs, J.; Kress, L.

    1995-01-01

    The disposal of spent nuclear fuel has been an issue for the US since the inception of the commercial nuclear power industry. In the past decade, it has become a critical factor in the continued operation of some nuclear power plants, including the two units at Prairie Island. As the struggles and litigation over storage alternatives wage on, spent fuel pools continue to fill and plants edge closer to premature shutdown. Due to the delays in the construction of a federal repository, many nuclear power plants have had to seek interim storage alternatives. In the case of Prairie Island, the safest and most feasible option is dry cask storage. This paper discusses the current status of the Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) Project at Prairie Island. It provides a historical background to the project, discusses the notable developments over the past year, and presents the projected plans of the Northern States Power Company (NSP) in regards to spent fuel storage

  17. Mobility Challenges in the Region of Northern Jutland, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Maria Quvang Lund; Laursen, Lea Louise Holst; Jensen, Ole B.

    distance between home and work and the possibility for job changes is declining. In this paper we would argue that as opposed to many traditional regional geography approaches or tourism studies this analysis put focus on the challenges to a peripheral region from the vantage point of an explicit mobilites...... perspective. Thus in accordance with the mobilities perspective (Urry 2002, Lassen, Jensen 2003, Cresswell 2010) we see that what may be thought of as issues of lack of tourism infrastructures also relate in a very detailed manner to the internal mobilities potentials of the residents in the region. But more...... interestingly, the “regional mobility assemblage” is wedded to social practices and everyday life ways of being mobile in the region. In order to understand and ultimately face the challenges facing this region one therefore needs to understand the culture of mobilities as a profound regional feature leading...

  18. Disease limits populations: plague and black-tailed prairie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cully, Jack F; Johnson, Tammi L; Collinge, Sharon K; Ray, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Plague is an exotic vector-borne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis that causes mortality rates approaching 100% in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). We mapped the perimeter of the active portions of black-tailed prairie dog colonies annually between 1999 and 2005 at four prairie dog colony complexes in areas with a history of plague, as well as at two complexes that were located outside the distribution of plague at the time of mapping and had therefore never been affected by the disease. We hypothesized that the presence of plague would significantly reduce overall black-tailed prairie dog colony area, reduce the sizes of colonies on these landscapes, and increase nearest-neighbor distances between colonies. Within the region historically affected by plague, individual colonies were smaller, nearest-neighbor distances were greater, and the proportion of potential habitat occupied by active prairie dog colonies was smaller than at plague-free sites. Populations that endured plague were composed of fewer large colonies (>100 ha) than populations that were historically plague free. We suggest that these differences among sites in colony size and isolation may slow recolonization after extirpation. At the same time, greater intercolony distances may also reduce intercolony transmission of pathogens. Reduced transmission among smaller and more distant colonies may ultimately enhance long-term prairie dog population persistence in areas where plague is present.

  19. Flea and Small Mammal Species Composition in Mixed-Grass Prairies: Implications for the Maintenance of Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestas, Lauren P; Britten, Hugh B

    2017-07-01

    Maintenance of sylvatic plague in prairie dogs (Cynomis spp.) was once thought unlikely due to high mortality rates; yet more recent findings indicate that low-level enzootic plague may be maintained in susceptible prairie dog populations. Another hypothesis for the maintenance of sylvatic plague involves small mammals, other than prairie dogs, as an alternative reservoir in the sylvatic plague system. These hypotheses, however, are not mutually exclusive, as both prairie dogs and small mammals could together be driving sylvatic cycles of plague. The concept of a bridging vector has been used to explain the transmission of pathogens from one host species to another. In the case of sylvatic plague, this would require overlap in fleas between small mammals and prairie dogs, and potentially other species such as carnivores. Our goal was to evaluate the level of flea sharing between black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomis ludovicianus) and other small mammals in a mixed-grass prairie in South Dakota. We investigated the species richness of small mammals and small-mammal fleas in a mixed-grass prairie system and compared findings with previous studies from a short-grass ecosystem in Colorado. Over the summer field seasons 2014-2016 we live-trapped small mammals, collected fleas, and showed differences between both the flea and small mammal composition of the two systems. We also recorded higher densities of deer mice and lower densities of northern grasshopper mice in mixed versus shortgrass prairies. We confirmed, as is the case in shortgrass prairies, a lack of substantial flea species overlap on small mammal hosts and fleas from prairie dogs and their burrows. Moreover this study demonstrates that although small mammals may not play a large part in interepizootic plague cycling in shortgrass prairie ecosystems, their role in mixed-grass prairies requires further evaluation.

  20. Biomass measurement and modeling challenges for hardwood species in the northern region

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Westfall; David W. MacFarlane; Aaron R. Weiskittel

    2012-01-01

    Biomass models for most commercially important hardwood species in the northern region of the U.S. are often based on data of very limited spatial extent and range of tree characteristics, suggesting uncertain accuracy when applied at regional scales. Also, the current models can have poor predictive ability for the proportions of biomass found in major tree components...

  1. THE TOURISM POTENTIAL OF NORTHERN PORTUGAL AND ITS RELEVANCE FOR A REGIONAL BRANDING STRATEGY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore a potential regional branding strategy for the northern part of Portugal, emphasizing the regional tourism potential. Furthermore, it aims to clarify the answers of the following research questions: i) is tourism a strategic domain with the potential to

  2. Socio-Personal Self-Determination of School- children in a Northern Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sharkunova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of increasing scope of labor migration to the northern regions of Russia and simultaneous outflow of talented young people from Khanty-Mansiysk autonomous region. Given trends and tendencies aggravate the problem of education and training the specialists capable of maintaining and developing the regional economy in compliance with the northern traditions and values, and in the interest of present and future generations. The author analyzes peculiarities of «I-concept» formation by school- children in northern regions along with social and psychological difficulties caused by increasing migration processes. As a way for developing a positive future image of native region, the author recommends using the constructive life experience method, implying specificity of northern consciousness and self-determination, and stimulating pupils’ cognitive activity. The teaching method based on the positive life experience is described including the complex of techniques: actualization and analysis of pupils’ life experience, creative modeling of ideal educational objects, comparing statistic data and the main social indices of the region in question and Russia in average. Implementation of the above method in specialized lyceums of Khanty-Mansiysk is described including the experimental data. The research findings can be used by teachers working in other regions with unfavorable climatic conditions. 

  3. Regional assessment of woody biomass physical availability as an energy feedstock for combined combustion in the US northern region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Goerndt; Francisco X. Aguilar; Patrick Miles; Stephen Shifley; Nianfu Song; Hank Stelzer

    2012-01-01

    Woody biomass is a renewable energy feedstock with the potential to reduce current use of nonrenewable fossil fuels. We estimated the physical availability of woody biomass for cocombustion at coal-fired electricity plants in the 20-state US northern region. First, we estimated the total amount of woody biomass needed to replace total annual coal-based electricity...

  4. Plants of the Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowie, I.D.; Finlayson, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    Published and unpublished lists of plants of the Alligator Rivers Region have been combined into a single, up-to-date check-list. The list has been designed to replace fragmented, regional listings with a single document suitable for use by both professional and amateur botanists. The list is ordered in the taxonomic sequence adopted for the Flora of Australia and includes 1346 species from 165 families. These are 1275 native and 71 alien species listed. Separate lists of rare species are given and discussed

  5. Photochemical Attenuation of Pesticides in Prairie Potholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, T.; Arnold, W. A.

    2013-12-01

    Prairie potholes are small, shallow, glacially-derived wetlands scattered across a vast region extending from Midwestern United States into south central Canada known as the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR). They constitute one of the largest inland wetland systems on Earth and play a prominent role in sustaining the regional biodiversity and productivity. Throughout the PPR, historic and contemporary conversion of native prairie for agriculture resulted in a pronounced loss of potholes. Remaining potholes have become interspersed within a matrix of agricultural landscape and trap nonpoint source pollutants such as pesticides from adjacent farmland, which has raised concerns regarding negative impacts on the water quality of downstream water bodies. The fate and persistence of pesticides in potholes, however, remains largely unexplored. Prairie potholes are typically characterized by shallow depth (i.e., large photic zone) and high levels of dissolved organic matter (DOM), making them ideal for photochemical reactions. In this context, we collected pothole water samples from North Dakota to investigate the rates and mechanisms of sunlight-induced attenuation of pesticides. The photodegradation kinetics and pathways of sixteen pesticides in the pothole water were monitored under both simulated and natural sunlight. For most pesticides, photolysis accelerated in the pothole water relative to the buffer control, which pointed to the importance of photosensitized processes (i.e., indirect photolysis). Upon solar irradiation, a mixture of photochemically produced reactive intermediates (PPRIs), such as carbonate radical, hydroxyl radical, singlet oxygen, and triplet-excited state DOM, formed in the pothole water. The major pathways through which pesticides degraded were inferred from the relative contribution attributable to specific PPRIs via quencher experiments. Different classes of pesticides exhibited contrasting photochemical behavior, but singlet oxygen and triplet

  6. The Tourism Potential of Northern Portugal and Its Relevance for a Regional Branding Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo OLIVEIRA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explore a potential regional branding strategy for the northern part of Portugal, emphasizing the regional tourism potential. Furthermore, it aims to clarify the answers of the following research questions: i is tourism a strategic domain with the potential to integrate a branding strategy at the regional level? ii is a regional branding strategy an engine by which to enable economic and social transformation in the region, thus responding to the contemporary challenges such as weak economic confidence and unemployment? To answer these questions, a content analysis on the policy documents: i Northern Portugal Strategic Guidelines 2014-2020 and ii National Strategic Plan for Tourism 2013-2015 has been performed. In addition, the article details the results of in-depth interviews conducted with two regional entities: i Tourism of Porto and the North of Portugal (TPNP, in charge of national tourism planning and promotion and ii North Regional Coordination and Development Commission (CCDRN, involved in regional planning and development. The findings reinforce the importance of tourism as a strategic domain to boost the economy and create momentum in Northern Portugal. Moreover, tourism is seen by the respondents as a key objective in a regional branding strategy.

  7. Cloud morphology and dynamics in Saturn's northern polar region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antuñano, Arrate; del Río-Gaztelurrutia, Teresa; Sánchez-Lavega, Agustín; Rodríguez-Aseguinolaza, Javier

    2018-01-01

    We present a study of the cloud morphology and motions in the north polar region of Saturn, from latitude ∼ 70°N to the pole based on Cassini ISS images obtained between January 2009 and November 2014. This region shows a variety of dynamical structures: the permanent hexagon wave and its intense eastward jet, a large field of permanent ;puffy; clouds with scales from 10 - 500 km, probably of convective origin, local cyclone and anticyclones vortices with sizes of ∼1,000 km embedded in this field, and finally the intense cyclonic polar vortex. We report changes in the albedo of the clouds that delineate rings of circulation around the polar vortex and the presence of ;plume-like; activity in the hexagon jet, in both cases not accompanied with significant variations in the corresponding jets. No meridional migration is observed in the clouds forming and merging in the field of puffy clouds, suggesting that their mergers do not contribute to the maintenance of the polar vortex. Finally, we analyze the dominant growing modes for barotropic and baroclinic instabilities in the hexagon jet, showing that a mode 6 barotropic instability is dominant at the latitude of the hexagon.

  8. Petrology of the Northern Adula Region, Switzerland (with particular reference to the Glaucophane-Bearing Rocks)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plas, van der L.

    1959-01-01

    Geological and petrographical investigations were carried out in the northern part of the so-called Adula Nappe, one of the deepest Pennine nappes. The area under consideration lies in the SE of Switzerland, near Vals, S of Ilanz. This area is situated north of the Lepontinic gneiss-region, the

  9. USDA Northern Plains Regional Climate Hub assessment of climate change variability and adaptation and mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchers, farmers and forest land owners in the Northern Plains have experienced warmer temperatures (1 to 1.5 degrees F), longer growing seasons (about a week and a half) and generally more precipitation (5 to >15% increases over the eastern 2/3 of this region) over the past twenty years compared t...

  10. An overview of the floristic richness and conservation of the arid regions of northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura Arriaga; Elizabeth Moreno; Claudia Aguilar

    2005-01-01

    The arid and semiarid regions of Northern Mexico harbor diverse, highly endemic, and geographically complex ecosystems. These share topographic and biogeographic similarities that can be used as an analytical framework to assess biodiversity patterns. This study presents the current status of vascular plant inventories for Mexican Aridamerica. The spatial distribution...

  11. Benefit-sharing arrangements between oil companies and indigenous people in Russian northern regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulaeva, Svetlana; Tysyachnyuk, Maria

    2017-01-01

    This research provides an insight into various modes of benefit-sharing agreements between oil and gas companies and indigenous people in Russia's northern regions, e.g., paternalism, corporate social responsibility, and partnership. The paper examines factors that influence benefit-sharing

  12. Estimation of water balance in the Northern Region of Ghana | Pelig ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to understand the reasons why there is low groundwater potential in the Northern Region of Ghana. This was done by determining the mean annual recharge using three independent methods. These are; (i) use of hydrological parameters like precipitation and evapotranspiration (ii) use of the ...

  13. Evaluating the Competitiveness of the Northern and Southern Macro-Regions of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Aquilino

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the Crouch and Ritchie (1999 model of competitiveness to investigate/measure the competitiveness of northern and southern Italian macro-regions. Researching competitive advantages along with identifying strengths/weaknesses represent the objectives of this study. 156 responses were analysed, and findings show that northern regions tend to be more competitive than southern regions. While naturally endowed and created resources represent strengths in both regions, the competitiveness of all the determinant factors included in the tourism development, planning and policy of both tourist destinations are found to be quite inadequate. Moreover, the findings revealed that these mature destinations are experiencing the effects unleashed by a number of trends such as the development of new forms of tourism, the increasing number of tourist arrivals, the growth of the global economy and the sophistication of tourists’ tastes, representing both opportunities and threats that Italian destinations need to consider when planning/developing new strategies.

  14. Climate change alters plant biogeography in Mediterranean prairies along the West Coast, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer-Meister, Laurel; Bridgham, Scott D; Reynolds, Lorien L; Goklany, Maya E; Wilson, Hannah E; Little, Chelsea J; Ferguson, Aryana; Johnson, Bart R

    2016-02-01

    Projected changes in climate are expected to have widespread effects on plant community composition and diversity in coming decades. However, multisite, multifactor climate manipulation studies that have examined whether observed responses are regionally consistent and whether multiple climate perturbations are interdependent are rare. Using such an experiment, we quantified how warming and increased precipitation intensity affect the relative dominance of plant functional groups and diversity across a broad climate gradient of Mediterranean prairies. We implemented a fully factorial climate manipulation of warming (+2.5-3.0 °C) and increased wet-season precipitation (+20%) at three sites across a 520-km latitudinal gradient in the Pacific Northwest, USA. After seeding with a nearly identical mix of native species at all sites, we measured plant community composition (i.e., cover, richness, and diversity), temperature, and soil moisture for 3 years. Warming and the resultant drying of soils altered plant community composition, decreased native diversity, and increased total cover, with warmed northern communities becoming more similar to communities further south. In particular, after two full years of warming, annual cover increased and forb cover decreased at all sites mirroring the natural biogeographic pattern. This suggests that the extant climate gradient of increasing heat and drought severity is responsible for a large part of the observed biogeographic pattern of increasing annual invasion in US West Coast prairies as one moves further south. Additional precipitation during the rainy season did little to relieve drought stress and had minimal effects on plant community composition. Our results suggest that the projected increase in drought severity (i.e., hotter, drier summers) in Pacific Northwest prairies may lead to increased invasion by annuals and a loss of forbs, similar to what has been observed in central and southern California, resulting in

  15. Landscape assessment of tree communities in the northern karst region of Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliann E. Aukema; Tomas A. Carlo; Jaime A. Collazo

    2007-01-01

    The northern karst of Puerto Rico is a unique formation that contains one of the island’s largest remaining forested tracts. The region is under ever-increasing human pressure, but large portions of it are being considered for conservation. Forest classification of the region is at a coarse scale, such that it is considered one vegetation type. We asked whether there...

  16. Potential source regions of dust accumulated in northern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasowska, S.; Woronko, B.

    2012-04-01

    Iguidi and Chech-Adrar, although the most probable source area is Erg Occidental. Tunisian dusts come from vast expanses of Erg Oriental and Chott-el-Jerid. The potential source of the dusts accumulated in Alexandria could be Libyan Desert. This does not preclude also much more distant sources of sediment, as for instance ergs from North Sudan. From the other hand the presence of shell parts of diatoms of the Actinoptychus genus may indicate the dispelling of the Nile alluvium. Key words: source region, aeolian accumulation, north Africa, textural features of grains, aeolian dust, meteorological situation, Sahara, SEM analysis

  17. Landsat-based trend analysis of lake dynamics across northern permafrost regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitze, Ingmar; Grosse, Guido; Jones, Benjamin M.; Arp, Christopher D.; Ulrich, Mathias; Federov, Alexander; Veremeeva, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Lakes are a ubiquitous landscape feature in northern permafrost regions. They have a strong impact on carbon, energy and water fluxes and can be quite responsive to climate change. The monitoring of lake change in northern high latitudes, at a sufficiently accurate spatial and temporal resolution, is crucial for understanding the underlying processes driving lake change. To date, lake change studies in permafrost regions were based on a variety of different sources, image acquisition periods and single snapshots, and localized analysis, which hinders the comparison of different regions. Here we present, a methodology based on machine-learning based classification of robust trends of multi-spectral indices of Landsat data (TM,ETM+, OLI) and object-based lake detection, to analyze and compare the individual, local and regional lake dynamics of four different study sites (Alaska North Slope, Western Alaska, Central Yakutia, Kolyma Lowland) in the northern permafrost zone from 1999 to 2014. Regional patterns of lake area change on the Alaska North Slope (-0.69%), Western Alaska (-2.82%), and Kolyma Lowland (-0.51%) largely include increases due to thermokarst lake expansion, but more dominant lake area losses due to catastrophic lake drainage events. In contrast, Central Yakutia showed a remarkable increase in lake area of 48.48%, likely resulting from warmer and wetter climate conditions over the latter half of the study period. Within all study regions, variability in lake dynamics was associated with differences in permafrost characteristics, landscape position (i.e. upland vs. lowland), and surface geology. With the global availability of Landsat data and a consistent methodology for processing the input data derived from robust trends of multi-spectral indices, we demonstrate a transferability, scalability and consistency of lake change analysis within the northern permafrost region.

  18. Citizen knowledge and perception of black-tailed prairie dog management: Report to respondents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Natalie R.; Brinson, Ayeisha; Ponds, Phadrea D.; Cline, Kurt; Lamb, Berton L.

    2001-01-01

    What do citizens know about black-tailed prairie dogs, and where do they get their information? When management decisions need to be made regarding an animal such as the black-tailed prairie dog, an understanding of the species and its relationship to humans is necessary. This includes knowing the biology of the animal, where it lives, and how it interacts with other animals. But it is equally important for those making decisions about the species to understand citizens’ knowledge and perceptions so managers can effectively communicate with the public and help the public participate in planning and decision making activities. Unfortunately, what is known about public knowledge, perception, and preferences concerning prairie dog management is limited to data from only a few areas. This study attempts to answer the question: What do people in the short-grass prairie region of the United States know and think about black-tailed prairie dogs?

  19. The Sabethines of Northern Andean Coffee-Growing Regions of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaza-Vasco, Juan; López-Rubio, Andrés; Galeano, Juan; Uribe, Sandra; Vélez, Iván; Porter, Charles

    2015-06-01

    Sampling for sabethine mosquitoes occurred intermittently from September 2007 to April 2013 in 17 municipalities, located in 5 departments (divisions) in the northern Andean coffee-growing regions of Colombia. Of the 9 genera within the Sabethini tribe known to occur in the Neotropical region, 6 were encountered including 15 species: Jonhbelkinia ulopus, Limatus durhamii, Sabethes ignotus, Sa. luxodens, Sa. undosus, Shannoniana fluviatilis, Trichoprosopon compressum, Tr. digitatum, Tr. evansae, Tr. pallidiventer s.l., Tr. pallidiventer s.s., Wyeomyia arthrostigma, Wy. oblita, Wy. ulocoma, and Wy. undulata. The species Sa. luxodens and Wy. undulata constitute new records for Colombia. These records broaden the knowledge of this important group that includes some important species related to the arbovirus transmission. Records are from the northern Colombian Andes, a region noted for coffee cultivation and ecotourism.

  20. The Demographic Situation in the Northern Economic Region of the Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIU BACIU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The demographic situation within the Northern Economic Region is worse than the national average. This fact is determined by the decrease of the birth rate values, the increase of the mortality values and the negative natural and migration growth. They also lead to a change of the rate between age groups, in favour of the elderly. In order to diminish such a situation, urgent measures should be taken (policies for economic increase and income increase at local, department and regional level, to stop the deep demographic crisis of the region.

  1. Urban Agglomeration and Extension in Northern Coast of West Java: A Transformation into Mega Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Octifanny, Y.; Hudalah, D.

    2017-07-01

    In the past decade, at least three neighbouring metropolitan areas in the northwestern part of the island have been merging with each other: Jakarta Metropolitan Area (Jabodetabek), Bandung Metropolitan Area (Bandung Raya), and Cirebon Metropolitan Area (Ciayumajakuning). It is expected to be the first island-based mega-conurbation. This paper explores the potential emergence of mega region as a ground study, where mega region can be used for economic, logistic, transportation development. Authors use scoring analysis from economic and demographic indicators. The outcomes found a new and larger formation of city-region in the northern coast road networks (Pantura) - specifically western part of Java Island.

  2. Dengue Infection Pattern in Northern and Southern Region of Sukabumi City in 2012

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    Roy Nusa Rahagus Edo Santya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of dengue virus infection in Sukabumi city is still as major public health problem because of its case, its distribution, and occurs almost throughout the year. Geographically, Sukabumi city located in mountainous landscape with vary altitude among regions. Based on dengue incidence data reported by Health District of Sukabumi, tracking and plotting patient location and time of the incident was conducted in 2012. Also, the incidence in each village and months was determined. Result shows that there were difference peaks of cases in the northern region where the cases mostly occur in the second half and at the end of the year. Whereas, in Southern region mostly occurred in early first half of the year. North-South division was determined based on altitude differences which Northern-Southern part of Sukabumi city has altitude range that relatively consistent than Western–Eastern part of this city. It concludes that pattern of dengue case was different between the Northern and the Southern part of the city. This condition requires a specific approach to cope dengue case in every region of the city.

  3. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Henderson

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A subset of invasive alien plant species in southern Africa was analysed in terms of their history of introduction, rate of spread, countries/region of origin, taxonomy, growth forms, cultivated uses, weed status and current distribution in southern Africa, and comparisons made of those originating from south of the tropic of Capricorn, north of the tropic of Cancer and from the tropics. The subset of 233 species, belonging to 58 families, includes all important declared species and some potentially important species. Almost as many species originate from temperate regions (112 as from the tropics (121. Most southern temperate species came from Australia (28/36, most tropical species from tropical America (92/121 and most northern temperate species from Europe (including the Mediterranean and Asia (58/76. Transformers account for 33% of  all species. More transformers are of tropical origin (36 than of northern temperate (24 and southern temperate origin (18. However. 50% of southern temperate species are transformers, compared to 32% of northern temperate and 29% of tropical species. Southern temperate transformer species are mainly woody trees and shrubs that were established on a grand scale as silvicultural crops, barriers (hedges, windbreaks and screens and cover/binders. Most aquatics, herbs, climbers and succulent shrubs an. trom the tropics. Ornamentals are the single largest category of plants from all three regions, the tropics having contributed twice as many species as temperate regions.

  4. The adaptive capacity of smallholder farmers to climate change in the Northern Region of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majeed Abdul-Razak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to adversely affect agricultural production, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where the agricultural sector forms the backbone of most countries’ economies. This thus holds true for the agriculture sector of the Northern Region of Ghana which is largely rain-fed and dominated by smallholder farmers with minimal livelihood alternatives. The main research question of this paper is how the adaptive capacity to climate change of smallholder farmers in the Northern Region of Ghana can be characterised? The paper proposes an indicator-based framework for assessing the adaptive capacity of smallholder farmers in the Northern Region of Ghana along six main determinants of adaptive capacity: economic resources, social capital, awareness and training, technology, infrastructure and institutions. Based on a thorough literature review and qualitative interviews with experts for rural livelihoods and agriculture in the study region, the determinants were ranked and three to five indicators per determinant were selected. The results of the expert interviews show that economic resources, awareness and training as well as technological capacities seem most relevant for smallholder farmers’ adaptive capacity while infrastructure, social capital, and institutions were ranked least important. The study operationalized the indicators in a standardized survey questionnaire and tested it in two agrarian communities in the Northern Region of Ghana. The survey results show the aggregate adaptive capacity of respondents is low. However, disparities in adaptive capacity were recorded among respondents in terms of gender and education. Differentiating between the determinants women farmer show significantly lower capacities in fields of economic resources, technology and knowledge and awareness. This paper recommends resilience building interventions in the study area that target individuals with low adaptive capacities, especially women

  5. Dynamics of investment in fixed capital in the economy of the Northern regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusif Alimovich Gadzhiev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes characteristics and trends of investment in fixed capital of the Northern regions. It singles out phases of rapid pre-crisis growth, crisis, post-crisis growth and stagnation. Stagnation and decline in recent years are caused by completed major investment projects, reduced own funds of enterprises, limited availability of investment resources and increased capital outflow. The article reveals that the growth of investment in fixed capital of the North in the post-crisis period is provided by the regions, carrying out major investment in oil and gas pipeline transport, oil extraction, production and distribution of electricity, gas and water. The changes in the sectoral structure of investment in fixed capital of the Northern regions are barely visible; the share of investment in the traded sector is still high, especially in mining, due to the Northern regions’ specialization in the extractive industries. The share of investment in the public sector and social services remains low. The specific structure of investment in fixed capital has changed: the share of investment in buildings (excluding housing and structures has increased greatly; the share of investment in machinery, equipment, vehicles has decreased due to insufficient investment in mining enterprises and financial shortages in manufacturing. In most regions the structure of investment in fixed capital by directions is characterized by the increase in the share of investment in machinery, equipment, vehicles in new construction, investment in buildings and structures and the decline in the proportion of investment in machinery, equipment, vehicles modernization and reconstruction and acquisition of new fixed assets. The dynamics and the inefficient structure of investment in fixed assets and directions testify the shortage of investment in innovation in the Northern regions

  6. Late Carboniferous Monzonite-Granosyenite Magmatism in the Northern Balkhash Region (Central Kazakhstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolov, P. V.; Degtyarev, K. E.; Salnikova, E. B.; Tretyakov, A. A.; Kotov, A. B.; Anisimova, I. V.; Plotkina, Yu. V.

    2018-02-01

    U-Pb dating of the Torangalyk Complex (Northern Balkhash) yielded a Late Carboniferous age of 305 ± 2 Ma. Taking into account the previous data, a new scheme for Late Paleozoic granitic magmatism in this region has been proposed. It includes the Early Carboniferous granite-granodiorite Balkhash Complex, Late Carboniferous monzonite-granosyenite Kokdombak and Torangalyk complexes, and the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian granite-leucogranite Akchatau Complex.

  7. The Diet of the Rhinolophidae in the “Kabylia of the Babors” Region, Northern Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmim Mourad; Moali Aissa

    2012-01-01

    Many bats of the Rhinolophidae family are currently threatened all over the world. In Algeria they are represented by six species listed in the IUCN red list and whose hunting habits and diet are, at best, poorly known. This paper describes the diet composition of four of these species (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, R. hipposideros, R. euryale and R. blasii) in the Bejaia and Jijel districts, and in Kabylia of the Babors region, in northern Algeria. Between March 2007 and January 2008 guano was ...

  8. Ice-supersaturated regions and subvisible cirrus in the northern midlatitude upper troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierens, Klaus; Schumann, Ulrich; Helten, Manfred; Smit, Herman; Wang, Pi-Huan

    2000-09-01

    Humidity and temperature data from the Measurement of Ozone by Airbus in-service Aircraft (MOZAIC) project have been used to produce maps of probability for ice supersaturation in two 50 hPa thick layers centered around 200 and 250 hPa. As the MOZAIC data cover only international air routes, the resulting maps cover mainly the northern midlatitudes. The data of ice supersaturation have then been correlated with data of frequency of occurrence of subvisible cirrus from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II) satellite instrument. The correlation analysis provided strong indications that subvisible cirrus (SVC) is associated to ice-supersaturated regions (ISSRs), although processes are possible that can decouple SVC from ISSRs. A first trial to derive a global picture of ice supersaturation near the tropopause was performed using a measure of cirrus fractional coverage constructed from meteorological analyses of European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts and to correlate this with the supersaturation data. The correlation was only moderate (although significant), leading to the tentative conjecture that regions of frequent ice supersaturation are to be expected over the Indonesian archipelago, over the Amazonas basin, and over the northern Pacific between Japan and Canada. A final correlation analysis between the meteorological analysis data and the SVC data indicated that the formation of SVC is generally thermodynamically controlled, with the exception of the northern midlatitude SVC. The composition of the aerosol at the northern midlatitude tropopause is probably variable due to industrial emissions and air traffic. Hence the freezing properties of these particles may become important, which results in a weaker thermodynamic control of SVC formation in the northern midlatitudes.

  9. Observational characteristics of cloud radiative effects over three arid regions in the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiandong; Wang, Tianhe; Habib, Ammara

    2017-08-01

    Cloud-radiation processes play an important role in regional energy budgets and surface temperature changes over arid regions. Cloud radiative effects (CREs) are used to quantitatively measure the aforementioned climatic role. This study investigates the characteristics of CREs and their temporal variations over three arid regions in central Asia (CA), East Asia (EA), and North America (NA), based on recent satellite datasets. Our results show that the annual mean shortwave (SW) and net CREs (SWCRE and NCRE) over the three arid regions are weaker than those in the same latitudinal zone of the Northern Hemisphere. In most cold months (November-March), the longwave (LW) CRE is stronger than the SWCRE over the three arid regions, leading to a positive NCRE and radiative warming in the regional atmosphere-land surface system. The cold-season mean NCRE at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) averaged over EA is 4.1 W m-2, with a positive NCRE from November to March, and the intensity and duration of the positive NCRE is larger than that over CA and NA. The CREs over the arid regions of EA exhibit remarkable annual cycles due to the influence of the monsoon in the south. The TOA LWCRE over arid regions is closely related to the high-cloud fraction, and the SWCRE relates well to the total cloud fraction. In addition, the relationship between the SWCRE and the low-cloud fraction is good over NA because of the considerable occurrence of low cloud. Further results show that the interannual variation of TOA CREs is small over the arid regions of CA and EA, but their surface LWCREs show certain decreasing trends that correspond well to their decreasing total cloud fraction. It is suggested that combined studies of more observational cloud properties and meteorological elements are needed for indepth understanding of cloud-radiation processes over arid regions of the Northern Hemisphere.

  10. [Migration to the northern frontier of Mexico and its relationship with the regional labor market].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguiano Tellez, M E

    1998-01-01

    "This document tries to show the close relationship between the recent population growth in the northern border cities of Mexico and the dynamic demand of the regional market labor. First, it analyzes the evolution of demographic growth and the development of economic activities, in the Mexican borders in urban towns, then it reviews the data from the survey called Encuesta sobre Migracion en la Frontera Norte de Mexico in order to explore the connection between the regional labor market characteristics and the internal and international migration flows." (EXCERPT)

  11. Evaluation of bacterial meningitis surveillance data of the northern region, Ghana, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaburi, Basil Benduri; Kubio, Chrysantus; Kenu, Ernest; Ameme, Donne Kofi; Mahama, Jacob Yakubu; Sackey, Samuel Oko; Afari, Edwin Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a disease of major public health importance especially for countries such as Ghana; whose northern part lies within the meningitis belt. The Northern region of Ghana has been recording cases with outbreaks over the years. In order to generate evidence to improve surveillance, we described the epidemiology of bacterial meningitis using surveillance data of the northern region. Bacterial meningitis datasets from January 2010 to December 2015 for all the 26 districts of the Northern region were retrieved from line lists. Data were analyzed in terms of person, place, time, and identity of causative organisms using descriptive statistics. The results were presented as proportions, rates, tables and graphs. A total of 1,176 cases were reported. Of these, 53.5% (629/1,176) were males. The proportion of cases aged 0 to 29 years was 77.4%. The Overall Case Fatality Rate (CFR) was 9.7% (114/1,176). About 65% of all cases were recorded from January to April. Only 23.7% (279/1,176) of cases were laboratory-confirmed. Neisseria meningitides and Streptococcus pneumonia accounted for 91.4% of confirmed cases. Over the period, the incidence reduced from 9.0/100,000 population to 3.8/100,000 population and CFR reduced from 16.6% to 5.7%. Most cases of bacterial meningitis were recorded in the dry season and in persons younger than 30 years. Less than a quarter of cases were laboratory confirmed, and no new bacteria species were identified. Both morbidity and mortality rates were on the decline. There is the need to consolidate these gains by intensifying meningitis surveillance and improving on the rate of laboratory case confirmation.

  12. An Approach for Forest Inventory in Canada's Northern Boreal region, Northwest Territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, C.; Hopkinson, C.; Hall, R.; Filiatrault, M.

    2017-12-01

    The northern extent of Canada's northern boreal forest is largely inaccessible resulting in logistical, financial, and human challenges with respect to obtaining concise and accurate forest resource inventory (FRI) attributes such as stand height, aboveground biomass and forest carbon stocks. This challenge is further exacerbated by mandated government resource management and reporting of key attributes with respect to assessing impacts of natural disturbances, monitoring wildlife habitat and establishing policies to mitigate effects of climate change. This study presents a framework methodology utilized to inventory canopy height and crown closure over a 420,000 km2 area in Canada's Northwest Territories (NWT) by integrating field, LiDAR and satellite remote sensing data. Attributes are propagated from available field to coincident airborne LiDAR thru to satellite laser altimetry footprints. A quality controlled form of the latter are then submitted to a k-nearest neighbor (kNN) imputation algorithm to produce a continuous map of each attribute on a 30 m grid. The resultant kNN stand height (r=0.62, p=0.00) and crown closure (r=0.64, p=0.00) products were identified as statistically similar to a comprehensive independent airborne LiDAR source. Regional uncertainty can be produced with each attribute to identify areas of potential improvement through future strategic data acquisitions or the fine tuning of model parameters. This study's framework concept was developed to inform Natural Resources Canada - Canadian Forest Service's Multisource Vegetation Inventory and update vast regions of Canada's northern forest inventories, however, its applicability can be generalized to any environment. Not only can such a framework approach incorporate other data sources (such as Synthetic Aperture Radar) to potentially better characterize forest attributes, but it can also utilize future Earth observation mission data (for example ICESat-2) to monitor forest dynamics and the

  13. THE ROLE OF NORTHERN OLTENIA REGION INTO THE NATIONAL ENERGY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DORU CÎRNU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper starts from the reality that "energy" is the engine of growth and economic development of the country in general and especially North Oltenia region, bringing a constant real value that can be likened to the "flywheel" for storage and energy conservation. The region that we consider a model of the subject of research and I called it generic, "Northern Oltenia" has the best possible conditions in order to become a real and major regional power pole, providing most of energy in the national energy system in conditions of maximum security, which can be at the same time achieved an export surplus value generator. In these circumstances, local communities with a tradition of energetic in Romania, in Northern Oltenia Basin will receive the attention it deserves by promoting regional development projects of scale, and a retraining and professional reorientation of skilled human resource. Romanian energy industry has significant resource potential of all categories of expertise supported by the best specialists in the field, Romanian and foreign, as well as significant opportunities for the recovery of the national economy, making a significant contribution to strengthening Romania's position as a major regional pole among EU states.

  14. Incidence of respiratory tract sarcoidosis in southern and northern regions of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumenyuk G.L.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a comparative survey of incidence and prevalence of pulmonary sarcoidosis in Southern (Crimean AR and Northern (Zhytomyr region regions of Ukraine by means of analysis of self-referred cases and cases, revealed at prophylactic radiological examination in 2011. The incidence of sarcoidosis in Crimea was 1.08 per 100 000 adult inhabitants; the prevalence was 4,59 per 100 000. In Zhytomyr region the incidence value (2,62 per 100 000 exceeded an equivalent value in Crimea by 2,4 times. The prevalence (7,86 per 100 000 was also higher than in Crimea by 1,7 times. Taking into account a significant impact of climate factor on sarcoidosis epidemiology, the incidence and prevalence of disease in Northern and Southern regions should be considered polar as for the regions of Ukraine. This makes it possoble to conclude that mean incidence of sarcoidosis in Ukraine ranges from 1,1 to 2,6 per 100 000 adult population, whereas the prevalence – from 4,6 to 7,9 per 100 000, which is equivalent to the level of Southern European countries.

  15. Resistance to plague among black-tailed prairie dog populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Williamson, Judy; Cobble, Kacy R.; Busch, Joseph D.; Antolin, Michael F.; Wagner, David M.

    2012-01-01

    In some rodent species frequently exposed to plague outbreaks caused by Yersinia pestis, resistance to the disease has evolved as a population trait. As a first step in determining if plague resistance has developed in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), animals captured from colonies in a plague-free region (South Dakota) and two plague-endemic regions (Colorado and Texas) were challenged with Y. pestis at one of three doses (2.5, 250, or 2500 mouse LD50s). South Dakota prairie dogs were far more susceptible to plague than Colorado and Texas prairie dogs (pdogs were quite similar in their response, with overall survival rates of 50% and 60%, respectively. Prairie dogs from these states were heterogenous in their response, with some animals dying at the lowest dose (37% and 20%, respectively) and some surviving even at the highest dose (29% and 40%, respectively). Microsatellite analysis revealed that all three groups were distinct genetically, but further studies are needed to establish a genetic basis for the observed differences in plague resistance.

  16. Usutu Virus Antibodies in Blood Donors and Healthy Forestry Workers in the Lombardy Region, Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percivalle, Elena; Sassera, Davide; Rovida, Francesca; Isernia, Paola; Fabbi, Massimo; Baldanti, Fausto; Marone, Piero

    2017-09-01

    Usutu virus (USUV), a member of the genus Flavivirus, is known to circulate at low prevalence in Northern Italy, and has been reported to cause overt infection. USUV was first reported in Europe in 2001, but a retrospective study showed that it has been present in Italy at least since 1996. Seroprevalence data for USUV antibodies in sera are being collected in different European countries, showing circulation at low prevalence in human populations. Interestingly, two consecutive studies in Northern Italy indicate a possible increase in the presence of the virus, from 0% to 0.23% seroprevalence in blood donors. In this study, antibodies against USUV were measured in 3 consecutive blood samples collected from October 2014 to December 2015 from 33 forestry workers in the Po river valley, while samples from 200 blood donors from the same geographical area were tested in parallel. Neutralizing and IgG antibodies were found in six forestry workers (18.1%) and in two blood donors (1%). Our results indicate that USUV circulation in the examined area, part of a highly populated region in Northern Italy, is higher than expected. Healthy subjects exhibit a higher prevalence than what was found in a previous report in an adjoining region (0.23%), while the population at risk shows a much higher prevalence value (18.1%).

  17. Extreme plasticity in thermoregulatory behaviors of free-ranging black-tailed prairie dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmer, E.M.; Savage, L.T.; Antolin, M.F.; Biggins, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    In the natural environment, hibernating sciurids generally remain dormant during winter and enter numerous deep torpor bouts from the time of first immergence in fall until emergence in spring. In contrast, black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) remain active throughout winter but periodically enter short and shallow bouts of torpor. While investigating body temperature (Tb) patterns of black-tailed prairie dogs from six separate colonies in northern Colorado, we observed one population that displayed torpor patterns resembling those commonly seen in hibernators. Five individuals in this population experienced multiple torpor bouts in immediate succession that increased in length and depth as winter progressed, whereas 16 prairie dogs in five neighboring colonies remained euthermic for the majority of winter and entered shallow bouts of torpor infrequently. Our results suggest that these differences in torpor patterns did not result from differences in the physiological indicators that we measured because the prairie dogs monitored had similar body masses and concentrations of stored lipids across seasons. Likewise, our results did not support the idea that differences in overwinter Tb patterns between prairie dogs in colonies with differing torpor patterns resulted from genetic differences between populations; genetic analyses of prairie dog colonies revealed high genetic similarity between the populations and implied that individuals regularly disperse between colonies. Local environmental conditions probably played a role in the unusual T b patterns experienced by prairie dogs in the colony where hibernation-like patterns were observed; this population received significantly less rainfall than neighboring colonies during the summer growing seasons before, during, and after the year of the winter in which they hibernated. Our study provides a rare example of extreme plasticity in thermoregulatory behaviors of free-ranging prairie dogs and provides

  18. Amplitude Analysis and Modeling of Regional Phases in PNE Profiles in Northern Eurasia and Seismic Regionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-30

    of these models is unrealistic because the Earth’s crust appears to be the most structurally and compositionally heterogeneous part of the planet ...segment is extracted (heavy dash) and scaled to fill the gap ( heav arrows). Scaling is performed in the g(p) domain, using a factor that varies linearly...Phys. Earth Planet . Interiors, 113, 11-24. Bonddr, I., and V. Ryaboy (1997). Regional travel-time tables for the Baltic Shield region, Technical

  19. THE BRAZILIAN BIODIESEL PROGRAM AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT: CASES FROM NORTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Alves Finco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel production has been greatly discussed in Brazil. In 2004, these debates led the country to develop new policies and implement a national program for biodiesel use and production (PNPB with the intent to increase the share of renewable energy and foster regional development. In this context, the present study aims to assess the impacts of PNPB on regional development in Tocantins State, northern Brazil. For this purpose, ranges of socio-economic indicators were collected among national and regional stakeholders, as well as specific literature. The preliminary results point out that distribution logistics appears to be a considerable constraint to the success of the PNPB. The concentration of biodiesel industries in the central-west region of the country, and the large distances to deliver biodiesel in the northern Brazil make biodiesel prices non-competitive when compared to fossil diesel. The results also suggest that the PNPB is not succeeding in promoting the integration of family agriculture in the Tocantins state, especially due to the structural difficulty of the agricultural sector, as well as the technical and political shortcomings presented by the mechanism of incentives.

  20. Drought, Climate Change and the Canadian Prairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R. E.

    2010-03-01

    The occurrence of drought is a ubiquitous feature of the global water cycle. Such an extreme does not necessarily lead to an overall change in the magnitude of the global water cycle but it of course affects the regional cycling of water. Droughts are recurring aspects of weather and climate extremes as are floods and tornadoes, but they differ substantially since they have long durations and lack easily identified onsets and terminations. Drought is a relatively common feature of the North American and Canadian climate system and all regions of the continent are affected from time-to-time. However, it tends to be most common and severe over the central regions of the continent. The Canadian Prairies are therefore prone to drought. Droughts in the Canadian Prairies are distinctive in North America. The large scale atmospheric circulations are influenced by blocking from intense orography to the west and long distances from all warm ocean-derived atmospheric water sources; growing season precipitation is generated by a highly complex combination of frontal and convective systems; seasonality is severe and characterized by a relatively long snow-covered and short growing seasons; local surface runoff is primarily produced by snowmelt water; there is substantial water storage potential in the poorly drained, post-glacial topography; and aquifers are overlain by impermeable glacial till, but there are also important permeable aquifers. One example of Prairie drought is the recent one that began in 1999 with cessation of its atmospheric component in 2004/2005 and many of its hydrological components in 2005. This event produced the worst drought for at least a hundred years in parts of the Canadian Prairies. Even in the dust bowl of the 1930s, no single year over the central Prairies were drier than in 2001. The drought affected agriculture, recreation, tourism, health, hydro-electricity, and forestry in the Prairies. Gross Domestic Product fell some 5.8 billion and

  1. Connecting to Global Production Networks: Challenges for Regional Actors in Northern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trond Nilsen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, Northern Norway has been perceived as a land of opportunity. Announcements of offshore oil and gas discoveries off the coast of Finnmark have contributed to increased market activity in related sectors like service and construction. However, regional firms continue to score at the bottom of innovation indexes and seldom compete on international markets. Based on in-depth interviews with representatives from key businesses in three sectors in Northern Norway, we examine the bottlenecks that have prevented these firms from gaining new market positions through the interplay of these regional firms and agencies with the Global Production Network (GPN. We adopt the concept of “strategic coupling” and explore whether an actor approach can contribute to an improved understanding of this relationship. The paper demonstrates that regional strategies and public policy differ between the sectors. Public policy is important for regional firms within the petroleum sector. However, the funds available for regional firms continue to be limited due to the size and relevance of the measures. In the construction sector, public policy instruments are important, but not sufficiently adapted to the challenges these firms face. While the petroleum sector receives support and backing from regional agencies in order to connect to GPN, the wind power sector is actively hindered by the same agencies. The former have the opportunity to take part in new regional path creation; the latter have experienced a lack of strategic cooperation and face the risk of reducing strategic couplings to GPN, leading to path dependent processes that lock these firms into traditional and low-tech sectors.

  2. Modelling regional variability of irrigation requirements due to climate change in Northern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riediger, Jan; Breckling, Broder; Svoboda, Nikolai; Schröder, Winfried

    2016-01-15

    The question whether global climate change invalidates the efficiency of established land use practice cannot be answered without systemic considerations on a region specific basis. In this context plant water availability and irrigation requirements, respectively, were investigated in Northern Germany. The regions under investigation--Diepholz, Uelzen, Fläming and Oder-Spree--represent a climatic gradient with increasing continentality from West to East. Besides regional climatic variation and climate change, soil conditions and crop management differ on the regional scale. In the model regions, temporal seasonal droughts influence crop success already today, but on different levels of intensity depending mainly on climate conditions. By linking soil water holding capacities, crop management data and calculations of evapotranspiration and precipitation from the climate change scenario RCP 8.5 irrigation requirements for maintaining crop productivity were estimated for the years 1991 to 2070. Results suggest that water requirement for crop irrigation is likely to increase with considerable regional variation. For some of the regions, irrigation requirements might increase to such an extent that the established regional agricultural practice might be hard to retain. Where water availability is limited, agricultural practice, like management and cultivated crop spectrum, has to be changed to deal with the new challenges. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Potential vulnerability to flooding at public health facilities in four northern regions of Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Vásquez, Akram; Arroyo-Hernández, Hugo; Bendezú-Quispe, Guido; Díaz-Seijas, Deysi; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Rubilar-González, Juan; Gutierrez-Lagos, Edith

    2016-03-01

    In order to determine the potential vulnerability of public health facilities in four northern regions of Peru to the possible effects of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. An exploratory spatial analysis was performed using the geo-referenced points for at-risk areas based on the activation of gullies that were reported by the National Water Authority, and the location of the four regional public health facilities of the Ministry of Health. Concentric areas of influence were simulate from the points of risk towards the public health facilities using radii of 200, 1000 and 1500 meters. The Tumbes region would be the most affected with 37.2% of its health facilities being affected by floods and landslides. The I-2 and I-3 categories of health facilities appeared to be the most affected with 28.9% and 31.6% respectively. Therefore, public health facilities near the risk zones may be affected by the ENSO.

  4. Spatial variation in keystone effects: Small mammal diversity associated with black-tailed prairie dog colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cully, J.F.; Collinge, S.K.; Van Nimwegen, R. E.; Ray, C.; Johnson, W.C.; Thiagarajan, Bala; Conlin, D.B.; Holmes, B.E.

    2010-01-01

    Species with extensive geographic ranges may interact with different species assemblages at distant locations, with the result that the nature of the interactions may vary spatially. Black-tailed prairie dogs Cynomys ludovicianus occur from Canada to Mexico in grasslands of the western Great Plains of North America. Black-tailed prairie dogs alter vegetation and dig extensive burrow systems that alter grassland habitats for plants and other animal species. These alterations of habitat justify the descriptor " ecological engineer," and the resulting changes in species composition have earned them status as a keystone species. We examined the impact of black-tailed prairie dogs on small mammal assemblages by trapping at on- and off-colony locations at eight study areas across the species' geographic range. We posed 2 nested hypotheses: 1) prairie dogs function as a keystone species for other rodent species; and 2) the keystone role varies spatially. Assuming that it does, we asked what are the sources of the variation? Black-tailed prairie dogs consistently functioned as a keystone species in that there were strong statistically significant differences in community composition on versus off prairie dog colonies across the species range in prairie grassland. Small mammal species composition varied along both latitudinal and longitudinal gradients, and species richness varied from 4 to 11. Assemblages closer together were more similar; such correlations approximately doubled when including only on- or off-colony grids. Black-tailed prairie dogs had a significant effect on associated rodent assemblages that varied regionally, dependent upon the composition of the local rodent species pool. Over the range of the black-tailed prairie dog, on-colony rodent richness and evenness were less variable, and species composition was more consistent than off-colony assemblages. ?? 2010 The Authors.

  5. Biological affinities and regional microevolution among pre-Hispanic communities of Colombia's Northern Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Flórez, C D; Colantonio, S E

    2015-01-01

    Dental non-metric data were used to examine the biological continuity of pre-Hispanic peoples of Colombia's Northern Andes, including highland, lowland and coastal peoples. This report contributes to studies regarding the peopling of South America by establishing a benchmark comparison that includes pre-Hispanic populations of the Northern Andes. The sample consisted of a total of 583 individuals from 56 cemeteries ranging in time from the Early Holocene (10,000 BP) to the Final Late Holocene (500 BP). Permanent dentitions from individuals between 5 and 40 years of age were scored for 87 dental traits based on the ASUDAS. A divergence matrix was programmed using the Smith's Mean Measure of Divergence equation (MMD). Bartlett's adjustment and Ascombe transformation were considered into MMD calculations. Principal Coordenate analysis was applied based on MMD matrix scores. A clear group was found that associated Initial Late Holocene samples with Final Late Holocene samples. Early Holocene samples are very different to that, and Middle Holocene samples show as morphologically intermediate series. A comparison of the frequencies by time and period showed that a limited biological continuity existed. Interbreeding among initial populations of the same regions is expressed in similar frequencies of dental traits within Early Holocene and Middle Holocene samples. Early Holocene samples did not match with Sinodont pattern according to discriminant function analysis. These findings help us to better understand the settlement process of human groups in the Northern Andes and its relationship with migratory movements in South America.

  6. Slab flattening, dynamic topography and normal faulting in the Cordillera Blanca region (northern Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margirier, A.; Robert, X.; Laurence, A.; Gautheron, C.; Bernet, M.; Simon-Labric, T.; Hall, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Processes driving surface uplift in the Andes are still debated and the role of subduction processes as slab flattening on surface uplift and relief building in the Andes is not well understood. Some of the highest Andean summits, the Cordillera Blanca (6768 m) and the Cordillera Negra (5187 m), are located above a present flat subduction zone (3-15°S), in northern Peru. In this area, both the geometry and timing of the flattening of the slab are well constrained (Gutscher et al., 1999; Rosenbaum et al., 2005). This region is thus a perfect target to explore the effect of slab flattening on the Andean topography and uplift. We obtained new apatite (U-Th)/He and fission-track ages from three vertical profiles located in the Cordillera Blanca and the Cordillera Negra. Time-temperature paths obtained from inverse modeling of the thermochronological data indicates a Middle Miocene cooling for both Cordillera Negra profiles. We interpret it as regional exhumation in the Cordillera Occidental starting in Middle Miocene, synchronous with the onset of the subduction of the Nazca ridge (Rosenbaum et al., 2005). We propose that the Nazca ridge subduction at 15 Ma and onset of slab flattening in northern Peru drove regional positive dynamic topography and thus enhanced exhumation in the Cordillera Occidental. This study provides new evidence of the impact subduction processes and associated dynamic topography on paleogeography and surface uplift in the Andes.

  7. Inconsistencies of Breast Cancer Risk Factors between the Northern and Southern Regions of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieu, Phuong Dung (Yun); Mello-Thoms, Claudia; Peat, Jennifer K; Do, Thuan Doan; Brennan, Patrick C

    2017-10-26

    Background: In recent decades the amount of new breast cancer cases in the southern region has been reported to increase more rapidly than in the northernVietnam. The aim of this study is to compare breast cancer risk factors between the two regions and establish if westernized influences have an impact on any reported differences. Method: Data was collected from the two largest oncology hospitals in the north and the south of Vietnam in 2015. Breast density, demographic, reproductive and lifestyle data of 127 cases and 269 controls were collected in the north and 141 cases and 250 controls were gathered from the south. Baseline differences in factors between cases and age-matched controls in each region were assessed using chi-square tests and independent t-tests. Odds ratios (OR) for independent risk factors for breast cancer were obtained from conditional logistic regression. Results: In northern Vietnam significantly increased risks in developing breast cancer were observed for women with age at first menstrual period less than 14 years old (OR=2.1; Pcup of coffee per day (OR=1.9; P<0.05) were more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer. Conclusion: We found that women living in the south had some breast cancer associations, such as increased mammographic density and coffee consumption, which are closer to the risks in westernized populations than women in the north. Creative Commons Attribution License

  8. Investigating malaria risk in the northern region of Nigeria using satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emetere, M. E.; Nikouravan, Bijan; Olawole, O. F.

    2015-08-01

    The dynamics of infectious diseases are dependent on salient environment and climate factors which are directly proportional to its transmission. Malaria is a common disease of typical tropics of the West African sub-region. The influences of malaria transmission via meteorological and environmental parameters were examined. Remotely sensed parameters i.e. skin temperature, sensible heat flux, latent heat flux and total precipitation were obtained from the NASA-MERRA. The results show that the meteorological and environmental parameters of northern Nigeria favour the long malaria dominance.

  9. Lead exposure in Canada geese of the Eastern Prairie Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Rusch, D.H.; Finley, Daniel L.; Gillespie, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    We monitored lead exposure in Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese during summer-winter, 1986-1987 and 1987-1988 at 5 areas. Blood lead concentrations in geese trapped during summer at Cape Churchill Manitoba were below levels indicative of recent lead exposure (0.18 ppm). Geese exposed to lead (≥0.18 ppm blood lead) increased to 7.6% at Oak Hammock Wildlife Management Area (WMA), southern Manitoba, where lead shot was still in use, and to 10.0% at Roseau River WMA, northern Minnesota, when fall-staging geese were close to a source of lead shot in Manitoba. Proportion of birds exposed to lead dropped to exposure to lead before the hunting season. Lead exposure rose to 10.0% after hunting ended and then decreased to 5.2% in late winter. Incidence of lead shot in gizzards and concentrations of lead in livers supported blood assay data. Soil samples indicated that lead shot continues to be available to geese at Swan Lake, even though the area was established as a non-toxic shot zone in 1978. Steel shot zones have reduced lead exposure in the Eastern Prairie Population, but lead shot persists in the environment and continues to account for lead exposure and mortality in Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese.

  10. Variation in freshwater fish assemblages along a regional elevation gradient in the northern Andes, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Quintero, Juan D; Escobar, Federico; Alvarado, Fredy; Villa-Navarro, Francisco A; Jaramillo-Villa, Úrsula; Maldonado-Ocampo, Javier A

    2015-07-01

    Studies on elevation diversity gradients have covered a large number of taxa and regions throughout the world; however, studies of freshwater fish are scarce and restricted to examining their changes along a specific gradient. These studies have reported a monotonic decrease in species richness with increasing elevation, but ignore the high taxonomic differentiation of each headwater assemblage that may generate high β-diversity among them. Here, we analyzed how fish assemblages vary with elevation among regional elevation bands, and how these changes are related to four environmental clines and to changes in the distribution, habitat use, and the morphology of fish species. Using a standardized field sampling technique, we assessed three different diversity and two structural assemblage measures across six regional elevation bands located in the northern Andes (Colombia). Each species was assigned to a functional group based on its body shape, habitat use, morphological, and/or behavioral adaptations. Additionally, at each sampling site, we measured four environmental variables. Our analyses showed: (1) After a monotonic decrease in species richness, we detected an increase in richness in the upper part of the gradient; (2) diversity patterns vary depending on the diversity measure used; (3) diversity patterns can be attributed to changes in species distribution and in the richness and proportions of functional groups along the regional elevation gradient; and (4) diversity patterns and changes in functional groups are highly correlated with variations in environmental variables, which also vary with elevation. These results suggest a novel pattern of variation in species richness with elevation: Species richness increases at the headwaters of the northern Andes owing to the cumulative number of endemic species there. This highlights the need for large-scale studies and has important implications for the aquatic conservation of the region.

  11. Investigation of the Transcriptome of Prairie Cord Grass, a New Cellulosic Biomass Crop

    KAUST Repository

    Gedye, Kristene

    2010-09-15

    Prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata Bosc ex Link) is being developed as a cellulosic biomass crop. Development of this species will require numerous steps, including breeding, agronomy, and characterization of the species genome. The research in this paper describes the first investigation of the transcriptome of prairie cordgrass via Next Generation Sequencing Technology, 454 GS FLX. A total of 556,198 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were produced from four prairie cordgrass tissues: roots, rhizomes, immature inflorescence, and hooks. These ESTs were assembled into 26,302 contigs and 71,103 singletons. From these data were identified, EST-SSR (simple sequence repeat) regions and cell wall biosynthetic pathway genes suitable for the development of molecular markers which can aid the breeding process of prairie cordgrass by means of marker assisted selection.

  12. A coupled dynamical-copula downscaling approach for temperature projections over the Canadian Prairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiong; Huang, Guohe; Wang, Xiuquan; Fan, Yurui; Cheng, Guanhui

    2017-11-01

    In this study, a coupled dynamical-copula downscaling approach was developed through integrating the Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies (PRECIS) modeling system and the copula method. This approach helps to reflect detailed features at local scales based on dynamical downscaling, while also effectively simulating the interactions between large-scale atmospheric variables (predictors) and local surface variables (predictands). The performance of the proposed approach in reproducing historical climatology of the Canadian Prairies was evaluated through comparison with observations. Future climate projections generated by the developed approach were analyzed over three time slices (i.e., the 2030s, 2050s, and 2080s) to help understand the plausible changes in temperature over the Canadian Prairies in response to global warming. The results showed that there would be an apparent increasing pattern over the Canadian Prairies. The projections of future temperature over three time slices can provide decision makers with valuable information for climate change impacts assessment over the Canadian Prairies.

  13. Effects of climate change on ecological disturbance in the Northern Rockies Region [Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehman, Rachel A.; Bentz, Barbara J.; DeNitto, Gregg A.; Keane, Robert E.; Manning, Mary E.; Duncan, Jacob P.; Egan, Joel M.; Jackson, Marcus B.; Kegley, Sandra; Lockman, I. Blakey; Pearson, Dean E.; Powell, James A.; Shelly, Steve; Steed, Brytten E.; Zambino, Paul J.

    2018-01-01

    This chapter describes the ecology of important disturbance regimes in the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USFS) Northern Region and the Greater Yellowstone Area, hereafter called the Northern Rockies region, and potential shifts in these regimes as a consequence of observed and projected climate change. The term disturbance regime describes the general temporal and spatial characteristics of a disturbance agent - insect, disease, fire, weather, even human activity - and the effects of that agent on the landscape (table 8.1). More specifically, a disturbance regime is the cumulative effect of multiple disturbance events over space and time (Keane 2013). Disturbances disrupt an ecosystem, community, or population structure and change elements of the biological environment, physical environment, or both (White and Pickett 1985). The resulting shifting mosaic of diverse ecological patterns and structures in turn affects future patterns of disturbance, in a reciprocal, linked relationship that shapes the fundamental character of landscapes and ecosystems. Disturbance creates and maintains biological diversity in the form of shifting, heterogeneous mosaics of diverse communities and habitats across a landscape (McKinney and Drake 1998), and biodiversity is generally highest when disturbance is neither too rare nor too frequent on the landscape (Grime 1973).

  14. Emissions of volatile organic compounds from maize residue open burning in the northern region of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirithian, Duanpen; Thepanondh, Sarawut; Sattler, Melanie L.; Laowagul, Wanna

    2018-03-01

    Emission factors for speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from maize residue burning were determined in this study based on chamber experiments. Thirty-six VOC species were identified by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS). They were classified into six groups, including alkanes, alkenes, oxygenated VOCs, halogenated VOCs, aromatics and other. The emission factor for total VOCs was estimated as about 148 mg kg-1 dry mass burned. About 68.4% of the compounds were aromatics. Field samplings of maize residues were conducted to acquire the information of fuel characteristics including fuel loading, fraction of maize residues that were actually burned as well as proximate and elemental analysis of maize residues. The emission factors were then applied to estimate speciated VOC emissions from maize residue open burning at the provincial level in the upper-northern region of Thailand for the year 2014. Total burned area of maize covered an area of about 500,000 ha which was about 4.7% of the total area of upper-northern region of the country. It was found that total VOC emissions released during the burning season (January-April) was about 79.4 tons. Ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, acetaldehyde and o-xylene were the major contributors, accounting for more than 65% of total speciated VOC emissions.

  15. Prevalence of abnormal birth weight and related factors in Northern region, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakari, Abdulai; Kynast-Wolf, Gisela; Jahn, Albrecht

    2015-12-15

    Birth weight is a crucial determinant of the development potential of the newborn. Abnormal newborn weights are associated with negative effects on the health and survival of the baby and the mother. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the prevalence of abnormal birth weight and related factors in Northern region, Ghana. The study was a facility-based cross-sectional survey in five hospitals in Northern region, Ghana. These hospitals were selected based on the different socio-economic backgrounds of their clients. The data on birth weight and other factors were derived from hospital records. It was observed that low birth weight is still highly prevalent (29.6%), while macrosomia (10.5%) is also increasingly becoming important. There were marginal differences in low birth weight observed across public hospitals but marked difference in low birth weight was observed in Cienfuegos Suglo Specialist Hospital (Private hospital) as compared to the public hospitals. The private hospital also had the highest prevalence of macrosomia (20.1%). Parity (0-1) (p malnutrition phenomenon, which is currently being experienced by developing and transition counties. Both low birth weight and macrosomia are risk factors, which could contribute considerably to the current and future burden of diseases. This may overstretch the already fragile health system in Ghana. Therefore, it is prudent to recommend that policies aiming at reducing diet related diseases should focus on addressing malnutrition during pregnancy and early life.

  16. Dynamism of household carbon emissions (HCEs) from rural and urban regions of northern and southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraseni, Tek Narayan; Qu, Jiansheng; Yue, Bian; Zeng, Jingjing; Maroulis, Jerry

    2016-10-01

    China contributes 23 % of global carbon emissions, of which 26 % originate from the household sector. Due to vast variations in both climatic conditions and the affordability and accessibility of fuels, household carbon emissions (HCEs) differ significantly across China. This study compares HCEs (per person) from urban and rural regions in northern China with their counterparts in southern China. Annual macroeconomic data for the study period 2005 to 2012 were obtained from Chinese government sources, whereas the direct HCEs for different types of fossil fuels were obtained using the IPCC reference approach, and indirect HCEs were calculated by input-output analysis. Results suggest that HCEs from urban areas are higher than those from rural areas. Regardless of the regions, there is a similarity in per person HCEs in urban areas, but the rural areas of northern China had significantly higher HCEs than those from southern China. The reasons for the similarity between urban areas and differences between rural areas and the percentage share of direct and indirect HCEs from different sources are discussed. Similarly, the reasons and solutions to why decarbonising policies are working in urban areas but not in rural areas are discussed.

  17. A survey study on gastrointestinal parasites of stray cats in northern region of Nile delta, Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda E Khalafalla

    Full Text Available A survey study on gastrointestinal parasites in 113 faecal samples from stray cats collected randomly from Kafrelsheikh province, northern region of Nile delta of Egypt; was conducted in the period between January and May 2010. The overall prevalence was 91%. The results of this study reported seven helminth species: Toxocara cati (9%, Ancylostoma tubaeforme (4%, Toxascaris leonina (5%, Dipylidium caninum (5%, Capillaria spp. (3%, Taenia taeniformis (22% and Heterophyes heterophyes (3%, four protozoal species: Toxoplasma gondii (9%, Sarcocyst spp. (1%, Isospora spp. (2% and Giardia spp. (2% and two arthropod species; Linguatula serrata (2% and mites eggs (13%. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites may continue to rise due to lack of functional veterinary clinics for cat care in Egypt. Therefore, there is a need to plan adequate control programs to diagnose, treat and control gastrointestinal parasites of companion as well as stray cats in the region.

  18. Implications of Seismically Active Fault Structures in Ankay and Alaotra Regions of Northern and Central Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, S.; Stamps, D. S.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of the study is to gain a better understanding of the seismically active fault structures in central and northern Madagascar. We study the Ankay and Lake Alaotra regions of Madagascar, which are segmented by multiple faults that strike N-S. In general, normal seismic events occur on faults bounding the Alaotra-Ankay rift basin where Quaternary alluvium is present. Due to this pattern and moderate amounts of low magnitude seismic activity along these faults, it is hypothesized the region currently undergoes E-W extension. In this work we test how variations in fault strength and net slip changes influence expected crustal movement in the region. Using the Coulomb stress failure point as a test of strength we are able to model the Alaotra-Ankay region using MATLAB Coulomb 3.3.01. This program allows us to define realistic Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus of mapped rock compositions in the region, i.e. paragneiss and orthogneiss, create 3D fault geometries, and calculate static stress changes with coinciding surface displacements. We impose slip along multiple faults and calculate seismic moment that we balance by the 3 observed earthquake magnitudes available in the USGS CMT database. Our calculations of surface displacements indicate 1-3 millimeters could be observed across the Alaotra-Ankay rift. These values are within the observable range of precision GNSS observations, therefore our results will guide future research into the area and direct potential GNSS station installation.

  19. A regional reconstruction of debris-flow activity in the Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, Emily; Bollschweiler, Michelle; Stoffel, Markus; Neumann, Mathias

    2011-09-01

    Dendrogeomorphic dating of historical debris-flow events is a highly valuable tool for improving historical records in the field of natural hazard management. Previous dendrogeomorphic investigations generally have focused on case studies of single torrents; however, regional investigations may offer a more accurate reconstruction of regional patterns of activity and therefore may have an advantage over individual cases. The aim of the study is to provide a regional reconstruction of debris-flow events for a site in the Northern Calcareous Alps of western Austria (Gamperdonatal, Vorarlberg) and to document spatial and temporal morphological changes in individual and neighboring torrents. Analysis of 442 trees (268 Pinus mugo ssp. uncinata, 164 Picea abies, and 10 Abies alba) allowed identification of 579 growth disturbances corresponding to 63 debris-flow events since A.D. 1839. The majority of growth disturbances were in the form of growth suppression or release (76%) owing to the nature of both the deposited material and the process characteristics. Regional patterns of event frequency indicated a paucity of activity in the early to mid-twentieth century and increased activity since A.D. 1948, whereby large events were followed by subsequent years of continued activity of smaller magnitude. Patterns of frequency could be attributed primarily to spatiotemporal changes in channel morphology, but may also be reflective of changes in transport conditions within the valley. This study provides the first regional investigation in the Austrian Alps and contributes to the documentation of tree responses to geomorphic disturbances in calcareous material.

  20. Productivity, trophic levels and size spectra of zooplankton in northern Norwegian shelf regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Meng; Tande, Kurt S.; Zhu, Yiwu; Basedow, Sünnje

    2009-10-01

    Many studies have been conducted in northern Norwegian shelf regions to assess distributions and abundances of zooplankton in the last decade using towed Scanfish-conductivity, temperature and depth sensors (CTD)-optical plankton counter (OPC), and plankton nets. Significant progresses have been made in understanding dominant species, life histories and behavior, and in using size-structured data to identify dominant species in a certain size range. Using these Scanfish-CTD-OPC data, the analysis of zooplankton community size structures, compositions and their relationships with water types is made along the shelf region from Lofoten, North Cape to Varangerfjorden. From the relationships between the water types and zooplankton communities, the transports and exchanges of zooplankton communities between the Norwegian Coastal and Norwegian Atlantic Waters in regions near Malangsgrunnen and Nordvestbanken are examined. The biovolume (biomass) spectra are further analyzed for the productivity, trophic levels and seasonality of communities in these regions, indicating a steeper slope of the biovolume spectrum for a community dominated by herbivorous species in spring and a flatter slope for a community dominated by carnivorous-omnivorous species in winter. The comparison with the zooplankton biovolume spectra obtained in areas west of Antarctic Peninsula is made to examine and understand the differences in the zooplankton biovolume spectra, their trophic dynamics and potential human impacts between different regions.

  1. Vaccines for Conservation: Plague, Prairie Dogs & Black-Footed Ferrets as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkeld, Daniel J

    2017-09-01

    The endangered black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) is affected by plague, caused by Yersinia pestis, both directly, as a cause of mortality, and indirectly, because of the impacts of plague on its prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) prey base. Recent developments in vaccines and vaccine delivery have raised the possibility of plague control in prairie dog populations, thereby protecting ferret populations. A large-scale experimental investigation across the western US shows that sylvatic plague vaccine delivered in oral baits can increase prairie dog survival. In northern Colorado, an examination of the efficacy of insecticides to control fleas and plague vaccine shows that timing and method of plague control is important, with different implications for long-term and large-scale management of Y. pestis delivery. In both cases, the studies show that ambitious field-work and cross-sectoral collaboration can provide potential solutions to difficult issues of wildlife management, conservation and disease ecology.

  2. Changing values and the impact on land use and social networks in the northern forest region: a qualitative examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean Dedam; Rodney Zwick

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of land ownership and economics are changing in the Northern Forest Region of New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine. The percentage of people living in the region who work in the resource extraction industry has become much smaller. Tourism and outdoor recreation are promoted as economic substitutes that will provide an alternate use of the natural...

  3. Northern excess in adolescent male firearm suicides: a register-based regional study from Finland, 1972-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, Anniina; Keränen, Sirpa; Hakko, Helinä; Riala, Kaisa; Räsänen, Pirkko

    2014-01-01

    There are more firearms in Northern Finland as compared to Southern Finland, and a positive association between suicide rates and the number of firearms in a given region has been demonstrated in previous literature. Accordingly, the authors compared firearm suicide rates of Finnish adolescent (under 18 years) males in the two geographic regions. Young adult (18-24 years) and adult (25-44 years) males were used as reference groups. National data on cases of suicide in Northern and Southern Finland between 1972 and 2009 were obtained from Statistics Finland. Firearm suicides (n=5,423) were extracted according to ICD-classification (ICD-8/9: E955, ICD-10: X72-X75). The distribution of types of firearms (hunting gun, handgun, other) employed in suicides was also investigated. The adolescent male firearm suicide rate in Northern Finland was almost three times higher than that observed in Southern Finland, while there was no difference in rates of suicide by other methods. A northern excess in firearm suicide rates was also found among young adult and adult males. Hunting guns were the most common type of firearms employed in young male suicides, and their use was especially common in Northern Finland. Our results indicate that the use of firearms plays a major role in explaining the northern excess in young Finnish male suicide rates, and emphasize a need to advance suicide prevention according to specific regional characteristics.

  4. Characterisation of Agri-Landscape Systems at a Regional Level: A Case Study in Northern Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariassunta Galli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Preserving our landscape in sustainable development processes is now widely considered as fundamental. It is a complex and evolving issue that can be tackled from several perspectives. Agronomy can contribute to analyzing the relationships between agricultural production systems (cropping, farming and agricultural systems at different levels (field, farm, and region and the agricultural landscape (in terms of patches, matrixes, dynamics, etc. This is of particular interest where the relationships between “what and how” are produced by agricultural activities and the landscape are changing. In this case their own reciprocity may represent an opportunity to analyze complex systems, such as the characterization of agri-landscapes at a regional level. We propose a case study developed as an up-scaling analytical process from a farm to a regional level. The result was the identification of six main agri-landscape systems highlighting the landscape drivers that are changing the traditional landscape of a rural region in Northern Tuscany (Lunigiana.

  5. Dimensionless Analysis for Designing Domestic Rainwater Harvesting Systems at the Regional Level in Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Hsien Liaw

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A regional-level and dimensionless analysis for designing a domestic rainwater harvesting system (DRWHS was developed. To consider various combinations of water demand, storage capacity, effective roof area, and rainfall in DRWHS design, two dimensionless ratios were used, namely, demand fraction and storage fraction, along with a relationship between the two ratios. Firstly, Northern Taiwan was divided into four sub-regions through cluster analysis based on the average annual 10-day rainfall distribution at rainfall stations and administrative districts. Easy-to-use dimensionless curves between demand fraction and storage fraction were obtained for five rainwater supply reliabilities of the DRWHS for the four sub-regions. Based on the dimensionless curves, a nomogram was constructed for designing DRWHSs at a rainwater supply reliability of 95% in the sub-region I. Storage capacities determined from the dimensionless curves showed a close fit with those determined from simulated values, but were larger than the values estimated from the method presented in the Green Building Evaluation Manual in most situations. The methodology developed herein can be used effectively for the preliminary design of a DRWHS and for overcoming the difficulties faced in designing a DRWHS without rainfall data and with incomplete rainfall data.

  6. Benefit-Sharing Arrangements between Oil Companies and Indigenous People in Russian Northern Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Tulaeva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research provides an insight into various modes of benefit-sharing agreements between oil and gas companies and indigenous people in Russia’s northern regions, e.g., paternalism, corporate social responsibility, and partnership. The paper examines factors that influence benefit-sharing arrangements, such as regional specifics, dependency on international investors, corporate policies, and the level of local community organization. It analyses which instruments of benefit-sharing are most favourable, and why, for indigenous communities. The authors conducted research in three regions of Russia (Nenets Autonomous Okrug; Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, and Sakhalin by using qualitative methodology that involved semi-structured interviews, participant observation, and document analysis. Theoretically, the paper builds on the concept of benefit-sharing arrangements combined with the social equity framework. We assessed each case study in terms of procedural and distributive equity in benefit-sharing. The paper demonstrates that the procedural equity is the highest in the partnership mode of benefit-sharing on the island of Sakhalin where companies implement globally-accepted standards recognized by investment banks. The cases in Nenets Autonomous Okrug and Khanti Mansi Autonomous Okrug represent a reset of Soviet practices on a market basis, but whereas the distributional equity may be sufficient, the procedural equity is low as decisions are made by the company in concord with regional authorities.

  7. The shallow-water chitons (Mollusca, Polyplacophora of Caldera, Region of Atacama, northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Araya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Molluscan species of the northern littoral of Chile have been sparsely studied. This work reviews for the first time the diversity of polyplacophoran molluscs around the port of Caldera, in the Region of Atacama (26°45’49”S; 70°45’17”W to 27°20’23”S; 70°56’46”W, northern Chile. Eleven species were found in this study: Acanthopleura echinata (Barnes, 1824; Callistochiton pulchellus (Gray, 1828; Calloplax vivipara (Plate, 1899, Chaetopleura peruviana (Lamarck, 1819; Chiton cumingsii Frembly, 1827; Chiton granosus Frembly, 1827; Chiton magnificus Deshayes, 1827; Enoplochiton niger (Barnes, 1824, Radsia barnesii (Gray, 1828, Tonicia atrata (G. B. Sowerby II, 1840 and Tonicia chilensis (Frembly, 1827. All of the species occurring in the area have distributions in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, from Ecuador to central Chile, and three of them are species endemic to the Chilean coasts (Calloplax vivipara, Radsia barnesii, and Tonicia atrata. This diversity of species is comparable to that of better surveyed faunas of central and southern Chile or Patagonia. Of the eleven species recorded, the geographic distribution records for Callistochiton pulchellus, Radsia barnesii and Tonicia atrata are extended, and Calloplax vivipara is found alive again after 40 years, filling a gap in its known distribution. Illustrations of living specimens in their habitat, distribution records and a taxonomic key for all the studied taxa are also provided.

  8. Climate change: Its possible impact on the environment and the people of northern regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roots, F.

    1993-01-01

    A detailed overview is presented of the possible impacts of climate change on the Arctic environment, ecosystems, and human activities. The extent of global climate change is examined through the use of historical and paleoclimatologic records of temperature and stratospheric ozone. The effects of precipitation distribution and airborne particulates on climate change are also outlined. Changes in the Arctic are then examined, with an explanation of why global change in the Arctic is likely to be exaggerated. Likely scenarios of Arctic climate change involve milder winter temperatures, wetter and cloudier summers, more stormy weather and snowfall, greater variability in regional weather patterns, and dramatic changes in the extent of sea ice. Biological responses of wetland, northern forest, tundra, Arctic desert, below-ground, and marine ecosystems are assessed. Features of northern and Arctic ecosystems that may be particularly vulnerable to climate change are noted. Finally, the impacts of climate change on traditional activities and lifestyles, resource management and harvesting, agriculture, forestry, mining and fossil-fuel development, offshore operations, and human infrastructures are summarized. 5 figs

  9. Insecticide resistance status of Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) adults in northern Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei-Hua; Wang, Zhi-Tian; Xiong, Man-Hui; Lu, Wei-Ping; Liu, Ping; Guo, Wen-Chao; Li, Guo-Qing

    2010-08-01

    Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), has become the economically most important insect defoliator of potatoes, Solanum tuberosum L., in northern Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region in China. Currently, control of Colorado potato beetle relies mainly on chemical insecticides. And this may result in insecticide resistance. In this study, LD50 values were measured by a topical bioassay for 14 conventional insecticides in seven local populations from Urumqi, Changji, Tacheng, Nilka, Gongliu, Qapqal, and Tekes counties (cities). The Tekes field population was the most susceptible population and was selected as a reference strain. Compared with the Tekes strain, the Changji, Qapqal, Nilka, Tacheng, and Gongliu populations exhibited moderate to very high levels of resistance to cyhalothrin. The Qapqal and Changji populations showed a moderate and a very high resistance to deltamethrin, respectively. And the Changji population developed a high resistance against alpha-cypermethrin. Moreover, the Qapqal population had a moderate resistance to carbofuran, and the Urumqi population reached high level of resistance to endosulfan. Possible resistance mechanisms of the Changji and Qapqal populations were determined using three enzyme inhibitors. Triphenyl phosphate (TPP), diethylmeleate, and piperonyl butoxide (PBO) had little synergism to cyhalothrin in the two populations. In contrast, PBO and TPP exhibited some synergistic effects to carbofuran in the Qapqal population, indicating the involvement of monooxygenases and esterases in conferring carbofuran resistance. It seems that additional mechanisms, such as target site insensitivity, should play an important role in Colorado potato beetle resistances to cyhalothrin and carbofuran in northern Xinjiang local populations.

  10. Prairie rattlesnake envenomation in 27 New World camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonis, J M; Hackett, E S; Callan, R J; Holt, T N; Hackett, T B

    2013-01-01

    Morbidity and case fatality from rattlesnake envenomation is regionally specific because of variability in relative toxicity of the species of snake encountered. A previous report of rattlesnake envenomation in New World camelids (NWC) from the western coastal United States documented high case fatality rates and guarded prognosis for survival. To describe clinical findings, treatments, and outcome of NWC with prairie rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis) envenomation in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States. Twenty-seven NWC admitted to the Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for evaluation of acute rattlesnake envenomation between 1992 and 2012. Medical records of NWC evaluated for rattlesnake envenomation as coded by the attending clinician and identified by a database search were reviewed retrospectively. Month of admission, signalment, area of bite, clinical and clinicopathologic data, treatments, and outcome were recorded. Twenty-five llamas and 2 alpacas were admitted for envenomation. Llamas were overrepresented compared to hospital caseload. The face was the most common site of envenomation, observed in 96% of recorded cases. Presenting clinical signs included fever, tachypnea, tachycardia, and respiratory distress. Nine animals required a tracheotomy. Median hospitalization time was 3 days and overall survival rate was 69%. Case fatality rate for prairie rattlesnake envenomation in NWC was lower than that reported in the Western coastal region of the United States and similar to that reported for prairie rattlesnake envenomation in horses. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  11. Predator selection of prairie landscape features and its relation to duck nest success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, M.L.; Clark, W.R.; Sovada, M.A.; Horn, D.J.; Koford, Rolf R.; Greenwood, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    Mammalian predation is a major cause of mortality for breeding waterfowl in the U.S. Northern Great Plains, and yet we know little about the selection of prairie habitats by predators or how this influences nest success in grassland nesting cover. We selected 2 41.4-km2 study areas in both 1996 and 1997 in North Dakota, USA, with contrasting compositions of perennial grassland. A study area contained either 15-20% perennial grassland (Low Grassland Composition [LGC]) or 45-55% perennial grassland (High Grassland Composition [HGC]). We used radiotelemetry to investigate the selection of 9 landscape cover types by red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), while simultaneously recording duck nest success within planted cover. The cover types included the edge and core areas of planted cover, wetland edges within planted cover or surrounded by cropland, pastureland, hayland, cropland, roads, and miscellaneous cover types. Striped skunks selected wetland edges surrounded by agriculture over all other cover types in LGC landscapes (P-values for all pairwise comparisons were Duck nest success was greater in HGC landscapes than in LGC landscapes for planted-cover core (P increased amount of planted-cover core area and the increased pastureland selection in HGC landscapes may have diluted predator foraging efficiency in the interior areas of planted cover and contributed to higher nest success in HGC landscapes. Our observations of predator cover-type selection not only support the restoration and management of large blocks of grassland but also indicate the influence of alternative cover types for mitigating nest predation in the Prairie Pothole Region.

  12. Geology of central Northern Switzerland: Overview and some key topics regarding Nagra’s seismic exploration of the region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madritsch, H. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA), Wettingen (Switzerland)

    2015-07-01

    The article provides a brief overview of the geological evolution of central Northern Switzerland as outlined in an oral presentation given at the 82{sup nd} SASEG annual convention 2015 in Baden. It focuses on an introduction to the Permo-Carboniferous Trough of Northern Switzerland, a brief description of the Mesozoic sedimentary sequences to be found in the region, including the potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal proposed by Nagra, and the Late Cenozoic tectonics of central Northern Switzerland, in particular the formation of the Jura Fold-and-Thrust Belt. These aspects represent some of the key topics regarding Nagra's ongoing seismic exploration of the region that has, and still is, contributing significantly to a better understanding of the region's fascinating geology. (author)

  13. Bio-prospecting Bacterial Diversity of Hot Springs in Northern Himalayan Region of India for Laccases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vijaya; Gupta, Naveen; Capalash, Neena; Sharma, Prince

    2017-09-01

    Bacterial diversity of hot springs of northern Himalayan region of India was studied and explored for laccases, the multicopper enzymes applicable in a large number of industries due to their ability to utilize a wide range of substrates. 220 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) out of 5551 sequence reads for bacterial diversity and 3 OTUs out of 19 sequence reads for Laccase like multicopper oxidases (LMCOs) diversity were generated. Bacteroidetes (74.28%) was the most abundant phylum including genus Paludibacter (66.96%), followed by phylum Proteobacteria (24.53%) including genera Chitinilyticum (7.55%) and Cellvibrio (6.14%). In case of laccase diversity, three LMCO sequences showed affiliation with proteobacteria and one with two domain laccase from uncultivable bacteroidetes. LMCO sequences belonged to H and N families.

  14. Flying to the rescue: the Northern Region Surf Lifesaving Association Helicopter Rescue Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, G E

    The Northern Region Surf Lifesaving Association Helicopter Rescue Service is one of the few aeromedical services in Australia mainly funded and staffed through the voluntary efforts of a local community. Since 1982 the service has flown over 600 missions without accident, rapidly responding to medical emergencies wherever they occur, and moving patients between hospitals whenever rapid and smooth transport has been essential--such as transferring people suffering from spinal and other severe injuries, premature babies, and women in premature or complicated labour. Increasing acceptance of the role of the helicopter amongst doctors and medical authorities has followed this impressive record. This article reviews the special abilities and purposes of the helicopter rescue service and points to its future role in the network of emergency care.

  15. Diurnal Variation over the Tropical Monsoon Regions During Northern Summer 1991

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jimenez, Greg

    1997-01-01

    This study examines diurnal variation of convection over western India, the Bay of Bengal, Indochina and the northern South China Sea during the 1991 northern summer monsoon using combined Japanese (GMS) and Indian (INSAT...

  16. Health service support for breastfeeding in the northern region of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Armah Aryee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI is a global effort to improve the role of maternity services and to enable mothers to breastfeed their infants, thus ensuring the best start in life for their infants. The foundation for the BFHI is the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding (BF. It has been shown, however, that there is the tendency of health facilities backsliding and even reverting to the old patterns of maternity care and practices and may be ineffective and discouraging to successful BF practices. The study was therefore conducted to ascertain and measure the extent of compliance with the Ten Steps to BF in designated Baby Friendly Health facilities in the Northern Region of Ghana. The study followed a cross-sectional design and was set in the Savelugu/Nanton, Tolon/Kunbungu Districts and Tamale Metropolis in the Northern Region. Nine (9 designated Baby Friendly facilities participated in the study; for which observation lists were completed and verified by interviewer-administered questionnaires to sixty-one (61 Health Care Workers (HCWs and two hundred and seventy (270 breastfeeding mothers. The overall compliance with the Ten Steps was 85.6% (S.E, 4.2% indicating high compliance, with 66.7% of the health facilities being highly compliant whilst 33.3% were moderately compliant. During the study there were no posters or other materials promoting breast-milk substitutes, bottles and pacifiers displayed in the facilities. The study highlighted a high degree of compliance with most of the BF policies (Ten Steps to successful breastfeeding and of the correct implementation of these policies in the designated baby friendly health facilities. Nevertheless, some elements relevant to Steps 4 and 5 require further work to make the needed improvement.

  17. Health service support for breastfeeding in the northern region of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Armah Aryee

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI is a global effort to improve the role of maternity services and to enable mothers to breastfeed their infants, thus ensuring the best start in life for their infants. The foundation for the BFHI is the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding (BF. It has been shown, however, that there is the tendency of health facilities backsliding and even reverting to the old patterns of maternity care and practices and may be ineffective and discouraging to successful BF practices. The study was therefore conducted to ascertain and measure the extent of compliance with the Ten Steps to BF in designated Baby Friendly Health facilities in the Northern Region of Ghana. The study followed a cross-sectional design and was set in the Savelugu/Nanton, Tolon/Kunbungu Districts and Tamale Metropolis in the Northern Region. Nine (9 designated Baby Friendly facilities participated in the study; for which observation lists were completed and verified by interviewer-administered questionnaires to sixty-one (61 Health Care Workers (HCWs and two hundred and seventy (270 breastfeeding mothers. The overall compliance with the Ten Steps was 85.6% (S.E, 4.2% indicating high compliance, with 66.7% of the health facilities being highly compliant whilst 33.3% were moderately compliant. During the study there were no posters or other materials promoting breast-milk substitutes, bottles and pacifiers displayed in the facilities. The study highlighted a high degree of compliance with most of the BF policies (Ten Steps to successful breastfeeding and of the correct implementation of these policies in the designated baby friendly health facilities. Nevertheless, some elements relevant to Steps 4 and 5 require further work to make the needed improvement.

  18. Adolescents in southern regions of Italy adhere to the Mediterranean diet more than those in the northern regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noale, Marianna; Nardi, Mariateresa; Limongi, Federica; Siviero, Paola; Caregaro, Lorenza; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Maggi, Stefania

    2014-09-01

    There is a large amount of literature regarding the benefits of the Mediterranean diet in the adult population; however, there is growing curiosity about the individuals who naturally adhere to those principles early in life. The "Evaluation of Dietary Habits in Adolescents," carried out by the National Research Council of Italy in 2009, is a survey that aimed to assess the dietary habits and lifestyles of Italian adolescents and their adherence to the Mediterranean diet. We hypothesized that there would be differences across regions, with a higher adherence in Southern Italy compared with Northern Italy based on geography. The survey was conducted in 3 different geographic locations in Italy and included a convenience sample of adolescents who attended either a middle or high school. The participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire concerning demographic data, lifestyle factors, and eating patterns, and scores were assigned according to adherence to the Mediterranean diet, as calculated using Trichopoulou's Mediterranean diet scale. The final sample included 565 adolescents, between 12 and 19 years old, who attended school in the northeastern, northwestern, or southern regions of Italy in 2009. According to the findings, 38.6% of the respondents had scores indicating a low adherence to the Mediterranean diet, whereas only 14% had scores showing a high adherence. Teenagers from the Southern region showed the highest adherence. Those with a high adherence to the Mediterranean diet consumed higher quantities of fiber, iron, vitamin B6, vitamin C, folic acid, vitamin A, vitamin D, and monounsaturated fats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Groundwater quality assessment and pollution source apportionment in an intensely exploited region of northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Wang, Huiwei; Wang, Yanchao; Yang, Mingnan; Zhu, Liang

    2017-07-01

    Deterioration in groundwater quality has attracted wide social interest in China. In this study, groundwater quality was monitored during December 2014 at 115 sites in the Hutuo River alluvial-pluvial fan region of northern China. Results showed that 21.7% of NO 3 - and 51.3% of total hardness samples exceeded grade III of the national quality standards for Chinese groundwater. In addition, results of gray relationship analysis (GRA) show that 64.3, 10.4, 21.7, and 3.6% of samples were within the I, II, IV, and V grades of groundwater in the Hutuo River region, respectively. The poor water quality in the study region is due to intense anthropogenic activities as well as aquifer vulnerability to contamination. Results of principal component analysis (PCA) revealed three major factors: (1) domestic wastewater and agricultural runoff pollution (anthropogenic activities), (2) water-rock interactions (natural processes), and (3) industrial wastewater pollution (anthropogenic activities). Using PCA and absolute principal component scores-multivariate linear regression (APCS-MLR), results show that domestic wastewater and agricultural runoff are the main sources of groundwater pollution in the Hutuo River alluvial-pluvial fan area. Thus, the most appropriate methods to prevent groundwater quality degradation are to improve capacities for wastewater treatment and to optimize fertilization strategies.

  20. Assessing the air pollution carrying capacity of the northern Puget Sound region: an application of TAPAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M.C.; Childs J.E.; Marlatt, W.E.

    1980-09-01

    The technique discussed, the Topographic Air Pollution Analysis System (TAPAS), was developed to provide valid information on the dispersion capability of the lower atmosphere in areas characterized by complex terrain features. A study was undertaken to assess the air quality (SO/sub 2/) impacts associated with energy development in the region and to determine the constraints on energy development due to regulated limitations on the amount of air quality degradation allowable in the area. The emission constraint analysis for the northern Puget Sound region indicated that total SO/sub 2/ emissions in the core area (on an annual basis) are less than half of the amount that could be tolerated in the entire core region while maintaining ambient concentrations within state and federal annual average limitations. However, comparison of source characteristics with source location and grid cell emission restrictions indicated that localized areas adjacent to the major point sources are already far in excess of the SO/sub 2/ carrying capacity. This conclusion is supported by air quality monitoring data that indicate state standard violations at several receptor locations within the study area. The annual maps of wind patterns and PI-Matrix values show areas of both good and poor dispersion characteristics under the most prevalent flow conditions.

  1. Black-tailed prairie dog status and future conservation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel W. Mulhern; Craig J. Knowles

    1997-01-01

    The black-tailed prairie dog is one of five prairie dog species estimated to have once occupied up to 100 million ha or more in North America. The area occupied by black-tailed prairie dogs has declined to approximately 2% of its former range. Conversion of habitat to other land uses and widespread prairie dog eradication efforts combined with sylvatic plague,

  2. The prairie dog as a keystone species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotliar, Natasha B.; Miller, Brian J.; Reading, Richard P.; Clark, Timothy W.; Hoogland, John L.

    2006-01-01

    The prairie dog has a pronounced impact on its grassland ecosystem (King 1955; Uresk and Bjugstad 1983; Miller et al. 1994; Society for Conservation Biology 1994; Wuerthner 1997; Johnsgard 2005). They maintain short vegetation by their grazing and by selective removal of tall plants and shrubs; provide shelter, foraging grounds, and nesting habitat for a diverse array of animals; serve as prey for many predators; and alter soil chemistry.Do these impacts mean that the prairie dog is a keystone species? To investigate, we first scrutinize the definition for a keystone species. We then document both vertebrates and invertebrates that associate with prairie dogs and their colony-sites. We examine ecosystem processes at colony-sites, and then assess whether the prairie dog is a legitimate keystone species. Finally, we explore the implications of keystone status for the conservation of prairie dogs.

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region in 2008-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamontova, E. A.; Tarasova, E. N.; Goreglyad, A. V.; Tkachenko, L. L.; Mamontov, A. A.; Kuzmin, M. I.

    2015-10-01

    Results of the study of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from the listing of the Stockholm Convention in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region at the base of the "Khankh" stationary, Institute of Geochemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, in 2008-2013 in the absence of clear sources of these compounds are considered. Quantitative and qualitative changes in the concentration of PCB and OCP in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region in 2008-2013 characterizing the influence of natural (annual temperature variations) and anthropogenic (atmospheric transportation from the territories of neighboring countries) are shown.

  4. Pre-season prediction of regional rainfed wheat yield in Northern Greece with CERES-Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavromatis, T.

    2014-08-01

    The present study aims at forecasting hard wheat ( Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) yield in northern Greece, a season prior to harvest. It is based on (a) crop simulated, with CERES-Wheat indicators at four planting dates and (b) reported crop yields at two regional levels (three NUTS2 [ Nomenclature of Units for Territorial Statistics] and 16 NUTS3 regions), for the years 1979-2006. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to explore major patterns of joint variability in 20 crop simulated agroclimatic indicators of the growing season before harvest. Stepwise regression and hindcast were employed for the selection of the modes identified by PCA as predictors in multivariate linear regression models used for forecasting yield a season ahead of harvest. Forecasting skill varied to a large extent by spatial scale and planting date. When the simulation results aggregated to the larger spatial level (NUTS2), the yield forecasting skill, in terms of R2, was rated as high (ranging from 0.48 to 0.73) in three out of four planting dates for Central Macedonia and in one planting ( R 2 = 0.57) for Thrace. Harvest index, nitrogen leaching and related soil water crop simulated output of the previous season, were the most important predictors. No forecasting skill was found in the third NUTS2 region. The performance of the regression models substantially deteriorated at the higher resolution spatial level (NUTS3). In four regions only (including the one where CERES-Wheat was calibrated) yield forecasting skill was moderate ( R 2 > 0.25). The results demonstrate the potential of this approach for regional crop yield forecasting before the beginning of the cropping season. However, crop model calibration is required before its application.

  5. Crustal Thickness in the Ibero-Maghrebian region I: Northern Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla, F.; Stich, D.; Morales, J.; Julià, J.; Diaz, J.; Pazos, A.; Córdoba, D.; Pulgar, J. A.; Ibarra, P.; Harnafi, M.; Gonzalez-Lodeiro, F.

    2012-04-01

    During the TopoIberia experiment, a total of 26 seismic broadband stations were recording in northern Morocco, providing for the first time extended regional coverage for investigating structure and seismotectonics of the southern branch of the Betic-Rif arc, its foreland and the Atlas domain. Here, we analyze P-to-S converted waves in teleseismic receiver functions to infer gross crustal properties as thickness and Vp/Vs ratio. Strong lateral variations of the crustal thickness are observed throughout the region. Crustal thicknesses vary between 22 km and 44 km and display a simple geographic pattern that divides the study area into three domains: entire northwestern Morocco underlain by a thickened crust with crustal thicknesses between 35 km and 44 km; northeastern Morocco affected by significant crustal thinning, with crustal thicknesses ranging from 22 km to 30 km, with the shallowest Moho along the Mediterranean coast; and an extended domain of 27-34 km thick crust, further south which includes the Atlas domain and its foreland regions. Vp/Vs ratios show normal values of ~ 1.75 for most stations except for the Atlas domain, where several stations give low Vp/Vs ratios around 1.71. The very sharp transition from thick crust in northwestern Morocco to thin crust in northeastern Morocco is attributed to regional geodynamics possibly the realm of present-day subcrustal dynamics in the final stage of western Mediterranean subduction. Crustal thicknesses just slightly above 30km in the southern domain are intriguing, showing that high topography in this region is not isostatically compensated at crustal level.

  6. Chronic Respiratory Diseases in the Regions of Northern Russia: Epidemiological Distinctions in the Results of a National Population Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambaryan, Marine H; Shalnova, Svetlana A; Deev, Alexander D; Drapkina, Oxana M

    2017-07-26

    The aim of the study is to investigate the epidemiological situation regarding chronic respiratory diseases in populations that inhabit different climatic-geographical regions of Russia, and to develop targeted programs for prevention of these diseases. (1) a comparative analysis of the standardized mortality data in Russia and other selected regions of the Russian North using the European standard for respiratory diseases, in a population aged 25-64; and (2) data from a randomized cross-sectional epidemiological study, with subjects from three different climatic-geographical regions of Russia. (1) the respiratory disease-related mortality rates in the majority of Russian Northern regions were much higher compared to the national average. Although death rates from chronic lower respiratory diseases were higher among the Northern regions and in the whole of Russia relative to the countries of European Union (EU), the cause of death in the populations of the Northern regions tend to be lower respiratory infections and pneumonia; and (2) despite the absence of any significant differences in the prevalence of smoking, the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases (COPD) is significantly higher in Far North Yakutsk compared to the other two regions in this study-Chelyabinsk and Vologda. The status of hyperborean had the highest chance of a significant contribution to COPD and cardiorespiratory pathology among all other risk factors. The results revealed a need for effective targeted strategies for primary and secondary prevention of chronic respiratory diseases for the populations of the Northern regions of Russia. The revealed regional distinctions regarding the prevalence of, and mortality from, chronic respiratory diseases should be taken into consideration when designing integrated programs for chronic non-communicable disease prevention in these regions.

  7. Large plasma density enhancements occurring in the northern polar region during the 6 April 2000 superstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Ildiko; Lovell, Brian C.

    2014-06-01

    We focus on the ionospheric response of northern high-latitude region to the 6 April 2000 superstorm and aim to investigate how the storm-enhanced density (SED) plume plasma became distributed in the regions of auroral zone and polar cap plus to study the resultant ionospheric features and their development. Multi-instrument observational results combined with model-generated, two-cell convection maps permitted identifying the high-density plasma's origin and the underlying plasma transportation processes. Results show the plasma density feature of polar cap enhancement (PCE; 600 × 103 i+/cm3) appearing for 7 h during the main phase and characterized by increases reaching up to 6 times of the quiet time values. Meanwhile, strong westward convections ( 17,500 m/s) created low plasma densities in a wider region of the dusk cell. Oppositely, small ( 750 m/s) but rigorous westward drifts drove the SED plume plasma through the auroral zone, wherein plasma densities doubled. As the SED plume plasma traveled along the convection streamlines and entered the polar cap, a continuous enhancement of the tongue of ionization (TOI) developed under steady convection conditions. However, convection changes caused slow convections and flow stagnations and thus segmented the TOI feature by locally depleting the plasma in the affected regions of the auroral zone and polar cap. From the strong correspondence of polar cap potential drop and subauroral polarization stream (SAPS), we conclude that the SAPS E-field strength remained strong, and under its prolonged influence, the SED plume provided a continuous supply of downward flowing high-density plasma for the development and maintenance of PCEs.

  8. Prevalence of Enteropathogens in Dogs Attending 3 Regional Dog Parks in Northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hascall, K L; Kass, P H; Saksen, J; Ahlmann, A; Scorza, A V; Lappin, M R; Marks, S L

    2016-11-01

    The prevalence and risk factors for infection with enteropathogens in dogs frequenting dog parks have been poorly documented, and infected dogs can pose a potential zoonotic risk for owners. To determine the prevalence and risk factors of infection with enteropathogens and zoonotic Giardia strains in dogs attending dog parks in Northern California and to compare results of fecal flotation procedures performed at a commercial and university parasitology laboratory. Three-hundred dogs attending 3 regional dog parks in Northern California. Prospective study. Fresh fecal specimens were collected from all dogs, scored for consistency, and owners completed a questionnaire. Specimens were analyzed by fecal centrifugation flotation, DFA, and PCR for detection of 11 enteropathogens. Giardia genotyping was performed for assemblage determination. Enteropathogens were detected in 114/300 dogs (38%), of which 62 (54%) did not have diarrhea. Frequency of dog park attendance correlated significantly with fecal consistency (P = .0039), but did not correlate with enteropathogen detection. Twenty-seven dogs (9%) were infected with Giardia, and genotyping revealed nonzoonotic assemblages C and D. The frequency of Giardia detection on fecal flotation was significantly lower at the commercial laboratory versus the university laboratory (P = .013), and PCR for Giardia was negative in 11/27 dogs (41%) that were positive on fecal flotation or DFA. Enteropathogens were commonly detected in dogs frequenting dog parks, and infection with Giardia correlated with fecal consistency. PCR detection of Giardia had limited diagnostic utility, and detection of Giardia cysts by microscopic technique can vary among laboratories. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  9. [Vulnerability of eco-economy in northern slope region of Tianshan Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-zhai; Li, Bo; Zhang, Xin-shi; Zhao, Wen-wu; Jiang, Guang-hui

    2008-04-01

    Based on the theoretical meaning of vulnerability, a vulnerability assessment of eco-econom in fifteen counties in the northern slope region of Tianshan Mountains was conducted. The ecosystem services change to land use was regarded as the impact, and based on the fourteen indices from resource holding, society development, and economy development statistic data, the adaptive ability was evaluated by using the methods of analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy synthetic evaluation. On the basis of assessment results of impact and adaptive capacity, the fifteen counties were divided into five classes under the assessment principles, and the district with higher-class number was of more vulnerability. The first class included Usu City and Changji City, the second class included Hutubi County, Miquan County, Fukang City, Jimsar County, Qitai County and Mori Kazak Autonomous County, the third class included Karamay City and Urumqi City, the fourth class included Kuitun City and Shawan County, and the fifth class included Jinghe County, Shihezi City and Manas County. The vulnerability reflected the level of eco-environment change and socioeconomic development, and the vulnerability assessment could be a good way to ensure the sustainable development. Aiming to decrease the vulnerability, various districts belonging to different class of vulnerability should establish relevant tactics according to the vulnerability factors to accelerate the region's sustainable development.

  10. Airborne Lidar Measurements of Pollution above the Oil Sands Region in Northern Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal Monika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lidar measurements of ozone and aerosol were conducted from a Twin Otter aircraft above the oil sands region of northern Alberta. For the majority of the flights, significant amounts of aerosol were observed within the boundary layer, up to an altitude of 2.0 km above sea level (ASL, while the ozone concentration remained at background levels (30-45 ppb downwind of the industry. On August 24th the lidar measured a separated layer of aerosol above the boundary layer, at a height of 2.0 km ASL, in which the ozone mixing ratio increased to 70 ppb. Backward trajectory calculations revealed that the air containing this separated aerosol layer had passed over an area of forest fires. Directly below the layer of forest fire smoke, pollution from the oil sands industry was observed. Measurements of the backscatter linear depolarization ratio were obtained with a ground based lidar operated by Environment Canada within the oil sands region. The depolarization measurements aided in discriminating between the separate sources of pollution from industry and forest fires. The depolarization ratio was 5-6% in forest fire smoke and 7-10% in the industrial pollution.

  11. Provincial–regional ANC politics in the Northern Cape: corruption or everyday informal practices?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thina Nzo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Research over the last decade on local government in South Africa has highlighted that some municipal councils under the political leadership of the Africa National Congress (ANC have shown weak political leadership, coupled with strong patronage systems, rent-seeking and corruption which have had an impact on the institutional functionality of municipalities in South Africa. Although patronage politics have been predominantly used to analyse the dynamics of post-apartheid local government ANC politics and councillor representation, this prevents us from understanding the representational focus of ANC councillors in decision-making processes. This paper offers an ethnographic insight into experiences of ANC councillors and the political complexities involved in council decision-making. Using ethnographic research, this paper will analyse how a political decision by the ANC provincial party, which was supported by the ANC regional party at local level – to erect a statue of Nelson Mandela in one of the municipalities in the Northern Cape – generated tensions amongst ANC councillors who strongly viewed their primary role as promoters of better ‘service delivery’ rather than approving the allocation of scarce municipal resources for erecting a statue. The paper reveals how the dominant presence of ANC sub-regional structures at local level contribute to the complex interaction of both ANC party political and municipal organisational rules and norms that influence and shape councillors’ choices in decision-making.

  12. USDA Midwest and Northern Forests Regional Climate Hub: Assessment of climate change vulnerability and adaptation and mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Midwest Regional Climate Hub covers the States of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin and represents one of the most extensive and intensive agricultural systems in the world. The Northern Forests Climate Sub Hub shares this footprint and represents people...

  13. Effects of the "great recession" on the forest products sector in the northern region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; William G. Luppold; Peter J. Ince; Ronald J. Piva; Kenneth E. Skog

    2012-01-01

    The forest industry within the northern region of the United States has demonstrated a notable decline in terms of employment, number of mills, wood consumption, and forest harvests since 2000--a downturn exacerbated by the "Great Recession" of 2007-2009. Longer term industrial decline (since 2000) has been evidenced by reductions in secondary product (e.g.,...

  14. Regional analysis of soil-atmosphere nitrous oxide emissions in the Northern Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plant, R.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Regional analysis of greenhouse gas emissions is becoming increasingly important in answering questions related to environmental change, and typically employs a Geographic Information System (GIS) linked with a process-based simulation model. For the Northern Atlantic Zone (NAZ) in Costa Rica (281

  15. Chryse Planitia region, Mars: Channeling history, flood-volume estimates, and scenarios for bodies of water in the northern plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotto, Susan L.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.

    1992-01-01

    The Chryse Planitia region of Mars includes several outflow channels that debouched into a single basin. Here we evaluate possible volumes and areal extents of standing bodies of water that collected in the northern lowland plains, based on evidence provided by topography, fluvial relations, and channel chronology and geomorphology.

  16. Tillage and residue effects on rainfed wheat and corn production in the Semi-Arid Regions of Northern China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.B.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Perdok, U.D.; Cai, D.X.

    2003-01-01

    Field studies on tillage and residue management for spring corn were conducted at two sites, in Tunliu (1987-1990), and Shouyang (1992-1995) counties of Shanxi province in the semihumid arid regions of northern China. This paper discusses the effects of different fall tillage (winter fallow tillage)

  17. Importance of prairie wetlands and avian prey to breeding Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus) in Northwestern North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard K. Murphy

    1997-01-01

    Prey use by Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus) is documented widely in North America, but not in the vast northern Great Plains. During spring through early summer 1986-1987, I recorded 2,900 prey items at 22 Great Horned Owl nesting areas in the prairie pothole farm- and rangelands of northwestern North Dakota. The owls relied heavily on wetland-...

  18. Regional Attenuation in Northern California: A Comparison of Five 1-D Q Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, S R; Dreger, D S; Mayeda, K; Walter, W R; Malagnini, L; Phillips, W S

    2007-08-03

    The determination of regional attenuation Q{sup -1} can depend upon the analysis method employed. The discrepancies between methods are due to differing parameterizations (e.g., geometrical spreading rates), employed datasets (e.g., choice of path lengths and sources), and the methodologies themselves (e.g., measurement in the frequency or time domain). Here we apply five different attenuation methodologies to a Northern California dataset. The methods are: (1) coda normalization (CN), (2) two-station (TS), (3) reverse two-station (RTS), (4) source-pair/receiver-pair (SPRP), and (5) coda-source normalization (CS). The methods are used to measure Q of the regional phase, Lg (Q{sub Lg}), and its power-law dependence on frequency of the form Q{sub 0}f{sup {eta}} with controlled parameterization in the well-studied region of Northern California using a high-quality dataset from the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network. We investigate the difference in power-law Q calculated among the methods by focusing on the San Francisco Bay Area, where knowledge of attenuation is an important part of seismic hazard mitigation. This approximately homogeneous subset of our data lies in a small region along the Franciscan block. All methods return similar power-law parameters, though the range of the joint 95% confidence regions is large (Q{sub 0} = 85 {+-} 40; {eta} = 0.65 {+-} 0.35). The RTS and TS methods differ the most from the other methods and from each other. This may be due to the removal of the site term in the RTS method, which is shown to be significant in the San Francisco Bay Area. In order to completely understand the range of power-law Q in a region, it is advisable to use several methods to calculate the model. We also test the sensitivity of each method to changes in geometrical spreading, Lg frequency bandwidth, the distance range of data, and the Lg measurement window. For a given method, there are significant differences in the power-law parameters, Q{sub 0} and {eta

  19. Atmospheric removal of PM2.5by man-made Three Northern Regions Shelter Forest in Northern China estimated using satellite retrieved PM2.5concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Du, Jiao; Huang, Tao; Zhang, Leiming; Gao, Hong; Zhao, Yuan; Ma, Jianmin

    2017-09-01

    Atmospheric removal of PM 2.5 by the Three Northern Regions Shelter Forest (TNRSF) - the so called Green Great Wall (GGW) in northern China through dry deposition process was estimated using a bulk big-leaf model and a vegetation collection model. Decadal trend of PM 2.5 dry deposition flux from 1999 to 2010 was calculated from modeled dry deposition velocity and air concentration retrieved from the satellite remote sensing. Dry deposition velocities of PM 2.5 calculated using the two deposition models increased in many places of the TNRSF over the last decade due to increasing vegetation coverage of the TNRSF. Both increasing deposition velocity due to forest expansion and PM 2.5 atmospheric level contributed to the increasing deposition flux of PM 2.5 . The highest atmospheric deposition flux of PM 2.5 was found in the Central-north region covering Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area, followed by the Northwestern and the Northeastern regions of the TNRSF. While greater collection of PM 2.5 by vegetation was identified in the Northeastern region of the TNRSF due to higher forest coverage over this region, the most significant incline of the PM 2.5 atmospheric removal due to vegetation collection was discerned in the Central-north region because of the most rapid increase in the vegetation coverage in this region. A total mass of 2.85×10 7 t PM 2.5 was estimated to be removed from the atmosphere through dry deposition process over the TNRSF from 1999 to 2010. The two deposition models simulated similar magnitude and spatial patterns of PM 2.5 dry deposition fluxes. Our results suggest that the TNRSF plays a moderate role in PM 2.5 uptake, but enhances PM 2.5 atmospheric removal by 30% in 2010 than in 1980. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Trace elements in particulate matter from metropolitan regions of Northern China: Sources, concentrations and size distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuepeng; Tian, Shili; Li, Xingru; Sun, Ying; Li, Yi; Wentworth, Gregory R; Wang, Yuesi

    2015-12-15

    Public concerns over airborne trace elements (TEs) in metropolitan areas are increasing, but long-term and multi-site observations of size-resolved aerosol TEs in China are still lacking. Here, we identify highly elevated levels of atmospheric TEs in megacities and industrial sites in a Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration relative to background areas, with the annual mean values of As, Pb, Ni, Cd and Mn exceeding the acceptable limits of the World Health Organization. Despite the spatial variability in concentrations, the size distribution pattern of each trace element was quite similar across the region. Crustal elements of Al and Fe were mainly found in coarse particles (2.1-9 μm), whereas the main fraction of toxic metals, such as Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Pb, was found in submicron particles (dust, fossil fuel combustion and industrial emissions, at different sites. In addition, higher elemental concentrations coincided with westerly flow, indicating that polluted soil and fugitive dust were major sources of TEs on the regional scale. However, the contribution of coal burning, iron industry/oil combustion and non-ferrous smelters to atmospheric metal pollution in Northern China should be given more attention. Considering that the concentrations of heavy metals associated with fine particles in the target region were significantly higher than those in other Asian sites, the implementations of strict environmental standards in China are required to reduce the amounts of these hazardous pollutants released into the atmosphere. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Water Management Strategy in Assessing the Water Scarcity in Northern Western Region of Nile Delta, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabrouk, Badr; Arafa, Salah; Gemajl, Khaled

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable development in the Nile Delta of Egypt is retarded by serious environmental problems, where land-use and land-cover of the region are subjected to continuous changes; including shoreline changes either by erosion or accretion, subsidence of the delta, as well as by sea level rise due to climate change. The current research attempts to; (1) study the vulnerability of the northern western region of the Nile Delta coastal zone to climate change/sea level rise while setting basic challenges, review adaptation strategies based on adaptation policy framework, and highlight recommended programs for preparedness to climate change, (2) study the scarcity of water resources in the area of study with review of the socioeconomic impacts and the critical need of establishing desalination plants with new standards assessing the environmental situation and population clusters, and (3) monitor of the brine water extracted from the desalination plants and injected to subsurface strata. This monitoring process is divided into 3 main directions: 1) studying the chemical characteristics of water extracted from the water desalinations plants qualitatively and quantitatively. 2) mapping the subsurface of which that brine water will be injected to it and the flow directions and effects using resistivity data, and 3) using GIS and suitable numerical models in order to study the effect, volume, flow of the brine water and its long term environmental impacts on the area. The results indicate that the area is particularly vulnerable to the impact of SLR, salt water intrusion, the deterioration of coastal tourism and the impact of extreme dust storms. This in turn will directly affect the agricultural productivity and human settlements in coastal zones. The paper presents different scenarios for water management and recommends the most suitable scenarios in order to establish a core for water management strategy in the region according to existing socio-economic and environmental

  2. Regional P wave velocity structure of the Northern Cascadia Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, K.; Hyndman, R.D.; Brocher, T.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the first regional three-dimensional, P wave velocity model for the Northern Cascadia Subduction. Zone (SW British Columbia and NW Washington State) constructed through tomographic inversion of first-arrival traveltime data from active source experiments together with earthquake traveltime data recorded at permanent stations. The velocity model images the structure of the subducting Juan de Fuca plate, megathrust, and the fore-arc crust and upper mantle. Beneath southern Vancouver Island the megathrust above the Juan de Fuca plate is characterized by a broad zone (25-35 km depth) having relatively low velocities of 6.4-6.6 km/s. This relative low velocity zone coincides with the location of most of the episodic tremors recently mapped beneath Vancouver Island, and its low velocity may also partially reflect the presence of trapped fluids and sheared lower crustal rocks. The rocks of the Olympic Subduction Complex are inferred to deform aseismically as evidenced by the lack of earthquakes withi the low-velocity rocks. The fore-arc upper mantle beneath the Strait of Georgia and Puget Sound is characterized by velocities of 7.2-7.6 km/s. Such low velocities represent regional serpentinization of the upper fore-arc mantle and provide evidence for slab dewatering and densification. Tertiary sedimentary basins in the Strait of Georgia and Puget Lowland imaged by the velocity model lie above the inferred region of slab dewatering and densification and may therefore partly result from a higher rate of slab sinking. In contrast, sedimentary basins in the Strait of Juan de Fuca lie in a synclinal depression in the Crescent Terrane. The correlation of in-slab earthquake hypocenters M>4 with P wave velocities greater than 7.8 km/s at the hypocenters suggests that they originate near the oceanic Moho of the subducting Juan de Fuca plate. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Pesticide photolysis in prairie potholes: probing photosensitized processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Teng; Arnold, William A

    2013-07-02

    Prairie pothole lakes (PPLs) are glacially derived, ecologically important water bodies found in central North America and represent a unique setting in which extensive agriculture occurs within wetland ecosystems. In the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR), elevated pesticide use and increasing hydrologic connectivity have raised concerns about the impact of nonpoint source agricultural pollution on the water quality of PPLs and downstream aquatic systems. Despite containing high dissolved organic matter (DOM) levels, the photoreactivity of the PPL water and the photochemical fate of pesticides entering PPLs are largely unknown. In this study, the photodegradation of sixteen pesticides was investigated in PPL waters sampled from North Dakota, under simulated and natural sunlight. Enhanced pesticide removal rates in the irradiated PPL water relative to the control buffer pointed to the importance of indirect photolysis pathways involving photochemically produced reactive intermediates (PPRIs). The steady-state concentrations of carbonate radical, hydroxyl radical, singlet oxygen, and triplet-excited state DOM were measured and second-order rate constants for reactions of pesticides with these PPRIs were calculated. Results from this study underscore the role of DOM as photosensitizer in limiting the persistence of pesticides in prairie wetlands through photochemical reactions.

  4. A qualitative study on student attitudes towards a controversial species, the black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox-Parrish, Lynne

    This case study determined the attitudes held by high school students toward a controversial, yet keystone, species of the Great Plains, the black-tailed prairie dog. Black-tailed prairie dogs have declined dramatically over the past century as a result of large scale poisoning programs, plague, shooting, and habitat loss. The eradication programs put forth were primarily the result of strongly held misconceptions regarding black-tailed prairie dogs. The misconceptions are ingrained in many agricultural and/or rural communities throughout the prairie dogs' range. The decline of this species has resulted in the decline of many other species and the near extinction of the black-footed ferret. Biodiversity continues to decline and the health of the prairie dog ecosystem (i.e. prairie habitats) is in jeopardy. Although studies have shown that landowners and the adult population that live within the range of black-tailed prairie dogs harbor negative attitudes, nothing is known about the attitudes of adolescents. With an eco-feminist theoretical perspective, a case study methodology was used. Thirty 9th grade students comprised the case. The students lived in a mid-sized urban northern Colorado city whose county ranks 5th in the nation and 1st state wide for the value of their agricultural products. Black-tailed prairie dogs could be found throughout the city and adjacent areas. Students were engaged in a year-long "lesson" on black-tailed prairie dogs and conducted a field research experiment on an active prairie dog town. Interviews were conducted in May 2004. Follow-up interviews were conducted in May 2005. Other data collected were: observations, photographs, journals, and classroom documents. Themes generated were devised by a constant comparative method of data analysis. Three major themes emerged: apathy, egocentrism, and naive conceptions. Two smaller themes also emerged: caring and hopelessness. Adolescents are our future policy and decision makers; therefore

  5. The Carbon Sequestration Potential of Soils: Some Data from Northern Italian Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Petrella

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that soil plays, within terrestrial ecosystems, an essential role in many biogeochemical cycles and in the regulation of greenhouse gas fluxes. Less known, and often underestimated, is the importance of carbon sequestration potential of soil, especially trough humified carbon. Even within the agro-forestry practices of the Kyoto Protocol, most of the attention is devoted to the biomass carbon storage, rather than soil carbon sequestration. The highest potentialities for carbon sequestration are related to the arable lands, that accounts for the 11% of earth surface; the increase of 0.1% of organic carbon content in the 0-30 cm layer of cultivated soils, achievable with minor adjustment of agronomic practices, is equivalent to the sequestration of 5,000 millions t of carbon. On the other hand, the conversion of a grasslands into cultivated land determine, during 50-70 years, a release of 80-150 t CO2 ha-1.Within this paper the estimate of soil organic carbon of three Northern Italian regions is presented.

  6. Regional integrated solid waste management: an optimization model for northern Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Najm, M.; El Fadel, M.; El-Taha, M.; Ayoub, G.; Al-Awar

    2000-01-01

    Full text.Increased environmental concerns and the emphasis on material and energy recovery are gradually changing the orientation of municipal solid waste (MSW) management and planning. In this context, the application of optimization techniques have been introduced to design the least cost solid waste management systems, considering the variety of management processes (recycling, composting, anaerobic digestion, incineration and land filling) and the existence of uncertainties associated with the number of system components and their interrelations. This study presents a model that was developed and applied to serve as a solid socio-economic and environmental considerations. The model accounts for solid waste generation rates, composition, collection, treatment, disposal as well as potential environmental impacts of various MSW management techniques. The model follows a linear programming formulation with the framework of dynamic optimization. The model can serve as a tool to evaluate various MSW management alternatives and obtain the optimal combination of technologies for the handling, treatment and disposal of MSW in an economic and environmentally sustainable way. The sensitivity of various waste management policies is also addressed. Finally, the region of Northern Lebanon was considered as a case study with data collected for the year 2000, to demonstrate the applicability of the model

  7. Effects of climate change on forest vegetation in the Northern Rockies Region [Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Robert E.; Mahalovich, Mary Frances; Bollenbacher, Barry L.; Manning, Mary E.; Loehman, Rachel A.; Jain, Terrie B.; Holsinger, Lisa M.; Larson, Andrew J.; Webster, Meredith M.

    2018-01-01

    The projected rapid changes in climate will affect the unique vegetation assemblages of the Northern Rockies region in myriad ways, both directly through shifts in vegetation growth, mortality, and regeneration, and indirectly through changes in disturbance regimes and interactions with changes in other ecosystem processes, such as hydrology, snow dynamics, and exotic invasions (Bonan 2008; Hansen and Phillips 2015; Hansen et al. 2001; Notaro et al. 2007). These impacts, taken collectively, could change the way vegetation is managed by public land agencies in this area. Some species may be in danger of rapid decreases in abundance, while others may undergo range expansion (Landhäusser et al. 2010). New vegetation communities may form, while historical vegetation complexes may simply shift to other areas of the landscape or become rare. Juxtaposed with climate change concerns are the consequences of other land management policies and past activities, such as fire exclusion, fuels treatments, and grazing. A thorough assessment of the responses of vegetation to projected climate change is needed, along with an evaluation of the vulnerability of important species, communities, and vegetation-related resources that may be influenced by the effects, both direct and indirect, of climate change. This assessment must also account for past management actions and current vegetation conditions and their interactions with future climates.

  8. Genetic diversity of Armillaria spp. infecting highbush blueberry in northern Italy (Trentino region).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodorutti, D; Vanblaere, T; Gobbin, D; Pellegrini, A; Gessler, C; Pertot, I

    2009-06-01

    Armillaria spp. are the causal agents of root rots of several woody plants, including highbush blueberry. Since 2003, highbush blueberry plants infected by Armillaria spp. have been found in Valsugana Valley, Trentino region, northern Italy. Our aim was to identify the Armillaria spp. involved in these infections, as well as possible sources of inoculum in blueberry fields. Samples of Armillaria spp. were collected from diseased blueberry plants in 13 infected blueberry fields, from bark spread along the blueberry rows, from infected trees in the vicinity of the fields, and from four forest locations. The identification of Armillaria spp. was accomplished using a species-specific multiplex polymerase chain reaction method and by sequencing the rDNA at a specific locus. The differentiation between genotypes was performed by using simple-sequence repeat analysis. Armillaria mellea and A. gallica were the most frequently observed species infecting blueberry in the Valsugana Valley. Three to eight Armillaria genotypes were identified in each blueberry field. No individual genotypes were found in more than one blueberry field. Two-thirds of the genotypes found colonizing trees in the immediate vicinity of infected fields and two-thirds of the genotypes found colonizing the bark spread in blueberry rows were also isolated from blueberry plants in the field, indicating that bark used as mulch and infected trees surrounding the fields may be important sources of inoculum.

  9. Spectrum of hemoglobin variants in the population of northern region of West Bengal: An ethnogenetic proposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidyut Krishna Goswami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The birth of transfusion-dependent states of hemoglobinopathies including thalassemias is preventable by population screening and genetic counseling. Magnitude is not addressed in the Northern Region of West Bengal where many ethnic variants inhabit. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the following study is to find out the burden of different entities of hemoglobinopathies, their correlation with ethnicity and the "at risk" groups. Subjects and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted from the Hematology Unit of North Bengal Medical College over 1 year on the subjects underwent screening for hemoglobinopathies for detection of abnormal hemoglobin (Hb variants by "cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography" principle along with other relevant tests. Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed by frequency distribution and Chi-square test assuming P value as 95% of the level of significance using the SPSS version 16 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A. Result: Abnormal Hb variant was 47.5% among 1872. Hb E trait (34.4% was most common followed by Hb E disease (25.3% and others. Hb E disorders (92.7% were observed mostly among Rajbangsi population while E-β-thalassemias (40% in the Muslims and a heterogeneous pattern noted among tribal and mongoloid. Conclusion: Hb E hemoglobinopathies was high among Rajbangsi and Muslims with identification of some other hemoglobinopathies involving tribal and mongoloid.

  10. BOVINE NEOSPOROSIS IN CATTLE FARMS FROM THE NORTHERN REGION OF THE STATE OF VERACRUZ, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Montiel-Peña

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the presence of antibodies against Neospora caninum and its DNA in blood samples from bovine females from the northern region of the state of Veracruz, Mexico. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was carried out in 13 municipalities, with a sample size of 821 animals. Blood and serum samples were analyzed through ELISA and PCR, respectively. Overall prevalence was 20.8 %; the highest specific prevalences were obtained in breeding cows (27.4 %, crossbred cows (20.9 %, second-calving cows (23.2 %, three year-old cows (20.6 % and cows with abortion history (20 %. The risk factors associated with seropositivity were dairy cattle (OR = 1.9; IC95 %: 1.1-3.4 and dog presence in the farms (OR = 5.3; IC95 %: 1.3-22.3. The presence of N. caninum DNA was demonstrated in 4 out of 12 blood samples tested, which evidenced the existence of active infection. In conclusion, there were risk factors associated with bovine neosporosis, which proved the existence of active infection by N. caninum in cows from the state of Veracruz, Mexico.

  11. Evaluation of thermal and photovoltaic solar systems in agricultural production units, Northern Huetar Region, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás de Jesús Guzmán Hernández

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The dependence on fossil fuels urges society to seek for clean energy alternatives, in order to mitigate the effects of climate change. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of solar energy used for water heating and electricity generation. The study was conducted at the dairy of the Technology Institute of Costa Rica, San Carlos Headquarter, from May 15 to April 2016. The data related to the amount of the electricity produced and the temperature reached by water was obtained from the installed photovoltaic and thermal systems, the data was recorded by a computerized register. The obtained information about electricity production allowed researchers to calculate the amount of carbon dioxide equivalent that was not emitted into the atmosphere, and also the acquired economic saving on consumption. The use of these systems allowed the production unit have a self- sufficient source of electrical energy percentage, actually around 30 to 40% of the total electrical consumption. According to the energy production, the solar thermal system was capable to increase water temperature between 20 to 37 °C, temperature that represents more than 70% of the energy needed in order to reach the required water temperature (70 °C for cleaning and sanitizing the milking equipment, and also an economical saving around $90 per month was achieved. The results showed that these systems allow to improve the economical and productive efficiency of agricultural production units in the Northern Huetar Region of Costa Rica.

  12. Relatedness of Macrophomina phaseolina isolates from tallgrass prairie, maize, soybean and sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, A A; Ahmed, H U; Todd, T C; Travers, S E; Zeller, K A; Leslie, J F; Garrett, K A

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural and wild ecosystems may interact through shared pathogens such as Macrophomina phaseolina, a generalist clonal fungus with more than 284 plant hosts that is likely to become more important under climate change scenarios of increased heat and drought stress. To evaluate the degree of subdivision in populations of M. phaseolina in Kansas agriculture and wildlands, we compared 143 isolates from maize fields adjacent to tallgrass prairie, nearby sorghum fields, widely dispersed soybean fields and isolates from eight plant species in tallgrass prairie. Isolate growth phenotypes were evaluated on a medium containing chlorate. Genetic characteristics were analysed based on amplified fragment length polymorphisms and the sequence of the rDNA-internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. The average genetic similarity was 58% among isolates in the tallgrass prairie, 71% in the maize fields, 75% in the sorghum fields and 80% in the dispersed soybean fields. The isolates were divided into four clusters: one containing most of the isolates from maize and soybean, two others containing isolates from wild plants and sorghum, and a fourth containing a single isolate recovered from Solidago canadensis in the tallgrass prairie. Most of the sorghum isolates had the dense phenotype on media containing chlorate, while those from other hosts had either feathery or restricted phenotypes. These results suggest that the tallgrass prairie supports a more diverse population of M. phaseolina per area than do any of the crop species. Subpopulations show incomplete specialization by host. These results also suggest that inoculum produced in agriculture may influence tallgrass prairie communities, and conversely that different pathogen subpopulations in tallgrass prairie can interact there to generate 'hybrids' with novel genetic profiles and pathogenic capabilities.

  13. Exposure of small rodents to plague during epizootics in black-tailed prairie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapp, Paul; Salkeld, Daniel J; Eisen, Rebecca J; Pappert, Ryan; Young, John; Carter, Leon G; Gage, Kenneth L; Tripp, Daniel W; Antolin, Michael F

    2008-07-01

    Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, causes die-offs of colonies of prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). It has been argued that other small rodents are reservoirs for plague, spreading disease during epizootics and maintaining the pathogen in the absence of prairie dogs; yet there is little empirical support for distinct enzootic and epizootic cycles. Between 2004 and 2006, we collected blood from small rodents captured in colonies in northern Colorado before, during, and for up to 2 yr after prairie dog epizootics. We screened 1,603 blood samples for antibodies to Y. pestis, using passive hemagglutination and inhibition tests, and for a subset of samples we cultured blood for the bacterium itself. Of the four species of rodents that were common in colonies, the northern grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster) was the only species with consistent evidence of plague infection during epizootics, with 11.1-23.1% of mice seropositive for antibody to Y. pestis during these events. Seropositive grasshopper mice, thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus), and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were captured the year following epizootics. The appearance of antibodies to Y. pestis in grasshopper mice coincided with periods of high prairie dog mortality; subsequently, antibody prevalence rates declined, with no seropositive individuals captured 2 yr after epizootics. We did not detect plague in any rodents off of colonies, or on colonies prior to epizootics, and found no evidence of persistent Y. pestis infection in blood cultures. Our results suggest that grasshopper mice could be involved in epizootic spread of Y. pestis, and possibly, serve as a short-term reservoir for plague, but provide no evidence that the grasshopper mouse or any small rodent acts as a long-term, enzootic host for Y. pestis in prairie dog colonies.

  14. Occurrence of ectoparasitic arthropods associated with rodents in Hail region northern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiry, Khalid A; Fetoh, Badr El-Sabah A

    2014-09-01

    Ectoparasitic arthropods are a diverse element of the Saudi fauna. Due to this, a survey of ectoparasites associated with rodents was conducted as a preliminary study in five districts of Hail region of northern Saudi Arabia for the first time. Ectoparasites extracted from 750 rodents were sampled and identified by recording their frequency of appearance. Results revealed that 1,287 ectoparasites infested 316 of the captured rodent hosts. These ectoparasites parasitized on four species of rodents including three species of rats Rattus rattus rattus, Rattus rattus frugivorus, and Rattus rattus alexandrinus and one species of mouse Acomys dimidiatus (Rodentia: Muridae). The ectoparasites belong to four different groups: ticks, fleas, lice, and mites. Ticks were the highest in the number, while fleas were the lowest among all the extracted ectoparasite groups. The collected ectoparasitic arthropods consisted of seven species. Ticks were of two species: Rhipicephalus turanicus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae), fleas were of two species: Xenopsylla cheopis and Xenopsyllus conformis mycerini (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), lice was a single species: Polyplax serrata (Anoplura: Hoplopleuridae), and mites were of two species: Laelaps nuttali and Laelaps echidninus (Mesostigmata: Laelapidae). The findings of the study showed that the intensity of infestation was varied between rodent host sexes, wherein females had the highest rate of parasitic infestation, and the parasitic index of appearance was very high for one group of parasites (i.e., ticks). The parasitic prevalence was 42.13 % on rodents, and mites were the most prevalent parasite species. Overall, this study was carried out to establish baseline data for ectoparasite-infested rodents in Hail region, Saudi Arabia, and may help for appropriate planning to control zoonotic diseases in this area.

  15. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by communities of Northern Kordofan region, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Mohamed Hammad Adam

    2015-12-24

    The present study provides significant ethnopharmacological information on plant species used in North Kordofan region, western Sudan. The study was undertaken with an aim to document the medicinal uses of the species known to some Northern Kordofan communities. The study was conducted between 2012 and 2013. The plants were identified and voucher specimens prepared. Information was collected by means of semi-structured interviews with 258 informants (195 men and 63 women). In addition, the use value (UV) of the species was determined and the informant consensus factor (ICF) was calculated for the medicinal plants researched in the study. Further analysis was carried out to compare results with previous studies from the study area and other regions of Sudan. A total of 44 plant species representing 24 families were found to be commonly used in the treatment of 73 different human health problems. The families most represented were Leguminosae (18%), Caesalpiniaceae (9%), Malvaceae (9%), Asclepiadaceae (6.8%) and Combretaceae (6.8%). The highest number of plant species are used against digestive system disorders (23 species) followed by microbial infections (21 species) and dermatology (19 species). Among all the plant parts leaves (20%), roots (19%), fruits and bark (14% each) were the most preferred plant parts used by the informants. There was strong agreement among the informants as to the usages of the plants (informant consensus factor 0.63-0.93). The most important plants on the basis of use-value were Acacia nilotica, Acacia seyal, Balanites aegyptiaca, Cassia occidentalis, Cassia senna, Guiera senegalensis and Tamarindus indica. This study has helped to document information that may otherwise be lost to future generations. This is the first ethnobotanical study in which statistical calculations about plants are carried out by means of the ICF and UV methods in the study area. Plants with high ICF and UV values should be subjected for further phytochemical and

  16. Demographic potential of the Russia’s northern regions as a factor and condition of economic development of the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Vilgelmovich Fauzer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the research relevance of all aspects of development of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation consists the fact that in spite of limited stocks in the old rendered habitable regions of the country, Arctic is considered as a source of resources for socio-economic development of Russia. Based on the recognition that the territory is like a separate object of state observation, it is noted that the best resources for labor of the economy of Arctic may become demographic potential of adjacent northern regions. The different points of view and approaches to the definition of the demographic potential and a set of indicators by its assessment are given. On the basis of the statistical analysis of population dynamics and a level of birth rate and mortality, it is shown that quantitative demographic potential of the northern regions since 1990s significantly decreased. It was affected by the migratory outflow. It is revealed that in northern regions, there are still positive differences in age and sexual structure. Regional governments can use the results while drawing up Strategic plans of socio-economic development of territories. The article concludes with recommendations

  17. Deformation characterization of a regional thrust zone in the northern Rif (Chefchaouen, Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Stefano; Zaghloul, Mohamed Najib; Tramparulo, Francesco D.'Assisi; El Ouaragli, Bilal

    2014-07-01

    This paper provides the structural analysis of the Chefchaouen area in the northern Rif. Here the Dorsale Calcaire superposes, by means of an excellently exposed thrust fault, onto the Predorsalian succession in turn tectonically covering the Massylian Unit. Hanging wall carbonates of the Dorsale Calcaire Unit form a WSW-verging regional fold with several parasitic structures, deformed by late reverse faults in places indicating an ENE vergence. A 200 m thick shear zone characterizes the upper part of the Predorsalian succession, located at footwall of the Dorsale Calcaire Unit. Here the dominantly pelitic levels are highly deformed by (i) C‧ type shear bands indicating a mean WSW tectonic transport and (ii) conjugate extensional shear planes marking an extension both orthogonal and parallel to the shear direction. The Massylian Unit is characterized by a strain gradient increasing toward the tectonic contact with the overlying Predorsalian succession, where the dominantly pelitic levels are so highly deformed so as appearing as a broken formation. Such as the previous succession, conjugate extensional shear bands and normal faults indicate a horizontal extension parallel to the thrust front synchronous with the mainly WSW-directed overthrusting. The whole thrust sheet pile recorded a further shortening, characterized by a NW-SE direction, expressed by several reverse and thrust faults and related folds. Finally strike-slip and normal faults were the last deformation structures recorded in the analyzed rocks. A possible tectonic evolution for these successions is provided. In the late Burdigalian, the Dorsale Calcaire Unit tectonically covered the Predorsalian succession and together the Massylian Unit. The latter two successions were completely detached from their basement and accreted in the orogenic wedge within a general NE-SW shortening for the analyzed sector of the northern Rif. At lithosphere scale the thrust front migration was driven by roll back and

  18. A regional-scale study of chromium and nickel in soils of northern California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, J.M.; Goldhaber, M.B.; Lee, L.; Holloway, J.M.; Wanty, R.B.; Wolf, R.E.; Ranville, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    A soil geochemical survey was conducted in a 27,000-km2 study area of northern California that includes the Sierra Nevada Mountains, the Sacramento Valley, and the northern Coast Range. The results show that soil geochemistry in the Sacramento Valley is controlled primarily by the transport and weathering of parent material from the Coast Range to the west and the Sierra Nevada to the east. Chemically and mineralogically distinctive ultramafic (UM) rocks (e.g. serpentinite) outcrop extensively in the Coast Range and Sierra Nevada. These rocks and the soils derived from them have elevated concentrations of Cr and Ni. Surface soil samples derived from UM rocks of the Sierra Nevada and Coast Range contain 1700-10,000 mg/kg Cr and 1300-3900 mg/kg Ni. Valley soils west of the Sacramento River contain 80-1420 mg/kg Cr and 65-224 mg/kg Ni, reflecting significant contributions from UM sources in the Coast Range. Valley soils on the east side contain 30-370 mg/kg Cr and 16-110 mg/kg Ni. Lower Cr and Ni concentrations on the east side of the valley are the result of greater dilution by granitic sources of the Sierra Nevada. Chromium occurs naturally in the Cr(III) and Cr(VI) oxidation states. Trivalent Cr is a non-toxic micronutrient, but Cr(VI) is a highly soluble toxin and carcinogen. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy of soils with an UM parent show Cr primarily occurs within chromite and other mixed-composition spinels (Al, Mg, Fe, Cr). Chromite contains Cr(III) and is highly refractory with respect to weathering. Comparison of a 4-acid digestion (HNO3, HCl, HF, HClO4), which only partially dissolves chromite, and total digestion by lithium metaborate (LiBO3) fusion, indicates a lower proportion of chromite-bound Cr in valley soils relative to UM source soils. Groundwater on the west side of the Sacramento Valley has particularly high concentrations of dissolved Cr ranging up to 50 ??g L-1 and averaging 16.4 ??g L-1. This suggests redistribution of Cr

  19. General geology, alteration, and iron deposits in the Palaeoproterozoic Misi region, northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tero Niiranen

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Paleoproterozoic Misi region forms the northeastern part of the Peräpohja Schist Belt in northern Finland. The area comprises mafic volcanic and sedimentary rocks, differentiated gabbros, and late-orogenic granitoids. Three geochemically different mafic volcanic units were recognised: LREE-depleted amygdaloidal lavas, slightly LREE-enriched lavas, and mafic tuffs that have a flat REE pattern. Sedimentary rocks include arkosites, mica gneisses, dolomitic marbles, quartzites, tuffites, mica schists, calc-silicate rocks and graphite-bearing schists. Two types of gabbros wereidentified: one with a LREE-enriched pattern and another with flat REE pattern. The age of the former is according to Perttunen and Vaasjoki (2001 2117±4 Ma, whereas there is no age determination for the latter. The granitoid intrusions belong to the ca. 1800 Malate-orogenic group of the Central Lapland Granitoid Complex. The geochemistry and the stable isotope data on mafic lavas and dolomitic marbles show similarities with the mafic volcanic rocks and marbles of the lower part of the Kivalo group in the western part of Peräpohja Schist Belt. Peak metamorphic conditions in the region vary from upper-greenschist to upper-amphibolite facies. Three major stages of deformation were distinguished: N-S compressional D1 with ductile deformation, NE-SW compressional D2 with ductile to brittle-ductile deformation, and E-W compressional D3 with brittle deformation. Several magnetite occurrences are known in the region and four of those have been mined for iron. The ores are mainly composed of magnetite with minor haematite, pyrite, chalcopyrite and bornite. Besides iron, the ores contain small amounts of P, S and V aswell as trace amounts of Cu, Co, Te and Au. The magnetite bodies are hosted by skarnoids within the ca. 2220–2120 Ma dolomitic marble-quartzite sequence, and highly differentiated, intensely albitised, LREE-enriched gabbro. Multistage and -type alteration is

  20. Prairie Change Analysis 1991-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset displays the results of a prairie/savanna change analysis study completed in May 2010. The area reviewed consists of 1,521 sites identified by Minnesota...

  1. Long-term Radiation Budget Variability in the Northern Eurasian Region: Assessing the Interaction with Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, P. W.; Soja, A. J.; Zhang, T.; Mikovitz, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    In terms of global change, boreal regions are particularly important, because significant warming and change are already evident and significant future warming is predicted. Mean global air temperature has increased by 0.74°C in the last century, and temperatures are predicted to increase by 1.8°C to 4°C by 2090, depending on the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenario. Some of the greatest temperature increases are currently found in the Northern Eurasian winter and spring, which has led to longer growing seasons, increased potential evapotranspiration and extreme fire weather [Groisman et al., 2007]. In the Siberian Sayan, winter temperatures have already exceeded a 2090 Hadley Centre scenario (HadCM3GGa1) [Soja et al., 2007]. There is evidence of climate-induced change across the circumboreal in terms of increased infestations, alterations in vegetation and increased fire regimes (area burned, fire frequency, severity and number of extreme fire seasons). In this paper, we analyzed long-term surface radiation data sets from the NASA/GEWEX (Global Energy and Water Exchanges) Surface Radiation Budget data products, CERES Surface EBAF and SYN data products and also the available surface radiation measurements in the region. First, we show that during overlap years SRB and CERES data products agree very well in terms of anomalies and we'll use this fact to evaluate 30 years of satellite based estimates of the variability of downwelling SW parameters first corresponding to locations of surface measurements and then for the region as a whole. We also show the observed variability of other SW components such as the net SW and the albedo. Next we assess the variability of the downward and LW fluxes over time and compare these to variability observed in the surface temperature and other meteorological measurements. We assess anomalies on various spatial scales. Finally, we assess the correlation of this variability in specific locations to known fire

  2. Land use effects on pesticides in sediments of prairie pothole wetlands in North and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurry, Scott T.; Belden, Jason B.; Smith, Loren M.; Morrison, Shane A.; Daniel, Dale W.; Euliss, Betty R.; Euliss, Ned H. Jr.; Kensinger, Bart J.; Tangen, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Prairie potholes are the dominant wetland type in the intensively cultivated northern Great Plains of North America, and thus have the potential to receive pesticide runoff and drift. We examined the presence of pesticides in sediments of 151 wetlands split among the three dominant land use types, Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), cropland, and native prairie, in North and South Dakota in 2011. Herbicides (glyphosate and atrazine) and fungicides were detected regularly, with no insecticide detections. Glyphosate was the most detected pesticide, occurring in 61% of all wetlands, with atrazine in only 8% of wetlands. Pyraclostrobin was one of five fungicides detected, but the only one of significance, being detected in 31% of wetlands. Glyphosate was the only pesticide that differed by land use, with concentrations in cropland over four-times that in either native prairie or CRP, which were equal in concentration and frequency of detection. Despite examining several landscape variables, such as wetland proximity to specific crop types, watershed size, and others, land use was the best variable explaining pesticide concentrations in potholes. CRP ameliorated glyphosate in wetlands at concentrations comparable to native prairie and thereby provides another ecosystem service from this expansive program.

  3. Raptor community composition in the Texas Southern High Plains lesser prairie-chicken range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behney, A.C.; Boal, Clint W.; Whitlaw, Heather A.; Lucia, D.R.

    2012-01-01

    Predation can be a factor in preventing prey population growth and sustainability when prey populations are small and fragmented, and when predator density is unrelated to the density of the single prey species. We conducted monthly raptor surveys from February 2007 to May 2009 in adjacent areas of the Texas Southern High Plains (USA) that do and do not support lesser prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus), a candidate for protection under the Endangered Species Act. During the summer period corresponding to prairie-chicken nesting and brood-rearing, Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni) were the most abundant raptor. During the lekking and overwintering period, the raptor community was diverse, with northern harriers (Circus cyaneus) being the most abundant species. Raptor abundance peaked during the early autumn and was lowest during the spring. Utility poles were a significant predictor of raptor density at survey points and Swainson's hawks and all raptors, pooled, were found in greater densities in non-prairie-chicken habitat dominated by mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa). Avian predation risk on prairie-chickens, based on presence and abundance of raptors, appears to be greatest during winter when there is a more abundant and diverse raptor community, and in areas with utility poles.

  4. Hydrology of prairie wetlands: Understanding the integrated surface-water and groundwater processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masaki; van der Kamp, Garth; Rosenberry, Donald O.

    2016-01-01

    Wetland managers and policy makers need to make decisions based on a sound scientific understanding of hydrological and ecological functions of wetlands. This article presents an overview of the hydrology of prairie wetlands intended for managers, policy makers, and researchers new to this field (e.g., graduate students), and a quantitative conceptual framework for understanding the hydrological functions of prairie wetlands and their responses to changes in climate and land use. The existence of prairie wetlands in the semi-arid environment of the Prairie-Pothole Region (PPR) depends on the lateral inputs of runoff water from their catchments because mean annual potential evaporation exceeds precipitation in the PPR. Therefore, it is critically important to consider wetlands and catchments as highly integrated hydrological units. The water balance of individual wetlands is strongly influenced by runoff from the catchment and the exchange of groundwater between the central pond and its moist margin. Land-use practices in the catchment have a sensitive effect on runoff and hence the water balance. Surface and subsurface storage and connectivity among individual wetlands controls the diversity of pond permanence within a wetland complex, resulting in a variety of eco-hydrological functionalities necessary for maintaining the integrity of prairie-wetland ecosystems.

  5. Climate Effects on Plant Range Distributions and Community Structure of Pacific Northwest Prairies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridgham, Scott D. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States); Johnson, Bart [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)

    2013-09-26

    Pacific Northwest (PNW) prairies are an imperiled ecosystem that contain a large number of plant species with high fidelity to this habitat. The few remaining high-quality PNW prairies harbor a number of sensitive, rare, and endangered plant species that may be further at-risk with climate change. Thus, PNW prairies are an excellent model system to examine how climate change will affect the distribution of native plant species in grassland sites. Our experimental objectives were to determine: (i) how climate change will affect the range distribution of native plant species; (ii) what life history stages are most sensitive to climate change in a group of key indicator native species; (iii) the robustness of current restoration techniques and suites of species to changing climate, and in particular, the relative competitiveness of native species versus exotic invasive species; and (iv) the effects of climate change on carbon and nutrient cycling and soil-microbial-plant feedbacks. We addressed these objectives by experimentally increasing temperature 2.5 to 3.0 ºC above ambient with overhead infrared lamps and increasing wet-season precipitation by 20% above ambient in three upland prairie sites in central-western Washington, central-western Oregon, and southwestern Oregon from fall 2010 through 2012. Additional precipitation was applied within 2 weeks of when it fell so precipitation intensity was increased, particularly during the winter rainy season but with minimal additions during the summer dry season. These three sites also represent a 520-km natural climate gradient of increasing degree of severity of Mediterranean climate from north to south. After removing the extant vegetation, we planted a diverse suite of 12 native species that have their northern range limit someplace within the PNW in each experimental plot. An additional 20 more wide-spread native species were also planted into each plot. We found that recruitment of plant species within their ranges

  6. Cathodoluminescence investigations on quartz cement in sandstones of Khabour Formation from Iraqi Kurdistan region, northern Iraq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omer, Muhamed Fakhri; Friis, Henrik

    The Ordovician deltaic to shallow marine Khabour Formation in Northern Iraq consists mainly of sandstone with minor siltstone and interbedded shale. The sandstones are pervasively cemented by quartz that resulted in very little preserved primary porosity. Cathodoluminescence and petrographic stud...

  7. Cathodoluminescence investigations on quartz cement in sandstones of Khabour Formation from Iraqi Kurdistan region, northern Iraq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omer, Muhamed Fakhri; Friis, Henrik

    The Ordovician deltaic to shallow marine Khabour Formation in Northern Iraq consists mainly of sandstone with minor siltstone and interbedded shale. The sandstones are pervasively cemented by quartz that resulted in very little preserved primary porosity. Cathodoluminescence and petrographic...

  8. NMMB/BSC-DUST: model validation at regional scale in Northern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haustein, Karsten; Pérez, Carlos; Jorba, Oriol; María Baldasano, José; Janjic, Zavisa; Black, Tom; Slobodan, Nickovic; Prigent, Catherine; Laurent, Benoit

    2010-05-01

    While mineral dust distribution and effects are important at global scales, they strongly depend on dust emissions that are controlled on small spatial and temporal scales. Indeed, the accuracy of surface wind speed used in dust models is crucial. Due to the cubic higher-order power dependency on wind friction velocity and the threshold behaviour of dust emissions, small errors on surface wind speed lead to large dust emission errors. Most global dust models use prescribed wind fields provided by meteorological centres (e.g., NCEP and ECMWF) and their spatial resolution is currently never better than about 1°×1°. Such wind speeds tend to be strongly underestimated over large arid and semi-arid areas and do not account for reflect mesoscale character of systems responsible for a significant fraction of dust emissions regionally and globally. Other Another strong uncertainties in dust emissions from such approaches are related to the missrepresentation originates from of coarse representation of high subgrid-scale spatial heterogeneity in soil and vegetation boundary conditions, mainly in semi-arid areas. With the development of the new model NMMB-BSC/DUST [Pérez et al., 2008], we are now focusing on the evalution of the model sensitivity to several processes related to dust emissions. The results presented here are an intermediate step to provide global dust forecasts up to 7 days at sub-synoptic resolutions in the near future. NMMB-BSC/DUST is coupled online with the NOAA/NCEP/EMC global/regional NMMB atmospheric model [Janjic, 2005] extending from meso to global scales an being fully embedded into the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF). We performed regional simulations for the Northern African domain, including the Arabian peninsula and southern/central Europe (0 to 65°N and 25°W to 55°E) at 1/3°x1/3° and 1/6x1/6° horizontal resolution with 64 vertical layers. The model is initialized with 6-hourly updated NCEP 1x1° analysis data with a dust spin

  9. Apparent seed digestibility and germination of seeds after passage through the digestive system of northern bobwhite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limited information is available regarding the digestibility or germination of seed after the passage through the digestive system of northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), especially of plants associated with the sand sagebrush (Artemisia filifolia)-mixed prairie community. Thus, our objectives...

  10. Prairie wetland complexes as landscape functional units in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. Carter; Werner, Brett; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Voldseth, Richard A.; Millett, Bruce; Naugle, David E.; Tulbure, Mirela; Carroll, Rosemary W.H.; Tracy, John; Olawsky, Craig

    2010-01-01

    The wetland complex is the functional ecological unit of the prairie pothole region (PPR) of central North America. Diverse complexes of wetlands contribute high spatial and temporal environmental heterogeneity, productivity, and biodiversity to these glaciated prairie landscapes. Climatewarming simulations using the new model WETLANDSCAPE (WLS) project major reductions in water volume, shortening of hydroperiods, and less-dynamic vegetation for prairie wetland complexes. The WLS model portrays the future PPR as a much less resilient ecosystem: The western PPR will be too dry and the eastern PPR will have too few functional wetlands and nesting habitat to support historic levels of waterfowl and other wetland-dependent species. Maintaining ecosystem goods and services at current levels in a warmer climate will be a major challenge for the conservation community.

  11. Composition and qualitative characteristics of virgin olive oils produced in northern Adriatic region, Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milin, Cedomila

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Istria and Island Krk are located in the Northern Adriatic region, Republic of Croatia. The majority of oils produced on the islands of this Region correspond to extra virgin classification as a consequence of olive cultivars (Debela, Naska, Rosulja, Slatka, Buza, Carbonera, Bianchera, Leccino. The characterisation of these oils is little known. The objective of this work was the characterisation of virgin olive oils during the 1997/98, 1998/99 and six months of 1999/2000 harvest. Acidity, peroxide value and UV absorption constants were determined for all samples. Fatty acid composition, sterol and aliphatic alcohol contents, saturated fatty acids in the 2-position of the triglyceride and trilinolein content were determined for the virgin olive oils during 1997/98 harvest. The chemical analyses were supported by the determination of polyphenol content expressed as caffeic acid, squalene and α-tocopherol content.Istria y la isla Krk están localizadas en el norte de la región Adriática, República de Croacia. La mayoría de los aceites producidos en las islas de esta región corresponden a la clasificación extra virgen de las variedades (Debela, Naska, Rosulja, Slatka, Buza, Carbonera, Bianchera, Leccino. La caracterización de estos aceites es poco conocida. El objetivo de este trabajo fue la caracterización de los aceites de oliva vírgenes durante las campañas 1997/98, 1998/99 y seis meses de 1999/2000. Para todas las muestras se determinó la acidez, el índice de peróxido y las constantes de absorción en el UV. Para los aceites de oliva vírgenes durante la campaña 1997/98 se determinaron la composición en ácidos grasos, los contenidos en esteroles y alcoholes alifáticos, los ácidos grasos saturados en posición 2 de los triglicéridos y el contenido en trilinoleína. Los análisis químicos se completaron con la determinación del contenido en polifenoles expresado como ácido cafeico, y la determinación de escualeno y α-tocoferol.

  12. Culture, Values and Social Basis of Northern Italian Centrifugal Regionalism. A Contextual Political Analysis of the Lega Nord

    OpenAIRE

    Biorcio , Roberto; Vitale , Tommaso

    2011-01-01

    The Lega Nord intended to create a party which represented the whole of the northern regions, capable to defend their interests and culture. If we examine the profile of people that voted for the Lega Nord, we find some discordant features compared to the project. A large majority of the party’s electorate naturally supports federalism and devolution. However, the party’s electorate paradoxically displays value trends and convictions that, for many aspects are in countertendency compared to t...

  13. Prevalence and abundance of fleas in black-tailed prairie dog burrows: implications for the transmission of plague (Yersinia pestis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkeld, Dan J; Stapp, Paul

    2008-06-01

    Plague, the disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, can have devastating impacts on North American wildlife. Epizootics, or die-offs, in prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) occur sporadically and fleas (Siphonaptera) are probably important in the disease's transmission and possibly as maintenance hosts of Y. pestis between epizootics. We monitored changes in flea abundance in prairie dog burrows in response to precipitation, temperature, and plague activity in shortgrass steppe in northern Colorado. Oropsylla hirsuta was the most commonly found flea, and it increased in abundance with temperature. In contrast, Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris declined with rising temperature. During plague epizootics, flea abundance in burrows increased and then subsequently declined after the extirpation of their prairie dog hosts.

  14. Monitoring mercury in freshwater fish in the oil sands region of Northern Alberta : spatial and temporal comparisons to regional mercury concentrations in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith, H.

    2010-01-01

    The Regional Aquatics Monitoring Program (RAMP) was launched to provide a better understanding of the potential effects of oil sands development on aquatic systems, and to address issues important to communities of northern Alberta, such as mercury concentrations in fish. Muskeg dewatering, deforestation, flooding, and air emissions are among the potential mercury sources entering the aquatic systems within the oil sands region. RAMP collects non-lethal tissue samples on an annual basis for mercury analysis from northern pike (Esox lucius), walleye (Sander vitreus), and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in various rivers and lakes within the oil sands region. The purpose is to evaluate the suitability of fisheries resources for human consumption and to evaluate the potential cumulative biological effects on fish. A mercury database was developed based on studies in other regions in Alberta and across Canada in order to provide a regional context to the RAMP monitoring results. Data points from 1975 to 2009 were mapped to evaluate spatial and temporal differences in mercury concentrations and any exceedances of subsistence and general consumption guidelines. This monitoring effort has been instrumental in determining whether changes in mercury concentrations in fish are localized to a specific waterbody or regional in nature.

  15. Prevalence of Self-Reported Food Allergy in Six Regions of Inner Mongolia, Northern China: A Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yan; Zhuang, Yan; Ma, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Biao; Wang, Xue-Yan

    2018-04-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of self-reported food allergy in 6 regions of Inner Mongolia, northern China. MATERIAL AND METHODS A random cluster sampling population study using a field questionnaire was distributed to 4714 individuals in 6 regions within Inner Mongolia, northern China; the study included ethnic Mongol minorities and Chinese Han populations. The questionnaire obtained data on ethnicity, age, sex, level of education, income, socioeconomic status, rural versus urban location, medical and family history, and food allergy. RESULTS There were 4441 (73.5%) completed questionnaires. The prevalence of self-reported food allergy was 18.0% (15.2% men; 20.6% women) and was age-related, being significantly greater in children compared with adults (38.7% vs. 11.9%) (P1, P<0.001). There were no significant associations between the prevalence of food allergy and birth history, infant feeding, and duration of breastfeeding. CONCLUSIONS An increase in the prevalence of self-reported food allergy was found in the Inner Mongolia region of northern China, which was greater in urban areas compared with rural areas.

  16. Effects of prairie fragmentation on the nest success of breeding birds in the midcontinental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herkert, J.R.; Reinking, D.L.; Wiedenfeld, D.A.; Winter, M.; Zimmerman, J.L.; Jensen, W.E.; Finck, E.J.; Koford, Rolf R.; Wolfe, D.H.; Sherrod, S.K.; Jenkins, M.A.; Faaborg, John; Robinson, S.K.

    2003-01-01

    Grassland fragmentation and habitat loss are hypothesized to be contributing to widespread grassland bird declines in North America due to the adverse effects of fragmentation on breeding bird abundance and reproductive success. To assess the effects of fragmentation on the reproductive success of grassland birds, we measured rates of nest predation and brood parasitism for four species of birds ( Grasshopper Sparrow [Ammodramus savannaru], Henslow's Sparrow[Ammodramus henslowii], Eastern Meadowlark [ Sturnella magna], and Dickcissel [ Spiza Americana] ) in 39 prairie fragments ranging from 24 to>40,000 ha in size in five states in the mid-continental United States. Throughout the region, nest-predation rates were significantly influenced by habitat fragmentation. Nest predation was highest in small (1000 ha ) prairie fragments. Rates of brood parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds (   Molothrus ater ), however, were not consistently related to fragment size and instead were more strongly related to regional cowbird abundance, being significantly higher in regions with high cowbird abundance. Differences in nest-predation rates between large fragments ( 54–68% of all nests lost to predators ) and small fragments ( 78–84% lost to predators ) suggest that fragmentation of prairie habitats may be contributing to regional declines of grassland birds. Maintaining grassland bird populations, therefore, may require protection and restoration of large prairie areas.

  17. Decline of Sweetgrass Spurs Restoration of Coastal Prairie Habitat (South Carolina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angela C. Halfacre; Zachary Hart

    2003-01-01

    A muhly grass, locally known as sweetgrass (Muhlenbergia filipes Curtis; Prinson and Batson 1971), is a culturally valued and historically important component of the coastal prairie ecosystems in the South Atlantic Coast Plain region of the United States. In the 18th century, enslaved Africans began collecting sweetgrass and other native plants to...

  18. Des broussailles dans les prairies alpines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Camacho

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Landscape closing due to the decline in agricultural activity is considered to be a major problem in the Alps. Abondance Valley provides a good example of this phenomenon and is also representative of a paradox commonly found in the Northern French Alps: the mountainsides and alpine pastures are still used, whereas they are becoming increasingly afforested. Environmental conditions play a major role in the localisation of agricultural land uses, but they are not sufficient to explain why pastures still in use are being invaded by shrub. Even if cutting makes it possible to effectively control the encroachment by woody species, this is not true for uncut pastures where grazing is not able to keep up with grass production. This situation is repeated every year and is the likely cause of the colonisation by woody species. To ensure their forage system and to simplify their work, farmers tend to establish grazing units that are oversized in relation to the needs of their animals. They implement compensatory practices that consist of mechanical maintenance as a complement to grazing to limit the dynamics of woody species. These labour-intensive practices are not used on all of the pastures. The analysis of farmers’ practices by agronomists is therefore a useful complement to studies of physical and socio-economic environments, at the level of the grazed field as well as at that of the valley as a whole.La dégradation des paysages par suite du recul de l’activité agricole est considérée comme un enjeu majeur dans les Alpes. La vallée d’Abondance illustre bien ce phénomène de fermeture de l’espace mais elle est en outre représentative d’un paradoxe assez répandu dans les Alpes du nord françaises : les versants et les alpages sont encore exploités et pourtant ils se boisent progressivement. Les conditions de milieux jouent un rôle majeur sur la localisation des usages agricoles de l'espace, mais elles ne peuvent pas suffire pour

  19. Observation: Leafy spurge control in western prairie fringed orchid habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Kirby; Rodney G. Lym; John J. Sterling; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    2003-01-01

    The western prairie fringed orchid (Platanthera praeclara Sheviak and Bowles) is a threatened species of the tallgrass prairie. Invasion by leafy spurge (Euphorbiaes esula L.) is a serious threat to western prairie fringed orchid habitat. The obiectives of this study were to develop a herbicide treatment to control leafy spurge...

  20. Soil change induced by prairie dogs across three ecological sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) can influence vegetation dynamics and landscape hydrology by altering soil properties, yet few studies have evaluated soil responses to prairie dog activities across a range of soil types. This study was conducted to quantify prairie dog effects on soil properties within...

  1. Industry 4.0 and SMEs in the Northern Jutland Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decker, Arnim

    2017-01-01

    Being located in the Northern periphery, the economic structure of the Northern part of the Jutland Peninsula in Denmark is characterized by a relatively large proportion of firms operating in diverse industrial sectors. A minor proportion of those are high growth companies with a signifi- cant p...... presence on international markets. Local firms operate in a diversity of industrial sectors, which are characterized by medium to high tech- nological intensity. According to the Danish government, Danish firms cannot compete with foreign competitors based on low salaries alone because...... they will be undercut by international competitors who enjoy a lower cost base. In parallel, since the last financial crisis, Danish firms have struggled with the issue of low productivity, which does not justify the relatively high levels of salary. Because Northern Jutland, being part of Denmark, falls...

  2. Baseflow characterization of the inter-mountainous regions of northern Idaho and eastern Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Murillo, R.; Brooks, E. S.; Boll, J.; Elliot, W.

    2012-12-01

    Baseflow is one of the most important components of the streamflow regime of any river or creek since it provides continuous habitat to aquatic biota; regulates water temperature and dissolved oxygen during summer; and functions as an essential supply for drinking water and irrigation in most temperate regions. Understanding which factors control how water is released to streams during baseflow periods has become critical for watershed management worldwide, especially, in arid and semiarid areas. This study analyzed storage-discharge relationships of 26 watersheds of northern Idaho and eastern Washington using Brutsaert and Nieber (1977) baseflow recession analysis. Daily streamflow and precipitation records ranged from 7 to 70 years. Mean annual precipitation fluctuated from 536 to 1,312 mm. Drainage basin areas varied from 6.35 to 12,357 km2, with streamgage elevation ranging from 536 to 2,172 m. Mean watershed slope varied from 9.24 to 46.53%. Because of the non-uniqueness watershed shapes, illustrated by the natural spectrum of data points, organic correlation analysis was used to determine the recession coefficients (kb). Numerous climatic attributes and geomorphology characteristics were evaluated as potential predictors of kb rates using a Pearson's correlation matrix. Baseflow coefficients ranged from 0.015 to 0.08 day-1. The mean characteristic timescale for baseflow drainage was found to be 33±15 days with extremes of 12.5 and 66.7 days. Watersheds dominated by basalt features showed the lowest drainage times (12.5-20.0 days). The drainage time increased as the metamorphic and sedimentary rock composition increased (33.3-66.7 days). Watersheds mainly composed by granitic features ranged from 29.1 to 50.0 days. The ratio of mean annual precipitation (MAP) to annual potential evapotranspiration (PET), also known as Aridity Index (AI), was found to explain 67% of kb variability. Mean watershed slope exhibited a moderate negative correlation of -0.57. Other

  3. Interactive effects between nest microclimate and nest vegetation structure confirm microclimate thresholds for Lesser Prairie-Chicken nest survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, Blake A.; Godar, Alixandra J.; Boal, Clint W.; Haukos, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The range of Lesser Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) spans 4 unique ecoregions along 2 distinct environmental gradients. The Sand Shinnery Oak Prairie ecoregion of the Southern High Plains of New Mexico and Texas is environmentally isolated, warmer, and more arid than the Short-Grass, Sand Sagebrush, and Mixed-Grass Prairie ecoregions in Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, and the northeast panhandle of Texas. Weather is known to influence Lesser Prairie-Chicken nest survival in the Sand Shinnery Oak Prairie ecoregion; regional variation may also influence nest microclimate and, ultimately, survival during incubation. To address this question, we placed data loggers adjacent to nests during incubation to quantify temperature and humidity distribution functions in 3 ecoregions. We developed a suite of a priori nest survival models that incorporated derived microclimate parameters and visual obstruction as covariates in Program MARK. We monitored 49 nests in Mixed-Grass, 22 nests in Sand Shinnery Oak, and 30 nests in Short-Grass ecoregions from 2010 to 2014. Our findings indicated that (1) the Sand Shinnery Oak Prairie ecoregion was hotter and drier during incubation than the Mixed- and Short-Grass ecoregions; (2) nest microclimate varied among years within ecoregions; (3) visual obstruction was positively associated with nest survival; but (4) daily nest survival probability decreased by 10% every half-hour when temperature was greater than 34°C and vapor pressure deficit was less than −23 mmHg during the day (about 0600–2100 hours). Our major finding confirmed microclimate thresholds for nest survival under natural conditions across the species' distribution, although Lesser Prairie-Chickens are more likely to experience microclimate conditions that result in nest failures in the Sand Shinnery Oak Prairie ecoregion. The species would benefit from identification of thermal landscapes and management actions that promote cooler, more humid nest microclimates.

  4. The effects of black-tailed prairie dogs on plant communities within a complex urban landscape: an ecological surprise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Stower C; Hartley, Laurel M; Prevéy, Janet S; Seastedt, Timothy R

    2014-05-01

    Historically, prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) have been considered essential keystone species of western United States grassland ecosystems because they provide unique services and increase vegetation community richness, evenness, and diversity. However, the effects of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) on lands adjacent to or surrounded by urban areas may not result in the same ecosystem benefits historically associated with their presence. An urban landscape presents prairie dogs with movement challenges unparalleled in natural landscapes, as well as suites of nonnative plant species that are more common in disturbed areas. This study examined a complex ecosystem where vegetation communities are being influenced by directional environmental change, and quantified the synergistic effects resulting from the protective management of a native keystone species. The data set for this analysis was comprised of 71 paired (occupied by prairie dogs vs. unoccupied) vegetation surveys and 156 additional unpaired surveys collected from around the city of Boulder, Colorado, USA for 14 yr. Linear mixed models were used to compare data from transects occupied and unoccupied by prairie dogs, as well as to evaluate the effect of prairie dog occupation duration. In the absence of prairie dogs, vegetation in this region exhibited declines in native grasses, no changes in introduced grasses, and increases in native and nonnative forbs and bare soil over the study interval. In the presence of prairie dogs, these observed directional changes were nearly all amplified at rates four to 10 times greater than when prairie dogs were absent. Areas in Boulder occupied by prairie dogs also had significantly lower richness, evenness, and diversity of plant species, compared to unoccupied areas. Analysis of plant functional groups revealed the significant reduction of perennial native grasses, as well as a significantly higher cover of introduced forbs in occupied areas. Prairie dogs

  5. Complex spatial dynamics maintain northern leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens) genetic diversity in a temporally varying landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.; Euliss, Ned H.; Chen, Yongjiu; Stockwell, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to most local amphibian populations, northeastern populations of the Northern Leopard Frog (Lithobates pipiens) have displayed uncharacteristically high levels of genetic diversity that have been attributed to large, stable populations. However, this widely distributed species also occurs in areas known for great climatic fluctuations that should be reflected in corresponding fluctuations in population sizes and reduced genetic diversity. To test our hypothesis that Northern Leopard Frog genetic diversity would be reduced in areas subjected to significant climate variability, we examined the genetic diversity of L. pipiens collected from 12 sites within the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota. Despite the region's fluctuating climate that includes periods of recurring drought and deluge, we found unexpectedly high levels of genetic diversity approaching that of northeastern populations. Further, genetic structure at a landscape scale was strikingly homogeneous; genetic differentiation estimates (Dest) averaged 0.10 (SD = 0.036) across the six microsatellite loci we studied, and two Bayesian assignment tests (STRUCTURE and BAPS) failed to reveal the development of significant population structure across the 68 km breadth of our study area. These results suggest that L. pipiens in the Prairie Pothole Region consists of a large, panmictic population capable of maintaining high genetic diversity in the face of marked climate variability.

  6. Financial incentive programs' influence in promoting sustainable forestry in the northern region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Jacobson; Thomas J. Straka; John L. Greene; Michael A. Kilgore; Steven E. Daniels

    2009-01-01

    Selected forestry officials in each of the 20 northern states were surveyed concerning their opinions on the public and private financial incentive programs available to nonindustrial private forest owners in their state. The officials were asked to name and describe the programs and to assess forest owners' awareness of each one, its appeal among the owners aware...

  7. Dissolved petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in some regions of the northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Qasim, S.Z.; Fondekar, S.P.; Topgi, R.S.

    Dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons were measured in some parts of the Northern Indian Ocean using UV bsorbance technique with a clean up step. The concentration of oil ranged from 0.6 to 26.5 mu gl. Higher values were recorded along the oil tanker...

  8. Gender Inequality in Basic Education in the Northern Region of Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These policies include the School Feeding Programme, Capitation Grant and recently the provision of Free School Uniform to pupils in basic schools. ... as well as strict enforcement of the Free Compulsory Basic Education policy by the government would go a long way to improve access to basic education in the Northern ...

  9. Foraminiferal patterns in two trophically different regions: the northern Adriatic Sea and the southern Levantine Basin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jannink, N.T.; Duijnstee, Ivo; van der Zwaan, Bert

    2001-01-01

    In spite of the fact that the northern Adriatic Sea and southern Levantine Basin are trophically quite different, the benthic foraminiferal standing stocks through the seasons were found to be in the same range. This suggests that the amount offood (organic matter) available at the sediment-water

  10. Climate vulnerability of native cold-water salmonids in the Northern Rockies Region [Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael K. Young; Daniel J. Isaak; Scott Spaulding; Cameron A. Thomas; Scott A. Barndt; Matthew C. Groce; Dona Horan; David E. Nagel

    2018-01-01

    During the 21st century, climate change is expected to alter aquatic habitats throughout the Northern Rocky Mountains, intermountain basins, and western Great Plains. Particularly in montane watersheds, direct changes are likely to include warmer water temperatures, earlier snowmelt-driven runoff, earlier declines to summer baseflow, downhill movement of perennial...

  11. Cultural Identities in Sustaining Religious Communities in the Arctic Region: An Ethnographic Analysis on Religiosity from the Northern Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafisa Yeasmin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Northern countries are facing the challenges of declining human capital, and admitting immigrants, many of whom belong to religious minorities, to satisfy the demand for labour. If northern societies accept multiculturalism and immigrants, they should not disregard the cultures and religious practices (for example, ritual slaughter of immigrants, as they need to survive and integrate as a minority community in a secular society. However, there is clash between secularism and religions permitting animal slaughter, which is prohibited by some and allowed by other European countries. Community viability and sustainability depend partly on the exercise of community beliefs and ideology that support identity behaviour. This study will present an ethnographic analysis of the religiosity related to ritual slaughter and Muslim cultural identity in the European Arctic region and explore how religious relativism and practice sustain the community and support the overall integration of the Muslim minority in the North.

  12. Landscape composition creates a threshold influencing Lesser Prairie-Chicken population resilience to extreme drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Beth E.; Haukos, David A.; Hagen, Christian A.; Pitman, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat loss and degradation compound the effects of climate change on wildlife, yet responses to climate and land cover change are often quantified independently. The interaction between climate and land cover change could be intensified in the Great Plains region where grasslands are being converted to row-crop agriculture concurrent with increased frequency of extreme drought events. We quantified the combined effects of land cover and climate change on a species of conservation concern in the Great Plains, the Lesser Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus  ). We combined extreme drought events and land cover change with lek count surveys in a Bayesian hierarchical model to quantify changes in abundance of male Lesser Prairie-Chickens from 1978 to 2014 in Kansas, the core of their species range. Our estimates of abundance indicate a gradually decreasing population through 2010 corresponding to drought events and reduced grassland areas. Decreases in Lesser Prairie-Chicken abundance were greatest in areas with increasing row-crop to grassland land cover ratio during extreme drought events, and decreased grassland reduces the resilience of Lesser Prairie-Chicken populations to extreme drought events. A threshold exists for Lesser Prairie-Chickens in response to the gradient of cropland:grassland land cover. When moving across the gradient of grassland to cropland, abundance initially increased in response to more cropland on the landscape, but declined in response to more cropland after the threshold (δ=0.096, or 9.6% cropland). Preservation of intact grasslands and continued implementation of initiatives to revert cropland to grassland should increase Lesser Prairie-Chicken resilience to extreme drought events due to climate change.

  13. Interactions and Feedbacks Between Biomass Burning and Water Cycle Dynamics Across the Northern Sub-Saharan African Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region, bounded on the north and south by the Sahara and the Equator, respectively, and stretching from the West to the East African coastlines, has one of the highest biomass-burning rates per unit land area among all regions of the world. Because of the high concentration and frequency of fires in this region, with the associated abundance of heat release and gaseous and particulate smoke emissions, biomass-burning activity is believed to be one of the drivers of the regional carbon and energy cycles, with serious implications for the water cycle. A new interdisciplinary research effort sponsored by NASA is presently being focused on the NSSA region, to better understand the possible connection between the intense biomass burning observed from satellite year after year across the region and the rapid depletion of the regional water resources, as exemplified by the dramatic drying of Lake Chad. A combination of remote sensing and modeling approaches is being utilized in investigating multiple regional surface, atmospheric, and water-cycle processes, and inferring possible links between them. In this presentation, we will discuss preliminary results as well as the path toward improved understanding of the interrelationships and feedbacks between the biomass burning and the environmental change dynamics in the NSSA region.

  14. Regional chloride distribution in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Emmanuel

    2016-08-31

    The aquifers of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain are the principal source of water supply for the region’s nearly 20 million residents. Water quality and water levels in the aquifers, and maintenance of streamflow, are of concern because of the use of this natural resource for water supply and because of the possible effects of climate change and changes in land use on groundwater. The long-term sustainability of this natural resource is a concern at the local community scale, as well as at a regional scale, across state boundaries. In 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a regional assessment of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifers. An important part of this assessment is a regional interpretation of the extent of saltwater and the proximity of saltwater to fresh-groundwater resources and includes samples and published interpretations of chloride concentrations newly available since the last regional chloride assessment in 1989. This updated assessment also includes consideration of chloride samples and refined interpretations that stem from the 1994 discovery of the buried 35 million year old Chesapeake Bay impact structure that has substantially altered the understanding of the hydrogeologic framework and saltwater distribution in eastern Virginia.

  15. Chemical diversity of essential oils from flowers, leaves, and stems of Rhanterium epapposum Oliv. growing in northern border region of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Awad

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: Essential oils from flowers, leaves and stems of R. epapposum growing in northern border region of Saudi Arabia are considered as a rich source of monoterpenes which have biological activities.

  16. Hydrologic investigations of prairie potholes in North Dakota, 1959-68

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenlohr, W.S.

    1972-01-01

    A prairie pothole is a depression in the prau1e, capable of storing water, that is the result of glacial processes. Years ago, there were many hundreds of thousands of prairie potholes in the North-Central United States, but large numbers of them have been drained for agricultural use. This report is limited to studies of prairie potholes in the eastern part of the glaciated northern Great Plains region in North Dakota-a rolling upland area covered with glacial drift, called the Coteau du Missouri. Potholes are wetlands that are the primary breeding area of migratory waterfowl in the United States. If production of waterfowl is to continue, suitable wetlands must be maintained, and even new wetlands created to offset those destroyed for agricultural use. The initial stage of the Garrison Diversion Unit calls for a normal annual diversion from Garrison Reservoir of 60,000 acre-feet of water for this purpose. Many prairie potholes contain large amounts of emergent aquatic vegetatjon known as hydrophytes. Determining the loss of water by transpiration from emergent hydrophytes was one of the major objectives of the present study of the hydrology of prairie potholes. Other hydrologic factors were studied later, but the first part of the study was devoted almost exclusively to the determination of evaporation and transpiration losses at groups of potholes in Ward, Stutsman, and Dickey Counties. The mass-transfer method was used, and by determining the variation in the mass-transfer coefficient throughout a season, the losses by evaporation and transpiration were determined separately. Separate determinations were accomplished by relating the emergent height and the moisture content of the hydrophytes to the rate of transpiration, as determined by the mass-transfer coefficient. Seasonal evaporation from the study potholes clear of vegetation was found to very nearly equal the generalized evaporation values published by the U.S. Weather Bureau. The effect of hydrophytes

  17. Conservation Reserve Program mitigates grassland loss in the lesser prairie-chicken range of Kansas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Spencer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the 20th century, the overall occupied range of the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus has declined by 84% commensurate with population trends. Much of this decline has been attributed to the loss and fragmentation of native grasslands throughout the lesser prairie-chicken range. However, quantification of changes in land cover in the distribution of the lesser prairie-chicken is lacking. Our objectives were to (1 document changes in the areal extent and connectivity of grasslands in the identified lesser prairie-chicken range in Kansas, USA, (>60% of extant lesser prairie-chicken population from the 1950s to 2013 using remotely sensed data and (2 assess the potential of the Conservation Reserve Program (U.S. Department of Agriculture Program converting cropland to permanent cover; CRP to mitigate grassland loss. Digital land cover maps were generated on a decadal time step through spectral classification of LANDSAT images and visual analysis of aerial photographs (1950s and 1960s. Landscape composition and configuration were assessed using FRAGSTATS to compute a variety of landscape metrics measuring changes in the amount of grassland present as well as changes in the size and configuration of grassland patches. With the exception of a single regional portion of the range, nearly all of the grassland converted to cropland in the lesser prairie-chicken range of Kansas occurred prior to the 1950s. Prior to the implementation of CRP, the amount of grassland decreased 3.6% between the 1950s and 1985 from 18,455 km2 to 17,788 km2. Since 1985, the overall amount of grassland in the lesser prairie-chicken range has increased 11.9% to 19,898 km2 due to implementation of CRP, although the area of grassland decreased between 1994 and 2013 as CRP contracts were not renewed by landowners. Since 1986 grassland in Kansas became more connected and less fragmented in response to the CRP. While the CRP has been successful

  18. Conservation Reserve Program mitigates grassland loss in the lesser prairie-chicken range of Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukos, David A.; Spencer, David; Hagen, Christian A.; Daniels, Melinda D.; Goodin, Doug

    2017-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 20th century, the overall occupied range of the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) has declined by 84% commensurate with population trends. Much of this decline has been attributed to the loss and fragmentation of native grasslands throughout the lesser prairie-chicken range. However, quantification of changes in land cover in the distribution of the lesser prairie-chicken is lacking. Our objectives were to (1) document changes in the areal extent and connectivity of grasslands in the identified lesser prairie-chicken range in Kansas, USA, (>60% of extant lesser prairie-chicken population) from the 1950s to 2013 using remotely sensed data and (2) assess the potential of the Conservation Reserve Program (U.S. Department of Agriculture Program converting cropland to permanent cover; CRP) to mitigate grassland loss. Digital land cover maps were generated on a decadal time step through spectral classification of LANDSAT images and visual analysis of aerial photographs (1950s and 1960s). Landscape composition and configuration were assessed using FRAGSTATS to compute a variety of landscape metrics measuring changes in the amount of grassland present as well as changes in the size and configuration of grassland patches. With the exception of a single regional portion of the range, nearly all of the grassland converted to cropland in the lesser prairie-chicken range of Kansas occurred prior to the 1950s. Prior to the implementation of CRP, the amount of grassland decreased 3.6% between the 1950s and 1985 from 18,455 km2 to 17,788 km2. Since 1985, the overall amount of grassland in the lesser prairie-chicken range has increased 11.9% to 19,898 km2 due to implementation of CRP, although the area of grassland decreased between 1994 and 2013 as CRP contracts were not renewed by landowners. Since 1986 grassland in Kansas became more connected and less fragmented in response to the CRP. While the CRP has been successful in

  19. The central and northern Appalachian Basin-a frontier region for coalbed methane development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, P.C.

    1998-01-01

    The Appalachian basin is the world's second largest coalbed-methane (CBM) producing basin. It has nearly 4000 wells with 1996 annual production at 147.8 billion cubic feet (Bcf). Cumulative CBM production is close to 0.9 trillion cubic feet (Tcf). The Black Warrior Basin of Alabama in the southern Appalachian basin (including a very minor amount from the Cahaba coal field) accounts for about 75% of this annual production and about 75% of the wells, and the remainder comes from the central and northern Appalachian basin. The Southwest Virginia coal field accounts for about 95% of the production from the central and northern parts of the Appalachian basin. Production data and trends imply that several of the Appalachian basin states, except for Alabama and Virginia, are in their infancy with respect to CBM development. Total in-place CBM resources in the central and northern Appalachian basin have been variously estimated at 66 to 76 trillion cubic feet (Tcf), of which an estimated 14.55 Tcf (~ 20%) is technically recoverable according to a 1995 U.S. Geological Survey assessment. For comparison in the Black Warrior basin of the 20 Tcf in-place CBM resources, 2.30 Tcf (~ 12%) is technically recoverable. Because close to 0.9 Tcf of CBM has already been produced from the Black Warrior basin and the proved reserves are about 0.8 Tcf for 1996 [Energy Information Administration (EIA), 1997]. U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves, 1996 Annual Report. U.S. Department of Energy DOE/EIA-0216(96), 145 pp.], these data imply that the central and northern Appalachian basin could become increasingly important in the Appalachian basin CBM picture as CBM resources are depleted in the southern Appalachian basin (Black Warrior Basin and Cahaba Coal Field). CBM development in the Appalachian states could decrease the eastern U.S.A.'s dependence on coal for electricity. CBM is expected to provide over the next few decades a virtually untapped source of

  20. Impact of Prairie Cover on Hydraulic Conductivity and Storm Water Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herkes, D. M. G.; Gori, A.; Juan, A.

    2017-12-01

    Houston has long struggled to find effective solutions to its historic flooding problems. Conventional strategies have revolved around constructing hard infrastructure such as levees or regional detention ponds to reduce flood impacts. However, there has been a recent shift to explore the implementation of nature-based solutions in reducing flood impacts. This is due to the price of structural mechanisms, as well as their failure to adequately protect areas from flooding during the latest flood events. One alternative could be utilizing the natural water retention abilities of native Texas prairies. This study examines the effect of Texas prairie areas in increasing soil infiltration capacities, thereby increasing floodwater storage and reducing surface runoff. For this purpose, an infiltration study of 15 sites was conducted on lands owned by the Katy Prairie Conservancy within Cypress Creek watershed. Located in Northwest Houston, it is an area which had been heavily impacted by recent flood events. Each sampling site was selected to represent a particular land cover or vegetation type, ranging from developed open space to native prairies. Field test results are then compared to literature values of soil infiltration capacity in order to determine the infiltration benefit of each vegetation type. Test results show that certain vegetation, especially prairies, significantly increase the infiltration capacity of the underlying soil. For example, the hydraulic conductivity of prairie on sandy loam soil is approximately an order of magnitude higher than that of the soil itself. Finally, a physics-based hydrologic model is utilized to evaluate the flood reduction potential of native Texas prairie. This model represents Cypress Creek watershed in gridded cell format, and allows varying hydraulic and infiltration parameters at each cell. Design storms are run to obtain flow hydrographs for selected watch points in the study area. Two scenarios are simulated and compared

  1. The Effects of Conflicts Handling In Teamwork of Hotel Industry Located In Northern Region of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Bibi Noraini Bt Mohd Yusuf; Siti Norsyafawani Bt Shamsul Anuar

    2014-01-01

    Conflict is part and parcel of people?s awareness in all aspects of life. There are few key factors affecting conflict handling in any teamwork, such as leadership effectiveness, employee satisfaction, behavior/ personality, communication and lastly, the role of the gender. The paper?s primary contribution in conducting this study are firstly to find out factors that influence conflicts handling in teamwork of hotel industry in northern areas and secondly to examine the parties responsible be...

  2. Dental services in the Katherine Region, Northern Territory: an outback experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, David; Watts, Catherine

    2002-09-01

    Dental practice in the Northern Territory of Australia has to overcome a number of logistical problems related to the vast area and the low population density. The population is largely of Aboriginal origin and has significant medical problems including problems relating to dentistry. This article describes the present system for provision of dental care in this area, along with the authors' experience of a scheme involving co-ordinated care trials aimed at improving the health of the population.

  3. Natural radioactivity in some drinking water sources of coastal, northern, eastern and AlJazera regions in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Byrakdar, E.; Amin, Y.; Abu Baker, S.

    2003-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides in drinking water sources of coastal, northern, eastern and AlJazera regions in Syria have been determined. Samples were collected during the year of 2000 at two periods from the main water sources, from which water being transported for drinking or from houses. Results have shown that most concentrations of the measured naturally occurring radionuclides ( 222 Rn, 222 Ra, 210 Po, 234 U, 238 U) were within the natural levels and below the higher permissible limits of International Organizations. In addition, variations in concentrations from region to another have been observed; these variations may be due to differences in geological formations and water sources (well, spring, surface water). Moreover, the obtained data in this study and other published data for other regions can be used for establishing the radiation map for natural radioactivity in drinking water in Syria. (author)

  4. Comparative analysis on microbial community associated with different gastrointestinal regions of wild northern snakehead Channa argus Cantor, 1842

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Shuyan; Zhao, Chenze; Zhu, Jinyu; Pan, Mingzhu

    2017-06-01

    Microbial communities in different gastrointestinal regions (stomach, foregut, midgut, and hindgut) of the northern snakehead Channa argus (Cantor, 1842) were compared by polymerase chain reaction and partial 16S rDNA sequencing. A total of 194, 140, 212, and 122 OTUs were detected in the stomach, foregut, midgut, and hindgut, respectively. Significant differences were found in the Sobs, ACE, Shannon, and Simpson indices among samples (P pra were not detected in the hindgut. These findings provide valuable information on the microbial community in each gastrointestinal region of C. argus. Moreover, this study indicated that microbial community was not only related to rearing environment but also to the physico-chemical characteristics of each gastrointestinal region.

  5. Nurse perception of care of hospitalized older adults - a comparative study between northern and central regions of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo de Almeida Tavares

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Resume Objective: to analyze the relationship between the perceptions of nurses about geriatric care (GC environment and geriatric nurses’ knowledge and attitudes according to unit type considering the northern and central regions of Portugal. Method: a cross-sectional study was developed among 1068 Portuguese’s nurses in five hospitals. The instrument was Geriatric Institutional Assessment Profile - Portuguese version. The independent samples t-test was when the assumption of normality was verified, otherwise, the Mann-Whitney U test was used. The level of significance was 5%. Results: the profile of perceptions of GC showed a relatively homogeneous pattern (no statistically significant results were found. For the geriatric care environment scale, only the CC/ED units presented significant differences in all considered subscales (resource availability; aging-sensitive care; institutional values; and continuity of care, with more positive perceptions among nurses in the northern region. In Professional Issues scales, only the scale perception of burden related with upsetting behaviors revealed significant differences between regions in all specialties. Conclusion: the findings suggest the need for increased investment by hospital leaders to promote a geriatric nursing practice environment that supports the specialized needs of hospitalized older adults.

  6. Nurse perception of care of hospitalized older adults - a comparative study between northern and central regions of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, João Paulo de Almeida; Silva, Alcione Leite da; Sá-Couto, Pedro; Boltz, Marie; Capezuti, Elizabeth

    2017-10-19

    to analyze the relationship between the perceptions of nurses about geriatric care (GC) environment and geriatric nurses' knowledge and attitudes according to unit type considering the northern and central regions of Portugal. a cross-sectional study was developed among 1068 Portuguese's nurses in five hospitals. The instrument was Geriatric Institutional Assessment Profile - Portuguese version. The independent samples t-test was when the assumption of normality was verified, otherwise, the Mann-Whitney U test was used. The level of significance was 5%. the profile of perceptions of GC showed a relatively homogeneous pattern (no statistically significant results were found). For the geriatric care environment scale, only the CC/ED units presented significant differences in all considered subscales (resource availability; aging-sensitive care; institutional values; and continuity of care), with more positive perceptions among nurses in the northern region. In Professional Issues scales, only the scale perception of burden related with upsetting behaviors revealed significant differences between regions in all specialties. the findings suggest the need for increased investment by hospital leaders to promote a geriatric nursing practice environment that supports the specialized needs of hospitalized older adults.

  7. Production of native tree seedlings in the northern region of the Brazilian state of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Cananéa Lopes

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the installed capacity of seedlings of native trees in the northern region of Rio de Janeiro is sufficient to meet the minimum requirements set by law for the preservation of native trees. Brazilian law determines areas of permanent preservation (APP and legal reserves (RL which should have its biologically vegetation preserved. For this is fulfilled, it is necessary that the availability of seedlings of native trees species is suffi cient in quantity and quality. Th e data collected point to the need to subsidize the provision of seedlings to permit compliance with legislation.

  8. Nuclear power in Northern Russia: A case study on future energy security in the Murmansk region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinnunen, Miia [Haemeenkatu 7 D, 33100 Tampere (Finland)]. E-mail: miia.kinnunen@tse.fi; Korppoo, Anna [Haemeenkatu 7 D, 33100 Tampere (Finland); Imperial College London, Centre for Environmental Policy, RSM Building, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    The economy of the Murmansk region in Russia is based on energy intensive industry, mainly metallurgies, and consequently, the region is highly dependant on the ageing Kola nuclear power plant. This interdependence together with other weaknesses in the regional energy system creates threats to the energy supply security of the region. This paper analyses the internal and external threats influencing the region and presents potential solutions. Scenarios further illustrate possible future paths these potential solutions could deliver by the year 2025.

  9. Optimizing the Wood Value Chain in Northern Norway Taking Into Account National and Regional Economic Trade-Offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Johansen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of past decades of extensive afforestation in Norway, mature forest volumes are increasing. National forestry politics call for sustainable and efficient resource usage and for increased regional processing. Regional policies seek to provide good conditions for such industries to be competitive and to improve regional value creation. We demonstrate how methods from operations research and regional macro-economics may complement each other to support decision makers in this process. The operations research perspective is concerned with finding an optimally designed wood value chain and an aggregated planning of its operations, taking a holistic perspective on strategic-tactical level. Using Input-Output analysis methods based on statistics and survey data, regional macro-economics helps to estimate each industry actor’s value creation and impact on society beyond immediate value chain activities. Combining these approaches in a common mathematical optimization model, a balance can be struck between industry/business and regional political interests. For a realistic case study from the northern part of coastal Norway, we explore this balance from several perspectives, investigating value chain profits, economic ripple effects and regional resource usage.

  10. Invasive plants affect prairie soil biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-native or exotic plants often cause ecological and environmental damage in ecosystems where they invade and become established. These invasive plants may be the most serious threat to plant diversity in prairies, especially those in scattered remnants, which may be particularly vulnerable to rap...

  11. Timber–regionality and temporality in Northern Europe’s shipbuilding resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daly, Aoife Maeliosa

    2017-01-01

    of communication growing and changing through time. An even greater wealth of tree-ring data, for oak in Northern Europe, from our terrestrial built heritage provides the tool which we use for dating and locating the source of ships’ timbers. I am beginning to tap into this dendrochronological resource, through...... analysis of timber size, age and growth rate, to try to attain a picture of the availability of the timber resource for shipbuilding, through time and space. Through collaboration between dendrochronologists a great volume of this dataset is available for research, allowing comparison of tree-ring data...

  12. Regional Sr-Nd isotopic ratios of soil minerals in northern China as Asian dust fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Takanori; Yokoo, Yoriko; Nishikawa, Masataka; Koyanagi, Hideaki

    We report that arid soils in various areas of northern China can be distinguished by using Sr-Nd isotopic ratios of acid-resistant minerals and Sr isotopic ratios of water- and weak-acid-soluble minerals. Our results show that contemporary dust falling on Beijing is transported mainly from the adjacent northwestern to western areas and is more likely to be related to desertification than dust from the remote Takla Makan desert, the southwestern Gobi desert, or the Loess Plateau. Mineral isotope fingerprinting of arid soils is a powerful tool for source identification and impact assessment of mineral dust, and can serve as a desertification index.

  13. Strong Medieval Earthquake in the Northern Issyk-Kul Lake Region (Tien Shan): Results of Paleoseismological and Archeoseismological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzhenkov, A. M.; Deev, E. V.; Luzhanskii, D. V.; Abdieva, S. V.; Agatova, A. R.; Mazeika, J. V.; Men'shikov, M. Yu.; Rogozhin, E. A.; Rodina, S. N.; Rodkin, M. V.; Sorokin, A. A.; Fortuna, A. B.; Charimov, T. A.; Shen, J.; Yudakhin, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    A number of archeological monuments in the northern Issyk-Kul Lake region (Tien Shan) in the basins of the Chet-Koysuu and Chon-Koysuu rivers are studied. All monuments have undergone significant seismogenic deformations and destructions. A cromlech (7th century BC to 8th centuries AD) was displaced along the sinistral strike-slip fault. A kurgan (7th-13th centuries AD) was deformed in a front of the reverse fault scarp. A fortress (14th-15th centuries AD) was submerged beneath the lake water during the catastrophic subsidence of the coastal zone. We identify a zone of the seismogenic rupture. It is located along the Kultor border fault, which separates the Issyk-Kul depression and its surrounding mountains (Kungey Ala-Too Range). During the earthquake, the seismogenic reverse fault scarp was formed. A total of 1.6 m was offset along the rupture, which corresponds to an earthquake with M S ≥ 7 and seismic intensity of I 0 ≥ IX. Judging by numerous radiocarbon datings of submerged wood, which was used in building the fortress (end of 14th to the beginning of 15th centuries AD), the earthquake occurred in the 16th century AD and could have caused the decline of the Mogul civilization in the northern Issyk-Kul Lake region.

  14. Impact of Market Reforms on the Agricultural Sector Development and Food Self-Sufficiency in the Northern Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Aleksandrovich Ivanov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The successful development of Northern and Arctic areas depends on sustainable functioning of the agricultural sector. Agriculture and fishing agriculture is a way of life of the indigenous population. The article discusses the state of agriculture and food self-sufficiency in the Komi Republic in the years of relatively stable development (1960–1980 and in the conditions of market reforms. It analyzes production and consumption of food and shows a positive effect of modernization processes on the agricultural sector in the pre-reform period. It studies market transformation of the agrarian economy, accompanied in the 1990s by the sharp decline in agricultural production, degradation of productive capacity, rural demography, rural infrastructure, decrease in living standard of farmers, and disparity of prices on agricultural and industrial products. The paper discloses trends in food self-sufficiency of the northern region in 1980–2013 and reveals reasons for the decrease in its level in the period of market reforms. It considers possible scenarios to develop the agrarian sector and food self-sufficiency. To predict the agriculture development the author identifies strong and weak sides, opportunities and threats by means of SWOT-analysis. The article proposes 3 scenarios: inertial (pessimistic, baseline and optimistic. It finds out the most reasonable optimistic development scenario based on innovative modernization for the Komi Republic. The study results can be used to adjust the current State program of agricultural development and elaborate the strategy of the agro-food sector of the region

  15. Regional stratigraphy, sedimentology, and tectonic significance of Oligocene-Miocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks, northern Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Rebecca J.; Burns, Beverly

    1994-01-01

    Upper Oligocene (?) to middle Miocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks in northern Baja California were deposited along the western margin of North America during subduction of the Guadalupe plate and southward migration of the Rivera Triple Junction. Regional mapping and compilation of stratigraphic data reveal a sequence of three regionally traceable stratigraphic units. (1) Oligocene (?) to lower Miocene Mesa Formation: basal quartz-rich fluvial sandstone, grus, conglomerate, and accessory facies, whose detrital compositions reflect the composition of local pre-Tertiary basement rock. (2) Lower to middle Miocene Comondú Formation: laterally variable sequence of volcaniclastic conglomerate, breccia, sandstone, tuff and minor volcanic flow units. (3) Widespread mesa-capping rhyolite tuff, typically welded and crystal-rich, probably upper Miocene in age. The Mesa Formation overlies a highly irregular and deeply dissected erosional surface developed on pre-Tertiary basement rock. The shift from pre-Mesa erosion to widespread (though localized) deposition and valley-filling records the final phase of late Cretaceous to middle Tertiary regional subsidence and eastward transgression that resulted from slow cooling and thermal contraction of Cretaceous arc crust during a temporal gap in magmatic activity along the western Cordilleran margin. Nonmarine sediments of the Mesa Formation were deposited in small, steep-walled paleovalleys and basins that gradually filled and evolved to form through-going, low-energy ephemeral stream systems. The gradational upward transition from the Mesa to Comondú Formation records the early to middle Miocene onset of subduction-related arc magmatism in eastern Baja California and related westward progradation of alluvial volcaniclastic aprons shed from high-standing eruptive volcanic centers. Pre-existing streams were choked with the new influx of volcanic detritus, causing the onset of rapid sediment deposition by stream flows and dilute

  16. Echinococcus granulosus Sensu Stricto in Dogs and Jackals from Caspian Sea Region, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirzad GHOLAMI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus isolates from dogs and jackals in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran, and using partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1.Methods: E. granulosus isolates (n = 15 were collected from 42 stray dogs and 16 jackals found in south of the Caspian Sea in northern Iran. After morphological study, the isolates were genetically characterized using consensus sequences (366bp of the cox1 gene. Phylogenetic analysis of cox1 nucleotide sequence data was performed using a Bayesian Inference approach.Results: Four different sequences were observed among the isolates. Two genotypes [G1 (66.7% and G3 (33.3%] were identified among the isolates. The G1 sequences indicated three sequence profiles. One profile (Maz1 had 100% homology with reference sequence (AN: KP339045. Two other profiles, designated Maz2 and Maz3, had 99% homology with the G1 genotype (ANs: KP339046 and KP339047. A G3 sequence designated Maz4 showed 100% homology with a G3 reference sequence (AN: KP339048.Conclusion: The occurrence of the G1 genotype of E. granulosus sensu stricto as a frequent genotype in dogs is emphasized. This study established the first molecular characterization of E. granulosus in the province.

  17. Echinococcus granulosus Sensu Stricto in Dogs and Jackals from Caspian Sea Region, Northern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    GHOLAMI, Shirzad; JAHANDAR, Hefzallah; ABASTABAR, Mahdi; PAGHEH, Abdolsatar; MOBEDI, Iraj; SHARBATKHORI, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus isolates from dogs and jackals in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran, and using partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1). Methods: E. granulosus isolates (n = 15) were collected from 42 stray dogs and 16 jackals found in south of the Caspian Sea in northern Iran. After morphological study, the isolates were genetically characterized using consensus sequences (366bp) of the cox1 gene. Phylogenetic analysis of cox1 nucleotide sequence data was performed using a Bayesian Inference approach. Results: Four different sequences were observed among the isolates. Two genotypes [G1 (66.7%) and G3 (33.3%)] were identified among the isolates. The G1 sequences indicated three sequence profiles. One profile (Maz1) had 100% homology with reference sequence (AN: KP339045). Two other profiles, designated Maz2 and Maz3, had 99% homology with the G1 genotype (ANs: KP339046 and KP339047). A G3 sequence designated Maz4 showed 100% homology with a G3 reference sequence (AN: KP339048). Conclusion: The occurrence of the G1 genotype of E. granulosus sensu stricto as a frequent genotype in dogs is emphasized. This study established the first molecular characterization of E. granulosus in the province. PMID:28096852

  18. Terrestrial ecosystem model performance in simulating productivity and its vulnerability to climate change in the northern permafrost region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Jianyang; McGuire, A. David; Lawrence, David

    2017-01-01

    and the maximum rate of carboxylation by the enzyme Rubisco at 25°C (Vcmax_25), respectively. The models also varied in their sensitivities of NPP, GPP, and CUE to historical changes in climate and atmospheric CO2 concentration. These results indicate that model predictive ability of the C cycle in permafrost...... productivity (NPP) and responses to historical climate change in permafrost regions in the Northern Hemisphere. In comparison with the satellite estimate from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS; 246 ± 6 g C m−2 yr−1), most models produced higher NPP (309 ± 12 g C m−2 yr−1) over...... regions can be improved by better representation of the processes controlling CUE and GPPmax as well as their sensitivity to climate change....

  19. Floristic diversity and vegetation analysis of Wadi Arar: A typical desert Wadi of the Northern Border region of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Ahmed K; Al-Ghamdi, Faraj; Bawadekji, Abdulhakim

    2014-12-01

    Wadi Arar in the Northern border region of Saudi Arabia is one of the most important Wadis of the Kingdom. The present study provides an analysis of vegetation types, life forms, as well as floristic categories and species distribution. A total of 196 species representing 31 families of vascular plants were recorded. Compositae, Gramineae and Leguminosae were the most common families. Therophytes and chamaephytes are the most frequent life forms, indicating typical desert spectrum vegetation. The distribution of these species in the different sectors of the Wadi as well as the phytochoria for the recorded species is provided. Ninety-one species (46.5%) are typical bi-regional. Furthermore, about 105 species (53.5%) are mono- or pluriregional taxa. The highest number of species (136 or 69.5%) was recorded for annual plants, while the lowest number of species (60% or 30.5%) was recorded for perennial, short perennial or annual to biennial species.

  20. Impacts of conflict on land use and land cover in the Imatong Mountain region of South Sudan and northern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsevski, Virginia B.

    The Imatong Mountain region of South Sudan makes up the northern most part of the Afromontane conservation 'biodiversity hotspot' due to the numerous species of plants and animals found here, some of which are endemic. At the same time, this area (including the nearby Dongotana Hills and the Agoro-Agu region of northern Uganda) has witnessed decades of armed conflict resulting from the Sudan Civil War and the presence of the Ugandan Lord's Resistance Army (LRA). The objective of my research was to investigate the impact of war on land use and land cover using a combination of satellite remote sensing data and semi-structured interviews with local informants. Specifically, I sought to (1) assess and compare changes in forest cover and location during both war and peace; (2) compare trends in fire activity with human population patterns; and (3) investigate the underlying causes influencing land use patterns related to war. I did this by using a Disturbance Index (DI), which isolates un-vegetated spectral signatures associated with deforestation, on Landsat TM and ETM+ data in order to compare changes in forest cover during conflict and post-conflict years, mapping the location and frequency of fires in subsets of the greater study area using MODIS active fire data, and by analyzing and summarizing information derived from interviews with key informants. I found that the rate of forest recovery was significantly higher than the rate of disturbance both during and after wartime in and around the Imatong Central Forest Reserve (ICFR) and that change in net forest cover remained largely unchanged for the two time periods. In contrast, the nearby Dongotana Hills experienced relatively high rates of disturbance during both periods; however, post war period losses were largely offset by gains in forest cover, potentially indicating opposing patterns in human population movements and land use activities within these two areas. For the Agoro-Agu Forest Reserve (AFR) region

  1. Global warming and prairie wetlands: potential consequences for waterfowl habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiani, Karen A.; Johnson, W. Carter

    1991-01-01

    The accumulation of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere is expected to warm the earth's climate at an unprecedented rate (Ramanathan 1988, Schneider 1989). If the climate models are correct, within 100 years the earth will not only be warmer than it has been during the past million years, but the change will have occurred more rapidly than any on record. Many profound changes in the earth's environment are expected, including rising sea level, increasing aridity in continental interiors, and melting permafrost. Ecosystems are expected to respond variously to a rapidly changing climate. Tree ranges in eastern North American are expected to shift northward, and seed dispersal may not be adequate to maintain current diversity (Cohn 1989, Johnson and Webb 1989). In coastal wetlands, rising sea level from melting icecaps and thermal expansion could flood salt-grass marshes and generally reduce the size and productivity of the intertidal zone (Peters and Darling 1985). As yet, little attention has been given to the possible effects of climatic warming on inland prairie wetland ecosystems. These wetlands, located in the glaciated portion of the North American Great Plains (Figure 1), constitute the single most important breeding area for waterfowl on this continent (Hubbard 1988). This region annually produces 50-80% of the continent's total duck production (Batt et al. 1989). These marshes also support a variety of other wildlife, including many species of nongame birds, muskrat, and mink (Kantrud et al. 1989a). Prairie wetlands are relatively shallow, water-holding depressions that vary in size, water permanence, and water chemistry. Permanence types include temporary ponds (typically holding water for a few weeks in the springs), seasonal ponds (holding water from spring until early summer), semipermanent ponds (holding water throughout the growing season during most years), and large permanent lakes (Stewart and Kantrud 1971). Refilling usually occurs in spring from

  2. Possible Changes in the Characteristics of the Rainy Season over Northern South America: Results from a Regional Climate Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Francisco; Costa, Alexandre; Gandu, Adilson; Sales, Domingo; Araújo, Luiz

    2013-04-01

    Regional Climate Simulations were performed with RAMS6.0 to evaluate possible changes in the behaviour of the rainy season over the Amazon region, within the CORDEX domain of the Inter-tropical Americas. We forced the regional model using data from one of the CMIP5 participants (HadGEM2-ES), both for the Historical Experiment (1980-2005) and along the XXI century under RCP 8.5 (heavy-emission scenario). Regarding projections, we analyzed results for three time slices, short (2014-2035), middle (2044-2065) and long term (2078-2099), according to the following steps. First, the spatially averaged precipitation in non-overlapping pentads over 7 sub-regions over northern South America was calculated ("boxes" 1 to 7). Then, we calculated the climatological annual cycle for each one of them. Finally, dates of the onset and demise of the rainy season are found, validating the model results against GPCP observations and checking for projected changes. In general, in the Historical Experiment, the model delays the onset of the rainy season over the northern areas and anticipates it over most inland sub-regions. Over eastern Amazon, the regional model represents it properly, besides a delay in the demise of about one month. In short-term projections, there is a slight increase in precipitation and a modest anticipation of the rainy season onset in the coastal areas. Projected changes in the annual cycle of most sub-regions are relatively modest for the short-term and mid-term periods, but may become very significant by the end of the century. Over Colombia (Box 1), which has a bimodal precipitation annual cycle, the model projects a late century increase in the first precipitation peak. Little change is projected for the two boxes roughly covering Venezuela, the Guianas and the northernmost portion of northern Brazilian states (Boxes 2 and 3). The box covering northern Peru and Ecuador (Box 4) shows increased March-April precipitation, but with no significant changes in the

  3. Projected changes to short- and long-duration precipitation extremes over the Canadian Prairie Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masud, M. B.; Khaliq, M. N.; Wheater, H. S.

    2017-09-01

    The effects of climate change on April-October short- and long-duration precipitation extremes over the Canadian Prairie Provinces were evaluated using a multi-Regional Climate Model (RCM) ensemble available through the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program. Simulations considered include those performed with six RCMs driven by the National Centre for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis II product for the 1981-2000 period and those driven by four Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCMs) for the current 1971-2000 and future 2041-2070 periods (i.e. a total of 11 current-to-future period simulation pairs). A regional frequency analysis approach was used to develop 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, and 50-year return values of precipitation extremes from NCEP and AOGCM-driven current and future period simulations that respectively were used to study the performance of RCMs and projected changes for selected return values at regional, grid-cell and local scales. Performance errors due to internal dynamics and physics of RCMs studied for the 1981-2000 period reveal considerable variation in the performance of the RCMs. However, the performance errors were found to be much smaller for RCM ensemble averages than for individual RCMs. Projected changes in future climate to selected regional return values of short-duration (e.g. 15- and 30-min) precipitation extremes and for longer return periods (e.g. 50-year) were found to be mostly larger than those to the longer duration (e.g. 24- and 48-h) extremes and short return periods (e.g. 2-year). Overall, projected changes in precipitation extremes were larger for southeastern regions followed by southern and northern regions and smaller for southwestern and western regions of the study area. The changes to return values were also found to be statistically significant for the majority of the RCM-AOGCM simulation pairs. These projections might be useful as a key input for the future planning of urban

  4. Assessment of the Vulnerability of Water Resources to Seasonal Fires Across the Northern Sub-Saharan African Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles M.

    2010-01-01

    The northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region, extending from the southern fringes of the Sahara to the Equator, and stretching west to east from the Atlantic to the Indian ocean coasts, plays a prominent role in the distribution of Saharan dust and other airborne matter around the region and to other parts of the world, the genesis of global atmospheric circulation, and the birth of such major (and often catastrophic) events as hurricanes. Therefore, this NSSA region represents a critical variable in the global climate change equation. Recent satellite-based studies have revealed that the NSSA region has one of the highest biomass-burning rates per unit land area among all regions of the world. Because of the high concentration and frequency of fires in this region, with the associated abundance of heat release and gaseous and particulate smoke emissions, biomass-burning activity is believed to be a major driver of the regional carbon, energy, and water cycles. We acknowledge that the rainy season in the NSSA region is from April to September while biomass burning occurs mainly during the dry season (October to March). Nevertheless, these two phenomena are indirectly coupled to each other through a chain of complex processes and conditions, including land-cover and surface-albedo changes, the carbon cycle, evapotranspiration, drought, desertification, surface water runoff, ground water recharge, and variability in atmospheric composition, heating rates, and circulation. In this presentation, we will examine the theoretical linkages between these processes, discuss the preliminary results based on satellite data analysis, and provide an overview of plans for more integrated research to be conducted over the next few years.

  5. Environmental impact of the Ranger uranium mine, Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Territory, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, A.; Needham, S.

    2002-01-01

    Stringent environmental controls have been applied to the Ranger mine, in the Northern Territory of Australia, because of its location in an area of outstanding natural and cultural values. The adjacent Kakadu National Park contains a wild and extensive biodiversity, striking landscapes, ancient Aboriginal rock art and a living Aboriginal culture. A special regime of biological, radiological and chemical monitoring has been applied to protect the environment and detect even very low intensity impacts. The results from this regime demonstrate to the government and general public that the high conservation values of the national park around the mine are being properly protected. This paper describes the techniques used to measure environmental impact at Ranger, and summarizes the results of over 20 years of monitoring. The overwhelming conclusion is that a very high standard of environmental protection has been achieved. (author)

  6. Regional sustainability in Northern Australia. A quantitative assessment of social, economic and environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Richard [School for Environmental Research, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia); Industrial Ecology Program, NTNU, Trondheim (Norway); Integrated Sustainability Analysis, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Garnett, Stephen [School for Environmental Research, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    This paper seeks to provide a picture of sustainability of the Northern Territory by analysing a number of sustainability indicators across indigenous status and remoteness class. The paper seeks to extend current socio-economic statistics and analysis by including environmental considerations in a 'triple bottom line' or 'sustainability assessment' approach. Further, a life-cycle approach is employed for a number of indicators so that both direct and indirect impacts are considered where applicable. Whereas urban populations are generally doing better against most quantitative economic and social indicators, environmental indicators show the opposite, reflecting the increasing market-based environmental impacts of urban populations. As we seek to value these environmental impacts appropriately, it would be beneficial to start incorporating these results in policy and planning. (author)

  7. Regional sustainability in Northern Australia. A quantitative assessment of social, economic and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Richard; Garnett, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks to provide a picture of sustainability of the Northern Territory by analysing a number of sustainability indicators across indigenous status and remoteness class. The paper seeks to extend current socio-economic statistics and analysis by including environmental considerations in a 'triple bottom line' or 'sustainability assessment' approach. Further, a life-cycle approach is employed for a number of indicators so that both direct and indirect impacts are considered where applicable. Whereas urban populations are generally doing better against most quantitative economic and social indicators, environmental indicators show the opposite, reflecting the increasing market-based environmental impacts of urban populations. As we seek to value these environmental impacts appropriately, it would be beneficial to start incorporating these results in policy and planning. (author)

  8. Regional velocity structure in northern California from inversion of scattered seismic surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitz, Fred F.

    1999-07-01

    Seismic surface waves recorded by the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network have been analyzed in order to constrain three-dimensional lateral heterogeneity of the upper mantle under northern California. A total of 2164 seismograms from 173 teleseismic events were windowed for the fundamental mode Rayleigh wave, followed by estimation of complex amplitude spectra over the period range 16 to 100 s using a multiple-taper method. Since Rayleigh waves at shorter periods, particularly below 35 s, suffer from serious multipathing or "non-plane" wave arrivals, these amplitude spectra have been interpreted as the product of wavefront distortion along the teleseismic propagation path and seismic structure beneath the network. The amplitude spectra are first modeled in terms of non-plane incoming wavefields and structural phase velocity perturbations period by period. After corrections for Moho and surface topography, the phase velocity maps are inverted for three-dimensional shear velocity perturbations δνs down to a depth of 200 km. The δνs maps are in good agreement with the results of body studies over a broad spatial scale. The dominant signals are associated with the thermal effects of the active Gorda and fossil Farallon subducted slab stretching from Mount Shasta through the western Sierran foothills to the southern Great Valley and asthenospheric upwelling beneath the northern Coast Ranges. The southern Sierra Nevada Range is characterized by fast δνs down to ˜50 km and slow velocities between ˜60 and 120 km depth, in agreement with independent inferences of a cold crust and warm upper mantle, which may provide the buoyancy forces necessary to support the elevation of the range.

  9. Constructing regional advantage in branding the cross-border Euroregion Galicia-northern Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silva Oliveira, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    This paper employs a constructing regional advantage (CRA) approach in respect of examining the potential of joint branding strategies intended to position and give visibility to cross-border regions. The CRA concept is introduced here to improve understanding about the empirical significance of a

  10. The distribution of cagA and dupA genes in Helicobacter pylori strains in Kurdistan region, northern Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Azad M; Goreal, Amer; Hussein, Nawfal R; Abdullah, Shahla M; Hawrami, Khidir; Assafi, Mahde

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a Gram negative bacteria that causes peptic ulceration and gastric adenocarcinoma. H pylori virulence factors, such as cagA and dupA, are important to study in populations as they contribute to disease risk. This study aimed to look at the distribution of the cagA and dupA genes in H pylori strains isolated from patients suffering from gastroduodenal diseases in Kurdistan region, Iraq. A cross-sectional study conducted between June 2011 and January 2012. Biopsies were collected from the Endoscopy Department in Duhok and Sulaimania hospitals, Kurdistan region, northern Iraq. Upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy examination was performed and 4 gastric biopsies (2 from the antrum and 2 from the corpus) were obtained from 204 patients. H pylori positivity was examined by CLO test; then the association between disease status and virulence factors was assessed by polymerase chain reaction. 154 (75%) of our samples were found to be H pylori + by CLO test. Endoscopic diagnoses for those who were positive were as follows: peptic ulcer disease (PUD) including duodenal ulcer, 45; gastric ulcer, 23; and no ulcer (NPUD), 86. The overall prevalence rates of cagA and dupA were 72.7% and 18.8%, respectively. While a significant association between cagA and PUD was observed (P. ≤.017; OR=0.4; CI=0.18–0.85), no relationship between dupA and PUD could be seen. These data suggested that the presence of cagA may be a predictor of clinical outcome in Kurdistan region, northern Iraq.

  11. Cenozoic sediment flux in the Qaidam Basin, northern Tibetan Plateau, and implications with regional tectonics and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jing; Wang, Yadong; Song, Chunhui; Feng, Ying; Hu, Chunhua; Zhong, Sirui; Yang, Jiwei

    2017-08-01

    As the largest Mesozoic-Cenozoic terrestrial intermountain basin in the northern Tibetan Plateau, the Qaidam Basin is an ideal basin to examine the influences of regional tectonics and climate on sediment flux. Research conducted over the last two decades has provided abundant information about paleoclimatology and tectonic histories. In this study, we used the restoration of seven balanced cross-sections and compiled thickness data of ten outcrop sections and four boreholes to reconstruct the basin boundaries, develop isopach maps, and calculate the sediment flux in the Qaidam Basin. Our results show that the sediment flux in the Qaidam Basin increased gradually between 53.5 and 35.5 Ma, decreased to its lowest value from 35.5 to 22 Ma, increased between 22 and 2.5 Ma, and then increased dramatically after 2.5 Ma. By comparing the changes in the sediment flux with our reconstructed shortening rate in the Qaidam Basin, and the records of regional tectonic events and regional and global climate changes, we suggest that the gradual increase in the sediment flux from 53.5 to 40.5 Ma was controlled by both the tectonic uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and the relatively warm and humid climate, and that the high sediment flux from 40.5 to 35.5 Ma was mainly controlled by tectonics. The low sediment flux from 35.5 to 22 Ma was a response to the relatively cold and arid climate in a stable tectonic setting. The relatively high sediment flux between 22 and 15.3 Ma was related to tectonic activity and the warm and humid climate. The intense tectonic uplift of the northern Tibetan Plateau and the frequent climate oscillations after 15.3 Ma, particularly the glacial-interglacial cycles after 2.5 Ma, caused the high sediment flux after 15.3 Ma and the dramatic increase after 2.5 Ma, respectively.

  12. Assessments of regional climate change and its impacts in Northern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omstedt, Anders; von Storch, Hans; Reckermann, Marcus; Quante, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Regional climate change assessments are urgently needed to complement the big picture with regional results and scenarios of higher resolution and with relevance for local decision makers and stakeholders. A new type of assessment report originated in the original BACC report of 2008 (BALTEX Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea region) which has served as role model for other assessments published or in preparation. It represents an approach to assessing and making available current knowledge on regional climate change and its regional impacts on the physical, biogeochemical and biological environment (ecosystems, socio-economic sphere). Reports of this type which are available or underway are the original BACC book (2008), the second BACC book (2015), the climate report for the greater Hamburg area (2011), and the NOSCCA report (North Sea Climate Change Assessment) which is expected to be published in 2016. The assessments are produced by teams of scientists from the region, led by lead authors who recruit experts from relevant topics to contribute. The process is not externally funded and completely based on published scientific evidence, and not biased by political or economic interest groups. The BACC-type reports aim to bring together consolidated knowledge that has broad consensus in the scientific community, but also acknowledging issues for which contradicting opinions are found in the literature, so that no consensus can be reached ("consensus on dissensus"). An international steering committee is responsible for overlooking the process, and all manuscripts are anonymously peer-reviewed by independent international experts. An outstanding outreach aspect of these reports is the close collaboration with regional stakeholders (for the BACC reports: HELCOM, the intergovernmental Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission and the major regional science-policy interface in the Baltic Sea region; for the Hamburg climate report: the Hamburg city

  13. Looking Forward: Using Scenario Modeling to Support Regional Land Use Planning in Northern Yukon, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn R. Francis

    2011-12-01

    We describe how the ALCES® landscape cumulative effects simulation model was used to explore possible outcomes of an oil and gas scenario in the Eagle Plain basin of the North Yukon Planning Region of Yukon Territory, Canada. Scenario modeling was conducted to facilitate informed discussion about key land use issues and practices, potential levels of landscape change, and possible socioeconomic benefits and environmental impacts. Modeling results supported the sustainable development and cumulative effects management recommendations of the North Yukon Regional Land Use Plan. Land use scenario modeling, as applied in this project, was found to be an effective approach for establishing sustainable development guidelines through a regional planning process.

  14. Use of vegetation sampling and analysis to detect a problem within a portion of a prairie restoration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, Raymond; Scholes, Chad; Krabbe, Stephen

    2017-01-02

    In June 2005, the Department of Energy (DOE) began establishing the 60-ha Howell Prairie around the disposal cell at the DOE Weldon Spring Site (WSS). Prairies were historically present in the area of the site. Quantitative Cover sampling was used to quantify Total Cover, Native Grass Cover, Non-Native Grass Cover, Native Forb Cover, Non-Native Forb Cover, Warm Season (C 4 Grass), Cool Season (C 3 Grass), Perennial Cover and Annual Cover, Litter, and Bare Ground. Four permanent vegetation sampling plots were established. The first 4 years of vegetation measurements at Howell Prairie were made during above-average rainfall years on burned and unburned plots. The fifth-year (2012) vegetation measurements were made after below-average rainfall. Five years of results not only document the consistency of the restoration effort in three areas, but also demonstrate deficiencies in Grass Cover in a fourth area. The results are not only useful for Howell Prairie, but will be useful for restoration work throughout the region. Restoration work suffers from a lack of success monitoring and in this case from a lack of available reference areas. Floristic Quality Indices are used to make qualitative comparisons of the site to Konza Prairie sites.

  15. Implementation of an advanced digital feedwater control system at the Prairie Island nuclear generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, R.E.; Gaydos, K.A.; Hill, J.O.; Whitson, S.G.; Wirkkala, R.

    1990-05-01

    EPRI Project RP2126-4 was a cooperative effort between TVA, EPRI, and Westinghouse which resulted in the demonstration of a prototype of a full range, fully automatic feedwater control system, using fault tolerant digital technology, at the TVA Sequoyah simulator site. That prototype system also included advanced signal validation algorithms and an advanced man-machine interface that used CRT-based soft-control technology. The Westinghouse Advanced Digital Feedwater Control System (ADFCS) upgrade, which contains elements that were part of that prototype system, has since been installed at Northern States Power's Prairie Island Unit 2. This upgrade was very successful due to the use of an advanced control system design and the execution of a well coordinated joint effort between the utility and the supplier. The project experience is documented in this report to help utilities evaluate the technical implications of such a project. The design basis of the Prairie Island ADFCS signal validation for input signal failure fault tolerance is outlined first. Features of the industry-proven system control algorithms are then described. Pre-shipment hardware-in-loop and factory acceptance testing of the Prairie Island system are summarized. Post-shipment site testing, including preoperational and plant startup testing, is also summarized. Plant data from the initial system startup is included. The installation of the Prairie Island ADFCS is described, including both the feedwater control instrumentation and the control board interface. Modification of the plant simulator and operator and I ampersand C personnel training are also discussed. 6 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Native weeds and exotic plants: Relationships to disturbance in mixed-grass prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    Disturbance frequently is implicated in the spread of invasive exotic plants. Disturbances may be broadly categorized as endogenous (e.g., digging by fossorial animals) or exogenous (e.g., construction and maintenance of roads and trails), just as weedy species may be native or exotic in origin. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare exotic and native weedy plant occurrence in and near three classes of disturbance -digging by prairie dogs (an endogenous disturbance to which native plants have had the opportunity to adapt), paved or gravel roads (an exogenous disturbance without natural precedent), and constructed trails (an exogenous disturbance with a natural precedent in trails created by movement of large mammals) - in three geographically separate national park units. I used plant survey data from the North and South Units of Theodore Roosevelt National Park and Wind Cave National Park in the northern mixed-grass prairie of western North and South Dakota, USA, to characterize the distribution of weedy native and exotic plants with respect to the three disturbance classes as well as areas adjacent to them. There were differences both in the susceptibility of the disturbance classes to invasion and in the distributions of native weeds and exotic species among the disturbance classes. Both exotic and native weedy species richness were greatest in prairie dog towns and community composition there differed most from undisturbed areas. Exotic species were more likely to thrive near roadways, where native weedy species were infrequently encountered. Exotic species were more likely to have spread beyond the disturbed areas into native prairie than were weedy native species. The response of individual exotic plant species to the three types of disturbance was less consistent than that of native weedy species across the three park units.

  17. Prevalence of Rift Valley fever in domestic ruminants in the central and northern regions of Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussini, H; Lamien, C E; Nacoulma, O G; Kaboré, A; Poda, G; Viljoen, G

    2014-12-01

    The seroprevalence of Rift Valley fever was determined in cattle, sheep and goats in selected areas of northern and central Burkina Faso. A total of 520 serum samples were screened for anti-Rift Valley fever virus immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using an inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). An average seroprevalence of 7.67% (range 5% to 20%) was found in ruminants in Seno and Soum provinces, and prevalences of 20% and 22.5% in cattle in Yatenga and Oubritenga provinces, respectively. The location, species and age of the animals were found to influence the seroprevalence. All the ELISA IgG-positive samples were tested for IgM in a competitive ELISA and were found negative, thus ruling out recent infections. The IgG-positive samples, including weak positives, were further tested in a serum neutralisation test for neutralising antibodies and 54.5% of these samples tested positive. The results show that the virus is in circulation in central and northern regions of Burkina Faso, suggesting the need for improved surveillance and control systems to prevent future outbreaks and the consequent economic impact of the disease in Burkina Faso livestock.

  18. Operational considerations for implementing regional sediment management plans in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Steven G.; Khalil, Syed M.; Byrnes, Mark R.; Steyer, Gregory D.; Raynie, Richard C

    2015-01-01

    Development of a comprehensive and stakeholder-driven Regional Sediment Management plan can provide the basis for long-term sustainable resource use and protection. This paper highlights three operational components that can positively influence sediment management at a regional scale, including (1) integration of an operational sediment budget, (2) development of a monitoring and adaptive management plan, and (3) development of a regional sediment availability and allocation program. These components seek to incorporate science and adaptive management through implementation of an organized and well-documented decision making process. They represent a coordinated framework that could serve as a guide for unifying financial investments in regional sediment management plans. Collectively, they establish an integrated process for addressing uncertainties about future system change in light of shrinking federal and state budgets, competing demands for sediment resources within riverine and marine waters, and policy considerations related to sediment/water use (e.g., navigation and commerce versus environmental management).

  19. Stratigraphy of the Koobi Fora Formation (Pliocene and Pleistocene) in the Loiyangalani region of northern Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathogo, Patrick N.; Brown, Francis H.; McDougall, Ian

    2008-08-01

    Tuffaceous marker beds in the Loiyangalani region were previously identified as correlative with similar beds in the Shungura and Koobi Fora Formations of southwestern Ethiopia and northwestern Kenya. Associated sedimentary strata correlate with the Koobi Fora Formation, and include intercalated basalt flows. In the Loiyangalani region the Koobi Fora Formation has a composite thickness of at least 257 m, and records one time interval for which no strata are known in the Koobi Fora region. Four members of the Koobi Fora Formation (Lonyumun, Tulu Bor, Burgi, and KBS) are recognized in the region, and a composite member (Moiti-Lokochot) proposed because the Lokochot Tuff, the formal boundary between the Moiti and Lokochot Members has not been identified. This extends the known geographic area of the Koobi Fora Formation 100 km southward. These strata, together with others, were previously termed 'Loiyangalani formation (or Formation)'. Deposition in the Loiyangalani region began at about the same time as in the Koobi Fora and Nachukui Formations. Newly named basalts are Kankam (3.2-3.3 Ma), Lenderit (2.02 to 2.18 ± 0.02 Ma), and Balo (1.79 ± 0.02 Ma). We also report K/Ar ages on basalts from Mt. Kulal (2.04 ± 0.02 to 2.40 ± 0.03 Ma) east of the region and from Serima Gorge (0.77 ± 0.01 Ma) south of the study area.

  20. Surface Water-Ice Deposits in the Northern Shadowed Regions of Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platz, T.; Nathues, A.; Schorghofer, N.; Preusker, F.; Mazarico, E.; Schroeder, S. E.; Byrne, S.; Kneissl, T.; Schmedemann, N.; Combe, J.-P.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Ceres, a dwarf planet located in the main asteroid belt, has a low bulk density, and models predict that a substantial amount of water ice is present in its mantle and outer shell. The Herschel telescope and the Dawn spacecraft have observed the release of water vapor from Ceres, and exposed water ice has been detected by Dawn on its surface at mid-latitudes. Water molecules from endogenic and exogenic sources can also be cold-trapped in permanent shadows at high latitudes, as happens on the Moon and Mercury. Here we present the first image-based survey of Ceres's northern permanent shadows and report the discovery of bright deposits in cold traps. We identify a minimum of 634 permanently shadowed craters. Bright deposits are detected on the floors of just 10 of these craters in multiscattered light. We spectroscopically identify one of the bright deposits as water ice. This detection strengthens the evidence that permanently shadowed areas have preserved water ice on airless planetary bodies.

  1. OLTENIA NORTHERN MEDICAL TOURISM AND DEVELOPMENT IN TERMS OF THE POSSIBILITY OF REGIONAL SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanta Enea

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Health tourism in Romania is at the beginning - it exists, develops in some areas, shy, we do not boast of many tourists who come to us for such services, however, the data provided by NATA, now a year or two there were over 60,000 people who came to our country for health tourism. Of course, data are incomplete because not all tourists coming to say. But it seems that 250 million would have entered this area. Potential exists, and curiosity and demand for Romania there. But there is enough interest for the development of such tourism. Medical tourism (also called medical travel, health tourism or global healthcare is a term initially coined by travel agencies and the media to rapidly growing phenomenon of crossing international borders to obtain health care services. The paper tries to highlight the chances for Romania, more specifically, Northern Oltenia become a specific area of medical tourism or medical tourism practiced in other countries, to local patient survival chance.

  2. Regionalization of coaxial correlation diagrams for the semi-humid and semi-arid catchments in Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify both hydrologically and physically similar catchments which would be the best donors for runoff prediction in ungauged catchments. For this study, eight gauged catchments located in the semi-humid and semi-arid regions of Northern China were used. Hydrological similarity was defined based on the transferability of coaxial correlation diagrams. The physical similarity among catchments was determined by a weighted Euclidean distance based on 19 catchment descriptors including catchment topography, land cover, and soil type. The overlap between hydrologically similar catchments and physically similar catchments was then analysed to identify the best donors. The results suggest that six catchments were hydrologically similar, of which four catchments were both hydrologically and physically similar. It is argued that once a reliable coaxial correlation diagram has been established, the coaxial correlation diagram can be transferred from one catchment to another for runoff prediction, provided that these catchments are physical similar.

  3. Does Geothermal Energy Production Cause Earthquakes in the Geysers Region of Northern California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, K.; Bailey, C.; Sotto, M.; Yu, M.; Cohen, M.

    2003-12-01

    The Geysers region is located in Sonoma County, several hours north of San Francisco. At this location, hot magma beneath the surface heats ground water and creates steam that is used to make electricity. Since 1997, 8 billion gallons of treated wastewater have been injected into the ground, where the water becomes hot and increases the amount of thermal energy that can be produced. Frequent micro-earthquakes (up to magnitude 4.5) occur in the region and seem to be related to the geothermal energy production. The region is mostly uninhabited, except for several small towns such as Anderson Springs, where people have been extremely concerned about potential damage to their property. The energy companies are planning to double the amount of wastewater injected into the ground and to increase their energy production. Geothermal energy is important because it is better for the environment than burning coal, oil, or gas. Air and water pollution, which have negative impacts on living things, are reduced compared to power plants that generate electricity by burning fossil fuels. We have studied the frequency and magnitude of earthquakes that have occurred in the region since the early 1970s and that are occurring today. We used software to analyze the earthquakes and to look for patterns related to water injection and energy production. We are interested in exploring ways that energy production can be continued without having negative impacts on the people in the region.

  4. Status and assessment of risks at the enterprises of industrial complex of the Northern region of the Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Korotitskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In today's unstable economic processes taking place in the country under the influence of a considerable number of factors of the external sector and the mobility of market conditions, the activities of a number of industrial enterprises of Northern Crimea does not ensure a profit necessary for their future development, there is a tendency to a sharp increase in the number and level of danger of the economic risks. The future for companies in such conditions becomes less predictable. Therefore, the success of the enterprise depends on the accurate and timely identification of sources and enterprise risk management, the accuracy of the assessment of future risks, development and implementation of preventive measures to prevent undesirable consequences. In this connection, it is proposed approved methods, which allows to determine the average probability of occurrence of a number of risks and their importance rating. Studies have shown that for a given period, the most severe for the enterprises of Northern Crimea region is the risk of lack of established supply chain of raw materials. For businesses, this can be expressed in interruptions and delays in deliveries, penalties from customers and their loss, as well as additional costs. The proposed method allows us to estimate the probability of occurrence of a risk, but it is not pointing to the possible effect of the risk, both negative and positive. The data obtained can be used in the development of national, regional and sectoral policies and programs, and provide full management of industrial enterprises the tools of risk management.

  5. Seasonal Monitoring and Estimation of Regional Aerosol Distribution over Po Valley, Northern Italy, Using a High-Resolution MAIAC Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvani, Barbara; Pierce, R. Bradley; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Ghermandi, Grazia; Teggi, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the new 1-km-resolved Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm is employed to characterize seasonal AOD-PM10 correlations over northern Italy. The accuracy of the new dataset is assessed versus the widely used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collection 5.1 Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data, retrieved at 0.55 microns with spatial resolution of 10 km (MYD04). We focused on evaluating the ability of these two products to characterize both temporal and spatial distributions of aerosols within urban and suburban areas. Ground PM10 measurements were obtained from 73 of the Italian Regional Agency for Environmental Protection (ARPA) monitoring stations, spread across northern Italy, for a three-year period from 2010 to 2012. The Po Valley area (northern Italy) was chosen as the study domain because of severe urban air pollution, resulting from the highest population and industrial manufacturing density in the country, being located in a valley where two surrounding mountain chains favor the stagnation of pollutants. We found that the global correlations between PM10 and AOD are R(sup 2) = 0.83 and R(sup 2) = 0.44 for MYD04_L2 and for MAIAC, respectively, suggesting for a greater sensitiveness of the high-resolution product to small-scale deviations. However, the introduction of Relative Humidity (RH) and Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) depth corrections gave a significant improvement to the PM AOD correlation, which led to similar performance: R(sup 2) = 0.96 for MODIS and R(sup 2) = 0.95 for MAIAC. Furthermore, the introduction of the PBL information in the corrected AOD values was found to be crucial in order to capture the clear seasonal cycle shown by measured PM10 values. The study allowed us to define four seasonal linear correlations that estimate PM10 concentrations satisfactorily from the remotely sensed MAIAC AOD retrieval. Overall, the results show that the high resolution provided by MAIAC

  6. Case history of the discovery of the Jabiluka uranium deposits, East Alligator River region, Northern Territory of Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowntree, J.C.; Mosher, D.V.

    1976-01-01

    Pancontinental Mining Limited acquired exploration rights over an area in the East Alligator River Region, Northern Territory, Australia, in 1970. Subsequently, Getty Oil Development Company Limited acquired a substantial minority interest in the property. The Jabiluka deposits were discovered during the course of exploration and are currently the largest of the four major uranium deposits in the East Alligator River Region. This region at present contains 24% of the western world's reasonably assured resources of uranium. The exploration techniques employed during primary and secondary exploration on the property between 1971 and 1975 and during the delineation of the Jabiluka deposits are discussed in detail. The case history illustrates the exploration philosophy which was successfully employed on the Jabiluka property. The philosophy encompasses the following points: The need for an assessment on the limits of airborne radiometric surveys; the necessity for detection and evaluation of point source anomalies; the necessity for exploration along extensions of favourable lithologies; and the desirability of modification of exploration techniques on different types of anomalies. Some aspects of this philosophy may be useful in exploration for similar stratabound uranium deposits in other areas. (author)

  7. Stable water isotopes of precipitation and firn cores from the northern Antarctic Peninsula region as a proxy for climate reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fernandoy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the climate variability in the northern Antarctic Peninsula region, this paper focuses on the relationship between stable isotope content of precipitation and firn, and main meteorological variables (air temperature, relative humidity, sea surface temperature, and sea ice extent. Between 2008 and 2010, we collected precipitation samples and retrieved firn cores from several key sites in this region. We conclude that the deuterium excess oscillation represents a robust indicator of the meteorological variability on a seasonal to sub-seasonal scale. Low absolute deuterium excess values and the synchronous variation of both deuterium excess and air temperature imply that the evaporation of moisture occurs in the adjacent Southern Ocean. The δ18O-air temperature relationship is complicated and significant only at a (multiseasonal scale. Backward trajectory calculations show that air-parcels arriving at the region during precipitation events predominantly originate at the South Pacific Ocean and Bellingshausen Sea. These investigations will be used as a calibration for ongoing and future research in the area, suggesting that appropriate locations for future ice core research are located above 600 m a.s.l. We selected the Plateau Laclavere, Antarctic Peninsula as the most promising site for a deeper drilling campaign.

  8. Stratigraphy of the Koobi Fora Formation (Pliocene and Pleistocene) in the Ileret region of northern Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathogo, Patrick N.; Brown, Francis H.

    2006-08-01

    Exposures of Pliocene and Pleistocene deposits in the Ileret region include all eight members of the Koobi Fora Formation and represent at least 533 m of section from the base of the Lonyumun Member to the top of the Chari Mb. This thickness is more than twice that reported by earlier workers (˜260 m) and compares well with the composite section of the Koobi Fora Formation (525 m). Thus the Ileret region provides a very complete and representative outcrop of the Koobi Fora Formation. As Koobi Fora Formation member boundaries are placed at the base of specified tuffs, not all member boundaries can be recognized in the Ileret region. For this reason, the stratigraphy is described in terms of the following members (thicknesses in parentheses): Lonyumun (110 m), undifferentiated Moiti and Lokochot (104 m), Tulu Bor (54 m), Burgi (55 m), KBS (74 m), Okote (45 m), and Chari (93 m). Moreover, the boundary between the Okote Member and the KBS Member in the Ileret region is placed at a prominent caliche which must closely approximate the age of the Okote Tuff in its type section.

  9. Revised stratigraphic nomenclature and correlation of early proterozoic rocks of the Darwin - Katherine region, Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Needham, R.S.; Stuart-Smith, P.G.

    1984-01-01

    New stratigraphic names and correlations are given for parts of the Early Proterozoic Pine Creek Geosyncline metasedimentary sequence and overlying felsic volcanics of the Darwin-Katherine region. They have significant implications for the stratigraphic distribution of uranium mineralisation in the Rum Jungle, Alligator Rivers and South Alligator Valley uranium fields

  10. Management of Ranger uranium mine waters, Kakadu Region, Northern Territory, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallenstein, C.; Bastias, J.

    1988-01-01

    The objectives, development and operation of the Ranger Uranium Mine's water management system are discussed. The discharge standards for release of excess mine water to Magela Creek are described and mine water quality data presented. It can be confidently concluded that controlled release will not cause detriment to the aquatic ecosystems of the Kakadu region. 4 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  11. Northern forests, Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.H. Pardo; C.L. Goodale; E.A. Lilleskov; L.H. Geiser

    2011-01-01

    The Northern Forests ecological region spans much of Canada, from Saskatchewan to Newfoundland; its southern portion extends into the northern United States (CEC 1997). The U.S. component includes the northern hardwood and spruce-fir forest types and encompasses parts of the Northeast (mountainous regions in Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, Connecticut,...

  12. Terrestrial ecosystem model performance in simulating productivity and its vulnerability to climate change in the northern permafrost region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jianyang; McGuire, A. David; Lawrence, David; Burke, Eleanor J.; Chen, Guangsheng; Chen, Xiaodong; Delire, Christine; Koven, Charles; MacDougall, Andrew; Peng, Shushi; Rinke, Annette; Saito, Kazuyuki; Zhang, Wenxin; Alkama, Ramdane; Bohn, Theodore J.; Ciais, Philippe; Decharme, Bertrand; Gouttevin, Isabelle; Hajima, Tomohiro; Hayes, Daniel J.; Huang, Kun; Ji, Duoying; Krinner, Gerhard; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Miller, Paul A.; Moore, John C.; Smith, Benjamin; Sueyoshi, Tetsuo; Shi, Zheng; Yan, Liming; Liang, Junyi; Jiang, Lifen; Zhang, Qian; Luo, Yiqi

    2017-01-01

    Realistic projection of future climate-carbon (C) cycle feedbacks requires better understanding and an improved representation of the C cycle in permafrost regions in the current generation of Earth system models. Here we evaluated 10 terrestrial ecosystem models for their estimates of net primary productivity (NPP) and responses to historical climate change in permafrost regions in the Northern Hemisphere. In comparison with the satellite estimate from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS; 246 ± 6 g C m−2 yr−1), most models produced higher NPP (309 ± 12 g C m−2 yr−1) over the permafrost region during 2000–2009. By comparing the simulated gross primary productivity (GPP) with a flux tower-based database, we found that although mean GPP among the models was only overestimated by 10% over 1982–2009, there was a twofold discrepancy among models (380 to 800 g C m−2 yr−1), which mainly resulted from differences in simulated maximum monthly GPP (GPPmax). Most models overestimated C use efficiency (CUE) as compared to observations at both regional and site levels. Further analysis shows that model variability of GPP and CUE are nonlinearly correlated to variability in specific leaf area and the maximum rate of carboxylation by the enzyme Rubisco at 25°C (Vcmax_25), respectively. The models also varied in their sensitivities of NPP, GPP, and CUE to historical changes in climate and atmospheric CO2 concentration. These results indicate that model predictive ability of the C cycle in permafrost regions can be improved by better representation of the processes controlling CUE and GPPmax as well as their sensitivity to climate change.

  13. I37NO: an IMS infrasound array in northern Norway for optimal monitoring of infrasound on global and regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvaerna, Tormod; Gibbons, Steven; Fyen, Jan; Roth, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The IMS infrasound array I37NO near Bardufoss in northern Norway became operational in October 2013 and was certified on December 19, 2013. The 10-element array has an aperture of approximately 1.5 km and is deployed in low-lying woodland about 2.5 degrees north of the Arctic Circle. Its location in the European Arctic means that the array fills an important gap in the global IMS infrasound monitoring network. In addition, I37NO extends significantly the network of infrasound stations in northern Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Russia: operated by NORSAR, the Swedish Institute for Space Physics, and the Kola Regional Seismological Center in Apatity. The geometry is based on the highly successful classical design for regional seismic arrays with sensors arranged in two approximately concentric rings surrounding a central site. A 4-site subarray with an aperture of approximately 450 meters, comprising the central element and the inner ring of 3 sites, provides an excellent array response function and detection capability for relatively high frequency (2-4 Hz) signals. Such signals are usually generated by events at distances within 1000 km and often lack energy in the lower frequency bands for which the larger aperture arrays provide signal coherence. These so-called regional signals are of increasing importance in civil applications and the need to characterize the infrasonic wavefield over these distances is increasingly important in the remote monitoring of natural hazards. I37NO will provide good characterization of Ground Truth industrial and military explosions in the region which are well-constrained by seismic data. The full array aperture provides excellent backazimuth and slowness resolution for lower frequency signals and it is anticipated that I37NO will contribute significantly to the detection and association of signals on a global scale. Already within the first few months of operation, we have examples of high-quality recordings from meteors, accidental

  14. Notes on the origin of extensive endorheic regions in central and northern Mexico, and some implications for paleozoogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda-Gómez, José Jorge; Carranza-Castañeda, Oscar; Wang, Xiaoming; Tseng, Z. Jack; Pacheco-Castro, Adolfo

    2018-04-01

    The recent discovery of a fossil of Enhydritherium terraenovae in upper Miocene fluvial deposits in Juchipila (Mexico), nearly 200 km away from the nearest coast, together with other known occurrences of the same species in Florida and California, made possible to envision an alternative to the Panamanian and Polar routes of migration through fluvial systems in Mexico. In order to cross from one ocean to the other, individuals of E. terraenovae must have passed the continental divide, which is a physiographic feature that separates surface waters that flow into the Atlantic and Pacific versants. Two vast endorheic regions, which together span more than 400,000 km2 in area, currently dominate drainage systems in northern and central Mexico. The endorheic regions are broadly bounded by two mountain ranges and coincide with the arid and semi-arid regions of the Chihuahuan desert. These closed basins are an additional obstacle for migration. However, drainage systems are constantly varying and adjusting to changing conditions imposed by climate, tectonic activity, volcanism, and pronounced asymmetries in topography and rainfall distribution. The migration route across Mexico for Enhydritherium terraenovae in the late Miocene (≥6 Ma) could have been facilitated by one or more river captures that inverted the flow direction near the headwaters of a drainage system that debouched either into the Gulf of Mexico or the Pacific coast. Biologists studying fresh water fish faunas in the southern part of the United States and in northern and central Mexico have documented several living species that occur in both the Rio Grande and in the Mezquital rivers, two drainages that are not presently connected, drain in opposite directions (i.e. towards the Gulf of Mexico and the Gulf of California, respectively) and are separated by the endorheic regions. Furthermore, systematic studies of fresh water fish faunas in the region has numerous examples of endemicity and allopatric

  15. Łódź Region and its Northern Vicinity under Vistulian Glaciation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Małgorzata

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An overview of palaeogeographical findings of the last glacial period (MIS 5d-MIS 2 has been given for the Łódź region. Processes which influenced the area outside of ice-sheet margin are presented with respect to space and time, as predominantly driven by different types of periglacial environment. Attention was paid to leading accumulative and erosional processes and resulting landforms, still well-pronounced in the landscape. Recently, the picture of the area discussed, during the Vistulian was completed and identified was the mechanism of the LGM ice-sheet advance onto the Płock lobe. Borderline location of the Łódź region offers comprehensive research on the time and processes and determines its significance on the geomorphological map of Poland.

  16. Proximity and scientific collaboration in Northern European “cross-border regional innovation systems”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan

    2015-01-01

    collaboration are described through preliminary descriptive statistics. This provides an answer to the specific research question of this paper: does high levels of proximity guarantee subsequent high levels of scientific collaboration and integration in a cross-border context? Consequently, the preliminary......A novel approach, namely cross-border regional innovation system, has been recently introduced to the literature on economic geography as a framework for studying innovation and scientific collaboration in a cross-border context. However, despite the importance of the topic for cross-border regions...... and cultural statistics together with measures for accessibility and institutional and organisational similarity. These measures are linked to the varying types of proximity discussed in the literature on innovation and scientific collaboration; the impacts of proximity on the volume of cross-border scientific...

  17. Disposal of pesticide waste from agricultural production in the Al-Batinah region of Northern Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Zadjali, Said [Ministry of Environment and Climate Affairs, P O Box 321 Muscat 100 (Oman); Centre for Environmental Strategy, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7JH (United Kingdom); Morse, Stephen; Chenoweth, Jonathan [Centre for Environmental Strategy, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7JH (United Kingdom); Deadman, Mike, E-mail: mikedeadman59@gmail.com [Department of Crop Sciences, College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, P O Box 34, Al Khod 123 (Oman)

    2013-10-01

    examination of pesticide waste disposal practices on over 150 farms in Northern Oman • Identification of gaps in current government policy towards waste disposal • Identification of mechanisms of knowledge diffusion within the farming community concerning waste disposal practices • Contrasting behaviour between farmers within a local association and those not in the association • Weakness of the local state extension service is bridged by the activities of the farmers association.

  18. Disposal of pesticide waste from agricultural production in the Al-Batinah region of Northern Oman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Zadjali, Said; Morse, Stephen; Chenoweth, Jonathan; Deadman, Mike

    2013-01-01

    examination of pesticide waste disposal practices on over 150 farms in Northern Oman • Identification of gaps in current government policy towards waste disposal • Identification of mechanisms of knowledge diffusion within the farming community concerning waste disposal practices • Contrasting behaviour between farmers within a local association and those not in the association • Weakness of the local state extension service is bridged by the activities of the farmers association

  19. The Structural Control and Tectonic Evolution of the Campbellton Region, northern New Brunswick, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craggs, Simon D.

    The Campbellton region is transected by a network of ENE-trending dextral transcurrent faults and NNE-trending high-angle reverse faults. A fieldwork-based study was conducted to determine the region's kinematic response to Middle Paleozoic deformation in order to assess the potential for the occurrence of a structural hydrocarbon trap. Detailed study of five major faults (the Black Lake, Squaw Cap, Sugar Loaf, Sellarsville and Sellarsville East faults) and their associated damage zones indicate that during the Middle Paleozoic the region was part of a larger dextral transpressive system that extended north into the Gaspe Peninsula. The timing and style of fault development suggest that boundary conditions present during deformation restricted lateral extension of the region, which indicates that the Middle Silurian Salinic Orogeny had only a minor effect on rocks of the study area. The Sellarsville and Sellarsville East faults are thought to have moved first, during the Acadian Orogeny, as back thrusts within a NW-propagating foreland thrust belt. This was followed by dextral transcurrent movement along the ENE-trending faults and counter-clockwise rotation of the Sellarsville block. Damage-zone assessment suggests that, in general, all the faults acted as a partial barrier to flow during deformation. Many of the essential elements for hydrocarbon-trap development are in place within the study area. While sporadic distribution of reservoir rocks of the Upper Silurian West Point Formation limits our ability to locate hydrocarbon target sites, two areas have been identified where major lineaments interact with anticlinal hinges, and potential reservoir rocks are overlain by volcanic rocks of the Lower Devonian Val d'Amour Formation.

  20. Underestimated seismic hazard in the south of the Issyk-Kul Lake region (northern Tian Shan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Korzhenkov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Tian Shan Mountains were formed in the result of the India–Eurasia collision, which leads to creation of contrast high-mountain relief and world known seismic activity. The seismic catastrophes, recorded instrumentally, have occurred to the north of the Issyk-Kul Lake region. There are also known significant earthquakes with magnitude being about 7 in western and eastern parts of the mentioned lake region. Only in the south of the Issyk-Kul depression the strong earthquakes recorded by the seismic network were not known. Our recent study in the south of the Issyk-Kul Lake region has revealed numerous active tectonic structures related to South Issyk-Kul Fault: faults and folds, responsible for strong earthquakes' occurrence. These were historical and paleoseismic deformations which led to changes in relief: fault scarps and significant rockslides. We have also found spectacular deformations in archeological monuments. All these deformations testify the location of epicentral areas of two strong historic (about 11th and 16th (? centuries AD and paleoearthquakes (Holocene and Late Pleistocene. Magnitude of ancient seismic events, according to parameters of the revealed fault scarps, were Ms ≥ 7 and seismic intensity I ≥ IX. All revealed seismic deformations are located to adyrs (piedmonts of the Terskey Ala-Too range bordered of the Issyk-Kul Lake depression in the south. Their formation is described by the model of a fault which rupture plane becomes shallower southward. This model is complicated by the presence of reverse thrusts. Here, we should admit the existence of a single zone of South Issyk-Kul Fault which is a long-lived feature which separates the structures with the different regime of movements during the Neotectonic time. All obtained data led us to a conclusion of significant underestimation of the seismic hazard in southern Issyk-Kul Lake region.

  1. Passive seismic experiment in the Olduvai Gorge and Laetoli region (Ngorongoro Conservation Area), Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Laura; Lombardo, Luigi; Tang, Zheng; Mai, P. Martin

    2017-04-01

    The Olduvai Gorge and Laetoli basins, located within the Ngorogoro Conservation Area (NCA), are a cornerstone for understanding the evolution of early humans and are two paleo-antropological excavation sites of global importance. NCA is located at the boundary between the Tanzanian Craton and East African Rift (EAR), in the vicinity of Ngorongoro Crater and other major volcanic edifices. Thus, understanding the geology and tectonics of the NCA may shed light onto the question why early Hominins settled in this region. Environmental and geological conditions in the Olduvai and Laetoli region that promoted human settlement and development are still debated by geologists and paleo-anthropologists. Paleo-geographical reconstructions of the study area of the last 2 million years may take advantage of modern passive seismology. Therefore, we installed a dense seismic network covering a surface of approximately 30 x 40 km within the NCA to map the depth extent of known faults, and to identify seismically active faults that have no surface expression. Our ten seismic stations, equipped with Trillium Compact 120 s sensors, started to operate in June 2016 and will continue for a total of 2 years. At the end of the first year, other 5 stations will densify our network. Here we analyse data quality of the first four months of continuous recordings. Our network provides good quality 3-C waveforms in the frequency range of 0.7-50 Hz. Vertical component seismograms record frequencies reliably down to 8 mHz. Preliminary results of the seismicity obtained with standard location procedures show that NCA is characterised by frequent tectonic seismicity (not volcano-related) with Ml between 0.5 and 2.0. Seismic activity is more frequent in the South (Laetoli region) where major fault systems have not been recognised at the surface yet.

  2. TA [2] Continuous, regional methane emissions estimates in northern Pennsylvania gas fields using atmospheric inversions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauvaux, Thomas [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2017-12-31

    Natural Gas (NG) production activities in the northeastern Marcellus shale have significantly increased in the last decade, possibly releasing large amounts of methane (CH4) into the atmosphere from the operations at the productions sites and during the processing and transmission steps of the natural gas chain. Based on an intensive aircraft survey, leakage rates from the NG production were quantified in May 2015 and found to be in the order of 0.5% of the total production, higher than reported by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) but below the usually observed leakage rates over the shale gases in the US. Thanks to the high production rates on average at each well, leakage rates normalized by production appeared to be low in the northeastern Marcellus shale. This result confirms that natural gas production using unconventional techniques in this region is emitting relatively less CH4 into the atmosphere than other shale reservoirs. The low emissions rate can be explained in part by the high productivity of wells drilled across the northeastern Marcellus region. We demonstrated here that atmospheric monitoring techniques can provide an independent quantification of NG leakage rates using aircraft measurements. The CH4 analyzers were successfully calibrated at four sites across the region, measuring continuously the atmospheric CH4 mixing ratios and isotopic 13Ch4. Our preliminary findings confirm the low leakage rates from tower data collected over September 2015 to November 2016 compared to the aircraft mass-balance estimates in may 2015. However, several episodes revealing large releases of natural gas over several weeks showed that temporal variations in the emissions of CH4 may increase the actual leakage rate over longer time periods.

  3. Land Cover Mapping in Northern High Latitude Permafrost Regions with Satellite Data: Achievements and Remaining Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Bartsch

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Most applications of land cover maps that have been derived from satellite data over the Arctic require higher thematic detail than available in current global maps. A range of application studies has been reviewed, including up-scaling of carbon fluxes and pools, permafrost feature mapping and transition monitoring. Early land cover mapping studies were driven by the demand to characterize wildlife habitats. Later, in the 1990s, up-scaling of in situ measurements became central to the discipline of land cover mapping on local to regional scales at several sites across the Arctic. This includes the Kuparuk basin in Alaska, the Usa basin and the Lena Delta in Russia. All of these multi-purpose land cover maps have been derived from Landsat data. High resolution maps (from optical satellite data serve frequently as input for the characterization of periglacial features and also flux tower footprints in recent studies. The most used map to address circumpolar issues is the CAVM (Circum Arctic Vegetation Map based on AVHRR (1 km and has been manually derived. It provides the required thematic detail for many applications, but is confined to areas north of the treeline, and it is limited in spatial detail. A higher spatial resolution circumpolar land cover map with sufficient thematic content would be beneficial for a range of applications. Such a land cover classification should be compatible with existing global maps and applicable for multiple purposes. The thematic content of existing global maps has been assessed by comparison to the CAVM and regional maps. None of the maps provides the required thematic detail. Spatial resolution has been compared to used classes for local to regional applications. The required thematic detail increases with spatial resolution since coarser datasets are usually applied over larger areas covering more relevant landscape units. This is especially of concern when the entire Arctic is addressed. A spatial

  4. Spatial variations in biomarkers of Mytilus edulis mussels at four polluted regions spanning the Northern Hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, F.; Burgeot, T.; Hellou, J.; St-Jean, S.; Farcy, E.; Blaise, C.

    2008-01-01

    Economic and social developments have taken place at the expense of the health of the environment, both locally and on a global scale. In an attempt to better understand the large-scale effects of pollution and other stressors like climate change on the health status of Mytilus edulis, mussels were collected during the first two weeks of June 2005 at three sites (one pristine and two affected by pollution) located in each of the regions of the Canadian West Coast, the St. Lawrence estuary, the Atlantic East Coast and the northwestern coast of France, covering a total distance of some 11 000 km. The mussels were analyzed for morphologic integrity (condition factor), gametogenic activity (gonado-somatic and gonad maturation index, vitellogenin(Vtg)-like proteins), energy status (temperature-dependent mitochondrial electron transport activity and gonad lipid stores), defense mechanisms (glutathione S-transferase, metallothioneins, cytochrome P4503A activity and xanthine oxidoreductase-XOR), and tissue damage (lipid peroxidation-LPO and DNA strand breaks). The results showed that data from the reference sites in each region were usually not normally distributed, with discriminant factors reaching the number of regions (i.e. four), except for the biomarkers gonadal lipids, XOR and LPO in digestive gland. The integrated responses of the biomarkers revealed that biomarkers of stress were significantly more pronounced in mussels from the Seine estuary, suggesting that the impacts of pollution are more generalized in this area. Mussels from the Seine estuary and the Atlantic East Coast (Halifax Harbor) responded more strongly for Vtg-like proteins, but was not related to gonad maturation and gonado-somatic indexes, suggesting the presence of environmental estrogens. Moreover, these mussels displayed reduced DNA repair activity and increased LPO. Factorial analyses revealed that energy status, cytochrome P4503A activity and Vtg-like proteins were the most important

  5. Cardiochilinae and Ichneutinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) of Konza Prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results of a survey of Cardiochilinae and Ichneutinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) at Konza Prairie near Manhattan, Kansas are reported. Eleven sites representing prairie and woodland/wetland areas, including gallery forest, were sampled in 2001 and 2005 using Malaise traps and a canopy trap. Selec...

  6. Chicago's Columbus Park: The Prairie Idealized. Teaching with Historic Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachrach, Julia Sniderman; Nathan, Jo Ann

    Twenty-four year old Jens Jensen came to the United States, settled in Chicago (Illinois), and promptly fell in love with the Midwest's prairie landscape. Although some thought that prairie was boring, monotonous, and ordinary, Jensen saw great beauty in the tree-filled groves, long winding rivers, natural rock formations and waterfalls, and the…

  7. Propolis extracts from the northern region of Thailand suppress cancer cell growth through induction of apoptosis pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khacha-Ananda, Supakit; Tragoolpua, Khajornsak; Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Tragoolpua, Yingmanee

    2016-12-01

    The continual increase in mortality rates and number of cancer cases is a matter of serious concern in developing countries. The incorporation of natural products into classical cancer treatment approaches is a promising direction. The mechanisms of A549 and HeLa cancer cell death induction by ethanolic extracts of propolis samples from Phayao, Chiang Mai, and Nan provinces in northern Thailand were investigated in this study. The propolis extract from Chiang Mai showed the highest antioxidant activity and the greatest total phenolic content. The propolis extract from Nan also exhibited the highest total flavonoid content. The proliferation of A549 and HeLa cells grown in the presence of the propolis extracts was suppressed in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, treatment of both cancer cells with the propolis extracts showed DNA fragmentation and significantly increased the number of the apoptotic cells. On A549 cells, the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of caspase enzymes were activated by the propolis extracts from Phayao and Chiang Mai. In the case of the propolis extract from Nan, the mechanisms involved apoptosis on the A549 cells were caspase-independent pathway. The extrinsic pathway of the caspase enzyme was triggered by all of the propolis extracts on HeLa cells. Finally, oral administration of the propolis granule produced from the propolis extract from Nan resulted in extended survival of tumour-bearing mice. Therefore, propolis extracts from the northern region of Thailand demonstrated pharmacological properties, both antioxidant and anticancer activities. From these findings, it is evident that propolis extracts can be considered as a naturally obtained agent extremely useful in cancer treatment.

  8. Spider assemblage (Arachnida: Araneae associated with canopies of Vochysia divergens (Vochysiaceae in the northern region of the Brazilian Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro D. Battirola

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study describes the composition and temporal variation of the spider assemblage (Arachnida: Araneae associated with canopies of Vochysia divergens Pohl. (Vochysiaceae in the northern region of the Brazilian Pantanal. Three V. divergens plants were sampled in 2004, at each seasonal period of the northern Pantanal (high water, receding water, dry season and rising water, using thermonebulization of the canopies with insecticide, totaling 396 m2 of sampled canopies. Analysis of abundance and richness of spider families were based on Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS and Variance Analysis (ANOVA and MANOVA. A total of 7,193 spiders were collected (6,330 immatures; 88.0%; 863 adults, 12.0% distributed in 30 families. Araneidae (1,676 individuals, Anyphaenidae (1,631 individuals, Salticidae (1,542 individuals and Pisauridae (906 individuals, were predominant, representing 80.0% of the sample. Ten different guilds were registered: aerial hunters, orb-weavers, nocturnal aerial runners and diurnal space web weavers dominated, sharing most ecological niches. The spider assemblage is affected by changes in the habitat structure, especially by the seasonal hydrological regime and variations in the phenology of V. divergens . The assemblage is composed of different groups of spiders. The dominant taxa and behavioral guilds differ in the different seasonal periods. Spiders were more abundant during the dry and rising water seasons, most likely reflecting a greater supply of potential prey, associated with new foliage and flowering at the canopy. The displacement of soil dwelling spiders to the trunks and canopies before and during the seasonal floods can change the structure and composition of the canopy assemblages. Oonopidae, Gnaphosidae and Caponiidae, were more frequent during the rising and high water seasons, which indicates that these taxa use the canopies of V. divergens as a refuge during the seasonal flooding in the Pantanal.

  9. Developing a savanna burning emissions abatement methodology for tussock grasslands in high rainfall regions of northern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Russell-Smith

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fire-prone tropical savanna and grassland systems are a significant source of atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases.  In recent years, substantial research has been directed towards developing accounting methodologies for savanna burning emissions to be applied in Australia’s National Greenhouse Gas Inventory, as well as for commercial carbon trading purposes.  That work has focused on woody savanna systems.  Here, we extend the methodological approach to include tussock grasslands and associated Melaleuca-dominated open woodlands (<10% foliage cover in higher rainfall (>1,000 mm/annum regions of northern Australia.  Field assessments under dry season conditions focused on deriving fuel accumulation, fire patchiness and combustion relationships for key fuel types: fine fuels − grass and litter; coarse woody fuels − twigs <6 mm diameter; heavy woody fuels − >6 mm diameter; and shrubs.  In contrast with previous savanna burning assessments, fire treatments undertaken under early dry season burning conditions resulted in negligible patchiness and very substantial consumption of fine fuels.  In effect, burning in the early dry season provides no benefits in greenhouse gas emissions and emissions reductions in tussock grasslands can be achieved only through reducing the extent of burning.  The practical implications of reduced burning in higher rainfall northern Australian grassland systems are discussed, indicating that there are significant constraints, including infrastructural, cultural and woody thickening issues.  Similar opportunities and constraints are observed in other international contexts, but especially project implementation challenges associated with legislative, political and governance issues.

  10. Neonatal transport in the Northern Region of Portugal: from past to present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercília Guimarães

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors aim to provide a description of the beginning of neonatal transport in Portugal and remember all professionals, doctors and nurses who voluntarily dedicated themselves to this cause for more than two decades with great commitment.Neonatal transport is essential and a valid alternative to the best transport for the newborn – the mother’s womb. It is part of a perinatal regionalization program to ensure that newborns are born in facilities with a care level definition that is consistent with expected pregnancy outcomes. In Portugal, it dates back to three decades ago, thanks to the institution of the Neonatal Transport System, in the context of regionalization of perinatal health care in the country, and was organized on a voluntary basis up to 2011. During this period neonatologists and nurses trained in neonatal intensive care worked extra hours in the neonatal transport. Since 2011, a team specialized in intensive pediatric care replaced the previous one. Nowadays there is no reliable evidence from randomized trials to support or refute the effects of specialist neonatal transport teams for neonatal retrieval on infant morbidity and mortality. Continuous and regular education, training and practice are essential key elements in the success and outcome of high risk newborns.Further development is required to optimize the use of available resources, to develop benchmarking to ensure a high quality sustainable service and to provide us with answers on effectiveness and clinical outcomes.

  11. Cooperation and territorial development within northern Morocco’s border region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique López Lara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The North of Morocco, like border regional space with Spain and the European Union, is object of an intense process of promotion of policies and programs of cooperation of diverse institutions (UN, European Union, agencies of cooperation, among others that have interests in the zone, such as: fortification of a growth, safety ring in a strategic zone of the rent by the existence of a high step between neighbors, creation of a new policy of vicinity based on semi-integration, reduction of the emigration, etcetera. Question that agrees with a determined policy of the Moroccan government to relaunch socially and economically this space: process of regionalización and dowry of institutions (Agency for the Promotion of the Development in the Regions of the North, design of a strategy of growth based on the human development, and more. This paper analizes the reasons of this process, the geographic reality and the socioeconomic characterization of the border area. At the same time, it diagnoses the weaknesses and opportunities for the joint of new policies of cooperation and development for the actors who look for a territorial development in this border area, today in crisis.

  12. The origin of regional ecological problems within the northern Tyumen Oblast, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilchek, G.E.; Bykova, O.Y.

    1992-01-01

    The northwestern areas of the Western Siberia are subjected to intensive anthropogenic pressure, mainly by the oil and gas extraction industries, reindeer herding, hunting, and fishing. Localized activities, rather than regional-scale activities have led to the degradation of the natural environment on a regional scale. These processes include (1) transfer of pollutants by water and atmosphere; (2) expansion and merging of oil and gas development sites; (3) degradation of the key wildlife habitats (reproduction sites of fish, animals, birds, migration routes, etc.); and (4) more intensive use of remaining pastures and hunting areas by the indigenous population due to loss of large areas of pasture and hunting territories to the oil and gas industries. Analysis of the existing situation within northwest Siberia suggests that in the future, the situation will continue to worsen unless there is significant improvement in land-use management and technology of oil and gas industry. Degradation processes may also be exacerbated by global warming. Concurrently local changes themselves may lead to negative changes on the global scale

  13. Analysis of Glacial Change in the Northern Antarctic Peninsula Region Using Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, W.; Arkle, J.; Devillier, K.; Neely, N.; Velasco, A. A.

    2009-05-01

    Clearly and robustly documenting global climate change over this past century remains a key goal for researchers. Polar regions are an ideal place to study change, since they are particularly sensitive to temperature changes. As part of an International Polar Year (IPY) grant called IPY-ROAM (Research and Educational Opportunities in Antarctica for Minorities), faculty at the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) took 29 underrepresented minority students and teachers on a research expedition to Antarctica over winter break 2007. One goal of the program was to document glacial change along the Antarctic Peninsula over the past century using photogrammetry, a technique that uses photos to make accurate geographic measurements. Prior to embarkation, we gathered historic photos of glaciers along our travel route. During the expedition, new photos were taken within the old photo sites, where we made Global Positioning System (GPS) readings and accurately measurement angles to the geographic features. The geographic features (including top and bottom of a glacier) were then mapped onto a Geographical Information Systems (GIS) that allowed us to determine location, scale and distance to these features on the photos. With the angle and distance, the height difference between the old and current photo of the glacier was calculated using basic trigonometric functions. In one case, we determined a 14 m reduction in glacier height from 1934 to 2007. Future work will include analysis from more glaciers in the region, and to determine if there is a correlation between glacier retreat and climate change. ROAM/index.html

  14. GPS horizontal deformation model in the southern region of the Iberian Peninsula and northern Africa (SPINA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosado Moscoso, B.; Fernández-Ros, A.; Jiménez Jiménez, A.; Berrocoso Domínguez, M.

    2017-01-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and in particular Global Positioning System (GPS) technology provides a powerful tool for studying geodynamic processes. As a consequence of GPS studies, it is now possible to analyze the interaction between tectonic plates in order to evaluate and establish the characteristics of their boundaries. In this study, our main interest is to focus on the time series analysis obtained from observations of GNSS-GPS satellites. Each GPS observation session provides topocentric geodetic coordinates (east, north, elevation) of the permanent stations that constitute the geodetic network established for this purpose. This paper shows a detailed topocentric coordinate time-series study for sites belonging to what we call the SPINA network, which stands for south of the Iberian Peninsula, north of Africa region. The series under study are processed by techniques of relative positioning with respect to the IGS (International GNSS Service) reference station located in Villafranca. These times series have been analyzed using filter processes, harmonic adjustments and wavelets. A surface velocity field is derived from the time series of daily solutions for each station, whose observations span 8 years or longer. This allows us to obtain a horizontal displacement model to show the regional geodynamic main characteristics. [es

  15. Isotopic composition in precipitation and groundwater in the northern mountainous region of the Central Valley of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Murillo, Ricardo; Esquivel-Hernández, Germain; Sáenz-Rosales, Oscar; Piedra-Marín, Gilberto; Fonseca-Sánchez, Alicia; Madrigal-Solís, Helga; Ulloa-Chaverri, Franz; Rojas-Jiménez, Luis D; Vargas-Víquez, José A

    2017-03-01

    The linkage between precipitation and recharge is still poorly understood in the Central America region. This study focuses on stable isotopic composition in precipitation and groundwater in the northern mountainous region of the Central Valley of Costa Rica. During the dry season, rainfall samples corresponded to enriched events with high deuterium excess. By mid-May, the Intertropical Convergence Zone poses over Costa Rica resulting in a depletion of 18 O/ 16 O and 2 H/H ratios. A parsimonious four-variable regression model (r 2  = 0.52) was able to predict daily δ 18 O in precipitation. Air mass back trajectories indicated a combination of Caribbean Sea and Pacific Ocean sources, which is clearly depicted in groundwater isoscape. Aquifers relying on Pacific-originated recharge exhibited a more depleted pattern, whereas recharge areas relying on Caribbean parental moisture showed an enrichment trend. These results can be used to enhance modelling efforts in Central America where scarcity of long-term data limits water resources management plans.

  16. The relationship between violence in Northern Mexico and potentially avoidable hospitalizations in the USA-Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Kimberley; Stearns, Sally C; Becker, Charles; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Holmes, George M

    2016-03-01

    Substantial proportions of US residents in the USA-Mexico border region cross into Mexico for health care; increases in violence in northern Mexico may have affected this access. We quantified associations between violence in Mexico and decreases in access to care for border county residents. We also examined associations between border county residence and access. We used hospital inpatient data for Arizona, California and Texas (2005-10) to estimate associations between homicide rates and the probability of hospitalization for ambulatory care sensitive (ACS) conditions. Hospitalizations for ACS conditions were compared with homicide rates in Mexican municipalities matched by patient residence. A 1 SD increase in the homicide rate of the nearest Mexican municipality was associated with a 2.2 percentage point increase in the probability of being hospitalized for an ACS condition for border county patients. Residence in a border county was associated with a 1.3 percentage point decrease in the probability of being hospitalized for an ACS condition. Increased homicide rates in Mexico were associated with increased hospitalizations for ACS conditions in the USA, although residence in a border county was associated with decreased probability of being hospitalized for an ACS condition. Expanding access in the border region may mitigate these effects by providing alternative sources of care. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Distance associated with marriage migration in a northern and a southern region of Bangladesh: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mizanur; Akter, Shamima; Rahman, Ataur

    2010-09-01

    This paper investigates the distribution of distance associated with marriage migration in the northern region of Rajshahi and the southern region of Khulna in Bangladesh. The study was conducted in 2007 on 2250 respondents who had migrated due to marriage. Of the wide variety of curves that fitted the distance-marriage/contact data, three are discussed: Pareto, exponential, and Pareto-exponential. Logistic regression models were used to identify the covariates of marriage distance migration. In general, the three functions work better for marriages, whereas Pareto-exponential functions are a superior fit for migrations and marriage distance. The models disclose that the distribution of distance is significantly associated with marriage migration (pPareto-exponential model was 100% stable and its shrinkage was 0.000000125. The main covariates associated with short-distance marriage migration were respondent's education, father's education and religion, whereas age at the time of marriage did not play a significant role in marriage migration. The risk of short-distance migration was greater in higher- than lower-educated Muslim families.

  18. Edaphic factors that influence the growth of Vochysia guatemalensis in the Northern Huetar Region of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mora

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth of Vochysia guatemalensis in Ultisols and Inceptisols of the Northern Huetar Region of Costa Rica were evaluated. This paper introduces the conditions of the sites, in the region under study where the species is growing. Making use of physical and chemical soil variables, it tries to explain the behavior of the site index (Is and its relationship with those edaphic variables that show some kind of relation with this indicator of the quality of the land. In addition, working at 2 depths, the factors of the soil which limit or favor the growth of this species are determined, in order to identify the most appropriate, as well as the most inadequate, sites for the species. At to 20 cm depth, the best sites (IS greater than 23, are related to low pH, low calcium concentrations and median concentrations of magnesium, medium sum of bases and medium effective cation exchange capacity, an extractable medium acidity and medium saturation acidity. From 20 to 40 cm, it is observed that the best sites are associated with low apparent density, a high content of clay and iron, and a good amount of organic matter. The soils that show the best chemical condition are those associated with the worst quality of site (IS lesser than 20 for V. guatemalensis. This highlights the low nutritional requirements of this species, V. guatemalensis, which can be considered as adapted to relatively acidic soils of low fertility.

  19. Amplified warming projections for high altitude regions of the northern hemisphere mid-latitudes from CMIP5 models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangwala, Imtiaz; Sinsky, Eric; Miller, James R

    2013-01-01

    We use output from global climate models available from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) for three different greenhouse gas emission scenarios to investigate whether the projected warming in mountains by the end of the 21st century is significantly different from that in low elevation regions. To remove the effects of latitudinal variation in warming rates, we focus on seasonal changes in the mid-latitude band of the northern hemisphere between 27.5° N and 40° N, where the two major mountain systems are the Tibetan Plateau/Himalayas in Asia and the Rocky Mountains in the United States. Results from the multi-model ensemble indicate that warming rates in mountains will be enhanced relative to non-mountain regions at the same latitude, particularly during the cold season. The strongest correlations of enhanced warming with elevation are obtained for the daily minimum temperature during winter, with the largest increases found for the Tibetan Plateau/Himalayas. The model projections indicate that this occurs, in part, because of proportionally greater increases in downward longwave radiation at higher elevations in response to increases in water vapor. The mechanisms for enhanced increases in winter and spring maximum temperatures in the Rockies appear to be influenced more by increases in surface absorption of solar radiation owing to a reduced snow cover. Furthermore, the amplification of warming with elevation is greater for a higher greenhouse gas emission scenario. (letter)

  20. Modelling and Analysis of Hydrodynamics and Water Quality for Rivers in the Northern Cold Region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Gula; Zhu, Yunqiang; Wu, Guozheng; Li, Jing; Li, Zhao-Liang; Sun, Jiulin

    2016-04-08

    In this study, the Mudan River, which is the most typical river in the northern cold region of China was selected as the research object; Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) was adopted to construct a new two-dimensional water quality model for the urban sections of the Mudan River, and concentrations of COD(Cr) and NH₃N during ice-covered and open-water periods were simulated and analyzed. Results indicated that roughness coefficient and comprehensive pollutant decay rate were significantly different in those periods. To be specific, the roughness coefficient in the ice-covered period was larger than that of the open-water period, while the decay rate within the former period was smaller than that in the latter. In addition, according to the analysis of the simulated results, the main reasons for the decay rate reduction during the ice-covered period are temperature drop, upstream inflow decrease and ice layer cover; among them, ice sheet is the major contributor of roughness increase. These aspects were discussed in more detail in this work. The model could be generalized to hydrodynamic water quality process simulation researches on rivers in other cold regions as well.

  1. Modelling and Analysis of Hydrodynamics and Water Quality for Rivers in the Northern Cold Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gula Tang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the Mudan River, which is the most typical river in the northern cold region of China was selected as the research object; Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC was adopted to construct a new two-dimensional water quality model for the urban sections of the Mudan River, and concentrations of CODCr and NH3N during ice-covered and open-water periods were simulated and analyzed. Results indicated that roughness coefficient and comprehensive pollutant decay rate were significantly different in those periods. To be specific, the roughness coefficient in the ice-covered period was larger than that of the open-water period, while the decay rate within the former period was smaller than that in the latter. In addition, according to the analysis of the simulated results, the main reasons for the decay rate reduction during the ice-covered period are temperature drop, upstream inflow decrease and ice layer cover; among them, ice sheet is the major contributor of roughness increase. These aspects were discussed in more detail in this work. The model could be generalized to hydrodynamic water quality process simulation researches on rivers in other cold regions as well.

  2. Preliminary results of SIB-IMRT in head and neck cancers: Report from a regional cancer center in northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakraborty Santam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Intensity-modulated radiotherapy using simultaneous integrated boost (SIB-IMRT is an attractive method for the treatment of head and neck cancers with sparing of the salivary function. Aims : To assess the feasibility, toxicity, and tumor control using SIB-IMRT in locally advanced head and neck cancers in the Indian setting. Settings and Design : The study was conducted in a regional cancer center in northern India. A review of the treatment result of the first 20 patients is presented. Methods and Materials : SIB-IMRT was planned for 20 patients-14 patients were treated with the SIB-72 schedule delivering a dose of 72 Gy, 66 Gy, and 57 Gy to the PTV GTV , PTV CTV1 , and PTV CTV2 in 33 fractions. Six patients were treated with the SIB-66 schedule delivering 66 Gy, 60 Gy, and 54 Gy to the above-mentioned volumes in 30 fractions. Patients were monitored for toxicity using the CTCAE v 3.0 criteria. Descriptive analysis of toxicity and actuarial estimates of the loco-regional control and survival are presented. Results : Grade III mucositis was seen in 65% patients. None of the patients had Grade III dermatitis. The projected 2-year overall survival was 95%. Conclusion : SIB-IMRT schedules evaluated were found to be safe and effective and are being subjected to further prospective studies.

  3. Regional demographic trends from long-term studies of saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) across the northern Sonoran Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Elizabeth A.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Turner, Raymond M.

    2013-01-01

    Ten saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) populations in the northern Sonoran Desert were monitored from 1959 to 2005 to discriminate how climate influences plant growth, abundance, reproductive potential, survivorship, age structure and regeneration trends. Thousands of saguaros were measured to determine site-specific growth rates and survivorship through time. Observed growth rates were used to predict the ages of saguaros and reconstruct local and regional regeneration patterns back to the late 18th century. Both growth rates and degree of branching generally tracked temperature and moisture gradients. Site-specific age-height models explained 89-97% of variance in observed ages, with a slope of nearly one. Regeneration was more consistent at sites in the western (hotter/drier) than eastern (cooler/wetter) sites, which exhibited clear multidecadal variability in regeneration rates. Averaged across the region, saguaro regeneration rates were highest from 1780 to 1860, coincident with wet conditions and high Pinus ponderosa recruitment in the highlands. Milder and wetter winters and protection from livestock grazing likely promoted late 20th century regeneration surges at some sites. Predictions of saguaro population dynamics in the 21st century likely will be confounded by the saguaro's episodic and asynchronous regeneration, continued urbanization, ongoing grass invasions and associated wildfires, and changing climate.

  4. Mining in the Alligator Rivers Region, northern Australia: Assessing potential and actual effects on ecosystem and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, R.A. van; Humphrey, C.L.; Martin, P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of issues related to surface water contamination arising from uranium mining activities in the Alligator Rivers Region (ARR) of northern Australia, and a program of research and monitoring that must assess the potential and actual effects on ecosystem and human health. The program of assessing effects on aquatic ecosystems involves a four-tiered approach including the derivation of local water quality guideline trigger values, direct toxicity assessment of mine waters prior to their release, creekside or in situ monitoring for early warning of adverse effects during mine water release, and longer-term monitoring of macroinvertebrate and fish communities. Bioaccumulation in aquatic biota is also assessed, and is an issue of importance not only to ecosystem health, but also to the health of local Aboriginal people. The aquatic animals they consume represent potential sources of radiological dose, and as a result, a major component of the program to assess potential effects on human health is the prediction of doses to Aboriginal people living downstream of mining activities. Acknowledging the assumptions and uncertainties, the calculation of concentration factors for local aquatic (and other) food sources allows the prediction of potential radiological exposure to people following hypothetical mine water releases. The approaches described form the basis of best-practice protocols that are relevant at both regional and national levels

  5. Social and psychological aspects of communal hunting (pieli among residents of Tamale Metropolis in the Northern Region of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Adongo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The practice of communal hunting (also referred to as “mob” hunting has been the pastime of the people of the Northern Region of Ghana for as long as many may remember. It has recently come to the fore for all the wrong reasons primarily due to its perceived environmental impacts. While the generally held notion is that this form of hunting is essentially for the acquisition of meat, little has been done to establish other factors that continue to entice people to engage in this activity. Through a combination of participant observation and administration of structured interviews to hunters in the Tamale Metropolis, this paper brings out the social characteristics of participants, as well as the motivations for engaging in this activity. It is suggested that the practice should be modified to include the strict observance of hunting rules, issuance of licenses, and designation of areas for hunting. This could be the genesis of controlled recreational hunting in the region.

  6. Diversity patterns of ground beetles and understory vegetation in mature, secondary, and plantation forest regions of temperate northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yi; Sang, Weiguo; Wang, Shunzhong; Warren-Thomas, Eleanor; Liu, Yunhui; Yu, Zhenrong; Wang, Changliu; Axmacher, Jan Christoph

    2015-02-01

    Plantation and secondary forests form increasingly important components of the global forest cover, but our current knowledge about their potential contribution to biodiversity conservation is limited. We surveyed understory plant and carabid species assemblages at three distinct regions in temperate northeastern China, dominated by mature forest (Changbaishan Nature Reserve, sampled in 2011 and 2012), secondary forest (Dongling Mountain, sampled in 2011 and 2012), and forest plantation habitats (Bashang Plateau, sampled in 2006 and 2007), respectively. The α-diversity of both taxonomic groups was highest in plantation forests of the Bashang Plateau. Beetle α-diversity was lowest, but plant and beetle species turnover peaked in the secondary forests of Dongling Mountain, while habitats in the Changbaishan Nature Reserve showed the lowest turnover rates for both taxa. Changbaishan Nature Reserve harbored the highest proportion of forest specialists. Our results suggest that in temperate regions of northern China, the protected larch plantation forest established over extensive areas might play a considerable role in maintaining a high biodiversity in relation to understory herbaceous plant species and carabid assemblages, which can be seen as indicators of forest disturbance. The high proportion of phytophagous carabids and the rarity of forest specialists reflect the relatively homogenous, immature status of the forest ecosystems on the Bashang Plateau. China's last remaining large old-growth forests like the ones on Changbaishan represent stable, mature ecosystems which require particular conservation attention.

  7. Supportive Supervision: Meeting to Build Interdisciplinary Teams in the Northern Central Regional Office of the CEN CINAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgianella Araya-Alegría

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is the result of a participatory action research project aimed at providing a novel approach for the Northern Central Regional Office of the CEN CINAI [Education and Nutrition Centers (CEN and the Children’s Nutrition and Comprehensive Care Centers (CINAI] to build knowledge on an unfinished process: “Supportive Supervision” (supervisión capacitante.  Based on a naturalistic premise, we tried to answer a question that guided us in the group creation and transformation, switching our meetings from a vertical standpoint to a horizontal relationship providing accompaniment, support and construction, as well as analysis and reflection. The article shows the aspects that justified the development of the participative action research process under a methodological proposal that involves those of us who participated and contributed to build knowledge with our experience and from different locations within the Region.  A total of 29 professionals participated, willing to jointly meet a purpose: construct knowledge based on team work and on a process full of uncertainty that encourages us to constantly revise what has already been built and enables us to re-read and retake what has already been written and to systematize what could not be written before. In order words, to make this process a new way of developing knowledge that implies a more concrete standpoint to understand what “Supportive Supervision” is and how it is done, with the purpose of always looking for improvement within the National Directorate of CEN CINAI.

  8. Infection by Neospora caninum in dairy cattle belonging to family farmers in the northern region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vilas Boas

    Full Text Available Neosporosis is considered a major cause of abortion among cattle worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of anti-Neospora caninum antibodies in dairy cattle and correlate them with possible risk factors on 63 small farms (family farms in the municipality of Ji-Paraná, the main milk-producing region of the state of Rondônia, northern Brazil. For this purpose, 621 serum samples were collected from cows and were evaluated by means of the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT. The overall herd prevalence of N. caninum antibodies among the farms (38/63; 60.31% showed that N. caninum are widespread among the dairy herds in this region, despite only infecting a small proportion of animals (66/621, 10.62%. Occurrences of abortion and birth of weak calves were the only variables that showed as risk factors for the presence of N. caninum. The result from the spatial lag model strongly indicated that birth of weak calves and presence of N. caninum are occurring on farms that are located close to each other, indicating aggregation of disease occurrence.

  9. Reproductive biology of blood cockle Anadara granosa (Bivalvia: Arcidae) in the northern region of the Strait of Malacca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Munawar; Yasin, Zulfigar; Hwai, Tan Shau

    2017-03-01

    A study on the reproductive cycle of the blood cockle Anadara granosa (Bivalvia: Arcidae) was conducted at three different areas in the northern region of the Strait of Malacca. A total of 1,920 samples of adult A. granosa (38-71 mm length) were collected from June 2009 until September 2010. Qualitative techniques (gonadal microscopic fresh smear test and histology analysis) as well as quantitative techniques (analysis of condition index and gonadal index) were used to predict monthly gonadal development stages of A. granosa. The gonadal index of A. granosa from Banda Aceh (Indonesia) ( r = 0.469, P > 0.05) and Pulau Pinang (Malaysia) ( r = 0.123, P > 0.05) did not show any correlation to their condition index, whereas the gonadal index of A. granosa from Lhokseumawe (Indonesia) ( r = 0.609, P granosa reproduction was affected by interaction between internal physiological factors and indigenous environmental factors. In all sampling areas, phytoplankton density played a key role in the reproductive cycle in A. granosa. Information on the reproductive biology of this species is essential for species management and to improve the sustainability practices of the fisheries industry. These findings will provide basic information on the biology of the blood cockle A. granosa for stock management in the region.

  10. Restoration and winter avian use of isolated prairies in eastern Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Craig Rudolph; Dave E. Plair; Dan Jones; J. Howard Williamson; Clifford E. Shackelford; Richard R. Schaefer; Joshua B. Pierce

    2014-01-01

    Numerous isolated prairies exist, or existed, on the West Gulf Coastal Plain east of the main distribution of the prairie ecosystem. Changing land-use patterns and suppression of wildfire have destroyed almost all of these small prairie occurrences. Intensified restoration and management of degraded prairie habitat on the Sam Houston National Forest in southeastern...

  11. End-member river water composition in the acidified Adirondack Region, Northern New York, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R. Chiarenzelli

    2014-11-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Samples collected during average discharge volumes documented chemical gradients corresponding to bedrock spatial distribution. These trends were muted during both stormflow and baseflow, and imply that other factors influence water chemistry during high and low-flow events. Our study documents an example of event river chemistry responding less to extremes of flow or variation in underlying geology than anticipated. During the stormflow sampling one sample had elevated specific conductance (160.4 μS cm−1 and pH (8.21. This data, anomalous geochemistry, and images from Google Earth suggest that the river chemistry is sporadically impacted by discharge from a dolostone quarry located 6 km upstream during runoff events.

  12. Outbreak of type C botulism in birds and mammals in the Emilia Romagna region, northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defilippo, Francesco; Luppi, Andrea; Maioli, Giulia; Marzi, Dario; Fontana, Maria Cristina; Paoli, Federica; Bonilauri, Paolo; Dottori, Michele; Merialdi, Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    Over a 7-day period beginning 8 August 2011, a large number of wild birds of several species were found dead or with neurologic clinical signs along the shore of Crostolo stream, in the Emilia Romagna region, Italy. Twenty-eight Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), two Hooded Crows (Corvus corone cornix), and three coypus (Myocastor coypus) were found moribund on the Crostolo stream bank, collected, and sent to Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell'Emilia Romagna, Reggio Emilia Section. The cause of mortality was determined to be Clostridium botulinum type C toxin. The toxin was identified by a mouse bioassay for botulinum toxins and confirmed in bird sera and blowfly larvae (Lucilia caesar) collected from the stomachs of birds.

  13. Current state 137Cs contamination of cow milk in the northern regions of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levchuk, S.Je.; Lazarjev, M.M.; Pavlyuchenko, V.V.

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of the results of the selective monitoring of 137 Cs in cow milk in settlements, where values of the milk contamination have not met requirements of the permissible levels since the Chernobyl accident, was performed. Monitoring network, which was created at the institute, is covering the most critical settlements of Zhytomyr, Rivne and Volyn regions. The article presents data on radionuclide contamination of cow milk for the last 5 years (2011 - 2015), while observations are carried out since the 90th of the last century. Long - term data show that the current dynamics of contamination of cow milk in these settlements is comparable to the decrease of 137 Cs activity due to its physical decay

  14. The population structure of Vibrio cholerae from the Chandigarh Region of Northern India.

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    Moataz Abd El Ghany

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cholera infection continues to be a threat to global public health. The current cholera pandemic associated with Vibrio cholerae El Tor has now been ongoing for over half a century.Thirty-eight V. cholerae El Tor isolates associated with a cholera outbreak in 2009 from the Chandigarh region of India were characterised by a combination of microbiology, molecular typing and whole-genome sequencing. The genomic analysis indicated that two clones of V. cholera circulated in the region and caused disease during this time. These clones fell into two distinct sub-clades that map independently onto wave 3 of the phylogenetic tree of seventh pandemic V. cholerae El Tor. Sequence analyses of the cholera toxin gene, the Vibrio seventh Pandemic Island II (VSPII and SXT element correlated with this phylogenetic position of the two clades on the El Tor tree. The clade 2 isolates, characterized by a drug-resistant profile and the expression of a distinct cholera toxin, are closely related to the recent V. cholerae isolated elsewhere, including Haiti, but fell on a distinct branch of the tree, showing they were independent outbreaks. Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST distinguishes two sequence types among the 38 isolates, that did not correspond to the clades defined by whole-genome sequencing. Multi-Locus Variable-length tandem-nucleotide repeat Analysis (MLVA identified 16 distinct clusters.The use of whole-genome sequencing enabled the identification of two clones of V. cholerae that circulated during the 2009 Chandigarh outbreak. These clones harboured a similar structure of ICEVchHai1 but differed mainly in the structure of CTX phage and VSPII. The limited capacity of MLST and MLVA to discriminate between the clones that circulated in the 2009 Chandigarh outbreak highlights the value of whole-genome sequencing as a route to the identification of further genetic markers to subtype V. cholerae isolates.

  15. The Population Structure of Vibrio cholerae from the Chandigarh Region of Northern India

    KAUST Repository

    Abd El Ghany, Moataz

    2014-07-24

    Background:Cholera infection continues to be a threat to global public health. The current cholera pandemic associated with Vibrio cholerae El Tor has now been ongoing for over half a century.Methodology/Principal Findings:Thirty-eight V. cholerae El Tor isolates associated with a cholera outbreak in 2009 from the Chandigarh region of India were characterised by a combination of microbiology, molecular typing and whole-genome sequencing. The genomic analysis indicated that two clones of V. cholera circulated in the region and caused disease during this time. These clones fell into two distinct sub-clades that map independently onto wave 3 of the phylogenetic tree of seventh pandemic V. cholerae El Tor. Sequence analyses of the cholera toxin gene, the Vibrio seventh Pandemic Island II (VSPII) and SXT element correlated with this phylogenetic position of the two clades on the El Tor tree. The clade 2 isolates, characterized by a drug-resistant profile and the expression of a distinct cholera toxin, are closely related to the recent V. cholerae isolated elsewhere, including Haiti, but fell on a distinct branch of the tree, showing they were independent outbreaks. Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) distinguishes two sequence types among the 38 isolates, that did not correspond to the clades defined by whole-genome sequencing. Multi-Locus Variable-length tandem-nucleotide repeat Analysis (MLVA) identified 16 distinct clusters.Conclusions/Significance:The use of whole-genome sequencing enabled the identification of two clones of V. cholerae that circulated during the 2009 Chandigarh outbreak. These clones harboured a similar structure of ICEVchHai1 but differed mainly in the structure of CTX phage and VSPII. The limited capacity of MLST and MLVA to discriminate between the clones that circulated in the 2009 Chandigarh outbreak highlights the value of whole-genome sequencing as a route to the identification of further genetic markers to subtype V. cholerae isolates.

  16. Regional lead isotope study of a polluted river catchment: River Wear, Northern England, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, Thomas J.; Chenery, Simon R.N.; Pashley, Vanessa; Lord, Richard A.; Ander, Louise E.; Breward, Neil; Hobbs, Susan F.; Horstwood, Matthew; Klinck, Benjamin A.; Worrall, Fred

    2009-01-01

    High precision, lead isotope analyses of archived stream sediments from the River Wear catchment, northeast England (1986-88), provide evidence for three main sources of anthropogenic lead pollution; lead mining, industrial lead emissions and leaded petrol. In the upper catchment, pollution is totally controlled and dominated by large lead discharges from historic mining centres in the North Pennine Orefield ( 208 Pb/ 206 Pb, 207 Pb/ 206 Pb ratios range from 2.0744-2.0954 and 0.8413-0.8554 respectively). In the lower catchment, co-extensive with the Durham Coalfield and areas of high population density, pollution levels are lower and regionally more uniform. Isotope ratios are systematically higher than in the upper catchment ( 208 Pb/ 206 Pb, 207 Pb/ 206 Pb ratios range from 2.0856-2.1397 and 0.8554-0.8896 respectively) and far exceed values determined for the geogenic regional background. Here, the pollution is characterised by the atmospheric deposition of industrial lead and petrol lead. Lead derived from the combustion of coal, although present, is masked by the other two sources. Recent sediments from the main channel of the River Wear are isotopically indistinguishable from older, low order stream sediments of the North Pennine Orefield, indicating that contamination of the river by lead mining waste (up to several 1000 mg/kg Pb at some locations) continues to pose an environmental problem; a pattern that can be traced all the way to the tidal reach. Using within-catchment isotope variation and sediment lead concentrations, estimates can be made of the discharges from discrete mines or groups of mines to the overall level of lead pollution in the River Wear. As well as providing information pertinent to source apportionment and on-going catchment remediation measures, the database is a valuable resource for epidemiologists concerned with the health risks posed by environmental lead.

  17. An integrated multi-level watershed-reservoir modeling system for examining hydrological and biogeochemical processes in small prairie watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Huang, Guo H; Wang, Dunling; Zhang, Xiaodong; Li, Gongchen; An, Chunjiang; Cui, Zheng; Liao, Renfei; Nie, Xianghui

    2012-03-15

    protection in the prairie region. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Classification of Prairie basins by their hysteretic connected functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, K.; Pomeroy, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    Diagnosing climate change impacts in the post-glacial landscapes of the North American Prairies through hydrological modelling is made difficult by drainage basin physiography. The region is cold, dry and flat with poorly developed stream networks, and so the basin area that is hydrologically connected to the stream outlet varies with basin depressional storage. The connected area controls the contributing area for runoff reaching the stream outlet. As depressional storage fills, ponds spill from one to another; the chain of spilling ponds allows water to flow over the landscape and increases the connected area of the basin. As depressional storage decreases, the connected fraction drops dramatically. Detailed, fine-scale models and remote sensing have shown that the relationship between connected area and the depressional storage is hysteretic in Prairie basins and that the nature of hysteresis varies with basin physiography. This hysteresis needs to be represented in hydrological models to calculate contributing area, and therefore streamflow hydrographs. Parameterisations of the hysteresis are needed for large-scale models used for climate change diagnosis. However, use of parameterisations of hysteresis requires guidance on how to represent them for a particular basin. This study shows that it is possible to relate the shape of hysteretic functions as determined by detailed models to the overall physiography of the basin, such as the fraction of the basin below the outlet, and remote sensing estimates of depressional storage, using the size distribution and location of maximum ponded water areas. By classifying basin physiography, the hysteresis of connected area - storage relationships can be estimated for basins that do not have high-resolution topographic data, and without computationally-expensive high-resolution modelling.

  19. The intraplate Maranhão earthquake of 2017 January 3, northern Brazil: evidence for uniform regional stresses along the Brazilian equatorial margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Fábio L.; Assumpção, M.; Bianchi, Marcelo B.; Barros, Lucas V.; Carvalho, Juraci M.

    2018-04-01

    Lithospheric stresses in intraplate regions can be characterized by many different wavelengths. In some areas, stresses vary over short distances of less than ˜100 km, but in other regions uniform stresses can be recognized for more than ˜1000 km or so. However, not all intraplate regions are well sampled with stress measurements to allow a good characterization of the lithospheric stresses. On 2017 January 3, a magnitude mb 4 earthquake occurred near the equatorial coast of the Maranhão State, an aseismic area of northern Brazil. Despite the few permanent stations in northern Brazil, a well-constrained strike-slip mechanism was obtained from regional moment-tensor inversion. A detailed analysis of the backazimuths of aftershocks recorded by the closest station (˜40 km away) allowed the identification of the fault plane to be the NNW-SSE trending nodal plane. An estimate of the rupture length, about 2 km, was also possible. The strike-slip mechanism has coast-parallel P axis and coast-perpendicular T axis, in agreement with most of the focal mechanisms found further to the east. The coast parallel P axis is also similar to the SHmax orientations from breakouts measurements further along the coast. The Maranhão earthquake fills an important gap of stress indicators in northern Brazil and suggests that the intraplate stress field is uniform along the 2000 km long northern coast.

  20. Epidemiology of Extended-Spectrum beta-Lactamase-Producing E-coli and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in the Northern Dutch-German Cross-Border Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Xuewei; Garcia-Cobos, Silvia; Ruijs, Gijs J. H. M.; Kampinga, Greetje A.; Arends, Jan P.; Borst, Dirk M.; Moller, Lieke V.; Holman, Nicole D.; Schuurs, Theo A.; van Coppenraet, Lesla E. Bruijnesteijn; Weel, Jan F.; van Zeijl, Jan H.; Koeck, Robin; Rossen, John W. A.; Friedrich, Alexander W.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To reveal the prevalence and epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and/or plasmid AmpC (pAmpC)- and carbapenemase (CP) producing Enterobacteriaceae and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) across the Northern Dutch-German border region. Methods: A point-prevalence study

  1. Sexual fidelity trade-offs promote regulatory variation in the prairie vole brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okhovat, Mariam; Berrio, Alejandro; Wallace, Gerard; Ophir, Alexander G; Phelps, Steven M

    2015-12-11

    Individual variation in social behavior seems ubiquitous, but we know little about how it relates to brain diversity. Among monogamous prairie voles, levels of vasopressin receptor (encoded by the gene avpr1a) in brain regions related to spatial memory predict male space use and sexual fidelity in the field. We find that trade-offs between the benefits of male fidelity and infidelity are reflected in patterns of territorial intrusion, offspring paternity, avpr1a expression, and the evolutionary fitness of alternative avpr1a alleles. DNA variation at the avpr1a locus includes polymorphisms that reliably predict the epigenetic status and neural expression of avpr1a, and patterns of DNA diversity demonstrate that avpr1a regulatory variation has been favored by selection. In prairie voles, trade-offs in the fitness consequences of social behaviors seem to promote neuronal and molecular diversity. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Development and Evaluation of Microsatellite Markers for a Native Prairie Perennial, Echinacea angustifolia (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Ison

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci for the native prairie perennial Echinacea angustifolia were developed and evaluated for future use in population structure and paternity studies. Methods and Results: A total of 50 trinucleotide microsatellite regions were identified though an enrichment protocol that prescreens for microsatellite repeats before ligating into a vector. Of these, 11 loci were polymorphic and in Hardy—Weinberg equilibrium in three populations with varying numbers of plants. The loci had between three and 14 alleles and collectively provided high paternity exclusion probabilities. Conclusions: These sets of microsatellite primers will provide researchers and land managers with valuable information on the population genetic structure and gene flow between fragmented prairie populations.

  3. Prairie Monitoring Protocol Development: North Coast and Cascades Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Allen; Dalby, Craig

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to conduct research that will guide development of a standard approach to monitoring several components of prairies within the North Coast and Cascades Network (NCCN) parks. Prairies are an important element of the natural environment at many parks, including San Juan Island National Historical Park (NHP) and Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve (NHR). Forests have been encroaching on these prairies for many years, and so monitoring of the prairies is an important resource issue. This project specifically focused on San Juan Island NHP. Prairies at Ebey's Landing NHR will be monitored in the future, but that park was not mapped as part of this prototype project. In the interest of efficiency, the Network decided to investigate two main issues before launching a full protocol development effort: (1) the imagery requirements for monitoring prairie components, and (2) the effectiveness of software to assist in extracting features from the imagery. Several components of prairie monitoring were initially identified as being easily tracked using aerial imagery. These components included prairie/forest edge, broad prairie composition (for example, shrubs, scattered trees), and internal exclusions (for example, shrubs, bare ground). In addition, we believed that it might be possible to distinguish different grasses in the prairies if the imagery were of high enough resolution. Although the areas in question at San Juan Island NHP are small enough that mapping on the ground with GPS (Global Positioning System) would be feasible, other applications could benefit from aerial image acquisition on a regular, recurring basis and thereby make the investment in aerial imagery worthwhile. The additional expense of orthorectifying the imagery also was determined to be cost-effective.

  4. Picos de Europa National and Regional parks (Northern Spain): the karst underground landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Daniel; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Laura; José Domínguez-Cuesta, María; Meléndez-Asensio, Mónica; García-Sansegundo, Joaquín

    2015-04-01

    Karst caves represent an environmental with a high value from the Geoheritage and Geodiversity points of view given by hidden underground landscape practically reserved to the speleologists. Nevertheless, cave surveys, 3d models of caves and DEMs, and pictures can be used to approach the endokarst geoheritage characterization. The Picos de Europa National and Regional parks include the 14% of World's Deepest Caves (>1 km depth); moreover these parks shows a high environmental value related with seven protection figures: Biosphere Reserve, Special Protection Area, the Site of Community Importance, and four Natural Monument. The aim of this work is to present the Geoheritage values of the underground landscape of the Picos de Europa National and Regional parks. These parks involve several alpine karst massifs up to 700 km2 and 2,600 m asl, as the Picos de Europa mountains (declared Global Geosite by its geomorphological interest), the Mampodre Massif, and the Peñas Pintas and Yordas peaks (sited in Riaño dam area). The alpine karst involves a large underground landscape formed by more than 3,700 epigenic caves with 403 km of conduits. The 95 % of the cave conduits are located in the Picos de Europa mountains and correspond to caves up to 18.9 km length and 1.6 km depth; the 5 % of cave conduits are sited in other small karst areas and include caves up to 1.5 km length and 200 m depth. The karst caves present high natural, scientific and cultural values. The natural value corresponds to the singularity and the spectacular vertical development of the caves and a very high Geodiversity of cave features. The karst shows a high concentration of deep caves (81 caves deeper than 500 m) that is twice higher than the concentration of other karst areas, as Arabika Massif (Western Caucasus). The natural value is mainly related to the presence of geomorphological and hydrogeological features, highlighting high vadose canyons and shafts, old phreatic and epiphreatic conduits

  5. Population differences in host immune factors may influence survival of Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys Gunnisoni) during plague outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Joseph D.; Van Andel, Roger; Cordova, Jennifer; Colman, Rebecca E.; Keim, Paul; Rocke, Tonie E.; Leid, Jeff G.; Van Pelt, William E.; Wagner, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 40 yr, epizootics of plague (Yersinia pestis) in northern Arizona have reduced populations of the Gunnison’s prairie dog (Cynomys gunnisoni), with the exception of a large population found in the Aubrey Valley (AV). To examine potential mechanisms accounting for their survival, we collected prairie dog serum samples in 2005–2006 from AV and a neighboring population near Seligman (SE), Arizona. We quantified gene expression at 58 diverse immune proteins using a multiplexed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay panel. We found a subset of proteins important in coagulation and inflammation (tissue factor [TF], calbindin [Cal], and thrombopoietin [TPO]) and T-cell responses (CD40L and CD40) that were present in AV at levels two to eight times greater than SE. These results suggest that AV and SE animals might differ in their ability to mount an immune response.

  6. A Comparison of the Crustal Deformation Predicted by Glacial Isostatic Adjustment to Seismicity in the Baffin Region of Northern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, T. S.; Schamehorn, T.; Bent, A. L.; Allen, T. I.; Mulder, T.; Simon, K.

    2016-12-01

    The horizontal crustal strain-rates induced by glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) in northern Canada and western Greenland region are compared to the spatial pattern of seismicity. For the comparison, an updated seismicity catalogue was created from the 2010 version of the NRCan Seismic Hazard Earthquake Epicentre File (SHEEF2010) catalogue and the Greenland Ice Sheet Monitoring Network (GLISN) catalogue of the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS). Crustal motion rates were computed with the Innu/Laur16 ice-sheet history and the VM5a viscosity profile (Simon et al., 2015; 2016). This GIA model optimizes the fit to relative sea-level and vertical crustal motion measurements around Hudson Bay and in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA). A region in Baffin Bay with historically high seismicity, including the 1933 M 7.4 and the 1934 and 1945 M 6.5 earthquakes, features high predicted GIA strain-rates. Elsewhere, agreement is not strong, with zones of seismicity occurring where predicted horizontal crustal strain-rates are small and large crustal strain-rates predicted where earthquake occurrence is muted. For example, large compressional crustal strain-rates are predicted beneath seismically quiescent portions of the Greenland ice sheet. Similarly, large predicted extensional strain-rates occur around southern Hudson Bay and the Foxe Basin, which are also regions of relative seismic quiescence. Additional factors to be considered include the orientation of the background stress field, relative to the predicted stress changes, and potential pre-existing zones of lithospheric weakness.

  7. Ecological studies on the freshwater fishes of the Alligator Rivers region, Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, K.A.; Allen, S.A.; Pollard, D.A.; Cook, M.G.

    1990-01-01

    The tropical climate of the Alligator Rivers Region (ARR) has a distinctive wet-dry cycle , resulting in seasonal flows in the creeks and rivers of its catchments. The present study, begun in August 1978, was aimed at developing an ecological monitoring system that would detect any changes to the freshwater fish communities brought about by recent uranium mining and processing in the lowlands of the ARR. The focus of the synecological studies, was a description of spatial and temporal patterns in the community structure of the fish fauna. Interpretation of these patterns was made possible by the collection of detailed environmental data from the study sites. It was found that of the ARR seasonal changes in environmental conditions were so marked that they often obscured the effects of environmental gradients along a watercourse and differing environmental conditions characteristics of different types of waterbody. Hence it may not be entirely satisfactory to define environmental zones in these catchments based on overall environmental conditions through the whole seasonal cycle, because changes in any one such zone between seasons result in very marked changes in the fish communities of habitats in that zone. 34 refs., 22 tabs., 45 figs., 3 maps

  8. Micro- and Mesozooplankton Distribution Related to an Upwelling Filament in the Northern Benguela Current Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppelmann, R.; Bohata, K.

    2016-02-01

    Upwelling filaments are formations of cold upwelled water which develop near the coast and extend up to hundreds of kilometers offshore. They are important for the dynamics of upwelling systems as they transport nutrients and plankton to the open ocean. On regional scales, the transport of water masses by upwelling filaments occasionally can be higher and more important than the Ekman transport. Such filaments are able to transport a large fraction of coastal primary production even during low upwelling intensity. However, the dimension and nature of transported organic matter depends largely on the size structure of the involved plankton community. In the course of the GENUS project (Geochemistry and Ecology of the Namibian Upwelling System), we investigated the micro- and mesozooplankton community associated with upwelling filaments. Small-scale differences in the distribution of micro- and mesozooplankton species were detected and related to different water masses. Depending on the developmental stage of the filament, zooplankton abundance can be higher or lower than in the surrounding offshore waters. Along the filament, the microzooplankton composition changed from ciliates-dominated in the in the centre of the filament to dinoflagellate-dominated further offshore. Several mechanisms like the exhaustion of available nutrients and the subsequent die off and sinking of the community or increased predation pressure within the filament are discussed to enlighten the fate of the transported organic material.

  9. Genetic Structure and Demographic History Reveal Migration of the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) from the Southern to Northern Regions of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shu-Jun; Shi, Bao-Cai; Gong, Ya-Jun; Jin, Gui-Hua; Chen, Xue-Xin; Meng, Xiang-Feng

    2013-01-01

    The diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) is one of the most destructive insect pests of cruciferous plants worldwide. Biological, ecological and genetic studies have indicated that this moth is migratory in many regions around the world. Although outbreaks of this pest occur annually in China and cause heavy damage, little is known concerning its migration. To better understand its migration pattern, we investigated the population genetic structure and demographic history of the diamondback moth by analyzing 27 geographical populations across China using four mitochondrial genes and nine microsatellite loci. The results showed that high haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity occurred in the diamondback moth populations, a finding that is typical for migratory species. No genetic differentiation among all populations and no correlation between genetic and geographical distance were found. However, pairwise analysis of the mitochondrial genes has indicated that populations from the southern region were more differentiated than those from the northern region. Gene flow analysis revealed that the effective number of migrants per generation into populations of the northern region is very high, whereas that into populations of the southern region is quite low. Neutrality testing, mismatch distribution and Bayesian Skyline Plot analyses based on mitochondrial genes all revealed that deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and sudden expansion of the effective population size were present in populations from the northern region but not in those from the southern region. In conclusion, all our analyses strongly demonstrated that the diamondback moth migrates within China from the southern to northern regions with rare effective migration in the reverse direction. Our research provides a successful example of using population genetic approaches to resolve the seasonal migration of insects. PMID:23565158

  10. Goiter Survey among School Children (6–12 Years in Northern Himalayan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Muhammad Salim Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deficiency of iodine results in impairment of thyroid hormone synthesis and abnormalities grouped under the heading of “iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs.” Goiter surveys are conducted to estimate the region's iodine status. In view of this, we conducted this goiter survey among school-going children of district Baramulla, Kashmir division, to see the prevalence of IDD. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 6–12 years children in district Baramulla during the month of March and April 2017. The sample size of 2700 was calculated. The assessment of goiter was performed clinically by inspection and palpation of the thyroid gland. Results: In this study, we studied a total of 2700 school children in the age group of 6–12 years from district Baramulla with a mean age of 9 ± 1.86 years. 50.07% were boys. The age distribution prevalence of goiter among school children (6–12 years in district Baramulla was observed to be 15.29%. The prevalence of Grade 1 goiter was more than twentyfold higher than Grade 2 goiter. The highest prevalence of Grade 1 and 2 goiter was seen among school children of 12 years age (25.19% and 1.81%, respectively. Females have higher prevalence of Grade 1 and Grade 2 goiter (17.58%. The relationship of goiter prevalence with gender and age was statistically significant. Conclusion: The present study showed mild goiter prevalence in school-aged children of 6–12 years in the district Baramulla of Kashmir valley. There is a dire need of periodic surveys to assess the magnitude of the IDD in the future.

  11. Oxytocin reduces alcohol consumption in prairie voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, J R; Wenner, S M; Freestone, D M; Romaine, C C; Parian, M C; Christian, S M; Bohidar, A E; Ndem, J R; Vogel, I R; O'Kane, C M

    2017-10-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) negatively affects millions of people every year in the United States, and effective treatments for AUD are still needed. The neuropeptide oxytocin has shown promise for reducing alcohol drinking in mice and rats. Because oxytocin also plays a key role in complex prosocial behaviors like bonding and attachment, we tested the effect of oxytocin on alcohol drinking in prairie voles, a species that both consumes high amounts of alcohol and forms oxytocin dependent social bonds in a manner similar to humans. Oxytocin treatment (1.0, 3.0, and 10.0mg/kg, i.p.) reduced alcohol consumption in male and female prairie voles in animals that had access to 15% ethanol vs water every other day for 12 alcohol drinking sessions. In animals with continuous access to 15% alcohol and water, oxytocin (3.0mg/kg) reduced alcohol consumption only in the first hour of access after treatment, with no significant effects on consumption over the 24-hr period. In an open field locomotor test, oxytocin (1.0, 3.0, and 10.0mg/kg, i.p.) did not affect overall locomotor activity; however, ethanol (2g/kg, i.p.) increased locomotor activity in males and females, and produced anxiolytic effects (increased time in the center of an open field) in females only. Because prairie voles have been shown to match the alcohol consumption of their cage mate, we evaluated the relationship between cage mates' alcohol drinking. There was an overall pattern of social facilitation (consumption by one cage mate predicted consumption by the other cage mate); however, we found significant individual differences across cages in which many cages did not show significant matching, and, in some cases one cage mate's consumption negatively predicted the other cage mate's consumption. Overall, our data provide support for the potential of oxytocin as a treatment to reduce alcohol consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hydrological Modeling in Northern Tunisia with Regional Climate Model Outputs: Performance Evaluation and Bias-Correction in Present Climate Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Foughali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to evaluate the performance of a hydrological balance model in a watershed located in northern Tunisia (wadi Sejnane, 378 km2 in present climate conditions using input variables provided by four regional climate models. A modified version (MBBH of the lumped and single layer surface model BBH (Bucket with Bottom Hole model, in which pedo-transfer parameters estimated using watershed physiographic characteristics are introduced is adopted to simulate the water balance components. Only two parameters representing respectively the water retention capacity of the soil and the vegetation resistance to evapotranspiration are calibrated using rainfall-runoff data. The evaluation criterions for the MBBH model calibration are: relative bias, mean square error and the ratio of mean actual evapotranspiration to mean potential evapotranspiration. Daily air temperature, rainfall and runoff observations are available from 1960 to 1984. The period 1960–1971 is selected for calibration while the period 1972–1984 is chosen for validation. Air temperature and precipitation series are provided by four regional climate models (DMI, ARP, SMH and ICT from the European program ENSEMBLES, forced by two global climate models (GCM: ECHAM and ARPEGE. The regional climate model outputs (precipitation and air temperature are compared to the observations in terms of statistical distribution. The analysis was performed at the seasonal scale for precipitation. We found out that RCM precipitation must be corrected before being introduced as MBBH inputs. Thus, a non-parametric quantile-quantile bias correction method together with a dry day correction is employed. Finally, simulated runoff generated using corrected precipitation from the regional climate model SMH is found the most acceptable by comparison with runoff simulated using observed precipitation data, to reproduce the temporal variability of mean monthly runoff. The SMH model is the most accurate to

  13. Molecular and biochemical responses of hypoxia exposure in Atlantic croaker collected from hypoxic regions in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Saydur; Thomas, Peter

    2017-01-01

    A major impact of global climate change has been the marked increase worldwide in the incidence of coastal hypoxia (dissolved oxygen, DOhypoxic waters as well as their molecular and physiological responses to environmental hypoxia exposure are largely unknown. A suite of potential hypoxia exposure biomarkers was evaluated in Atlantic croaker collected from hypoxic and normoxic regions in the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM), and in croaker after laboratory exposure to hypoxia (DO: 1.7 mg l-1). Expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-α, hif-α; neuronal nitric oxide synthase, nNOS; and insulin-like growth factor binding protein, igfbp mRNAs and protein carbonyl (PC, an oxidative stress indicator) content were elevated several-fold in brain and liver tissues of croaker collected from nGOM hypoxic sites. All of these molecular and biochemical biomarkers were also upregulated ~3-10-fold in croaker brain and liver tissues within 1-2 days of hypoxia exposure in controlled laboratory experiments. These results suggest that hif-αs, nNOS and igfbp-1 transcripts and PC contents are useful biomarkers of environmental hypoxia exposure and some of its physiological effects, making them important components for improved assessments of long-term impacts of environmental hypoxia on fish populations.

  14. Nutritional and Hygienic Quality of Raw Milk in the Mid-Northern Region of Algeria: Correlations and Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumeya Adjlane-Kaouche

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the overall quality of raw milk in the mid-northern region of Algeria. The analysis results showed a decrease in the average temperature for the delivery of 1,54°C with P0.05 was observed in almost all the physical and nutritional parameters studied (pH, fat content, and protein content between M1 and M2. The average contamination by total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TMAB, coliforms, yeasts, molds, and different pathogens in samples taken at M1 showed significant changes at M2. This was confirmed by the decrease of reduction time of methylene blue (RTMB, about 54%. The variation was described as follows: (P>0.05 for yeasts and (P<0.05 for molds in M1 and M2, (P<0.05 for TMAB in M1, and (P<0.001 for TC, FC, and TMAB in M2. The analysis for the detection of Salmonella spp. showed no contamination in all samples tested, while antibiotic residues were detected in 35% of milks delivered. In conclusion, several risk factors have been identified in this study, namely, the effect of the season and the distance between the farm and the dairy unit.

  15. Poverty targeting and income impact of subsidised credit on accessed households in the Northern Mountainous Region of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Xuan Luan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the data of 1338 rural households in the Northern Mountainous Region of Vietnam to examine the extent to which subsidised credit targets the poor and its impacts. Principal Component Analysis and Propensity Score Matching were used to evaluate the depth of outreach and the income impact of credit. To address the problem of model uncertainty, the approach of Bayesian Model Average applied to the probit model was used. Results showed that subsidised credit successfully targeted the poor households with 24.10% and 69.20% of clients falling into the poorest group and the three bottom groups respectively. Moreover, those who received subsidised credit make up 83% of ethnic minority households. These results indicate that governmental subsidies are necessary to reach the poor and low income households, who need capital but are normally bypassed by commercial banks. Analyses also showed that ethnicity and age of household heads, number of helpers, savings, as well as how affected households are by shocks were all factors that further explained the probability at which subsidised credit has been assessed. Furthermore, recipients obtained a 2.61% higher total income and a 5.93% higher farm income compared to non-recipients. However, these small magnitudes of effects are statistically insignificant at a 5% level. Although the subsidised credit is insufficient to significantly improve the income of the poor households, it possibly prevents these households of becoming even poorer.

  16. Satellite observations of high northern latitude vegetation productivity changes between 1982 and 2008: ecological variability and regional differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Pieter S A; Goetz, Scott J, E-mail: pbeck@whrc.org [Woods Hole Research Center, 149 Woods Hole Road, Falmouth, MA 02540 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    To assess ongoing changes in high latitude vegetation productivity we compared spatiotemporal patterns in remotely sensed vegetation productivity in the tundra and boreal zones of North America and Eurasia. We compared the long-term GIMMS (Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies) NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) to the more recent and advanced MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) NDVI data set, and mapped circumpolar trends in a gross productivity metric derived from the former. We then analyzed how temporal changes in productivity differed along an evergreen-deciduous gradient in boreal Alaska, along a shrub cover gradient in Arctic Alaska, and during succession after fire in boreal North America and northern Eurasia. We find that the earlier reported contrast between trends of increasing tundra and decreasing boreal forest productivity has amplified in recent years, particularly in North America. Decreases in boreal forest productivity are most prominent in areas of denser tree cover and, particularly in Alaska, evergreen forest stands. On the North Slope of Alaska, however, increases in tundra productivity do not appear restricted to areas of higher shrub cover, which suggests enhanced productivity across functional vegetation types. Differences in the recovery of post-disturbance vegetation productivity between North America and Eurasia are described using burn chronosequences, and the potential factors driving regional differences are discussed.

  17. Satellite observations of high northern latitude vegetation productivity changes between 1982 and 2008: ecological variability and regional differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Pieter S A; Goetz, Scott J

    2011-01-01

    To assess ongoing changes in high latitude vegetation productivity we compared spatiotemporal patterns in remotely sensed vegetation productivity in the tundra and boreal zones of North America and Eurasia. We compared the long-term GIMMS (Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies) NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) to the more recent and advanced MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) NDVI data set, and mapped circumpolar trends in a gross productivity metric derived from the former. We then analyzed how temporal changes in productivity differed along an evergreen-deciduous gradient in boreal Alaska, along a shrub cover gradient in Arctic Alaska, and during succession after fire in boreal North America and northern Eurasia. We find that the earlier reported contrast between trends of increasing tundra and decreasing boreal forest productivity has amplified in recent years, particularly in North America. Decreases in boreal forest productivity are most prominent in areas of denser tree cover and, particularly in Alaska, evergreen forest stands. On the North Slope of Alaska, however, increases in tundra productivity do not appear restricted to areas of higher shrub cover, which suggests enhanced productivity across functional vegetation types. Differences in the recovery of post-disturbance vegetation productivity between North America and Eurasia are described using burn chronosequences, and the potential factors driving regional differences are discussed.

  18. Assessment of Soil Water Composition in the Northern Taiga Coniferous Forests of Background Territories in the Industrially Developed Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukina, N. V.; Ershov, V. V.; Gorbacheva, T. T.; Orlova, M. A.; Isaeva, L. G.; Teben'kova, D. N.

    2018-03-01

    The composition of soil water under coniferous forests of Murmansk oblast—an industrially developed region of northern Russia—was investigated. The studied objects were dwarf-shrub-green-moss spruce forests and dwarf-shrub-lichen pine forests on Al-Fe-humus podzols ( Albic Rustic Podzols) that are widespread in the boreal zone. The concentrations and removal of organic carbon performing the most important biogeochemical and pedogenic functions were estimated. The results proved significant intra- and inter-biogeocenotic variability in the composition of atmospheric depositions and soil water. Carbon removal with soil water from organic and mineral horizons within elementary biogeoareas (EBGA) under tree crowns was 2-5 and 2-3 times (in some cases, up to 10 times) greater than that in the intercrown areas, respectively. The lowest critical level of mineral nitrogen (0.2 mg/L) was, as a rule, exceeded in tree EBGAs contrary to intercrown areas. Concentrations of sulfates and heavy metals in water of tree EBGA were 3-5 times greater than those in inter-crown areas. Significant inter-biogeocenotic variations related to differences in the height of trees and tree stand density were found. It is argued that adequate characterization of biochemical cycles and assessment of critical levels of components in soil water of forest ecosystems should be performed with due account for the intra- and inter-biogeocenotic variability.

  19. Women's preferences and received pain relief in childbirth - A prospective longitudinal study in a northern region of Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, Annika; Hildingsson, Ingegerd

    2015-06-01

    A range of alternatives in pain management during childbirth are available in the western countries. Women's preferences for and use of pain relief methods during labour is not fully investigated. The aim of this study was to describe what pain relief methods pregnant women preferred when asked in late pregnancy and to identify factors associated with preferred and received pain relief methods. A prospective longitudinal study in a northern region of Sweden (n = 936). Data were collected by three questionnaires. Odds ratios with a 95% confidence interval were calculated between preferred and received pain relief methods for several explanatory variables. The most preferred pain relief methods were also the most common received pain relief methods; nitrous oxide, bathing, breathing techniques, epidural analgesia and massage. The strongest factors for using different pain relief methods were primiparity and preferences. Women who used epidural analgesia, regardless of preference, were two to four times more likely to have a less positive birth experience. Women's preferences for a certain pain relief method were largely met. Greater differences were seen between background factors and preferences than the received pain relief methods. Preferences and primiparity were the most important factors for actually using pain relief. Epidural analgesia was associated with a less positive birth experience. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydrogeochemical and isotopic studies of groundwater in the middle voltaian aquifers of the Gushegu district of the Northern region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salifu, Musah; Yidana, Sandow Mark; Anim-Gyampo, Maxwell; Appenteng, Michael; Saka, David; Aidoo, Felix; Gampson, Enoch; Sarfo, Mark

    2017-06-01

    This work is to establish the hydrochemistry and origin of groundwater in some parts of the Gushegu district of the Northern Region of Ghana. Hydrochemical data from 19 groundwater and 7 rock samples have been used to evaluate water quality, water types, and sources of various ions as well as origin of the groundwater. The study results show that the quality of groundwater from the area is generally not good due to their fluoride (F-), bicarbonate (HCO3 -) and electrical conductivity (EC) concentrations. The F- contents of the groundwater have values as high as 1.97 mg/L, with 53 % of the groundwater having concentrations of F- exceeding the WHO recommended allowable limits. These high F- values have the potential of causing serious health problems such as kidney failure, dental and skeletal fluorosis, reproductive problem and reduction in intelligent quotient of consumers. A plot of Gibbs diagram reveals that rock weathering and precipitation are the major hydrogeochemical processes regulating the water chemistry of the study area. Petrographic thin-section analyses of rock samples identify minerals present to be muscovite, plagioclase feldspars, quartz, sericite and iron oxide. Stable isotope (18O and 2H) composition of the waters reveals that most of the groundwater is likely to be recharged from local precipitation, indicating their meteoric origin. Some samples, however, showed considerable evaporation.

  1. EXAMINATION OF THE SOLVENCY OF ENTERPRISES DEALING WITH ACCOMMODATION SERVICE PROVIDING IN THE NORTHERN GREAT PLAIN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika FENYVES

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important characteristics of tourism, as an economic and social phenomenon is that it has become a leading sector of the Hungarian economy. The importance of this sector is faithfully reflected by the fact that tourism gives nearly 9% of the GDP. Of course, aim of the enterprises of this type is the liquidity as well i.e. to maintain the short-term solvency that is essential for the long-term successful and smooth operation. The other aim of enterprises is to be solvent for the long-term as well, furthermore, to increase the corporate value and to maximize the ownership value. In our treatise, we have carried out the financial analysis and bankruptcy prediction of those enterprises providing accommodation service which are the biggest from the point of view of employment in the Northern Great Plain region. We think that, due to seasonality, even greater emphasis shall be placed on this area where useful information can be obtained from and the results of bankruptcy model can also provide further useful information and ”problem alerts”.

  2. IN VITRO EFFICACY OF COMMERCIAL ACARICIDES INDICATE RESISTANT POPULATIONS OF RHIPICEPHALUS (BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS IN NORTHERN REGION OF MATO GROSSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Eckstein

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are responsible for high economic and production losses on cattle production, and the use of acaricides is the main form of control applied. In recent decades, the resistance of ticks to acaricides was exacerbated by incorrect use of products, compromising the effectiveness of treatments. This study aimed to determine in vitro effectiveness of commercial acaricides in six populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in northern region of Mato Grosso. On average 100 engorged females were collected from each herd, which were selected and separated into homogeneous groups, sanitized, and immersed to acaricide diluted according to the manufacturer's statement, on sequence there was incubated. After the incubation was obtained from female reproductive efficiency and effectiveness of the tested acaricides. The association cypermethrin+ chlorpyrifos + citronellal showed satisfactory efficiency (> 95% in all the properties (mean 99.86% in properties, followed by trichlorfon (83.45%, amitraz (72.33%, neem oil (67.23% and cypermethrin (22.97%, which was not effective in any property. It indicates the use of the association cypermethrin +chlorpyrifos+ citronellal on evaluated properties for control of cattle tick effectively.

  3. Predicting Factors for Retailers' Sale of Cigarettes to Adolescents in the Lower Part of Northern Region of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phetphum, Chakkraphan; Wangwonsin, Artittaya; Noosorn, Narongsak

    2017-08-14

    Thailand is one of the members of WHO FCTC and has paid so much attention to preventing adolescents' access to tobacco. However, Thai adolescents still have access to tobacco with ease. The aim of this research was to investigate the predicting factors for the cigarettes sale to adolescents by the retailers in Thailand. A cross-sectional study. This cross sectional survey was conducted after a careful desk review of the relevant literature. Multistage random sampling technique was used to sample the survey participants (n = 675) who were retailers of tobacco in the lower northern region of Thailand. Data were collected by validated questionnaires and analyzed by descriptive analytic, chi-square test and binary logistic regression. More than half (58.7%) of the participants sell cigarettes to adolescents. Factors such as open display of cigarette at the point of sale, selling cigarettes in sticks, selling cigarettes by self-service, and reluctant disregard of buyers' age by the seller significantly correlated with and predicted, at 95% level of confidence, the behavior of retailers selling cigarettes to adolescents. Thai adolescent's access to tobacco continues to be a serious public health problem. Therefore, the Ministry of Public Health and other relevant stakeholders saddled with the responsibility of interventions to scale up measures that would reinforce the law of Tobacco Control Act.

  4. Achievements and suggestions of heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit for existing residential buildings in northern heating regions of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Ding; Zhe Tian; Yong Wu; Neng Zhu

    2011-01-01

    In order to promote energy efficiency and emission reduction, the importance of improving building energy efficiency received sufficient attention from Chinese Government. The heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit for existing residential buildings of 0.15 billion m 2 in northern heating regions of China was initiated in 2007 and completed successfully at the end of 2010. This article introduced the background and outline of the retrofit project during the period of 11th five-year plan. Numerous achievements that received by retrofit such as environmental protection effect, improvement of indoor environment, improvement of heating system, investment guidance effect, promotion of relevant industries and increasing chances of employment were concluded. Valuable experience that acquired from the retrofit project during the period of 11th five-year plan was also summarized in this article. By analyzing the main problems emerged in the past, pertinent suggestions were put forward to promote a larger scale and more efficient retrofit project in the period of 12th five-year plan. - Highlights: →Successful implementation of a retrofit project in China is introduced. → Significance of the project contributing to emission reduction is analyzed. →Achievements are summarized and future suggestions are put forward.

  5. A Systematic Regional Trend in Helium Isotopes Across the NorthernBasin and Range Province, Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, B. Mack; van Soest, Matthijs C.

    2005-03-22

    An extensive study of helium isotopes in fluids collectedfrom surface springs, fumaroles and wells across the northern Basin andRange Province reveals a systematic trend of decreasing 3He/4He ratiosfrom west to east. The western margin of the Basin and Range ischaracterized by mantle-like ratios (6-8 Ra) associated with active orrecently active crustal magma systems (e.g. Coso, Long Valley, Steamboat,and the Cascade volcanic complex). Moving towards the east, the ratiosdecline systematically to a background value of ~;0.1 Ra. The regionaltrend is consistent with extensive mantle melting concentrated along thewestern margin and is coincident with an east-to-west increase in themagnitude of northwest strain. The increase in shear strain enhancescrustal permeability resulting in high vertical fluid flow rates thatpreserve the high helium isotope ratios at the surface. Superimposed onthe regional trend are "helium spikes", local anomalies in the heliumisotope composition. These "spikes" reflect either local zones of mantlemelting or locally enhanced crustal permeability. In the case of theDixie Valley hydrothermal system, it appears to be a combination ofboth.

  6. Moving the boundaries of forest and land use history - the case of Upper East Region in northern Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wardell, David Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Africa; Northern Territories of the Gold Coast Colony; colonial history; environmental history; land cover and land use change; migration and the opportunity structure......Africa; Northern Territories of the Gold Coast Colony; colonial history; environmental history; land cover and land use change; migration and the opportunity structure...

  7. Regional evaluation of particulate matter composition in an Atlantic coastal area (Cantabria region, northern Spain): Spatial variations in different urban and rural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruti, A.; Fernández-Olmo, I.; Irabien, A.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the major components (Na, Ca, K, Mg, Fe, Al, NH 4+, SO 42-, NO 3-, Cl - and TC) and trace-metal levels (As, Ni, Cd, Pb, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Mo, Rh and Hg) in PM 10 and PM 2.5 at an Atlantic coastal city (Santander, Cantabria region, Northern Spain). Additional samples were collected in other urban sites of the Cantabria region to assess the metal content found in different urban environments within the region. To control for the mass attributed to inland regional background particulate matter, samples were also collected in Los Tojos village. The spatial variability of the major PM components shows that PM origins are different at inland and coastal sites. In the coastal city of Santander, the most important contributors are (i) the marine aerosol and (ii) the secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) and the total carbon (TC) in PM 10 and PM 2.5, respectively. Additionally, the influence of the coastal location on the ionic balance of PM is also studied. The trace metal spatial variability is studied using the coefficient of divergence (COD), which shows that the levels of trace metals at the three studied urban sites are mainly influenced by local emission sources. The main local tracers are identified as follows: Mn in the Santander area; Mo, Cr and Pb at Reinosa; and Ni and V at Castro Urdiales. A more detailed source apportionment study of the local trace metals at Santander is conducted by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF); these two receptor models report complementary information. From these statistical analyses, the identified sources of trace metals in PM 10 are urban background sources, industrial sources and traffic. The industrial factor was dominated by Mn, Cu and Pb, which are trace metals used in steel production and manganese-ferroalloy production plant. With respect to PM 2.5, the identified emission sources of trace metals are combustion processes as well as traffic and

  8. Impact of aerosols on regional climate in southern and northern China during strong/weak East Asian summer monsoon years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu; Wang, Tijian; Solmon, Fabien; Zhuang, Bingliang; Wu, Hao; Xie, Min; Han, Yong; Wang, Xuemei

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we mainly simulate the effects of aerosols on regional climate in southern China (SC) and northern China (NC) and compare the differences of aerosol climatic effects in strong/weak summer monsoon years with a modified regional climate model RegCM4. The results show that the total climatic effects of aerosols cause the decline of averaged air temperature and precipitation of SC and NC in summer. In NC, the strength of temperature drop in strong summer monsoon years is higher than that in weak summer monsoon years, indicating the possible impact from the different changes of radiation, circulation, and precipitation. The decrease of precipitation is more significant in NC in weak summer monsoon years, while it is stronger in SC in strong summer monsoon years due to the difference of aerosol distribution as well as the effects on circulation and cloud microphysics processes. Besides, aerosol effects also cause a decrease of zonal wind at 850 hPa in SC and an increase in NC. The cooling center is more northerly and stronger in strong monsoon year, while it is more southerly and weaker in weak summer monsoon years, which results in the differences of vertical circulation anomaly and meridional wind anomaly at 850 hPa. In weak summer monsoon years, meridional wind at 850 hPa is increased in NC, while it is found to be decreased in SC. In strong summer monsoon years, meridional winds at 850 hPa in both NC and SC are weakened. However, the decrease in SC is much more distinct and clear.

  9. Regional Pn Body-Wave Magnitude Scale mb(Pn) for Earthquakes Along the Northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won-Young; Ottemöller, Lars

    2017-12-01

    We obtained a robust regional body wave magnitude scale mb(Pn) for earthquakes along the Northern mid-Atlantic Ridge by using Pn wave recorded at continental stations. The new magnitude scale is mb(Pn) = log10 A [nm] - 1.86 log10 (100/Δ) [km] + C + 1.62, where A is the zero-to-peak amplitude of Pn wave on the simulated vertical Wood-Anderson seismogram in nanometers, Δ is the epicentral distance in kilometers, 1.86 represents amplitude attenuation, C is the station correction, and 1.62 anchors the mb(Pn) to the moment magnitude (Mw), plus amplitude loss in the two crustal legs. By using moment magnitude as reference, we obtained the event magnitude adjustments (EMAs), which represent the difference between the known long-period Mw and the short-period mb(Pn). EMAs correlate with the source property, where ridge events show strong long-period waves but poor high-frequency signals that lead to mb(Pn) Mw and negative adjustment of -0.20 ± 0.24 m.u. Almost all normal faulting events are along spreading ridges, whereas strike-slip events are along the fracture zones and transform faults; hence, we developed source-specific magnitude adjustments (SSMAs), which range from +0.27 m.u. for earthquakes along the ridges, to -0.26 m.u. for earthquakes along the transform faults. Using SSMA, we obtained a regional Pn magnitude that is consistent with Mw and mb(P). The regression relationship is Mw = 0.91 mb(Pn)[SSMA] + 0.46 with a standard deviation of ±0.15 m.u.

  10. Heavy Metal Contamination in the Sediments of Anzali International Wetland, Northern Iran Based on Type Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Ganjali

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most important factors and problems threatening the Anzali Wetland are the contaminant load and sediments entering the wetland, as well as lack of an integrated management plan for this wetland. The main objectives of the current research were to explore whether there are significant differences in concentrations of Zn, Cd, and Pb in surface sediments among different sites (based on type region development of the Anzali Wetland, Northern Iran. Methods: Through a field study, samples were collected from 10 stations based on the type of regional development and contaminant source inputs of Anzali Wetland in 2015. Using a hot-block digester, the sediment samples were digested with a 4:1 combination of nitric acid (HNO3 and perchloric acid (HCLO4 for one hour at 40 °C, followed by 3 h at 140 °C. Afterwards, samples were filtered with Whatman 42, filter paper and the filtrate was kept in polyethylene containers at 4 °C, until analysis by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS. Results: Mean ± SD levels of metals in the sediments of different stations were 26.7 ± 3.49 (lead, 4.36 ± 0.47 (cadmium, and 88.44 ± 10.06 (zinc μg g-1 dw. There was a significant difference between the stations of the wetland (P < 0.05. This difference could be due to the variations in the input of contaminant sources into the Anzali Wetland. Conclusions: The areas, affected by urban and industrial developments, had the highest level of contamination while the agricultural and less-developed areas had the lowest level of contamination, and therefore, protective plans must be implemented in developed areas in order to lower the level of heavy metals.

  11. Hydrological and erosion processes in terraced agricultural fields: observations from a wet Mediterranean region in northern Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Bernard-Jannin, Léonard; Rodriguez-Blanco, María Luz; Marisa Santos, Juliana; Oliveira Alves Coelho, Celeste; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2015-04-01

    Traditional agriculture in the mountainous humid regions of the northwestern Iberian peninsula has relied on terraces for soil retention. In the last decades, a strong afforestation (in many cases with commercial species) has led to the appearance of large forest areas coexisting with traditional agricultural landscapes. Soil erosion research in this region has therefore focused on the impact of forest management practices and associated disturbances such as wildfires. However, there has been little research on the impacts of traditional terracing practices on erosion, and therefore it has been difficult to connect forest research with the wider issue of sediment connectivity in this complex agroforestry landscape. This work tried to address this research gap by monitoring an agricultural terrace in the Caramulo mountains, northern Portugal, during two years. The field site is located in a humid Mediterranean climate region, with c. 1500 mm/y rainfall, overlaying granite bedrock; agricultural practices are a traditional rotation between winter pasture and summer (irrigated) corn cultivation. During this period, the soil properties of the terrace were characterized, and there was a continuous monitoring of rainfall, soil moisture and surface runoff at the outlet, as well as 1 or 2-weekly collections of runoff to measure sediment yield. Occasional measurements of vegetation cover and erosion features (rills) within the plot were also made. Preliminary results indicate that runoff generation occurred mostly due to saturation-excess, possibly linked with the accumulation of groundwater in the lower layers of the soil. After one of the largest events, there was a clear inflow of runoff from outside the terrace, through either the irrigation network linking all terraces or by resurfacing of groundwater. Sediment yield was linked with runoff, but sediment concentration was linked with vegetation cover and was highest during the early stages of pasture growth. However

  12. Atmospheric iron fluxes in the northern region of the Gulf of California: Implications for primary production and potential Fe limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Barbosa, Albino; Segovia-Zavala, José A.; Huerta-Diaz, Miguel Angel; Delgadillo-Hinojosa, Francisco; Torres-Delgado, Eunice V.; Lares, María L.; Marinone, Silvio G.; Gutiérrez-Galindo, Efraín A.

    2017-11-01

    To study the temporal variability of atmospheric mineral dust and Fe fluxes to the northern region of the Gulf of California, dust samples were collected at San Felipe, Baja California (Site 1) and Puerto Peñasco, Sonora (Site 2), from May 2010 to December 2011. Dust fluxes were partially associated with monsoon circulation, with highest (38 ± 20 mg m-2 d-1) and lowest (8.8 ± 4.9 mg m-2 d-1) fluxes linked to southwesterly winds (monsoon season) and north-northwesterly winds (non-monsoon season), respectively. Our analysis suggests that the surrounding deserts are the most probable source of dust arriving into the Gulf of California. However, analyses of Al and Fe concentrations in dusts showed no trends that could identify specific particulate Fe provenance. Average particulate Fe atmospheric fluxes (FeAtm) showed no clear temporal trends and their magnitudes (3.2 ± 3.4 and 6 ± 10 μmol m-2 d-1 for sites 1 and 2, respectively) could be considered medium-to-low in magnitude within a global context. An Fe limitation index (FeLI), calculated as the ratio of phytoplankton Fe requirements to atmospheric and upwelling Fe fluxes, is proposed to estimate the impact of atmospheric mineral dust on phytoplankton primary production in surface waters of the Gulf of California. On a seasonal time scale, FeLI results suggest that under winter conditions, there is no evidence of Fe limitation because upwelling Fe contribution (FeUp) is high enough to support primary production. In contrast, during summer conditions, when FeUp is very low or negligible, high FeAtm combined with high particulate Fe dissolution factors could prevent the northern Gulf of California from becoming Fe-limited. Finally, we postulate that at an interannual scale, conditions prevailing during ENSO events could increase atmospheric Fe fluxes to the Gulf of California, further contributing to prevent Fe limitation in this marginal sea.

  13. Indoor activity of Culicoides associated with livestock in the bluetongue virus (BTV) affected region of northern France during autumn 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldet, T; Delécolle, J C; Cêtre-Sossah, C; Mathieu, B; Meiswinkel, R; Gerbier, G

    2008-10-15

    In August 2006, bluetongue virus (BTV) was detected in the Netherlands, Belgium, western Germany, Luxembourg and northern France for the first time. Consequently, a longitudinal entomological study was conducted in the affected region of northern France (Ardennes) throughout the autumn of 2006. Data on the spatio-temporal distribution of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) associated with livestock were collected and an attempt was made to identify the vector(s) involved in BTV transmission by means of virus detection in wild-caught biting midges. Weekly sampling using standardized Onderstepoort-type blacklight traps were performed simultaneously both outdoors and indoors in one BTV-free and three BTV-affected farms between September and December 2006. Culicoides were sorted according to farm, location (outdoors vs. indoors), time point (in weeks), species and physiological stage. BTV detection was conducted by RT-PCR on monospecific pools of non-bloodfed parous female Culicoides. The principal results showed: (i) the absence of the Mediterranean vector, C. imicola, (ii) the relatively low abundance of C. dewulfi and C. pulicaris, (iii) the widespread occurrence and abundance of C. obsoletus/C. scoticus with longevity and behaviour compatible with BTV transmission, and (iv) all Culicoides pools tested for BTV were negative. In France, the very low levels of BTV-8 circulation were probably due to the limited introduction of the virus from affected neighbouring countries, and not due to the absence of local vector populations. A key finding has been the substantiation, for the first time, that Culicoides, and particularly the potential vectors C. obsoletus/C. scoticus and C. dewulfi, can be active at night inside livestock buildings and not only outside, as originally believed. The endophagic tendencies of members of the Obsoletus group are discussed in light of the prolonged period of BTV transmission during the autumn of 2006 and the risk of BTV overwintering and

  14. Zooplankton associated with the oxygen minimum zone system in the northern upwelling region of Chile during March 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano, Ruben; Hidalgo, Pamela; Krautz, Cristina

    2009-07-01

    Zooplankton in the coastal upwelling region off northern Chile may play a significant biogeochemical role by promoting carbon flux into the subsurface OMZ (oxygen minimum zone). This work identifies the dominant zooplankton species inhabiting the area influenced by the OMZ in March 2000 off Iquique (20°S, northern Chile). Abundance and vertical distribution studies revealed 17 copepod and 9 euphausiid species distributed between the surface and 600 m at four stations sampled both by day and by night. Some abundant species remained in the well-oxygenated upper layer (30 m), with no evidence of diel vertical migration, apparently restricted by a shallow (40-60 m) oxycline. Other species, however, were found closely associated with the OMZ. The large-sized copepod Eucalanus inermis was found below the oxycline and performed diel vertical migrations into the OMZ, whereas the very abundant Euphausia mucronata performed extensive diel vertical migrations between the surface waters and the core of the OMZ (200 m), even crossing it. A complete assessment of copepods and euphausiids revealed that the whole sampled water column (0-600 m) is occupied by distinct species having well-defined habitats, some of them within the OMZ. Ontogenetic migrations were evident in Eucalanidae and E. mucronata. Estimates of species biomass showed a substantial (>75% of total zooplankton biomass) daily exchange of C between the photic layer and the OMZ. Both E. inermis and E. mucronata can actively exchange about 37.8 g C m -2 d -1 between the upper well-oxygenated (0-60 m) layer and the deeper (60-600 m) OMZ layer. This migrant biomass may contribute about 7.2 g C m -2 d -1 to the OMZ system through respiration, mortality, and production of fecal pellets within the OMZ. This movement of zooplankton in and out of the OMZ, mainly as a result of the migratory behavior of E. mucronata, suggests a very efficient mechanism for introducing large amounts of freshly produced carbon into the OMZ

  15. Digital elevations and extents of regional hydrogeologic units in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Jason P.; Andreasen, David C.; Mcfarland, E. Randolph; Watt, Martha K.

    2016-08-31

    Digital geospatial datasets of the extents and top elevations of the regional hydrogeologic units of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to northeastern North Carolina were developed to provide an updated hydrogeologic framework to support analysis of groundwater resources. The 19 regional hydrogeologic units were delineated by elevation grids and extent polygons for 20 layers: the land and bathymetric surface at the top of the unconfined surficial aquifer, the upper surfaces of 9 confined aquifers and 9 confining units, and the bedrock surface that defines the base of all Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments. The delineation of the regional hydrogeologic units relied on the interpretive work from source reports for New York, New Jersey, Delaware and Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina rather than from re-analysis of fundamental hydrogeologic data. This model of regional hydrogeologic unit geometries represents interpolation, extrapolation, and generalization of the earlier interpretive work. Regional units were constructed from available digital data layers from the source studies in order to extend units consistently across political boundaries and approximate units in offshore areas.Though many of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain hydrogeologic units may extend eastward as far as the edge of the Atlantic Continental Shelf, the modeled boundaries of all regional hydrogeologic units in this study were clipped to an area approximately defined by the furthest offshore extent of fresh to brackish water in any part of the aquifer system, as indicated by chloride concentrations of 10,000 milligrams per liter. Elevations and extents of units that do not exist onshore in Long Island, New York, were not included north of New Jersey. Hydrogeologic units in North Carolina were included primarily to provide continuity across the Virginia-North Carolina State boundary, which was important for defining the southern edge of

  16. Seasonal acclimation of prairie deer mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, R. V.; Belknap, R. W.

    1993-12-01

    Prairie deer mice responded to long nights by reducing their metabolic rates, core temperatures, thermal conductances and incremental metabolic responses to cold stimulus, while increasing their capacities for nonshivering thermogenesis. Some winter animals spontaneously entered daily torpor in the mornings and thereby further reduced their metabolic rates and core temperatures. Provision of exogenous melatonin (by subdermal implants) mimiced short photoperiod effects on metabolic rates and core temperatures of wild-caught, laboratory maintained animals. Provision of supplemental dietary tryptophan to laboratory animals conditioned to natural light cycles mimiced metabolic effects of long nights in summer animals, and further reduced metabolic rates of winter mice, but did not affect their core temperature levels. Newly caught, laboratory maintained deer mice responded to natural seasonal clues of shortphotoperiod and increased dietary tryptophan by reducing their resting energy requirements through both lower metabolic and lower core temperature levels. Short photoperiod and seasonal change also promoted gonadal involution, and resulted in more socially tolerant huddling by mice with reduced core temperature. Reduced 24-hour LH excretion rates were also observed in winter animals which were exposed to seasonal light cycles at warm (25°C) room temperatures. We propose that seasonal acclimatization involves pineal effects on sex hormone-influenced social behaviors and on resting metabolism. These effects serve to conserve resting energy expenditure and promote hypothermic insulation by wild prairie deer mice.

  17. Characterization of the oxytocin system regulating affiliative behavior in female prairie voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, H E; Cole, C D; Smith, Y; Neumann, I D; Landgraf, R; Murphy, A Z; Young, L J

    2009-09-15

    Oxytocin regulates partner preference formation and alloparental behavior in the socially monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) by activating oxytocin receptors in the nucleus accumbens of females. Mating facilitates partner preference formation, and oxytocin-immunoreactive fibers in the nucleus accumbens have been described in prairie voles. However, there has been no direct evidence of oxytocin release in the nucleus accumbens during sociosexual interactions, and the origin of the oxytocin fibers is unknown. Here we show for the first time that extracellular concentrations of oxytocin are increased in the nucleus accumbens of female prairie vole during unrestricted interactions with a male. We further show that the distribution of oxytocin-immunoreactive fibers in the nucleus accumbens is conserved in voles, mice and rats, despite remarkable species differences in oxytocin receptor binding in the region. Using a combination of site-specific and peripheral infusions of the retrograde tracer Fluorogold, we demonstrate that the nucleus accumbens oxytocin-immunoreactive fibers likely originate from paraventricular and supraoptic hypothalamic neurons. This distribution of retrogradely labeled neurons is consistent with the hypothesis that striatal oxytocin fibers arise from collaterals of magnocellular neurons of the neurohypophysial system. If correct, this may serve to coordinate peripheral and central release of oxytocin with appropriate behavioral responses associated with reproduction, including pair bonding after mating, and maternal responsiveness following parturition and during lactation.

  18. The relative contribution of climate to changes in lesser prairie-chicken abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Beth E.; Haukos, David A.; Hagen, Christian A.; Pitman, James

    2016-01-01

    Managing for species using current weather patterns fails to incorporate the uncertainty associated with future climatic conditions; without incorporating potential changes in climate into conservation strategies, management and conservation efforts may fall short or waste valuable resources. Understanding the effects of climate change on species in the Great Plains of North America is especially important, as this region is projected to experience an increased magnitude of climate change. Of particular ecological and conservation interest is the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus), which was listed as “threatened” under the U.S. Endangered Species Act in May 2014. We used Bayesian hierarchical models to quantify the effects of extreme climatic events (extreme values of the Palmer Drought Severity Index [PDSI]) relative to intermediate (changes in El Niño Southern Oscillation) and long-term climate variability (changes in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation) on trends in lesser prairie-chicken abundance from 1981 to 2014. Our results indicate that lesser prairie-chicken abundance on leks responded to environmental conditions of the year previous by positively responding to wet springs (high PDSI) and negatively to years with hot, dry summers (low PDSI), but had little response to variation in the El Niño Southern Oscillation and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Additionally, greater variation in abundance on leks was explained by variation in site relative to broad-scale climatic indices. Consequently, lesser prairie-chicken abundance on leks in Kansas is more strongly influenced by extreme drought events during summer than other climatic conditions, which may have negative consequences for the population as drought conditions intensify throughout the Great Plains.

  19. Alcohol’s Effects on Pair-Bond Maintenance in Male Prairie Voles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre T. Walcott

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse can have devastating effects on social relationships. In particular, discrepant patterns of heavy alcohol consumption are associated with increased rates of separation and divorce. Previous studies have attempted to model these effects of alcohol using socially monogamous prairie voles. These studies showed that alcohol consumption can inhibit the formation of pair bonds in this species. While these findings indicated that alcohol’s effects on social attachments can involve biological mechanisms, the formation of pair bonds does not properly model long-term human attachments. To overcome this caveat, this study explored whether discordant or concordant alcohol consumption between individuals within established pairs affects maintenance of pair bonds in male prairie voles. Male and female prairie voles were allowed to form a pair bond for 1 week. Following this 1-week cohabitation period, males received access to 10% continuous ethanol; meanwhile, their female partners had access to either alcohol and water or just water. When there was a discrepancy in alcohol consumption, male prairie voles showed a decrease in partner preference (PP. Conversely, when concordant drinking occurred, males showed no inhibition in PP. Further analysis revealed a decrease in oxytocin immunoreactivity in the paraventricular nucleus of alcohol-exposed males that was independent of the drinking status of their female partners. On the other hand, only discordant alcohol consumption resulted in an increase of FosB immunoreactivity in the periaqueductal gray of male voles, a finding suggesting a potential involvement of this brain region in the effects of alcohol on maintenance of pair bonds. Our studies provide the first evidence that alcohol has effects on established pair bonds and that partner drinking status plays a large role in these effects.

  20. Sylvatic plague vaccine and management of prairie dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E.

    2012-01-01

    Scientists at the USGS National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC), in collaboration with colleagues at the University of Wisconsin (UW), have developed a sylvatic plague vaccine that shows great promise in protecting prairie dogs against plague (Mencher and others, 2004; Rocke and others, 2010). Four species of prairie dogs reside in the United States and Canada, and all are highly susceptible to plague and regularly experience outbreaks with devastating losses. Along with habitat loss and poisoning, plague has contributed to a significant historical decline in prairie dog populations. By some estimates, prairie dogs now occupy only 1 to 2 percent of their former range (Proctor and others, 2006), with prairie dog colonies being now much smaller and fragmented than they were historically, making individual colonies more vulnerable to elimination by plague (Antolin and others, 2002). At least one species, the Utah prairie dog (Cynomys parvidens) is listed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) as "threatened." Controlling plague is a vital concern for ongoing management and conservation efforts for prairie dogs. Current efforts to halt the spread of plague in prairie dog colonies typically rely on dusting individual prairie dog burrows with pesticides to kill plague-infected fleas. Although flea-control insecticides, such as deltamethrin, are useful in stopping plague outbreaks in these prairie dog colonies, dusting of burrows is labor intensive and time consuming and may affect other insects and arthropods. As an alternative approach, NWHC and UW scientists developed a sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) for prairie dogs that can be delivered via oral bait. Laboratory studies have shown that consumption of this vaccine-laden bait by different prairie dog species results in significant protection against plague infection that can last for at least 9 months (Rocke and others, 2010; Rocke, unpublished). Work has now shifted to optimizing baits and distribution methods for

  1. Disease Limits Populations: Plague and Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Cully, Jack F.; Johnson, Tammi L.; Collinge, Sharon K.; Ray, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Plague is an exotic vector-borne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis that causes mortality rates approaching 100% in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). We mapped the perimeter of the active portions of black-tailed prairie dog colonies annually between 1999 and 2005 at four prairie dog colony complexes in areas with a history of plague, as well as at two complexes that were located outside the distribution of plague at the time of mapping and had therefore never bee...

  2. Regional Comparison of Detrital Zircon Populations in Syn-rift, Jurassic Rocks from the Northern Gulf of Mexico to Northern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouassi, M.

    2016-12-01

    We have compiled over 3200 detrital zircon ages in rock samples collected by various groups of previous workers that range in age from Cambrian to Cenozoic and cover the area of rifting between southern North America, Mexico, the Caribbean, and northern South America. We focussed this study on age populations in Jurassic sedimentary rocks from localities in the southern USA, Mexico, and Colombia to identify similar age populations that could constrain the relative locations of the various blocks during the period of Pangea's breakup and the formation of the Gulf of Mexico and Proto-Caribbean seaway. Jurassic samples from the Mixteca and Maya blocks of southern Mexico, the Norphlet Formation of Alabama and the Giron Formation of Eastern Cordillera of Colombia revealed a good correlation with correlative age populations of 900-1200 Ma and 200- 400 Ma. These results indicate that in a closed fit reconstruction all of these areas may have been overlain by common basin that covered the present-day area of the GOM, Yucatan block, and northern South America. We point out key areas for future sampling and dating that will help expand this study.

  3. Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater Prairie-Chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandercock, Brett K. [Kansas State University

    2013-05-22

    Executive Summary 1. We investigated the impacts of wind power development on the demography, movements, and population genetics of Greater Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido) at three sites in northcentral and eastern Kansas for a 7-year period. Only 1 of 3 sites was developed for wind power, the 201MW Meridan Way Wind Power Facility at the Smoky Hills site in northcentral Kansas. Our project report is based on population data for prairie chickens collected during a 2-year preconstruction period (2007-2008), a 3-year postconstruction period (2009-2011) and one final year of lek surveys (2012). Where relevant, we present preconstruction data from our field studies at reference sites in the northern Flint Hills (2007-2009) and southern Flint Hills (2006-2008). 2. We addressed seven potential impacts of wind power development on prairie chickens: lek attendance, mating behavior, use of breeding habitat, fecundity rates, natal dispersal, survival rates, and population numbers. Our analyses of pre- and postconstruction impacts are based on an analysis of covariance design where we modeled population performance as a function of treatment period, distance to eventual or actual site of the nearest wind turbine, and the interaction of these factors. Our demographic and movement data from the 6-year study period at the Smoky Hills site included 23 lek sites, 251 radio-marked females monitored for 287 bird-years, and 264 nesting attempts. Our genetic data were based on genotypes of 1,760 females, males and chicks that were screened with a set of 27 microsatellite markers that were optimized in the lab. 3. In our analyses of lek attendance, the annual probability of lek persistence during the preconstruction period was ~0.9. During the postconstruction period, distance to nearest turbine did not have a significant effect on the probability of lek persistence. However, the probability of lek persistence increased from 0.69 at 0 m to 0.89 at 30 km from turbines, and most

  4. Biomonitoring polluted sediments in Arctic regions - possibilities and challenges using benthic foraminifera. Case studies from northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirbekk, Kari; Dijkstra, Noortje; Junttila, Juho; Sternal, Beata; Pedersen, Kristine Bondo; Forwick, Matthias; Carroll, JoLynn

    2016-04-01

    Biomonitoring pollution in marine environments using benthic foraminifera assemblages have proven to be a valid method for many regions. Two important reasons for their suitability are their sensitivity to changes in the environment and their rapid response time due to short life cycles. In addition, they are preserved in the sedimentary record, allowing for baseline studies of conditions prior to introduction of contaminants. Species of benthic foraminifera that appear to tolerate polluted sediments are referred to as opportunistic species. This notion is in general used for species able to dominate environments that are too stressful for most species. The high latitude setting of the northern Norwegian coastal zone experience high seasonality and, hence, largely changing conditions throughout a year: variations in water mass domination, freshwater influence, temperature and current velocity. It is possible that an environment like this is inhibited by a higher amount of opportunistic species generally thriving under high stress conditions. This might make the use of benthic foraminifera for biomonitoring more challenging, as the faunal compositions may be a result of a complex set of processes. Consequently, large datasets are necessary in order to make reliable conclusions, which in time may be used as generalized guidelines for biomonitoring in this geographical area. Here, we present preliminary results of benthic foraminiferal assemblages from two sites in Finnmark, northern Norway, which have been exposed to pollution. The main site is Repparfjorden, where the inner parts of the fjord were used as a submarine waste deposal site for mine tailings from a local copper mine during the 1970´s. Results from four marine sediment cores (10-20 cm long) containing sediments classified to be in moderate to very bad state (according to Norwegian sediment quality criteria) are presented. The contamination is seen in intervals of elevated copper content dated to the 1970

  5. Cathodoluminescence investigations on quartz cement in the sandstones of Khabour Formation from Iraqi Kurdistan Region, Northern Iraq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omer, Muhamed Fakhri; Friis, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The Ordovician deltaic to shallow marine Khabour Formation in Northern Iraq consists mainly of sandstone with minor siltstone and interbedded shale. The sandstones are pervasively cemented by quartz that resulted in very little preserved primary porosity. Cathodoluminescence and petrographic stud...

  6. Dependence of the evolution of carbon dynamics in the northern permafrost region on the trajectory of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, A David; Lawrence, David M; Koven, Charles; Clein, Joy S; Burke, Eleanor; Chen, Guangsheng; Jafarov, Elchin; MacDougall, Andrew H; Marchenko, Sergey; Nicolsky, Dmitry; Peng, Shushi; Rinke, Annette; Ciais, Philippe; Gouttevin, Isabelle; Hayes, Daniel J; Ji, Duoying; Krinner, Gerhard; Moore, John C; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Schädel, Christina; Schaefer, Kevin; Schuur, Edward A G; Zhuang, Qianlai

    2018-03-26

    We conducted a model-based assessment of changes in permafrost area and carbon storage for simulations driven by RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 projections between 2010 and 2299 for the northern permafrost region. All models simulating carbon represented soil with depth, a critical structural feature needed to represent the permafrost carbon-climate feedback, but that is not a universal feature of all climate models. Between 2010 and 2299, simulations indicated losses of permafrost between 3 and 5 million km 2 for the RCP4.5 climate and between 6 and 16 million km 2 for the RCP8.5 climate. For the RCP4.5 projection, cumulative change in soil carbon varied between 66-Pg C (10 15 -g carbon) loss to 70-Pg C gain. For the RCP8.5 projection, losses in soil carbon varied between 74 and 652 Pg C (mean loss, 341 Pg C). For the RCP4.5 projection, gains in vegetation carbon were largely responsible for the overall projected net gains in ecosystem carbon by 2299 (8- to 244-Pg C gains). In contrast, for the RCP8.5 projection, gains in vegetation carbon were not great enough to compensate for the losses of carbon projected by four of the five models; changes in ecosystem carbon ranged from a 641-Pg C loss to a 167-Pg C gain (mean, 208-Pg C loss). The models indicate that substantial net losses of ecosystem carbon would not occur until after 2100. This assessment suggests that effective mitigation efforts during the remainder of this century could attenuate the negative consequences of the permafrost carbon-climate feedback. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  7. Muscoid Diptera as potential vectors of bacterial agents on dairy farms in the northern region of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josaine Leila Almeida

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the isolation frequency and microbial sensitivity profiles of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Staphylococcus spp. isolated from synanthropic flies captured in entomological traps placed near the milking parlors of 30 dairy farms located in Northern Paraná, Brazil. In total, 192 flies were captured, and the isolation frequencies of muscids (21/30 = 70% and califorids (27/30 = 90% were significantly higher than that of sarcophagids (7/30 = 23.3%. Bacteriological tests on the internal contents and external surfaces of the flies showed that E. coli was present only in muscids (14.3% and caliphorids (33.3%. Salmonella spp. was isolated from 9.5% of the muscids, 7.4% of the caliphorids, and 14.29% of the sarcophagids. Staphylococcus spp. was isolated from 28.5% of the muscids and 29.6% of the caliphorids. E. coli isolation was more frequent in flies captured on farms at which domestic chickens were housed near the milking parlors (p = 0.031 and which did not use sugarcane for animal feed (p = 0.042. Two out of 27 (7.4% Staphylococcus spp. strains presented a phenotype of coagulase enzyme production. Ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, and gentamicin were the most effective antibiotics against E. coli and Salmonella spp. Tetracycline was the least effective antibiotic against the isolates. The Staphylococcus spp. strains isolated did not show the phenotype of oxacillin resistance. We conclude that regional flies are potential mechanical vectors of microbial agents able to cause enteritis in goats, mastitis in cows, and contamination of milk products for human consumption.

  8. Evaluation of the urban/rural particle-bound PAH and PCB levels in the northern Spain (Cantabria region).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruti, Axel; Fernández-Olmo, Ignacio; Irabien, Ángel

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels in PM(10) and PM(2.5), at one rural and three urban sites in the Cantabria region (northern Spain). From all of these pollutants, benzo(a)pyrene is regulated by the EU air quality directives; its target value (1 ng/m(3)) was not exceeded. The concentration values of the studied organic pollutants at the studied sites are in the range of those obtained at other European sites. A comparison between the rural-urban stations was developed: (a) PAH concentration values were lower in the rural site (except for fluorene). Therefore, the contribution of local sources to the urban levels of PAHs seems relevant. Results from the coefficient of divergence show that the urban PAH levels are influenced by different local emission sources. (b) PCB rural concentration values were higher than those found at urban sites. Because no local sources of PCBs were identified in the rural site, the contribution of more distant emission sources (about 40 km) to the PCB levels is considered to be the most important; the long-range transport of PCBs does not seem to be significant. Additionally, local PAH tracers were identified by a triangular diagram: higher molecular weight PAHs in Reinosa, naphthalene in Santander and anthracene/pyrene in Castro Urdiales. A preliminary PAH source apportionment study in the urban sites was conducted by means of diagnostic ratios. The ratios are similar to those reported in areas affected by traffic emissions; they also suggest an industrial emission source at Reinosa.

  9. [Investigation on the health effects of traffic-related air pollution from Mestre motorway (Veneto Region, Northern Italy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anello, Paola; Cestari, Laura; Canova, Cristina; Vianello, Luisa; Pistollato, Silvia; Lorenzet, Ketty; Sciarrone, Rocco; Selle, Vittorio; Simonato, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    to evaluate whether living near motorway A57 (Mestre motorway, Veneto Region, Northern Italy) might have affected the residents' health status. longitudinal cohort study. 148,673 residents on the mainland in the Municipality of Venice (Mestre) who never changed their residence during the follow- up period (2002-2009). the 2001 Italian census data were linked with the data sources of the epidemiological integrated system which includes: population registry, death certificates, hospital discharges, drug prescriptions, and tax exemption. Mortality and incidence for several subgroups of causes, incidence of acute myocardial infarction and stroke, and prevalence of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischemic cardiopathy and diabetes were estimated. The ADMS-Urban model was adopted to define three different exposure areas based on PM10 emissions from the motorway: A (highly exposed), B (moderately exposed) used as a comparison for the analysis, C (unexposed). Hazard ratios (HR) for incidence and mortality were estimated from Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for calendar period, age, gender, and instruction level. The relationship between the exposure area and prevalence was investigated by multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted for the same covariates. compared with B area (23.25%of the population under study), people living in A area (3.16% of the population under study) had an increased incidence of acute myocardial infarction (HR: 1.43; 95%CI 1.03-1.97) in females, and prevalence of ischemic cardiopathy (odds ratio - OR: 1.12; 95%CI 1.01-1.26) in both genders. Results were borderline for COPD in males (OR: 1.17; 95%CI 0.97-1.41). Positive but nonsignificant associations were found with pneumonia and respiratory recoveries. this study showed that residents who live near Mestre motorway had an increased prevalence of some cardiorespiratory diseases, particularly ischemic cardiopathy.

  10. Tidal and sub-tidal sea level variability at the northern shelf of the Brazilian Northeast Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frota, Felipe F; Truccolo, Eliane C; Schettini, Carlos A F

    2016-09-01

    A characterization of the sea level variability at tidal and sub-tidal frequencies at the northern shore of the Brazilian Northeast shelf for the period 2009-2011 is presented. The sea level data used was obtained from the Permanent Geodetic Tide Network from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics for the Fortaleza gauge station. Local wind data was also used to assess its effects on the low-frequency sea level variability. The variability of the sea level was investigated by classical harmonic analysis and by morphology assessment over the tidal signal. The low frequencies were obtained by low-pass filtering. The tidal range oscillated with the highest value of 3.3 m during the equinox and the lowest value of 0.7 m during the solstice. Differences between the spring and neap tides were as high as 1 m. A total of 59 tidal constituents were obtained from harmonic analysis, and the regional tide was classified as semi-diurnal pure with a form number of 0.11. An assessment of the monthly variability of the main tidal constituents (M2, S2, N2, O1, and K1) indicated that the main semi-diurnal solar S2 presented the highest variability, ranging from 0.21 to 0.41 m; it was the main element altering the form number through the years. The low frequency sea-level variability is negligible, although there is a persistent signal with an energy peak in the 10-15 day period, and it cannot be explained by the effects of local winds.

  11. Expected genetic gain and genotype- environment interaction in Acacia mangium in the northern region of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamín Pavlotzky

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Two Acacia mangium Willd. progeny tests were evaluated, pursuing an increment in the profitability of commercial plantations. The 25 open-pollinated families were established in Los Chiles and San Carlos, northern region of Costa Rica, in year 2006, and evaluated in 2007 and in 2010. Genetic material came from plus tree selections obtained by GENFORES, a costarican tree-improvement and gene-conservation cooperative. In each trial, families were represented by 48 progenies, planted in 4 pairs randomly distributed within each of the 6 blocks. In 2010, DBH, survival rate, commercial number of logs per tree, forking, forking height and log quality in the first 4 logs, were evaluated. Based on these measurements, wood commercial volume per tree and per hectare were estimated. Data was analyzed with SELEGEN software from EMBRAPA, Brasil, in order to determine all genetic parameters of the breeding population. All traits evaluated showed family mean heritability values over 0.46. Genetic gain in commercial volume per hectare was estimated as 55.8%, when selecting as parents the 2 best individuals from the top 12 families, which would correspond to an expected commercial volume.ha -1 , at 4 years age, of 78.93 m 3 .ha -1 (around 20 m 3 .ha -1 .year -1 . The 2 Colombian provenances were significantly superior in growth to the rest of the evaluated materials. No significant gene-environment interaction was observed between both sites. Genetic correlations among evaluated traits showed that diameter growth rate is expressed early in this tree species, thus could be used in shortening future selections.

  12. Contrasting Patterns of Genetic Structuring in Natural Populations of Arabidopsis lyrata Subsp. petraea across Different Regions in Northern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falahati-Anbaran, Mohsen; Lundemo, Sverre; Ansell, Stephen W.; Stenøien, Hans K.

    2014-01-01

    Level and partitioning of genetic diversity is expected to vary between contrasting habitats, reflecting differences in strength of ecological and evolutionary processes. Therefore, it is necessary to consider processes acting on different time scales when trying to explain diversity patterns in different parts of species' distributions. To explore how historical and contemporary factors jointly may influence patterns of genetic diversity and population differentiation, we compared genetic composition in the perennial herb Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea from the northernmost parts of its distribution range on Iceland to that previously documented in Scandinavia. Leaf tissue and soil were sampled from ten Icelandic populations of A. lyrata. Seedlings were grown from soil samples, and tissue from above-ground and seed bank individuals were genotyped with 21 microsatellite markers. Seed bank density in Icelandic populations was low but not significantly different from that observed in Norwegian populations. While within-population genetic diversity was relatively high on Iceland (HE = 0.35), among-population differentiation was low (FST = 0.10) compared to Norwegian and Swedish populations. Population differentiation was positively associated with geographical distance in both Iceland and Scandinavia, but the strength of this relationship varied between regions. Although topography and a larger distribution range may explain the higher differentiation between mountainous Norwegian relative to lowland populations in Sweden, these factors cannot explain the lower differentiation in Icelandic compared to Swedish populations. We propose that low genetic differentiation among Icelandic populations is not caused by differences in connectivity, but is rather due to large historical effective population sizes. Thus, rather than contemporary processes, historical factors such as survival of Icelandic lineages in northern refugia during the last glacial period may have

  13. Lung cancer risk and pollution in an industrial region of Northern Spain: a hospital-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Cima, María Felicitas; García-Pérez, Javier; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Aragonés, Nuria; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Tardón, Adonina; Pollán, Marina

    2011-01-25

    Asturias, an Autonomous Region in Northern Spain with a large industrial area, registers high lung cancer incidence and mortality. While this excess risk of lung cancer might be partially attributable to smoking habit and occupational exposure, the role of industrial and urban pollution also needs to be assessed. The objective was to ascertain the possible effect of air pollution, both urban and industrial, on lung cancer risk in Asturias. This was a hospital-based case-control study covering 626 lung cancer patients and 626 controls recruited in Asturias and matched by ethnicity, hospital, age, and sex. Distances from the respective participants' residential locations to industrial facilities and city centers were computed. Using logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for categories of distance to urban and industrial pollution sources were calculated, with adjustment for sex, age, hospital area, tobacco consumption, family history of cancer, and occupation. Whereas individuals living near industries displayed an excess risk of lung cancer (OR = 1.49; 95%CI = 0.93-2.39), which attained statistical significance for small cell carcinomas (OR = 2.23; 95%CI = 1.01-4.92), residents in urban areas showed a statistically significant increased risk for adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.92; 95%CI = 1.09-3.38). In the Gijon health area, residents in the urban area registered a statistically significant increased risk of lung cancer (OR = 2.17; 95%CI = 1.25-3.76), whereas in the Aviles health area, no differences in risk were found by area of exposure. This study provides further evidence that air pollution is a moderate risk factor for lung cancer.

  14. A database on the distribution of butterflies (Lepidoptera) in northern Belgium (Flanders and the Brussels Capital Region).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Dirk; Vanreusel, Wouter; Herremans, Marc; Vantieghem, Pieter; Brosens, Dimitri; Gielen, Karin; Beck, Olivier; Van Dyck, Hans; Desmet, Peter; Natuurpunt, Vlinderwerkgroep

    2016-01-01

    In this data paper, we describe two datasets derived from two sources, which collectively represent the most complete overview of butterflies in Flanders and the Brussels Capital Region (northern Belgium). The first dataset (further referred to as the INBO dataset - http://doi.org/10.15468/njgbmh) contains 761,660 records of 70 species and is compiled by the Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO) in cooperation with the Butterfly working group of Natuurpunt (Vlinderwerkgroep). It is derived from the database Vlinderdatabank at the INBO, which consists of (historical) collection and literature data (1830-2001), for which all butterfly specimens in institutional and available personal collections were digitized and all entomological and other relevant publications were checked for butterfly distribution data. It also contains observations and monitoring data for the period 1991-2014. The latter type were collected by a (small) butterfly monitoring network where butterflies were recorded using a standardized protocol. The second dataset (further referred to as the Natuurpunt dataset - http://doi.org/10.15468/ezfbee) contains 612,934 records of 63 species and is derived from the database http://waarnemingen.be, hosted at the nature conservation NGO Natuurpunt in collaboration with Stichting Natuurinformatie. This dataset contains butterfly observations by volunteers (citizen scientists), mainly since 2008. Together, these datasets currently contain a total of 1,374,594 records, which are georeferenced using the centroid of their respective 5 × 5 km² Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) grid cell. Both datasets are published as open data and are available through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF).

  15. [Challenges to decentralization and local participation within the health rights protection framework: Experience of the SUSALUD Northern Macro-regional Intendance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebaza-Iparraguirre, Henry; Vela-López, Miguel; Villegas-Ortega, José; Lozada-Urbano, Michelle; Munares-García, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    In Peru, health protection rights and the National Health Authority (SUSALUD) coexist with the aim to ensure that every Peruvian may exercise his/her rights. According to the L.D. (Spanish: Decreto legislativo) N° 1158, strategies must be deployed to ensure effective decentralization and ensure compliance with user rights. As a result, the Northern Macro-regional Intendance (IMRN) was created, with headquarters in the city of Chiclayo, and a coverage area including Lambayeque, Tumbes, Piura, Cajamarca, La Libertad, and Amazonas. The northern macro-region promotes information dissemination, coordination, and local participation in health activities, with an emphasis on handling complaints and claims as well as implementation and operation support of user boards (JUS). After 6 months, implementation of the IMRN experience is undergoing consolidation.

  16. The role of ants in minesite restoration in the Kakadu region of Australia's Northern Territory, with particular reference to their use as bioindicators. Supervising Scientist report 130

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, A.N.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of land rehabilitation following mining in environmentally sensitive areas is often ecosystem restoration, rather than simply revegetation. This is the case at Ranger uranium mine (RUM) in the Alligator Rivers Region of Australia's Northern Territory. Effective methods of monitoring ecological restoration are therefore required. Ants have frequently been used as indicators of restoration success following mining in northern Australia, but the extent to which ants actually provide a reliable indication of ecological change has been poorly documented. This study aimed, primarily, to investigate the degree to which ants provide an indication of the general status of ecosystems and, secondarily, to examine the direct role of ants in ecosystem restoration. The final outcome was the development of procedures for using ants as bioindicators of restoration success following mining in the Ranger uranium mine region

  17. Two decades of prairie restoration at Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betz, R.F. [Northeastern Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States); Lootens, R.J.; Becker, M.K. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Successional Restoration is the method being used to restore the prairie at Fermilab on the former agricultural fields. This involves an initial planting, using aggressive species that have wide ecological tolerances which will grow well on abandoned agricultural fields. Collectively, these species are designated as the prairie matrix. The species used for this prairie matrix compete with and eventually eliminate most weedy species. They also provide an adequate fuel load capable of sustaining a fire within a few years after a site has been initially planted. Associated changes in the biological and physical structure of the soil help prepare the way for the successful introduction of plants of the later successional species. Only after the species of the prairie matrix are well established, is the species diversity increased by introducing species with narrower ecological tolerances. These species are thus characteristic of the later successional stages.

  18. Carcass Search & Recovery Guidelines for Black Tailed Prairie Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The availability of dead or intoxicated prairie dogs above ground will be monitored, recorded and these carcasses will be properly disposed of, in accordance with the procedures described on this page.

  19. NPP Grassland: Konza Prairie, USA, 1984-1990, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains three ASCII files (.txt format). Two files contain above-ground biomass and productivity data for a humid temperate tall-grass prairie...

  20. Seabed images from Southern Ocean shelf regions off the northern Antarctic Peninsula and in the southeastern Weddell Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepenburg, Dieter; Buschmann, Alexander; Driemel, Amelie; Grobe, Hannes; Gutt, Julian; Schumacher, Stefanie; Segelken-Voigt, Alexandra; Sieger, Rainer

    2017-07-01

    Recent advances in underwater imaging technology allow for the gathering of invaluable scientific information on seafloor ecosystems, such as direct in situ views of seabed habitats and quantitative data on the composition, diversity, abundance, and distribution of epibenthic fauna. The imaging approach has been extensively used within the research project DynAMo (Dynamics of Antarctic Marine Shelf Ecosystems) at the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research Bremerhaven (AWI), which aimed to comparatively assess the pace and quality of the dynamics of Southern Ocean benthos. Within this framework, epibenthic spatial distribution patterns have been comparatively investigated in two regions in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean: the shelf areas off the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, representing a region with above-average warming of surface waters and sea-ice reduction, and the shelves of the eastern Weddell Sea as an example of a stable high-Antarctic marine environment that is not (yet) affected by climate change. The AWI Ocean Floor Observation System (OFOS) was used to collect seabed imagery during two cruises of the German research vessel Polarstern, ANT-XXIX/3 (PS81) to the Antarctic Peninsula from January to March 2013 and ANT-XXXI/2 (PS96) to the Weddell Sea from December 2015 to February 2016. Here, we report on the image and data collections gathered during these cruises. During PS81, OFOS was successfully deployed at a total of 31 stations at water depths between 29 and 784 m. At most stations, series of 500 to 530 pictures ( > 15 000 in total, each depicting a seabed area of approximately 3.45 m2 or 2.3 × 1.5 m) were taken along transects approximately 3.7 km in length. During PS96, OFOS was used at a total of 13 stations at water depths between 200 and 754 m, yielding series of 110 to 293 photos (2670 in total) along transects 0.9 to 2.6 km in length. All seabed images taken during the two cruises

  1. Bio-Optical Properties of Two Neigboring Coastal Regions of Tropical Northern Australia: The Van Diemen Gulf and Darwin Harbour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Blondeau-Patissier

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the seasonal and spatial characterization of inherent optical properties and biogeochemical concentrations in the Van Diemen Gulf and Darwin Harbour, two neighboring tropical coastal environments of Northern Australia that exhibit shallow depths (~20 m, large (>3 m semi-diurnal tides, and a monsoonal climate. To gain insight in the functioning of these optically complex coastal ecosystems, a total of 23 physical, biogeochemical, and optical parameters were sampled at 63 stations during three field campaigns covering the 2012 wet and dry seasons, and the 2013 dry season. The total light absorption budget in the Van Diemen Gulf was dominated by non-algal particles (aNAP; >45% during the dry season (May–October and colored dissolved organic matter (aCDOM; 60% during the wet season (November–April. The combined absorption by aNAP and aCDOM generally exceeded ~80% of the total absorption budget from 400 to 620 nm, with phytoplankton, aPhy, accounting for <20%. In Darwin Harbour, where only the dry season conditions were sampled, the total absorption budget was dominated by an equivalent contribution of aCDOM, aNAP, and phytoplankton. The major processes explaining the seasonal variability observed in the Van Diemen Gulf are resuspension from seasonal south-easterly trade winds in combination with the tidal energy and shallow bathymetry during the dry season months, and mostly terrestrial river runoff during the monsoon which discharge terrestrial CDOM from the surrounding wetlands. Due to light-limited conditions all year round, the particulate scattering coefficient [bp(555] contributed significantly (90% to the beam attenuation coefficient c(555, thus strongly limiting phytoplankton growth (Chlorophyll a ~1 mg.m−3. Spatially, the Van Diemen Gulf had higher total suspended solids and nutrient concentrations than Darwin Harbour, with dissolved organic carbon and aCDOM subjected to photobleaching during the dry season. Key

  2. Heavy warm season precipitation events in northern Spain: ¿mediterranean processes in an oceanic temperate region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Codrón, J. C.; Rasilla Álvarez, D.; Garmendia Pedraja, C.

    2009-09-01

    The northern coast of the Iberian Peninsula is one of the wettest areas of Europe. Most of the coastal observatories receive exceed 1000mm, and the rainfall is higher than 1700mm along the basque coast. The contribution of late summer-early fall precipitation is remarkable (about 25 %), unusual taking in account the southern latitude of the region at continental scale (Cfb climate, following Köppen’s notation). One of the causes of this summertime wetness are the frequent heavy rainfall events, historically responsible of the most damaging floods in the region. The aim of this paper is to identify and investigate the spatial and temporal characteristics of those heavy rain events, improving the understanding of the dynamical mechanisms by means of a classification of the related atmospheric patterns. The role of the exchange of heat fluxes from a very warm pool of water around the vertex of the Gulf of Biscay, feeding the lowest atmospheric layers, is also discussed. Heavy rainfall events were analyzed using long-term daily rainfall records from 22 stations belonging to the spanish, portuguese and french meteorological networks. The 1000 hPa and 500 hPa geopotential heights (hereafter Z1000 and Z500), as well as the 850 hPa temperature (T850) were utilized to derive a typology of circulation pattern, combining principal components analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA). Results show that most of those heavy precipitation events, whose atmospheric environment and spatial impacts remember some of the typical features of the heavy precipitation events in the Spanish Mediterranean coast, implicate convective systems, associated to upper level stationary disturbances ("cold lows"), which trigger a thermodynamic instability. Most of them affect a relatively restricted area, from Cantabria to the Basque Country, and, even within this area, most of the precipitation falls in the shorelines and the first orographic ridges. Finally, it is worth to mention that the

  3. Economics of vector-borne diseases prevention: The case of the Tiger Mosquito control and Chikungunya and Dengue prevention plan in the Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Rivas Morales, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Aedes albopictus is considered one of the most invasive mosquito species in the world. It has proved capacity for local transmission of Chikungunya and Dengue within Europe. This research evaluated public costs related to the implementation of the plan for Ae. albopictus control and Chikungunya and Dengue prevention set up in Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy), where a Chikungunya epidemic outbreak occurred in 2007, with 217 confirmed cases. The management plan started in 2008 by involvin...

  4. Flooded area and plant zonation in isolated wetlands in well fields in the Northern Tampa Bay Region, Florida, following reductions in groundwater-withdrawal rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Kim H.; Pfeiffer, William R.

    2012-01-01

    The extent and duration of the flooded area were compared in two reference wetlands and nine wetlands in well fields in the northern Tampa Bay region, Florida, to determine whether reductions in well-field groundwater-withdrawal rates resulted in increases in wetland flooded area. Flooded area, expressed as a percentage of the total wetland area, was used to provide a quantitative and comparable line of evidence for describing the hydrologic conditions in isolated wetlands of different sizes and locations.

  5. Chemical diversity of essential oils from flowers, leaves, and stems of Rhanterium epapposum Oliv. growing in northern border region of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Marwa Awad; Abdelrhman Abdelwahab

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the medicinal uses of Rhanterium epapposum Oliv. (R. epapposum) growing in northern border region of Saudi Arabia, through the chemical diversity of essential oils extracted from its flowers, leaves and stems. Methods: Aerial parts of R. epapposum were collected in April 2014. Air dried flowers, leaves, and stems were separately subjected to hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus for 4 h to extract the essential oils. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ana...

  6. Contrasting pattern of hydrological changes during the past two millennia from central and northern India: Regional climate difference or anthropogenic impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Praveen K.; Prasad, Sushma; Marwan, Norbert; Anoop, A.; Krishnan, R.; Gaye, Birgit; Basavaiah, N.; Stebich, Martina; Menzel, Philip; Riedel, Nils

    2018-02-01

    High resolution reconstructions of the India Summer Monsoon (ISM) are essential to identify regionally different patterns of climate change and refine predictive models. We find opposing trends of hydrological proxies between northern (Sahiya cave stalagmite) and central India (Lonar Lake) between 100 and 1300 CE with the strongest anti-correlation between 810 and 1300 CE. The apparently contradictory data raise the question if these are related to widely different regional precipitation patterns or reflect human influence in/around the Lonar Lake. By comparing multiproxy data with historical records, we demonstrate that only the organic proxies in the Lonar Lake show evidence of anthropogenic impact. However, evaporite data (mineralogy and δ18O) are indicative of precipitation/evaporation (P/E) into the Lonar Lake. Back-trajectories of air-mass circulation over northern and central India show that the relative contribution of the Bay of Bengal (BoB) branch of the ISM is crucial for determining the δ18O of carbonate proxies only in north India, whereas central India is affected significantly by the Arabian Sea (AS) branch of the ISM. We conclude that the δ18O of evaporative carbonates in the Lonar Lake reflects P/E and, in the interval under consideration, is not influenced by source water changes. The opposing trend between central and northern India can be explained by (i) persistent multidecadal droughts over central India between 810 and 1300 CE that provided an effective mechanism for strengthening sub-tropical westerly winds resulting in enhancement of wintertime (non-monsoonal) rainfall over northern parts of the Indian subcontinent, and/or (ii) increased moisture influx to northern India from the depleted BoB source waters.

  7. Interspecific comparisons of sylvatic plague in prairie dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cully, J.F.; Williams, E.S.

    2001-01-01

    Of the 3 major factors (habitat loss, poisoning, and disease) that limit abundance of prairie dogs today, sylvatic plague caused by Yersinia pestis is the 1 factor that is beyond human control. Plague epizootics frequently kill >99% of prairie dogs in infected colonies. Although epizootics of sylvatic plague occur throughout most of the range of prairie dogs in the United States and are well described, long-term maintenance of plague in enzootic rodent species is not well documented or understood. We review dynamics of plague in white-tailed (Cynomys leucurus), Gunnison's (C. gunnisoni), and black-tailed (C. ludovicianus) prairie dogs, and their rodent and flea associates. We use epidemiologic concepts to support an enzootic hypothesis in which the disease is maintained in a dynamic state, which requires transmission of Y. pestis to be slower than recruitment of new susceptible mammal hosts. Major effects of plague are to reduce colony size of black-tailed prairie dogs and increase intercolony distances within colony complexes. In the presence of plague, black-tailed prairie dogs will probably survive in complexes of small colonies that are usually >3 km from their nearest neighbor colonies.

  8. Evaluation of a regional mineral dust model over Northern Africa, Southern Europe and Middle East with AERONET data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basart, S.; Pérez, C.; Cuevas, E.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    A variety of regional and global models of the dust aerosol cycle have been developed since early 1990s. Dust models are essential to complement dust-related observations, understand the dust processes and predict the impact of dust on surface level PM concentrations. Dust generation and the parameterization of its deposition processes shows a high variability on spatial and temporal scales. It responds, in a non-linear way, to a variety of environmental factors, such as soil moisture content, the type of surface cover or surface atmospheric turbulence. Thus the modelling of this very complex process is a challenge. DREAM (Dust Regional Atmospheric Model; Nickovic et al., 2001) provides operational dust forecasts for Northern Africa, Europe and Middle East, as well as for the East-Asia regions. DREAM is operated and further developed in the Barcelona Supercomputing Center. DREAM is fully inserted as one of the governing equations in the NCEP/Eta atmospheric model and simulates all major processes of the atmospheric dust cycle. In order to implement new model versions for operational applications there is a need for extensive checking and validation against real observations. The present study focuses on the evaluation of forecasting capacity of the new version of DREAM by means of a model-to-observation comparison of the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) over Northern Africa, Southern Europe and Middle East for one year. The model provides 72h forecasts initialized at 12UTC of each day with outputs every 1 hour at horizontal resolution of about 1/3° and 24 z-vertical layers in the troposphere. Comparisons against 47 selected AERONET sites are used. Eight size bins between 0.1 and 10 µm are considered, and dust-radiation interactions are included (Pérez et al., 2006). Wet deposition scheme has been also improved. The simulation has been performed over one year (2004); statistics and time series for the model outputs and AERONET data are used to evaluate the ability of

  9. Prevalence of Yersinia pestis in rodents and fleas associated with black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) at Thunder Basin National Grassland, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajan, Bala; Bai, Ying; Gage, Kenneth L.; Cully, Jack F.

    2008-01-01

    Rodents (and their fleas) that are associated with prairie dogs are considered important for the maintenance and transmission of the bacterium (Yersinia pestis) that causes plague. Our goal was to identify rodent and flea species that were potentially involved in a plague epizootic in black-tailed prairie dogs at Thunder Basin National Grassland. We collected blood samples and ectoparasites from rodents trapped at off- and on-colony grids at Thunder Basin National Grassland between 2002 and 2004. Blood samples were tested for antibodies to Y. pestis F-1 antigen by a passive hemagglutination assay, and fleas were tested by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction, for the presence of the plague bacterium. Only one of 1,421 fleas, an Oropsylla hirsuta collected in 2002 from a deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, tested positive for Y. pestis. Blood samples collected in summer 2004 from two northern grasshopper mice, Onychomys leucogaster, tested positive for Y. pestis antibodies. All three positive samples were collected from on-colony grids shortly after a plague epizootic occurred. This study confirms that plague is difficult to detect in rodents and fleas associated with prairie dog colonies, unless samples are collected immediately after a prairie dog die-off.

  10. Prevalence of Yersinia pestis in rodents and fleas associated with black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) at Thunder Basin National Grassland, Wyoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajan, Bala; Bai, Ying; Gage, Kenneth L; Cully, Jack F

    2008-07-01

    Rodents (and their fleas) that are associated with prairie dogs are considered important for the maintenance and transmission of the bacterium (Yersinia pestis) that causes plague. Our goal was to identify rodent and flea species that were potentially involved in a plague epizootic in black-tailed prairie dogs at Thunder Basin National Grassland. We collected blood samples and ectoparasites from rodents trapped at off- and on-colony grids at Thunder Basin National Grassland between 2002 and 2004. Blood samples were tested for antibodies to Y. pestis F-1 antigen by a passive hemagglutination assay, and fleas were tested by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction, for the presence of the plague bacterium. Only one of 1,421 fleas, an Oropsylla hirsuta collected in 2002 from a deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, tested positive for Y. pestis. Blood samples collected in summer 2004 from two northern grasshopper mice, Onychomys leucogaster, tested positive for Y. pestis antibodies. All three positive samples were collected from on-colony grids shortly after a plague epizootic occurred. This study confirms that plague is difficult to detect in rodents and fleas associated with prairie dog colonies, unless samples are collected immediately after a prairie dog die-off.

  11. Prescribed burning guidelines in the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Kenneth F.; Piehl, James L.; Kruse, Arnold D.

    1989-01-01

    The use of fire to manage grasslands for wildlife is a relatively new management option for resource managers in the Northern Great Plains (NGP). Nearly all of the burning during the past 20-25 years has been conducted without the aid of specific guidelines for the region. This state-of-the-art set of recommendations was compiled because of this void.Records of 902 grassland fires (primarily on U.S. Fish and Wildlife lands), personal experiences, and synopses of other published fire research were used in developing the guidelines in this manual.Fifty-two percent of the 902 fires were in native prairie grasslands with lesser amounts in tame and native grass plantings, wetlands, and woodlands.Prescription grassland fires averaged 31 ha (77 acres) per burn. The personnel needed to safely conduct a grassland fire depended on the size of the burn the kind of firebreaks, available equipment, and weather conditions. Costs and hours of effort to conduct fires were inversely related to burn area size. Cost ratios are extremely high for fires of less than 4 ha (10 acres). They are essentially the same for burns of 16 to 113 ha (40 to 280 acres).The two primary reasons for burning grasslands are wildlife habitat improvement and native prairie restoration. Fire use steadily increased between 1965 and 1984, but the greatest increase occurred following workshop instruction in 1978.These guidelines present a set of reasons, criteria, techniques, and examples of simple prescriptions which aid in the planning and execution of a safe and effective prescribed burning program for wildlife enhancement in grassland areas of the NGP.

  12. Problems of radio-nuclear risks and radioecological safety, caused by migration and contamination of seas and Arctic Ocean waters in Northern regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koupri, K.

    1997-01-01

    Northern Russian radio-ecological and nuclear risks are connected with several objective factors: disposal, exploitation, supplying of the cycle of atomic military and ice-breaking fleets; disposal of enterprises and bases for maintenance of ships with nuclear-power installations (NPI) in Murmansk and Archangel regions; place the State Atomic Shipbuilding Center (RSASBC) enterprises in Archangel and partly in Murmansk regions; exploitation of the Kola Atomic Station (APS); functioning of the Novaya Zemlya archipelago nuclear range; functioning Russian Plesetsk cosmo-drome. Technical proposals and projects for radio-ecology in the North are outlined. (R.P.)

  13. Geology, geochronology, and paleogeography of the southern Sonoma volcanic field and adjacent areas, northern San Francisco Bay region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, David L.; Saucedo, George J.; Clahan, Kevin B.; Fleck, Robert J.; Langenheim, Victoria E.; McLaughlin, Robert J.; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei M.; Allen, James R.; Deino, Alan L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent geologic mapping in the northern San Francisco Bay region (California, USA) supported by radiometric dating and tephrochronologic correlations, provides insights into the framework geology, stratigraphy, tectonic evolution, and geologic history of this part of the San Andreas transform plate boundary. There are 25 new and existing radiometric dates that define three temporally distinct volcanic packages along the north margin of San Pablo Bay, i.e., the Burdell Mountain Volcanics (11.1 Ma), the Tolay Volcanics (ca. 10–8 Ma), and the Sonoma Volcanics (ca. 8–2.5 Ma). The Burdell Mountain and the Tolay Volcanics are allochthonous, having been displaced from the Quien Sabe Volcanics and the Berkeley Hills Volcanics, respectively. Two samples from a core of the Tolay Volcanics taken from the Murphy #1 well in the Petaluma oilfield yielded ages of 8.99 ± 0.06 and 9.13 ± 0.06 Ma, demonstrating that volcanic rocks exposed along Tolay Creek near Sears Point previously thought to be a separate unit, the Donnell Ranch volcanics, are part of the Tolay Volcanics. Other new dates reported herein show that volcanic rocks in the Meacham Hill area and extending southwest to the Burdell Mountain fault are also part of the Tolay Volcanics. In the Sonoma volcanic field, strongly bimodal volcanic sequences are intercalated with sediments. In the Mayacmas Mountains a belt of eruptive centers youngs to the north. The youngest of these volcanic centers at Sugarloaf Ridge, which lithologically, chemically, and temporally matches the Napa Valley eruptive center, was apparently displaced 30 km to the northwest by movement along the Carneros and West Napa faults. The older parts of the Sonoma Volcanics have been displaced at least 28 km along the Rodgers Creek fault since ca. 7 Ma. The Petaluma Formation also youngs to the north along the Rodgers Creek–Hayward fault and the Bennett Valley fault. The Petaluma basin formed as part of the Contra Costa basin in the Late Miocene and

  14. The implementation of unit-based perinatal mortality audit in perinatal cooperation units in the northern region of the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Diem Mariet Th

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perinatal (mortality audit can be considered to be a way to improve the careprocess for all pregnant women and their newborns by creating an opportunity to learn from unwanted events in the care process. In unit-based perinatal audit, the caregivers involved in cases that result in mortality are usually part of the audit group. This makes such an audit a delicate matter. Methods The purpose of this study was to implement unit-based perinatal mortality audit in all 15 perinatal cooperation units in the northern region of the Netherlands between September 2007 and March 2010. These units consist of hospital-based and independent community-based perinatal caregivers. The implementation strategy encompassed an information plan, an organization plan, and a training plan. The main outcomes are the number of participating perinatal cooperation units at the end of the project, the identified substandard factors (SSF, the actions to improve care, and the opinions of the participants. Results The perinatal mortality audit was implemented in all 15 perinatal cooperation units. 677 different caregivers analyzed 112 cases of perinatal mortality and identified 163 substandard factors. In 31% of cases the guidelines were not followed and in 23% care was not according to normal practice. In 28% of cases, the documentation was not in order, while in 13% of cases the communication between caregivers was insufficient. 442 actions to improve care were reported for ‘external cooperation’ (15%, ‘internal cooperation’ (17%, ‘practice organization’ (26%, ‘training and education’ (10%, and ‘medical performance’ (27%. Valued aspects of the audit meetings were: the multidisciplinary character (13%, the collective and non-judgmental search for substandard factors (21%, the perception of safety (13%, the motivation to reflect on one’s own professional performance (5%, and the inherent postgraduate education (10%. Conclusion

  15. Regionalized study of the impact of an accidental radioactive pollution on a permanent meadow; Etude regionalisee de l'impact d'une pollution radioactive accidentelle sur une prairie permanente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand, V.; Mercat-Rommens, C

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this study consists in evaluating the sensitivity of the first part of the die grass-milk with respect to an accidental radioactive discharge. We want to know if a single uniform deposit would involve a contamination of the grazing grass identical on the scale of the own territory. The study was based on the A.S.T.R.A.L. model, a computer code developed by the I.R.S.N. which makes it possible to evaluate the transfer of the radionuclides in the terrestrial food chain following an accidental atmospheric emission. The way of transfer of A.S.T.R.A.L. on which the study focused is the transfer of the deposit to milk, via the grazing grass ingestion. The sensitivity of this way of transfer relies on several parameters: captation, yield, cows food rates and dates of setting to grass. Methodology thus consisted in regionalizing these parameters. The software S.T.I.C.S. developed by the I.N.R.A. of Avignon was then used. This model proposes a daily follow-up of the leaf area index which has been correlated with captation and with the production of fresh biomass (yield). (authors)

  16. Regional variations in the fluxes of foraminifera carbonate, coccolithophorid carbonate and biogenic opal in the northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Gaye

    species. r 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Northern Indian Ocean; Particle flux; Calcium carbonate; Biogenic opal; Sediment traps; Temporal and spatial variability 1. Introduction northern Indian Ocean V. Ramaswamy a,C3 , B. Gaye b a... coccolithophorid carbonate and biogenic opal in the 271–293 www.elsevier.com/locate/dsr ARTICLE IN PRESS V. Ramaswamy, B. Gaye / Deep-Sea Research I 53 (2006) 271–293272 lesser extent pteropods. Diatom frustules are made up of opal while coccolithophorids...

  17. Investigation of zoonotic disease pathogens (Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Streptococcus iniae) seen in carp farms in the Northern Iraq-Erbil region by molecular methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibraheem, Azad Saber; Önalan, Şükrü; Arabacı, Muhammed

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the zoonotic bacteria in carp farms in the Northern Iraq-Erbil region. Carp is the main fish species cultured in Erbil region. The most common zoonotic bacteria generally seen in carp farms are Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Streptococcus iniae. Samples were collected from 25 carp farms in the Northern Iraq-Erbil region. Six carp samples were collected from each carp farm. Head kidney and intestine tissue samples were collected from each carp sample. Then head kidney and intestine tissue samples were pooled separately from each carp farm. Total bacterial DNA had been extracted from the 25 pooled head kidney and 25 intestinal tissue samples. The pathogen Primers were originally designed from 16S RNA gene region. Zoonotic bacteria were scanned in all tissue samples with absent/present analysis by RT-PCR. Furthermore, the capillary gel electrophoresis bands were used for confirmation of amplicon size which was planned during primer designing stage. As a result, thirteen carp farms were positive in the respect to Aeromonas hydrophila, eight carp farms were positive from head kidney and six carp farms were positive from the intestine, only one carp farm was positive from both head kidney and the intestine tissue samples. In the respect to Streptococcus iniae, four carp farms were positive from head kidney and two carp farms were positive from the intestine. Only one carp farm was positive in the respect to Pseudomonas fluorescens from the intestine. Totally, 9 of 25 carp farms were cleared (negative) the zoonotic bacteria. In conclusion, the zoonotic bacteria were high (64 %) in carp farms in the Northern Iraq-Erbil region.

  18. Black-tailed prairie dogs, cattle, and the conservation of North America's arid grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Sierra-Corona

    Full Text Available Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp. have been eliminated from over 95% of their historic range in large part from direct eradication campaigns to reduce their purported competition with cattle for forage. Despite the longstanding importance of this issue to grassland management and conservation, the ecological interactions between cattle and prairie dogs have not been well examined. We address this issue through two complementary experiments to determine if cattle and prairie dogs form a mutualistic grazing association similar to that between prairie dogs and American bison. Our experimental results show that cattle preferentially graze along prairie dog colony edges and use their colony centers for resting, resembling the mutualistic relationship prairie dogs have with American bison. Our results also show that prairie dog colonies are not only an important component of the grassland mosaic for maintaining biodiversity, but also provide benefits to cattle, thereby challenging the long-standing view of prairie dogs as an undesirable pest species in grasslands.

  19. A Habitat-Based Approach to Management of Tallgrass Prairies at the Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    consuming. Problems often exist with invasive exotic vegetation [e.g., leafy spurge { Euphorbia esculd), smooth bromegrass {Bromus inermis), Kentucky...Pycnanthemum virginianum (common mountain mint) Rudbeckia hirta (black-eyed susan) Senecio plattensis (prairie ragwort) Sisyrinchium campestre (prairie

  20. Spatially explicit modeling of lesser prairie-chicken lek density in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmer, Jennifer M.; Butler, M.J.; Ballard, Warren; Boal, Clint W.; Whitlaw, Heather A.

    2014-01-01

    As with many other grassland birds, lesser prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) have experienced population declines in the Southern Great Plains. Currently they are proposed for federal protection under the Endangered Species Act. In addition to a history of land-uses that have resulted in habitat loss, lesser prairie-chickens now face a new potential disturbance from energy development. We estimated lek density in the occupied lesser prairie-chicken range of Texas, USA, and modeled anthropogenic and vegetative landscape features associated with lek density. We used an aerial line-transect survey method to count lesser prairie-chicken leks in spring 2010 and 2011 and surveyed 208 randomly selected 51.84-km(2) blocks. We divided each survey block into 12.96-km(2) quadrats and summarized landscape variables within each quadrat. We then used hierarchical distance-sampling models to examine the relationship between lek density and anthropogenic and vegetative landscape features and predict how lek density may change in response to changes on the landscape, such as an increase in energy development. Our best models indicated lek density was related to percent grassland, region (i.e., the northeast or southwest region of the Texas Panhandle), total percentage of grassland and shrubland, paved road density, and active oil and gas well density. Predicted lek density peaked at 0.39leks/12.96km(2) (SE=0.09) and 2.05leks/12.96km(2) (SE=0.56) in the northeast and southwest region of the Texas Panhandle, respectively, which corresponds to approximately 88% and 44% grassland in the northeast and southwest region. Lek density increased with an increase in total percentage of grassland and shrubland and was greatest in areas with lower densities of paved roads and lower densities of active oil and gas wells. We used the 2 most competitive models to predict lek abundance and estimated 236 leks (CV=0.138, 95% CI=177-306leks) for our sampling area. Our results suggest that

  1. Emergy evaluation of benthic ecosystems influenced by upwelling in northern Chile: Contributions of the ecosystems to the regional economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emergy evaluations of three benthic ecosystem networks found in Mejillones, Antofagasta and Tongoy Bays, located on the coast of northern Chile, were carried out with the intent of documenting the contributions of these coastal ecosystems to the economy. The productivity of these...

  2. Contribution of the institutions in the Northern region of Brazil to the development of plant cultivars and their impact on agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida das Graças Claret de Souza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of breeding programs in northern Brazil and their main impacts on agriculture. Their contribution to the breeding of the species palm oil, acai fruit, cacao, cupuaçu, guarana, tomato, camu-camu, cocona, peach palm, and rubber was laid out in detail. Advances in breeding programs of institutions such as Embrapa, Ceplac, Inpa, and Universities require investments in infrastructure and in human and financial resources to ensure continuity and efficiency in economic, social and environmental gains. The improvement of native species, the main focus of the breeding programs of the institutions in the Northern region of Brazil, is a form of exploiting the Amazonian biodiversity for the benefit of society. Therefore, policies to foster research institutions should be a subject of deliberation and action of the scientific and technological community in Brazil.

  3. Tradeoffs in ecosystem services of prairies managed for bioenergy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarchow, Meghann Elizabeth

    The use of perennial plant materials as a renewable source of energy may constitute an important opportunity to improve the environmental sustainability of managed land. Currently, the production of energy from agricultural products is primarily in the form of ethanol from corn grain, which used more than 45% of the domestic U.S. corn crop in 2011. Concomitantly, using corn grain to produce ethanol has promoted landscape simplification and homogenization through conversion of Conservation Reserve Program grasslands to annual row crops, and has been implicated in increasing environmental damage, such as increased nitrate leaching into water bodies and increased rates of soil erosion. In contrast, perennial prairie vegetation has the potential to be used as a bioenergy feedstock that produces a substantial amount of biomass as well as numerous ecosystem services. Reincorporating prairies to diversify the landscape of the Midwestern U.S. at strategic locations could provide more habitat for animals, including beneficial insects, and decrease nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment movement into water bodies. In this dissertation, I present data from two field experiments that examine (1) how managing prairies for bioenergy production affects prairie ecology and agronomic performance and (2) how these prairie systems differ from corn systems managed for bioenergy production. Results of this work show that there are tradeoffs among prairie systems and between corn and prairie systems with respect to the amount of harvested biomass, root production, nutrient export, feedstock characteristics, growing season utilization, and species and functional group diversity. These results emphasize the need for a multifaceted approach to fully evaluate bioenergy feedstock production systems.

  4. 20 January 2014 - Members of the Regional Assemblies and Parliaments United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 8 with Technology Department, Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings Group P. Cruikshank.

    CERN Document Server

    Pantelia, Anna

    2014-01-01

    20 January 2014 - Members of the Regional Assemblies and Parliaments United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 8 with Technology Department, Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings Group P. Cruikshank.

  5. 75 FR 21649 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Attwater's Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus cupido...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ...] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Attwater's Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri... availability of the Attwater's Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri) Recovery Plan, Second Revision. A recovery plan was originally completed for the Attwater's prairie-chicken in 1983 and revised in 1993...

  6. 77 FR 47660 - Attwater Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge, Austin and Colorado Counties, TX; Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ...-FF02R06000] Attwater Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge, Austin and Colorado Counties, TX; Final... Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge, NWR). In this final CCP, we describe how we will [email protected] . Include ``Attwater Prairie Chicken NWR final CCP'' in the subject line of the message...

  7. 76 FR 77245 - Attwater Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge, Austin and Colorado Counties, TX...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ...-FF02R06000] Attwater Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge, Austin and Colorado Counties, TX... (EA) for Attwater Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge, NWR), located approximately 60... Prairie Chicken NWR draft CCP and EA'' in the subject line of the message. Fax: Attn: Monica Kimbrough...

  8. Attwater's prairie-chicken-its life history and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Valgene W.

    1941-01-01

    Attwater's prairie chicken, a characteristic bird of the Texas coastal prairie, is closely related to the now extinct heath-hen of northeastern North America. Once abundant in an area extending from the coastal tall-grass prairies of southwestern Louisiana and Texas west and south to near Port Isabel, it has decreased in numbers as man has exploited its habitat, until now it is threatened with the same fate as that of the heath-hen.Important factors limiting the numbers of the bird include excessive or persistent rainfall during the nesting season, heavy grazing, excessive pasture burning, agricultural operations, and overshooting. Management will usually involve protection from excessive killing, improvement of food and cover, and control of predators and of the kill by hunters. Responsibility for this rests with the landowner.Optimum prairie chicken range apparently consists of well-drained grassland, with some weeds or shrubs, the cover varying in density from light to heavy; and with surface water available in summer; diversification within the grassland type is essential. In the absence of ample refuges for the species, probably all other favorable factors together will fail to save Attwater's prairie chicken from extinction.This number continues the series of the North American Fauna issued by the Bureau of Biological Survey, of the United States Department of Agriculture, prior to its transfer and consolidation with the Bureau of Fisheries on June 30, 1940, to form the Fish and Wildlife Service, in the Department of the Interior.

  9. Holocene climate and environmental change in the Palliser Triangle: a geoscientific context for evaluating the impacts of climate change on the southern Canadian prairies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemmen, D. S.; Vance, R. E. [eds.

    1999-07-01

    The Palliser Triangle is the driest portion of the Canadian Prairies, and one of the most climatically sensitive regions in Canada. As proof of that, it has suffered severe droughts in the 1920s, 1930s and the 1980s. General climatic models predict that future global warming will be most pronounced in northern regions and continental interiors, including the Great Plains of North America. Evidence of warming is already present in the regional climate record, suggesting that the Palliser Triangle is likely to become even more arid, and drought frequency may increase. This volume contains 18 papers related to major objectives of a project involving the use of the unique paleoenvironmental records available in the Palliser Triangle to assess the impacts of future climate change. Two major objectives of the project are of particular focus: the reconstruction of the Holocene (post-glacial) climatic and hydrological changes, and the evaluation of the relationship between climate and landscape processes. Each paper is capable of standing on its own as a contribution to a specific geoscience discipline; by bringing them together in one regionally focused volume, the editors intend to highlight the need for interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary approaches to the study of global climate change issues. The first paper provides a broad summary of the major results, followed by nine papers devoted to records of past climate and hydrological change documented in paleolimnological and hydrogeological studies. The remaining eight papers focus on geomorphic processes in the Palliser Triangle, and on explanations of how these processes respond to climate forcing. Since each contribution can stand its own, each paper has its own abstract in English and French and its own bibliography. There is an author index for the volume as whole.

  10. Evaluation of Seasonality in Shallow Groundwater Dynamics and Storage in an Urban Prairie Nature Preserve Using a High-Frequency Sensing Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, V. A.; Hernandez-Gonzalez, L. M.; Phillips, C. B.; Nair, A.; Negri, M. C.; Gnaedinger, K. J.; Miller, W. M.; Packman, A. I.

    2017-12-01

    Changing regional climate applies stresses to urban areas in the form of altered weather patterns, requiring new strategies for stormwater runoff management and flood mitigation. At the same time, the proportion of people residing in urban areas is increasing and cities are turning to greenspace as a tool for managing runoff. Gensburg Markham Prairie (GMP), located in Markham, Illinois south of Chicago, is an urban prairie nature preserve and a U.S. National Natural Landmark. Owned by Northeastern Illinois University and managed by the Nature Conservancy, GMP receives runoff from surrounding urban areas and provides valuable stormwater storage, while also hosting high biodiversity and providing critical habitat for sensitive and endemic. A successful management strategy for GMP should preserve both of these valuable ecosystem services. To understand GMP's role within the urban environment, we installed a suite of instruments in 2016 and 2017 to measure surface and groundwater levels, rainfall, soil moisture, and electrical conductivity throughout the prairie. This monitoring network includes 40 sensors collecting high frequency data (every 30 minutes). We are also collecting monthly distributed surface and groundwater samples to quantify a range of anions and cations that signal potentially detrimental anthropogenic impacts on the prairie. In addition, we are using historical and ongoing plant distribution surveys to explore the interactions between spatial patterns in vegetation and water dynamics in the prairie. The high measurement frequency and large diversity of sensor types supports holistic investigation of the response of the prairie to diverse events, including summer thunderstorms, winter road salt runoff, and spring snowmelt. The 18 months of data collected to date reveals clear patterns in response to weather events with influence from soil type and spatial variables. We are using time-series analysis with MODFLOW modelling to explore surface

  11. Red cell glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the northern region of Turkey: is G6PD deficiency exclusively a male disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayrak, Canan; Albayrak, Davut

    2015-03-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked recessive genetic defect that can cause hemolytic crisis. However, this disease affects both males and females. In Turkey, the frequency of this enzyme deficiency was reported to vary, from 0.25 to 18%, by the geographical area. Its prevalence in the northern Black Sea region of Turkey is unknown. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in the northern region Turkey in children and adults with hyperbilirubinemia and hemolytic anemia. This report included a total of 976 G6PD enzyme results that were analyzed between May 2005 and January 2014. G6PD deficiency was detected in 5.0% of all patients. G6PD deficiency was significantly less frequent in females (1.9%, 6/323) than in males (6.6%, 43/653). G6PD deficiency was detected in 3.7% of infants with hyperbilirubinemia, 9.2% of children, and 4.5% of adults with hemolytic anemia. In both the newborn group and the group of children, G6PD deficiency was significantly more frequent in males. In the combined group of children (groups I and II), the proportion of males was 74% and 67% in all groups (P = .0008). In conclusion, in northern region of Turkey, G6PD deficiency is an important cause of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and hemolytic crisis in children and adults. This study suggests that most pediatricians thought that G6PD deficiency is exclusively a male disease. For this reason, some female patients may have been undiagnosed.

  12. Land use in the Northern Great Plains region of the U.S. influences the survival and productivity of honey bee colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Matthew; Pettis, Jeff S.; Euliss, Ned H. Jr.; Spivak, Marla S.

    2016-01-01

    The Northern Great Plains region of the US annually hosts a large portion of commercially managed U.S. honey bee colonies each summer. Changing land use patterns over the last several decades have contributed to declines in the availability of bee forage across the region, and the future sustainability of the region to support honey bee colonies is unclear. We examined the influence of varying land use on the survivorship and productivity of honey bee colonies located in six apiaries within the Northern Great Plains state of North Dakota, an area of intensive agriculture and high density of beekeeping operations. Land use surrounding the apiaries was quantified over three years, 2010–2012, and survival and productivity of honey bee colonies were determined in response to the amount of bee forage land within a 3.2-km radius of each apiary. The area of uncultivated forage land (including pasture, USDA conservation program fields, fallow land, flowering woody plants, grassland, hay land, and roadside ditches) exerted a positive impact on annual apiary survival and honey production. Taxonomic diversity of bee-collected pollen and pesticide residues contained therein varied seasonally among apiaries, but overall were not correlated to large-scale land use patterns or survival and honey production. The predominant flowering plants utilized by honey bee colonies for pollen were volunteer species present in unmanaged (for honey bees), and often ephemeral, lands; thus placing honey bee colonies in a precarious situation for acquiring forage and nutrients over the entire growing season. We discuss the implications for land management, conservation, and beekeeper site selection in the Northern Great Plains to adequately support honey bee colonies and insure long term security for pollinator-dependent crops across the entire country.

  13. A tree-ring based precipitation reconstruction for the Mohe region in the northern Greater Higgnan Mountains, China, since AD 1724

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tongwen; Yuan, Yujiang; Wei, Wenshou; Yu, Shulong; Zhang, Ruibo; Chen, Feng; Shang, Huaming; Qin, Li

    2014-07-01

    August-July precipitation has been reconstructed back to AD 1724 for the Mohe region in the northern Greater Higgnan Mountains, China, using Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica tree-ring width. The reconstruction explains 39% of the variance in the precipitation observed from AD 1960-2008. Some droughts noted in historical documents are precisely captured in our reconstruction. Wet periods occurred during the periods of AD 1734-1785, AD 1805-1830, AD 1863-1880, AD 1922-1961, and AD 1983-1998; while the periods of AD 1786-1804, AD 1831-1862, AD 1881-1921, and AD 1962-1982 were relatively dry. Power spectral and wavelet analyses demonstrated the existence of significant 24-yr, 12-yr, and 2-yr cycles of variability. The results of the spatial correlations suggest that our reconstruction contains climatic signals for the southern Stanovoy Range and the northern Greater Higgnan Mountains. The positive correlations between the new reconstructed precipitation series and two precipitation reconstructions indicate that our precipitation reconstruction captures broad-scale regional climatic variations. A comparison between the weakening tendency of summer monsoon and the dry period of our reconstruction reveals that the annual precipitation in the Mohe region is partly influenced by the East Asian Summer Monsoon.

  14. Radionuclides in small mammals of the Saskatchewan prairie, including implications for the boreal forest and Arctic tundra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    The focus of the study reported was to collect and examine baseline data on radionuclides in small prairie mammal food chains and to assess the feasibility of using small mammals as radionuclide monitors in terrestrial ecosystems, in anticipation of possible future nuclear developments in northern Saskatchewan and the Northwest Territories. The study report begins with a literature review that summarizes existing data on radionuclides in small mammals, their food, the ambient environment in Canadian terrestrial ecosystems, principles of terrestrial radioecology, soil and vegetation studies, and food chain studies. It then describes a field study conducted to investigate small mammal food chains at three southwestern Saskatchewan prairie sites. Activities included collection and analysis of water, soil, grains, and foliage samples; trapping of small mammals such as mice and voles, and analysis of gastrointestinal tract samples; and determination of food chain transfer of selected radionuclides from soil to plants and to small mammals. Recommendations are made for future analyses and monitoring of small mammals. Appendices include information on radiochemical methods, soil/vegetation studies and small mammal studies conducted at northern Saskatchewan mine sites, and analyses of variance

  15. Na and K Levels in forage species from the communal grazing lands during the dry season at some locations in the Northern Region of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomda, Y.M.; Osae, E.K.; Akaho, E.H.K.; Fianu, F.K.; Karbo, N.

    1999-04-01

    Forage species were taken, during the dry season, from five districts in the Northern Region of Ghana and analysed for Na and K using the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The Na level varied in plants species as well as location. The level ranged between 0.049 g/kg DM and 1.14 g/kg DM. This was found to be inadequate for the animals and require supplementation during the dry season. Potassium level in the forage species was between 7.8 to 91.3g/kg DM and appeared to be adequate for the grazing animals. (author)

  16. Characterization of mineral coatings associated with a Pleistocene‐Holocene rock art style: The Northern Running Figures of the East Alligator River region, western Arnhem Land, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope L. King

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This data article contains mineralogic and chemical data from mineral coatings associated with rock art from the East Alligator River region. The coatings were collected adjacent to a rock art style known as the “Northern Running Figures” for the purposes of radiocarbon dating (doi:10.1016/j.jasrep.2016.11.016; (T. Jones, V. Levchenko, P.L. King, U. Troitzsch, D. Wesley, 2017 [1]. This contribution includes raw and processed powder X-ray Diffraction data, Scanning Electron Microscopy energy dispersive spectroscopy data, and Fourier Transform infrared spectral data.

  17. 78 FR 3909 - Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge, IN; Glacial Ridge National Wildlife Refuge, MN; Northern...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge, IN; Glacial Ridge National Wildlife Refuge, MN; Northern Tallgrass Prairie National Wildlife Refuge, MN; Whittlesey Creek National Wildlife Refuge, WI AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of intent; request for comments...

  18. Simplified Volume-Area-Depth Method for Estimating Water Storage of Isolated Prairie Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minke, A. G.; Westbrook, C. J.; van der Kamp, G.

    2009-05-01

    There are millions of wetlands in shallow depressions on the North American prairies but the quantity of water stored in these depressions remains poorly understood. Hayashi and van der Kamp (2000) used the relationship between volume (V), area (A) and depth (h) to develop an equation for estimating wetland storage. We tested the robustness of their full and simplified V-A-h methods to accurately estimate volume for the range of wetland shapes occurring across the Prairie Pothole Region. These results were contrasted with two commonly implemented V-A regression equations to determine which method estimates volume most accurately. We used detailed topographic data for 27 wetlands in Smith Creek and St. Denis watersheds, Saskatchewan that ranged in surface area and basin shape. The full V-A-h method was found to accurately estimate storage (errors A equations performed poorly, with volume underestimated by an average of 15% and 50% Analysis of the simplified V-A-h method showed that volume errors of spring, following snowmelt when water levels are near the peak, and also in late summer prior to water depths dropping below 10 cm. These guidelines for applying the simplified V-A-h method will allow for accurate volume estimations when detailed topographic data are not available. Since the V-A equations were outperformed by the full and simplified V-A-h methods, we conclude that wetland depth and basin morphology should be considered when estimating volume. This will improve storage estimations of natural and human-impacted wetlands in the PPR. Considering more than half of prairie wetlands have been de-water though agricultural drainage, it is important to have accurate methods to estimate storage in order to assess the impact of wetland storage on watershed runoff.

  19. Evidence for hydraulic heterogeneity and anisotropy in the mostly carbonate Prairie du Chien Group, southeastern Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipping, R.G.; Runkel, Anthony C.; Alexander, E.C.; Alexander, S.C.; Green, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    In southeastern Minnesota, Paleozoic bedrock aquifers have typically been represented in groundwater flow simulations as isotropic, porous media. To obtain a more accurate hydrogeologic characterization of the Ordovician Prairie du Chien Group, a new approach was tested, combining detailed geologic observations, particularly of secondary porosity, with hydraulic data. Lithologic observations of the depositional and erosional history of the carbonate-dominated bedrock unit constrained characterization of both primary (matrix) and secondary porosity from outcrops and core. Hydrostratigraphic data include outcrop and core observations along with core plug permeability tests. Hydrogeologic data include discrete interval aquifer tests, borehole geophysics, water chemistry and isotope data, and dye trace studies. Results indicate that the Prairie du Chien Group can be subdivided into the Shakopee aquifer at the top, consisting of interbedded dolostone, sandstone and shale, and the underlying Oneota confining unit consisting of thickly bedded dolostone. The boundary between these two hydrogeologic units does not correspond to lithostratigraphic boundaries, as commonly presumed. Groundwater flow in the Shakopee aquifer is primarily through secondary porosity features, most commonly solution-enlarged bedding planes and sub-horizontal and vertical fractures. Regional scale preferential development of cavernous porosity and permeability along specific stratigraphic intervals that correspond to paleokarst were also identified, along with a general depiction of the distribution of vertical and horizontal fractures. The combination of outcrop and core investigations, along with borehole geophysics, discrete interval aquifer tests, water chemistry and isotope data and dye trace studies show that the Prairie du Chien Group is best represented hydrogeologically as heterogeneous and anisotropic. Furthermore, heterogeneity and anisotropy within the Prairie du Chien Group is mappable

  20. Variation in vasopressin receptor (Avpr1a) expression creates diversity in behaviors related to monogamy in prairie voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Catherine E; Keebaugh, Alaine C; Ahern, Todd H; Bass, Caroline E; Terwilliger, Ernest F; Young, Larry J

    2013-03-01

    Polymorphisms in noncoding regions of the vasopressin 1a receptor gene (Avpr1a) are associated with a variety of socioemotional characteristics in humans, chimpanzees, and voles, and may impact behavior through a site-specific variation in gene expression. The socially monogamous prairie vole offers a unique opportunity to study such neurobiological control of individual differences in complex behavior. Vasopressin 1a receptor (V1aR) signaling is necessary for the formation of the pair bond in males, and prairie voles exhibit greater V1aR binding in the reward-processing ventral pallidum than do asocial voles of the same genus. Diversity in social behavior within prairie voles has been correlated to natural variation in neuropeptide receptor expression in specific brain regions. Here we use RNA interference to examine the causal relationship between intraspecific variation in V1aR and behavioral outcomes, by approximating the degree of naturalistic variation in V1aR expression. Juvenile male prairie voles were injected with viral vectors expressing shRNA sequences targeting Avpr1a mRNA into the ventral pallidum. Down-regulation of pallidal V1aR density resulted in a significant impairment in the preference for a mated female partner and a reduction in anxiety-like behavior in adulthood. No effect on alloparenting was detected. These data demonstrate that within-species naturalistic-like variation in V1aR expression has a profound effect on individual differences in social attachment and emotionality. RNA interference may prove to be a useful technique to unite the fields of behavioral ecology and neurogenetics to perform ethologically relevant studies of the control of individual variation and offer insight into the evolutionary mechanisms leading to behavioral diversity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.